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Sample records for stably transformed tobacco

  1. [Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) secretory expression vector maintained stably in Pro3+ transformants in rich medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H Y; Tang, Y; Jiang, W D; He, H Y; Liu, M; Kuang, D R

    2000-01-01

    A yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) secretory expression vector containing PRO3 gene was constructed (pCBy310). beta HCG(Human choriogonadotropin beta subunit)-cDNA was inserted into pCBy310 to form a recombinant plasmid pCBy314. Since yeast proline auxotroph will not survive in rich medium (YPD), YPD could be used as a selection pressure, and pCBy314 could be maintained mitotically stable in transformants of yeast Pro3- auxotroph (MB299-7A) in rich medium. At an improved, yet not optimized cultural condition, the expression of beta HCG in culture medium was 650 micrograms/L. Our results showed not only that YPD could be used as a selection medium, but also that yeast grew better in YPD so as to increase the gene expression product, and that the component of YPD was simple and cheap. Our data suggested that PRO genes might be used widely in constructing vectors to clone and express foreign genes in yeast so that rich medium can be used as a selection pressure for direct selection.

  2. Rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco cotyledons using toothpicks

    OpenAIRE

    Easterling, Mona; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Brennan, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco is a model plant for genetic transformation. Leaf-disc transformation is the most commonly used method for genetic transformation of the tobacco plant. However, one disadvantage of leaf-disc transformation is obtaining a leaf of adequate size. Cotyledons from young seedlings are not ideal for leaf-disc transformation. Due to their small size and fragility, it is common to damage specimens during Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In an attempt to overcome this drawback, a protocol...

  3. Can Tobacco Control Be Transformative? Reducing Gender Inequity and Tobacco Use among Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure. PMID:24402065

  4. SPARC Expression Is Selectively Suppressed in Tumor Initiating Urospheres Isolated from As+3- and Cd+2-Transformed Human Urothelial Cells (UROtsa Stably Transfected with SPARC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Slusser-Nore

    Full Text Available This laboratory previously analyzed the expression of SPARC in the parental UROtsa cells, their arsenite (As(+3 and cadmium (Cd(+2-transformed cell lines, and tumor transplants generated from the transformed cells. It was demonstrated that SPARC expression was down-regulated to background levels in Cd(+2-and As(+3-transformed UROtsa cells and tumor transplants compared to parental cells. In the present study, the transformed cell lines were stably transfected with a SPARC expression vector to determine the effect of SPARC expression on the ability of the cells to form tumors in immune-compromised mice.Real time PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to define the expression of SPARC in the As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed cell lines, and urospheres isolated from these cell lines, following their stable transfection with an expression vector containing the SPARC open reading frame (ORF. Transplantation of the cultured cells into immune-compromised mice by subcutaneous injection was used to assess the effect of SPARC expression on tumors generated from the above cell lines and urospheres.It was shown that the As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed UROtsa cells could undergo stable transfection with a SPARC expression vector and that the transfected cells expressed both SPARC mRNA and secreted protein. Tumors formed from these SPARC-transfected cells were shown to have no expression of SPARC. Urospheres isolated from cultures of the SPARC-transfected As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed cell lines were shown to have only background expression of SPARC. Urospheres from both the non-transfected and SPARC-transfected cell lines were tumorigenic and thus fit the definition for a population of tumor initiating cells.Tumor initiating cells isolated from SPARC-transfected As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed cell lines have an inherent mechanism to suppress the expression of SPARC mRNA.

  5. Genetic transformation of garlic ( Allium sativum L.) with tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garlic yield and quality have decreased due to white rot disease caused by Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. A transformation protocol to introduce tobacco chitinase and glucanase genes into garlic embryogenic calli using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. LBA4404 strain having pC2301CHGLU plasmid with ...

  6. Genetic transformation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) with tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VICTOR

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... Celaya, Guanajuato, México. Accepted 3 May, 2013. Garlic yield and quality have decreased due to white rot disease caused by Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. A transformation protocol to introduce tobacco chitinase and glucanase genes into garlic embryogenic calli using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has ...

  7. Construction of phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) transformation vectors and evaluation of the effectiveness of vectors in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahariah, Bohari; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Khalid, Norzulaani

    2012-01-01

    Phosphomannose isomerase (pmi) gene isolated from Escherichia coli allows transgenic plants carrying it to convert mannose-6- phosphate (from mannose), a carbon source that could not be naturally utilized by plants into fructose-6-phosphate which can be utilized by plants as a carbon source. This conversion ability provides energy source to allow the transformed cells to survive on the medium containing mannose. In this study, four transformation vectors carrying the pmi gene alone or in combination with the β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene were constructed and driven by either the maize ubiquitin (Ubi1) or the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV35S) promoter. Restriction digestion, PCR amplification and sequencing were carried out to ensure sequence integrity and orientation. Tobacco was used as a model system to study the effectiveness of the constructs and selection system. PMI11G and pMI3G, which carry gusA gene, were used to study the gene transient expression in tobacco. PMI3 construct, which only carries the pmi gene driven by CaMV35S promoter, was stably transformed into tobacco using biolistics after selection on 30 g 1(-1) mannose without sucrose. Transgenic plants were verified using PCR analysis. PMI/pmi - Phosphomannose isomerase, Ubi1 - Maize ubiquitin promoter, CaMV35S - Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, gusA - β-glucuronidase GUS reporter gene.

