WorldWideScience

Sample records for staff-client interactive behaviour

  1. Facing up to 'challenging behaviour': a model for training in staff-client interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Gerald A; Shafiei, Touran; Salmon, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This paper draws on theory and evidence to develop a conceptual staff training model for the management of 'challenging behaviour'. Staff working with clients who are experienced as challenging commonly report negative feelings such as anxiety, anger, guilt, fear, self-blame and powerlessness, as well as dissatisfaction with their jobs. Current training programmes in challenging behaviour offer a 'smorgasbord' of content, without a clearly defined conceptual framework. Medline and PsychInfo were searched for papers in English from 1998 to 2008, linking 'nurs*' to 'challenging behavio*' and its related terms. Additional hand-searching identified informative papers from disciplines outside nursing older than the search period. We developed an applied model for training educators in respect of challenging behaviours. The model directs educators to consider: the influence of the nurse, including their values, emotional processes and behavioural skills; features of the client; and features of the situation in which the behaviour occurs, including its culture and working practices and physical environment. The most striking implication of the model is that it explicitly recognizes the importance of domains of learning other than skill. This enables educators to find educationally appropriate responses to resource limitations that inevitably constrain training. Challenging behaviour should be considered as a product of several intertwined factors: the actors involved - nurses, clients and others - and the situation in which the behaviour occurs, including its culture and working practices and physical environment.

  2. The relation between intrapersonal and interpersonal staff behaviour towards clients with ID and challenging behaviour: a validation study of the Staff-Client Interactive Behaviour Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, A.P.A.M; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Moonen, X.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal staff behaviour is one of the instigating factors associated with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are several studies focusing on the influence of intrapersonal staff characteristics - such as beliefs, attributions and emotional

  3. A qualitative analysis of staff-client interactions within a breast cancer assessment clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, J.M.; Murphy, F.; Eaton, C.; Borgen, R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Breast screening clients recalled to an assessment clinic experience high levels of anxiety. The culture of the assessment clinic may impact upon client experience, which may influence their future re-engagement in screening. This study aimed to explore the culture of staff-client interactions within a breast cancer assessment clinic. Materials and methods: Following an ethnographic approach, twenty-three client journeys were observed, followed by semi-structured interviews with the clients. The observation and interview data were analysed to produce research themes, which were then explored within two focus groups to add a practitioner perspective. Results: Multiple staff-client interaction events were observed over a period of several weeks. Client interview feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Three recurrent and sequential themes emerged: breaking down barriers, preparing the ground and sign-posting. These themes outline the changing focus of staff-client interactions during the client's clinic journey, encompassing how anxieties were expressed by clients, and responded to by practitioners. Conclusion: This study was the first to explore in depth the staff-client interaction culture within a breast assessment clinic using an ethnographic approach. A new perspective on professional values and behaviours has been demonstrated via a model of staff-client interaction. The model documents the process of guiding the client from initial confusion and distress to an enhanced clarity of understanding. A recommendation most likely to have a positive impact on the client experience is the introduction of a client navigator role to guide the clients through what is often a lengthy, stressful and confusing process. - Highlights: • This study was the first to explore staff-client interaction within breast assessment clinics. • Assessment clinic culture may affect client perceptions and future re-engagement in screening. • An ethnographic approach

  4. Towards a framework in interaction training for staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, A; Embregts, P; Hendriks, L; Bosman, A

    2016-02-01

    Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an interpersonal model. As in functional analysis, this study tests the influence of client interpersonal behaviour, three types of staff reactions to challenging behaviour, two types of staff psychological resources and staff team climate on four styles of staff interpersonal behaviour. A total of 318 support staff members completed a questionnaire on staff interpersonal behaviour for 44 clients with ID and challenging behaviour, as well as seven questionnaires on client interpersonal behaviour, staff emotions, attributions, self-efficacy, self-reflection, coping styles and team climate. The influence of these seven factors on four staff interpersonal behaviours was examined using multilevel multiple regression analysis. Friendly-warm and dominant client interpersonal behaviour had a significant positive impact on friendly and assertive control staff behaviour, respectively. Also, there was a strong influence of staff negative and positive emotions, as well as their self-efficacy, on most of the staff interpersonal behaviours. Staff self-reflection, insight and avoidance-focused coping style had an impact on some staff interpersonal behaviours. Staff team climate only predicted higher support-seeking staff behaviour. In conducting a functional analysis of staff interpersonal behaviour, the results of this study can be used both as a framework in staff-client interaction training and in clinical practice for treating challenging behaviour. The emphasis in training and practice should not only be on the bidirectional dynamics of control and affiliation between staff and clients, but also - in order of importance - on the impact of staff emotions, self-efficacy, self-reflection and insight

  5. Identifying Successful Learners from Interaction Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, Judi; Baldwin, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The interaction behaviours of successful, high-achieving learners when using a Learning Management System (LMS) are different than the behaviours of learners who are having more difficulty mastering the course material. This paper explores the idea that conventional Learning Management Systems can exploit data mining techniques to predict the…

  6. Magnetic behaviour of interacting antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovich, V; Jung, G; Gorodetsky, G; Puzniak, R; Wisniewski, A; Skourski, Y; Mogilyanski, D

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic properties of interacting La 0.2 Ca 0.8 MnO 3 nanoparticles have been investigated. The field-induced transition from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) state in the La 0.2 Ca 0.8 MnO 3 bulk has been observed at exceptionally high magnetic fields. For large particles, the field-induced transition widens while magnetization progressively decreases. In small particles the transition is almost fully suppressed. The thermoremanence and isothermoremanence curves constitute fingerprints of irreversible magnetization originating from nanoparticle shells. We have ascribed the magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles to a core-shell scenario with two main magnetic contributions; one attributed to the formation of a collective state formed by FM clusters in frustrated coordination at the surfaces of interacting AFM nanoparticles and the other associated with inner core behaviour as a two-dimensional diluted antiferromagnet. (paper)

  7. Transient Behaviour of Interacting Extractive System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bialy, S.H.; Elsherbiny, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic behaviour of mixer-settler extractive system, which represents an interacting one. When a stimulus single is introduced to aqueous feed; the response of the aqueous phase of the first stage is considered as stimulus signals to both organic phase in the same stage and the aqueous phase of the second one. The response of the last phase represents-in turn- stimulus signals to both organic phase in the same stage and the aqueous phase in the next one. Mathematical model was derived for a system consisting of two stages in the cascade. The model assumed a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for mixer zone and variable holdups and flow rates of both aqueous and organic phases during operation. Non-linear equilibrium was considered. The obtained model-being non-linear- was linearized and Laplace transformation method was used to solve the model. The system constants are those corresponding to extraction of uranyl nitrate from 3 N nitric acid solution using Tbp dissolved in kerosene at 30% of the former. Stimulus-response test was carried out on the model by considering a step increase in solute concentration in aqueous feed stream. The system behaviour was tested at different values of operating parameters. First order behaviour for the first stage was observed and higher order for the rest of the system. A general relation for the difference in the power of the denominator and numerator of the transfer function of the i th stage was concluded for aqueous phase. The study showed that the system overdamp over the practical range of chosen parameters as explained from the values of transfer function roots

  8. Attentional processes in interactions between people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and direct support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Ine, Hostyn; Neerinckx, Heleen; Heleen, Neerinckx; Maes, Bea; Bea, Maes

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined joint attention in interactions with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), despite its important role in high-quality interaction. The purpose of this study is to describe the attention-directing behaviours of persons with PIMD and their direct support staff and the attention episodes resulting from their interactions, and to understand how these variables relate to each other. Video observations of 17 staff-client dyads were coded using partial interval recording. The results showed considerable variation across individuals and dyads. In general, persons with PIMD directed the attention of staff members infrequently. The staff members frequently directed their clients' attention towards a topic of interest but did not often use the tactile modality. Within the staff-client dyad, there was not much joint attention; however, shared attention episodes occurred frequently. Shared attention and joint attention are strongly correlated. A negative correlation was found between clients not using attention-directing behaviours and staff members using tactile methods to direct the attention, and joint attention episodes. This study presents both directions for future research and practical implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  10. An Abstract Interaction Concept for Designing Interaction Behaviour of Service Compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirgahayu, T.; Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Mertins, Kai; Ruggaber, Rainer; Popplewell, Keith; Xu, Xiaofei

    2008-01-01

    In a service composition, interaction behaviour specifies an information exchange protocol that must be complied with in order to guarantee interoperability between services. Interaction behaviour can be designed using a top-down design approach utilising high abstraction levels to control its

  11. Framing Behaviours in Novice Interaction Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Nicole; Sharp, Helen; Woodroffe, Mark; Blyth, Richard; Rajah, Dino; Ranganai, Turugare

    2015-01-01

    Framing design problems and solutions has been recognised in design studies as a central designerly activity. Some recent findings with expert designers relate framing practices to problem-solution co-evolution and analogy use, two further widely recognised design strategies. We wanted to understand if interaction design novices also use…

  12. Clustering avatars behaviours from Virtual Worlds interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bello Orgaz, Gema; R-Moreno, María Dolores; Camacho, David; Barrero, David F.

    2012-01-01

    This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Web Intelligence & Communities, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2189736.2189743 Virtual Worlds (VWs) platforms and applications provide a practical implementation of the Metaverse concept. These applications, as highly inmersive and interactive 3D environments, have become very popular in soci...

  13. Designing interaction behaviour in service-oriented enterprise application integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirgahayu, T.; Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    In this paper we present an approach for designing interaction behaviour in service-oriented enterprise application integration. The approach enables business analysts to actively participate in the design of an integration solution. In this way, we expect that the solution meets its integration

  14. Public debt managers' behaviour interactions with macro policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogduin, Lex; Öztürk, Bahar; Wierts, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of public debt management, the policy behaviour of debt managers, and the interaction of debt management with financial stability and monetary policy. The main focus is on the euro area. Empirical estimations of a debt management reaction function indicate that the share

  15. Evidence of probabilistic behaviour in protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifman Jaques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from high-throughput experiments of protein-protein interactions are commonly used to probe the nature of biological organization and extract functional relationships between sets of proteins. What has not been appreciated is that the underlying mechanisms involved in assembling these networks may exhibit considerable probabilistic behaviour. Results We find that the probability of an interaction between two proteins is generally proportional to the numerical product of their individual interacting partners, or degrees. The degree-weighted behaviour is manifested throughout the protein-protein interaction networks studied here, except for the high-degree, or hub, interaction areas. However, we find that the probabilities of interaction between the hubs are still high. Further evidence is provided by path length analyses, which show that these hubs are separated by very few links. Conclusion The results suggest that protein-protein interaction networks incorporate probabilistic elements that lead to scale-rich hierarchical architectures. These observations seem to be at odds with a biologically-guided organization. One interpretation of the findings is that we are witnessing the ability of proteins to indiscriminately bind rather than the protein-protein interactions that are actually utilized by the cell in biological processes. Therefore, the topological study of a degree-weighted network requires a more refined methodology to extract biological information about pathways, modules, or other inferred relationships among proteins.

  16. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H; Eichler, Evan E

    2008-10-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, 'anthropogeny' (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any 'genes versus environment' dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture - perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity.

  17. Believing versus interacting: Behavioural and neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Bauer, Markus; Kilner, James

    When two people engage in a bidirectional interaction with each other, they use both bottom-up sensorimotor mechanisms such as monitoring and adapting to the behaviour of the other, as well as top-down cognitive processes, modulating their beliefs and allowing them to make decisions. Most research...... in joint action has investigated only one of these mechanisms at a time – low-level processes underlying joint coordination, or high-level cognitive mechanisms that give insight into how people think about another. In real interactions, interplay between these two mechanisms modulates how we interact...

  18. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K. B.; Nettle, D.; McElreath, R.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such ‘strong situations’ will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background. PMID:26503684

  19. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Nathan; Spirou, Dean; Brock, Jon

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that, when participants believe they are interacting via a virtual interface with another human agent, they show different patterns of brain activity compared to when they know that their virtual partner is computer-controlled. The suggestion is that users adopt an "intentional stance" by attributing mental states to their virtual partner. However, it remains unclear how beliefs in the agency of a virtual partner influence participants' behaviour and subjective experience of the interaction. We investigated this issue in the context of a cooperative "joint attention" game in which participants interacted via an eye tracker with a virtual onscreen partner, directing each other's eye gaze to different screen locations. Half of the participants were correctly informed that their partner was controlled by a computer algorithm ("Computer" condition). The other half were misled into believing that the virtual character was controlled by a second participant in another room ("Human" condition). Those in the "Human" condition were slower to make eye contact with their partner and more likely to try and guide their partner before they had established mutual eye contact than participants in the "Computer" condition. They also responded more rapidly when their partner was guiding them, although the same effect was also found for a control condition in which they responded to an arrow cue. Results confirm the influence of human agency beliefs on behaviour in this virtual social interaction context. They further suggest that researchers and developers attempting to simulate social interactions should consider the impact of agency beliefs on user experience in other social contexts, and their effect on the achievement of the application's goals.

  20. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Caruana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that, when participants believe they are interacting via a virtual interface with another human agent, they show different patterns of brain activity compared to when they know that their virtual partner is computer-controlled. The suggestion is that users adopt an “intentional stance” by attributing mental states to their virtual partner. However, it remains unclear how beliefs in the agency of a virtual partner influence participants’ behaviour and subjective experience of the interaction. We investigated this issue in the context of a cooperative “joint attention” game in which participants interacted via an eye tracker with a virtual onscreen partner, directing each other’s eye gaze to different screen locations. Half of the participants were correctly informed that their partner was controlled by a computer algorithm (“Computer” condition. The other half were misled into believing that the virtual character was controlled by a second participant in another room (“Human” condition. Those in the “Human” condition were slower to make eye contact with their partner and more likely to try and guide their partner before they had established mutual eye contact than participants in the “Computer” condition. They also responded more rapidly when their partner was guiding them, although the same effect was also found for a control condition in which they responded to an arrow cue. Results confirm the influence of human agency beliefs on behaviour in this virtual social interaction context. They further suggest that researchers and developers attempting to simulate social interactions should consider the impact of agency beliefs on user experience in other social contexts, and their effect

  1. 3-Form Cosmology: Phantom Behaviour, Singularities and Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Morais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The latest cosmological observations by the Planck collaboration (and combined with others are compatible with a phantom-like behaviour ( w < − 1 for the dark energy equation of state that drives the current acceleration of the Universe. With this mindset, we look into models where dark energy is described by a 3-form field minimally coupled to gravity. When compared to a scalar field, these models have the advantage of more naturally accommodating a cosmological-constant and phantom-like behaviours. We show how the latter happens for a fairly general class of positive-valued potentials, and through a dynamical system approach, we find that in such cases the 3-form field leads the Universe into a Little Sibling of the Big Rip singular event into the future. In this work, we explore the possibility of avoiding such singularity via an interaction in the dark sector between cold dark matter and the 3-form field. For the kind of interactions considered, we deduce a condition for replacing the LSBR by a late time de Sitter phase. For specific examples of interactions that meet this condition, we look for distinctive imprints in the statefinder hierarchy { S 3 ( 1 ; S 4 ( 1 } , { S 3 ( 1 ; S 5 ( 1 } , and in the growth rate of matter, ϵ ( z , through the composite null diagnostic (CND.

  2. Speech comprehension aided by multiple modalities: behavioural and neural interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Faulkner, Andrew; Altarelli, Irene; Obleser, Jonas; Baverstock, Harriet; Scott, Sophie K.

    2014-01-01

    Speech comprehension is a complex human skill, the performance of which requires the perceiver to combine information from several sources – e.g. voice, face, gesture, linguistic context – to achieve an intelligible and interpretable percept. We describe a functional imaging investigation of how auditory, visual and linguistic information interact to facilitate comprehension. Our specific aims were to investigate the neural responses to these different information sources, alone and in interaction, and further to use behavioural speech comprehension scores to address sites of intelligibility-related activation in multifactorial speech comprehension. In fMRI, participants passively watched videos of spoken sentences, in which we varied Auditory Clarity (with noise-vocoding), Visual Clarity (with Gaussian blurring) and Linguistic Predictability. Main effects of enhanced signal with increased auditory and visual clarity were observed in overlapping regions of posterior STS. Two-way interactions of the factors (auditory × visual, auditory × predictability) in the neural data were observed outside temporal cortex, where positive signal change in response to clearer facial information and greater semantic predictability was greatest at intermediate levels of auditory clarity. Overall changes in stimulus intelligibility by condition (as determined using an independent behavioural experiment) were reflected in the neural data by increased activation predominantly in bilateral dorsolateral temporal cortex, as well as inferior frontal cortex and left fusiform gyrus. Specific investigation of intelligibility changes at intermediate auditory clarity revealed a set of regions, including posterior STS and fusiform gyrus, showing enhanced responses to both visual and linguistic information. Finally, an individual differences analysis showed that greater comprehension performance in the scanning participants (measured in a post-scan behavioural test) were associated with

  3. The Behaviour of the Embedded Rail in Interaction with Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryjáček, P.; Howlader, Md M.; Vokáč, M.

    2015-11-01

    Since the introduction of the direct fastening system, Embedded Rail System (ERS) is probably one of the most spectacular and innovative developments in railway engineering. The development has become more rapid, especially in the last decade due to competitive advantages in comparison toother systems with respect to higher speed, cost effectiveness, environmental-material sustainability and others. But still there is a lack of specific interaction model, especially when it comes to bridges equipped with ERS system. Previous studies on ERS by Estzer Ludvigh2 found out some important coefficients (vertical and longitudinal bedding coefficient) and compared the longitudinal resistance of ERS with flexible fastening systems. Other studies on ERS do not specifically deal with the evaluation of longitudinal resistance of such a system. With a view to establish the typical behaviour pattern of ERS, this paper is dedicated to find out the interaction of a specific Embedded Rail System with bridges. A small scale test was conducted on a sample of ERS in the laboratory under different combinations of vertical and longitudinal track loads and subsequently a Finite Element Model (FEM) was developed to simulate the test. The paper presents the FEA result validation with test results, the interaction pattern, longitudinal resistance of ERS track for both loaded and unloaded conditions, design load distribution for such systems and some specific influences of ERS on simply supported bridge systems.

  4. Behavioural responses of spinner dolphins to human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Maddalena; Cesario, Amina; Costa, Marina; Harraway, John; Notarbartolo di Sciara, Giuseppe; Slooten, Elisabeth

    2018-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that whale and dolphin watching activities have detrimental effects on targeted cetacean populations. In Egypt, spinner dolphins regularly occur in the resting areas of Samadai, Satayah and Qubbat'Isa reefs. In-water human interactions with dolphins are regulated with a time-area closure system at Samadai, unregulated at Satayah and non-existent at Qubbat'Isa. This provided an ideal experimental setting to advance our understanding of the effects of tourism on a species highly sensitive to disturbances. Our study confirmed that the intensity and duration of interactions, and therefore, dolphin exposure to tourism, differed among the study sites. Compared with the Qubbat'Isa control site, behavioural reactions to boats and swimmers at the two tourism sites suggested that dolphin rest was disrupted, especially around the middle of the day and especially at Satayah, where dolphin tourism is unregulated. Our results indicate also that the dolphin protection measures at Samadai reduce the level of disturbance. We recommend that similar measures be implemented at other dolphin tourism locations, and that no new operations be initiated until the long-term impacts on dolphin populations are better understood. Our experience emphasizes the need to adopt precautionary approaches in research and management of whale and dolphin watching.

  5. Interactive Evolution of Complex Behaviours Through Skill Encapsulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González de Prado Salas, Pablo; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Human-based computation (HBC) is an emerging research area in which humans and machines collaborate to solve tasks that neither one can solve in isolation. In evolutionary computation, HBC is often realized through interactive evolutionary computation (IEC), in which a user guides evolution by it...... in evolutionary computation and, as the results in this paper show, IEC-ESP is able to solve complex control problems that are challenging for a traditional fitness-based approach.......Human-based computation (HBC) is an emerging research area in which humans and machines collaborate to solve tasks that neither one can solve in isolation. In evolutionary computation, HBC is often realized through interactive evolutionary computation (IEC), in which a user guides evolution...... by iteratively selecting the parents for the next generation. IEC has shown promise in a variety of different domains, but evolving more complex or hierarchically composed behaviours remains challenging with the traditional IEC approach. To overcome this challenge, this paper combines the recently introduced ESP...

  6. Measuring Team Learning Behaviours through Observing Verbal Team Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Boon, Anne; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore, as an answer to the observed lack of knowledge about actual team learning behaviours, the characteristics of the actual observed basic team learning behaviours and facilitating team learning behaviours more in-depth of three project teams. Over time, team learning in an organisational context has been…

  7. Controlled Study of the Impact on Child Behaviour Problems of Intensive Interaction for Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Abi; Reed, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Pupils with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) received 6 months of intensive interaction or treatment as usual. They were assessed for behaviour problems at the start and end of the period, and changes were related to child and parent factors. Intensive interaction did not offer any greater advantages to child behaviour than treatment as usual.…

  8. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino

    2007-01-01

    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  9. The diversity of travel behaviour: Motives and social interactions in leisure time activities

    OpenAIRE

    Stauffacher, Michael; Schlich, Robert; Axhausen, Kay W.; Scholz, Roland W.

    2005-01-01

    Influencing travel behaviour towards a more sustainable form has long been the subject of lively discussion. Whilst some claim that urban form can influence mobility patterns, others stress personal characteristics. Still, psychological factors like personal need and motives (e.g., social interaction, recreation, variety seeking and curiosity) are also relevant, especially for the highly individualistic behaviour of leisure travel, but have been largely neglected in travel behaviour studies. ...

  10. The Behavioural Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L.; Oliver, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems and a preference for adult contact are reported to be prominent in the phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this study we examined the relationship between social interactions and self-injurious and aggressive/disruptive behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome to explore potential operant reinforcement of problem…

  11. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  12. Latent interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour applied to quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Hagtvet, Knut A; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2014-02-01

    This study applies three latent interaction models in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988, Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press; Ajzen, 1991, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., 50, 179) to quitting smoking: (1) attitude × perceived behavioural control on intention; (2) subjective norms (SN) × attitude on intention; and (3) perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting behaviour. The data derive from a longitudinal Internet survey of 939 smokers aged 15-74 over a period of 4 months. Latent interaction effects were estimated using the double-mean-centred unconstrained approach (Lin et al., 2010, Struct. Equ. Modeling, 17, 374) in LISREL. Attitude × SN and attitude × perceived behavioural control both showed a significant interaction effect on intention. No significant interaction effect was found for perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting. The latent interaction approach is a useful method for investigating specific conditions between TPB components in the context of quitting behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. HIV-related stigma in social interactions: Approach and avoidance behaviour in a virtual environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toppenberg, H.L.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Pryor, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    People living with HIV are a stigmatized group in our society, especially homosexual people living with HIV. One of the behavioural manifestations of stigmatization is an increased interpersonal distance kept during social interactions. Immersive virtual environment technology enables the

  14. Public debt managers' behaviour: interactions with macro policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogduin, L.; Öztürk, B.; Wierts, P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of public debt management, the policy behaviour of debt managers, and the impact of debt management on financial stability and monetary policy.The focus is on the euro area. Empirical estimations of a debt management reaction function indicate that the share of short

  15. Inelastic behaviour of collagen networks in cell–matrix interactions and mechanosensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hamid; Arora, Pamma D.; Simmons, Craig A.; Janmey, Paul A.; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of extracellular matrix proteins strongly influence cell-induced tension in the matrix, which in turn influences cell function. Despite progress on the impact of elastic behaviour of matrix proteins on cell–matrix interactions, little is known about the influence of inelastic behaviour, especially at the large and slow deformations that characterize cell-induced matrix remodelling. We found that collagen matrices exhibit deformation rate-dependent behaviour, which leads to a transition from pronounced elastic behaviour at fast deformations to substantially inelastic behaviour at slow deformations (1 μm min−1, similar to cell-mediated deformation). With slow deformations, the inelastic behaviour of floating gels was sensitive to collagen concentration, whereas attached gels exhibited similar inelastic behaviour independent of collagen concentration. The presence of an underlying rigid support had a similar effect on cell–matrix interactions: cell-induced deformation and remodelling were similar on 1 or 3 mg ml−1 attached collagen gels while deformations were two- to fourfold smaller in floating gels of high compared with low collagen concentration. In cross-linked collagen matrices, which did not exhibit inelastic behaviour, cells did not respond to the presence of the underlying rigid foundation. These data indicate that at the slow rates of collagen compaction generated by fibroblasts, the inelastic responses of collagen gels, which are influenced by collagen concentration and the presence of an underlying rigid foundation, are important determinants of cell–matrix interactions and mechanosensation. PMID:25392399

  16. The multidimensional behavioural hypervolumes of two interacting species predict their space use and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, James L L; Wright, Colin M; McEwen, Brendan; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2017-10-01

    Individual animals differ consistently in their behaviour, thus impacting a wide variety of ecological outcomes. Recent advances in animal personality research have established the ecological importance of the multidimensional behavioural volume occupied by individuals and by multispecies communities. Here, we examine the degree to which the multidimensional behavioural volume of a group predicts the outcome of both intra- and interspecific interactions. In particular, we test the hypothesis that a population of conspecifics will experience low intraspecific competition when the population occupies a large volume in behavioural space. We further hypothesize that populations of interacting species will exhibit greater interspecific competition when one or both species occupy large volumes in behavioural space. We evaluate these hypotheses by studying groups of katydids ( Scudderia nymphs) and froghoppers ( Philaenus spumarius ), which compete for food and space on their shared host plant, Solidago canadensis . We found that individuals in single-species groups of katydids positioned themselves closer to one another, suggesting reduced competition, when groups occupied a large behavioural volume. When both species were placed together, we found that the survival of froghoppers was greatest when both froghoppers and katydids occupied a small volume in behavioural space, particularly at high froghopper densities. These results suggest that groups that occupy large behavioural volumes can have low intraspecific competition but high interspecific competition. Thus, behavioural hypervolumes appear to have ecological consequences at both the level of the population and the community and may help to predict the intensity of competition both within and across species.

  17. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  18. On the systematic behaviour of the intermittency-induces in nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anson, Z.V.; Arora, R.; Avetyan, F.A.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bogdanov, V.G.; Bubnov, V.I.; Burnett, T.H.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavski, M.M.; Dressel, B.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Eremenko, L.E.; Friedlander, E.M.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.; Heckman, H.H.; Huang, H.; Jakobsson, B.; Judek, B.; Kachroo, S.; Kadyrov, F.G.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kaul, G.L.; Kaur, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Koss, T.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Lal, P.; Larionova, V.G.; Lepetan, V.N.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Marutyan, N.A.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Mittra, I.S.; Mookerjee, S.; Mueller, C.; Nasrulaeva, H.; Nasyrov, S.H.; Navotny, V.S.; Orlova, G.I.; Otterlund, I.; Palsania, H.S.; Peresadko, N.G.; Petrov, N.V.; Plyushchev, V.A.; Qian, W.Y.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rao, N.K.; Rappoport, V.M.; Rhee, J.T.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Sarkisova, L.G.; Sarkisyan, V.R.; Schulz, W.; Shabratova, G.S.; Shakhova, T.I.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soederstroem, K.; Solovjeva, Z.I.; Stenlund, E.; Strausz, S.C.; Sun, J.F.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Tolstov, K.D.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.; Vokal, S.; Wang, H.Q.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Xu, G.F.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhochova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C.; Zhou, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The non-statistical fluctuations observed in nuclear interactions, as described by the intermittency-indices from scaled factorial moment analyses, are found to follow a systematic behaviour. The heaviest systems studied, i.e. interactions with sulfur projectiles, are found to have fluctuations which are larger than expected from simple scaling rules. (orig.)

  19. On the systematic behaviour of the intermittency-induces in nuclear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamovich, M I; Aggarwal, M M; Alexandrov, Y A; Andreeva, N P; Anson, Z V; Arora, R; Avetyan, F A; Badyal, S K; Basova, E; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bogdanov, V G; Bubnov, V I; Burnett, T H; Cai, X; Chasnikov, I Y; Chernova, L P; Chernyavski, M M; Dressel, B; Eligbaeva, G Z; Eremenko, L E; Friedlander, E M; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S; Gerassimov, S G; Grote, J; Gulamov, K G; Gupta, S K; Gupta, V; Heckman, H H; Huang, H; Jakobsson, B; Judek, B; Kachroo, S; Kadyrov, F G; Kalyachkina, G S; Kanygina, E K; Karabova, M; Kaul, G L; Kaur, M; Kharlamov, S P; Koss, T; Krasnov, S A; Kumar, V; Lal, P; Larionova, V G; Lepetan, V N; Lindstrom, P J; Liu, L S; Lokanathan, S; Lord, J; Lukicheva, N S; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Marutyan, N A; Maslennikova, N V; Mittra, I S; Mookerjee, S; Mueller, C; Nasrulaeva, H; Nasyrov, S H; Navotny, V S; Orlova, G I; Otterlund, I; Palsania, H S; Peresadko, N G; Petrov, N V; EMU01 Collaboration

    1991-07-18

    The non-statistical fluctuations observed in nuclear interactions, as described by the intermittency-indices from scaled factorial moment analyses, are found to follow a systematic behaviour. The heaviest systems studied, i.e. interactions with sulfur projectiles, are found to have fluctuations which are larger than expected from simple scaling rules. (orig.).

  20. Negative Symptoms and Avoidance of Social Interaction: A Study of Non-Verbal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worswick, Elizabeth; Dimic, Sara; Wildgrube, Christiane; Priebe, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped. Symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale. Independent raters later analysed the videos for non-verbal behaviour, using a modified version of the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI). Patients with a higher level of negative symptoms displayed significantly fewer prosocial (e.g., nodding and smiling), gesture, and displacement behaviours (e.g., fumbling), but significantly more flight behaviours (e.g., looking away, freezing). No gender differences were found, and these associations held true when adjusted for antipsychotic medication dosage. Negative symptoms are associated with both a lower level of actively engaging non-verbal behaviour and an increased active avoidance of social contact. Future research should aim to identify the mechanisms behind flight behaviour, with implications for the development of treatments to improve social functioning. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Modelling engagement in dementia through behaviour. Contribution for socially interactive robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugia, Giulia; Diaz Doladeras, Marta; Mallofre, Andreu Catala; Rauterberg, Matthias; Barakova, Emilia

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel tool to measure engagement in people with dementia playing board games and interacting with a social robot, Pleo. We carried out two studies to reach a comprehensive inventory of behaviours accounting for engagement in dementia. The first one is an exploratory study aimed at modelling engagement in cognitive board games. The second one is a longitudinal study to investigate how people with dementia express engagement in cognitive games and in interactions with social robots. We adopted a technique coming from Ethology to mould behaviour, the ethogram. Ethogram is founded on low level behaviours, and allows hierarchical structuring. Herein, we present preliminary results consisting in the description of two ethograms and in their structuring obtained through thematic analysis. Such results show that an underlying structure of engagement exists across activities, and that different activities trigger different behavioural displays of engagement that adhere to such a structure.

  2. Emergence of global scaling behaviour in the coupled Earth-atmosphere interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fallah, Bijan; Saberi, Abbas Ali; Sodoudi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Scale invariance property in the global geometry of Earth may lead to a coupled interactive behaviour between various components of the climate system. One of the most interesting correlations exists between spatial statistics of the global topography and the temperature on Earth. Here we show that the power-law behaviour observed in the Earth topography via different approaches, resembles a scaling law in the global spatial distribution of independent atmospheric parameters. We report on obs...

  3. Price-setting behaviour in the presence of social interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.; Schoonbeek, L.

    2006-01-01

    We consider a market with a profit-maximizing monopolistic firm. Utility-maximizing consumers either buy one unit of the good or none at all. The demand for the good is influenced by local social interactions. That is , the utility which a consumer derives from the consumption of the good depends

  4. Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

  5. How social factors and behavioural strategies affect feeding and social interaction patterns in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Iris J M M; de Boer, Imke J M; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Bokkers, Eddie A M

    2018-04-26

    Animals living in groups compete for food resources and face food conflicts. These conflicts are affected by social factors (e.g. competition level) and behavioural strategies (e.g. avoidance). This study aimed to deepen our understanding of the complex interactions between social factors and behavioural strategies affecting feeding and social interaction patterns in animals. We focused on group-housed growing pigs, Sus scrofa, which typically face conflicts around the feeder, and of which patterns in various competitive environments (i.e. pig:feeder ratio) have been documented soundly. An agent-based model was developed to explore how interactions among social factors and behavioural strategies can affect various feeding and social interaction patterns differently under competitive situations. Model results show that pig and diet characteristics interact with group size and affect daily feeding patterns (e.g. feed intake and feeding time) and conflicts around the feeder. The level of competition can cause a turning point in feeding and social interaction patterns. Beyond a certain point of competition, meal-based (e.g. meal frequency) and social interaction patterns (e.g. displacements) are determined mainly by behavioural strategies. The average daily feeding time can be used to predict the group size at which this turning point occurs. Under the model's assumptions, social facilitation was relatively unimportant in the causation of behavioural patterns in pigs. To validate our model, simulated patterns were compared with empirical patterns in conventionally housed pigs. Similarities between empirical and model patterns support the model results. Our model can be used as a tool in further research for studying the effects of social factors and group dynamics on individual variation in feeding and social interaction patterns in pigs, as well as in other animal species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamical soil-structure interactions: influence of soil behaviour nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandomzadeh, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of the soil with the structure has been largely explored the assumption of material and geometrical linearity of the soil. Nevertheless, for moderate or strong seismic events, the maximum shear strain can easily reach the elastic limit of the soil behavior. Considering soil-structure interaction, the nonlinear effects may change the soil stiffness at the base of the structure and therefore energy dissipation into the soil. Consequently, ignoring the nonlinear characteristics of the dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI) this phenomenon could lead to erroneous predictions of structural response. The goal of this work is to implement a fully nonlinear constitutive model for soils into a numerical code in order to investigate the effect of soil nonlinearity on dynamic soil structure interaction. Moreover, different issues are taken into account such as the effect of confining stress on the shear modulus of the soil, initial static condition, contact elements in the soil-structure interface, etc. During this work, a simple absorbing layer method based on a Rayleigh/Caughey damping formulation, which is often already available in existing Finite Element softwares, is also presented. The stability conditions of the wave propagation problems are studied and it is shown that the linear and nonlinear behavior are very different when dealing with numerical dispersion. It is shown that the 10 points per wavelength rule, recommended in the literature for the elastic media is not sufficient for the nonlinear case. The implemented model is first numerically verified by comparing the results with other known numerical codes. Afterward, a parametric study is carried out for different types of structures and various soil profiles to characterize nonlinear effects. Different features of the DSSI are compared to the linear case: modification of the amplitude and frequency content of the waves propagated into the soil, fundamental frequency, energy dissipation in

  7. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E Lidewei; Coelman, Frederique J G; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2012-06-13

    Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5%) dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59). The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively), which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an effective intervention strategy for young children and their

  8. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamse Mariëlle E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI, obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5% dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59. Results The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively, which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an

  9. Boiling and fragmentation behaviour during fuel-sodium interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.; Gunnerson, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    A selection of the results and subsequent analysis of molten fuel-sodium interaction experiments conducted within the JRC BETULLA I and II facilities are reported. The fuels were copper and stainless steel, at initial temperatures far above their melting points; or urania and alumina, initially at their melting points. For each test, the molten fuel masses were in lower kilogram range and the subcooled pool mass was either 160 or 4 kg. The sodium pool was instrumented continually monitor the system temperature and pressure. Post-test examination results of the fragmented fuel debris sizes, shape and crystalline structure are given. The results of this study suggest the following: Transition boiling is the dominant boiling mode for the tested fuels in subcooled sodium. Two fragmentation mechanisms, vapour bubble formation/collapse and thermal stress shrinkage cracking prevailed for the oxide fuels. This was evidenced by the presence of both smooth and fractured particulate. In contrast, all metal fuel debris was smooth, suggesting fragmentation by the vapour bubble formation/collapse mechanism only during the molten state and for each test, there was no evidence of an energetic fuel-coolant interaction. (orig.)

  10. Unexpected aggressive behaviour: interaction of bupropion and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Percy; Herxheimer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A healthy policeman was prescribed bupropion in 2002 to help him stop smoking. It worked but after 18 months he relapsed. Though it had given him headaches and insomnia he tried using it again in 2009, [corrected] taking 150 mg/day. Three days after starting the tablets he took his wife out for dinner. They shared a bottle of wine and he also had other drinks. After walking home they quarrelled, he slapped her, she slapped him. He threw the phone at her saying 'call the police!'. They came and charged him with assault; he was suspended. An expert report attributed the aggressive outburst to an interaction between bupropion and alcohol; the accused was a social drinker and had never been violent. An expert advising the police agreed, and 14 months after the event the court dismissed the case.

  11. Differential impact of student behaviours on group interaction and collaborative learning: medical students' and tutors' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Maha; Velan, Gary M; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Balasooriya, Chinthaka

    2016-08-22

    Collaboration is of increasing importance in medical education and medical practice. Students' and tutors' perceptions about small group learning are valuable to inform the development of strategies to promote group dynamics and collaborative learning. This study investigated medical students' and tutors' views on competencies and behaviours which promote effective learning and interaction in small group settings. This study was conducted at UNSW Australia. Five focus group discussions were conducted with first and second year medical students and eight small group tutors were interviewed. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. Students and tutors identified a range of behaviours that influenced collaborative learning. The main themes that emerged included: respectfulness; dominance, strong opinions and openness; constructiveness of feedback; active listening and contribution; goal orientation; acceptance of roles and responsibilities; engagement and enthusiasm; preparedness; self- awareness and positive personal attributes. An important finding was that some of these student behaviours were found to have a differential impact on group interaction compared with collaborative learning. This information could be used to promote higher quality learning in small groups. This study has identified medical students' and tutors' perceptions regarding interactional behaviours in small groups, as well as behaviours which lead to more effective learning in those settings. This information could be used to promote learning in small groups.

  12. Attitudes and behaviours of maternal health care providers in interactions with clients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannava, P; Durrant, K; Fisher, J; Chersich, M; Luchters, S

    2015-08-15

    interactions far outweigh positive ones. The nature of the factors which influence health worker attitudes and behaviours suggests that strengthening health systems, and workforce development, including in communication and counselling skills, are important. Greater attention is required to the attitudes and behaviours of MHCPs within efforts to improve maternal health, for the sake of both women and health care providers.

  13. The effectiveness of staff training focused on increasing emotional intelligence and improving interaction between support staff and clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, L J M; Embregts, P J C M; Gerits, L; Bosman, A M T; Derksen, J J L

    2015-07-01

    Recent research addressed the relationship between staff behaviour and challenging behaviour of individuals with an intellectual disability (ID). Consequently, research on interventions aimed at staff is warranted. The present study focused on the effectiveness of a staff training aimed at emotional intelligence and interactions between staff and clients. The effects of the training on emotional intelligence, coping style and emotions of support staff were investigated. Participants were 214 support staff working within residential settings for individuals with ID and challenging behaviour. The experimental group consisted of 76 staff members, 138 staff members participated in two different control groups. A pre-test, post-test, follow-up control group design was used. Effectiveness was assessed using questionnaires addressing emotional intelligence, coping and emotions. Emotional intelligence of the experimental group changed significantly more than that of the two control groups. The experimental group showed an increase in task-oriented coping, whereas one control group did not. The results with regard to emotions were mixed. Follow-up data revealed that effects within the experimental group were still present four months after the training ended. A staff training aimed at emotional intelligence and staff-client interactions is effective in improving emotional intelligence and coping styles of support staff. However, the need for more research aiming at the relationship between staff characteristics, organisational factors and their mediating role in the effectiveness of staff training is emphasised. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Exercise self-identity: interactions with social comparison and exercise behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Possible interactions among exercise self-identity, social comparison and exercise behaviour were explored in a sample of 417 undergraduate students (Mean age = 21.5, SD = 3.0; 73% female). Two models were examined using self-report data; (1) a mediation model which proposed an association between

  15. Exercise self-identity: interactions with social comparison and exercise behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Bruijn, de G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Possible interactions among exercise self-identity, social comparison and exercise behaviour were explored in a sample of 417 undergraduate students (Mean age¿=¿21.5, SD¿=¿3.0; 73% female). Two models were examined using self-report data; (1) a mediation model which proposed an association between

  16. Effects of aggregation pheromone on individual behaviour and food web interactions: a field study on Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B.; Allemand, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an aggregation pheromone on individual behaviour and food web interactions were investigated in two ecological communities, using Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans as focal species. 2. Fruit substrates with aggregation pheromone were significantly more attractive to adult D.

  17. Effects of aggregation pheromone on individual behaviour and food web interactions : A field study on Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, Bregje; Allemand, Roland; Vet, Louise E. M.; Dicke, Marcel

    1. The effects of an aggregation pheromone on individual behaviour and food web interactions were investigated in two ecological communities, using Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulatis as focal species. 2. Fruit substrates with aggregation pheromone were significantly more attractive to adult D.