  8. Dielectric Spectroscopy and Optical Density Measurement for the Online Monitoring and Control of Recombinant Protein Production in Stably Transformed Drosophila melanogaster S2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zitzmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of recombinant proteins in bioreactors requires real-time process monitoring and control to increase process efficiency and to meet the requirements for a comprehensive audit trail. The combination of optical near-infrared turbidity sensors and dielectric spectroscopy provides diverse system information because different measurement principles are exploited. We used this combination of techniques to monitor and control the growth and protein production of stably transformed Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells expressing antimicrobial proteins. The in situ monitoring system was suitable in batch, fed-batch and perfusion modes, and was particularly useful for the online determination of cell concentration, specific growth rate (µ and cell viability. These data were used to pinpoint the optimal timing of the key transitional events (induction and harvest during batch and fed-batch cultivation, achieving a total protein yield of ~25 mg at the 1-L scale. During cultivation in perfusion mode, the OD880 signal was used to control the bleed line in order to maintain a constant cell concentration of 5 × 107 cells/mL, thus establishing a turbidostat/permittistat culture. With this setup, a five-fold increase in productivity was achieved and 130 mg of protein was recovered after 2 days of induced perfusion. Our results demonstrate that both sensors are suitable for advanced monitoring and integration into online control strategies.

  9. Altered phenotypes in plants transformed with chimeric tobacco peroxidase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrimini, L.M.

    1990-12-31

    Peroxidases have been implicated in a variety of secondary metabolic reactions including lignification, cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides, oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid, regulation of cell elongation, wound-healing, phenol oxidation, and pathogen defense. However, due to the many different isoenzymes and even more potential substrates, it has proven difficult to verify actual physiological roles for peroxidase. We are studying the molecular biology of the tobacco peroxidase genes, and have utilized genetic engineering techniques to produce transgenic plants which differ only in their expression of an individual peroxidase isoenzyme. Many of the in planta functions for any individual isoenzyme may be predicted through the morphological and physiological analysis of transformed plants.

  10. Altered phenotypes in plants transformed with chimeric tobacco peroxidase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrimini, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Peroxidases have been implicated in a variety of secondary metabolic reactions including lignification, cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides, oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid, regulation of cell elongation, wound-healing, phenol oxidation, and pathogen defense. However, due to the many different isoenzymes and even more potential substrates, it has proven difficult to verify actual physiological roles for peroxidase. We are studying the molecular biology of the tobacco peroxidase genes, and have utilized genetic engineering techniques to produce transgenic plants which differ only in their expression of an individual peroxidase isoenzyme. Many of the in planta functions for any individual isoenzyme may be predicted through the morphological and physiological analysis of transformed plants.

  11. Inheritance and effectiveness of two transgenes determining PVY resistance in progeny from crossing independently transformed tobacco lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubacka, Anna; Sacco, Ermanno; Olszak-Przybyś, Hanna; Doroszewska, Teresa

    2017-05-01

    Genetic transformation of plants allows us to obtain improved genotypes enriched with the desired traits. However, if transgenic lines were to be used in breeding programs the stability of inserted transgenes is essential. In the present study, we followed the inheritance of transgenes in hybrids originated from crossing two transgenic tobacco lines resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY): MN 944 LMV with the transgene containing Lettuce mosaic virus coat protein gene (LMV CP) and AC Gayed ROKY2 with PVY replicase gene (ROKY2). Progeny populations generated by successive self-pollination were analyzed with respect to the transgene segregation ratio and resistance to Potato virus Y in tests carried out under greenhouse conditions. The presence of the virus in inoculated plants was detected by DAS-ELISA method. The results demonstrated the Mendelian fashion of inheritance of transgenes which were segregated independently and stably. As a result, we obtained T 4 generation of hybrid with both transgenes stacked and which was highly resistant to PVY.

  12. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of annexin gene in tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    Agrobacterium is an oncogenic agent, which genetically transforms plant cells and directs the resulting tumours to synthesize special nutrients that support the growth of the bacteria. Agrobacterium Ti plasmid is being used as a vector for plant genetic engineering. The transformation process involves transfer of genetic.

  13. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...