  18. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Child Disruptive Behaviour Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michelle A.; Theule, Jennifer; Cheung, Kristene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have looked at the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for young children with externalizing behaviour problems. Objective: The present study compiled these results through a comprehensive review to provide greater clarity regarding the efficacy of this treatment. Methods: Using a random effects model,…

  19. Interactions between dopamine and oxytocin in the control of sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Tracey A; Douglas, Alison J

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine and oxytocin are two key neuromodulators involved in reproductive behaviours, such as mating and maternal care. Much evidence underlies their separate roles in such behaviours, but particularly in sexual behaviour. It is generally believed that central dopaminergic and oxytocinergic systems work together to regulate the expression of penile erection, but relatively little is known regarding how they interact. Thus, this review aims to discuss neuroanatomical proof, neuromodulator secretory profiles in the hypothalamus and behavioural pharmacological evidence which support a dopamine-oxytocin link in three hypothalamic nuclei that have been implicated in sexual behaviour, namely the medial preoptic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). We also aim to provide an overview of potential dopamine-mediated transduction pathways that occur within these nuclei and are correlated with the exhibition of penile erection. The PVN provides the most convincing evidence for a dopamine-oxytocin link and it is becoming increasingly apparent that parvocellular oxytocinergic neurons in the PVN, in part, mediate the effects of dopamine to elicit penile erection. However, while we show that oxytocin neurons express dopamine receptors, other evidence on whether dopaminergic activation of PVN oxytocin cells involves a direct and/or indirect mechanism is inconclusive and further evidence is required to establish whether the two systems interact synergistically or sequentially in the regulation of penile erection.

  20. Regulation of catalytic behaviour of hydrolases through interactions with functionalized carbon-based nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlidis, Ioannis V.; Vorhaben, Torge; Gournis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, George K.; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Stamatis, Haralambos

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of enzymes with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) is crucial for the function of biomolecules and therefore for the design and development of effective nanobiocatalytic systems. In this study, the effect of functionalized CBNs, such as graphene oxide (GO) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on the catalytic behaviour of various hydrolases of biotechnological interest was monitored and the interactions between CBNs and proteins were investigated. The enzyme–nanomaterial interactions significantly affect the catalytic behaviour of enzymes, resulting in an increase up to 60 % of the catalytic efficiency of lipases and a decrease up to 30 % of the esterase. Moreover, the use of CNTs and GO derivatives, especially those that are amine-functionalized, led to increased thermal stability of most the hydrolases tested. Fluorescence and circular dichroism studies indicated that the altered catalytic behaviour of enzymes in the presence of CBNs arises from specific enzyme–nanomaterial interactions, which can lead to significant conformational changes. In the case of lipases, the conformational changes led to a more active and rigid structure, while in the case of esterases this led to destabilization and unfolding. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies indicated that the extent of the interactions between CBNs and hydrolases can be mainly controlled by the functionalization of nanomaterials than by their geometry.

  1. Regulation of catalytic behaviour of hydrolases through interactions with functionalized carbon-based nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlidis, Ioannis V. [University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies (Greece); Vorhaben, Torge [Institute of Biochemistry, Greifswald University, Department of Biotechnology and Enzyme Catalysis (Germany); Gournis, Dimitrios [University of Ioannina, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Greece); Papadopoulos, George K. [Epirus Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Faculty of Agricultural Technology (Greece); Bornscheuer, Uwe T. [Institute of Biochemistry, Greifswald University, Department of Biotechnology and Enzyme Catalysis (Germany); Stamatis, Haralambos, E-mail: hstamati@cc.uoi.gr [University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies (Greece)

    2012-05-15

    The interaction of enzymes with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) is crucial for the function of biomolecules and therefore for the design and development of effective nanobiocatalytic systems. In this study, the effect of functionalized CBNs, such as graphene oxide (GO) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on the catalytic behaviour of various hydrolases of biotechnological interest was monitored and the interactions between CBNs and proteins were investigated. The enzyme-nanomaterial interactions significantly affect the catalytic behaviour of enzymes, resulting in an increase up to 60 % of the catalytic efficiency of lipases and a decrease up to 30 % of the esterase. Moreover, the use of CNTs and GO derivatives, especially those that are amine-functionalized, led to increased thermal stability of most the hydrolases tested. Fluorescence and circular dichroism studies indicated that the altered catalytic behaviour of enzymes in the presence of CBNs arises from specific enzyme-nanomaterial interactions, which can lead to significant conformational changes. In the case of lipases, the conformational changes led to a more active and rigid structure, while in the case of esterases this led to destabilization and unfolding. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies indicated that the extent of the interactions between CBNs and hydrolases can be mainly controlled by the functionalization of nanomaterials than by their geometry.

  2. From inter-specific behavioural interactions to species distribution patterns along gradients of habitat heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The strength of the behavioural processes associated with competitor coexistence may vary when different physical environments, and their biotic communities, come into contact, although empirical evidence of how interference varies across gradients of environmental complexity is still scarce in vertebrates. Here, I analyse how behavioural interactions and habitat selection regulate the local distribution of steppeland larks (Alaudidae) in a gradient from simple to heterogeneous agricultural landscapes in Spain, using crested lark Galerida cristata and Thekla lark G. theklae as study models. Galerida larks significantly partitioned by habitat but frequently co-occurred in heterogeneous environments. Irrespective of habitat divergence, however, the local densities of the two larks were negatively correlated, and the mechanisms beyond this pattern were investigated by means of playback experiments. When simulating the intrusion of the congener by broadcasting the species territorial calls, both larks responded with an aggressive response as intense with respect to warning and approach behaviour as when responding to the intrusion of a conspecific. However, birds promptly responded to playbacks only when congener territories were nearby, a phenomenon that points to learning as the mechanisms through which individuals finely tune their aggressive responses to the local competition levels. Heterospecifics occurred in closer proximity in diverse agro-ecosystems, possibly because of more abundant or diverse resources, and here engage in antagonistic interactions. The drop of species diversity associated with agricultural homogenisation is therefore likely to also bring about the disappearance of the behavioural repertoires associated with species interactions.

  3. Positive animal welfare states and encouraging environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Affective neuroscience, incorporating neurophysiology and neuropsychology, is providing increasing evidence that certain behaviours of animals may be interpreted in terms of what they are intending to achieve, i.e. their goals. It is also providing evidence that allows inferences to be made about the affective contents of some goal-directed behaviours. These neuroscience-supported inferences are aligned with recommendations based on prior behaviour-based investigations of animals' preferences, aversions and priorities, and these observations together support the cautious use of particular behaviours to infer what the accompanying affects may be. In this review, therefore, some attention is given to negative affects and their relationships to poor animal welfare, but the primary focus is the positive affects animals may experience when they successfully engage in rewarding goal-directed behaviours, encapsulated in the concept of positive affective engagement. The review draws together reports of environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours observed in a range of species and under diverse circumstances in order to illustrate the likely widespread occurrence of the positive affects that may accompany them. Particular consideration is given to affects that are potentially associated with some aspects of exploration and food acquisition in stimulus rich or impoverished environments, and to those that may be associated with aspects of the affiliative interactions of bonding or bond affirmation, maternal care, play and sexual activity. It is concluded that animals given the opportunity to engage in such activities may experience some positive affects. However, the intensity of an animal's experience of particular positive affects is likely to range from zero to very high because the associated behaviours occur intermittently, variation may occur during different phases of a goal-directed behaviour, and other positive or negative affects experienced at

  4. Interaction of personality traits with social deprivation in determining mental wellbeing and health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Chris J; Cavanagh, Jonathan; McLean, Jennifer S; McConnachie, Alex; Messow, Claudia-Martina; Batty, G David; Burns, Harry; Deans, Kevin A; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Velupillai, Yoga N; Tannahill, Carol; Millar, Keith

    2012-12-01

    Associations between personality traits, mental wellbeing and good health behaviours were examined to understand further the social and psychological context of the health divide. In a cross-sectional study, 666 subjects recruited from areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation had personality traits and mental wellbeing assessed, and lifestyle behaviours quantified. Regression models (using deprivation as a moderating variable) assessed the extent to which personality traits and mental wellbeing predicted health behaviour. Deprived (vs. affluent) subjects exhibited similar levels of extraversion but higher levels of neuroticism and psychoticism, more hopelessness, less sense of coherence, lower self-esteem and lower self-efficacy (all Pmental wellbeing than in the least deprived group (Pmental wellbeing and extraversion appeared more strongly related to good health behaviours. Persistence of a social divide in health may be related to interactions between personality, mental wellbeing and the adoption of good health behaviours in deprived areas. Effectiveness of health messages may be enhanced by accommodating the variation in the levels of extraversion, neuroticism, hopelessness and sense of coherence.

  5. Interactive Relationship between Job Involvement, Job Satisfaction, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour, and Organizational Commitment in Nigerian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    B.M. Nwibere

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the interactive relationship between job involvement, job satisfaction, organisational commitment citizenship behaviour (OCB) and organisational commitment among employees of Nigerian universities. The sample for the study consisted of two hundred and ten academic members of staff (210) from five (5) Federal Government owned universities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The study utilized both quantitative data (questionnaire) and qualitative data (interview). The Mult...

  6. Social interactions of eating behaviour among high school students: a cellular automata approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eating behaviour and food choice. Methods In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eating behaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. Results This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eating behaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of

  7. Relationship between the cohesion of guest particles on the flow behaviour of interactive mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Sharad; Gengenbach, Thomas; Millington-Smith, Doug; Armstrong, Brian; Morton, David A V; Larson, Ian

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects cohesion of small surface-engineered guest binder particles on the flow behaviour of interactive mixtures. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) - a model pharmaceutical binder - was spray-dried with varying l-leucine feed concentrations to create small surface-engineered binder particles with varying cohesion. These spray-dried formulations were characterised by their particle size distribution, morphology and cohesion. Interactive mixtures were produced by blending these spray-dried formulations with paracetamol. The resultant blends were visualised under scanning electron microscope to confirm formation of interactive mixtures. Surface coverage of paracetamol by guest particles as well as the flow behaviour of these mixtures were examined. The flow performance of interactive mixtures was evaluated using measurements of conditioned bulk density, basic flowability energy, aeration energy and compressibility. With higher feed l-leucine concentrations, the surface roughness of small binder particles increased, while their cohesion decreased. Visual inspection of the SEM images of the blends indicated that the guest particles adhered to the surface of paracetamol resulting in effective formation of interactive mixtures. These images also showed that the low-cohesion guest particles were better de-agglomerated that consequently formed a more homogeneous interactive mixture with paracetamol compared with high-cohesion formulations. The flow performance of interactive mixtures changed as a function of the cohesion of the guest particles. Interactive mixtures with low-cohesion guest binder particles showed notably improved bulk flow performance compared with those containing high-cohesion guest binder particles. Thus, our study suggests that the cohesion of guest particles dictates the flow performance of interactive mixtures. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High speed cine film studies of plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodall, D.H.J.

    1982-01-01

    High speed cine photography is a useful diagnostic aid for studying plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions. Several workers have filmed discharges in tokamaks including ASDEX, DITE, DIVA, ISX, JFT2, TFR and PLT. These films are discussed and examples given of the observed phenomena which include plasma limiter interactions, diverted discharges, disruptions, magnetic islands and moving glowing objects often known as 'UFOs'. Examples of plasma structures in ASDEX and DITE not previously published are also given. The paper also reports experiments in DITE to determine the origin of UFOs. (orig.)

  9. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  10. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: Interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Gruber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated behaviour exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioural control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum, amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioural responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive, but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum. The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the basal ganglia to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioural and neural

  11. Dynamics of tactical behaviour in association football when manipulating players' space of interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ric

    Full Text Available The analysis of positional data in association football allows the spatial distribution of players during matches to be described in order to improve the understanding of tactical-related constraints on the behavioural dynamics of players. The aim of this study was to identify how players' spatial restrictions affected the exploratory tactical behaviour and constrained the perceptual-motor workspace of players in possession of the ball, as well as inter-player passing interactions. Nineteen professional outfield male players were divided into two teams of 10 and 9 players, respectively. The game was played under three spatial constraints: a players were not allowed to move out of their allocated zones, except for the player in possession of the ball; b players were allowed to move to an adjacent zone, and; c non-specific spatial constraints. Positional data was captured using a 5 Hz interpolated GPS tracking system and used to define the configuration states of players for each second in time. The configuration state comprised 37 categories derived from tactical actions, distance from the nearest opponent, distance from the target and movement speed. Notational analysis of players in possession of the ball allowed the mean time of ball possession and the probabilities of passing the ball between players to be calculated. The results revealed that the players' long-term exploratory behaviour decreased and their short-term exploration increased when restricting their space of interaction. Relaxing players' positional constraints seemed to increase the speed of ball flow dynamics. Allowing players to move to an adjacent sub-area increased the probabilities of interaction with the full-back during play build-up. The instability of the coordinative state defined by being free from opponents when players had the ball possession was an invariant feature under all three task constraints. By allowing players to move to adjacent sub-areas, the

  12. Synchronous behaviour of two interacting oscillatory systems undergoing quasiperiodic route to chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S; Pawar, S A; Sujith, R I

    2017-10-01

    Thermoacoustic instability, caused by a positive feedback between the unsteady heat release and the acoustic field in a combustor, is a major challenge faced in most practical combustors such as those used in rockets and gas turbines. We employ the synchronization theory for understanding the coupling between the unsteady heat release and the acoustic field of a thermoacoustic system. Interactions between coupled subsystems exhibiting different collective dynamics such as periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic oscillations are addressed. Even though synchronization studies have focused on different dynamical states separately, synchronous behaviour of two coupled systems exhibiting a quasiperiodic route to chaos has not been studied. In this study, we report the first experimental observation of different synchronous behaviours between two subsystems of a thermoacoustic system exhibiting such a transition as reported in Kabiraj et al. [Chaos 22, 023129 (2012)]. A rich variety of synchronous behaviours such as phase locking, intermittent phase locking, and phase drifting are observed as the dynamics of such subsystem change. The observed synchronization behaviour is further characterized using phase locking value, correlation coefficient, and relative mean frequency. These measures clearly reveal the boundaries between different states of synchronization.

  13. Crack Growth Behaviour of P92 Steel Under Creep-fatigue Interaction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JING Hong-yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Creep-fatigue interaction tests of P92 steel at 630℃ under stress-controlled were carried out, and the crack propagation behaviour of P92 steel was studied. The fracture mechanism of crack growth under creep-fatigue interaction and the transition points in a-N curves were analyzed based on the fracture morphology. The results show that the fracture of P92 steel under creep-fatigue interaction is creep ductile fracture and the (Ctavg parameter is employed to demonstrate the crack growth behaviour; in addition, the fracture morphology shows that the crack growth for P92 steel under creep-fatigue interaction is mainly caused by the nucleation and growth of the creep voids and micro-cracks. Furthermore, the transition point of a-lg(Ni/Nf curve corresponds to the turning point of initial crack growth changed into steady crack growth while the transition point of (da/dN-N curve exhibits the turning point of steady creep crack growth changed into the accelerated crack growth.

  14. A Comparison of the Interactive Play Behaviours between Children with Albinism and Their Siblings and Children without Albinism and Their Non-Albino Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javangwe, Gwatirera; Mukondyo, Rachel Z.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the nature of the interactive play behaviours of children with albinism and children without albinism and compared the interactive behaviours of both children with albinism and children without albinism. Naturalistic observations were conducted during periods of free play, using the interactive play behaviour checklist aided by…

  15. Microsatellite polymorphisms associated with human behavioural and psychological phenotypes including a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Andrew T M; Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Gemmell, Neil J; Kennedy, Martin A

    2017-02-03

    The genetic and environmental influences on human personality and behaviour are a complex matter of ongoing debate. Accumulating evidence indicates that short tandem repeats (STRs) in regulatory regions are good candidates to explain heritability not accessed by genome-wide association studies. We tested for associations between the genotypes of four selected repeats and 18 traits relating to personality, behaviour, cognitive ability and mental health in a well-studied longitudinal birth cohort (n = 458-589) using one way analysis of variance. The repeats were a highly conserved poly-AC microsatellite in the upstream promoter region of the T-box brain 1 (TBR1) gene and three previously studied STRs in the activating enhancer-binding protein 2-beta (AP2-β) and androgen receptor (AR) genes. Where significance was found we used multiple regression to assess the influence of confounding factors. Carriers of the shorter, most common, allele of the AR gene's GGN microsatellite polymorphism had fewer anxiety-related symptoms, which was consistent with previous studies, but in our study this was not significant following Bonferroni correction. No associations with two repeats in the AP2-β gene withstood this correction. A novel finding was that carriers of the minor allele of the TBR1 AC microsatellite were at higher risk of conduct problems in childhood at age 7-9 (p = 0.0007, which did pass Bonferroni correction). Including maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) in models controlling for potentially confounding influences showed that an interaction between TBR1 genotype and MSDP was a significant predictor of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence (p behaviour up to age 25 years (p ≤ 0.02). This interaction remained significant after controlling for possible confounders including maternal age at birth, socio-economic status and education, and offspring birth weight. The potential functional importance of the TBR1 gene's promoter microsatellite

  16. An Exploratory Case Study of Young Children's Interactive Play Behaviours with a Non-English Speaking Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…

  17. Novel acoustic technology for studying free-ranging shark social behaviour by recording individuals' interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan L Guttridge

    Full Text Available Group behaviours are widespread among fish but comparatively little is known about the interactions between free-ranging individuals and how these might change across different spatio-temporal scales. This is largely due to the difficulty of observing wild fish groups directly underwater over long enough time periods to quantify group structure and individual associations. Here we describe the use of a novel technology, an animal-borne acoustic proximity receiver that records close-spatial associations between free-ranging fish by detection of acoustic signals emitted from transmitters on other individuals. Validation trials, held within enclosures in the natural environment, on juvenile lemon sharks Negaprion brevirostris fitted with external receivers and transmitters, showed receivers logged interactions between individuals regularly when sharks were within 4 m ( approximately 4 body lengths of each other, but rarely when at 10 m distance. A field trial lasting 17 days with 5 juvenile lemon sharks implanted with proximity receivers showed one receiver successfully recorded association data, demonstrating this shark associated with 9 other juvenile lemon sharks on 128 occasions. This study describes the use of acoustic underwater proximity receivers to quantify interactions among wild sharks, setting the scene for new advances in understanding the social behaviours of marine animals.

  18. An analytical description of the low temperature behaviour of a weakly interacting Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guozhen; Chen Lixuan; Chen Jincan

    2004-01-01

    An analytical description of the low temperature behaviour of a trapped interacting Bose gas is presented by using a simple approach that is based on the principle of the constancy of chemical potentials in equilibrium and the local-density approximation. Several thermodynamic quantities, which include the ground-state fraction, chemical potential, total energy, entropy and heat capacity, are derived analytically. It is shown that the results obtained here are in excellent agreement with the experimental data and the theoretical predictions based on the numerical calculation. Meanwhile, by selecting a suitable variable, the divergent problem existing in some papers is solved

  19. The behaviour of young children with social communication disorders during dyadic interaction with peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne M; Faulkner, Dorothy M; Farley, Laura R

    2014-02-01

    Children with social communication disorders are known to experience more problematic peer relations than typically-developing children. However, detailed observation of their behaviour and communication during interaction with peers has not previously been undertaken. Micro-analytic observational methods were used to analyse the audio-taped interaction of children (N = 112) selected from mainstream schools (ages 5-6 years-old) on a computerised dyadic collaborative task. Comparisons were made between children with average-to-high- and low-pragmatic language skill as measured by the Test of Pragmatic Skills. Dyads were composed of an average-to-high-skilled child plus a low-skilled child (32 dyads), or of two average-to-high-skilled children (24 dyads). Consistently with their pragmatic language scores, low-skilled children were more likely to ignore other children's questions and requests than were average-to-high-skilled children. When average-to-high-skilled children worked with low-skilled children, as opposed to with other average-to-high-skilled children, they showed some sensitivity and adaptation to these children's difficulties; they used significantly more directives, clarification and provided more information. However, there was a cost in terms of the emotional tone of these interactions; when working with low-skilled children, the average-to-high-skilled children expressed considerably more negative feelings towards their partners than with another average-to-high-skilled child. In conclusion, observation of the interaction of average-to-high- and low-skilled children suggests promise for peer-assisted interventions and specifies which communicative behaviours could be targeted. However, care should be taken to manage the affective climate of these interactions for the benefit of all children involved.

  20. Empathy and Prosocial Behaviours. Insights from Intra- and Inter-species Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria elide Vanutelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that “sharing the same body” between the observer and the observed subject allows for a direct form of understanding and emotional attuning by a process of simulation. Then, what happens when we don’t share the same body? The aim of the present paper is to review available evidence of intra- and inter-species empathic and prosocial behaviours, with respect to within-human, within-animals and cross-specifies interactions. Similarities and differences will be evaluated using a comparative perspective, and some possible moral and ethical implications for human-animal interactions will be discussed. According to Charles Darwin’s work, the perceived differences between human and animal empathy could be more quantitative than qualitative, suggesting a common affective core which allows both categories to mirror and tune to conspecifics’ feelings, where in the case of humans it can be integrated with more complex cognitive processes.

  1. An example of coupling behaviour-damage-environment in polycrystals. Application to Pellet-Cladding Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diard, Olivier

    2001-01-01

    Zircaloy-4 cladding is the first containment barrier for fission products, and its integrity must therefore be ensured in nominal and accidental situations. However, stress corrosion induced cracks may appear due to a strong pellet-cladding interaction. It is therefore important to model this interaction and crack growth and propagation to establish non-damage criteria. Thus, this research thesis aims at developing a modelling covering both issues (pellet-cladding interaction, and stress corrosion cracking) and allowing macroscopic and microscopic scales to be coupled. After a bibliographical synthesis on iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking and similar phenomena, the author presents the model proposed for the pellet-cladding interaction: phenomena to be taken into account, phenomenological and macroscopic behaviour laws used respectively for pellet and cladding. An extended version of an existing cladding viscoplastic model is proposed. Stress and strain fields in the cladding are obtained, notably in the contact zone. In the next part, the author presents various numerical tools developed or used to model multi-crystalline aggregates, and the model of crystalline plasticity used to simulate cladding behaviour at the microstructure scale. Effects of mesh density, element types and anisotropic elasticity are also discussed. The next chapter addresses the mechanical-chemical coupling. Some coupling formulas are presented for simple cases in order to define the effective diffusion coefficient. The last part reports the modelling of intergranular damage: definition of a damage criterion at the granular scale, assessment of stresses at grain boundaries, and effect of crystallographic neighbouring. A model of grain boundary damage is also proposed. This model is assessed on Failure Mechanics test samples and on simple microstructures. The application of the whole numerical model is reported [fr

  2. Response of Two Mytilids to a Heatwave: The Complex Interplay of Physiology, Behaviour and Ecological Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Olabarria

    Full Text Available Different combinations of behavioural and physiological responses may play a crucial role in the ecological success of species, notably in the context of biological invasions. The invasive mussel Xenostrobus securis has successfully colonised the inner part of the Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain, where it co-occurs with the commercially-important mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study investigated the effect of a heatwave on the physiological and behavioural responses in monospecific or mixed aggregations of these species. In a mesocosm experiment, mussels were exposed to simulated tidal cycles and similar temperature conditions to those experienced in the field during a heat-wave that occurred in the summer of 2013, when field robo-mussels registered temperatures up to 44.5°C at low tide. The overall responses to stress differed markedly between the two species. In monospecific aggregations M. galloprovincialis was more vulnerable than X. securis to heat exposure during emersion. However, in mixed aggregations, the presence of the invader was associated with lower mortality in M. galloprovincialis. The greater sensitivity of M. galloprovincialis to heat exposure was reflected in a higher mortality level, greater induction of Hsp70 protein and higher rates of respiration and gaping activity, which were accompanied by a lower heart rate (bradycardia. The findings show that the invader enhanced the physiological performance of M. galloprovincialis, highlighting the importance of species interactions in regulating responses to environmental stress. Understanding the complex interactions between ecological factors and physiological and behavioural responses of closely-related species is essential for predicting the impacts of invasions in the context of future climate change.

  3. Response of Two Mytilids to a Heatwave: The Complex Interplay of Physiology, Behaviour and Ecological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Celia; Gestoso, Ignacio; Lima, Fernando P; Vázquez, Elsa; Comeau, Luc A; Gomes, Filipa; Seabra, Rui; Babarro, José M F

    2016-01-01

    Different combinations of behavioural and physiological responses may play a crucial role in the ecological success of species, notably in the context of biological invasions. The invasive mussel Xenostrobus securis has successfully colonised the inner part of the Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain), where it co-occurs with the commercially-important mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study investigated the effect of a heatwave on the physiological and behavioural responses in monospecific or mixed aggregations of these species. In a mesocosm experiment, mussels were exposed to simulated tidal cycles and similar temperature conditions to those experienced in the field during a heat-wave that occurred in the summer of 2013, when field robo-mussels registered temperatures up to 44.5°C at low tide. The overall responses to stress differed markedly between the two species. In monospecific aggregations M. galloprovincialis was more vulnerable than X. securis to heat exposure during emersion. However, in mixed aggregations, the presence of the invader was associated with lower mortality in M. galloprovincialis. The greater sensitivity of M. galloprovincialis to heat exposure was reflected in a higher mortality level, greater induction of Hsp70 protein and higher rates of respiration and gaping activity, which were accompanied by a lower heart rate (bradycardia). The findings show that the invader enhanced the physiological performance of M. galloprovincialis, highlighting the importance of species interactions in regulating responses to environmental stress. Understanding the complex interactions between ecological factors and physiological and behavioural responses of closely-related species is essential for predicting the impacts of invasions in the context of future climate change.

  4. Parent-Child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E.; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E. Lidewei; Coelman, Frederique J. G.; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be

  5. Electrochemical study of varenicline adsorptive behaviour and its interaction with DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviour of novel nicotinic α4β2 subtype receptor partial agonist varenicline (VAR which is used for smoking cessation, was investigated in Britton-Robinson buffers (pH 2.0-12.0 by cyclic, differential pulse and square wave voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop elctrode. The influence of pH, scan rate, concentration, accumulation potential and time on peak current and potential suggested that in alkaline media the redox process was adsorption controlled. Also, the experimental value of surface coverage, G = 1.03´10-10 mol cm-2, was used to determine the conditions when VAR was fully adsorbed at the electrode surface. Having in mind potential high toxicity of VAR due to the presence of quinoxaline structure, its interaction with DNA was postulated, and studied when both compounds were in the adsorbed state at modified HMDE. Using adsorptive transfer technique, the changes in potential and decrease in normalized peak currents were observed. The estimated value of the ratio of surface-binding constants indicated that the reduced form of VAR interacted with dsDNA more strongly than the oxidized form. Subtle DNA damage under conditions of direct DNA-VAR interaction at room temperature was observed. The proposed type of interaction was an intercalation. This study used simple electroanalytical methodology and showed the potential of DNA/HMDE biosensor for investigation of genotoxic effects.

  6. Female behaviour and the interaction of male and female genital traits mediate sperm transfer during mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, C R; Uhrig, E J; Mason, R T; Brennan, P L R

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection and post-copulatory sexual selection, including sexual conflict, contribute to genital diversification. Fundamental first steps in understanding how these processes shape the evolution of specific genital traits are to determine their function experimentally and to understand the interactions between female and male genitalia during copulation. Our experimental manipulations of male and female genitalia in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) reveal that copulation duration and copulatory plug deposition, as well as total and oviductal/vaginal sperm counts, are influenced by the interaction between male and female genital traits and female behaviour during copulation. By mating females with anesthetized cloacae to males with spine-ablated hemipenes using a fully factorial design, we identified significant female-male copulatory trait interactions and found that females prevent sperm from entering their oviducts by contracting their vaginal pouch. Furthermore, these muscular contractions limit copulatory plug size, whereas the basal spine of the male hemipene aids in sperm and plug transfer. Our results are consistent with a role of sexual conflict in mating interactions and highlight the evolutionary importance of female resistance to reproductive outcomes. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Size-scaling behaviour of the electronic polarizability of one-dimensional interacting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, G.; Louis, E.; Vergés, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    Electronic polarizability of finite chains is accurately calculated from the total energy variation of the system produced by small but finite static electric fields applied along the chain direction. Normalized polarizability, that is, polarizability divided by chain length, diverges as the second power of length for metallic systems but approaches a constant value for insulating systems. This behaviour provides a very convenient way to characterize the wave-function malleability of finite systems as it avoids the need of attaching infinite contacts to the chain ends. Hubbard model calculations at half filling show that the method works for a small U  =  1 interaction value that corresponds to a really small spectral gap of 0.005 (hopping t  =  ‑1 is assumed). Once successfully checked, the method has been applied to the long-range hopping model of Gebhard and Ruckenstein showing 1/r hopping decay (Gebhard and Ruckenstein 1992 Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 244; Gebhard et al 1994 Phys. Rev. B 49 10926). Metallicity for U values below the reported metal-insulator transition is obtained but the surprise comes for U values larger than the critical one (when a gap appears in the spectral density of states) because a steady increase of the normalized polarizability with size is obtained. This critical size-scaling behaviour can be understood as corresponding to a molecule which polarizability is unbounded. We have checked that a real transfer of charge from one chain end to the opposite occurs as a response to very small electric fields in spite of the existence of a large gap of the order of U for one-particle excitations. Finally, ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of realistic poly-acetylene chains prove that the occurrence of such critical behaviour in real systems is unlikely.

  8. Statistical analysis of road-vehicle-driver interaction as an enabler to designing behavioural models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, T; Chowdhury, A; Ghose, A; Bhaumik, C; Balamuralidhar, P

    2014-01-01

    Telematics form an important technology enabler for intelligent transportation systems. By deploying on-board diagnostic devices, the signatures of vehicle vibration along with its location and time are recorded. Detailed analyses of the collected signatures offer deep insights into the state of the objects under study. Towards that objective, we carried out experiments by deploying telematics device in one of the office bus that ferries employees to office and back. Data is being collected from 3-axis accelerometer, GPS, speed and the time for all the journeys. In this paper, we present initial results of the above exercise by applying statistical methods to derive information through systematic analysis of the data collected over four months. It is demonstrated that the higher order derivative of the measured Z axis acceleration samples display the properties Weibull distribution when the time axis is replaced by the amplitude of such processed acceleration data. Such an observation offers us a method to predict future behaviour where deviations from prediction are classified as context-based aberrations or progressive degradation of the system. In addition we capture the relationship between speed of the vehicle and median of the jerk energy samples using regression analysis. Such results offer an opportunity to develop a robust method to model road-vehicle interaction thereby enabling us to predict such like driving behaviour and condition based maintenance etc

  9. The effect of pressure on open-framework silicates: elastic behaviour and crystal-fluid interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, G. D.; Lotti, P.; Tabacchi, G.

    2018-02-01

    The elastic behaviour and the structural evolution of microporous materials compressed hydrostatically in a pressure-transmitting fluid are drastically affected by the potential crystal-fluid interaction, with a penetration of new molecules through the zeolitic cavities in response to applied pressure. In this manuscript, the principal mechanisms that govern the P-behaviour of zeolites with and without crystal-fluid interaction are described, on the basis of previous experimental findings and computational modelling studies. When no crystal-fluid interaction occurs, the effects of pressure are mainly accommodated by tilting of (quasi-rigid) tetrahedra around O atoms that behave as hinges. Tilting of tetrahedra is the dominant mechanism at low-mid P-regime, whereas distortion and compression of tetrahedra represent the mechanisms which usually dominate the mid-high P regime. One of the most common deformation mechanisms in zeolitic framework is the increase of channels ellipticity. The deformation mechanisms are dictated by the topological configuration of the tetrahedral framework; however, the compressibility of the cavities is controlled by the nature and bonding configuration of the ionic and molecular content, resulting in different unit-cell volume compressibility in isotypic structures. The experimental results pertaining to compression in "penetrating" fluids, and thus with crystal-fluid interaction, showed that not all the zeolites experience a P-induced intrusion of new monoatomic species or molecules from the P-transmitting fluids. For example, zeolites with well-stuffed channels at room conditions (e.g. natural zeolites) tend to hinder the penetration of new species through the zeolitic cavities. Several variables govern the sorption phenomena at high pressure, among those: the "free diameters" of the framework cavities, the chemical nature and the configuration of the extra-framework population, the partial pressure of the penetrating molecule in the

  10. Interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour: Predicting fruit and vegetable consumption in three prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Emily J; Mullan, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been criticized for not including interactions between major constructs thought to underlie behaviour. This study investigated the application of the TPB to the prediction of fruit and vegetable consumption across three prospective cohorts. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether interactions between major constructs in the theory would increase the ability of the model to predict intention to consume fruit and vegetables (i.e., attitude × perceived behavioural control [PBC], subjective norm × PBC, subjective norm × attitude) and self-reported fruit and vegetable intake (i.e., PBC × intention). Secondary data analysis from three cohorts: One predictive study (cohort 1) and two intervention studies (cohorts 2 and 3). Participants completed a TPB measure at baseline and a measure of fruit and vegetable intake at 1 week (cohort 1; n = 90) or 1 month (cohorts 2 and 3; n = 296). Attitude moderated the impact of PBC on intention. PBC moderated the impact of intention on behaviour at 1 week but not 1 month. The variance accounted for by the interactions was small. However, the presence of interactions between constructs within the TPB demonstrates a need to consider interactions between variables within the TPB in both theoretical and applied research using the model. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Correlation between crystallization behaviour and interfacial interactions in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodal, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmet.kodal@kocaeli.edu.tr; Şirin, Hümeyra; Özkoç, Güralp, E-mail: guralp.ozkoc@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kocaeli University, 41380, Kocaeli Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-03-09

    In this study, the correlation between crystallization behavior and surface chemistry of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/POSS nanocomposites was investigated. Four different kinds of POSS particles having different chemical structures were used. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8000 g/mol) was utilized as the plasticiser. The nanocomposites were melt-compounded in an Xplore Instruments 15 cc twin screw microcompounder at 180°C barrel temperature and 100 rpm screw speed. Non-isothermal crystallization behaviour of PLA/PEG/POSS nanocomposites were evaluated from common kinetic models such as Avrami and Avrami-Ozawa and Kissinger by using the thermal data obtained from differantial scanning calorimetry (DSC). A polarized optical microscope (POM) equipped with a hot-stage was used to examine the morphology during the crystal growth. In order to investigate the interfacial interactions between POSS particles and plasticized PLA, thermodynamic work of adhesion approach was adopted using the experimentally determined surface energies. A strong correlation was obtained between interfacial chemistry and the nucleation rate in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites. It was found that the polar interactions were the dominating factor which determines the nucleation activity of the POSS particles.

  12. An integrated analysis of social stress in laying hens: The interaction between physiology, behaviour, and hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renata Rezende; Palme, Rupert; da Silva Vasconcellos, Angélica

    2018-04-01

    Livestock is the category of animals that suffers the most severe welfare problems. Among these, physical, physiological, and behavioural distress caused by artificial grouping are some of the challenges faced by these animals. Groups whose members are frequently changed have been reported as socially unstable, which could jeopardise the welfare of animals. Here, we assessed the effect of social instability on aggression, stress, and productivity in groups of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We studied 36 females, distributed into three stable groups (without group membership change) and three unstable groups (where the dominant member was rotated every week) over the course of 10 weeks. We evaluated the frequency of agonistic interactions, glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) concentrations, and egg production. In both treatments, dominant hens produced more eggs compared to intermediate and subordinates, and intermediate hens had the highest GCM concentrations. Socially unstable groups had lower productivity and higher frequencies of agonistic interactions than stable groups. Social instability also affected GCM of the animals: in stable groups, subordinate hens had higher concentrations than dominants; in unstable groups, this pattern was reversed. Our results point to a social destabilisation in groups whose members were alternated, and suggest the welfare of individuals in unstable groups was compromised. Our results pointed to a complex relationship between hierarchy, productivity, physiological stress and aggression in laying hens, and have implications for their husbandry and management and, consequently, for their welfare levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between crystallization behaviour and interfacial interactions in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodal, Mehmet; Şirin, Hümeyra; Özkoç, Güralp

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the correlation between crystallization behavior and surface chemistry of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/POSS nanocomposites was investigated. Four different kinds of POSS particles having different chemical structures were used. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8000 g/mol) was utilized as the plasticiser. The nanocomposites were melt-compounded in an Xplore Instruments 15 cc twin screw microcompounder at 180°C barrel temperature and 100 rpm screw speed. Non-isothermal crystallization behaviour of PLA/PEG/POSS nanocomposites were evaluated from common kinetic models such as Avrami and Avrami-Ozawa and Kissinger by using the thermal data obtained from differantial scanning calorimetry (DSC). A polarized optical microscope (POM) equipped with a hot-stage was used to examine the morphology during the crystal growth. In order to investigate the interfacial interactions between POSS particles and plasticized PLA, thermodynamic work of adhesion approach was adopted using the experimentally determined surface energies. A strong correlation was obtained between interfacial chemistry and the nucleation rate in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites. It was found that the polar interactions were the dominating factor which determines the nucleation activity of the POSS particles.

  14. The analysis of challenging relations : Influences on interactive behaviour of staff towards clients with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, A.P.A.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Hendriks, A.H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relationships between support staff and clients with intellectual disability (ID) are important for quality of care, especially when dealing with challenging behaviour. Building upon an interpersonal model, this study investigates the influence of client challenging behaviour, staff

  15. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E.L.; Coelman, F.J.G.; de Boer, F.; Lindauer, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or

  16. Biogeochemical behaviour of anionic radionuclides in soil: evidence for biotic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, L.; Martin-Garin, A.

    2004-01-01

    Among studies on radionuclides, very few have been devoted to the behaviour of long-lived anionic radionuclides as 99 Tc and 79 Se in soils. Yet these two species are supposed to be highly mobile in soils, because of their anionic forms. The understanding of their biogeochemical behaviour in soils will improve both the ecological and health risk assessment. Very often the interactions between the radionuclides and the different components of soil are considered only from a physico-chemical point of view. However in surface horizons and more specially in the rhizosphere, the micro-organisms can not be ignored as they can affect either directly or indirectly the speciation of most of the chemical species, and particularly these of Se and Tc. This study demonstrates the role of the microbial compartment in the retention of Se and Tc in soil by comparing experiments with a sterilized soil (no microbial activity) to experiments with a soil more or less amended with organic carbon and / or nitrate, to stimulate its microbial activity. Kd coefficients for Se and Tc were determined in batch experiments, whereas transport of Se and Tc was investigated through column leaching experiments. Kd for Se was enhanced for the natural soil without amendment compared to the value obtained for the sterilized soil. The retention of Se was higher again in the natural soil amended with glucose and nitrate together. In addition, these amendments facilitated the development of a biofilm at the entrance of the column, which can directly retain Se. This effect was less obvious for Tc in batch experiments, but was revealed by leaching experiments where a high quantity of Tc was retained in the soil column when added with glucose and nitrate. These results give evidence that micro-organisms are responsible for a greater retention of Se and Tc in soil. (author)

  17. Interactional behaviour as a marker for screening patients with environment-related complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Heller, Pia; Bircher, Andreas; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Huss, Anke; Niederer, Markus; Schwarzenbach, Simone; Waeber, Roger; Wegmann, Lukas; Küchenhoff, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Adequate assessment of symptoms of patients suffering from environmental illnesses requires appropriate procedures such as psychological and psychiatric diagnostics, medical screening and a thorough analysis of noxious environmental factors. The Basel pilot research project established a multi-methodological assessment procedure that meets these criteria. However, an exhaustive three-fold analysis is very costly in terms of both equipment and personnel, and hence the need for a heuristic approach and pre-screening persists. The three-fold diagnostic approach was preceded by a structured psychodynamic interview; the findings were used to construct a new profile of the patient's interactional behaviour (IB) in conjunction with the interviewer's countertransference. The extent to which this new profile could predict the results of the multi-method assessment was then assessed. A low level of IB on the part of the patient significantly predicted the degree of stress and the extent of the psychiatric diagnosis, including personality disorders. A negative IB was associated with negative personality traits. Furthermore, a high level of IB implied more medical, but not more environmental, findings which could plausibly be related to the patient's complaints. Assessment of patients' IB in conjunction with one's own countertransference is very helpful as a preliminary heuristic approach and may lead to consequences for treatment and therapy. Therefore, the training provided for experts who deal with patients suffering from environment-related complaints should place more specific emphasis on assessing patients' behaviour and on incorporating information gathered from countertransference. Nevertheless, an interdisciplinary assessment including medical, psychological/psychiatric, and environmental expertise remains mandatory for adequate and satisfactory diagnosis of patients with environment-related complaints.

  18. Disease Interventions Can Interfere with One Another through Disease-Behaviour Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Andrews

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of disease dynamics on networks can aid our understanding of how infectious diseases spread through a population. Models that incorporate decision-making mechanisms can furthermore capture how behaviour-driven aspects of transmission such as vaccination choices and the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs interact with disease dynamics. However, these two interventions are usually modelled separately. Here, we construct a simulation model of influenza transmission through a contact network, where individuals can choose whether to become vaccinated and/or practice NPIs. These decisions are based on previous experience with the disease, the current state of infection amongst one's contacts, and the personal and social impacts of the choices they make. We find that the interventions interfere with one another: because of negative feedback between intervention uptake and infection prevalence, it is difficult to simultaneously increase uptake of all interventions by changing utilities or perceived risks. However, on account of vaccine efficacy being higher than NPI efficacy, measures to expand NPI practice have only a small net impact on influenza incidence due to strongly mitigating feedback from vaccinating behaviour, whereas expanding vaccine uptake causes a significant net reduction in influenza incidence, despite the reduction of NPI practice in response. As a result, measures that support expansion of only vaccination (such as reducing vaccine cost, or measures that simultaneously support vaccination and NPIs (such as emphasizing harms of influenza infection, or satisfaction from preventing infection in others through both interventions can significantly reduce influenza incidence, whereas measures that only support expansion of NPI practice (such as making hand sanitizers more available have little net impact on influenza incidence. (However, measures that improve NPI efficacy may fare better. We conclude that the

  19. Saturated fat consumption and the Theory of Planned Behaviour: exploring additive and interactive effects of habit strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Kroeze, W.; Oenema, O.; Brug, J.