  14. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  15. Genetically transformed tobacco plants expressing synthetic EPSPS gene confer tolerance against glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Asad, Shaheen; Barboza, Andre Luiz; Galeano, Esteban; Carrer, Helaine; Mukhtar, Zahid

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate quashes the synthesis of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3- phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme which intercedes the functioning of shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids. Herbicide resistant crops are developed using glyphosate insensitive EPSPS gene isolated from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, which give farmers a sustainable weed control option. Intentions behind this study were to design and characterize the synthetic herbicide resistant CP4 - EPSPS gene in a model plant system and check the effectiveness of transformed tobacco against application of glyphosate. Putative transgenic plants were obtained from independent transformation events, and stable plant transformation, transgene expression and integration were demonstrated respectively by PCR, qRT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Gene transcript level and gene copy number (1-4) varied among the tested transgenic tobacco lines. Herbicide assays showed that transgenic plants were resistant to glyphosate after 12 days of spraying with glyphosate, and EPSPS activity remained at sufficient level to withstand the spray at 1000 ppm of the chemical. T 1 plants analyzed through immunoblot strips and PCR showed that the gene was being translated into protein and transmitted to the next generation successfully. This codon optimized synthetic CP4 - EPSPS gene is functionally equivalent to the gene for glyphosate resistance available in the commercial crops and hence we recommend this gene for transformation into commercial crops.

  16. Tobacco

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    ... tax factors including weak governance, high levels of corruption, poor government commitment to tackling illicit tobacco, ineffective ... Privacy Email scams Regions Africa Americas South-East Asia Europe Eastern Mediterranean Western Pacific Privacy Legal notice © ...

  17. High frequency regeneration via direct somatic embryogenesis and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathi, Krishna Mohan; Tula, Suresh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    A direct somatic embryogenesis protocol was developed for four cultivars of Nicotiana species, by using leaf disc as an explant. Direct somatic embryogenesis of Nicotiana by using BAP and IAA has not been investigated so far. This method does not require formation of callus tissues which leads to somaclonal variations. The frequency of somatic embryogenesis was strongly influenced by the plant growth hormones. The somatic embryos developing directly from explant tissue were noticed after 6 d of culture. Somatic embryogenesis of a high frequency (87-96%) was observed in cultures of the all four genotypes (Nicotiana tabacum, N. benthamiyana, N. xanthi, N. t cv petihavana). The results showed that the best medium for direct somatic embryogenesis was MS supplemented with 2.5 mg/l, 0.2 mg/l IAA and 2% sucrose. Subculture of somatic embryos onto hormone free MS medium resulted in their conversion into plants for all genotypes. About 95% of the regenerated somatic embryos germinated into complete plantlets. The plants showed morphological and growth characteristics similar to those of seed-derived plants. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium tumifacious LBA4404 plasmid pCAMBIA1301 harboring the GUS gene. The regenerated transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR analysis and histochemical GUS assay. The transformation efficiency obtained by using the Agrobacterium- mediated transformation was more than 95%. This method takes 6 wk to accomplish complete transgenic plants through direct somatic embryogenesis. The transgenic plantlets were acclimatized successfully with 98% survival in greenhouse and they showed normal morphological characteristics and were fertile. The regeneration and transformation method described herein is very simple, highly efficient and fast for the introduction of any foreign gene directly in tobacco through direct somatic embryogenesis.

  18. Transformation of non-cancerous human breast epithelial cell line MCF10A by the tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jianxun; Hu, Hongbo; McEntee, Michael; Plummer, Howard; Song, Ping; Wang, Hwa-Chain R

    2003-05-01

    Repeated treatments of non-cancerous human breast epithelial cells MCF10A with a low dose of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induced the development of cancerous cells. NNK-transformed MCF10A cells acquired cancerous properties including anchorage-independent cell growth and increased cell motility. Cellular transformation of MCF10A cells was accompanied by a loss of responsiveness to 17beta-estradiol and decreased rate of cell proliferation. NNK-transformed MCF10A cells were also tumorigenic in immunodifficient mice. Studies of changes in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways revealed that the upstream Erk pathway was down-regulated in the NNK-transformed cells. Our data provide the first evidence suggesting that the tobacco carcinogen NNK is competent to induce malignant transformation of non-cancerous human breast epithelial cells. Our findings suggest that the tobacco carcinogen NNK may contribute to early events in human breast carcinogenesis.

  19. Lessons for the anthropocene from the recent past: Tobacco use, HIV/AIDS, and social transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Charles; Holm, Poul

    2017-09-01

    In light of the dilemma of global climate change that we have presented ourselves with in the twenty-first century and beyond, many researchers express despair at the ability of humans and societies to change behavior. The paper identifies how global humanity at individual, institutional, and governmental levels have addressed life-threatening dangers in the recent past and begun processes of long-term corrective action. The paper thus discusses global social transformations from the recent past in regards to tobacco use and HIV/AIDS, to think about how Hannah Arendt's concept of the Polis detailed in The Human Condition (1958) may be engaged to address the human dimensions of climate change. As an output of the Andrew W. Mellon European Observatory of the New Human Condition, this paper's focus is commensurate with the thrust of this special issue of Global and Planetary Change which considers climate change to be more of a crisis in the human condition than an environmental problem. Arendt's concept of the Polis provides a framework for a better understanding of change in behavior, preference and motivation. We argue that her perspectives are central to developing multi and inter-disciplinary humanities, social science, science and business perspectives to mobilize collective human action towards adapting to and mitigating the social and environmental threats of global climate change.