    2008-01-01

    The additive and interactive effects of habit strength in the explanation of saturated fat intake were explored within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Cross-sectional data were gathered in a Dutch adult sample (n = 764) using self-administered questionnaires and analyzed

  20. Towards a framework in interaction training for staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, A.P.A.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Hendriks, A.H.C.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an

  1. Towards a Framework in Interaction Training for Staff Working with Clients with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, A.; Embregts, P.; Hendriks, L.; Bosman, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an interpersonal model. As in functional analysis,…

  2. On the interaction of the morphological structure and the LC behaviour of LC side chain block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Poser, S.; Arnold, M.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between morphological structure and phase behaviour of a LC side group block copolymer has been investigated using DSC, TEM and small angle X-ray diffraction. All samples of Polystyrene-block-2-(3-cholesteryloxycarbonyloxy)ethyl methacrylate (PS-b-PChEMA) show a phase separation

  3. On the interaction of the morphological structure and the LC behaviour of LC side chain block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Arnold, M.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between morphological structure and phase behaviour of a group of LC side group block copolymers have been investigated using DSC, TEM and small angle X-ray diffraction. Generally, phase separation between the two blocks was observed. It was found that in the case of those samples,

  4. Developing Teaching Assistants' Skills in Positive Behaviour Management: An Application of Video Interaction Guidance in a Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Richardson, Sally; Hindle, Sarah; Grayson, Katy

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an action research project in a school in the UK designed to investigate the impact of a brief Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) intervention in promoting skills of non-teaching staff in positive behaviour management. A summary of the literature in relation to VIG is provided before describing the project and data collected. Ten…

  5. The seperate and interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and welfare of growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, J.E.L.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Burfoot, A.; Chamberlain, H.L.; Edwards, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour, performance and welfare of the growing/finishing pig. Groups of pigs were exposed to one of eight treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial design with two levels of handling

  6. A harsh parenting team? Maternal reports of coparenting and coercive parenting interact in association with children's disruptive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Rachel M; Mark, Katharine M; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2017-05-01

    Parenting and coparenting are both important for children's adjustment, but their interaction has been little explored. Using a longitudinal design and considering two children per family, we investigated mothers' and fathers' perceptions of coparenting as moderators of associations between their coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour. Mothers and fathers from 106 'intact' families were included from the Twins, Family and Behaviour study. At Time 1 (M child age  = 3 years 11 months, SD child age  = 4.44 months) parents reported on their coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour via questionnaire; at Time 2 (M child age  = 4 years 8 months, SD child age  = 4.44 months) perceptions of coparenting and the marital relationship were collected by telephone interview. Questionnaire-based reports of children's disruptive behaviour were collected at follow-up (M child age  = 5 years 11 months, SD child age  = 5.52 months). Multilevel modelling was used to examine child-specific and family-wide effects. Conservative multilevel models including both maternal and paternal perceptions demonstrated that maternal perceptions of coparenting and overall coercive parenting interacted in their prediction of parent-reported child disruptive behaviour. Specifically, accounting for perceived marital quality, behavioural stability, and fathers' perceptions, only in the context of perceived higher quality coparenting was there a positive association between mother-reported overall coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour at follow-up. When combined with highly coercive parenting, maternal perceptions of high quality coparenting may be detrimental for children's adjustment. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Copper interacts with nonylphenol to cancel the effect of nonylphenol on fish chemosensory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashley J W; Thistle, Maria; Ghandi, Khashayar; Currie, Suzanne

    2013-10-15

    The majority of ecotoxicological studies have been concerned with responses of organisms to a single contaminant. While this approach remains valid, the challenge now is to understand the way in which multiple contaminants and stressors interact to produce effects in study organisms. Here we take an integrated biological and physico-chemical approach to understand the effects of 4-nonylphenol and copper on fish (white perch, Morone americana) chemosensory behaviour. We show that a one hour exposure to 2 μg L(-1) nonylphenol removes chemosensory attraction to conspecific chemical cues, while exposure to 5 μg L(-1) copper for one hour had no significant effect on the fish's attraction to these cues. Further, we show that simultaneous exposure to both contaminants at the stated dosage and for the same duration has no significant effect on the chemosensory attraction of white perch to conspecific chemical cues suggesting that copper mediates the effect of nonylphenol on fish in this respect. Physico-chemical data show that copper ions bind to nonylphenol in water, providing a mechanistic explanation for this change in the effect of nonylphenol. Furthermore, the finding that the copper ions bind to the lone pair of O on the nonylphenol molecule offers the tantalising possibility that it is this region of the nonylphenol molecule that plays the key role in disrupting fish chemical communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic behaviour of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices with two- and three-body interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Chen Yong; Zhang Kezhi

    2009-01-01

    We study the dynamic behaviour of Bose-Einstein condensates with two- and three-atom interactions in optical lattices with analytical and numerical methods. It is found that the steady-state relative population displays tuning-fork bifurcation when the system parameters are changed to certain critical values. In particular, the existence of the three-body interaction not only transforms the bifurcation point of the system but also greatly affects the macroscopic quantum self-trapping behaviours associated with the critically stable steady-state solution. In addition, we investigated the influence of the initial conditions, three-body interaction, and the energy bias on the macroscopic quantum self-trapping. Finally, by applying the periodic modulation on the energy bias, we observed that the relative population oscillation exhibits a process from order to chaos, via a series of period-doubling bifurcations.

  9. The interplay of gender and social background: A longitudinal study of interaction effects in reading attitudes and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele

    2017-11-15

    Researchers often report and discuss gender differences. However, recent research has drawn attention to interaction effects between gender and other social categories. This study analysed the development of disparities in students' reading-related self-concept, intrinsic motivation, and behaviour, as they relate to differences in gender and socio-economic family background. Drawing on expectancy-value theory, we regarded reading-related self-concept, motivation, and behaviour as key to explaining the growing differences between boys and girls in adolescence. Specifically, we focused on the interaction between gender and socio-economic background in children, which has been discussed in the context of moderating gender differences but not in the context of reading-related attitudes and behaviour. The investigation is based on a longitudinal sample of N = 717 German students between third and sixth grades. We used questionnaire data from both students and parents. To compare students' development across time, we applied multigroup latent growth curve models. We found evidence of increasing gender differences, which were also moderated by the socio-economic status (SES) of parents: a gender gap either already existed (intrinsic motivation and reading behaviour) or intensified (reading self-concept and reading behaviour) between third and sixth grades. The interaction of gender and SES seemed particularly important for reading self-concept, with the gender gap growing less substantially for higher-SES children. Moreover, this pattern persisted for reading self-concept, even when controlling for achievement differences. The results provide evidence that gender, social background, and the interaction of the two are relevant for development in the domain of reading, even in young children. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Proposing a Revised Pedestrian Walkway Level of Service Based on Characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonian Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse characteristics of Pedestrian Interactive Behaviours (PIBs in order to propose a revised pedestrian walkway Level of Service (LOS in China. Field data on overtaking and evasive behaviours were collected at a metro station walkway in Shanghai, China to calculate macro and micro indicators. Occurrence intensities of these two PIBs initially increased with moderate density and later decreased with high density that reduced available space. PIBs were also analysed in terms of sideways behaviours to account for the varying difficulties of PIBs at different densities. It was found that available space for PIBs was the main factor contributing to the intensity features. Moreover, the different space demands of the two PIBs resulted in different features between them. Finally, a revised pedestrian walkway LOS was proposed based on the macro and micro characteristics of PIBs in China.

  11. An interactive activation and competition model of person knowledge, suggested by proactive interference by traits spontaneously inferred from behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanbo E; Higgins, Nancy C; Uleman, James S; Michaux, Aaron; Vipond, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    People unconsciously and unintentionally make inferences about others' personality traits based on their behaviours. In this study, a classic memory phenomenon--proactive interference (PI)--is for the first time used to detect spontaneous trait inferences. PI should occur when lists of behaviour descriptions, all implying the same trait, are to be remembered. Switching to a new trait should produce 'release' from proactive interference (or RPI). Results from two experiments supported these predictions. PI and RPI effects are consistent with an interactive activation and competition model of person perception (e.g., McNeill & Burton, 2002, J. Exp. Psychol., 55A, 1141), which predicts categorical organization of social behaviours based on personality traits. Advantages of this model are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. The Interactive Effects of Temperament and Maternal Parenting on Toddlers' Externalizing Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, C.; Junger, M.; Verhoeven, M.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Dekovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the potential moderating effects of temperamental traits on the relation between parenting and toddlers' externalizing behaviours. For that purpose, this study examined the interplay between temperament and maternal parenting behaviours in predicting the level as well as the development of toddlers'…

  13. Shallow-level magma-sediment interaction and explosive behaviour at Anak Krakatau (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, V. R.; Jolis, E. M.; Dahren, B.; Deegan, F. M.; Blythe, L. S.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Hilton, D. R.; Freda, C.

    2013-12-01

    Crustal contamination of ascending arc magmas is generally thought to be a significant process which occurs at lower- to mid-crustal magma storage levels where magmas inherit their chemical and isotopic character by blending, assimilation and differentiation [1]. Anak Krakatau, like many other volcanoes, erupts shallow-level crustal xenoliths [2], indicating a potential role for upper crustal modification and hence late-stage changes to magma rheology and thus potential eruptive behaviour. Distinguishing deep vs. shallow crustal contamination processes at Krakatau, and elsewhere, is therefore crucial to understand and assess pre-eruptive magmatic conditions and their associated hazard potential. Here we report on a multi-disciplinary approach to unravel the crustal plumbing system of the persistently-active and dominantly explosive Anak Krakatau volcano [2, 3], employing rock-, mineral- and gas-isotope geochemistry and link these results with seismic tomography [4]. We show that pyroxene crystals formed at mid- and lower-crustal levels (9-11 km) and carry almost mantle-like isotope signatures (O, Sr, Nd, He), while feldspar crystals formed dominantly at shallow levels (< 5km) and display unequivocal isotopic evidence for late stage contamination (O, Sr, Nd). This obeservation places a significant element of magma-crust interaction into the uppermost, sediment-rich crust beneath the volcano. Magma storage in the uppermost crust can thus offer a possible explanation for the compositional modifications of primitive Krakatau magmas, and likely provides extra impetus to increased explosivity at Anak Krakatau. [1] Annen, et al., 2006. J. Petrol. 47, 505-539. [2] Gardner, et al., 2013. J. Petrol. 54, 149-182. [3] Dahren, et al., 2012. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 163, 631-651. [4] Jaxybulatov, et al., 2011. J. Volcanol. Geoth. Res. 206, 96-105.

  14. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  15. Energy, target, projectile and multiplicity dependences of intermittency behaviour in high energy O(Si,S) induced interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Chernyavski, M.M.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Larionova, V.G.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Orlova, G.I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Salmanova, N.A.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Ameeva, Z.U.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anzon, Z.V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Eremenko, G.Z.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Skakhova, C.I.; Bhalla, K.B.; Kumar, V.; Lal, P.; Lokanathan, S.; Mookerjee, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Burnett, T.H.; Grote, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Skelding, D.; Strausz, S.C.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cai, X.; Huang, H.; Liu, L.S.; Qian, W.Y.; Wang, H.Q.; Zhou, D.C.; Zhou, J.C.; Chernova, L.P.; Gadzhieva, S.I.; Gulamov, K.G.; Kadyrov, F.G.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Navotny, V.S.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Friedlander, E.M.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Garpman, S.; Jakobsson, B.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Soederstroem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Judek, B.; Nasyrov, S.H.; Petrov, N.V.; Xu, G.F.; Zheng, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuations of charged particles in high energy oxygen, silicon and sulphur induced interactions are investigated with the method of scaled factorial moments. It is found that for decreasing bin size down to δη∝0.1 the EMU01 data exhibits intermittent behaviour. The intermittency indexes are found to decrease with increasing incident energy and multiplicity and to increase with increasing target mass. It seems also to increase as the projectile mass increases. (orig.)

  16. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and children's personality on externalizing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    2003-01-01

    Parenting practices have been previously linked to childhood externalizing behaviour However little attention has been given to the potential effect of individual personality differences among children on this relation. The current study assesses the additive effects of children's personality

  17. Interaction of genotype and environment: Effect of strain and housing condition on cognitive behaviour in rodent models of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly M. Turner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with many genetic and environmental risk factors and there is growing evidence that the interactions between genetic and environmental ‘hits’ are critical for disease onset. Animal models of schizophrenia have traditionally used specific strain and housing conditions to test potential risk factors. As the field moves towards testing gene (G x environment (E interactions the impact of these choices should be considered. Given the surge of research focused on cognitive deficits, we have examined studies of cognition in rodents from the perspective of GxE interactions, in which strain or housing manipulations have been varied. Behaviour is clearly altered by these factors, yet few animal models of schizophrenia have investigated cognitive deficits using different strain and housing conditions. It is important to recognise the large variation in behaviour observed when using different strain and housing combinations because GxE interactions may mask or exacerbate cognitive outcomes. Further consideration will improve our understanding of GxE interactions and the underlying neurobiology of cognitive impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  19. Gene-environment interaction between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and parenting behaviour on children's theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to interpret and understand human behaviour by representing the mental states of others. Like many human capacities, ToM is thought to develop through both complex biological and socialization mechanisms. However, no study has examined the joint effect of genetic and environmental influences on ToM. This study examined how variability in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and parenting behavior--two widely studied factors in ToM development-interacted to predict ToM in pre-school-aged children. Participants were 301 children who were part of an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study. ToM was assessed at age 4.5 using a previously validated scale. Parenting was assessed through observations of mothers' cognitively sensitive behaviours. Using a family-based association design, it was suggestive that a particular variant (rs11131149) interacted with maternal cognitive sensitivity on children's ToM (P = 0.019). More copies of the major allele were associated with higher ToM as a function of increasing cognitive sensitivity. A sizeable 26% of the variability in ToM was accounted for by this interaction. This study provides the first empirical evidence of gene-environment interactions on ToM, supporting the notion that genetic factors may be modulated by potent environmental influences early in development. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Maternal Communicative Behaviours and Interaction Quality as Predictors of Language Development: Findings from a Community-Based Study of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Laura J.; Levickis, Penny A.; Smith, Jodie; Mensah, Fiona; Wake, Melissa; Reilly, Sheena

    2018-01-01

    Background: Identifying risk and protective factors for language development informs interventions for children with developmental language disorder (DLD). Maternal responsive and intrusive communicative behaviours are associated with language development. Mother-child interaction quality may influence how children use these behaviours in language…

  1. The robustness of pollination networks to the loss of species and interactions: a quantitative approach incorporating pollinator behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N; Muff, Stefanie; Memmott, Jane; Müller, Christine B; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2010-04-01

    Species extinctions pose serious threats to the functioning of ecological communities worldwide. We used two qualitative and quantitative pollination networks to simulate extinction patterns following three removal scenarios: random removal and systematic removal of the strongest and weakest interactors. We accounted for pollinator behaviour by including potential links into temporal snapshots (12 consecutive 2-week networks) to reflect mutualists' ability to 'switch' interaction partners (re-wiring). Qualitative data suggested a linear or slower than linear secondary extinction while quantitative data showed sigmoidal decline of plant interaction strength upon removal of the strongest interactor. Temporal snapshots indicated greater stability of re-wired networks over static systems. Tolerance of generalized networks to species extinctions was high in the random removal scenario, with an increase in network stability if species formed new interactions. Anthropogenic disturbance, however, that promote the extinction of the strongest interactors might induce a sudden collapse of pollination networks.

  2. Behavioural interactions between prey (trout smolts) and predators (pike and pikeperch) in an impounded river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Pedersen, Susanne; Thorstad, E.

    2000-01-01

    pikeperch and few female pike have adjusted their behaviour to predation on smolts during the smolt run. The smolt predation in this man-made reservoir is higher than in natural lakes, probably due to the changed physical environment and introduced predators, such as pikeperch. The outlet sluice practice...

  3. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: From Face to Face Interaction to a Broader Contextual Understanding of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, A.; Dagnan, D.; Kroese, B. Stenfert; Pert, C.; Trower, P.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is increasingly used to address the emotional and interpersonal problems of people with ID. There is a limited but promising evidence base supporting this activity. However, these individuals face real and continuing challenges in their lives that have implications for their self and interpersonal perceptions.…

  4. Parent interactions in mediating behaviour problems of school-aged students: A case study set in a small BC Coastal community

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Marian Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In the process of parents’ interactions with principals and teachers to resolve behaviour problems, what happens that is likely to create positive outcomes for children in school? Research literature establishes that parent interactions, whether for behaviour or academic reasons, are directed by subtly defined or invisible parameters that provide inherent institutional influence to outcomes. Bourdieu’s social reproduction theory, which relates to the influence of cultural, social, and symbo...

  5. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due...

  6. Molten fuel-coolant interaction behaviours of various fast reactor fuels (Paper No. HMT-45-87)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric computational model of molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) including a particle size distribution is developed and employed to analyse behaviours of various possible reactor fuels, such as oxide, carbide and metal in MFCI scenario. It is observed that while higher thermal conductivity and lower specific heat of carbide compared to oxide is responsible for higher peak pressure and work done per unit mass, the trend is not observed in the metal fuel. The reason for this is the lower operation temperature and latent heat of metallic fuel. (author). 9 refs., 1 fig

  7. Activity in the superior colliculus reflects dynamic interactions between voluntary and involuntary influences on orienting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew H; Munoz, Douglas P

    2008-10-01

    Performance in a behavioural task can be influenced by both bottom-up and top-down processes such as stimulus modality and prior probability. Here, we exploited differences in behavioural strategy to explore the role of the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus (dSC) in covert orienting. Two monkeys were trained on a predictive cued-saccade task in which the cue predicted the target's upcoming location with 80% validity. When the delay between cue and target onset was 250 ms, both monkeys showed faster responses to the uncued (Invalid) location. This was associated with a reduced target-aligned response in the dSC on Valid trials for both monkeys and is consistent with a bottom-up (i.e. involuntary) bias. When the delay was increased to 650 ms, one monkey continued to show faster responses to the Invalid location whereas the other monkey showed faster responses to the Valid location, consistent with a top-down (i.e. voluntary) bias. This latter behaviour was correlated with an increase in activity in dSC neurons preceding target onset that was absent in the other monkey. Thus, using the information provided by the cue shifted the emphasis towards top-down processing, while ignoring this information allowed bottom-up processing to continue to dominate. Regardless of the selected strategy, however, neurons in the dSC consistently reflected the current bias between the two processes, emphasizing its role in both the bottom-up and top-down control of orienting behaviour.

  8. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  9. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot......’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments...

  10. Phase behaviour, interactions, and structural studies of (amines+ionic liquids) binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Johan; Bendová, Magdalena; Sedláková, Zuzana; Blesic, Marijana; Holbrey, John D; Mullan, Claire L; Youngs, Tristan G A; Pison, Laure; Wagner, Zdeněk; Aim, Karel; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Hardacre, Christopher

    2012-05-14

    We present a study on the phase equilibrium behaviour of binary mixtures containing two 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide-based ionic liquids, [C(n)mim] [NTf(2)] (n=2 and 4), mixed with diethylamine or triethylamine as a function of temperature and composition using different experimental techniques. Based on this work, two systems showing an LCST and one system with a possible hourglass shape are measured. Their phase behaviours are then correlated and predicted by using Flory-Huggins equations and the UNIQUAC method implemented in Aspen. The potential of the COSMO-RS methodology to predict the phase equilibria was also tested for the binary systems studied. However, this methodology is unable to predict the trends obtained experimentally, limiting its use for systems involving amines in ionic liquids. The liquid-state structure of the binary mixture ([C(2)mim] [NTf(2)]+diethylamine) is also investigated by molecular dynamics simulation and neutron diffraction. Finally, the absorption of gaseous ethane by the ([C(2)mim][NTf(2)]+diethylamine) binary mixture is determined and compared with that observed in the pure solvents. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A multiphase constitutive model of reinforced soils accounting for soil-inclusion interaction behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    BENNIS, M; DE BUHAN, P

    2003-01-01

    A two-phase continuum description of reinforced soil structures is proposed in which the soil mass and the reinforcement network are treated as mutually interacting superposed media. The equations governing such a model are developed in the context of elastoplasticity, with special emphasis put on the soil/reinforcement interaction constitutive law. As shown in an illustrative example, such a model paves the way for numerically efficient design methods of reinforced soil structures.

  12. Allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci and abnormal chromosome behaviour caused pollen sterility in intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J H; Shahid, M Q; Li, Y J; Guo, H B; Cheng, X A; Liu, X D; Lu, Y G

    2011-08-01

    The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F(1) pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F(1) sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F(1) pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids. © 2011 The Author(s).

  13. Finite element analysis for the impact behaviour of a cask interacting with a rigid pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altes, J.; Geiser, H.; Voelzer, W.; Frenk, A.; Deeken, G.

    1993-01-01

    Full scale drop tests of casks to be licensed as type B packages according to the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials are expensive. Therefore efforts are being made to use computer codes for calculating the impact behaviour. But these codes have to be verified by experiments. Codes available for these calculations are for example DYNA3D and ABAQUS. In the paper results of both codes are compared. A 11 t ductile cast iron cask (type MOSAIK) without impact limiters was analysed dropping from a height of 1 m with its top onto a cylindrical steel pin. The results of the finite element calculations with both codes show good agreement. The ABAQUS results using the implicit method are in accordance with the explicit method, for which considerably shorter CPU times are noted. (author)

  14. Scale-free behaviour of amino acid pair interactions in folded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen B.; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Mortensen, Rasmus J.

    2012-01-01

    The protein structure is a cumulative result of interactions between amino acid residues interacting with each other through space and/or chemical bonds. Despite the large number of high resolution protein structures, the ‘‘protein structure code’’ has not been fully identified. Our manuscript...... presents a novel approach to protein structure analysis in order to identify rules for spatial packing of amino acid pairs in proteins. We have investigated 8706 high resolution non-redundant protein chains and quantified amino acid pair interactions in terms of solvent accessibility, spatial and sequence...... which amino acid paired residues contributed to the cells with a population above 50, pairs of Ala, Ile, Leu and Val dominate the results. This result is statistically highly significant. We postulate that such pairs form ‘‘structural stability points’’ in the protein structure. Our data shows...

  15. Proposing an Evaluation Framework for Interventions: Focusing on Students' Behaviours in Interactive Science Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauan, Nils Petter; DeWitt, Jennifer; Kolstø, Stein Dankert

    2017-01-01

    Materials designed for self-guided experiences such as worksheets and digital applications are widely used as tools to enable interactive science exhibitions to support students' progress towards conceptual understanding. However, there is a need to find expedient ways to evaluate the quality of educational experiences resulting from the use of…

  16. Analytical modelling and extraction of the modal behaviour of a cantilever beam in fluid interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorman, D. G.; Trendafilova, I.; Mulholland, A.J.; Horáček, Jaromír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 308, - (2007), s. 231-245 ISSN 0022-460X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluid-structure interaction * vibroacoustic * vibrations Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.024, year: 2007

  17. Modeling of the PWR fuel mechanical behaviour and particularly study of the pellet-cladding interaction in a fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourdequin, N.

    1995-05-01

    In Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) power plants, fuel cladding constitutes the first containment barrier against radioactive contamination. Computer codes, developed with the help of a large experimental knowledge, try to predict cladding failures which must be limited in order to maintain a maximal safety level. Until now, fuel rod design calculus with unidimensional codes were adequate to prevent cladding failures in standard PWR's operating conditions. But now, the need of nuclear power plant availability increases. That leads to more constraining operating condition in which cladding failures are strongly influenced by the fuel rod mechanical behaviour, mainly at high power level. Then, the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) becomes important, and is characterized by local effects which description expects a multidimensional modelization. This is the aim of the TOUTATIS 2D-3D code, that this thesis contributes to develop. This code allows to predict non-axisymmetric behaviour too, as rod buckling which has been observed in some irradiation experiments and identified with the help of TOUTATIS. By another way, PCI is influenced by under irradiation experiments and identified with the help of TOUTATIS which includes a densification model and a swelling model. The latter can only be used in standard operating conditions. However, the processing structure of this modulus provides the possibility to include any type of model corresponding with other operating conditions. In last, we show the result of these fuel volume variations on the cladding mechanical conditions. (author). 25 refs., 89 figs., 2 tabs., 12 photos., 5 appends

  18. Communication behaviours of skilled and less skilled oncologists: a validation study of the Medical Interaction Process System (MIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Sarah; Hall, Angela

    2004-09-01

    The Medical Interaction Process System (MIPS) was originally developed in order to create a reliable observation tool for analysing doctor-patient encounters in the oncology setting. This paper reports a series of analyses carried out to establish whether the behaviour categories of the MIPS can discriminate between skilled and less skilled communicators. This involved the use of MIPS coded cancer consultations to compare the MIPS indices of 10 clinicians evaluated by an independent professional as skilled communicators with 10 who were considered less skilled. Eleven out of the 15 MIPS variables tested were able to distinguish the skilled from the less skilled group. Although limitations to the study are discussed, the results indicate that the MIPS has satisfactory discriminatory power and the results provide validity data that meet key objectives for developing the system. There is an ever-increasing need for reliable methods of assessing doctors' communication skills and evaluating medical interview teaching programmes. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Methodology to explore emergent behaviours of the interactions between water resources and ecosystem under a pluralistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, Glenda; Madruga de Brito, Mariana; Höllermann, Britta; Taft, Linda; Almoradie, Adrian; Evers, Mariele

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the interactions between water resources and its social dimensions is crucial for an effective and sustainable water management. The identification of sensitive control variables and feedback loops of a specific human-hydro-scape can enhance the knowledge about the potential factors and/or agents leading to the current water resources and ecosystems situation, which in turn supports the decision-making process of desirable futures. Our study presents the utility of a system dynamics modeling approach for water management and decision-making for the case of a forest ecosystem under risk of wildfires. We use the pluralistic water research concept to explore different scenarios and simulate the emergent behaviour of water interception and net precipitation after a wildfire in a forest ecosystem. Through a case study, we illustrate the applicability of this new methodology.

  20. Maternal communicative behaviours and interaction quality as predictors of language development: findings from a community-based study of slow-to-talk toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Laura J; Levickis, Penny A; Smith, Jodie; Mensah, Fiona; Wake, Melissa; Reilly, Sheena

    2018-03-01

    Identifying risk and protective factors for language development informs interventions for children with developmental language disorder (DLD). Maternal responsive and intrusive communicative behaviours are associated with language development. Mother-child interaction quality may influence how children use these behaviours in language learning. To identify (1) communicative behaviours and interaction quality associated with language outcomes; (2) whether the association between a maternal intrusive behaviour (directive) and child language scores changed alongside a maternal responsive behaviour (expansion); and (3) whether interaction quality modified these associations. Language skills were assessed at 24, 36 and 48 months in 197 community-recruited children who were slow to talk at 18 months. Mothers and 24-month-olds were video-recorded playing at home. Maternal praise, missed opportunities, and successful and unsuccessful directives (i.e., whether followed by the child) were coded during a 10-min segment. Interaction quality was rated using a seven-point fluency and connectedness (FC) scale, during a 5-min segment. Linear regressions examined associations between these behaviours/rating and language scores. Interaction analysis and simple slopes explored effect modification by FC. There was no evidence that missed opportunities or praise were associated with language scores. Higher rates of successful directives in the unadjusted model and unsuccessful directives in the adjusted model were associated with lower 24-month-old receptive language scores (e.g., unsuccessful directives effect size (ES) = -0.41). The association between unsuccessful directives and receptive language was weaker when adjusting for co-occurring expansions (ES = -0.34). Both types of directives were associated with poorer receptive and expressive language scores in adjusted models at 36 and 48 months (e.g., unsuccessful directive and 48-month receptive language, ES = -0.66). FC was

  1. INTERACTION BEHAVIOUR LEADING TO COMFORTIN SERVICE ENCOUNTER OF NOTEBOOK PERIPHERAL SERVICE CENTER BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Wachyudi.N.*

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of interaction behavior that elicits a sense of comfort for customers in the service encounter of notebook peripheral business, and investigating the mediating role of comfort on overall service quality, customer satisfaction, word of mouth and the repurchase intention. Based on 250 valid responses collected from a survey questionnaire used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the research model. The findings showed that all hypotheses on the r...

  2. Fluorescence quenching behaviour of uric acid interacting with water-soluble cationic porphyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena; Borowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The process of association between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H 2 TTMePP) and uric acid as well as its sodium salt has been studied in aqueous NaOH solution analysing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions porphyrin-uric acid compounds points at the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 10 5 mol −1 . The fluorescence lifetimes and the quantum yields of the porphyrin anionic form were established. The results demonstrate that uric acid and its sodium salt can interact with H 2 TTMePP at basic pH and through formation of stacking complexes are able to quench its ability to emission. - Highlights: • Association study of water soluble cationic porphyrin with uric acid. • Porphyrin absorption spectra undergo the bathochromic and hypochromic effects. • Uric acid interacts with porphyrin in inhibiting manner, quenching its emission. • Fluorescence quenching effect testifies for the partial inactivation of a porphyrin. • The association and fluorescence quenching constants were calculated

  3. Fluorescence quenching behaviour of uric acid interacting with water-soluble cationic porphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena, E-mail: makarska@hektor.umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 2, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Borowski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University M. C. Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    The process of association between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H{sub 2}TTMePP) and uric acid as well as its sodium salt has been studied in aqueous NaOH solution analysing its absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions porphyrin-uric acid compounds points at the fractional accessibility of the fluorophore for the quencher. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 10{sup 5} mol{sup −1}. The fluorescence lifetimes and the quantum yields of the porphyrin anionic form were established. The results demonstrate that uric acid and its sodium salt can interact with H{sub 2}TTMePP at basic pH and through formation of stacking complexes are able to quench its ability to emission. - Highlights: • Association study of water soluble cationic porphyrin with uric acid. • Porphyrin absorption spectra undergo the bathochromic and hypochromic effects. • Uric acid interacts with porphyrin in inhibiting manner, quenching its emission. • Fluorescence quenching effect testifies for the partial inactivation of a porphyrin. • The association and fluorescence quenching constants were calculated.

  4. Behavioural and magnetoencephalographic evidence for the interaction between semantic and episodic memory in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Valentina; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Garnero, Line; George, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between episodic and semantic memory systems has long been debated. Some authors argue that episodic memory is contingent on semantic memory (Tulving 1984), while others postulate that both systems are independent since they can be selectively damaged (Squire 1987). The interaction between these memory systems is particularly important in the elderly, since the dissociation of episodic and semantic memory defects characterize different aging-related pathologies. Here, we investigated the interaction between semantic knowledge and episodic memory processes associated with faces in elderly subjects using an experimental paradigm where the semantic encoding of famous and unknown faces was compared to their episodic recognition. Results showed that the level of semantic awareness of items affected the recognition of those items in the episodic memory task. Event-related magnetic fields confirmed this interaction between episodic and semantic memory: ERFs related to the old/new effect during the episodic task were markedly different for famous and unknown faces. The old/new effect for famous faces involved sustained activities maximal over right temporal sensors, showing a spatio-temporal pattern partly similar to that found for famous versus unknown faces during the semantic task. By contrast, an old/new effect for unknown faces was observed on left parieto-occipital sensors. These findings suggest that the episodic memory for famous faces activated the retrieval of stored semantic information, whereas it was based on items' perceptual features for unknown faces. Overall, our results show that semantic information interfered markedly with episodic memory processes and suggested that the neural substrates of these two memory systems overlap.

  5. Characterisation of boric acid aerosol behaviour and interactions with stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.B.; Beard, A.M.; Bennett, P.J.; Benson, C.G.

    1991-03-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine the physical characteristics of boric acid aerosol. Aqueous solutions of boric acid (either 200 or 2000 ppm boron) were injected at a controlled rate onto a 304 stainless steel cone held at 1000 o C. The transport and deposition of the resulting aerosol was studied through a system including pipework and a dilution chamber. Work was also undertaken to characterise the interaction between boric acid and stainless steel. Boric acid was vaporized in steam-argon atmospheres at 300 o C and passed over 304 stainless steel coupons held at temperatures between 400 and 1000 o C. (author)

  6. Phase Behaviour, Interactions, and Structural Studies of (Amines+Ionic Liquids) Binary Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacquemin, J.; Bendová, Magdalena; Sedláková, Zuzana; Holbrey, J.D.; Mullan, C.L.; Youngs, T.G.A.; Pison, L.; Wagner, Zdeněk; Aim, Karel; Costa Gomes, M.F.; Hardacre, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2012), s. 1825-1835 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P141; GA ČR GA104/07/0444; GA AV ČR IAA400720710; GA ČR GP104/06/P066 Grant - others:QUILL(GB) EP/D029538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : amines * interactions * ionic liquids Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.349, year: 2012

  7. The interaction between environmental norms and behaviour: A panel study of organic food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    This paper is based on the conviction that one can get a deeper understanding of the atti-tude-norm-behavior relationship in the environmental field by analyzing the dynamic in-teraction over time between relevant attitudinal variables and specific behaviors of interest. In this paper we present ...... the results of such an analysis, based on a panel survey with a random sample of about 2400 Danes interviewed up to three times in the period 1998 to 2000. The subject matter of the study is the purchase of organic food products....

  8. Body-part specific interactions of action verb processing with motor behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Anne; Niccolai, Valentina; Sieksmeyer, Jan; Arnzen, Stephanie; Indefrey, Peter; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2017-06-15

    The interaction of action-related language processing with actual movement is an indicator of the functional role of motor cortical involvement in language understanding. This paper describes two experiments using single action verb stimuli. Motor responses were performed with the hand or the foot. To test the double dissociation of language-motor facilitation effects within subjects, Experiments 1 and 2 used a priming procedure where both hand and foot reactions had to be performed in response to different geometrical shapes, which were preceded by action verbs. In Experiment 1, the semantics of the verbs could be ignored whereas Experiment 2 included semantic decisions. Only Experiment 2 revealed a clear double dissociation in reaction times: reactions were facilitated when preceded by verbs describing actions with the matching effector. In Experiment 1, by contrast, there was an interaction between verb-response congruence and a semantic variable related to motor features of the verbs. Thus, the double dissociation paradigm of semantic motor priming was effective, corroborating the role of the motor system in action-related language processing. Importantly, this effect was body part specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental and analytical studies for a BWR nuclear reactor building. Evaluation of soil-structure interaction behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, N.; Tsushima, Y.

    1975-01-01

    This paper evaluates the spatial characteristics of dynamic properties, especially soil-structure interaction behaviour, of the BWR nuclear building by experimental and analytical studies. It is well known that the damping effects in soil-structure interaction are remarkable on the building with short periods by the dissipation of vibrational energy to the soil. The authors have previously reported an analytical method for estimating the damping effects the properties of which are characterized as follows: 1) The complex damping is used, because the so-called structural damping may be more suitable for estimating the damping effects of an elastic structure. 2) H. Tajimi's theory is used for estimating the dynamical soil-foundation stiffness with the dissipation of vibrational energy on the elastic half-space soil. In this paper, an approximate explanation is presented in regard to the more developmental mathematical method for estimating the damping effects than the above-mentioned previous method, which is 'Modes Superposition Method for Multi-Degrees of Freedom System' with the constant complex stiffness showing the structural damping effects and the dynamical soil-foundation stiffness approximated by the linear or quadratic functions of the eigenvalues. An approximate explanation is presented in regard to the experimental results of the No. 1 reactor building (BWR) of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, The Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd. (Auth.)

  10. Eye-tracking Post-editing Behaviour in an Interactive Translation Prediction Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2013-01-01

    challenges faced by translators. This paper reports on a preliminary pilot test within the CasMaCat project. Based in user activity data (key-logging and eye-tracking), this project aims at defining the functionalities of a new translator's workbench focusing on post-editing and advanced computer......-aided translation methods. The main aim of this preliminary pilot was to assess one of the new features implemented in the second prototype of the workbench: the interactive translation prediction (ITP) feature. This ITP feature is set to provide translators with different suggestion as they post......-edit. For this purpose 6 translators were asked to post-edit 1,000 words from English to Spanish in five different tasks while their eye movements were being tracked. Each task was designed to test different modalities of ITP. Translators were also asked to fill out a questionnaire expressing their attitudes towards...

  11. The behaviour of population in a plasma interacting with an atomic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukane, Utaro; Oda, Toshiatsu.

    1983-01-01

    The processes leading to the population inversion are investigated in a recombining hydrogen plasma which is interacting with a cool and dense neutral hydrogen gas by using the rate equations on the basis of the CR model and the energy equation for electrons ions and neutral parlicles. The quasi-steady state approximation are used only for the levels higher than a certain level which is not the first excited level. The calculations have shown that the quasi-steady state cannot be realized while intense energy-flows due to the collisional processes exist between different kinds of the particles such as the electrons and the ions in the plasma and the population inversion is realized only in the quasi-steady state following the transient phase. The effects of the initial conditions of the hydrogen plasma and the introduced neutral hydrogen gas on the overpopulation density are also discussed. (author)

  12. Orexin signaling during social defeat stress influences subsequent social interaction behaviour and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacret, Darrell; Grafe, Laura A; Dobkin, Jane; Gotter, Anthony L; Rengerb, John J; Winrow, Christopher J; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2018-06-11

    Orexins are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that influence arousal, feeding, reward pathways, and the response to stress. However, the role of orexins in repeated stress is not fully characterized. Here, we examined how orexins and their receptors contribute to the coping response during repeated social defeat and subsequent anxiety-like and memory-related behaviors. Specifically, we used Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to stimulate orexins prior to each of five consecutive days of social defeat stress in adult male rats. Additionally, we determined the role of the orexin 2 receptor in these behaviors by using a selective orexin 2 receptor antagonist (MK-1064) administered prior to each social defeat. Following the 5 day social defeat conditioning period, rats were evaluated in social interaction and novel object recognition paradigms to assess anxiety-like behavior and recognition memory, respectively. Activation of orexin neurons by DREADDs prior to each social defeat decreased the average latency to become defeated across 5 days, indicative of a passive coping strategy that we have previously linked to a stress vulnerable phenotype. Moreover, stimulation of orexin signaling during defeat conditioning decreased subsequent social interaction and performance in the novel object recognition test indicating increased subsequent anxiety-like behavior and reduced working memory. Blocking the orexin 2 receptor during repeated defeat did not alter these effects. Together, our results suggest that orexin neuron activation produces a passive coping phenotype during social defeat leading to subsequent anxiety-like behaviors and memory deficits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. JUSTICE IN THE WORKPLACE: THE INFLUENCE OF PROCEDURAL,DISTRIBUTIVE AND INTERACTIONAL JUSTICE ONORGANISATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR AMONGEMPLOYEES IN THE POLICE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. van Vuuren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisational justice has received a fair amount of attention in businessenvironments. The study investigated employees’ perceptions of organisationaljustice and their effects on organisational citizenship behaviour at the SAPSAcademy, Paarl, South Africa. Using a quantitative research paradigm and anexploratory research method, 226 employees were sampledthrough a structuredquestionnaire. Systematic sampling wasused to ensure that the sample accuratelyreflected the larger population (N=457.Thecorrelation analysis revealed that allthree dimensions of organisational justice are related significantly and positivelyto organisational citizenship behaviour.Through regression analysisorganisational justice showed a strong predictive relationship with organisationalcitizenship behaviour. The study demonstrated that employeesshow a greaterpropensityto engage in organisational citizenship behaviour when they are able toform positiveperceptions of procedural, distributive and interactional justice. Thestudy established that there are major differences between the expectations ofemployees and managerial actions, which suggest that there are differentareas toexplore and different types of activities to undertake in order to successfullyenhance employees’ perceptions of organisational justice and reinforceorganisational citizenship behaviourin the academy.