  20. The use of phosphomannose isomerase selection system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco and flax aimed for phytoremediation.

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    Hilgert, Jitka; Sura-De Jong, Martina; Fišer, Jiří; Tupá, Kateřina; Vrbová, Miroslava; Griga, Miroslav; Macek, Tomáš; Žiarovská, Jana

    2017-05-04

    A plant selection system based on the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker is often used to avoid selection using antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, pmi gene is endogenous in several plant species and therefore difficult to use in such cases. Here we evaluated and compared Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Linum usitatissimum breeding line AGT-952 (without endogenous pmi gene) and Nicotiana tabacum var. WSC-38 (with endogenous pmi gene). Transformation was evaluated for vectors bearing transgenes that have the potential to be involved in improved phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Tobacco regenerants selection resulted in 6.8% transformation efficiency when using a medium supplemented with 30 g/L mannose with stepwise decrease of the sucrose concentration. Similar transformation efficiency (5.3%) was achieved in transformation of flax. Relatively low selection efficiency was achieved (12.5% and 34.8%, respectively). The final detection of efficient pmi selection was conducted using PCR and the non-endogenous genes; pmi transgene for flax and todC2 transgene for tobacco plants.

  1. Polyketide synthesis in tobacco plants transformed with a Plumbago zeylanica type III hexaketide synthase.

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    Jadhav, Supriya; Phapale, Prasad; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Bhargava, Sujata

    2014-02-01

    A type III polyketide synthase from Plumbago zeylanica (PzPKS) was cloned and expressed in tobacco plants to study whether the transgenic tobacco plants expressing PzPKS synthesize the pharmacologically important polyketide, plumbagin. High resolution mass spectrometry based metabolite profiling of two transgenic events and wild type tobacco plants was carried out to investigate changes in polyketides, including plumbagin. Ten polyketides, which included six pyrones and four naphthalene derivatives, were identified in PzPKS transgenic plants. While one pyrone, styryl-2-pyranone, was detected in both, wild type and transgenic tobacco plants, three pyrones were expressed only in the leaves of transgenic tobacco plants. The transgenic tobacco plants did not accumulate plumbagin, but showed accumulation of isoshinanolone in the roots, which is postulated to be the reduction product of plumbagin. In addition, leaves of transgenic tobacco plants accumulated 3-methyl-1,8-naphthalenediol, a postulated precursor of plumbagin. The results indicated the requirement of additional Plumbago-specific components in the biosynthetic pathway of this polyketide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stably-stratified wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Sichani, Pejman; Zonta, Francesco; Obabko, Aleksandr; Soldati, Alfredo

    2017-11-01

    Stably-stratified (bottom-up cooling) turbulent flows are encountered in a number of industrial applications, environmental processes and geophysical flows. Turbulent entrainment and mixing across density interfaces in terrestrial water bodies (oceans, lakes and rivers) and in industrial heat transfer equipments are just some important examples of stably-stratified flows. In this work we use Direct Numerical Simulation to investigate the fundamental physics of stably-stratified channel turbulence under Boussinesq and Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) conditions. Compared to the neutrally-buoyant case, in the stably-stratified case active turbulence survives only in the near-wall region and coexists with internal gravity waves (IGW) moving in the core region of the channel. This induces a general suppression of turbulence levels, momentum and buoyancy fluxes. Our results show also that NOB effects may be important when the flow is subject to large temperature gradients. The most striking feature observed in case of NOB conditions is the generation of a strong flow asymmetry with possible local flow laminarization in the near wall region.

  3. Evaluation of deoxynivalenol production in dsRNA Carrying and Cured Fusarium graminearum isolates by AYT1 expressing transformed tobacco

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    Mohammad Hasan shahhosseiny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fusarium head blight (FHB, is the most destructive disease of wheat, producing the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, a protein synthesis inhibitor, which is harmful to humans and livestock. dsRNAmycoviruses-infected-isolates of Fusariumgraminearum, showed changes in morphological and pathogenicity phenotypes including reduced virulence towards wheat and decreased production of trichothecene mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol: DON. Materials and methods: Previous studies indicated that over expression of yeast acetyl transferase gene (ScAYT1 encoding a 3-O trichothecene acetyl transferase that converts deoxynivalenol to a less toxic acetylated form, leads to suppression of the deoxynivalenol sensitivity in pdr5 yeast mutants. To identify whether ScAYT1 over-expression in transgenic tobacco plants can deal with mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol in fungal extract and studying the effect of dsRNA contamination on detoxification and resistance level, we have treated T1 AYT1 transgenic tobacco seedlings with complete extraction of normal F. graminearum isolate carrying dsRNA metabolites. First, we introduced AYT1into the model tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in an attempt to detoxify deoxynivalenol. Results: In vitro tests with extraction of dsRNA carrying and cured isolates of F. graminearum and 10 ppm of deoxynivalenol indicated variable resistance levels in transgenic plants. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the transgene expression AYT1 and Fusarium infection to dsRNA can induce tolerance to deoxynivalenol, followed by increased resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat.

  4. Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhi; Zhang Zhaoshun; Cui Guixiang; Xu Chunxiao

    2011-01-01

    Stably stratified turbulence is a common phenomenon in atmosphere and ocean. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating homogeneous stably stratified turbulence numerically at Reynolds number Re = uL/v = 10 2 ∼10 3 and Froude number Fr = u/NL = 10 −2 ∼10 0 in which u is root mean square of velocity fluctuations, L is integral scale and N is Brunt-Vaïsälä frequency. Three sets of computation cases are designed with different initial conditions, namely isotropic turbulence, Taylor Green vortex and internal waves, to investigate the statistical properties from different origins. The computed horizontal and vertical energy spectra are consistent with observation in atmosphere and ocean when the composite parameter ReFr 2 is greater than O(1). It has also been found in this paper that the stratification turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominated in the developed stably stratified turbulence.

  5. Cytoskeletal dynamics in interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis analysed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, H; Green, P; Sambade, A; Doonan, J H; Lloyd, C W

    2011-04-01

    Transient transformation with Agrobacterium is a widespread tool allowing rapid expression analyses in plants. However, the available methods generate expression in interphase and do not allow the routine analysis of dividing cells. Here, we present a transient transformation method (termed 'TAMBY2') to enable cell biological studies in interphase and cell division. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression in tobacco BY-2 was analysed by Western blotting and quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Time-lapse microscopy of cytoskeletal markers was employed to monitor cell division. Double-labelling in interphase and mitosis enabled localization studies. We found that the transient transformation efficiency was highest when BY-2/Agrobacterium co-cultivation was performed on solid medium. Transformants produced in this way divided at high frequency. We demonstrated the utility of the method by defining the behaviour of a previously uncharacterized microtubule motor, KinG, throughout the cell cycle. Our analyses demonstrated that TAMBY2 provides a flexible tool for the transient transformation of BY-2 with Agrobacterium. Fluorescence double-labelling showed that KinG localizes to microtubules and to F-actin. In interphase, KinG accumulates on microtubule lagging ends, suggesting a minus-end-directed function in vivo. Time-lapse studies of cell division showed that GFP-KinG strongly labels preprophase band and phragmoplast, but not the metaphase spindle. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. [Cloning of y3 gene encoding a tobacco mosaic virus inhibitor from Coprinus comatus and transformation to Nicotiana tabacum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueren; He, Tao; Zhang, Gaina; Hao, Jianguo; Jia, Jingfen

    2010-02-01

    The protein Y3 was a TMV inhibitor which was encoded by y3 gene. The aim of this work was to clone the full length of y3 gene from Coprinus comatus and to reveal its inhibitory function to TMV in in vivo conditions. We amplified the unknown 5'- terminal cDNA sequence of y3 gene with 5'- Full RACE Core Set (TaKaRa), obtained the full length of this gene by RT-PCR, constructed the expression plasmid pCAMBIA1301-y3 via inserting gene y3 sequence, CaMV 35 S promoter, and NOS terminator at MCS and transformed it into Nicotiana tabacum via agrobacterium-mediation. The full length of y3 gene was 534 bps including one ORF encoding 130 amino acid residues (GenBank Accession No. GQ859168; EMBL FN546262). The cDNA sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity (94%) to the published fragment of y3 gene sequence. Northern blot analysis proved the transcription of y3 gene in transgenic tobacco plants. The transgenic plants inoculated with TMV expressed the inhibitory activity to TMV. We cloned the full length of y3 gene and obtained transgenic tobacco plants. The expression of y3 gene in transgenic plants improved the inhibitory activity to TMV. The cloning and expression analysis of y3 gene might provide background information for future studying of y3 gene.

  7. Improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium by genetically modified tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Physiological and biochemical response of the transformants to cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorinova, N.; Nedkovska, M.; Todorovska, E.; Simova-Stoilova, L.; Stoyanova, Z.; Georgieva, K.; Demirevska-Kepova, K.; Atanassov, A.; Herzig, R.

    2007-01-01

    The response of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.)-non-transformed and transformed with a metallothionein gene MThis from Silene vulgaris L. - to increase cadmium supply in the nutrient solution was compared. The transgenic plants accumulated significantly more Cd both in the roots and the leaves. Visual toxicity symptoms and disturbance in water balance were correlated with Cd tissue content. Treatment with 300 μM CdCl 2 resulted in inhibition of photosynthesis and mobilization of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Treatment with 500 μM CdCl 2 led to irreversible damage of photosynthesis and oxidative stress. An appearance of a new peroxidase isoform and changes in the leaf polypeptide pattern were observed at the highest Cd concentration. The level of non-protein thiols gradually increased following the Cd treatment both in transgenic and non-transformed plants. - Genetic transformation of Nicotiana tabacum L. by metallothionein gene improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium

  8. Temporal and Spatial Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-β after Airway Remodeling to Tobacco Smoke in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Laura L.; Nguyen, Yen P.; Aspeé, Rayza; Bolton, Sarah J.; Shen, Yi-hsin; Wang, Lei; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette

    2016-01-01

    Airway remodeling is strongly correlated with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, our goal was to characterize progressive structural changes in site-specific airways, along with the temporal and spatial expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in the lungs of male spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to tobacco smoke (TS). Our studies demonstrated that TS-induced changes of the airways is dependent on airway generation and exposure duration for proximal, midlevel, and distal airways. Stratified squamous epithelial cell metaplasia was evident in the most proximal airways after 4 and 12 weeks but with minimal levels of TGF-β–positive epithelial cells after only 4 weeks of exposure. In contrast, epithelial cells in midlevel and distal airways were strongly TGF-β positive at both 4 and 12 weeks of TS exposure. Airway smooth muscle volume increased significantly at 4 and 12 weeks in midlevel airways. Immunohistochemistry of TGF-β was also found to be significantly increased at 4 and 12 weeks in lymphoid tissues and alveolar macrophages. ELISA of whole-lung homogenate demonstrated that TGF-β2 was increased after 4 and 12 weeks of TS exposure, whereas TGF-β1 was decreased at 12 weeks of TS exposure. Airway levels of messenger RNA for TGF-β2, as well as platelet-derived growth factor-A, granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor-α, growth factors regulated by TGF-β, were significantly decreased in animals after 12 weeks of TS exposure. Our data indicate that TS increases TGF-β in epithelial and inflammatory cells in connection with airway remodeling, although the specific role of each TGF-β isoform remains to be defined in TS-induced airway injury and disease. PMID:26637070

  9. Evaluation of Nicotiana tabacum plants transformed for the expression of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lombardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, carrying respectively the F18 adhesive fimbriae and the B subunit of verocytotoxin genes from O138 Verocytotoxic E.coli serotype were developed as a model of edible vaccine. Tobacco plants were transformed by agroinfection according to Rossi et al. (2013 stably.  The F18 adhesive fimbriae and VT2e B-subunit were placed under control of the GLOB promoter for the seed-specific protein expression. Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector system is an efficient tool to transform plant cells; however, the exogenous gene integrates at semi-random into the nuclear chromosome. PCR products, using specific oligonucleotides putatively encoding the B-subunit of VT2e-B and F18 fimbriae were identified on agarose gel (1.5% - 0.9% as bands with a length of 270 and 519 base pairs, respectively. We showed that the foreign VT2e-B and F18 fimbriae genes were stably integrated into the tobacco genome. Northern blot and Western blot analyses carried out respectively on total mRNA and total soluble protein extract obtained from seeds. For each line, the obtained amount of antigens is sufficient for subsequent oral immunization trials. Three lines of tobacco seeds (F18, VT2e-B, and WT were seeded in homogeneous conditions and were harvested simultaneously. Tobacco plants were analysed also by optical and electronic microscope in different phases of growth. Germination of transgenic seeds were delayed of three/five days compared to WT in two replicated experiments, suggesting that genetic manipulation may influenced mechanisms leading to germination. In conclusion the genes coding for VT2e-B and the F18 are stably maintained in the seeds and obtained tobacco seeds represent a valid strategy to ferry antigenic proteins to the gut and a promising non-invasive method of vaccination in pig industry.

  10. Expression of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli antigens in tobacco seeds and evaluation of gut immunity after oral administration in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luciana; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Reggi, Serena; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Baldi, Antonella; Sala, Vittorio; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Coddens, Annelies; Cox, Eric; Fogher, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Verocytotoxic Escherichia (E.) coli strains are responsible for swine oedema disease, which is an enterotoxaemia that causes economic losses in the pig industry. The production of a vaccine for oral administration in transgenic seeds could be an efficient system to stimulate local immunity. This study was conducted to transform tobacco plants for the seed-specific expression of antigenic proteins from a porcine verocytotoxic E. coli strain. Parameters related to an immunological response and possible adverse effects on the oral administration of obtained tobacco seeds were evaluated in a mouse model. Tobacco was transformed via Agrobacteium tumefaciens with chimeric constructs containing structural parts of the major subunit FedA of the F18 adhesive fimbriae and VT2e B-subunit genes under control of a seed specific GLOB promoter. We showed that the foreign Vt2e-B and F18 genes were stably accumulated in storage tissue by the immunostaining method. In addition, Balb-C mice receiving transgenic tobacco seeds via the oral route showed a significant increase in IgA-positive plasma cell presence in tunica propria when compared to the control group with no observed adverse effects. Our findings encourage future studies focusing on swine for evaluation of the protective effects of transformed tobacco seeds against E. coli infection.