  14. Acid-Gangue Interactions in Heap Leach Operations: A Review of the Role of Mineralogy for Predicting Ore Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshenthree Chetty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heap leaching accounts for a fifth of global copper production, sourced primarily from porphyry ores, yet metal recoveries are often not optimal. Gangue, and its interaction with acid, plays an important role in such processes. Thus, a proper understanding of gangue minerals present in the ore, their textural relationships relative to particle size distribution, reactivity with acid under different conditions, and relationship to lithotypes and geological alteration in the orebody, is necessary to predict ore behaviour in the comminution, agglomeration, curing and heap leach unit operations. Mineralogical tools available for characterisation are routine X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, automated scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis, accompanied by more recent advancements in hyperspectral infrared imaging and X-ray computed tomography. Integrated use of these techniques allows mineral abundance, textural relationships and mineral chemistry to be addressed over the range of particle and agglomerate sizes. Additionally, diagnostic leach results can be better interpreted when calibrated against robust mineralogical data. The linkage of ore attributes, metallurgical behaviour and their distribution in the orebody forms an integral part of a geometallurgical approach to predicting, and addressing, changes during the heap leaching process. Further investigation should address the fundamentals of gangue reaction with strong acid, and concomitant structural breakdown during curing and agglomeration processes, and how this differs from gangue-acid reactivity under weaker acid conditions, combined with temperature and fluid flow effects of heap leaching. Pre-and post- characterisation is necessary to understand and quantify the effects of variables for gangue-acid reactivity in these various operations. The characterisation outcomes should lead to a refinement of the hierarchy of gangue mineral reactivity under different

  15. Chloroplast behaviour and interactions with other organelles in Arabidopsis thaliana pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kiah A; Wozny, Michael R; Mathur, Neeta; Jaipargas, Erica-Ashley; Mathur, Jaideep

    2018-01-29

    Chloroplasts are a characteristic feature of green plants. Mesophyll cells possess the majority of chloroplasts and it is widely believed that, with the exception of guard cells, the epidermal layer in most higher plants does not contain chloroplasts. However, recent observations on Arabidopsis thaliana have shown a population of chloroplasts in pavement cells that are smaller than mesophyll chloroplasts and have a high stroma to grana ratio. Here, using stable transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins targeted to the plastid stroma, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, nucleus, mitochondria, peroxisomes, F-actin and microtubules, we characterize the spatiotemporal relationships between the pavement cell chloroplasts (PCCs) and their subcellular environment. Observations on the PCCs suggest a source-sink relationship between the epidermal and the mesophyll layers, and experiments with the Arabidopsis mutants glabra2 ( gl2 ) and immutans ( im ), which show altered epidermal plastid development, underscored their developmental plasticity. Our findings lay down the foundation for further investigations aimed at understanding the precise role and contributions of PCCs in plant interactions with the environment. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Time dependet behaviour of the neutron field in in two interacting cylindrical disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedlund, T.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of a void on the neutron flux in a moderating system has been studied mainly by the Monte Carlo method. The calculations simulate the decay of the neutron field in a pulsed neutron source measurement. The neutron flux was studied as a function of space, angle, energy and time for a system of two flat cylindrical polyethylene disks. The slab thickness was varied between 1.1 and 4.4 cm and the radius was 9.0 cm. The gap between the slabs was varied from zero to 18 cm. Some calculations have also been made for absorbers in the gap. The purpose of these absorbers was to eliminate the time delay effect for the low velocity neutrons accumulating in the gap. The calculations showed the usefulness of the absorber method. From the results in the time dependent cases the interaction parameter for the two slabs in the corresponding stationary cases has been calculated. The agreement with measurements made by Grosshoeg is good. In the one velocity cases some other methods have also been used to predict the decay rates. For small gap widths the best agreement with the Monte Carlo results was obtained with the variational method. (author)

  17. Evaluating a staff training program on the interaction between staff and people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Zijlmans, L.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a training program focusing on improvement of emotional intelligence (EI) and support staffs’ awareness of their behaviour towards people with an intellectual disability based on interactional patterns. The support provided regarding

  18. Long term behaviour of glass and steel in interaction with argillites in deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, O.; Lartigue, J.E.; Devallois, V.; Pointeau, V.; Trotignon, L.; Michau, N.; Cochepin, B.; Munier, I.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The concept developed in France for the disposal of vitrified high level waste in deep geological repository includes the containment in steel canisters, designed to prevent contact between glass and water and to maintain mechanical stability, and the confinement at ca. 500 m into an argillaceous host rock. After canister disposal and repository closure, the site will progressively re-saturate in non-isothermal conditions and the alteration of the different materials will start: corrosion of the canisters, degradation of concrete plugs, and ultimately, the alteration of glass waste. These perturbations will affect the properties of the different materials present in the near field and the lifetime of the glass matrix. Several scenarios are investigated which all involve (1) the geochemical interactions between iron and clay-rich materials, and (2) the alteration of glass in the presence of corrosion products. The evolution of the near field system is complex since geochemical and transport processes are highly coupled. Steel corrosion and glass alteration produce an increase of pH which in turn affects the rate of glass dissolution. The concentration of dissolved silica is also one key to the rate of glass alteration and, along with the concentration of other elements such as iron and aluminum, it determines the nature of steel corrosion and clay alteration products. These interactions may also lead to partial dissolution of the initial clay minerals potentially affecting the overall confinement properties such as swelling and capacity to exchange cations. Coupled reaction-transport simulations with the Crunch code was used to assess the impact of steel corrosion and glass alteration phases in the presence of corrosion products (CP), looking at mass transfer for chemical elements, especially iron and silicon, pH, porosity change. A first set of calculations based on a reference case in isothermal conditions (90 deg

  19. Temperature-dependent, behavioural, and transcriptional variability of a tritrophic interaction consisting of bean, herbivorous mite, and predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Rika; Nishimura, Osamu; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Muroi, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Different organisms compensate for, and adapt to, environmental changes in different ways. In this way, environmental changes affect animal-plant interactions. In this study, we assessed the effect of temperature on a tritrophic system of the lima bean, the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. In this system, the plant defends itself against T. urticae by emitting volatiles that attract P. persimilis. Over 20-40 °C, the emission of volatiles by infested plants and the subsequent attraction of P. persimilis peaked at 30 °C, but the number of eggs laid by T. urticae adults and the number of eggs consumed by P. persimilis peaked at 35 °C. This indicates that the spider mites and predatory mites performed best at a higher temperature than that at which most volatile attractants were produced. Our data from transcriptome pyrosequencing of the mites found that P. persimilis up-regulated gene families for heat shock proteins (HSPs) and ubiquitin-associated proteins, whereas T. urticae did not. RNA interference-mediated gene suppression in P. persimilis revealed differences in temperature responses. Predation on T. urticae eggs by P. persimilis that had been fed PpHsp70-1 dsRNA was low at 35 °C but not at 25 °C when PpHsp70-1 expression was very high. Overall, our molecular and behavioural approaches revealed that the mode and tolerance of lima bean, T. urticae and P. persimilis are distinctly affected by temperature variability, thereby making their tritrophic interactions temperature dependent. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Effect of soil-structure interaction on the seismic behaviour of pedestal-structure system in large dish antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Pourhatami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the progressive improvement in the territory of Space Technology in all developed countries and consequently developing countries including Islamic Republic of Iran, the optimization of design and utilization of the communication equipment has been paid more attention today. For instance, considering recent highly innovative methods, specifically in communication field, developed for design, manufacturing and exploiting dish antenna for specific cases, cooperation of other science and technology experts, like civil engineers, is also necessary. In this way, more delicate design procedure in order to satisfy communication requirement, is achieved. So far, no specific investigation about aforementioned subject, especially the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI in analysing the seismic behaviour of communication large dish antennas has been conducted in Iran. In this paper, with the aim of investigating the effect of SSI on seismic behavior of pedestal, first an acceptable range for antenna displacement – as the most important parameter in pedestal structure for antenna – in both operational and survival states, has been calculated numerically based on generic formula. Secondly, the modelling of the whole pedestal-structure system has been modelled subjected to the associated loads and other primary conditions. This procedure has been performed once without considering the SSI and once more with it. Comparison of the obtained results shows that considering the SSI would impress the output results with a difference rate more than 50% and 600% respectively at survival and operational condition.

  1. Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours - the ENERGY cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velde, Saskia J; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bere, Elling; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes

    2014-07-08

    The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10-12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place. Parental and friends norm and

  2. Balancing the competing requirements of air-breathing and display behaviour during male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Lesley A; Portugal, Steven J; White, Craig R

    2013-02-01

    Air-breathing fish of the Anabantoidei group meet their metabolic requirements for oxygen through both aerial and aquatic gas exchange. Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens are anabantoids that frequently engage in aggressive male-male interactions which cause significant increases in metabolic rate and oxygen requirements. These interactions involve opercular flaring behaviour that is thought to limit aquatic oxygen uptake, and combines with the increase in metabolic rate to cause an increase in air-breathing behaviour. Air-breathing events interrupt display behaviour and increase risk of predation, raising the question of how Siamese fighting fish manage their oxygen requirements during agonistic encounters. Using open-flow respirometry, we measured rate of oxygen consumption in displaying fish to determine if males increase oxygen uptake per breath to minimise visits to the surface, or increase their reliance on aquatic oxygen uptake. We found that the increased oxygen requirements of Siamese fighting fish during display behaviour were met by increased oxygen uptake from the air with no significant changes in aquatic oxygen uptake. The increased aerial oxygen uptake was achieved almost entirely by an increase in air-breathing frequency. We conclude that limitations imposed by the reduced gill surface area of air-breathing fish restrict the ability of Siamese fighting fish to increase aquatic uptake, and limitations of the air-breathing organ of anabantoids largely restrict their capacity to increase oxygen uptake per breath. The resulting need to increase surfacing frequency during metabolically demanding agonistic encounters has presumably contributed to the evolution of the stereotyped surfacing behaviour seen during male-male interactions, during which one of the fish will lead the other to the surface, and each will take a breath of air. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. High autistic trait individuals do not modulate gaze behaviour in response to social presence but look away more when actively engaged in an interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Bright, Naomi

    2017-02-01

    Autism is characterised by difficulties in social functioning, notably in interactions with other people. Yet, most studies addressing social difficulties have used static images or, at best, videos of social stimuli, with no scope for real interaction. Here, we study one crucial aspect of social interactions-gaze behaviour-in an interactive setting. First, typical individuals were shown videos of an experimenter and, by means of a deception procedure, were either led to believe that the experimenter was present via a live video-feed or was pre-recorded. Participants' eye movements revealed that when passively viewing an experimenter they believed to be "live," they looked less at that person than when they believed the experimenter video was pre-recorded. Interestingly, this reduction in viewing behaviour in response to the believed "live" presence of the experimenter was absent in individuals high in autistic traits, suggesting a relative insensitivity to social presence alone. When participants were asked to actively engage in a real-time interaction with the experimenter, however, high autistic trait individuals looked significantly less at the experimenter relative to low autistic trait individuals. The results reinforce findings of atypical gaze behaviour in individuals high in autistic traits, but suggest that active engagement in a social interaction may be important in eliciting reduced looking. We propose that difficulties with the spatio-temporal dynamics associated with real social interactions rather than underlying difficulties processing the social stimulus itself may drive these effects. The results underline the importance of developing ecologically valid methods to investigate social cognition. Autism Res 2017, 10: 359-368. © 2016 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. © 2016 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  4. On different experimental behaviour of fast secondary particles produced in 12C interactions at relativistic energies as studied with radiochemistry and in a propane chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakov, B.A.; Karachuk, J.; Gelovani, L.K.; Gridnev, T.G.; Sosnin, A.N.; Brandt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Energetic secondary fragments produced in the interaction of (41-44) GeV 12 C ions with copper exhibit experimentally a broader angular distribution as compared to energetic secondary fragments produced in the interactions at a lower 12 C-energy (15-25) GeV when studied with radiochemical techniques. Such a different experimental behaviour of secondary fragments produced by 12 C ions of the same two energy groups is not observed, when these secondary fragments are investigated with a propane bubble chamber. Separation of secondary particles is described

  5. Human–dog interactions and behavioural responses of village dogs in coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Ortolani, A.; Ortega-Pacheco, A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In Mexican villages, most households keep dogs that roam freely. Therefore, socialisation of village dogs occurs in a different context than that of companion dogs in developed countries. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess village dogs’ behavioural responses towards familiar and

  6. Modelling sediment dynamics due to hillslope-river interactions : incorporating fluvial behaviour in landscape evolution model LAPSUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Jantiene E. M.; van Gorp, Wouter; Temme, Arnaud J. A. M.; Schoorl, Jeroen M.

    Landscape evolution models (LEMs) simulate the three-dimensional development of landscapes over time. Different LEMs have different foci, e.g. erosional behaviour, river dynamics, the fluvial domain, hillslopes or a combination. LEM LAPSUS is a relatively simple cellular model operating on

  7. Human–dog interactions and behavioural responses ofvillage dogs in coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Ortolani, A.; Ortega-Pacheco, A.; Boer, I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    tIn Mexican villages, most households keep dogs that roam freely. Therefore, socialisationof village dogs occurs in a different context than that of companion dogs in developedcountries. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess village dogs’ behavioural responsestowards familiar and

  8. Evaluating staff training : Taking account of interactions between staff and clients with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorsouw, W.M.W.J.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hastings (2010) has recently emphasised 3 aspects in the training of staff who serve clients with mild to moderate intellectual disability and challenging behaviour (CB): Staff attitudes, self-awareness, and clients' perspectives. This study investigates whether programs include these

  9. Behavioural Sequential Analysis of Using an Instant Response Application to Enhance Peer Interactions in a Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ting-Chia

    2018-01-01

    To stimulate classroom interactions, this study employed two different smartphone application modes, providing an additional instant interaction channel in a flipped classroom teaching fundamental computer science concepts. One instant interaction mode provided the students (N = 36) with anonymous feedback in chronological time sequence, while the…

  10. Interactions of the Calcite {10.4} Surface with Organic Compounds: Structure and Behaviour at Mineral – Organic Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakim, S. S.; Olsson, M. H. M.; Sørensen, H. O.

    2017-01-01

    The structure and the strength of organic compound adsorption on mineral surfaces are of interest for a number of industrial and environmental applications, oil recovery, CO2 storage and contamination remediation. Biomineralised calcite plays an essential role in the function of many organisms...... that control crystal growth with organic macromolecules. Carbonate rocks, composed almost exclusively of calcite, host drinking water aquifers and oil reservoirs. In this study, we examined the ordering behaviour of several organic compounds and the thickness of the adsorbed layers formed on calcite {10...... monolayers. The results of this work indicate that adhered organic compounds from the surrounding environment can affect the surface behaviour, depending on properties of the organic compound....

  11. Quantifying behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes: Evaluating the protective efficacy of insecticidal nets against malaria transmission in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathenge Evan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African malaria vectors bite predominantly indoors at night so sleeping under an Insecticide-Treated Net (ITN can greatly reduce malaria risk. Behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes to increasing ITN coverage could allow vector mosquitoes to bite outside of peak sleeping hours and undermine efficacy of this key malaria prevention measure. Methods High coverage with largely untreated nets has been achieved in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania through social marketing programmes. Direct surveys of nightly biting activity by An. gambiae Giles were conducted in the area before (1997 and after (2004 implementation of ITN promotion. A novel analytical model was applied to estimate the effective protection provided by an ITN, based on published experimental hut trials combined with questionnaire surveys of human sleeping behaviour and recorded mosquito biting patterns. Results An. gambiae was predominantly endophagic and nocturnal in both surveys: Approximately 90% and 80% of exposure occurred indoors and during peak sleeping hours, respectively. ITNs consistently conferred >70% protection against exposure to malaria transmission for users relative to non-users. Conclusion As ITN coverage increases, behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes remains a future possibility. The approach described allows comparison of mosquito biting patterns and ITN efficacy at multiple study sites and times. Initial results indicate ITNs remain highly effective and should remain a top-priority intervention. Combined with recently developed transmission models, this approach allows rapid, informative and cost-effective preliminary comparison of diverse control strategies in terms of protection against exposure before more costly and intensive clinical trials.

  12. Behavioural models of technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeppini, P.

    2011-01-01

    Technological change still remains an important driver of the economy. This thesis studies the endogenous forces of technological change stemming from behavioural interactions within populations of many agents. Four theoretical models are proposed that describe consumers’ and suppliers’ behaviour

  13. Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours - the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Velde, S.J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Bere, E.; Maes, L.; Moreno, L.; Jan, N.; Kovacs, E.; Manios, Y.; Brug, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less

  14. Dyadic Flexibility in Early Parent-Child Interactions: Relations with Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negativity and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Albrecht, Erin C.; Kemp, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Lower levels of parent-child affective flexibility indicate risk for children's problem outcomes. This short-term longitudinal study examined whether maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of dyadic affective flexibility and positive affective content in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5?years…

  15. Video Interaction Guidance in Collaborative Group Work: Impact on Primary School Pupils' Self-Esteem and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musset, Matthew; Topping, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Video interaction guidance (VIG) is an increasingly recognised evidence-based intervention. VIG was used to enhance pupil responses during a group work programme. Fifteen primary-aged classes across a range of socio-economic status received regular group work over a year. A mixed methods repeated measures design involved nine experimental classes…

  16. Social Capital and Entrepreneurial Behaviour Advancing Innovativeness in Interaction between Small Rural Entrepreneurs and Researchers: A Phenomenographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivonen, Sari; Kyro, Paula; Mynttinen, Sinikka; Sarkka-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Kahiluoto, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Innovation processes between entrepreneurs and researchers are activated by interaction. Social capital increases the efficiency of action, for example, information dissemination by minimising redundancy. To learn more about how to build and develop social capital assumes that we understand how entrepreneurs behave and what their expectations of…

  17. Increasing Parent and Caregiver Understanding of the Power of Positive Interactions in Promoting Prosocial Behaviour in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Pamela

    The goal of the project presented in the practicum was to help parents develop competencies in interacting with their children in ways which foster self esteem and cooperative behavior. The objectives of the practicum included, first, increasing parents' knowledge of: (1) the factors leading to high self esteem and cooperative behavior; (2) the…

  18. Laser Shock Processing of Metallic Materials: Coupling of Laser-Plasma Interaction and Material Behaviour Models for the Assessment of Key Process Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocana, J. L.; Morales, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm 2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals. The main advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Although significant work from the experimental side has been contributed to explore the optimum conditions of application of the treatments and to assess their ultimate capability to provide enhanced mechanical behaviour to work-pieces of typical materials, only limited attempts have been developed in the way of full comprehension and predictive assessment of the characteristic physical processes and material transformations with a specific consideration of real material properties. In the present paper, a review on the physical issues dominating the development of LSP processes from a high intensity laser-matter interaction point of view is presented along with the theoretical and computational methods developed by the authors for their predictive assessment and practical results at laboratory scale on the application of the technique to different materials.

  19. Ion-solvent interactions and the complex behaviour of U(IV) and U(VI) with chloro-ligands in ethanol-water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Duschner, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Born, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The complex chemical behaviour of U(IV) and U(VI) in amphiprotic solutions, especially in mixtures of solvents, was investigated using ion exchange and solvent extraction methods. The experimental data was used, on the one hand, in order to obtain complexing constants in dependence of ligands and their concentration as well as of the agent and to classify these in a universal scale of ion activities with water as reference point, and on the other hand, to explain the interactions between central atom, ligand and solvating molecule. One aim of these investigations is to understand the basic mechanisms in adjusting the equilibrium between two different phases in the separation chemistry of these elements. (orig./LH) [de

  20. How to effectively design public health interventions: Implications from the interaction effects between socioeconomic status and health locus of control beliefs on healthy dietary behaviours among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyungeun; Baek, Young Min

    2018-04-16

    This study investigated whether individuals with different socioeconomic status (SES) should be provided differently tailored health messages to promote healthy dietary behaviour (HDB). Prior research has suggested that people with different SESs tend to exhibit different types of beliefs about health, but it remains unclear how SES interacts with these beliefs to influence health outcomes. To better understand the differences in HDB between high- and low-SES populations and propose effective intervention strategies, we examined (i) how SES is associated with HDB, (ii) how internal health locus of control (HLC) and powerful others HLC are associated with HDB, and (iii) how SES interacts with internal and powerful others HLC to influence HDB. Using data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey, collected from 2005 to 2012 (N = 6,262) in the United States, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Education level was found to be positively associated with HDB, while income level was not. Both internal and powerful others HLC beliefs were positively associated with HDB. The positive relationship between internal HLC and HDB strengthened as the level of education and income increased, whereas the positive relationship between powerful others HLC and HDB weakened as respondents' education level increased. These results suggest that the design and delivery of communication messages should be tailored to populations' specific SES and HLC beliefs for effective public health interventions. For example, messages enhancing internal HLC (e.g. providing specific skills and knowledge about health behaviours) might be more helpful for the richer and more-educated, while messages appealing to one's powerful others HLC beliefs (e.g. advice on health lifestyles given by well-known health professionals) might be more effective for less-educated people. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Structural and interactional behaviour of aqueous mixture of room temperature ionic liquid; 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylammonium L-lactate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Bansal, Shafila; Mehta, S.K.; Ahluwalia, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophysical and spectroscopic properties of aqueous mixtures 2-[HE3MA]LAC have been measured. • Effect of temperature on thermophysical properties has also been studied. • Stronger intermolecular have been observed between [HE3MA]LAC and H 2 O. • Magnitude of interactions decreases with the rise in temperature. • Spectroscopic studies shows interactions between -N + -(CH 3 ) 3 with -OH - group and COO − with -H + of IL and H 2 O. - Abstract: In order to understand the molecular interactions between the green solvent system, (water + lactate based ionic liquid); 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylammonium L-lactate ([(C 2 H 4 OH)(CH 3 ) 3 N][Lactate]), the thermophysical properties viz. density ρ, speed of sound u, specific conductivity κ, refractive index n D and spectroscopic properties viz. IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR have been investigated over the whole composition range at atmospheric pressure with temperature varied from (293.15 to 323.15) K. To gain more insight of intermolecular interactions occurring in the aqueous mixture of [(C 2 H 4 OH)(CH 3 ) 3 N][Lactate], intermolecular free length L f , acoustic impedance Z, relative association R A , excess molar volume V E , deviations in isentropic compressibility ΔK S , partial molar excess volume V i E , partial molar deviations in isentropic compressibility ΔK S,i , deviation in specific conductivity Δκ and deviation in refractive index Δn D have been predicted as a function of IL concentration over the whole composition range. These results have been fitted to the Redlich–Kister polynomial. A large deviation from ideality has been observed on mixing water and [(C 2 H 4 OH)(CH 3 ) 3 N][Lactate] which are due to the formation of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the two molecules. Also, it has been noticed that the mixture of water and [(C 2 H 4 OH)(CH 3 ) 3 N][Lactate] became warm that indicates mixing of these two components is exothermic. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic data

  2. Maternal avoidance, anxiety cognitions and interactive behaviour predicts infant development at 12 months in the context of anxiety disorders in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, C; Van Den Bergh, B; Tietz, A; Müller, M; Ropeter, A; Zipser, B; Pauen, S

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between anxiety disorders in the postpartum period and cognitive as well as language development in infancy. This longitudinal study investigated whether anxiety disorder in the postpartum period is linked to infant development at twelve months. A closer look was also taken at a possible link between maternal interaction and infant development. Subjects were videotaped during a Face-to-Face-Still-Face interaction with their infant (M = 4.0 months). Specific maternal anxiety symptoms were measured by self-report questionnaires (Anxiety Cognition Questionnaire (ACQ), Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ), Mobility Inventory (MI)) to check for a connection with infant development. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Bayley-III) were used to assess infant language and cognitive development at one year of age. n = 34 mothers with anxiety disorder (SCID-I; DSM-IV) and n = 47 healthy mothers with their infant. Infant performance on Bayley-III language and cognitive scales. Infants of mothers with anxiety disorder yielded significantly lower language scores than infants of controls. No significant group differences were found regarding infant cognitive development. Exploratory analyses revealed the vital role of "maternal avoidance accompanied" in infant language and cognitive development. Maternal neutral engagement, which lacks positive affect and vocalisations, turned out as the strongest negative predictor of cognitive development. Maternal anxiety cognitions and joint activity in mother-infant interaction were the strongest predictors of infant language performance. Results underline the importance to also consider the interaction behaviour of women with anxiety disorders to prevent adverse infant development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Model of hydrological behaviour of the anthropized semiarid wetland of Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park (Spain) based on surface water-groundwater interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, H.; Castaño, S.; Moreno, L.; Jiménez-Hernández, M. E.; de la Losa, A.

    2013-05-01

    Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park (TDNP) in Spain is one of the most important semiarid wetlands of the Mediterranean area. The inversion of the regional groundwater flow, primarily due to overexploitation and inadequate aquifer management, has led to degradation. The system has turned from a groundwater discharge zone into a recharge zone, and has remained mostly dry since the 1980s. High heterogeneity and complexity, enhanced by anthropogenic management action, hampers prediction of the surface-groundwater system response to flooding events. This study analyses these interactions and provides empirical evidence to define a conceptual model of flooding-infiltration-groundwater dynamics through the application of a few simple analysis tools to basic hydrological data. Relevant surface water-groundwater interactions are mainly localized in the left (west) margin of TDNP, as confirmed by the fast responses to flooding observed in the hydrochemic, hydrodynamic and isotopic data. During drying periods, small artificial and/or low-flow natural floods are followed by infiltration of evaporated poor-quality ponding water into saline low-permeability layers. The results allow an improved understanding of the hydrological behaviour essential to support efficient management practices. The relative simplicity of the methodology allows for its application in other similar complex groundwater-linked wetlands where detailed knowledge of local geology is still absent.

  4. Learning design to facilitate interactive behaviours in Team Sports. [Diseños de aprendizaje para favorecer las interacciones en los deportes de equipo].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Passos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This opinion piece aims to describe the process of learning in team sports, with a rationale in ecological dynamics sustained on the interactive nature of performance in that context. The first part of this article focuses on the information variables that discriminate affordances (invitations for action, supporting the emergence of anticipatory behaviours. Here we note that affordances emerge at different time scales of performance, with clear implications for planning and designing practice sessions. Acquiring interactive skills in team sports and perceiving information variables of relevance during performance is strictly connected to the concept of representative task design. In the applied section of this paper we show how the constraints-based approach is a suitable tool to create representative learning environments that produce changes in players' interactive behaviours over short and long time scales. Resumen Este artículo de opinión tiene como objetivo describir el proceso de aprendizaje en los deportes de equipo fundamentado en una dinámica ecológica, sustentada en la naturaleza interactiva del rendimiento en ese contexto. La primera parte de este artículo se centra en las variables informativas que discriminan las affordances (invitaciones para la acción que permiten la aparición de conductas anticipatorias. Observamos que las affordances emergen en diferentes escalas temporales del rendimiento, con claras implicaciones para la planificación y el diseño de sesiones de práctica. La adquisición de habilidades interactivas en los deportes de equipo así como la percepción de las variables informativas relevantes durante la acción está estrechamente vinculada con el concepto de diseño de las tareas representativas. En la sección aplicada de este trabajo se muestra cómo el enfoque basado en las restricciones es una herramienta adecuada para crear ambientes de aprendizaje representativos que producen cambios en los

  5. Contribution to concrete modelling towards aging and durability: interactions between creep deformations and non-linear behaviour of the material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthollet, A.

    2003-10-01

    Concrete structures are examined during their lifetime and often present important cracking states, which can progress with time and lead to change the structural behavior. The civil engineering works that the main function corresponds to protection's wall are very sensitive to this damage and its evolution. The growth of the time - dependent cracks represents an aging pathology linked with interaction between creep mechanism and the non-linear behavior of the material. In this thesis, a modeling for these mechanisms and their coupling are proposed. It based on creep strains analysis under different load levels, on the influence of the rate effect to the mechanical behavior. A stress limit is put on prominent manner, where beyond it, the creep - cracking interaction becomes important with the introduction of the ultimate tertiary creep kinetic. This level of strength is identified for infinitely slow loading rates and is also called intrinsic strength. It defines the limit on this side the viscous behavior of the cement paste limits the irreversibility processes as cracking. Thus, a constitutive law of viscoelastic - viscoplastic behavior with a high coupling between the cracking mechanism and the creep strains is proposed. The developments of the model are built on DUVAUT - LIONS approach integrated a generalized MAXWELL chain model. For one part, the viscoelastic behavior translates the creep mechanism under low stresses. For a second part, it associated with the viscoplastic behavior, which allows introducing both creep effect under high stresses and rate effect acting on micro-cracked zones. The cracking mechanism is described throughout a plasticity theory with multi-criteria, which induce a property of anisotropy for hardening. Qualitatively, ails of the creep kinetics are reproduced. An additional validation is based on experimental tests in compression, traction and flexion where the main parameters of the modeling are detailed. Thus, we can conclude on the

  6. Thermochemical properties of some alkaline-earth silicates and zirconates. Fission product behaviour during molten core-concrete interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntelaar, M.E.

    1996-06-19

    This thesis aims to make a contribution to a better understanding of the chemical processes occurring during an ex-vessel MCCI accident with a western-type of nuclear reactor. Chosen is for a detailed thermochemical study of the silicates and zirconates of barium and strontium. In Chapter one a short introduction in the history of (research in) nuclear safety is given, followed by the state-of-the-art of molten core-concrete interactions in Chapter two. In both Chapters the role of chemical thermodynamics on this particular subject is dealt with. The experimental work on the silicates and zirconates of barium and strontium performed for this thesis, is described in the Chapters three, four, five, six, and parts of eight. In Chapter three the basis for all thermochemical measurements, the sample preparation is given. Because the sample preparation effects the accuracy of the thermodynamic measurements, a great deal of effort is spent in optimizing the synthesis of the silicates which resulted in the TEOS-method widely employed here. In the next Chapters the different thermochemical techniques used, are described: The low-temperature heat capacity measurements and the enthalpy increment measurements in Chapter four, the enthalpy-of-solution measurements in Chapter five, and measurements to determine the crystal structures in Chapter six. (orig.).

  7. Thermochemical properties of some alkaline-earth silicates and zirconates. Fission product behaviour during molten core-concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntelaar, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis aims to make a contribution to a better understanding of the chemical processes occurring during an ex-vessel MCCI accident with a western-type of nuclear reactor. Chosen is for a detailed thermochemical study of the silicates and zirconates of barium and strontium. In Chapter one a short introduction in the history of (research in) nuclear safety is given, followed by the state-of-the-art of molten core-concrete interactions in Chapter two. In both Chapters the role of chemical thermodynamics on this particular subject is dealt with. The experimental work on the silicates and zirconates of barium and strontium performed for this thesis, is described in the Chapters three, four, five, six, and parts of eight. In Chapter three the basis for all thermochemical measurements, the sample preparation is given. Because the sample preparation effects the accuracy of the thermodynamic measurements, a great deal of effort is spent in optimizing the synthesis of the silicates which resulted in the TEOS-method widely employed here. In the next Chapters the different thermochemical techniques used, are described: The low-temperature heat capacity measurements and the enthalpy increment measurements in Chapter four, the enthalpy-of-solution measurements in Chapter five, and measurements to determine the crystal structures in Chapter six. (orig.)

  8. Modelling of the interaction between chemical and mechanical behaviour of ion exchange resins incorporated into a cement-based matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bescop P.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a predictive model, based on experimental data, to determine the macroscopic mechanical behavior of a material made up of ion exchange resins solidified into a CEM III cement paste. Some observations have shown that in some cases, a significant macroscopic expansion of this composite material may be expected, due to internal pressures generated in the resin. To build the model, we made the choice to break down the problem in two scale’s studies. The first deals with the mechanical behavior of the different heterogeneities of the composite, i.e. the resin and the cement paste. The second upscales the information from the heterogeneities to the Representative Elementary Volume (REV of the composite. The heterogeneities effects are taken into account in the REV by applying a homogenization method derived from the Eshelby theory combined with an interaction coefficient drawn from the poroelasticity theory. At the first scale, from the second thermodynamic law, a formulation is developed to estimate the resin microscopic swelling. The model response is illustrated on a simple example showing the impact of the calculated internal pressure, on the macroscopic strain.

  9. Interactive Two-Way mHealth Interventions for Improving Medication Adherence: An Evaluation Using The Behaviour Change Wheel Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nicole; Guo, Michael; Amico, K Rivet; Atkins, Lou; Lester, Richard T

    2018-04-12

    Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory. However, mechanisms of action have not been well defined. The Behavior Change Wheel is a comprehensive framework for behavior change that includes an all-encompassing model of behavior known as Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior and is complemented by a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Evaluating mHealth interventions for medication adherence using these tools could provide useful insights that may contribute to optimizing their integration into the healthcare system and successful scaling-up. This study aimed to help address the current knowledge gap regarding how two-way mHealth interventions for medication adherence may work by applying the Behavior Change Wheel to characterize WelTel: an interactive digital health outreach platform with robust evidence for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy. To characterize how WelTel may promote medication adherence, we applied the Behavior Change Wheel to systematically (1) generate a behavioral diagnosis through mapping known antiretroviral therapy adherence barriers onto the Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior model of behavior, (2) specify the behavior change techniques that WelTel delivers, (3) link identified behavior change techniques to corresponding intervention functions of the Behavior Change Wheel, and (4) connect these behavior change techniques and intervention functions to respective Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior influences on behavior to determine potential mechanisms of action. Our

  10. Interactive Two-Way mHealth Interventions for Improving Medication Adherence: An Evaluation Using The Behaviour Change Wheel Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, K Rivet; Atkins, Lou; Lester, Richard T

    2018-01-01

    Background Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory. However, mechanisms of action have not been well defined. The Behavior Change Wheel is a comprehensive framework for behavior change that includes an all-encompassing model of behavior known as Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior and is complemented by a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Evaluating mHealth interventions for medication adherence using these tools could provide useful insights that may contribute to optimizing their integration into the healthcare system and successful scaling-up. Objective This study aimed to help address the current knowledge gap regarding how two-way mHealth interventions for medication adherence may work by applying the Behavior Change Wheel to characterize WelTel: an interactive digital health outreach platform with robust evidence for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods To characterize how WelTel may promote medication adherence, we applied the Behavior Change Wheel to systematically (1) generate a behavioral diagnosis through mapping known antiretroviral therapy adherence barriers onto the Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior model of behavior, (2) specify the behavior change techniques that WelTel delivers, (3) link identified behavior change techniques to corresponding intervention functions of the Behavior Change Wheel, and (4) connect these behavior change techniques and intervention functions to respective Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior influences on behavior to determine

  11. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  12. Study of the rheological behaviour of corium/concrete mixtures; Etude du comportement rheologique de melanges issus de l'interaction corium/beton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramacciotti, M

    1999-09-24

    In the hypothetical event of a severe accident in a Light Water Reactor, scenarios in which the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fails and the core melt mixture (called corium) relocates into the reactor cavity, cannot be excluded. The viscosity (in fact, corium rheological behaviour) plays a major role in many phenomena such as core melt down, discharge from reactor pressure vessel, interaction with structural materials (concrete,...) and spreading in a core-catcher. For these reasons, it is important to be able to predict the rheological behaviour of corium melts of different compositions (essentially based on UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Fe{sub x}O{sub y} and Fe for in-vessel scenarios, plus SiO{sub 2} and CaO for ex-vessel scenarios) at temperatures above solidus temperature. In the case of corium-concrete mixtures, the increase of viscosity depends not only on the increase of particles in the melts but also on the increase of the residual liquid phase viscosity (due to the increase in silica contents). The Urban correlation is used to calculate the viscosity of the carrying liquid with silica. This model was tested and gave good agreements between measured and estimated viscosities of various basalts among which one contained 18 wt% of UO{sub 2}. Then, in the solidification range, the analysis of published data showed that the viscosity cannot be described by a suspension viscosity model of non-interactive spherical particles; consequently we proposed an Arrhenius type law with a multiplying factor such as {eta}{sub r} = exp(2.5 C{phi}) and the C factor value varies between 4 and 8. This factor is more important in the case of low shear rates and low cooling rates. The analysis of the samples structure after quenching shows a dependence of this factor on the particle morphology. Finally, for a value of 6.1 of the C factor, we obtained the best agreement with experimental data for a corium spreading test at 2100 K on a horizontal surface. (author)

  13. Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren’s energy balance-related behaviours – the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children’s energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10–12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. Results Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place

  14. Multiple scales modelling approaches to social interaction in crowd dynamics and crisis management. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucu, Dumitru

    2016-09-01

    In this comprehensive review concerning the modelling of human behaviours in crowd dynamics [3], the authors explore a wide range of mathematical approaches spanning over multiple scales that are suitable to describe emerging crowd behaviours in extreme situations. Focused on deciphering the key aspects leading to emerging crowd patterns evolutions in challenging times such as those requiring an evacuation on a complex venue, the authors address this complex dynamics at both microscale (individual level), mesoscale (probability distributions of interacting individuals), and macroscale (population level), ultimately aiming to gain valuable understanding and knowledge that would inform decision making in managing crisis situations.

  15. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  16. Investigation of the behaviour of zero-valent iron nanoparticles and their interactions with Cd2+ in wastewater by single particle ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Janja; Oprčkal, Primož; Milačič, Radmila; Mladenovič, Ana; Ščančar, Janez

    2018-04-12

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) exhibit great potential for the removal of metal contaminants from wastewater. After their use, there is a risk that nZVI will remain dispersed in remediated water and represent potential nano-threats to the environment. Therefore, the behaviour of nZVI after remediation must be explored. To accomplish this, we optimised a novel method using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) for the sizing and quantification of nZVI in wastewater matrices. H 2 reaction gas was used in MS/MS mode for the sensitive and interference-free determination of low concentrations of nZVI with a low size limit of detection (36nm). This method was applied to study the influence of different iron (Fe) loads (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0gL -1 ) and water matrices (Milli-Q water, synthetic and effluent wastewater) on the behaviour of nZVI, their interactions with Cd 2+ and the efficiency of Cd 2+ removal. The aggregation and sedimentation of nZVI increased with settling time. Sedimentation was slower in effluent wastewater than in Milli-Q water or synthetic wastewater. Consequently, Cd 2+ was more efficiently (86%) removed from effluent wastewater than from synthetic wastewater (73%), while its removal from Milli-Q water was inefficient (19%). The trace amounts of Cd 2+ that remained in the remediated water were either dissolved or sorbed to residual nZVI. The results of the nanoremediation of effluent wastewater with varying Fe loads showed that sedimentation was faster at higher initial concentrations of nZVI. After seven days of settling, low concentrations of Fe remained in the effluent wastewater at Fe loads of 0.5gL -1 or higher, which could indicate that the use of nZVI in nanoremediation under the described conditions may not represent an environmental nano-threat. However, further studies are needed to assess the ecotoxicological impact of Fe-related NPs used for the nanoremediation of wastewaters. Copyright © 2018

  17. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  18. Evaluation of personalised, one-to-one interaction using Montessori-type activities as a treatment of challenging behaviours in people with dementia: the study protocol of a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Eva S; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2010-01-24

    The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Behaviours stemming from pain, major depression or psychosis benefit from treatment with analgesics, antidepressants or antipsychotics. In other cases, psychotropic medications have limited efficacy but are used very widely. Therefore, increasingly more attention has been paid to nonpharmacological interventions which are associated with fewer risks. The aim of the current study is to test if personalised one-to-one interaction activities based on Montessori principles will reduce the frequency of behavioural symptoms of dementia significantly more than a relevant control condition. We will conduct a controlled trial with randomised cross-over between conditions. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to Montessori or control blocks for two weeks then switched to the other condition. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. The control intervention consists of conversation or reading from and looking at pictures in a newspaper to control for non-specific benefits of one-to-one interaction. Presence of target behaviour will be noted as well as level of engagement and type of affect displayed. Secondary measures also include the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and information on time and funds spend to prepare the activities. If our results show that use of Montessori activities is effective in treating challenging behaviours in individuals with dementia, it will

  19. Effectiveness of small-group interactive education vs. lecture-based information-only programs on motivation to change and lifestyle behaviours. A prospective controlled trial of rehabilitation inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Andrea; Ströbl, Veronika; Ellgring, Heiner; Faller, Hermann

    2011-02-01

    Although patient education may promote motivation to change health behaviours, the most effective method has not yet been determined. This prospective, controlled trial compared an interactive, patient-oriented group program with lectures providing only information. We evaluated motivational stages of change and self-reported behaviours in three domains (sports, diet, relaxation) at four times up to one year (60% complete data) among 753 German rehabilitation inpatients (mean age 50 years, 52% male) with orthopaedic (59%) or cardiologic disorders (10%) or diabetes mellitus (31%). We found improvements between baseline and follow up regarding each outcome (pmotivation regarding diet (pdiets both after 3 months (p=0.013) and 12 months (p=0.047), more relaxation behaviours (p=.029) after 3 months and higher motivation for sports after 12 months (p=.08). The superior effectiveness of the interactive group was only partly confirmed. This short, 5-session interactive program may not be superior to lectures to induce major sustainable changes in motivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be

  1. Verbal interactional dominance and coordinative structure of speech rhythms of staff and clients with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuzel, Ellen; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T; Cox, Ralf F A; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Jahoda, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Social interactions between staff and clients with an intellectual disability contain synchronized turn-taking patterns. Synchrony can increase rapport and cooperation between individuals. This study investigated whether verbal interactional dominance and balance, an indication of attunement between staff and clients with ID, are associated with synchrony of turn-taking patterns during staff-client interactions and whether the level of dominance and balance is related to the observed quality of the social interactions. Nineteen staff members video-recorded a social interaction with one of their clients in which the client asked for support. The recordings were analyzed using Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis and Initiative Response Analysis. Fifteen staff observers as well as client observers completed a questionnaire on the quality of the video-recorded interactions. Staff and clients' patterns of verbal interactional dominance and balance were associated with the synchrony of their turn-taking behaviors. Staff's dominance was associated with a higher level of synchrony of turn taking, whereas client's dominance was associated with a lower level of synchrony. The patterns of verbal interactional dominance and balance were associated with staff observer reports about the quality of the interactions. The study suggested that staff and clients have a tendency to be sensitive to different aspects of interactions, which in turn may have different functions.

  2. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  4. 社会交互对社会化商务用户行为作用机理研究%The Effect of Social Interaction on Social Commerce User Behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文侃; 周涛

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] Compared to traditional e-commerce, social commerce is characterized by complex social relationship networks built on users’ frequent social interactions, which affect their behavior. Thus, it is necessary to examine the effect of social inter-action on social commerce user behaviour. This will help enterprises adopt effective measures to facilitate social interaction and user behav-iour. [ Method/process] This study analyzes the effect of social interaction, which includes human-human interaction and human-ma-chine interaction, on social commerce user behavior. It collects 349 valid samples and conducts data analysis with LISREL. [ Result/Con-clusion] The results show that human-human interaction has a significant effect on user trust in community members, and human-machine interaction has an obvious effect on trust in community. In addition, trust in community members affects trust in community through trust transference. Both factors have significant effects on social purchase intention and social sharing intention.%[目的/意义]相对于传统电子商务,社会化商务的显著特征是用户通过频繁的社会交互构建了较复杂的社会关系网络,进而对其行为产生影响。因此,有必要考察社会交互对社会化商务用户行为的作用机理,从而帮助企业采取有效措施来促进社会交互和用户行为。[方法/过程]基于此,分析了社会交互的两个方面包括人人交互、人机交互对社会化商务用户行为的作用机理。收集了349份有效样本数据并采用LISREL进行分析。[结果/结论]结果表明人人交互影响用户对社区成员的信任,人机交互影响用户对社区的信任。用户对社区成员的信任通过信任转移作用于其对社区的信任,且两者对用户的社会购买意愿和社会分享意愿都有显著影响。

  5. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.

  6. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  7. Investigating the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the arctic: their atmospheric behaviour and interaction with the seasonal snow pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, Crispin J.

    2004-01-01

    POPs in the Arctic are the focus of international concern due to their occurrence and accumulation in Arctic food webs. This paper presents an overview of the major pathways into the Arctic and details contemporary studies that have focused on the occurrence and transfer of POPs between the major Arctic compartments, highlighting areas where there is a lack of quantitative information. The behaviour of these chemicals in the Arctic atmosphere is scrutinised with respect to long-term trends and seasonal behaviour. Subtle differences between the PCBs and OC pesticides are demonstrated and related to sources outside of the Arctic as well as environmental processes within the Arctic. Unlike temperate regions, contaminant fate is strongly affected by the presence of snow and ice. A description of the high Arctic snow pack is given and the physical characteristics that determine chemical fate, namely the specific surface area of snow and wind driven ventilation, are discussed. Using a well-characterised fresh snow event observed at Alert (Canadian high Arctic) [Atmos. Environ. 36(2002) 2767] the flux of γ-HCH out of the snow is predicted following snow ageing. Under conditions of wind (10 m/s) it is estimated that ∼75% of the chemical may be re-emitted to the atmosphere within 24 h following snowfall, compared with just ∼5% under conditions of no wind. The implications of this are raised and areas of further research suggested. - The fluxes and fate of POPs in snowpacks are key to their behaviour in polar systems

  8. Investigation of the THM behaviour of the buffer and rock-buffer interaction during the canister retrieval test performed in the ASPÖ Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, A.; Barnichon, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the THERESA European project, numerical modelling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) behaviour of buffer (bentonite) and buffer-rock interfaces for deep underground nuclear waste repositories has been undertaken, with focus on the performance assessments. A major step of the project was the analysis of a large scale test, called the Canister Retrieval test, which has been performed in Aspö Hard Rock Laboratory. It consists in a full scale test of the emplacement of a canister with the surrounding buffer material. A deposition hole was first bored, and then the canister with heaters was installed together with bentonite blocks. The gap between the rock and the bentonite blocks was filled with bentonite pellets. The whole set was artificially wetted from its external boundary in order to accelerate the expected natural rehydration by the surrounding rock. The evolution of the THM processes was recorded over 5 years. Before analysing the whole CRT experiment, a preliminary simpler problem has been defined, which consisted in modelling a disc of buffer at canister mid-height. Thanks to the available experimental recorded measurements, it has been possible to numerically investigate the respective influence of the various THM parameters involved in the modelling of the physical processes. The theoretical model is based on one hand on the Richard's approximation for the flow calculation, and on the other hand on a Biot's type model for the hydro-mechanical behaviour. It has revealed the large influence of the liquid relative permeability, which is unfortunately in general not directly available from experiments and must be determined through inverse analysis techniques. Then, in a second stage, the whole CRT experiment has been analysed. For simplicity reasons, an axisymetrical model has been adopted, although the presence of a neighbouring experiment did influence the CRT results. The comparisons of

  9. Analysis of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-gold nanoparticles behaviour in solution and of their interaction with calf thymus DNA and living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biver, T., E-mail: tarita@dcci.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department (Italy); Corti, A. [University of Pisa, Experimental Pathology Department BMIE (Italy); Eltugral, N. [University of Pisa, Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department (Italy); Lorenzini, E.; Masini, M.; Paolicchi, A. [University of Pisa, Experimental Pathology Department BMIE (Italy); Pucci, A.; Ruggeri, G.; Secco, F.; Venturini, M. [University of Pisa, Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    4-(Dimethylamino)pyridine-coated gold nanoparticles (DMAP-Au NPs) were synthesized, characterised and their interaction with DNA and living cells was analysed. Concerning the interaction of the DMAP-Au NPs with DNA, absorbance titrations indicate that a non-covalent interaction between DNA and the external surface of the NPs does take place. The binding constant was evaluated to be (2.8 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sup -1}. Exposure of cultured cells to NPs revealed a dose-dependent effect on cell proliferation which was increased or reduced in dependence of DMAP-Au NPs concentrations. Subcellular localisation by transmission electron microscopy showed mitochondrial and nuclear localisations of NPs, thus suggesting their direct involvement in the mitochondrial alterations observed and a possible direct interaction with cell DNA. These findings clearly indicate that DMAP-Au NPs can strongly interact with living cells and confirm the importance of systematic evaluations of NPs properties, also in the perspective of their arising diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  10. Investigation of the THM behaviour of the buffer and rock-buffer interaction during the canister retrieval test performed in the ASPÖ Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, A., E-mail: alain.millard@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DANS, DM2S, SEMT, LM2S, F91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barnichon, J.D. [IRSN/DEI/SARG/LR2S, F-92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the THERESA European project, numerical modelling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) and thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) behaviour of buffer (bentonite) and buffer-rock interfaces for deep underground nuclear waste repositories has been undertaken, with focus on the performance assessments. A major step of the project was the analysis of a large scale test, called the Canister Retrieval test, which has been performed in Aspö Hard Rock Laboratory. It consists in a full scale test of the emplacement of a canister with the surrounding buffer material. A deposition hole was first bored, and then the canister with heaters was installed together with bentonite blocks. The gap between the rock and the bentonite blocks was filled with bentonite pellets. The whole set was artificially wetted from its external boundary in order to accelerate the expected natural rehydration by the surrounding rock. The evolution of the THM processes was recorded over 5 years. Before analysing the whole CRT experiment, a preliminary simpler problem has been defined, which consisted in modelling a disc of buffer at canister mid-height. Thanks to the available experimental recorded measurements, it has been possible to numerically investigate the respective influence of the various THM parameters involved in the modelling of the physical processes. The theoretical model is based on one hand on the Richard's approximation for the flow calculation, and on the other hand on a Biot's type model for the hydro-mechanical behaviour. It has revealed the large influence of the liquid relative permeability, which is unfortunately in general not directly available from experiments and must be determined through inverse analysis techniques. Then, in a second stage, the whole CRT experiment has been analysed. For simplicity reasons, an axisymetrical model has been adopted, although the presence of a neighbouring experiment did influence the CRT results. The

  11. Effects of feed forms on growth pattern, behavioural responses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feed forms on growth pattern, behavioural responses and feacal microbial load ... load and behavioural activities (eating, drinking, physical pen interaction and ... Total organism counts varied significantly (p<0.05) with pigs on T1, T2, ...

  12. Investigation of impact phenomena on the marine structures: Part I - On the behaviour of thin-walled double bottom tanker during rock-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, A. R.; Cho, H. J.; Byeon, J. H.; Bae, D. M.; Sohn, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Predicted loads, such as crew, cargo, and structure have been applied as main inputs during ship design and analysis. However, unexpected events on the sea has high possibility to deliver remarkable losses for ship, industry, and environment. Previous oil spill incident by the Exxon Valdez in Alaska is the perfect example which an environmental damage and industry loss are initiated by an impact phenomenon on the ship, i.e. grounding. Even though hull arrangement has adopted double hull system, grounding may threaten ship safety in various scenarios. This situation pushes society to demand sustainable investigation for impact phenomena on water transportation mode to update understanding in the phenomenon and ensure structural safety during ship operation. This work aimed to study structural behaviour of chemical tanker as a marine structure under impact, namely ship grounding. Bottom raking case was considered to be calculated by virtual experiment. The study was performed using nonlinear finite element (FE) method and an idealised geometry of seabed rock would be deployed to be hard obstruction. Observation on the selected crashworthiness criteria, i.e. internal energy and crushing force indicated that as advanced penetration occurred on the ship structure, the absorbed strain energy continued to increase, while major fluctuation appeared during the initial contact between obstruction and ship happened. Damage extent of several structural members during the crushing process was shown, which concluded that the bottom plating had the largest severity in forms of tearing mode among of all members on the bottom structure.

  13. Mixed hyperfine interaction - a tool to investigate the short range order and the strange magnetic behaviour of amorphous Fe-based binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, S.M.; Crummenauer, J.; Gonser, U.; Schaaf, P.; Chien, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Moessbauer study of the mixed magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole interaction in the paramagnetic state of amorphous Fe-Zr and Fe-Hf alloys is presented. Strong evidence for chemical short range order of the iron-pure alloys is found. The hyperfine parameters of the iron-rich alloys are marked by a complex applied field and temperature dependence, suggesting a not negligible spin-correlation well above Tc. (orig.)

  14. Negotiating behavioural change: therapists' proposal turns in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Katie; Lecouteur, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an internationally recognised method for treating depression. However, many of the techniques involved in CBT are accomplished within the therapy interaction in diverse ways, and with varying consequences for the trajectory of therapy session. This paper uses conversation analysis to examine some standard ways in which therapists propose suggestions for behavioural change to clients attending CBT sessions for depression in Australia. Therapists' proposal turns displayed their subordinate epistemic authority over the matter at hand, and emphasised a high degree of optionality on behalf of the client in accepting their suggestions. This practice was routinely accomplished via three standard proposal turns: (1) hedged recommendations; (2) interrogatives; and (3) information-giving. These proposal turns will be examined in relation to the negotiation of behavioural change, and the implications for CBT interactions between therapist and client will be discussed.

  15. Metabolite signal identification in accurate mass metabolomics data with MZedDB, an interactive m/z annotation tool utilising predicted ionisation behaviour 'rules'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snowdon Stuart

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolomics experiments using Mass Spectrometry (MS technology measure the mass to charge ratio (m/z and intensity of ionised molecules in crude extracts of complex biological samples to generate high dimensional metabolite 'fingerprint' or metabolite 'profile' data. High resolution MS instruments perform routinely with a mass accuracy of Results Metabolite 'structures' harvested from publicly accessible databases were converted into a common format to generate a comprehensive archive in MZedDB. 'Rules' were derived from chemical information that allowed MZedDB to generate a list of adducts and neutral loss fragments putatively able to form for each structure and calculate, on the fly, the exact molecular weight of every potential ionisation product to provide targets for annotation searches based on accurate mass. We demonstrate that data matrices representing populations of ionisation products generated from different biological matrices contain a large proportion (sometimes > 50% of molecular isotopes, salt adducts and neutral loss fragments. Correlation analysis of ESI-MS data features confirmed the predicted relationships of m/z signals. An integrated isotope enumerator in MZedDB allowed verification of exact isotopic pattern distributions to corroborate experimental data. Conclusion We conclude that although ultra-high accurate mass instruments provide major insight into the chemical diversity of biological extracts, the facile annotation of a large proportion of signals is not possible by simple, automated query of current databases using computed molecular formulae. Parameterising MZedDB to take into account predicted ionisation behaviour and the biological source of any sample improves greatly both the frequency and accuracy of potential annotation 'hits' in ESI-MS data.

  16. On-site experimental dynamic analysis for evaluating the soil-structure interaction and the seismic behaviour of the Italian PEC fast reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casirati, M.; Castoldi, A.; Panzeri, P.; Pezzoli, P.; Martelli, A.; Masoni, P.; Brancati, V.

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes the on-site dynamic tests carried out on the PEC fast reactor building, using various excitation methods (two eccentric back-rotating-mass mechanical vibrator, blasting in bore-hole, hydraulic actuators at the building foundations). It points out the purposes of the four tests campaigns performed at various construction stages and reports the main experimental results. These results concern both the design safety margins and the data for the validation of the three-dimensional numerical model of the reactor building, including soil-structure interaction phenomena. (author)

  17. Interpersonal behaviour and social perception in a hierarchy: The interpersonal power and behaviour model

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Power is a core dimension of social interactions and relationships. The present article addresses how power hierarchies form, how power is expressed and perceived via verbal and nonverbal behaviour during social interactions, and whether power of others can accurately be assessed. Taking into account the inherently relational and interactional nature of the power concept, an interpersonal power and behaviour model is presented. The model explicitly differentiates between different facets of p...

  18. A pilot randomized controlled trial of time-intensive cognitive-behaviour therapy for postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects on maternal symptoms, mother-infant interactions and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challacombe, F L; Salkovskis, P M; Woolgar, M; Wilkinson, E L; Read, J; Acheson, R

    2017-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that perinatal anxiety disorders are both common and potentially serious for mother and child. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be triggered or exacerbated in the postpartum period, with mothers reporting significant effects on parenting tasks. However, there is little evidence concerning their effective treatment or the impact of successful treatment on parenting. A total of 34 mothers with OCD and a baby of 6 months old were randomized into either time-intensive cognitive-behaviour therapy (iCBT) or treatment as usual (TAU). iCBT took place after randomization at 6 months postpartum and was completed by 9 months. Maternal symptomatology, sensitivity in mother-infant interactions and parenting were assessed at baseline and reassessed at 12 months postpartum. At 12 months attachment was also assessed using Ainsworth's Strange Situation Procedure. A healthy control group of mothers and infants (n = 37) underwent the same assessments as a benchmark. iCBT was successful in ameliorating maternal symptoms of OCD (controlled effect size = 1.31-1.90). However, mother-infant interactions were unchanged by treatment and remained less sensitive in both OCD groups than a healthy control group. The distribution of attachment categories was similar across both clinical groups and healthy controls with approximately 72% classified as secure in each group. iCBT is an effective intervention for postpartum OCD. Sensitive parenting interactions are affected by the presence of postpartum OCD and this is not improved by successful treatment of OCD symptoms. However, the overall attachment bond appears to be unaffected. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore the impact of postpartum OCD as the child develops.

  19. The uranium behaviour during rock-water interaction in the granites from the Itu complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil): a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helen S.B. da; Marques, Leila S.; Kawauchi, Roberto K., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.br, E-mail: keiji@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the process of uranium leaching due to the rock-water interaction in the granitic rocks from Itu Complex (Sao Paulo, Brazil), an experimental arrangement was developed and built. About 2.5kg of crushed rock fragments from Cabreuva and Indaiatuba Intrusions were maintained at room temperature within a glass flask filled with circulating water. The percolating water was removed periodically (from 10 to 30 days) for uranium analysis and then replaced by an equal volume of fresh water. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U, and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios, of the waters as well as of the granites. The results for both samples showed that most of the uranium is leached in the first days after the contact between rock and water. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios were significantly greater than unity, indicating radioactive disequilibrium between those isotopes, probably due to alpha recoil. Although the uranium activity concentrations in the water samples diminished with the increasing of time, it was not observed considerable variations of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios. It was also noticed that, the amount of leached uranium as well as the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios are characteristics of each sample submitted to leaching, reflecting the differences of the granite facies mineralogy.(author)

  20. Designing persuasive interactive environments : a hands-on workshop to explore interactivity and persuasion in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, Marco; Bekker, Tilde; Vermeeren, Arnold; Kanis, Marije; Aprile, Walter; van der Helm, Aadjan; Middendorf, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    Ambient Intelligent environments are interactive environments that sense human behaviour and can respond intelligently. This workshop explores how interactive environments can be designed with persuasive quality, influencing human experience and behaviour. The workshop follows a

  1. Role of sulphide species on the behaviour of carbon steel envisioned for high-level radioactive disposal: interaction between sulphide and corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdoiseau, Jacques-Andre

    2011-01-01

    mackinawite and greigite. Secondly, to investigate the nature and properties of carbonated rust layers, carbon steel electrodes were polarised anodically in NaHCO 3 electrolytes continuously de-aerated by an argon flow. The experiments were performed at room temperature. The carbonated green rust was observed to form at 0.003 and 0.1 mol L -1 NaHCO 3 whereas FeCO 3 was obtained at the largest concentrations (0.5 and 1 mol L -1 ). Additional experiments were performed similarly in solutions of NaHCO 3 and Na 2 SO 4 . Chukanovite, the Fe(II) hydroxycarbonate with formula Fe 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 , could be obtained in solutions containing 0.03 mol L -1 of each salt. Finally, interactions between sulphide species and corrosion products were studied. Siderite, goethite and lepidocrocite proved to be reactive towards sulphide. So, it seems clear that sulphide species produced by SRB should interact with the rust layer before to reach the metal underneath. Tests were performed with ferrous archaeological artefacts immersed 2 months in anoxic sulphide-containing electrolytes to demonstrate it. The main effect of the immersion was the formation of iron sulphide at the interface between the dense corrosion products layer, mainly constitute of siderite, and the transformed medium, where minerals of the soil are mixed with corrosion products. Sulphide species were not detected at the vicinity of the iron surface. (author)

  2. Social behavioural epistemology and the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Milind

    2017-07-01

    The progress of science is influenced substantially by social behaviour of and social interactions within the scientific community. Similar to innovations in primate groups, the social acceptance of an innovation depends not only upon the relevance of the innovation but also on the social dominance and connectedness of the innovator. There are a number of parallels between many well-known phenomena in behavioural evolution and various behavioural traits observed in the scientific community. It would be useful, therefore, to use principles of behavioural evolution as hypotheses to study the social behaviour of the scientific community. I argue in this paper that a systematic study of social behavioural epistemology is likely to boost the progress of science by addressing several prevalent biases and other problems in scientific communication and by facilitating appropriate acceptance/rejection of novel concepts.

  3. Behaviour Recovery. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…

  4. Modeling of the PWR fuel mechanical behaviour and particularly study of the pellet-cladding interaction in a fuel rod; Contribution a la modelisation du comportement mecanique des combustibles REP sous irradiation, avec en particulier le traitement de l`interaction pastille-gaine dans un crayon combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdequin, N.

    1995-05-01

    In Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) power plants, fuel cladding constitutes the first containment barrier against radioactive contamination. Computer codes, developed with the help of a large experimental knowledge, try to predict cladding failures which must be limited in order to maintain a maximal safety level. Until now, fuel rod design calculus with unidimensional codes were adequate to prevent cladding failures in standard PWR`s operating conditions. But now, the need of nuclear power plant availability increases. That leads to more constraining operating condition in which cladding failures are strongly influenced by the fuel rod mechanical behaviour, mainly at high power level. Then, the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) becomes important, and is characterized by local effects which description expects a multidimensional modelization. This is the aim of the TOUTATIS 2D-3D code, that this thesis contributes to develop. This code allows to predict non-axisymmetric behaviour too, as rod buckling which has been observed in some irradiation experiments and identified with the help of TOUTATIS. By another way, PCI is influenced by under irradiation experiments and identified with the help of TOUTATIS which includes a densification model and a swelling model. The latter can only be used in standard operating conditions. However, the processing structure of this modulus provides the possibility to include any type of model corresponding with other operating conditions. In last, we show the result of these fuel volume variations on the cladding mechanical conditions. (author). 25 refs., 89 figs., 2 tabs., 12 photos., 5 appends.

  5. Interactive robots in experimental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jens; Winfield, Alan F T; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-07-01

    Interactive robots have the potential to revolutionise the study of social behaviour because they provide several methodological advances. In interactions with live animals, the behaviour of robots can be standardised, morphology and behaviour can be decoupled (so that different morphologies and behavioural strategies can be combined), behaviour can be manipulated in complex interaction sequences and models of behaviour can be embodied by the robot and thereby be tested. Furthermore, robots can be used as demonstrators in experiments on social learning. As we discuss here, the opportunities that robots create for new experimental approaches have far-reaching consequences for research in fields such as mate choice, cooperation, social learning, personality studies and collective behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Review of Behavioural Gerontology and Dementia Related Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Josling, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural Gerontology is concerned with the interaction of the aging individual and their environment. One aspect of behavioural gerontology has focussed on the use of behaviourist methods to improve the functioning and quality of life of individuals with dementia. Positive reinforcement techniques have shown to have an effect on dementia related behavioural excesses (wandering, disruptive vocalisations), behavioural deficits (incontinence, self feeding) and mood changes (depression). One o...

  7. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-04-13

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Development of a framework for understanding online consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Lillian; Wright, P.

    2007-01-01

    Developing conceptual models of user behaviour is a prerequisite of interaction design, however methodologies such as task analysis or participatory design are often inadequate when designing online shopping sites due to the complexity and diversity of online consumer behaviour. To address this shortcoming a framework for conceptual modelling is needed that facilitates comprehension of online consumer behaviour within interaction design. To develop this framework, interviews and observations ...

  9. Essays in behavioural development economics

    OpenAIRE

    Neelim, Ananta Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    My thesis comprises of three papers in behavioural development economics. In all three of my papers I use economic theories and artefactual field experiments to understand individuals’ preferences for trust, altruism and honesty when they interact with others in their societies. The first paper analyses the effect of multiple identities on interpersonal trust. We conduct a field experiment in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh, two regions significantly different in religious composition, b...

  10. A holistic model of behavioural branding: The role of employee behaviours and internal branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    consistent meaning during the interaction with customers. It reviews the literature about behavioural branding and its antecedents, mediating variables and consequences in order to develop a holistic model of the inside-out brand building process, rooted in the theoretical perspectives of proactive...... behaviours, hierarchy of effects and planned behaviour. The paper concludes with a reflection on the role of internal branding in eliciting and managing employee brand consistent behaviours, and with avenues for future empirical research aimed to verify the model, its constructs and related measures....

  11. Extraversion, neuroticism, immoral judgment and criminal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addad, M; Leslau, A

    1989-01-01

    The present study examines delinquent behaviour by integrating two approaches until now employed separately: Eysnck's theory linking delinquency to extraversion and neuroticism, and Kohlberg's theory of moral development and its connection to moral behaviour. The study analyzes the relations between extraversion, neuroticism and moral judgment, as well as their independent and/or interactive effect upon the development of anti-social behaviour. The relationships are tested by retrospective measurements of personality traits and moral judgment in three groups: delinquency (N = 203), control (N = 82) and comparative (N = 407) groups. Findings show that criminals are higher than control subjects in neuroticism and immoral judgment but not in extraversion. Similar relationships were found between criminals and the comparative group, with one exception: here extraversion was found to be positively related to delinquency, both independently and interactively with neuroticism. The implications of these results for differential development of anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  12. Heritable temperament pathways to early callous–unemotional behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early callous–unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous–unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. Aims To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous–unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. Method Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous–unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways. Results Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low affiliative behaviour predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours, although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous–unemotional behaviour pathway. Conclusions Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits contribute to the development of callous–unemotional behaviours. Positive parenting can buffer these risky pathways. PMID:27765772

  13. Mechanisms of change in human behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Paul; Bartelings, Heleen; Bastardie, François; Batsleer, Jurgen; Delaney, Alyne; Girardin, Raphael; Gloaguen, Pierre; Hamon, Katell; Hoefnagel, Ellen; Jouanneau, Charlène; Mahevas, Stephanie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Poos, Jan-jaap; Schulze, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this report is to present the science developed within the VECTORS project to improve the understanding of the key processes driving the behaviour of human agents utilising a variety of EU maritime domains. While particular attention has been paid to the spatial interactions between fishing activities and other human uses (e.g., maritime traffic, offshore wind parks, aggregate extractions), the behaviour of non-fishing sectors of activity has also been considered. Various quantit...

  14. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  15. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  16. Organizational Behaviour Study Material

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sreeramana Aithal

    2016-01-01

    An overview of Organizational Behaviour – History of Organisational Behaviour and its emergence as a disciple-emerging perspective Organizational Behaviour. Individual process in organisation – Learning, perception and attribution- Individual differences - Basic concepts of motivation - Advanced concepts of motivation. Group process in Organisation – Group dynamics, leadership theories - Power, politics and conflict - inter- personal communication. Enhancing individu...

  17. Multiquark interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    To study multiquark interactions (MQI) the data of experiments confirming the presence of 3q, 6q, 12q states in interacting nuclear nucleons, in hadron- and lepton-nuclear processes at high energies and high momentum transfers are considered. Experimental data on cumulative processes pointing to the existence of MQI are analyzed. Two-channel model of a nucleus (the model of interacting nucleons) in the theory of coupled channels is discussed. The behaviour of form factor of deuteron and NQI (6q) contributions to ed scattering as well as deep inelastic scattering on nuclei are studied. The data known as EMC effect are discussed. It is pointed out that introduction of the notion MQI and consideration of a nucleus as a system of nucleons with a low MQI addition will help to explain such processes as cumulative reactions, form factors of a deuteron and light nuclei, deep inelastic scattering on nuclei

  18. Teacher interpersonal behaviour and student attitudes in Brunei primary science classes classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, R.; Brok, den P.J.; Fisher, D.; Staver, J.; Zandvliet, D.; Tillotson, J.; Anderson, C. W.; Crawley, F.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between students’ perceptions of their teachers’ interpersonal behaviour and their subject-related attitude in primary science classes in Brunei. Teacher-student interpersonal behaviour was mapped with the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) and reported

  19. The importance of teacher interpersonal behaviour for student attitudes in Brunei primary science classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, den P.J.; Fisher, D.; Scott, R.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between students' perceptions of their teachers' interpersonal behaviour and their subject-related attitude in primary science classes in Brunei. Teacher-student interpersonal behaviour was mapped with the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) and reported

  20. A multilevel analysis of teacher interpersonal behaviour and student attitudes in Brunei primary science classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, R.; Brok, den P.J.; Fisher, D.; Putnam, R.; Borko, H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between students’ perceptions of their teachers’ interpersonal behaviour and their subject-related attitude in primary science classes in Brunei. Teacher-student interpersonal behaviour was mapped with the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) and reported

  1. Learning and adaptation: neural and behavioural mechanisms behind behaviour change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert; Sandamirskaya, Yulia

    2018-01-01

    This special issue presents perspectives on learning and adaptation as they apply to a number of cognitive phenomena including pupil dilation in humans and attention in robots, natural language acquisition and production in embodied agents (robots), human-robot game play and social interaction, neural-dynamic modelling of active perception and neural-dynamic modelling of infant development in the Piagetian A-not-B task. The aim of the special issue, through its contributions, is to highlight some of the critical neural-dynamic and behavioural aspects of learning as it grounds adaptive responses in robotic- and neural-dynamic systems.

  2. Behavioural present value

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Piasecki

    2013-01-01

    Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.

  3. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Moghaddam, Nima G.; Dawson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a generic term, encompassing both: (1) approaches underpinned by an assumption that presenting emotional and behavioural difficulties are cognitively mediated or moderated; and (2) atheoretical bricolages of cognitive and behavioural techniques. This latter category may include effective therapeutic packages (perhaps acting through mechanisms articulated in the first category) but, when theory is tacit, it becomes harder to make analytical generalisation...

  4. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  5. Incentives and Prosocial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We build a theory of prosocial behaviour that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. The presence of rewards or punishments creates doubt as to the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ‘overjustification effect’ can result in a net crowding out of prosocial behaviour by extrinsic incentives. The model also allows us to identify settings that are conducive to multiple social norms of behaviour, and those ...

  6. A Review of Behavioural Gerontology and Dementia Related Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josling, Megan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural Gerontology is concerned with the interaction of the aging individual and their environment. One aspect of behavioural gerontology has focussed on the use of behaviourist methods to improve the functioning and quality of life of individuals with dementia. Positive reinforcement techniques have shown to have an effect on dementia related behavioural excesses (wandering, disruptive vocalisations, behavioural deficits (incontinence, self feeding and mood changes (depression. One of the major concerns of using reinforcement techniques in the case of dementia is maintenance of the behavioural changes with the continual implementation of the intervention. Research has indicated that individuals with dementia meet behavioural extinction criteria at an advanced rate in comparison with individuals without dementia. Thus for a behavioural change to be successfully maintained it requires diligence on the part of the caregiver and/or nursing home staff. In the case of dementia care centres and nursing homes, when using behavioural interventions to modify the behavioural symptoms of dementia, there needs to be a considerable overlap between Behavioural Gerontology and Organisational Behavioural Management to ensure the successful maintenance of behavioural change.

  7. Preliminary study of coach verbal behaviour according to game actions

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Luján, José Francisco; Calpe Gómez, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction between game actions in high-level handball and verbal behaviour performed by the coach. For this purpose, a match of the 1st National Division of male Spanish handball was analysed. The type of behaviour and the content of the message reported by the coach were recorded using a modified version of Coaching Behaviour Assessment System (CBAS) and Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS). About game actions, they were grouped into positi...

  8. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  9. The role of error in organizing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    information technology. Consequently, the topic of the present contribution is not a definition of the concept or a proper taxonomy. Instead, a review is given of two professional contexts for which the concept of error is important. Three cases of analysis of human-system interaction are reviewed: (1...... be cognitive control of behaviour in complex environments....

  10. The role of error in organizing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1990-01-01

    information technology. Consequently, the topic of the present contribution is not a definition of the concept or a proper taxonomy. Instead, a review is given of two professional contexts for which the concept of error is important. Three cases of analysis of human-system interaction are reviewed: (1...... of study should be cognitive control of behaviour in complex environments....

  11. Teachers' Personal Constructs on Problem Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Everaert; J.T.E. van Beukering; J.M.F. Touw

    2005-01-01

    Present study focuses on revealing and developing personal constructs regarding problem behaviour in classrooms. The main idea is that teachers’ opinions about their students and themselves influence the way they interact with them. Their thoughts and ideas about students - their personal constructs

  12. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of robust robotic proxemic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torta, E.; Cuijpers, R.H.; Juola, J.F.; Pol, van der D.; Mutlu, B.; Bartneck, C.; Ham, J.R.C.; Evers, V.; Kanda, T.

    2011-01-01

    Personal robots that share the same space with humans need to be socially acceptable and effective as they interact with people. In this paper we focus our attention on the definition of a behaviour-based robotic architecture that, (1) allows the robot to navigate safely in a cluttered and

  14. Player behavioural modelling for video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, G.; Spronck, P.H.M.; Bakkes, S.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Player behavioural modelling has grown from a means to improve the playing strength of computer programs that play classic games (e.g., chess), to a means for impacting the player experience and satisfaction in video games, as well as in cross-domain applications such as interactive storytelling. In

  15. Emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in the inclusive education classrooms in South Africa: Developing a training programme for teachers. ... The training affected teachers' attitudes, teacher–learner interaction, learner behaviour and school organisation. Conclusion: In-service training for ...

  16. Review Genetic research, behavioural science, and child and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a number of areas of recent research that are particularly relevant to child and adolescent mental health in South Africa (antisocial behaviour, disorganised attachment and depression) that are beginning to illuminate the interactions between the behavioural and genetic domains. Discussion: We argue that we ...

  17. Making Teachters Accountable for Students'Disruptive Classroom Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2002-01-01

    Using a more conversational analytical approach, this paper examines the various situated ways in which secondary school students, in interaction with teachers, describe and explain their disruptive classroom behaviour. The focus is on how students account for their behaviour and force

  18. A general evaluation of the irradiation behaviour of dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The irradiation behaviour of aluminum-based dispersion fuels is evaluated with emphasis on metallurgical processes that control the dispersion behaviour. Phase transformations and microstructural changes resulting from fuel-matrix interactions and the effect of fissioning in fuel are discussed. (author)

  19. Behavioural Hybrid Process Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in

  20. Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to

  1. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  2. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments,

  3. Divergent pheromone-mediated insect behaviour under global atmospheric change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward B. Mondor; Michelle N. Tremblay; Caroline S. Awmack; Richard L. Lindroth

    2004-01-01

    While the effects of global atmospheric changes on vegetation and resulting insect populations('bottom-up interactions') are being increasingly studied, how these gases modify interactions among insects and their natural enemies ('top-down interactions') is less clear. As natural enemy efficacy is governed largely by behavioural mechanisms, altered...

  4. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour.......Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...

  5. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health risk behaviours of high school learners and their perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their interaction with their GP in dealing with these health risk behaviours. Results: The research .... It also assisted in the layout and phrasing of the final ... The Committee for Research on Human Subjects issued a clearance certificate number ...

  7. fruitless alternative splicing and sex behaviour in insects: an ancient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... gifts, physical touch, and even the use of aphrodisiac sub- stances. ..... male aggressive interaction' behaviour in D. melanogaster. (Lee and Hall 2000; ..... In conclusion, fru with its complex system of multi-level regulation is ...

  8. Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Dasgupta P., Halder S. and Nandy B. 2016 Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in Drosophila .... allowed to the competitor male to interact with the female. Following ... conditions including maternal environment.

  9. Consumer behaviour analysis and the behavioural perspective model.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, G.R.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; James, V.K.; Schrezenmaier, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the FIRST of TWO linked articles on consumer behavioural analysis. Cognitive theories have dominated the field of consumer behaviour for the last few decades, however, an observed lack of consistency between attitudes and behaviour has suggested the need to investigate more thoroughly situational and behavioural variables. Consumer behaviour analysis can be viewed as an alternative theoretical approach that emphasizes situational variables and measures of behaviour. Within consumer be...

  10. Towards an integrated approach of pedestrian behaviour and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated methodology for the analysis of pedestrian behaviour and exposure is proposed, allowing to identify and quantify the effect of pedestrian behaviour, road and traffic characteristics on pedestrian risk exposure, for each pedestrian and for populations of pedestrians. The paper builds on existing research on pedestrian exposure, namely the Routledge microscopic indicator, proposes adjustments to take into account road, traffic and human factors and extends the use of this indicator on area-wide level. Moreover, this paper uses integrated choice and latent variables (ICLV) models of pedestrian behaviour, taking into account road, traffic and human factors. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the integrated estimation of pedestrian behaviour and exposure on the basis of road, traffic and human factors. The method is tested with data from a field survey in Athens, Greece, which used pedestrian behaviour observations as well as a questionnaire on human factors of pedestrian behaviour. The data were used (i) to develop ICLV models of pedestrian behaviour and (ii) to estimate the behaviour and exposure of pedestrians for different road, traffic and behavioural scenarios. The results suggest that both pedestrian behaviour and exposure are largely defined by a small number of factors: road type, traffic volume and pedestrian risk-taking. The probability for risk-taking behaviour and the related exposure decrease in less demanding road and traffic environments. A synthesis of the results allows to enhance the understanding of the interactions between behaviour and exposure of pedestrians and to identify conditions of increased risk exposure. These conditions include principal urban arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is low but the related exposure is very high) and minor arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is more frequent, and the related exposure is still high). A "paradox" of increased risk-taking behaviour of pedestrians with low

  11. Conceptualising the policy practice and behavioural research relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeatman Heather

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy is frequently identified in the behavioural nutrition and physical activity research literature as a necessary component of effective research and practice. The purpose of this commentary is to promote a dialogue to contribute towards the further development of conceptual understandings and theories of the relationship between policy practice and behavioural research and how these two activities might work synergistically to improve public health outcomes. Methods Drawing on policy and public health literature, this commentary presents a a conceptual model of the interaction and mediation between nutrition and physical activity-relevant policy and behavioural nutrition and physical activity research, environments, behaviours and public health implications. The selling of food in school canteens in several Australian states is discussed to illustrate components of the relationship and the interactions among its components. Results The model depicts a relationship that is interdependent and cyclic. Policy contributes to the relationship through its role in shaping environmental and personal-cognitive determinants of behaviours and through these determinants it can induce behaviour change. Behavioural research describes behaviours, identifies determinants of behaviour change and therefore helps inform policy development and monitor and evaluate its impact. Conclusion The model has implications for guiding behavioural research and policy practice priorities to promote public health outcomes. In particular, we propose that policy practice and behavioural research activities can be strengthened by applying to each other the theories from the scientific disciplines informing these respective activities. Behavioural science theories can be applied to help understand policy-making and assist with disseminating research into policy and practice. In turn, policy science theories can be applied to support the 'institutionalisation

  12. The endocannabinoid system and nondrug rewarding behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Pistis, Marco; Fratta, Walter

    2010-07-01

    Rewarding behaviours such as sexual activity, eating, nursing, parenting, social interactions, and play activity are conserved strongly in evolution, and they are essential for development and survival. All of these behaviours are enjoyable and represent pleasant experiences with a high reward value. Remarkably, rewarding behaviours activate the same brain circuits that mediate the positive reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse and of other forms of addiction, such as gambling and food addiction. Given the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in a variety of physiological functions of the nervous system, it is not surprising that it takes part in the complex machinery that regulates gratification and perception of pleasure. In this review, we focus first on the role of the endocannabinoid system in the modulation of neural activity and synaptic functions in brain regions that are involved in natural and nonnatural rewards (namely, the ventral tegmental area, striatum, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex). Then, we examine the role of the endocannabinoid system in modulating behaviours that directly or indirectly activate these brain reward pathways. More specifically, current knowledge of the effects of the pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system on natural (eating, sexual behaviour, parenting, and social play) and pathological (gambling) rewarding behaviours is summarised and discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Behaviour Codes in Sicily. Bypassing the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Blok

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Focused on oral culture in western Sicily, this paper explores informal behaviour codes in their interaction with formal law. State-formation in Italy left people in peripheral areas to forge strategies of self-help and negotiate support from patrons (called “friends”. Ironically, the very networks of clientelism and their attendant behaviour codes further weakened the state’s control over its southern periphery and hindered its economic integration into the national and international economy – which in turn reinforced the impact of informal codes and practices on the working of formal law. The Sicilian case provides an example of the periphery as a locus of innovation.

  14. A brief review of salient factors influencing adult eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, Christine; Hollis, James H

    2017-12-01

    A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society's health and environmental goals. Research indicates that eating behaviour is dictated by a complex interaction between physiology, environment, psychology, culture, socio-economics and genetics that is not fully understood. While a growing body of research has identified how several single factors influence eating behaviour, a better understanding of how these factors interact is required to facilitate the developing new models of eating behaviour. Due to the diversity of influences on eating behaviour this would probably necessitate a greater focus on multi-disciplinary research. In the present review, the influence of several salient physiological and environmental factors (largely related to food characteristics) on meal initiation, satiation (meal size) and satiety (inter-meal interval) are briefly discussed. Due to the large literature this review is not exhaustive but illustrates the complexity of eating behaviour. The present review will also highlight several limitations that apply to eating behaviour research.

  15. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... to monitor and evaluate the learning process. The course is embedded in a graduate programme of applied cognitive, developmental and neuropsychology, and includes 92 hours (17 days spanning one academic year) of lectures and workshops on cognitive behavioural therapy and coaching. Seven behaviour competence...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  16. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  17. Social Behaviour in Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    the recipient. • Social behaviours can be categorized according to the fitness ... is actually the flagella of symbiotic spirochete bacteria that helps it to swim around .... Normal population. Responsive switching. (Environmental stress). Stochastic.

  18. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-20

    May 20, 2003 ... behaviour therapy approach, and a brief example of its use in depression. Cognitive .... dream, or recollection, leading to unpleasant emotion. DATE. SITUATION. EMOTION ... Write rational response to automatic thought(s). 2.

  19. Emotions and consumption behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    I. Soscia

    2013-01-01

    This stimulating book scrutinizes how emotions function in consumers, from both a psychological and a managerial perspective. It demonstrates how gratitude, happiness, guilt, anger, pride and sadness determine different post-consumption behaviours such as positive and negative word of mouth, repurchase intention and complaint behaviour. The emotional side of consumption seems to play an essential role in explaining choices made and actions taken by consumers. Isabella Soscia explores the ...

  20. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments, eye tracking, scale development, and contingent valuation. The 12 contributions from authors of 13 different countries show the wide and varied application of consumer research focused on sustainabilit...

  1. Influence of unexpected events on driving behaviour at different hierarchical levels: a driving simulator experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, T.W.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    Computer based simulation models of human driving behaviour can be used effectively to model driving and behavioural adaptation to Intelligent Transport System (ITS). This can be a useful step in human centered design of ITS. To construct a comprehensive model of driving behaviour, the interaction

  2. A methodology for modelling energy-related human behaviour: Application to window opening behaviour in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2013-01-01

    that affect the results accuracy. Above all, the real energy performance can be affected by the actual behaviour of the building occupants. Thus, there are great benefits to be derived from improving models that simulate the behaviour of human beings within the context of engineered complex systems...... for modelling the human behaviour related to the control of indoor environment. The procedure is applied at models of occupants’ interactions with windows (opening and closing behaviour). Models of occupants’ window opening behaviour were inferred based on measurements and implemented in a simulation program......An energy simulation of a building is a mathematical representation of its physical behaviour considering all the thermal, lighting, acoustics aspects. However, a simulation cannot precisely replicate a real construction because all the simulations are based on a number of key assumptions...