  11. Binary transformation systems based on 'shooter' mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: a simple, efficient and universal gene transfer technology that permits marker gene elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihálka, V; Balázs, E; Nagy, I

    2003-04-01

    A simple transformation procedure with a positive selection scheme using the expression of the isopentenyl transferase ( ipt) gene of transfer DNA (T-DNA) 'shooter' mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was elaborated. After comparing several 'shooter' mutants we found that particular strains frequently produced phenotypically normal shoots after co-culturing with tobacco leaf explants. Shoots selected for normal phenotype showed apical dominance and could be rooted with the same efficiency as non-transformed shoots. When binary vectors were introduced into these strains, stably integrated binary vector T-DNA sequences were found in some regenerants, which were produced under non-selective conditions on growth-regulator-free medium. Such phenotypically normal transformants typically lacked a stably integrated ipt gene. Normal looking shoots could also be produced in tomato, muskmelon and sweet pepper.

  12. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  13. Transformation of tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L. with the recombinant hepatitis B virus genes 35SHBsAg and 35SHBsAgER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martins Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg, purified from transgenic plants, proved to be efficient when utilized for raising anti-HB antibodies for the prevention of hepatitis B. Because of the important role of the HBsAg antigen in hepatitis B prevention, the coding sequence of HBsAg antigen, with or without the addition of the carboxi-terminus sequence for protein retention in the endoplasmatic reticulum, was linked to cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, tobacco mosaic virus leader sequence Ω, and the transcription terminator sequence. The aim of this work was to clone the chimeric gene 35SHBsAgER in the plant expression vector pGPTV/Kan/Asc. The resulting plasmid, called pG35SHBsAgER, and another plasmid produced previously in our laboratory called pG35SHBsAg, were transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and tobacco leaves, of the SR1 cultivar were used as explants for genetic transformation. Twenty-one fully regenerated plants were obtained (10 for the pG35SHBsAg construction and 11 for the pG35SHBsAgER construction. The genomic DNA of all plants was analyzed by PCR, and the presence of the transgene was confirmed in all plants.

  14. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  15. Causal boundary for stably causal space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, I.

    1987-12-01

    The usual boundary constructions for space-times often yield an unsatisfactory boundary set. This problem is reviewed and a new solution is proposed. An explicit identification rule is given on the set of the ideal points of the space-time. This construction leads to a satisfactory boundary point set structure for stably causal space-times. The topological properties of the resulting causal boundary construction are examined. For the stably causal space-times each causal curve has a unique endpoint on the boundary set according to the extended Alexandrov topology. The extension of the space-time through the boundary is discussed. To describe the singularities the defined boundary sets have to be separated into two disjoint sets. (D.Gy.) 8 refs

  16. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  17. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  18. Characterization of new cell line stably expressing CHI3L1 oncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonin V. P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To characterize the immortalized 293 cell line after stable transfection with human oncogene (CHI3L1. Methods. 293 cells, stably transfected with pcDNA3.1_CHI3L1, and 293 cells, stably transfected with pcDNA3.1 as a negative control, were used throughout all experiments. The clones of CHI3L1-expressing 293 cells and 293 cells, transfected with pcDNA3.1, were analyzed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay; analyses of ERK1/2 and AKT activation and their cellular localization were performed with anti-phospho-ERK and anti-phospho-AKT antibodies. Specific activation of MAP and PI3 kinases was measured by densitometric analysis of Western-blot signals. Results. The obtained results show quite modest ability of CHI3L1 to stimulate cell growth and reflect rather an improved cellular plating efficiency of the 293 cells stably transfected with pcDNA3.1_CHI3L1 as compared to the 293 cells transfected with an «empty» vector. ERK1/2 and AKT are activated in the 293_CHI3L1 cells. In these cells phosphorylated ERK1/2 were localized in both cell cytoplasm and nuclei while AKT only in cytoplasm. The 293_CHI3L1 cells differed from the 293 cells, transfected with an «empty» vector, in their size and ability to adhere to the culture plates. Conclusions. The overexpression of CHI3L1 is likely to have an important role in tumorigenesis via a mechanism which involves activation of PI3K and ERK1/2 pathways. The tumors which can be induced by orthotopic implantation of the transformed human cells with overexpressed human oncogene CHI3L1 into the rat brain can be used as a target for anticancer drug development.

  19. Stably Expressed Genes Involved in Basic Cellular Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Wang

    Full Text Available Stably Expressed Genes (SEGs whose expression varies within a narrow range may be involved in core cellular processes necessary for basic functions. To identify such genes, we re-analyzed existing RNA-Seq gene expression profiles across 11 organs at 4 developmental stages (from immature to old age in both sexes of F344 rats (n = 4/group; 320 samples. Expression changes (calculated as the maximum expression / minimum expression for each gene of >19000 genes across organs, ages, and sexes ranged from 2.35 to >109-fold, with a median of 165-fold. The expression of 278 SEGs was found to vary ≤4-fold and these genes were significantly involved in protein catabolism (proteasome and ubiquitination, RNA transport, protein processing, and the spliceosome. Such stability of expression was further validated in human samples where the expression variability of the homologous human SEGs was significantly lower than that of other genes in the human genome. It was also found that the homologous human SEGs were generally less subject to non-synonymous mutation than other genes, as would be expected of stably expressed genes. We also found that knockout of SEG homologs in mouse models was more likely to cause complete preweaning lethality than non-SEG homologs, corroborating the fundamental roles played by SEGs in biological development. Such stably expressed genes and pathways across life-stages suggest that tight control of these processes is important in basic cellular functions and that perturbation by endogenous (e.g., genetics or exogenous agents (e.g., drugs, environmental factors may cause serious adverse effects.