  3. Neural correlates of dynamically evolving interpersonal ties predict prosocial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobus Fahrenfort

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behaviour in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behaviour even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behaviour to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behaviour may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction - rather than trait empathy - motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum, empathy (anterior insular cortex [AIC] and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC] as well as altruism and social significance (posterior superior temporal sulcus [pSTS]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behaviour during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance.

  4. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out......In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  5. Physiological control of behaviour in tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eric B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour of tephritid fruit flies have historically focused on the interaction of external stimuli such as temperature, semiochemicals, seasonality, etc., or the interactions of flies between and among species for a number of observed behaviours such as mating, pheromone calling and oviposition. While descriptive behaviour represent much of what we know about these pest species, less is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms which function in priming or modulation of the observed behaviour. Central to our understanding of tephritid behaviour are the multiple and often complex internal factors which are involved, and the path/mechanisms by which external stimuli result in observed behaviour. Tephritid fruit fly physiology is a vastly understudied research area which may provide important information on how peripheral receptors receive information, the transduction and coding of information centrally and how behaviour is regulated biochemically. The integration of physiology disciplines to help explain behaviour is central to the goal of developing new technology which may be useful in fruit fly control. In our laboratory, we have been studying the mechanisms of chemoreception and its link to behaviour in tephritids in such areas as olfaction, feeding, mating and oviposition. Our approach has been that tephritid behaviour can be largely influenced by their peripheral receptors which are responsible for receiving olfactory, gustatory, visual and tactile information inputs and their physiological state which controls internal modulation of behaviour. Thus, differences in behaviour between species might be explained on the basis of differences in their peripheral receptors, and the plasticity in which observed behaviour vary between the same species could very well be attributed to changes in their physiological state that are not readily apparent merely from visual observation. The importance of the physiological state in behavioural

  6. Who do you trust? The impact of facial emotion and behaviour on decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campellone, Timothy R; Kring, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    During social interactions, we use available information to guide our decisions, including behaviour and emotional displays. In some situations, behaviour and emotional displays may be incongruent, complicating decision making. This study had two main aims: first, to investigate the independent contributions of behaviour and facial displays of emotion on decisions to trust, and, second, to examine what happens when the information being signalled by a facial display is incongruent with behaviour. Participants played a modified version of the Trust Game in which they learned simulated players' behaviour with or without concurrent displays of facial emotion. Results indicated that displays of anger, but not happiness, influenced decisions to trust during initial encounters. Over the course of repeated interactions, however, emotional displays consistent with an established pattern of behaviour made independent contributions to decision making, strengthening decisions to trust. When facial display and behaviour were incongruent, participants used current behaviour to inform decision making.

  7. Could piracetam potentiate behavioural effects of psychostimulants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slais, Karel; Machalova, Alena; Landa, Leos; Vrskova, Dagmar; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Press and internet reports mention abuse of nootropic drug piracetam (PIR) in combination with psychostimulants methamphetamine (MET) or 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These combinations are believed to produce more profound desirable effects, while decreasing hangover. However, there is a lack of valid experimental studies on such drug-drug interactions in the scientific literature available. Our hypothesis proposes that a functional interaction exists between PIR and amphetamine psychostimulants (MET and MDMA) which can potentiate psychostimulant behavioural effects. Our hypothesis is supported by the results of our pilot experiment testing acute effects of drugs given to mice intraperitoneally (Vehicle, n=12; MET 2.5mg/kg, n=10; MDMA 2.5mg/kg, n=11; PIR 300 mg/kg, n=12; PIR+MET, n=12; PIR+MDMA, n=11) in the Open Field Test (Actitrack, Panlab, Spain). PIR given alone caused no significant changes in mouse locomotor/exploratory behaviour, whereas the same dose combined with either MET or MDMA significantly enhanced their stimulatory effects. Different possible neurobiological mechanism underlying drug-drug interaction of PIR with MET or MDMA are discussed, as modulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic brain systems. However, the interaction with membrane phospholipids seems as the most plausible mechanism explaining PIR action on activities of neurotransmitter systems. Despite that our behavioural experiment cannot serve for explanation of the pharmacological mechanisms of these functional interactions, it shows that PIR effects can increase behavioural stimulation of amphetamine drugs. Thus, the reported combining of PIR with MET or MDMA by human abusers is not perhaps a coincidental phenomenon and may be based on existing PIR potential to intensify acute psychostimulant effects of these drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Ulla; Candolin, Ulrika

    2011-08-01

    The initial response of individuals to human-induced environmental change is often behavioural. This can improve the performance of individuals under sudden, large-scale perturbations and maintain viable populations. The response can also give additional time for genetic changes to arise and, hence, facilitate adaptation to new conditions. On the other hand, maladaptive responses, which reduce individual fitness, may occur when individuals encounter conditions that the population has not experienced during its evolutionary history, which can decrease population viability. A growing number of studies find human disturbances to induce behavioural responses, both directly and by altering factors that influence fitness. Common causes of behavioural responses are changes in the transmission of information, the concentration of endocrine disrupters, the availability of resources, the possibility of dispersal, and the abundance of interacting species. Frequent responses are alterations in habitat choice, movements, foraging, social behaviour and reproductive behaviour. Behavioural responses depend on the genetically determined reaction norm of the individuals, which evolves over generations. Populations first respond with individual behavioural plasticity, whereafter changes may arise through innovations and the social transmission of behavioural patterns within and across generations, and, finally, by evolution of the behavioural response over generations. Only a restricted number of species show behavioural adaptations that make them thrive in severely disturbed environments. Hence, rapid human-induced disturbances often decrease the diversity of native species, while facilitating the spread of invasive species with highly plastic behaviours. Consequently, behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change can have profound effects on the distribution, adaptation, speciation and extinction of populations and, hence, on biodiversity. A better understanding of

  9. Maternal care and subsocial behaviour in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Eric C; Rayor, Linda S

    2014-05-01

    While most spiders are solitary and opportunistically cannibalistic, a variety of social organisations has evolved in a minority of spider species. One form of social organisation is subsociality, in which siblings remain together with their parent for some period of time but disperse prior to independent reproduction. We review the literature on subsocial and maternal behaviour in spiders to highlight areas in which subsocial spiders have informed our understanding of social evolution and to identify promising areas of future research. We show that subsocial behaviour has evolved independently at least 18 times in spiders, across a wide phylogenetic distribution. Subsocial behaviour is diverse in terms of the form of care provided by the mother, the duration of care and sibling association, the degree of interaction and cooperation among siblings, and the use of vibratory and chemical communication. Subsocial spiders are useful model organisms to study various topics in ecology, such as kin recognition and the evolution of cheating and its impact on societies. Further, why social behaviour evolved in some lineages and not others is currently a topic of debate in behavioural ecology, and we argue that spiders offer an opportunity to untangle the ecological causes of parental care, which forms the basis of many other animal societies. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. Nonverbal expressive behaviour in schizophrenia and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Salesse, Robin N; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Philippe Boulenger, Jean; Christine Gély-Nargeot, Marie; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2013-11-30

    Expressive behaviour plays a crucial role in the success of social interactions. Abnormality of expressive behaviour has been reported in interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and social phobia, two debilitating mental disorders with important social deficits. However, no study has compared the expressive behaviour in these two disorders. Thirty schizophrenia patients, 21 social phobia patients and 30 healthy controls were evaluated and compared on expressive, cognitive and clinical dimensions. Expressive behaviour was assessed using the Motor Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale (MASS). Covariables include the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the anxiety level Liebowitz-Social-Anxiety-Scale (LSAS) and cognitive tasks. After controlling for depression, schizophrenia and social phobia patients both exhibited significantly fewer expressive behaviours compared to healthy controls. Moreover, our results showed specific signatures: schizophrenia patients performed fewer spontaneous gestures (hand gestures and smiles) whereas social phobia patients had an impaired ability to produce voluntary smiles in comparison to healthy controls. Interestingly, poor social functioning was significantly correlated with a decrease of expressive behaviour for schizophrenia patients. Expressive behaviour is impaired in different ways in social phobia and schizophrenia and is associated in schizophrenia with poorer social functioning. The Motor Affective subscale of the MASS is an interesting tool for assessing the dysfunction of interpersonal expressive behaviour in mental disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain regions involved in observing and trying to interpret dog behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; van der Wiel, Alko; Brass, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Humans and dogs have interacted for millennia. As a result, humans (and especially dog owners) sometimes try to interpret dog behaviour. While there is extensive research on the brain regions that are involved in mentalizing about other peoples' behaviour, surprisingly little is known of whether we use these same brain regions to mentalize about animal behaviour. In this fMRI study we investigate whether brain regions involved in mentalizing about human behaviour are also engaged when observing dog behaviour. Here we show that these brain regions are more engaged when observing dog behaviour that is difficult to interpret compared to dog behaviour that is easy to interpret. Interestingly, these results were not only obtained when participants were instructed to infer reasons for the behaviour but also when they passively viewed the behaviour, indicating that these brain regions are activated by spontaneous mentalizing processes.

  12. Investigation of the behaviour of pesticides in soil environment by using isotope tracer techniques. Part of a coordinated programme on isotope-tracer-aided studies of agrochemical residue - soil biota interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, G.

    1982-07-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the behaviour of 14 C-carboxyl-labelled 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) in soil-plant systems under laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions. Results indicated that degradation, of the chemical was faster in soil rich in organic matter and that moisture content did not affect degradation rates significantly. Under greenhouse conditions, barley, wheat and oat plants took up less than 1% of the amount of herbicide applied to soil. Under field conditions, 15% of the applied 14 C-activity was recovered in soil-methanol extracts prepared by Soxhlet extractor for 48 hours. Soil radioactivity, remaining after extraction, was determined by a wet combustion procedure and was found to account for 48% of the applied herbicide after four weeks. The balance of 37% was presumably lost as 14 C-carbon dioxide

  13. Values and behaviour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    Occupational injuries, accidents, trips of equipment, emergencies, and idle times represent a loss from each megawatt hour which we could have supplied to the network, or other costs related to settlement or compensation for damages. All of it can be caused by short lack of attention while doing a routine job, ignoring safety indicators, and rules. Such behaviour would not be a characteristic of a professional. People working at the nuclear power plants are the first ones to learn about the Values and Behaviour Model. (author)

  14. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  15. Energy cultures. A framework for understanding energy behaviours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, Janet [Centre for the Study of Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Barton, Barry [School of Law, University of Waikato (New Zealand); Carrington, Gerry [Department of Physics, University of Otago (New Zealand); Gnoth, Daniel; Lawson, Rob [Department of Marketing, University of Otago (New Zealand); Thorsnes, Paul [Department of Economics, University of Otago (New Zealand)

    2010-10-15

    Achieving a 'step-change' in energy efficiency behaviours will require enhanced knowledge of behavioural drivers, and translation of this knowledge into successful intervention programmes. The 'Energy Cultures' conceptual framework aims to assist in understanding the factors that influence energy consumption behaviour, and to help identify opportunities for behaviour change. Building on a history of attempts to offer multi-disciplinary integrating models of energy behaviour, we take a culture-based approach to behaviour, while drawing also from lifestyles and systems thinking. The framework provides a structure for addressing the problem of multiple interpretations of 'behaviour' by suggesting that it is influenced by the interactions between cognitive norms, energy practices and material culture. The Energy Cultures framework is discussed in the context of a New Zealand case study, which demonstrates its development and application. It has already provided a basis for cross-disciplinary collaboration, and for multi-disciplinary research design, and has provided insights into behavioural change in a case study community. As the conceptual basis of a 3-year research project, the framework has further potential to identify clusters of 'energy cultures' - similar patterns of norms, practices and/or material culture - to enable the crafting of targeted actions to achieve behaviour change. (author)

  16. Energy cultures: A framework for understanding energy behaviours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, Janet, E-mail: janet.stephenson@otago.ac.n [Centre for the Study of Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Barton, Barry [School of Law, University of Waikato (New Zealand); Carrington, Gerry [Department of Physics, University of Otago (New Zealand); Gnoth, Daniel; Lawson, Rob [Department of Marketing, University of Otago (New Zealand); Thorsnes, Paul [Department of Economics, University of Otago (New Zealand)

    2010-10-15

    Achieving a 'step-change' in energy efficiency behaviours will require enhanced knowledge of behavioural drivers, and translation of this knowledge into successful intervention programmes. The 'Energy Cultures' conceptual framework aims to assist in understanding the factors that influence energy consumption behaviour, and to help identify opportunities for behaviour change. Building on a history of attempts to offer multi-disciplinary integrating models of energy behaviour, we take a culture-based approach to behaviour, while drawing also from lifestyles and systems thinking. The framework provides a structure for addressing the problem of multiple interpretations of 'behaviour' by suggesting that it is influenced by the interactions between cognitive norms, energy practices and material culture. The Energy Cultures framework is discussed in the context of a New Zealand case study, which demonstrates its development and application. It has already provided a basis for cross-disciplinary collaboration, and for multi-disciplinary research design, and has provided insights into behavioural change in a case study community. As the conceptual basis of a 3-year research project, the framework has further potential to identify clusters of 'energy cultures' - similar patterns of norms, practices and/or material culture - to enable the crafting of targeted actions to achieve behaviour change.

  17. Energy cultures: A framework for understanding energy behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Janet; Barton, Barry; Carrington, Gerry; Gnoth, Daniel; Lawson, Rob; Thorsnes, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Achieving a 'step-change' in energy efficiency behaviours will require enhanced knowledge of behavioural drivers, and translation of this knowledge into successful intervention programmes. The 'Energy Cultures' conceptual framework aims to assist in understanding the factors that influence energy consumption behaviour, and to help identify opportunities for behaviour change. Building on a history of attempts to offer multi-disciplinary integrating models of energy behaviour, we take a culture-based approach to behaviour, while drawing also from lifestyles and systems thinking. The framework provides a structure for addressing the problem of multiple interpretations of 'behaviour' by suggesting that it is influenced by the interactions between cognitive norms, energy practices and material culture. The Energy Cultures framework is discussed in the context of a New Zealand case study, which demonstrates its development and application. It has already provided a basis for cross-disciplinary collaboration, and for multi-disciplinary research design, and has provided insights into behavioural change in a case study community. As the conceptual basis of a 3-year research project, the framework has further potential to identify clusters of 'energy cultures' - similar patterns of norms, practices and/or material culture - to enable the crafting of targeted actions to achieve behaviour change.

  18. Executable Behaviour and the π-Calculus (extended abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Luttik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive Turing machines extend classical Turing machines with a facility to model observable interactive behaviour. We call a behaviour executable if, and only if, it is behaviourally equivalent to the behaviour of a reactive Turing machine. In this paper, we study the relationship between executable behaviour and behaviour that can be specified in the pi-calculus. We establish that all executable behaviour can be specified in the pi-calculus up to divergence-preserving branching bisimilarity. The converse, however, is not true due to (intended limitations of the model of reactive Turing machines. That is, the pi-calculus allows the specification of behaviour that is not executable up to divergence-preserving branching bisimilarity. Motivated by an intuitive understanding of executability, we then consider a restriction on the operational semantics of the pi-calculus that does associate with every pi-term executable behaviour, at least up to the version of branching bisimilarity that does not require the preservation of divergence.

  19. Behaviour of cyanides in soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    contamination in soils and groundwater are discussed. Toxicological and analytical aspects of cyanide containing compounds are briefly touched. The behaviour of cyanide compounds in soil and groundwater is governed by many interacting chemical and microbial processes. Redox conditions and pH are of importance...... is evaluated. At gas work sites, where cyanide is mainly present as iron cyanide complexes, the risk for effects on humans from exposure to cyanide compounds seems to be of minor relevance....

  20. Behaviour of potassium hexabromoruthenate (4) in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, O.V.; Miroshnichenko, I.V.; Pichkov, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Behaviour of potassium hexabromoruthenate in HBr, H 2 O-acetone, dimethylformamide, dimetnylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions is investigated by means of absorption and ESR specroscopy. Complex is shown to be labile, interacts easily with solvents forming ruthenium complexes in more low oxidation degrees. Hexabromoruthenate-ion is formed in concentrated HBr, while in DMSO the formation of ruthenium (3) and (2) bromide-dimethylsulfoxide complexes occurs gradually, final product is trans-[Ru(DMSO) 4 Br 2

  1. Public transport optimisation emphasising passengers’ travel behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Passengers in public transport complaining about their travel experiences are not uncommon. This might seem counterintuitive since several operators worldwide are presenting better key performance indicators year by year. The present PhD study focuses on developing optimisation algorithms to enhance the operations of public transport while explicitly emphasising passengers’ travel behaviour and preferences. Similar to economic theory, interactions between supply and demand are omnipresent in ...

  2. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change. PMID:27535821

  3. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change.

  4. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  5. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, the industrialised countries have experienced a shift from the Keynesian state intervention paradigm towards a more market-regulated economy. Firms have found themselves in a new era, where they are expected to self-regulate their behaviour in terms of working conditions...

  6. Immoral behaviour in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmon, P; Tabak, N

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize a social phenomenon that exists in Israel: immoral medicine. In recent years, nurses have been exposed to many instances of immoral medicine in hospitals. We want to protest about the demands for money from patients who are waiting for surgical intervention, arouse the medical community's conscience concerning these immoral activities, and improve professional and moral behaviour.

  7. Controllability of conservative behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we first define the class of J-conservative behaviours with observable storage functions, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. We then provide two main results. The first result states that if J(-xi,xi) is nonsingular, the input cardinality of a J-conservative

  8. Behavioural strategy: Adaptability context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piórkowska Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology. Moreover, the paper concerns to some extent a multi-level approach in strategic management involving individual, team, and organizational level. The aim of the paper is to contribute to extend, on one hand, the ascertainment set in the field of behavioural strategy as behavioural strategy encompasses a mindboggling diversity of topics and methods and its conceptual unity has been hard to achieve (Powell, Lovallo, Fox 2011, p. 1371, and on the other hand, to order mixed approaches to adaptability especially to gain insights on micro-level adapting processes (individual adaptability and adaptive performance in terms of the multi-level approach. The method that has been used is literature studies and the interference is mostly deductive. The structure of the manuscript is four-fold. The first part involves the considerations in the field of adaptability and adaptive performance at the individual level. The issues of adaptability and adaptive performance at the team level have been presented in the second part. The third part encompasses the organizational adaptability assertions. Finally, the conclusion, limitations of the considerations highlighted as well as the future research directions have been emphasized. The overarching key finding is that the behavioural strategy concept may constitute the boundary spanner in exploring and explaining adaptability phenomenon at different levels of analysis.

  9. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; den Hartog, D.

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions:

  10. Behavioural economics, travel behaviour and environmental-transport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel

  11. Behaviour genetics of Drosophila: Non-sexual behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    netic and molecular studies helped to reveal the genetic basis of circadian time keeping and rhythmic behaviours. In ... methods of behavioural analysis from psychology and ethology. ... new properties of neurons, they help to dissect neuronal.

  12. Do the emotional states of pregnant women affect neonatal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Balaguer, Albert; Cavallé, Pere; Canals, Josefa

    2008-11-01

    The emotional states of pregnant women affect the course of their pregnancies, their deliveries and the behaviour and development of their infants. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of positive and negative maternal emotional states on neonatal behaviour at 2-3 days after birth. A sample of 163 healthy full-term newborns was evaluated using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Maternal anxiety, perceived stress, and emotional stability during pregnancy were evaluated in the immediate postpartum period with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Moderate levels of anxiety during pregnancy alter infant orientation and self-regulation. These aspects of infant behaviour could lead to later attachment, behavioural and developmental problems. Maternal emotional stability during pregnancy improves infant self-regulation and several aspects of infant behaviour that may predispose them to better interactions with their parents.

  13. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  14. Social structure and indirect genetic effects: genetics of social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jonathan; Atallah, Jade; Levine, Joel D

    2017-05-01

    The social environment modulates gene expression, physiology, behaviour and patterns of inheritance. For more than 50 years, this concept has been investigated using approaches that include partitioning the social component out of behavioural heritability estimates, studying maternal effects on offspring, and analysing dominance hierarchies. Recent advances have formalized this 'social environment effect' by providing a more nuanced approach to the study of social influences on behaviour while recognizing evolutionary implications. Yet, in most of these formulations, the dynamics of social interactions are not accounted for. Also, the reciprocity between individual behaviour and group-level interactions has been largely ignored. Consistent with evolutionary theory, the principles of social interaction are conserved across a broad range of taxa. While noting parallels in diverse organisms, this review uses Drosophila melanogaster as a case study to revisit what is known about social interaction paradigms. We highlight the benefits of integrating the history and pattern of interactions among individuals for dissecting molecular mechanisms that underlie social modulation of behaviour. © 2016 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  16. Essays on incentives and pro-environmental behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    De Martino, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of four self-contained essays at the nexus of applied microeconomics, behavioural economics, and environmental economics. In the essays of the thesis, I use field experiments and econometric tools to examine the impact of monetary and non monetary incentives for behavioural change during resource scarcity. I use methods of eliciting intrinsic motivations and then empirically test theories on the interaction of intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives. Specifically I ...

  17. Entrepreneurial personality and entrepreneurial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Rodica LUCA

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.

  18. Colour particle states behaviour in the QCD vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuvshinov V.I.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of squeezed and entangled quantum states, the interaction of colour superpositions and multiparticle states with stochastic QCD vacuum is described. It is shown that it leads to a fully mixed quantum state with equal probabilities for different colours. Decoherence rate is found to be proportional to the product of the distance between colour charges and the time during which this interaction has taken place. I.e. such an interaction seems to lead naturally to confinement of quarks.

  19. The behavioural ecology of irrational behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneman, Philippe; Martens, Johannes

    2017-08-17

    Natural selection is often envisaged as the ultimate cause of the apparent rationality exhibited by organisms in their specific habitat. Given the equivalence between selection and rationality as maximizing processes, one would indeed expect organisms to implement rational decision-makers. Yet, many violations of the clauses of rationality have been witnessed in various species such as starlings, hummingbirds, amoebas and honeybees. This paper attempts to interpret such discrepancies between economic rationality (defined by the main axioms of rational choice theory) and biological rationality (defined by natural selection). After having distinguished two kinds of rationality we introduce irrationality as a negation of economic rationality by biologically rational decision-makers. Focusing mainly on those instances of irrationalities that can be understood as exhibiting inconsistency in making choices, i.e. as non-conformity of a given behaviour to axioms such as transitivity or independence of irrelevant alternatives, we propose two possible families of Darwinian explanations that may account for these apparent irrationalities. First, we consider cases where natural selection may have been an indirect cause of irrationality. Second, we consider putative cases where violations of rationality axioms may have been directly favored by natural selection. Though the latter cases (prima facie) seem to clearly contradict our intuitive representation of natural selection as a process that maximizes fitness, we argue that they are actually unproblematic; for often, they can be redescribed as cases where no rationality axiom is violated, or as situations where no adaptive solution exists in the first place.

  20. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... of key journals and personal contact with content area experts. Randomised controlled trials and non-equivalent group designs with pre- and post-intervention measures were included. Outcome measures were those used by the study authors. For each study we determined whether these were positive, negative...

  1. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    separate key aspects hinders strategic energy efficiency planning. For this reason, the PLEEC project – “Planning for Energy Efficient Cities” – funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme uses an integrative approach to achieve the sus‐ tainable, energy– efficient, smart city. By coordinating strategies...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...... of the European Union’s 20‐20‐20 plan is to improve energy efficiency by 20% in 2020. However, holistic knowledge about energy efficiency potentials in cities is far from complete. Currently, a WP4 location in PLEEC project page 3 variety of individual strategies and approaches by different stakeholders tackling...

  2. [Self-harming behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Nienke; Pollen, Wim; van Meijel, Berno

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of self-harm, a 28-year-old female patient and a 19-year-old female patient with self-harming behaviour are presented. The first patient refused treatment of cut wounds when the doctor enquired about the reason for self-harm. The second patient was referred for mental health care. These cases illustrate the complexity of this behaviour for the patient and the caregiver. Self-harm is often a symbol of underlying problems and serves multiple psychological functions. It is mostly used by patients to cope with unbearable emotions for which they have no other solution. The self-harm invokes different feelings in caregivers which tend to influence the attitude of the caregiver towards the patient. It is very important that caregivers are aware of their feelings and use them professionally. People who self-harm should not be judged, but treated respectfully and attention should be paid to their suffering.

  3. Industrial organization and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    GNUTZMANN, Hinnerk

    2013-01-01

    Examining Board: Professor Thomas Gehrig, University of Vienna Professor Piero Gottardi, Supervisor, European University Institute Professor Andrea Mattozzi, European University Institute Professor Domenico Menicucci, University of Florence. Defence date: 10 September 2013 First made available online on 3 February 2014. This thesis collects three papers in industrial organization and behaviour, unified in their focus on the digital economy. The first two papers study markets for s...

  4. Suicidal ideation and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Korczak, Daphne J

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Canadian adolescents. The present practice point provides paediatricians and child health professionals with a framework for assessing the adolescent with suicidal thoughts and/or behaviours. The epidemiological context, general considerations and practical suggestions for how to approach the suicidal adolescent are reviewed. Paediatricians can and should screen youth for mental illness and significant psychosocial stressors. Early identification and ...

  5. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  6. Quantum circuit behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, D.

    1989-09-01

    Single electron tunnelling in multiply connected weak link systems is considered. Using a second quantised approach the tunnel current, in both normal and superconducting systems, using perturbation theory, is derived. The tunnel currents are determined as a function of an Aharanov-Bohm phase (acquired by the electrons). Using these results, the multiply connected system is then discussed when coupled to a resonant LC circuit. The resulting dynamics of this composite system are then determined. In the superconducting case the results are compared and contrasted with flux mode behaviour seen in large superconducting weak link rings. Systems in which the predicted dynamics may be seen are also discussed. In analogy to the electron tunnelling analysis, the tunnelling of magnetic flux quanta through the weak link is also considered. Here, the voltage across the weak link, due to flux tunnelling, is determined as a function of an externally applied current. This is done for both singly and multiply connected flux systems. The results are compared and contrasted with charge mode behaviour seen in superconducting weak link systems. Finally, the behaviour of simple quantum fluids is considered when subject to an external rotation. Using a microscopic analysis it is found that the microscopic quantum behaviour of the particles is manifest on a macroscopic level. Results are derived for bosonic, fermionic and BCS pair-type systems. The connection between flux quantisation in electromagnetic systems is also made. Using these results, the dynamics of such a quantum fluid is considered when coupled to a rotating torsional oscillator. The results are compared with those found in SQUID devices. A model is also presented which discusses the possible excited state dynamics of such a fluid. (author)

  7. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Ocean acidification impairs crab foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Luke F; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Piehler, Michael F; Westfield, Isaac; Ries, Justin B

    2015-07-07

    Anthropogenic elevation of atmospheric CO2 is driving global-scale ocean acidification, which consequently influences calcification rates of many marine invertebrates and potentially alters their susceptibility to predation. Ocean acidification may also impair an organism's ability to process environmental and biological cues. These counteracting impacts make it challenging to predict how acidification will alter species interactions and community structure. To examine effects of acidification on consumptive and behavioural interactions between mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica), oysters were reared with and without caged crabs for 71 days at three pCO2 levels. During subsequent predation trials, acidification reduced prey consumption, handling time and duration of unsuccessful predation attempt. These negative effects of ocean acidification on crab foraging behaviour more than offset any benefit to crabs resulting from a reduction in the net rate of oyster calcification. These findings reveal that efforts to evaluate how acidification will alter marine food webs should include quantifying impacts on both calcification rates and animal behaviour. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Model investigation of fuel rod behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, M.M.; Wiesenack, W.; Stegemann, D.

    1985-06-01

    Thermal and mechanical behaviour of fuel rods can be explained but unsatisfactorily by models based of an axial symmetry concept. Recently developed models include, with respect to their thermal components, a simple method for the computation of the temperature distribution within the fuel, and they also take into account the influence of excentrically placed pellets for the computation of heat transfer in the cold gap. Additionally, a finite-element model is used to evaluate the effects of cracking and fragmentation on the thermal behaviour of pellets. The reaction of fuel and fuel cladding to external and internal loadings and the axial interaction between fuel and cladding are described in the mechanical portion of the model. A special case of axial coupling is the so-called random stacking interaction caused by fuel pellets placed excentrically at the cladding and sliding radially and axially. In the comparison of measurement results, both thermal and mechanical behaviour of different rods from the OECD Halden Reactor Project are subject to investigations. (RF) [de

  10. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  11. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavioural response to bioinspired robotic fish and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The field of ethorobotics holds promise in aiding fundamental research in animal behaviour, whereby it affords fully controllable and easily reproducible experimental tools. Most of the current ethorobotics studies are focused on the behavioural response of a selected target species as it interacts with a biologically-inspired robot in controlled laboratory conditions. In this work, we first explore the interactions between two social fish species and a robotic fish, whose design is inspired by salient visual features of one of the species. Specifically, this study investigates the behavioural response of small shoals of zebrafish interacting with a zebrafish-inspired robotic fish and small shoals of mosquitofish in a basic ecological context. Our results demonstrate that the robotic fish differentially influences the behaviour of the two species by consistently attracting zebrafish, while repelling mosquitofish. This selective behavioural control is successful in spatially isolating the two species, which would otherwise exhibit prey–predator interactions, with mosquitofish attacking zebrafish. (communication)

  12. Functional architecture of behavioural thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D

    2011-01-01

    The human thermoregulatory system relies primarily on behavioural adaptation and secondarily on autonomic and endocrine responses for thermal homeostasis. This is because autonomic and endocrine responses have a limited capacity in preventing hyper/hypothermia in extreme environments. Until recently, the neuroanatomy of behavioural thermoregulation as well as the neuroanatomic substrate of the various thermoregulatory behaviours remained largely unknown. However, this situation has changed in recent years as behavioural thermoregulation has become a topic of considerable attention. The present review evaluates the current knowledge on behavioural thermoregulation in order to summarize the present state-of-the-art and to point towards future research directions. Findings on the fundamental distinction between thermal (dis)comfort and sensation are reviewed showing that the former drives behaviour while the latter initiates autonomic thermoregulation. Moreover, the thermosensitive neurons and thermoeffector functions of behavioural thermoregulation are presented and analysed in a detailed discussion.

  13. Modelling consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander

    2000-01-01

    Human existence cannot be separated from the natural environment humans live in. People are constantly interacting with their environment to maintain and improve their living conditions. This interaction with natural systems supports the existence and viability of societies and cultures. However,

  14. Colour for Behavioural Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Colour information not only helps sustain the survival of animal species by guiding sexual selection and foraging behaviour but also is an important factor in the cultural and technological development of our own species. This is illustrated by examples from the visual arts and from state-of-the-art imaging technology, where the strategic use of colour has become a powerful tool for guiding the planning and execution of interventional procedures. The functional role of colour information in terms of its potential benefits to behavioural success across the species is addressed in the introduction here to clarify why colour perception may have evolved to generate behavioural success. It is argued that evolutionary and environmental pressures influence not only colour trait production in the different species but also their ability to process and exploit colour information for goal-specific purposes. We then leap straight to the human primate with insight from current research on the facilitating role of colour cues on performance training with precision technology for image-guided surgical planning and intervention. It is shown that local colour cues in two-dimensional images generated by a surgical fisheye camera help individuals become more precise rapidly across a limited number of trial sets in simulator training for specific manual gestures with a tool. This facilitating effect of a local colour cue on performance evolution in a video-controlled simulator (pick-and-place) task can be explained in terms of colour-based figure-ground segregation facilitating attention to local image parts when more than two layers of subjective surface depth are present, as in all natural and surgical images. PMID:29770183

  15. Behavioural design: A process for integrating behaviour change and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hartlev, Charlotte Gram; Durazo, Christine Boysen

    2017-01-01

    Nudge, persuasion, and the influencing of human behaviour through design are increasingly important topics in design research and in the wider public consciousness. However, current theoretical approaches to behaviour change have yet to be operationalized this in design process support....... Specifically, there are few empirically grounded processes supporting designers in realising behaviour change projects. In response to this, 20 design projects from a case company are analysed in order to distil a core process for behavioural design. Results show a number of process stages and activities...... associated with project success, pointing to a new perspective on the traditional design process, and allowing designers to integrate key insights from behaviour change theory. Using this foundation we propose the Behavioural Design process....

  16. Developing Leadership Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter

    Managers in the public sector act in a political context full of dilemmas. Nevertheless, they must show courage, efficiency, make difficult decisions, prioritize and produce results for the citizens. This seems to demand new and/or better ways of leading the public sector. Leadership development......, education and training are some of the tools, which are often used to renew, rethink and restructure leadership as well as management. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of formal leadership education on developing public leadership behaviour....

  17. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  18. The need for a behavioural analysis of behavioural addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard J E; Tunney, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    This review discusses research on behavioural addictions (i.e. associative learning, conditioning), with reference to contemporary models of substance addiction and ongoing controversies in the behavioural addictions literature. The role of behaviour has been well explored in substance addictions and gambling but this focus is often absent in other candidate behavioural addictions. In contrast, the standard approach to behavioural addictions has been to look at individual differences, psychopathologies and biases, often translating from pathological gambling indicators. An associative model presently captures the core elements of behavioural addiction included in the DSM (gambling) and identified for further consideration (internet gaming). Importantly, gambling has a schedule of reinforcement that shows similarities and differences from other addictions. While this is more likely than not applicable to internet gaming, it is less clear whether it is so for a number of candidate behavioural addictions. Adopting an associative perspective, this paper translates from gambling to video gaming, in light of the existing debates on this matter and the nature of the distinction between these behaviours. Finally, a framework for applying an associative model to behavioural addictions is outlined, and it's application toward treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Automatic visual tracking and social behaviour analysis with multiple mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giancardo

    Full Text Available Social interactions are made of complex behavioural actions that might be found in all mammalians, including humans and rodents. Recently, mouse models are increasingly being used in preclinical research to understand the biological basis of social-related pathologies or abnormalities. However, reliable and flexible automatic systems able to precisely quantify social behavioural interactions of multiple mice are still missing. Here, we present a system built on two components. A module able to accurately track the position of multiple interacting mice from videos, regardless of their fur colour or light settings, and a module that automatically characterise social and non-social behaviours. The behavioural analysis is obtained by deriving a new set of specialised spatio-temporal features from the tracker output. These features are further employed by a learning-by-example classifier, which predicts for each frame and for each mouse in the cage one of the behaviours learnt from the examples given by the experimenters. The system is validated on an extensive set of experimental trials involving multiple mice in an open arena. In a first evaluation we compare the classifier output with the independent evaluation of two human graders, obtaining comparable results. Then, we show the applicability of our technique to multiple mice settings, using up to four interacting mice. The system is also compared with a solution recently proposed in the literature that, similarly to us, addresses the problem with a learning-by-examples approach. Finally, we further validated our automatic system to differentiate between C57B/6J (a commonly used reference inbred strain and BTBR T+tf/J (a mouse model for autism spectrum disorders. Overall, these data demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of this new machine learning system in the detection of social and non-social behaviours in multiple (>2 interacting mice, and its versatility to deal with different

  20. The environmental behaviour of radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.

    1980-09-01

    Radium-226 and its daughter, radon-222, an inert gas, are important members of the uranium decay series as far as human exposure is concerned. Radon diffuses from rocks, soil and water into the atmosphere, and its daughter products polonium-218 and polonium-214 can be retained in the lungs. Radium and radon are contained in emissions from fossil fuel plants, fertilizers, natural gas, building materials and uranium ore. To assess the impact of man's use, intentional or not, of radium and its daughters, we must know their physical, chemical and biological behaviour. This report examines the literature pertinent to the natural levels of radium found in rock, soil, water and plants. Information concerning radium is integrated from several disciplines. The radiological properties and chemistry of radium, and radium-soil interactions are discussed as well as the soil distribution coefficient and the mode of soil transport of radium. Plant transfer coefficients for radium and methods of analysis and measurement are given. A list of topics requiring further research concludes the report. (auth)

  1. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  2. [Health behaviour of doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Anikó

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviour involves maintaining, improving and restoration of health. The aim of the author was to assess correlations of health behaviour with age, gender, job type and overtime. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire (N = 186). Data were analyzed with chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Doctors working in in-patient care drink more coffee (p = 0.034) and energy drinks (p = 0.018); they eat undisturbed only on weekends at home (p = 0.032). Men consume more alcohol (p = 0.003), red meats (pmeals (p = 0.018) and their daily fluid consumption exceeds 2 litres (p = 0.005); their body mass index values are higher compared to women (peat more hot meals (p = 0.005), and those under the age of 30 consume more crisps, fast food (p = 0.001) and energy drinks (p = 0.005), while they are more active (p = 0.010). Dietary habits of doctors are not ideal and their physical activity is diminished compared to international trends. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(30), 1198-1206.

  3. The influence of collective behaviour on pacing in endurance competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eRenfree

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of theoretical models have been proposed to explain pacing strategies in individual competitive endurance events. These have typically related to internal regulatory processes informing the making of decisions relating to muscular work rate. Despite a substantial body of research investigating the influence of collective group dynamics on individual behaviours in various animal species, this issue has not been comprehensively studied in individual athletic events. This is surprising given that athletes directly compete in close proximity to one another, and that collective behaviour has also been observed in other human environments. Whilst reasons for adopting collective behaviour are not fully understood, it is thought to result from individual agents following simple local rules resulting in seemingly complex large systems acting to confer some biological advantage to the collective as a whole. Although such collective behaviours may generally be beneficial, endurance events are complicated by the fact that increasing levels of physiological disruption as activity progresses may compromise the ability of individuals to continue to interact with other group members. This could result in early fatigue and relative underperformance due to suboptimal utilisation of physiological resources by some athletes. Alternatively, engagement with a collective behaviour may benefit all due to a reduction in the complexity of decisions to be made and a subsequent reduction in cognitive loading and mental fatigue. This paper seeks evidence for collective behaviour in previously published analyses of pacing behaviour and proposes mechanisms through which it could potentially be either beneficial, or detrimental to individual performance.

  4. Inclusive Education: Teachers' Intentions and Behaviour Analysed from the Viewpoint of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Sin, Kuen-fung

    2014-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) claims that behaviour can be predicted by behavioural intention and perceived behavioural control, while behavioural intention is a function of attitude towards the behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. This study aims at providing explanation and prediction of teachers' inclusive…

  5. Critical dynamics of an interacting magnetic nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Jonsson, P.E.; Nordblad, P.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of dipole-dipole interactions on the magnetic relaxation have been investigated for three Fe-C nanoparticle samples with volume concentrations of 0.06, 5 and 17 vol%. While both the 5 and 17 vol% samples exhibit collective behaviour due to dipolar interactions, only the 17 vol% sample dis...... displays critical behaviour close to its transition temperature. The behaviour of the 5 vol% sample can be attributed to a mixture of collective and single-particle dynamics....

  6. Pellet-clad interaction in water reactor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this seminar is was to draw up a comprehensive picture of the pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod. This document is a detailed abstract of the papers presented during the following five sessions: industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in pile rod behaviour and modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  7. Pellet-clad interaction in water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this seminar is was to draw up a comprehensive picture of the pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod. This document is a detailed abstract of the papers presented during the following five sessions: industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in pile rod behaviour and modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  8. Universal hadron behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    By means of dispersion relations the total cross sections of πp and pp interactions were extrapolated to energies above 1000 GeV using experimental data obtained from an experiment at the CERN SPS machine. (HSI).

  9. Driving behavioural change towards ecodesign integration: Nudging experiment in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brones, Fabien; Gyldendal Melberg, Morten; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from soci...... systemically consider individuals’ engagement, including behavioural aspects, interaction with project teams and higher level business organisations.......This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from social...... sciences and policy making. An empirical experiment identified and tested employee motivations in combination with behavioural influences, in order to positively affect employees’ intention to practice ecodesign. This original experience of green nudging in a private company context supported the diffusion...

  10. Model Hadron asymptotic behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralchevsky, P.; Nikolov, A.

    1983-01-01

    The work is devoted to the problem of solving a set of asymptotic equations describing the model hardon interaction. More specifically an interactive procedure consisting of two stages is proposed and the first stage is exhaustively studied here. The principle of contracting transformations has been applied for this purpose. Under rather general and natural assumptions, solutions in a series of metric spaces suitable for physical applications have been found. For each of these spaces a solution with unique definiteness is found. (authors)

  11. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  12. FOSTERING ADOLESCENTS' INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. ..... communication problems (Akinade, 1988, Aremu, 1998, Ojekunle, 1999, .... Restructuring on the Enhancement of Self Esteem of Visually Impaired.

  13. Predicting sugar-sweetened behaviours with theory of planned behaviour constructs: Outcome and process results from the SIPsmartER behavioural intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie M; Porter, Kathleen J; Chen, Yvonnes; Hedrick, Valisa E; You, Wen; Hickman, Maja; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    Guided by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and health literacy concepts, SIPsmartER is a six-month multicomponent intervention effective at improving SSB behaviours. Using SIPsmartER data, this study explores prediction of SSB behavioural intention (BI) and behaviour from TPB constructs using: (1) cross-sectional and prospective models and (2) 11 single-item assessments from interactive voice response (IVR) technology. Quasi-experimental design, including pre- and post-outcome data and repeated-measures process data of 155 intervention participants. Validated multi-item TPB measures, single-item TPB measures, and self-reported SSB behaviours. Hypothesised relationships were investigated using correlation and multiple regression models. TPB constructs explained 32% of the variance cross sectionally and 20% prospectively in BI; and explained 13-20% of variance cross sectionally and 6% prospectively. Single-item scale models were significant, yet explained less variance. All IVR models predicting BI (average 21%, range 6-38%) and behaviour (average 30%, range 6-55%) were significant. Findings are interpreted in the context of other cross-sectional, prospective and experimental TPB health and dietary studies. Findings advance experimental application of the TPB, including understanding constructs at outcome and process time points and applying theory in all intervention development, implementation and evaluation phases.

  14. Predicting sugar-sweetened behaviours with theory of planned behaviour constructs: Outcome and process results from the SIPsmartER behavioural intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie M.; Porter, Kathleen J.; Chen, Yvonnes; Hedrick, Valisa E.; You, Wen; Hickman, Maja; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Guided by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and health literacy concepts, SIPsmartER is a six-month multicomponent intervention effective at improving SSB behaviours. Using SIPsmartER data, this study explores prediction of SSB behavioural intention (BI) and behaviour from TPB constructs using: (1) cross-sectional and prospective models and (2) 11 single-item assessments from interactive voice response (IVR) technology. Design Quasi-experimental design, including pre- and post-outcome data and repeated-measures process data of 155 intervention participants. Main Outcome Measures Validated multi-item TPB measures, single-item TPB measures, and self-reported SSB behaviours. Hypothesised relationships were investigated using correlation and multiple regression models. Results TPB constructs explained 32% of the variance cross sectionally and 20% prospectively in BI; and explained 13–20% of variance cross sectionally and 6% prospectively. Single-item scale models were significant, yet explained less variance. All IVR models predicting BI (average 21%, range 6–38%) and behaviour (average 30%, range 6–55%) were significant. Conclusion Findings are interpreted in the context of other cross-sectional, prospective and experimental TPB health and dietary studies. Findings advance experimental application of the TPB, including understanding constructs at outcome and process time points and applying theory in all intervention development, implementation and evaluation phases. PMID:28165771

  15. Comprehensive analysis of tornado statistics in comparison to earthquakes: intensity and temporal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Schielicke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tornadoes and earthquakes are characterised by a high variability in their properties concerning intensity, geometric properties and temporal behaviour. Earthquakes are known for power-law behaviour in their intensity (Gutenberg–Richter law and temporal statistics (e.g. Omori law and interevent waiting times. The observed similarity of high variability of these two phenomena motivated us to compare the statistical behaviour of tornadoes using seismological methods and quest for power-law behaviour. In general, the statistics of tornadoes show power-law behaviour partly coextensive with characteristic scales when the temporal resolution is high (10 to 60 min. These characteristic scales match with the typical diurnal behaviour of tornadoes, which is characterised by a maximum of tornado occurrences in the late afternoon hours. Furthermore, the distributions support the observation that tornadoes cluster in time. Finally, we shortly discuss a possible similar underlying structure composed of heterogeneous, coupled, interactive threshold oscillators that possibly explains the observed behaviour.

  16. Predictive ethoinformatics reveals the complex migratory behaviour of a pelagic seabird, the Manx Shearwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robin; Dean, Ben; Kirk, Holly; Leonard, Kerry; Phillips, Richard A.; Perrins, Chris M.; Guilford, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of animals in the wild is fundamental to conservation efforts. Advances in bio-logging technologies have offered insights into the behaviour of animals during foraging, migration and social interaction. However, broader application of these systems has been limited by device mass, cost and longevity. Here, we use information from multiple logger types to predict individual behaviour in a highly pelagic, migratory seabird, the Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). Using behavioural states resolved from GPS tracking of foraging during the breeding season, we demonstrate that individual behaviours can be accurately predicted during multi-year migrations from low cost, lightweight, salt-water immersion devices. This reveals a complex pattern of migratory stopovers: some involving high proportions of foraging, and others of rest behaviour. We use this technique to examine three consecutive years of global migrations, revealing the prominence of foraging behaviour during migration and the importance of highly productive waters during migratory stopover. PMID:23635496

  17. Reinforcement learning improves behaviour from evaluative feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Michael L.

    2015-05-01

    Reinforcement learning is a branch of machine learning concerned with using experience gained through interacting with the world and evaluative feedback to improve a system's ability to make behavioural decisions. It has been called the artificial intelligence problem in a microcosm because learning algorithms must act autonomously to perform well and achieve their goals. Partly driven by the increasing availability of rich data, recent years have seen exciting advances in the theory and practice of reinforcement learning, including developments in fundamental technical areas such as generalization, planning, exploration and empirical methodology, leading to increasing applicability to real-life problems.

  18. Behavioural Profiling in Cyber-Social Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perno, Jason; Probst, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    Computer systems have evolved from standalone systems, over networked systems, to cyber-physical systems. In all stages, human operators have been essential for the functioning of the system and for understanding system messages. Recent trends make human actors an even more central part of computer...... systems, resulting in what we call "cyber-social systems". In cyber-social systems, human actors and their interaction with a system are essential for the state of the system and its functioning. Both the system's operation and the human's operating it are based on an assumption of each other's behaviour...

  19. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND SATISFACTION TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING – A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO TIRUPPUR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A. Lakshmanan; Dr. V. Karthik

    2018-01-01

    Consumer psychology is the study of the interactions between consumers and organizations that produce consumer products. Consumer behaviour has been of interest to organizational psychologists since the beginning of the field. Consumer behaviour could be conditioned and therefore, predicted and controlled just like any other kind of behaviour. The study of consumer helps the firms and organizations to improve their marketing strategies. Commerce has evolved over the centuries. Prior to the ev...

  20. Affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and social attention in children at high risk of criminal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goozen, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction\\ud exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to\\ud empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective\\ud empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. Methods: Participants were 8-12 year-old children\\ud at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N=114, 80.7% boys) and typically developin...

  1. Big hearts, small hands: a focus group study exploring parental food portion behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kristina; Atkins, Louise; Brown, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of healthy food portion sizes among families is deemed critical to childhood weight management; yet little is known about the interacting factors influencing parents’ portion control behaviours. This study aimed to use two synergistic theoretical models of behaviour: the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation – Behaviour) and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify a broad spectrum of theoretically derived influences on parents’ portion co...

  2. Void analysis of target residues at SPS energy -evidence of correlation with fractal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Das, Rupa . E-mail : dipakghosh_in@yahoo.com

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the target residues in 32 S -AgBr and 16 0 -AgBr interactions at 200 AGeV and 60AGeV respectively in terms of fractal moment by Takagi method and void probability scaling. The study reveals an interesting feature of the production process. In 16 O- AgBr interactions multifractal behaviour is present in both hemispheres and void probability does not show a scaling behaviour, but at high energy the situation changes. In 32 S -AgBr interactions for both hemisphere monofractal behaviour is indicated by that data and void probability also shows good scaling behaviour. This suggests that a possible correlation of void probability with fractal behaviour of target residues. (author)

  3. Magnetic shape memory behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.J.; Gandy, A.P.; Ishida, K.; Kainuma, R.; Kanomata, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Morito, H.; Neumann, K.-U.; Oikawa, K.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Ziebeck, K.R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Materials that can be transformed at one temperature T F , then cooled to a lower temperature T M and plastically deformed and on heating to T F regain their original shape are currently receiving considerable attention. In recovering their shape the alloys can produce a displacement or a force, or a combination of the two. Such behaviour is known as the shape memory effect and usually takes place by change of temperature or applied stress. For many applications the transformation is not sufficiently rapid or a change in temperature/pressure not appropriate. As a result, considerable effort is being made to find a ferromagnetic system in which the effect can be controlled by an applied magnetic field. The results of recent experiments on ferromagnetic shape memory compounds aimed at understanding the underlying mechanism will be reviewed

  4. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc.......The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...

  5. Internet user behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furthermore, the paper looks at a representative sample of Romanian internet users. The results reveal that the Romanians are using the Internet especially for information gathering, e-mail, entertainment and social networking.

  6. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galbiati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy.

  7. CANDU fuel behaviour under transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segel, A.W.L.

    1979-04-01

    The Canadian R and D program to understand CANDU fuel behaviour under transient conditions is described. Fuel sheath behaviour studies have led to the development of a model of transient plastic strain in inert gas, which integrates the deformation due to several mechanisms. Verification tests demonstrated that on average the model overpredicts strain by 20%. From oxidation kinetics studies a sheath failure embrittlement criterion based on oxygen distribution has been developed. We have also established a rate equation for high-temperature stress-dependent crack formation due to embrittlement of the sheath by beryllium. An electric, simulated fuel element is being used in laboratory tests to characterize the behaviour of fuel in the horizontal. In-reactor, post-dryout tests have been done for several years. There is an axially-segmented, axisymmetric fuel element model in place and a fully two-dimensional code is under development. Laboratory testing of bundles, in its early stages, deals with the effects of geometric distortion and sheath-to-sheath interaction. In-reactor, post-dryout tests of CANDU fuel bundles with extensive central UO 2 melting did not result in fuel fragmentation nor damage to the pressure tube. (author)

  8. Transgenerational epigenetic effects on animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade a shift in paradigm has occurred with respect to the interaction between environment and genes. It is now clear that animal genomes are regulated to a large extent as a result of input from environmental events and experiences, which cause short- and long-term modifications in epigenetic markings of DNA and histones. In this review, the evidence that such epigenetic modifications can affect the behaviour of animals is explored, and whether such acquired behaviour alterations can transfer across generation borders. First, the mechanisms by which experiences cause epigenetic modifications are examined. This includes, for example, methylation of cytosine in CpG positions and acetylation of histones, and studies showing that this can be modified by early experiences. Secondly, the evidence that specific modifications in the epigenome can be the cause of behaviour variation is reviewed. Thirdly, the extent to which this phenotypically active epigenetic variants can be inherited either through the germline or through reoccurring environmental conditions is examined. A particularly interesting observation is that epigenetic modifications are often linked to stress, and may possibly be mediated by steroid effects. Finally, the idea that transgenerationally stable epigenetic variants may serve as substrates for natural selection is explored, and it is speculated that they may even predispose for directed, non-random mutations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Foaming behaviour of polymer-surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes-MartInez, Alfredo; Maldonado, Amir

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of a non-ionic amphiphilic polymer (PEG-100 stearate also called Myrj 59) on the foaming behaviour of aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS). The SDS concentration was kept fixed while the Myrj 59 concentration was varied. Measurements of foamability, surface tension and electrical conductivity were carried out. The results show two opposite effects depending on the polymer concentration: foamability is higher when the Myrj 59 concentration is low; however, it decreases considerably when the polymer concentration is increased. This behaviour is due to the polymer adsorption at the air/liquid interface at lower polymer concentrations, and to the formation of a polymer-surfactant complex in the bulk at higher concentrations. The results are confirmed by surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements, which are interpreted in terms of the microstructure of the polymer-surfactant solutions. The observed behaviour is due to the amphiphilic nature of the studied polymer. The increased hydrophobicity of Myrj 59, compared to that of water-soluble polymers like PEG or PEO, increases its 'reactivity' towards SDS, i.e. the strength of its interaction with this anionic surfactant. Our results show that hydrophobically modified polymers have potential applications as additives in order to control the foaming properties of surfactant solutions

  10. Energy expenditure in frontotemporal dementia: a behavioural and imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Collet, Tinh-Hai; van der Klaauw, Agatha A; Devenney, Emma; Henning, Elana; Kiernan, Matthew C; Piguet, Olivier; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Hodges, John R

    2017-01-01

    , regions previously suggested to be involved exclusively in social and emotion processing in frontotemporal dementia. These neural correlates overlap the network involved in eating behaviour in frontotemporal dementia, suggesting a complex interaction between eating behaviour, autonomic function and energy homeostasis. As such the present study suggests that increased heart rate and autonomic changes are prevalent in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, and are associated with changes in energy expenditure. An understanding of these changes and neural correlates may have potential relevance to disease progression and prognosis. PMID:27789521

  11. Studies on interfacial interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    interaction suggesting possible involvement of >C=O stretch of polyesters. .... in the consumer products, mostly employing their photo- toxic behaviour ... to be undertaken to gain in- sight into non-photocatalytic behaviour of these particles.

  12. Normal feline behaviour: … and why problem behaviours develop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John

    2018-05-01

    Practical relevance: Cats are descended from a solitary, territorial ancestor, and while domestication has reduced their inherited tendency to be antagonistic towards all animals larger than their typical prey, they still place more reliance on the security of their territory than on psychological attachments to people or other cats, the exact opposite to dogs. Many feline problem behaviours stem from perceived threats to this security, often due to conflicts with other cats. Others are more developmental in origin, often caused by inadequate exposure to crucial stimuli, especially people, during the socialisation period. Strongly aversive events experienced at any age can also contribute. A third category comprises normal behaviour that owners deem unacceptable, such as scratching of furniture. Evidence base: This review identifies three areas in which basic research is inadequate to support widely employed concepts and practices in feline behavioural medicine. First, classification of cats' problem behaviours relies heavily on approaches derived from studies of their behavioural ecology and, to some extent, extrapolation from canine studies. Few studies have focused on cats in the home, the environment in which most behavioural disorders are expressed. Secondly, cats' chemical senses (olfactory and vomeronasal) are far more sensitive than our own, making it difficult for owners or clinicians to fully comprehend the sensory information upon which they base their behaviour. Thirdly, although the concept of psychological distress is widely invoked as an intervening variable in behavioural disorders, there are still no reliable measures of distress for pet cats in the home. Global importance: Psychological distress of some kind is the primary cause of many of the behavioural problems presented to clinicians, but surveys indicate that many more cats display the same clinical signs without their owners ever seeking help. The welfare of this 'invisible' group could be

  13. Eating behaviour and stress: a pathway to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body’s resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviours so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the hours following this, however, there is a glucocorticoid-mediated stimulation of hunger and eating behaviour. In the case of an acute stress that requires a physical response, such as a predator-prey interaction, this hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulation of food intake allows the stressful event to be dealt with and the energy used to be replaced afterwards. In the case of ongoing psychological stress, however, chronically elevated glucocorticoids can lead to chronically stimulated eating behaviour and excessive weight gain. In particular, stress can enhance the propensity to eat high calorie palatable food via its interaction with central reward pathways. Activation of this circuitry can also interact with the HPA axis to suppress its further activation, meaning not only can stress encourage eating behaviour, but eating can suppress the HPA axis and the feeling of stress. In this review we will explore the theme of eating behaviour and stress and how these can modulate one another. We will address the interactions between the HPA axis and eating, introducing a potential integrative role for the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We will also examine early life and epigenetic modulation of the HPA axis and how this can influence eating behaviour. Finally, we will investigate the clinical implications of changes to HPA axis function and how this may be contributing to obesity in our society.

  14. Social behaviour of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in a public off-leash dog park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Melissa S; Anderson, Rita E; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2018-03-13

    This study examines the activity budgets and social behaviours initiated and received by 69 focal dogs in an off-leash dog park for 400 s after entry, a time of high activity about which little is known. Using motivationally-neutral labels for social behaviour categories, we describe the frequency of behaviours, and correlations among them. We then examine these relationships in the context of proposed functions for some behaviours in dogs, in terms of information gathering and communication, including visual and tactile signalling. Time spent with other dogs decreased rapidly over the visit, and much of this early interaction involved greeting the park newcomer. Snout-muzzle contact behaviours were ubiquitous, while other behaviours were rarely observed, including aggressive behaviours. Correlations among certain non-contact behaviours initiated and received by focal dogs are consistent with their function as visual signals that may influence the continuation and form of social interactions, and their possible role in social mimicry (i.e., play bow and pull-rear away). Age, sex, and number of dogs present in the park influenced specific aspects of dogs' activity budgets, and a few behaviours. This ethological study provides fundamental data on dog social behaviour in dog parks, about which surprisingly little has been published. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Behaviour in Police Interviews: Relating Data to Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories

  16. Magnetic relaxation behaviour in Pr_2NiSi_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakhira, Santanu; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Time dependent isothemal remanent magnetizatin (IRM) behaviour for polycrystalline compound Pr_2NiSi_3 have been studied below its characteristic temperature. The compound undergoes slow magnetic relaxation with time. Along with competing interaction, non-magnetic atom disorder plays an important role in formation of non-equilibrium glassy like ground state for this compound.

  17. Fuel pins irradiation: experimental devices and analytical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaignan, C.

    1996-01-01

    In this text we present the general characteristics of adapted irradiation loops in research reactors and the main results that we can expected with these loops in the behaviour field of PWR and LMFBR fuels( fuel densification, fuel cladding interactions, fission products release, reactor accidents)

  18. Microanalytic Coding versus Global Rating of Maternal Parenting Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Basha, Allison; Adamson, Michelle; Winter, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between microanalytic coding and global rating systems when coding maternal parenting behaviour in two contexts. Observational data from 55 mother--child interactions with two- to four-year-old children, in either a mealtime (clinic; N?=?20 or control; N?=?20) or a playtime context (community; N?=?15), were…

  19. Activity budgets on social and reproductive behaviour of olive baboons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the activity budgets on social interactions and reproductive behaviour of olive baboon (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti ... Results of polyspecific association shows that the baboons spent 14.29% of the time in association with red flanked duikers, 14.29% with black-and-white ...

  20. Emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The interaction between teachers, classroom strategies and learners experiencing emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in a system of inclusive education results in multiple dynamics on different levels. Many teachers in mainstream education lack training to deal with learners ...

  1. Exploring information seeking behaviour in a digital museum context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of a case study of task-based interactive information seeking and retrieval behaviour of virtual museum visitors in context. The research described here is part of a larger study: this paper specifically looks at 1) leisure tasks/interests and derived ...

  2. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Soil as indicator of hillslope hydrological behaviour in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an interactive relationship between soil and hydrology. Identifying and interpreting soil properties active in this relationship can enhance our understanding of the hydrological behaviour of soils and the hillslopes in which they occur. This study was conducted in the Weatherley research catchment, South Africa, ...

  4. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding social behaviour with the help of complexity science (Invited article)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    In the study of complexity, a new kind of explanation has been developed for social behaviour. It shows how patterns of social behaviour can arise as a side-effect of the interaction of individuals with their social or physical environment (e.g. by self-organization). This development may influence

  6. Influence of User Behaviour on Indoor Environmental Quality and Heating Energy Consumptions in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    Models of occupants’ interactions with heating controls based on measurements were implemented in a simulation program. Simulation results were given as probability distributions of energy consumption and indoor environmental quality depending on user behaviour. Heating set-point behaviour of 13...

  7. Saying Goodbye: An Investigation into Parent-Infant Separation Behaviours on Arrival in Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this small-scale study was to investigate how parental separation behaviours affect the transitional behaviour of infants aged 6-18 months. Thirty parent-infant pairs were observed during the separation process across three metropolitan childcare centres in Adelaide, South Australia. Observed interactions with both their infants and…

  8. Entrepreneurial personality and entrepreneurial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rodica LUCA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.

  9. Financial Literacy and Financial Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the

  10. Reconsidering the sedentary behaviour paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Maher

    Full Text Available AIMS: Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. RESULTS: Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = -0.06 and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04. Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08-0.30 while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12. CONCLUSION: There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity.

  11. Environmental determinants of celeration behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    af Wåhlberg, Anders E

    2015-01-01

    Celeration (speed change) behaviour of drivers has been posited to be the best predictor of their traffic accident involvement. The origins of this behaviour, however, have not been specified. A model is therefore introduced, where celeration is partly due to the individual disposition of the driver (i.e., driving style), and partly to the environment (road layout, rules and traffic density). Three measurement problems for celeration were studied; the effect of traffic density, of regular versus irregular routes, and weight of the vehicle (loaded/unloaded) on celeration behaviour. Two small samples of truck drivers in Sweden were measured for several months each. There was a strong effect of vehicle load, with behaviour being more cautious with increased weight. Driving on different roads also yielded differences in behaviour, although the design used did not permit conclusions about what caused these. Traffic volume was not found to have any reliable effect on celeration.

  12. The Relationships between Parenting Stress, Parenting Behaviour and Preschoolers' Social Competence and Behaviour Problems in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Anthony, Bruno J.; Glanville, Denise N.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Waanders, Christine; Shaffer, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Young children develop social and emotional competence through interactions with others in the two major contexts in which they spend time: home and preschool. This study examined whether parenting stress in the home context is related to the children's behaviour while in preschool. Previous research has suggested that parenting stress negatively…

  13. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov—Maxwell system. A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma. It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light, as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction. The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period. The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade, which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures. For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation, higher-harmonic generation and wave—wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter. In addition, stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  14. Social behaviour of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, S. Y,; Oord, R. van; Staay, F.J. van der; Nordquist, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    Improper social behavior development brings problems in later social life. Several time points are known to be crucial for the development and in other words, susceptible to interruptions during those time points. In conventional pigs, those time points could be categorized to three interaction

  15. Adapting Virtual Camera Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen- er...

  16. Genetic composition of social groups influences male aggressive behaviour and fitness in natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Julia B

    2013-11-22

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour-which is influenced by his or her genotype-can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the 'focal interaction' approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as 'focal interactants': the behavioural interaction between them was the 'focal interaction'. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male-the 'treatment male'. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level.

  17. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Picking battles wisely: plant behaviour under competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoplansky, Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Plants are limited in their ability to choose their neighbours, but they are able to orchestrate a wide spectrum of rational competitive behaviours that increase their prospects to prevail under various ecological settings. Through the perception of neighbours, plants are able to anticipate probable competitive interactions and modify their competitive behaviours to maximize their long-term gains. Specifically, plants can minimize competitive encounters by avoiding their neighbours; maximize their competitive effects by aggressively confronting their neighbours; or tolerate the competitive effects of their neighbours. However, the adaptive values of these non-mutually exclusive options are expected to depend strongly on the plants' evolutionary background and to change dynamically according to their past development, and relative sizes and vigour. Additionally, the magnitude of competitive responsiveness is expected to be positively correlated with the reliability of the environmental information regarding the expected competitive interactions and the expected time left for further plastic modifications. Concurrent competition over external and internal resources and morphogenetic signals may enable some plants to increase their efficiency and external competitive performance by discriminately allocating limited resources to their more promising organs at the expense of failing or less successful organs.

  19. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Agonistic Behaviour in Juvenile Crocodilians

    OpenAIRE

    Brien, Matthew L.; Lang, Jeffrey W.; Webb, Grahame J.; Stevenson, Colin; Christian, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined agonistic behaviour in seven species of hatchling and juvenile crocodilians held in small groups (N = 4) under similar laboratory conditions. Agonistic interactions occurred in all seven species, typically involved two individuals, were short in duration (5-15 seconds), and occurred between 1600-2200 h in open water. The nature and extent of agonistic interactions, the behaviours displayed, and the level of conspecific tolerance varied among species. Discrete postures, non-contact...

  20. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, H.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Behavioural management of migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen; Newman, Craig; Noad, Rupert; Weatherby, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    It is important to recognise that migraine is a ‘biological’ and not a ‘psychological’ entity. However, psychological factors can be involved in migraine in 4 different ways:- 1) Migraines can be triggered by psychological stressors; 2) Severe migraine can itself be a cause of significant psychological stress which can, in turn, exacerbate the problem; 3) Even if psychological stress is not significantly involved in the genesis of the headache, pain management techniques can help people cope with their pain more effectively; 4) Longitudinal data demonstrate a complex bidirectional association between mood disorders and migraine. Treatment of a co-existing mood disorder, for example with cognitive behavioural techniques, may therefore reduce the impact of migraine. It would thus appear logical to view medical and psychological approaches as potentially synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Functional imaging indicates that cognition, emotions, and pain experiences change the way the brain processes pain inputs. This may provide a physiological rationale for psychological interventions in pain management. As most studies of psychological management of migraine have been relatively small and the approach often varies between clinicians, the magnitude of benefit, optimum method of delivery, and the length of intervention are uncertain. PMID:23024569

  2. Behavioural management of migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to recognise that migraine is a ′biological′ and not a ′psychological′ entity. However, psychological factors can be involved in migraine in 4 different ways:- 1 Migraines can be triggered by psychological stressors; 2 Severe migraine can itself be a cause of significant psychological stress which can, in turn, exacerbate the problem; 3 Even if psychological stress is not significantly involved in the genesis of the headache, pain management techniques can help people cope with their pain more effectively; 4 Longitudinal data demonstrate a complex bidirectional association between mood disorders and migraine. Treatment of a co-existing mood disorder, for example with cognitive behavioural techniques, may therefore reduce the impact of migraine. It would thus appear logical to view medical and psychological approaches as potentially synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Functional imaging indicates that cognition, emotions, and pain experiences change the way the brain processes pain inputs. This may provide a physiological rationale for psychological interventions in pain management. As most studies of psychological management of migraine have been relatively small and the approach often varies between clinicians, the magnitude of benefit, optimum method of delivery, and the length of intervention are uncertain.

  3. Dehydration behaviour of hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dette, S.S.; Stelzer, T.; Jones, M.J.; Ulrich, J. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fuer Ingenieurwissenschaften, Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, 06099 Halle (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Immersing a crystalline solvate in a suitable anti-solvent can induce phase transformation to solvent-free solid phase. In certain cases the solvent-mediated phase transition results in the generation of hollow, tubular structures. Both the tube dimensions of sodium-2-keto-L-gulonate anhydrate (skga) and the dehydration kinetics of sodium-2-keto-L-gulonate monohydrate (skgm) can be modified by the antisolvent employed. An explanation for the variable dehydration behaviour of skgm in the antisolvents is presented here. Furthermore, other crystalline hydrates were dehydrated in dry methanol. Providing an operational window can be found, any hydrate material could possibly find use in the production of tubes (micro- or nanotubes for different applications). The experimental conditions selected (dry methanol as antisolvent, dehydration temperature at 25 C) for the dehydration did not lead to the anhydrate tube growth for all hydrates investigated. Based upon the results presented here a first hypothesis is presented to explain this effect. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Behavioural feedback to risk variation ensues from unsatisfied appetency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, C

    1996-07-01

    For a long time, but particularly since the last two decades, the phenomenon of behavioural feedback to risk variation, especially to highway safety measures, has been the subject of numerous papers and debates. It has been advanced that human behaviour ensues from the interaction between two motivational systems: (1) appetency, governed by a homeostasic mechanism, wherein the individual seeks to satisfy needs, and (2) aversion, guided by the principle of zero aversion, whereby the individual seeks to avoid aversive stimuli. When an individual considers the possibility of undertaking an action, he weighs the advantages (appetency) and the disavantages (aversion). If the appetency proves to be stronger than the aversion, the action is completed and ipso facto, the individual accepts the risk associated with it. In this article, it is suggested that the behavioural feedback following a variation in the risk (aversion) ensues from unsatisfied appetency. If the unsatisfied appetency is nil (the individual is already satisfied), a drop in the aversive constraint (e.g. lowered risk of an accident) will not cause any behavioural feedback. On the other hand, if there is an unsatisfied appetency (the individual is not fully satisfied), a drop in the aversive constraint will bring about behavioural feedback in proportion to the level of unsatisfied appetency. Cases in which behavioural feedback is likely to arise and the implications for public policy-making are briefly discussed.

  5. Cannabis use, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel Frederique Heleen

    2013-01-01

    During early adolescence, there is no association between internalizing behaviour and cannabis use. There is an association between externalizing behaviour and cannabis use, where externalizing behaviour precedes cannabis use rather than the other way around. Secondly, during adolescence, there is

  6. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  7. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  8. Dynamic behaviour of suction caissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    Offshore wind energy is a promising source of energy in the near future, and is rapidly becoming competitive with other power generating technologies. The continuous improvement in wind turbine technology means that the wind turbines have increased tremendously in both size and performance during the last 25 years. In order to reduce the costs, the overall weight of the wind turbine components is minimized, which means that the wind turbine structures become more flexible and thus more sensitive to dynamic excitation. Since the first resonance frequency of the modern offshore wind turbines is close to the excitation frequencies of the rotor system, it is of outmost importance to be able to evaluate the resonance frequencies of the wind turbine structure accurately as the wind turbines increase in size. In order to achieve reliable responses of the wind turbine structure during working loads it is necessary to account for the possibilities of dynamic effects of the soil-structure interaction. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of foundations for offshore wind turbines, with the intention that the dynamic properties of the foundation can be properly included in a composite structure-foundation system. The work has been focused on one particular foundation type; the suction caisson. The frequency dependent stiffness (impedance) of the suction caisson has been investigated by means of a three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model, where the soil is simplified as a homogenous linear viscoelastic material. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed in terms of dimensionless frequencydependent coefficients corresponding to the different degrees of freedom. Comparisons with known analytical and numerical solutions indicate that the static and dynamic behaviour of the foundation are predicted accurately with the applied model. The analysis has been carried out for different combinations of the

  9. Preventing and managing challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Nutmeg

    2018-02-21

    Patients exhibiting challenging behaviour, which includes any non-verbal, verbal or physical behaviour, is a significant issue in healthcare settings. Preventing such behaviour and the harm it can cause is important for healthcare organisations and individuals, and involves following a public health model comprised of three tiers: primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention aims to reduce the risk of challenging behaviour occurring in the first instance; secondary prevention involves reducing the risk associated with imminent challenging behaviour and its potential escalation; and tertiary prevention focuses on minimising the physical and emotional harm caused by challenging behaviours, during and after an event. De-escalation should be the first-line response to challenging behaviour, and healthcare staff should use a range of techniques - maintaining safety, self-regulation, effective communication, and assessment and actions - to reduce the incidence of challenging behaviour. In some situations, physical interventions may be required to protect the safety of the individual, healthcare staff and other individuals involved, and healthcare staff should be aware of local policies and procedures for this. Following a serious incident, where there was potential or actual harm to patients and healthcare staff, healthcare organisations should use post-incident reviews to learn from the situation, while healthcare staff should be offered the opportunity for debriefing. Positive responses to challenging behaviour at an organisational and individual level can lead to improved work environments for healthcare staff and optimal patient care and outcomes. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  10. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour

    KAUST Repository

    Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. © 2015 Springer Science

  11. Interactions of socioeconomic determinants, offspring sex preference, and fertility behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongli Tang

    2011-12-01

    society. However, these two factors do not work on husbands in the same way, demonstrating men’s inflexible attitudes toward gender roles in the family and in society. Son preference exerts a positive impact on American-Chinese fertility and prevents further decline; still, this influence has been diminishing since 1990, as observed in this study.

  12. Sensing behaviour in healthcare design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Hysse Forchhammer, Birgitte; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    We are entering an era of distributed healthcare that should fit and respond to individual needs, behaviour and lifestyles. Designing such systems is a challenging task that requires continuous information about human behaviour on a large scale, for which pervasive sensing (e.g. using smartphones...... specifically on activity and location data that can easily be obtained from smartphones or wearables. We further demonstrate how these are applied in healthcare design using an example from dementia care. Comparing a current and proposed scenario exemplifies how integrating sensor-derived information about...... user behaviour can support the healthcare design goals of personalisation, adaptability and scalability, while emphasising patient quality of life....

  13. Strategic behaviour under regulatory benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamasb, T. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Economics; Nillesen, P. [NUON NV (Netherlands); Pollitt, M. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Judge Inst. of Management

    2004-09-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of electricity distribution networks, some regulators have adopted incentive regulation schemes that rely on performance benchmarking. Although regulation benchmarking can influence the ''regulation game,'' the subject has received limited attention. This paper discusses how strategic behaviour can result in inefficient behaviour by firms. We then use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with US utility data to examine implications of illustrative cases of strategic behaviour reported by regulators. The results show that gaming can have significant effects on the measured performance and profitability of firms. (author)

  14. Qualitative assessment of temporal fluctuations on buffalo behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serrapica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative assessment of animal behaviour (QBA is an integrative, whole-animal methodology based on the qualitative interpretation of the dynamic style in which animals interact with their environment. In other words, it describes not what the animals do, but how they do what they do. We aimed to verify whether the QBA was able to detect the behavioural fluctuations occurring in animals in response to an environmental challenge. An 8-member panel was used. The panel was briefly trained on the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS procedure and subsequently asked to observe the behaviour of 4 buffalo heifers in 4 videos lasting 2 min each and score the behavioural expression of the animals following the TDS procedure. TDS consists in presenting to the panellist the list of behavioural descriptors on a computer screen along with each video. Each video was obtained by assembling two clips concerning the same animal in two different conditions: home indoor pen (1 min and novel outdoor paddock (1 min. Two videos started with the animal in the outdoor environment and two others in the opposite order. Six behavioural descriptors were chosen from a previous work conducted on the same animals: calm, active, curious, nervous, shy and apathetic. Each assessor was asked to select the dominant descriptor, which was considered as dominant when it gained most of the attention of the observer. Each time the observer felt the behaviour changed, he/she scored the new dominant descriptor until the behaviour ended. Each video was observed 4 times by each observer (4 replications in a randomised order at 24-h intervals. For each point of time, the proportion of runs (subject × replication for which a given descriptor was assessed as dominant (dominance rate >30% was computed. Results showed a satisfactory agreement among observers and replications. The observers clearly discriminated the first from the second half of each video. Calm and apathetic were

  15. Ocean acidification alters predator behaviour and reduces predation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Fields, Jennifer B; Munday, Philip L

    2017-02-01

    Ocean acidification poses a range of threats to marine invertebrates; however, the emerging and likely widespread effects of rising carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels on marine invertebrate behaviour are still little understood. Here, we show that ocean acidification alters and impairs key ecological behaviours of the predatory cone snail Conus marmoreus Projected near-future seawater CO 2 levels (975 µatm) increased activity in this coral reef molluscivore more than threefold (from less than 4 to more than 12 mm min -1 ) and decreased the time spent buried to less than one-third when compared with the present-day control conditions (390 µatm). Despite increasing activity, elevated CO 2 reduced predation rate during predator-prey interactions with control-treated humpbacked conch, Gibberulus gibberulus gibbosus; 60% of control predators successfully captured and consumed their prey, compared with only 10% of elevated CO 2 predators. The alteration of key ecological behaviours of predatory invertebrates by near-future ocean acidification could have potentially far-reaching implications for predator-prey interactions and trophic dynamics in marine ecosystems. Combined evidence that the behaviours of both species in this predator-prey relationship are altered by elevated CO 2 suggests food web interactions and ecosystem structure will become increasingly difficult to predict as ocean acidification advances over coming decades. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. How can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel; Heeren, Alexandre; Schimmenti, Adriano; van Rooij, Antonius; Maurage, Pierre; Carras, Michelle; Edman, Johan; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Khazaal, Yasser; Billieux, Joël

    2017-10-01

    Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Dynamical behaviour of neuronal networks iterated with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melatagia, P.M.; Ndoundam, R.; Tchuente, M.

    2005-11-01

    We study memory iteration where the updating consider a longer history of each site and the set of interaction matrices is palindromic. We analyze two different ways of updating the networks: parallel iteration with memory and sequential iteration with memory that we introduce in this paper. For parallel iteration, we define Lyapunov functional which permits us to characterize the periods behaviour and explicitly bounds the transient lengths of neural networks iterated with memory. For sequential iteration, we use an algebraic invariant to characterize the periods behaviour of the studied model of neural computation. (author)

  18. Behavioural Study of Sanan and Jamnapari Cross Bred Goats Kept in a Stilted House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiesha Jayamini De silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A sound understanding of the normal behaviour of an animal is important to assess its welfare standards. Behaviour of confined animals is useful in order to design proper housing systems. Objective of this study was to understand the behaviour of goats kept in a stilted house. Behaviour of 14 Sanan and Jamnapari goats (14Kg-37Kg kept in stilted house was observed using an ethograme for six one hour sessions in two days (rainy and hot. Each session lasted for five minutes. Frequency and times spent on seventeen mutually exhaustive behaviours were recorded. Goats spent significantly (P<0.05 more time on eating (31% than any of the other behaviours. Other important behaviours were resting (11%, licking (10%, ruminating (10% and walking (9.5%. Goats spent a substantial time on behaviours such as lying (7.3%, running (6.3%, freezing (6% and animal interaction (5.7%. The time budget on behaviours such as saltate (0.5%, sniffing (0.59%, chattering (0.59% and importantly on drinking (0.6% were very low. Behaviors such as freezing, head movement, animal interaction, saltate, running, rumination, chattering and chirping were affected by the climatic condition of the day. It was concluded that goats kept in stilted houses spend one third of their time budget on eating and but very little time on drinking.

  19. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Measuring risky adolescent cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-09-01

    Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.

  1. Anomalous spreading behaviour of polyethyleneglycoldistearate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Anomalous behaviour; polythyleneglycoldistearate; air/water interface; ... distinguished these monolayer states in terms of molecular ordering, including the .... It has been found that the compressibilities of the materials in the condensed phase.

  2. Asymptotic behaviour in field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, H.

    1980-07-01

    Asymptotic behaviour in field theory has been studied and the anomalies are pointed out in two specific cases, (i) the infrared and fixed angle high energy behaviour in the non-trivial case of the 'box' amplitude in a scalar-scalar theory and (ii) high energy behaviour of a sixth order Yang-Mills diagram. A set of rules are presented for writing down the precise leading infrared behaviour of an arbitrary generalised ladder diagram (GLD) in QED. These rules are the final result of a detailed analysis of the relevant amplitudes in the Feynman parameter space. The connection between the infrared and fixed angle high energy limits of generalised ladder diagrams is explained. It is argued that the same set of rules yield the fixed angle high energy limit.

  3. Behavioural Finance and Its Postulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Vučinić

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for dealing with the chosen topic can be found in the fact that there is a certain number of anomalies, system errors and conduct leaving the frames of rational behaviour, not being included and presented synthetically within a concise scientific work. Instead, the analysis deals with definite, already identified postulates of behavioural economics and finance. During the research, induction, deduction, comparative and abstraction methods are used. The challenge of the research lies in the identification of those system errors, partialities and behaviours deviating from postulates of rational, typical for classical finance, not being covered by standard behavioural, economic and finance literature. However, the challenge is even bigger because of the fact that it deals with answers to demands of universality and conciseness. Its greatest importance is reflected in the extent of identified and processed anomalies decision makers face, as well as in the identification and description of factors implying absence of rationality during the decision making process.

  4. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs......Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  5. Obesity and prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Danish women aged 16-29 from two nationwide, representative, cross-sectional interview/questionnaire surveys from 2000 and 2005 are analyzed for trends in prevalence of risk behaviour for developing eating disorders and associations to BMI and age. METHODS: Participants completed the Danish...... Health Interview Survey and an 8-item screen, RiBED-8, for risk behaviour for eating disorders. To analyze how the prevalence of risk behaviour depends on age, BMI, and year of survey, logistic regression analyses were applied. On acceptance of no interaction, the effect of each variable was tested...... and described using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Women aged 16-19 or with a BMI of>25 had the greatest chance of reporting risk behaviour for eating disorders. However, many women in their 20s also had risk behaviour. Prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders did not change from...

  6. Marketing channel behaviour and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Margarida

    2000-01-01

    Thesis submitted to University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Business Administration. A major aim of this study is to offer a relatively comprehensive picture of marketing channel behaviour and performance. Given the statistical difficulties in testing a very large, comprehensive model to achieve this aim, two separate but overlapping models are proposed. One model specifically addresses behaviour in marketing channels, while the other integrates k...

  7. Social Behaviour in Public Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Nicole Alicia-Marie; Munch, Kathrine; Johansen, Gitte Højgaard; Duvarci, Medine

    2011-01-01

    Social behaviour in public transportation is a project that focuses on how passengers within the public transportation system behave, in terms of social psychology and psychological anthropology. Through the use of theoretical approaches, that being social psychology and psychological anthropology, we aimed to find patterns of social and anti-social behaviour. In order to gather valid research data, we conducted various observations in trains and busses in both London and Copenhagen. Through ...

  8. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ELECTRIC FANS

    OpenAIRE

    Inderpreet Singh

    2017-01-01

    The study of consumer behaviour develops great interest for consumers, students, scientists, and marketers. As consumers, we need insights into our own consumption related decisions: what we buy, why we buy, and how we buy. The aim of the study is to cover entire research about consumer behaviour towards electric fans and different factors affecting their buying decision. A sample of 200 consumers of electric fans is taken. Questionnaire has been analysed with the help of pie diagram & bar ch...

  9. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  10. A Time to Wean? Impact of Weaning Age on Anxiety-Like Behaviour and Stability of Behavioural Traits in Full Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S. Helene; Kästner, Niklas; Loddenkemper, Dirk-Heinz; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, weaning constitutes an important phase in the progression to adulthood. It comprises the termination of suckling and is characterized by several changes in the behaviour of both mother and offspring. Furthermore, numerous studies in rodents have shown that the time point of weaning shapes the behavioural profile of the young. Most of these studies, however, have focused on ‘early weaning’, while relatively little work has been done to study ‘late weaning’ effects. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore behavioural effects of ‘late weaning’, and furthermore to gain insights into modulating effects of weaning age on the consistency of behavioural expressions over time. In total, 25 male and 20 female C57BL/6J mice, weaned after three (W3) or four (W4) weeks of age, were subjected to a series of behavioural paradigms widely used to assess anxiety-like behaviour, exploratory locomotion, and nest building performance. Behavioural testing took place with the mice reaching an age of 20 weeks and was repeated eight weeks later to investigate the stability of behavioural expressions over time. At the group level, W4 mice behaved less anxious and more explorative than W3 animals in the Open Field and Novel Cage, while anxiety-like behaviour on the Elevated Plus Maze was modulated by a weaning-age-by-sex interaction. Furthermore, weaning age shaped the degree of behavioural stability over time in a sex-specific way. While W3 females and W4 males displayed a remarkable degree of behavioural stability over time, no such patterns were observed in W3 males and W4 females. Adding to the existing literature, we could thus confirm that effects of weaning age do indeed exist when prolonging this phase, and were furthermore able to provide first evidence for the impact of weaning age and sex on the consistency of behavioural expressions over time. PMID:27930688

  11. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  12. Philanthropic behaviour and motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hyánek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though philanthropy tends to be considered a sociological theme rather than an economic one, it poses a number of questions that challenge economists as well. We chose to address the following: How can economists contribute to the theories related to philanthropy? We examine some terms that are used in public economics theory and use them to explore the issues of philanthropy like Samaritan’s Dilemma, the Prisoner’s Dilemma, and the Free-Rider Problem, which we consider to be interesting and inspiring (Stone, 2008. We have to find and identify the social values of donors and volunteers rather than their economic values, because economists are not fully able to explain empathy, altruism, and helpful behaviour using traditional economic principles (Rutherford, 2008. The theoretical frame is supported by relevant empirical data. Before starting a large-scale survey, we decided to conduct smaller pre-research probes into people’s attitudes towards altruism, philanthropy, and giving. Even though our sample was not fully representative, the responses that we collected generated interesting findings about people’s views and attitudes. The first wave of data was collected between February and April 2009; the second wave between February and April 2010.Because of this pilot research mission and because of the budget restriction too, the non-representative sample of 823 respondents has been used; students of our Public Economics study programme were used as interviewers. They have also obtained a proper training of the professional sociologist. Students utilized the face to face interviewing method; non-standardized questions were immediately recorded into the reply form. Questions were divided into three groups with typical characteristics. The first one focuses on personal (individual motives for financial donating (only financial gifts for non-profit organizations. Second part examines the attitudes of individual towards the non

  13. To be so bold: boldness is repeatable and related to within individual behavioural variability in North Island robins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruchuan; Pagani-Núñez, Emilio; Chevallier, Clément; Barnett, Craig R A

    2017-07-01

    Behavioural research traditionally focusses on the mean responses of a group of individuals rather than variation in behaviour around the mean or among individuals. However, examining the variation in behaviour among and within individuals may also yield important insights into the evolution and maintenance of behaviour. Repeatability is the most commonly used measure of variability among individuals in behavioural research. However, there are other forms of variation within populations that have received less attention. One such measure is intraindividual variation in behaviour (IIV), which is a short-term fluctuation of within-individual behaviour. Such variation in behaviour might be important during interactions because it could decrease the ability of conspecific and heterospecific individuals to predict the behaviour of the subject, thus increasing the cost of the interaction. In this experiment, we made repeated measures of the latency of North Island robins to attack a prey in a novel situation (a form of boldness) and examined (i) repeatability of boldness (the propensity to take a risk), (ii) IIV of boldness, and (iii) whether there was a significant relationship between these two traits (a behavioural syndrome). We found that boldness was highly repeatable, that there were high levels of IIV in boldness, and that there was a negative relationship between boldness and IIV in boldness. This suggests that despite high levels of repeatability for this behaviour, there were also still significant differences in IIV among different individuals within the population. Moreover, bolder individuals had significantly less IIV in their boldness, which suggests that they were forming routines (which reduces behavioural variability) compared to shyer individuals. Our results definitively demonstrate that IIV itself varies across individuals and is linked with key behavioural traits, and we argue for the importance of future studies aimed at understanding its causes

  14. Chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    The chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems is governed by a variety of geochemical reactions, such as dissolution reaction (solubility), hydrolysis, complexation with inorganics or organics, redox reaction, colloid formation, geochemical interaction with surfaces of various minerals, coprecipitation, mineralisation etc. This paper reviews the present state of knowledge on some of these particular reactions. The emphasis is placed on how the individual reactions can be appraised for the long-term prediction of the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the natural environment. Of the various reactions, the primary thermodynamic processes of dissolution of transuranic compounds in aquatic solution, complexation with important anions present in groundwater and colloid generation are discussed with notable examples. Various laser spectroscopy in use for the chemical speciation are mentioned briefly as for their spectroscopic capability as well as applicability. The present review discussion is primarily directed to a better understanding of the migration behaviour of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems. (author) 100 refs

  15. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  16. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Jonker (Catholijn); J. Treur

    1998-01-01

    textabstract In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for

  17. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing

  18. Designing Visceral, Behavioural and Reflective Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Mersha; Rusli, Helen Agustin

    2017-09-01

    Designers and manufacturers often see consumption as the primary objective of a product - with implications such as discarded products, obsolete wastes, and ecological degradation. The paper aims to find the answer to the question, how emotional design can adapt the discarded and undesirable products into something valuable in a long term? This paper presents a framework combining Chapman's theory and Norman's theory on three levels of emotional design to highlight what long lasting connection with products entails. A design approach is presented combing the Wabi Sabi philosophy that promotes the celebration of decay and damage. This is used as one of the design principles for the experiments conducted on discarded products. Through constant user interaction before, during and after the experiments the evaluation of design as an agent of transformation is done. The user conducted the evaluation based on the Kansei elements of looks, sound, smell, and feel of the product. The experiments confirmed that a long-term value is only achieved through redesigning and reconstructing the perception of people towards products on a reflective level, rather than the visceral and behavioural elements of the product. The research found attachment to the visceral and behavioural elements of a product instead of an emotional one was causing users to discard products faster than required. The research indicated that many people, including designers and manufacturers, are unconsciously focusing on usability (behavioural level) and physical look (visceral level) of a product that are easily replaced, than on a meaningful way (reflective level) to create and maintain long-lasting emotions. The research concluded with a proposition towards digitization of products which could perhaps be an all round solution to make products more appropriate to human emotions. Digitization could give products the ability to capture, store and then communicate the stories, journey and memories back, in

  19. School composition, family poverty and child behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2016-06-01

    There is little research on the role of school composition in young children's behaviour. School composition effects may be particularly important for children in disadvantaged circumstances, such as those growing up in poverty. We explored the role of school academic and socio-economic composition in internalising problems, externalising problems and prosocial behaviour at age 7 years, and tested if it moderates the effect of family poverty on these outcomes. We used data from 7225 7-year-olds of the Millennium Cohort Study who attended state primary schools in England and for whom we had information on these outcomes. In multiple membership models, we allowed for clustering of children in schools and moves between schools since the beginning of school, at age 5. Our school academic and socio-economic composition variables were school-level achievement and % of pupils eligible for free school-meals, respectively. Poverty (family income below the poverty line) was measured in all sweeps until age 7. We explored the roles of both timing and duration of poverty. The effects of poverty were strong and robust to adjustment. School socio-economic composition was associated with individual children's internalising and externalising problems, even in adjusted models. School composition did not interact with poverty to predict any of the outcomes. Neither the academic nor the socio-economic composition of the school moderated the effect of family poverty on children's behaviour in primary school. However, children attending schools with more disadvantaged socio-economic intakes had more internalising and externalising problems than their counterparts.

  20. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain.

  1. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-05

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

  2. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour

    KAUST Repository

    Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-07-28

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  3. Interactive Virtual Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    is the process of visualising the content of a virtual environment by positioning and animating the virtual camera in the context of interactive applications such as a computer game. Camera placement and animation in games are usually directly controlled by the player or statically predened by designers. Direct...... control of the camera by the player increases the complexity of the interaction and reduces the designer's control on game storytelling. A completely designer-driven camera releases the player from the burden of controlling the point of view, but might generate undesired camera behaviours. Furthermore......, if the content of the game is procedurally generated, the designer might not have the necessary information to dene a priori the camera positions and movements. Automatic camera control aims to dene an abstraction layer that permits to control the camera using high-level and environment-independent rules...

  4. Compulsive buying: a cognitive-behavioural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Stephen; Bolton, Jessica V

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) has only relatively recently become a topic of interest for researchers and clinicians alike. This hiatus means that (unlike other impulse control disorders) there is currently little theoretical guidance for clinicians attempting to intervene with CB clients and no established model for researchers to evaluate, distil and refine. The current paper summarizes and organizes the main extant identified factors in the CB literature into four distinct phases: (1) antecedents; (2) internal/external triggers; (3) the act of buying; and finally, (4) post-purchase. The relationships and interactions between the identified phases are then hypothesized, within the proposed cognitive-behavioural model. The model distinguishes the key cognitive, affective and behavioural factors within each phase and identifies how CB can become self-reinforcing over time. The over-arching treatment implication is that CB can be re-conceptualized as chronic and repetitive failure in self-regulation efforts, and that psychological interventions can accommodate this in attempting to facilitate change. A successful case example is provided of a 'co-dependent compulsive buyer' using the model, with psychometric evaluation of key aspects of CB and mental health at assessment, termination and 6-month follow-up. The research and clinical implications of the proposed model are discussed, alongside identified short-comings and the need for psychological services to respond appropriately to CB clients seeking help.

  5. Early olfactory environment influences social behaviour in adult Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5-7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus.

  6. From fear to flow personality and information interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Heinstrom, Jannica

    2010-01-01

    From Fear to Flow explores how personality traits may influence attitude, behaviour and reaction to information. Consideration is made for individual differences in information behaviour and reasons behind individual search differences. The book reviews personality and information behaviour and discusses how personality may influence the attitude towards information. Reaction to information is examined in contexts such as everyday life, decision-making, work, studies and human-computer interaction.Introduces a little researched area which is current and needed in our Informatio

  7. Distinguishing dimensions of pro-environmental behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically identifies dimensions of behaviour that are distinct in terms of the extent to which people act pro-environmentally. Three dimensions are identified, relating to at-home, transport-related and purchasing behaviour. The correlation between behaviour in each dimension is explored and the characteristics and attitudes associated with the extent to which behaviour is pro-environmental in each dimension are compared. The correlates of pro-environmental behaviour are found to...

  8. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  9. Religiosity as a factor protecting against problem behaviour in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewiadomska Iwona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the question, to what degree religiosity contributes, as a protecting factor against a broad category of socially deviant adolescent and youth behaviours. It also tests the hypothesis that gender plays a moderating role in the relationship between religiosity and problem behaviour. It employs a modified version of the Problem Behaviour Syndrome Measure (PBSM, in concert with Jessor and Jessor’s conceptual work. It also makes use of the Duke Religion Index (DUREL to assess religiosity. The empirical study deals with a representative group of 960 students of upper-secondary schools in the Lubelskie province, Poland. The results were analyzed using canonical analysis and ANOVA. The achievements of the article are twofold. First, it identifies significant correlations between the different levels of religiosity among youth, and the occurrence and intensification of problem behaviours, particularly in regard to organized activity. Organized and intrinsic religiosity play principal protective roles, while the impact of personal religious practices is less significant. Secondly, while analyzing the moderating role of gender in the relationship between religiosity and the intensity of problem behaviour, it was found that gender does not have a significant interactive impact. An affirmative conclusion was confirmed in only two instances.

  10. Parenting styles, family structure and adolescent dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    To examine associations between parenting styles, family structure and aspects of adolescent dietary behaviour. Cross-sectional study. Secondary schools in the East Midlands, UK. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n 328, 57 % boys) completed an FFQ assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, unhealthy snacks and breakfast. Adolescents provided information on parental and sibling status and completed a seventeen-item instrument measuring the general parenting style dimensions of involvement and strictness, from which four styles were derived: indulgent, neglectful, authoritarian, authoritative. After controlling for adolescent gender and age, analysis of covariance revealed no significant interactions between parenting style and family structure variables for any of the dietary behaviours assessed. Significant main effects for family structure were observed only for breakfast consumption, with adolescents from dual-parent families (P parent families and those with one or more brother, respectively. Significant main effects for parenting style were observed for all dietary behaviours apart from vegetable consumption. Adolescents who described their parents as authoritative ate more fruit per day, fewer unhealthy snacks per day, and ate breakfast on more days per week than those who described their parents as neglectful. The positive associations between authoritative parenting style and adolescent dietary behaviour transcend family structure. Future research should be food-specific and assess the efficacy of strategies promoting the central attributes of an authoritative parenting style on the dietary behaviours of adolescents from a variety of family structures.

  11. A Matter of Degree: Strength of Brain Asymmetry and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Rogers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on a growing number of vertebrate species has shown that the left and right sides of the brain process information in different ways and that lateralized brain function is expressed in both specific and broad aspects of behaviour. This paper reviews the available evidence relating strength of lateralization to behavioural/cognitive performance. It begins by considering the relationship between limb preference and behaviour in humans and primates from the perspectives of direction and strength of lateralization. In birds, eye preference is used as a reflection of brain asymmetry and the strength of this asymmetry is associated with behaviour important for survival (e.g., visual discrimination of food from non-food and performance of two tasks in parallel. The same applies to studies on aquatic species, mainly fish but also tadpoles, in which strength of lateralization has been assessed as eye preferences or turning biases. Overall, the empirical evidence across vertebrate species points to the conclusion that stronger lateralization is advantageous in a wide range of contexts. Brief discussion of interhemispheric communication follows together with discussion of experiments that examined the effects of sectioning pathways connecting the left and right sides of the brain, or of preventing the development of these left-right connections. The conclusion reached is that degree of functional lateralization affects behaviour in quite similar ways across vertebrate species. Although the direction of lateralization is also important, in many situations strength of lateralization matters more. Finally, possible interactions between asymmetry in different sensory modalities is considered.

  12. Reward, Context, and Human Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L. Blaukopf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of reward processing have revealed an extensive network of brain areas that process different aspects of reward, from expectation and prediction to calculation of relative value. These results have been confirmed and extended in human neuroimaging to encompass secondary rewards more unique to humans, such as money. The majority of the extant literature covers the brain areas associated with rewards whilst neglecting analysis of the actual behaviours that these rewards generate. This review strives to redress this imbalance by illustrating the importance of looking at the behavioural outcome of rewards and the context in which they are produced. Following a brief review of the literature of reward-related activity in the brain, we examine the effect of reward context on actions. These studies reveal how the presence of reward vs. reward and punishment, or being conscious vs. unconscious of reward-related actions, differentially influence behaviour. The latter finding is of particular importance given the extent to which animal models are used in understanding the reward systems of the human mind. It is clear that further studies are needed to learn about the human reaction to reward in its entirety, including any distinctions between conscious and unconscious behaviours. We propose that studies of reward entail a measure of the animal's (human or nonhuman knowledge of the reward and knowledge of its own behavioural outcome to achieve that reward.

  13. Study on wall recycling behaviour in CPD spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyay, R.; Zushi, H.; Hirooka, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Yoshinaga, T.; Okamoto, K.; Kawasaki, S.; Hanada, K.; Sato, K.N.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Ryoukai, T.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments to study wall recycling behaviour have been performed in the small spherical tokamak compact plasma-wall interaction experimental device (CPD) from the viewpoint of global as well as local plasma wall interaction condition. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma of typically ∼50 to 400 ms duration is produced using ∼40 to 80 kW RF power. In order to study the global wall recycling behaviour, pressure measurements are carried out just before and after the ECR plasma in the absence of any external pumping. The recycling behaviour is found to change from release to pumping beyond a certain level of pressure value which is again found to be a function of shot history. The real-time local wall behaviour is studied in similar RF plasma using a rotating tungsten limiter, actively coated with lithium. Measurement of H α light intensity in front of the rotating surface has indicated a clear reduction (∼10%) in the steady-state hydrogen recycling with continuous Li gettering of several minutes

  14. Is there contextuality in behavioural and social systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, E N; Zhang, Ru; Kujala, Janne

    2016-01-13

    Most behavioural and social experiments aimed at revealing contextuality are confined to cyclic systems with binary outcomes. In quantum physics, this broad class of systems includes as special cases Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type systems. The theory of contextuality known as contextuality-by-default allows one to define and measure contextuality in all such systems, even if there are context-dependent errors in measurements, or if something in the contexts directly interacts with the measurements. This makes the theory especially suitable for behavioural and social systems, where direct interactions of 'everything with everything' are ubiquitous. For cyclic systems with binary outcomes, the theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for non-contextuality, and these conditions are known to be breached in certain quantum systems. We review several behavioural and social datasets (from polls of public opinion to visual illusions to conjoint choices to word combinations to psychophysical matching), and none of these data provides any evidence for contextuality. Our working hypothesis is that this may be a broadly applicable rule: behavioural and social systems are non-contextual, i.e. all 'contextual effects' in them result from the ubiquitous dependence of response distributions on the elements of contexts other than the ones to which the response is presumably or normatively directed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Behavioural studies of strategic thinking in games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2003-05-01

    Game theory is a mathematical language for describing strategic interactions, in which each player's choice affects the payoff of other players (where players can be genes, people, companies, nation-states, etc.). The impact of game theory in psychology has been limited by the lack of cognitive mechanisms underlying game-theoretic predictions. 'Behavioural game theory' is a recent approach linking game theory to cognitive science by adding cognitive details about 'social utility functions', theories of limits on iterated thinking, and statistical theories of how players learn and influence others. New directions include the effects of game descriptions on choice ('framing'), strategic heuristics, and mental representation. These ideas will help root game theory more deeply in cognitive science and extend the scope of both enterprises.

  16. Public transport optimisation emphasising passengers’ travel behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo

    to the case where the two problems are solved sequentially without taking into account interdependencies. Figure 1 - Planning public transport The PhD study develops a metaheuristic algorithm to adapt the line plan configuration in order better to match passengers’ travel demand in terms of transfers as well......Passengers in public transport complaining about their travel experiences are not uncommon. This might seem counterintuitive since several operators worldwide are presenting better key performance indicators year by year. The present PhD study focuses on developing optimisation algorithms...... to enhance the operations of public transport while explicitly emphasising passengers’ travel behaviour and preferences. Similar to economic theory, interactions between supply and demand are omnipresent in the context of public transport operations. In public transport, the demand is represented...

  17. The environmental behaviour of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M. I.

    1980-08-01

    Uranium and thorium have had many uses in the past, and their present and potential use as nuclear fuels in energy production is very significant. Both elements, and their daughter products, are of environmental interest because they may have effects from the time of mining to the time of ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel. To assess the impact on the environment of man's use and disposal of uranium and thorium, we must know the physical, chemical and biological behaviour of these elements. This report summarizes the literature, updating and extending earlier reviews pertaining to uranium and thorium. The radiological properties, chemistry, forms of occurrence in nature, soil interactions, as well as distribution coefficients and mode of transport are discussed for both elements. In addition, uranium and thorium concentrations in plants, plant transfer coefficients, concentrations in soil organisms and methods of detection are summarized. (auth)

  18. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-03-15

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showing direct effects of food allergic immune responses on social behaviour is very limited. In the present study, we show that a food allergic reaction to cow's milk protein, induced shortly after weaning, reduced social behaviour and increased repetitive behaviour in mice. This food allergic reaction increased levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the number of 5-HT positive cells, and decreased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the intestine. Behavioural changes in food allergic mice were accompanied by reduced dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal activation (c-Fos expression) was increased in the prefrontal cortex and reduced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus after exposure to a social target. We hypothesize that an intestinal allergic response regulates complex, but critical, neuroimmune interactions, thereby affecting brain circuits involved in social interaction, repetitive behaviour and cognition. Together with a genetic predisposition and multiple environmental factors, these effects of allergic immune activation may exacerbate behavioural abnormalities in patients with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling parasite transmission in a grazing system: the importance of host behaviour and immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Fox

    Full Text Available Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts' immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites' free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes

  20. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction.

  1. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Christopher M; Bishop, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the market

  2. Physiological mechanisms underlying animal social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Krause, Jens

    2017-08-19

    Many species of animal live in groups, and the group represents the organizational level within which ecological and evolutionary processes occur. Understanding these processes, therefore, relies on knowledge of the mechanisms that permit or constrain group formation. We suggest that physiological capacities and differences in physiology between individuals modify fission-fusion dynamics. Differences between individuals in locomotor capacity and metabolism may lead to fission of groups and sorting of individuals into groups with similar physiological phenotypes. Environmental impacts such as hypoxia can influence maximum group sizes and structure in fish schools by altering access to oxygenated water. The nutritional environment determines group cohesion, and the increase in information collected by the group means that individuals should rely more on social information and form more cohesive groups in uncertain environments. Changing environmental contexts require rapid responses by individuals to maintain group coordination, which are mediated by neuroendocrine signalling systems such as nonapeptides and steroid hormones. Brain processing capacity may constrain social complexity by limiting information processing. Failure to evaluate socially relevant information correctly limits social interactions, which is seen, for example, in autism. Hence, functioning of a group relies to a large extent on the perception and appropriate processing of signals from conspecifics. Many if not all physiological systems are mechanistically linked, and therefore have synergistic effects on social behaviour. A challenge for the future lies in understanding these interactive effects, which will improve understanding of group dynamics, particularly in changing environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Wray

    Full Text Available Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space, and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space, numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock

  4. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the

  5. Convective behaviour in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    The nature and magnitude of the hazard from radioactivity posed by a possible nuclear accident depend strongly on convective behaviour within and immediately adjacent to the plant in question. This behaviour depends upon the nature of the vapour-gas-aerosol mixture concerned, and can show unusual properties such as 'upside-down' convection in which hot mixtures fall and cold mixtures rise. Predictions and criteria as to the types of behaviour which could possibly occur are summarised. Possible applications to present reactors are considered, and ways in which presently expected convection could be drastically modified are described. In some circumstances these could be used to suppress the radioactive source term or to switch its effect between distant dilute contamination and severe local contamination. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  6. [The neurobiology of antisocial behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomans, M M; Tulen, J H M; van Marle, H J C

    2010-01-01

    Neuro-imaging is being used increasingly to provide explanations for antisocial behaviour. To make a neurobiological contribution to the diagnosis of many types of antisocial behaviour. The literature was searched using PubMed and combinations of the keywords 'psychopathy', 'antisocial', 'neurobiology' and 'neuro-anatomy' for the period 1990-2009. Impairments in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, superior temporal gyrus, corpus callosum and anterior cingulate cortex provide a possible explanation for a large number of the symptoms associated with antisocial behaviour. The concept of psychopathy is connected mainly with impairments in a prefrontal-temporal-limbic system. CONCLUSION Combinations of deficiencies in the associated brain areas and malfunctioning of the communication between the various brain structures seem to play a more important role than deficiencies in the separate brain structures.

  7. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Helen J; Wedderburn, Catherine J; Mioshi, Eneida; Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Mason, Sarah L; Barker, Roger A; Hodges, John R

    2008-01-01

    Neurobehavioural and psychiatric symptoms are common in a range of neurodegenerative disorders with distinct profiles which are helpful in the diagnosis and monitoring of these disorders. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI) has been shown to distinguish frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but it is lengthy. To develop a shorter version of the 81 item CBI. CBI data from 450 participants with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD) (64), AD (96), PD (215) and HD (75) were analysed using Principal Components Analysis and measures of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha). A reduced 45-item questionnaire was developed. The instrument identified distinct behavioural profiles and performed as well as the original version. A shorter (45 item) version of the CBI is capable of differentiating bv-FTD and AD from PD and HD. It may be useful in delineating the type and extent of problems in these disorders as well as monitoring therapeutic interventions.

  8. Mutants dissecting development and behaviour in drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Adita; Chandrashekaran, Shanti; Sharma, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    We have traced in this paper the progress in Drosophila genetics research from the 1960s, at the IARI, spearheaded by the visionary insight of M. S. Swaminathan. The work started with the study of indirect effect of radiation and the synergistic interaction of physical and chemical mutagens on chromosomal and genetic changes. This paved the way for the study of single gene mutants in dissecting developmental and behavioural processes. New genes discovered by us have been shown to encode conserved cell signalling molecules controlling developmental and behavioural pathways. With the complete sequencing of the Drosophila genome, in the year 2000, mounting evidence for the homology between Drosophila and human genes controlling genetic disorders became available. This has led to the fly becoming an indispensable tool for studying human diseases as well as a model to test for drugs and pharmaceuticals against human diseases and complex behavioural processes. For example wingless in Drosophila belongs to the conserved Wnt gene family and aberrant WNT signalling is linked to a range of human diseases, most notably cancer. Inhibition as well as activation of WNT signalling form the basis of an effective therapy for some cancers as well as several other clinical conditions. Recent experiments have shown that WNTs might also normally participate in self-renewal, proliferation or differentiation of stem cells and altering WNT signalling might be beneficial to the use of stem cells for therapeutic means. Likewise, the stambhA mutant of Drosophila which was discovered for its temperature-dependent paralytic behaviour is the fly homologue of Phospholipase Cβ. Phospholipase C mediated G protein signalling plays a central role in vital processes controlling epilepsy, vision, taste, and olfaction in animals. Proteins of the G-signalling pathway are of intense research interest since many human diseases involve defects in G-protein signalling pathways. In fact, approximately 50

  9. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Electronic Word-of-Mouth Communication and Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Tegtmeier; Razmerita, Liana; Colleoni, Elanor

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of social media, along with the easy access to peer information and interactions, has resulted in massive online word-of-mouth communication. These interactions among consumers have an increasing power over the success or failure of companies and brands. Drawing upon word-of-mouth...... communication and consumer behaviour theories, this paper investigates the use of word-of-mouth communication through social media among a group of Danish consumers. The findings suggest that electronic word-of-mouth communication among friends and peers affect consumer behaviour. Additionally, peer...... communication is perceived as more objective and therefore found more reliable than companies’ brand communication. Furthermore, negative word-of-mouth is perceived as more trustworthy compared to positive messages, which are often believed to be too subjective. The research findings emphasise the importance...

  11. [Transcultural aspects of suicidal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliess, I T; Machleidt, W; Ziegenbein, M; Haltenhof, H

    2007-11-01

    Due to increasing immigration in Germany the German Mental Health Care System today has to deal in a growing number with the assessment of the level of psychic functioning and the capability of self control in patients of different ethnic origin. For clinicians this is a challenge, since suicidal behaviour in terms of its frequency, meaning, motives and manner is very much dependent on the cultural context in which it occurs. Moreover, the general attitude of an individual towards suicide is embedded in the culture of origin of the immigrant. Until now there has been only little systematic research on the influence of culture on suicidal behaviour. In this review the traditions of suicidal behaviour in different cultures in their religious and historical dimensions will be reflected. The historical and cultural roots of suicidal behaviour will be put in context to a categorization of the different variants of suicide, such as institutionalized suicide versus individualized suicide. Psychodynamic aspects of suicidal ideation will be highlighted in cross-cultural perspective with a distinction between a. the wish to die, b. the wish to kill and c. the wish to be killed. It will be shown that there can be differentiated between accepted and non-accepted suicide. With respect to epidemiology there will be discussed the impact of culture on the suicide rates across cultures. The influence of culture on the psychopathology of suicidal behaviour will be summed up systematically. These aspects are of high relevance for the understanding and assessment of suicidal crisis in immigrants, since the suicidal patient even today - although subconsciously - is influenced by the deep rooted traditions of suicidal behaviour in his culture of origin.

  12. On some features of the effective behaviour of porous solids with J2- and J3-dependent yielding matrix behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallal, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Some features od the constitutive behaviour of voided materials taking into account possible effects of the Lode angle in the yielding behaviour of the matrix are discussed. The Gurson approach is used to this end. After providing a parametric representation of the effective behaviour of such materials, some closed-form results are given for pure shear stress states and also at very high stress triaxialities. In the former case corresponding to a zero macroscopic mean stress, the contour of the yield domain in the π-plane has exactly the shape of the yield surface of the matrix in the deviatoric plane, but a size reduced by a factor 1 - f, with f the porosity of the voided material. In the latter, effective yield stresses for the voided material are slightly different from the Gurson result and found to be set by the yield stress at a microscopic stress Lode angle π/3 for very high positive triaxiality and by the yield stress at a microscopic stress Lode angle 0 for very high negative triaxiality. This last result is extended for porous materials with yielding depending further on the hydrostatic stress, fully exhibiting the interaction between volumetric and shear interactions on the yielding behaviour of isotropic porous materials. Applications to many usual yielding criteria for the matrix are also provided. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Intermolecular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.G.; Rodimova, O.B.; AN SSSR, Tomsk. Inst. Optiki Atmosfery)

    1978-01-01

    The present state of the intermolecular interaction theory is described. The general physical picture of the molecular interactions is given, the relative contributions of interactions of different types are analyzed (electrostatic, resonance, induction, dispersion, relativistic, magnetostatic and exchange), and the main ones in each range of separations are picked out. The methods of the potential curve calculations are considered, specific for definite separations between the interacting systems. The special attention is paid to the analysis of approximations used in different theoretical calculation methods

  14. LWR-core behaviour project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paratte, J.M.

    1982-07-01

    The LWR-Core behaviour project concerns the mathematical simulation of a light water reactor in normal operation (emergency situations excluded). Computational tools are assembled, i.e. programs and libraries of data. These computational tools can likewise be used in nuclear power applications, industry and control applications. The project is divided into three parts: the development and application of calculation methods for quantisation determination of LWR physics; investigation of the behaviour of nuclear fuels under radiation with special attention to higher burnup; simulation of the operating transients of nuclear power stations. (A.N.K.)

  15. The environmental behaviour of polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, M.; Twining, J.; )

    2013-01-01

    In view of the importance of 210 Po as a dose contributor, the IAEA is completing a second specific Technical Reports Series document, entitled 'The Environmental Behaviour of Polonium'. This document covers the behaviour of polonium in terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments, and provides up-to-date information on key transfer processes, concepts and models that have been found to be important in radiological assessments for both humans and non-human biota. Additionally, applications of Po isotopes to environmental issues are discussed in order to alert readers to studies that use Po isotopes as tracers of environmental processes

  16. Asymptotic behaviour of Feynman integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergere, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    In these lecture notes, we describe how to obtain the asymptotic behaviour of Feynman amplitudes; this technique has been already applied in several cases, but the general solution for any kind of asymptotic behaviour has not yet been found. From the mathematical point of view, the problem to solve is close to the following problem: find the asymptotic expansion at large lambda of the integral ∫...∫ [dx] esup(-LambdaP[x]) where P[x] is a polynomial of several variables. (orig.)

  17. The MAHNOB Mimicry Database - a database of naturalistic human interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilakhia, Sanjay; Petridis, Stavros; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    People mimic verbal and nonverbal expressions and behaviour of their counterparts in various social interactions. Research in psychology and social sciences has shown that mimicry has the power to influence social judgment and various social behaviours, including negotiation and debating, courtship,

  18. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.

  19. µPlasma patterning and inkjet printing to enhance localized wetting and mixing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Martinus Henricus Adrianus; van Dongen, Martinus Henricus Adrianus

    2014-01-01

    In the development of applications for printed electronics, the interaction of fluids with substrates is of great importance. Control and understanding of the wetting behaviour of fluids on substrates, as well as fluid-fluid interaction on the substrate is necessary to develop new applications. This

  20. Child sun protection: sun-related attitudes mediate the association between children's knowledge and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; Cox, Brian

    2008-12-01

    To describe and investigate the relationship among the sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of New Zealand primary schoolchildren and consider the roles of sex and school year level. A randomly selected, two-stage cluster sample of 488 children from 27 primary schools in five regions of New Zealand was surveyed regarding their sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. A scoring system was used to assign a knowledge, attitude and behaviour score to each child. Although knowledge increased with school year level, there was a decline in sun protective attitudes and behaviours. There was little variation in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour between boys and girls, but sex-year level interactions were found for knowledge and behaviour. When considering children's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours simultaneously, knowledge was only significantly associated with behaviours when mediated by attitudes. When targeting child sun protection and skin cancer prevention programmes, a focus on attitudes towards sun exposure and a suntan may prove beneficial in influencing sun-related behaviours.

  1. Behavioural profiles are shaped by social experience: when, how and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia; Hennessy, Michael B

    2013-05-19

    The comprehensive understanding of individual variation in behavioural profiles is a current and timely topic not only in behavioural ecology, but also in biopsychological and biomedical research. This study focuses on the shaping of behavioural profiles by the social environment in mammals. We review evidence that the shaping of behavioural profiles occurs from the prenatal phase through adolescence and beyond. We focus specifically on adolescence, a sensitive phase during which environmental stimuli have distinctive effects on the modulation of behavioural profiles. We discuss causation, in particular, how behavioural profiles are shaped by social stimuli through behavioural and neuroendocrine processes. We postulate a central role for maternal hormones during the prenatal phase, for maternal behaviour during lactation and for the interaction of testosterone and stress hormones during adolescence. We refer to evolutionary history and attempt to place developmental shaping into broader evolutionary historical trends. Finally, we address survival value. We argue that the shaping of behavioural profiles by environmental stimuli from the prenatal phase through adolescence represents an effective mechanism for repeated and rapid adaptation during the lifetime. Notably, the adolescent phase may provide a last chance for correction if the future environment deviates from that predicted in earlier phases.

  2. Behaviour of ruthenium (3) bromocomplexes in nonaqueous solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, O.V.; Miroshnichenko, I.V.; Pichkov, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Behaviour of K 3 [RuBr 6 ] · H 2 O and K 3 [Ru 2 Br 9 ] in solutions of dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide is investigated by absorption and ESR spectroscopy. Complexes are shown to be labile in solutions, interact easily with solvents. Formation of ruthenium (3) and (2) bromide-dimethylsulfoxide complexes occurs gradually in DMSO, final product is trans-[Ru(DMSO) 4 Br 2

  3. Methodology for eliciting, encoding and simulating human decision making behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rider, Conrad Edgar Scott

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) are an increasingly important research tool for describing and predicting interactions among humans and their environment. A key challenge for such models is the ability to faithfully represent human decision making with respect to observed behaviour. This thesis aims to address this challenge by developing a methodology for empirical measurement and simulation of decision making in humanenvironment systems. The methodology employs the Beliefs-Desires-I...

  4. Hygienic food handling behaviours. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Barbara A; Wong, Cara L

    2009-06-01

    It is estimated that 5.4 million Australians get sick annually from eating contaminated food and that up to 20% of this illness results from food handling behaviour. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including past behaviour in predicting safe food handling intention and behaviour. One hundred and nine participants completed questionnaires regarding their attitudes, perceived behavioural control (PBC), subjective norm, intentions and past behaviour. Behaviour was measured 4 weeks later. The TPB predicted a high proportion of variance in both intentions and behaviour, and past behaviour/habit was found to be the strongest predictor of behaviour. The results of the present study suggest interventions aimed at increasing safe food handling intentions should focus on the impact of normative influences and perceptions of control over their food handling environment; whereas interventions to change actual behaviour should attempt to increase hygienic food handling as a habitual behaviour.

  5. Predicting entrepreneurial behaviour: A test of the theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kautonen, T.; van Gelderen, M.W.; Fink, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the occupational choice literature pertaining to entrepreneurship by applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to predict entrepreneurial behaviour. Originating from social psychology, the TPB posits that intention, a function of behavioural beliefs, is a significant

  6. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    . Semiochemicals are divided into ecomone and para-ecomone, the former is released naturally into the environment, the latter is not. An ecomone with intraspecies activity is known as a pheromone. One with interspecies activity is generally grouped under allelochemicals. It is specifically known as: 1) an allomone when it benefits the releaser with detrimental effect on the receiver, 2) a kairomone when it benefits the receiver with detrimental effect on the releaser, 3) a synomone when it benefits both the releaser and receiver, or 4) an apneumone when released from dead or decaying material caused by microbial action. A para-ecomone may be either a constituent of an organism or a synthetic chemical not released naturally. It should be emphasised that a chemical can be an ecomone and a para-ecomone and, as an ecomone, may act as a pheromone as well as an allomone or a kairomone. The study of an organism's ecomone in relation to the environment, interaction between individuals belonging to the same and/or different species, and how it affects behaviour constitutes the bulk of chemical ecology. Ecomones in applied entomology may be exploited as agents for 1) insect pest surveillance and monitoring, 2) trapping insect in population estimation or as an intervention technique such as the area-wide male annihilation technique, and 3) understanding and disrupting insect communication in a pest control or management programme. This paper presents an update of the behaviour within the context of chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies which is crucial in the understanding the flies' role in the complex communal interrelationships within Malaysian agro- and natural ecosystems as previously presented (Tan 1993)

  7. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated......The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  8. Effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter attempts to describe and compare some of the more important nucleon-nucleon interactions that have been used in nuclear structure calculations, and to relate them where possible to the real nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explains that different interactions have been used depending on whether one is fitting to total binding energies and densities with a Hartree Fock (HF) calculation or fitting to spectra and spectroscopic data in a shell model calculation. Examines both types of calculation after two preliminary sections concerned with notation and with the philosophy underlying the use of model spaces and effective interactions. Discusses Skyrme interactions, finite range interactions, small model space, large model space, and the Sussex potential matrix elements. Focuses on the more empirical approaches in which a simple form is chosen for the effective interaction in a given model space and the parameters are deduced from fitting many-body data

  9. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. How Do Personality Traits Shape Information-Sharing Behaviour in Social Media? Exploring the Mediating Effect of Generalized Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengli; Lin, Yanqing; Liu, Yong; Chen, Xiaoyu; Li, Hongxiu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Personality and trust have been found to be important precursors of information-sharing behaviour, but little is known about how these factors interact with each other in shaping information-sharing behaviour. By integrating both trust and user personality into a unified research framework, this study examines how trust mediates the…

  11. Privacy-aware mobile agent: Protecting privacy in open systems by modelling social behaviour of software agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    In distributed problem solving with multi-agent systems it is assumed that collective behaviour emerges from interaction among rational agents. The dissemination of mobile agents will lead to open systems. Emergent behaviour in open systems must fulfil common goals based on goals of individual

  12. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  13. Context Influences the Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behaviour in Children Diagnosed with Intellectual Disability with and without Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children are motivated to engage in stereotypic and repetitive behaviours for a number of reasons. Their motivation seems to change according to context, but little empirical evidence supports that observation. Interventions designed to reduce the behaviours may be improved by an increased understanding of the interaction between…

  14. Comparison of Teacher Talk Directed to Boys and Girls and Its Relationship to Their Behaviour in Secondary and Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Alex; Swinson, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of earlier investigations, using differing methodologies, into the extent to which teachers in the secondary school interact with boys and girls and the results have suggested an imbalance in the teachers' verbal behaviour towards the genders that is quite similar to the imbalance found in teachers' behaviour in the…

  15. Assertiveness, submissive behaviour and social comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, P; Allan, S

    1994-09-01

    This paper explores the relationship between a new assertiveness measure (the Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour--SIB), social comparison and submissive behaviour. The paper investigates these measures in relation to the personality traits of neuroticism and introversion. Findings suggest: (a) that social comparison may be an important variable in assertiveness and submissive behaviour and shows a strong relationship to neuroticism and introversion; (b) that submissive behaviour is not the mirror opposite of assertive behaviour; and (c) submissive behaviour seems more strongly associated with introversion and neuroticism than assertive performance.

  16. A new modelling approach for zooplankton behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiyu, A. Y.; Yamazaki, H.; Strickler, J. R.

    We have developed a new simulation technique to model zooplankton behaviour. The approach utilizes neither the conventional artificial intelligence nor neural network methods. We have designed an adaptive behaviour network, which is similar to BEER [(1990) Intelligence as an adaptive behaviour: an experiment in computational neuroethology, Academic Press], based on observational studies of zooplankton behaviour. The proposed method is compared with non- "intelligent" models—random walk and correlated walk models—as well as observed behaviour in a laboratory tank. Although the network is simple, the model exhibits rich behavioural patterns similar to live copepods.

  17. Visual Programming of Subsumption-Based Reactive Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Banyasad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available General purpose visual programming languages (VPLs promote the construction of programs that are more comprehensible, robust, and maintainable by enabling programmers to directly observe and manipulate algorithms and data. However, they usually do not exploit the visual representation of entities in the problem domain, even if those entities and their interactions have obvious visual representations, as is the case in the robot control domain. We present a formal control model for autonomous robots, based on subsumption, and use it as the basis for a VPL in which reactive behaviour is programmed via interactions with a simulation.

  18. Refresher Course on Animal Behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an insect, echolocation and foraging behaviour of bats, and human circadian rhythms. The Course Director will be Dr G Marimuthu and Dr Sripathi Kandula will be the Course. Coordinator. Teachers who wish to participate in this Refresher Course should submit their brief curriculum vitae (including name, date of birth, sex, ...

  19. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original

  20. Mesophase behaviour of polyhedral particles

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Umang

    2011-02-13

    Translational and orientational excluded-volume fields encoded in particles with anisotropic shapes can lead to purely entropy-driven assembly of morphologies with specific order and symmetry. To elucidate this complex correlation, we carried out detailed Monte Carlo simulations of six convex space-filling polyhedrons, namely, truncated octahedrons, rhombic dodecahedrons, hexagonal prisms, cubes, gyrobifastigiums and triangular prisms. Simulations predict the formation of various new liquid-crystalline and plastic-crystalline phases at intermediate volume fractions. By correlating these findings with particle anisotropy and rotational symmetry, simple guidelines for predicting phase behaviour of polyhedral particles are proposed: high rotational symmetry is in general conducive to mesophase formation, with low anisotropy favouring plastic-solid behaviour and intermediate anisotropy (or high uniaxial anisotropy) favouring liquid-crystalline behaviour. It is also found that dynamical disorder is crucial in defining mesophase behaviour, and that the apparent kinetic barrier for the liquid-mesophase transition is much lower for liquid crystals (orientational order) than for plastic solids (translational order). © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.