  20. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  1. Optimal energy growth in a stably stratified shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sharath; Roy, Anubhab; Bale, Rahul; Iyer, Krithika; Govindarajan, Rama

    2018-02-01

    Transient growth of perturbations by a linear non-modal evolution is studied here in a stably stratified bounded Couette flow. The density stratification is linear. Classical inviscid stability theory states that a parallel shear flow is stable to exponentially growing disturbances if the Richardson number (Ri) is greater than 1/4 everywhere in the flow. Experiments and numerical simulations at higher Ri show however that algebraically growing disturbances can lead to transient amplification. The complexity of a stably stratified shear flow stems from its ability to combine this transient amplification with propagating internal gravity waves (IGWs). The optimal perturbations associated with maximum energy amplification are numerically obtained at intermediate Reynolds numbers. It is shown that in this wall-bounded flow, the three-dimensional optimal perturbations are oblique, unlike in unstratified flow. A partitioning of energy into kinetic and potential helps in understanding the exchange of energies and how it modifies the transient growth. We show that the apportionment between potential and kinetic energy depends, in an interesting manner, on the Richardson number, and on time, as the transient growth proceeds from an optimal perturbation. The oft-quoted stabilizing role of stratification is also probed in the non-diffusive limit in the context of disturbance energy amplification.

  2. Transformation of tobacco and Arabidopsis plants with Stellaria media genes encoding novel hevein-like peptides increases their resistance to fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Shukurov, Rahim; D Voblikova, Vera; Nikonorova, Alexandra K; Komakhin, Roman A; V Komakhina, Vera; A Egorov, Tsezi; V Grishin, Eugene; V Babakov, Alexey

    2012-04-01

    Two novel antifungal hevein-like peptides, SmAMP1.1a and SmAMP2.2a, were previously isolated from seeds of Stellaria media. It has been established that these peptides accumulate in this weed as a result of proteolysis of two propeptides, pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2. The primary structure of these propeptides is unique; in addition to having a signal peptide and negatively charged C-terminus, each of these structures consists of two hevein-like peptides of different length separated by a space rather than a single peptide. In this work, we demonstrated that the expression of the pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2 genes was tissue-specific and increased substantially under exposure to fungal infection. To elucidate whether S. media has any advantages in defending against phytopathogens due to its unusual structure of pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2, on the basis of the pro-SmAMP1 gene, we created three genetic constructs. Arabidopsis and tobacco plants were subsequently transformed with these constructs. Transgenic plants bearing the full-length pro-SmAMP1 gene exhibited the best resistance to the phytopathogens Bipolaris sorokiniana and Thielaviopsis basicola. The resistance of S. media plants to phytopathogenic fungi was likely due to the fungal-inducible expression of pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2 genes, and due to the specific features of the primary structure of the corresponding propeptides. As a result of the processing of these propeptides, two different antimicrobial peptides were released simultaneously. Based on our results, we conclude that the genes for antimicrobial peptides from S. media may be promising genetic tools for the improvement of plant resistance to fungal diseases.

  3. Stably Doped Conducting Polymer Nanoshells by Surface Initiated Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Yoon, Soon Joon; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Tai, Wanyi; O'Donnell, Matthew; Gao, Xiaohu

    2015-12-09

    Despite broad applications ranging from electronics to biomedical sensing and imaging, a long-standing problem of conducting polymers is the poor resistance to dedoping, which directly affects their signature electrical and optical properties. This problem is particularly significant for biomedical uses because of fast leaching of dopant ions in physiological environments. Here, we describe a new approach to engineer multimodal core-shell nanoparticles with a stably doped conductive polymer shell in biological environments. It was achieved by making a densely packed polymer brush rather than changing its molecular structure. Polyaniline (PANI) was used as a model compound due to its concentrated near-infrared (NIR) absorption. It was grafted onto a magnetic nanoparticle via a polydopamine intermediate layer. Remarkably, at pH 7 its conductivity is ca. 2000× higher than conventional PANI nanoshells. Similarly, its NIR absorption is enhanced by 2 orders of magnitude, ideal for photothermal imaging and therapy. Another surprising finding is its nonfouling property, even outperforming polyethylene glycol. This platform technology is also expected to open exciting opportunities in engineering stable conductive materials for electronics, imaging, and sensing.

  4. TOBACCO CONTROL

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    of tobacco control laws, and limited public awareness about the hazards of tobacco com- bine to create a growing health crisis. Currently, 70% of .... exposure to tobacco smoke in “workplaces, public transport, and indoor public places.” At the time, Guatemalan law prohibited smoking in schools and hospitals — but had only ...

  5. Persistent human cardiac Na+ currents in stably transfected mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ging Kuo; Russell, Gabriella; Wang, Sho-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Miniature persistent late Na+ currents in cardiomyocytes have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The goals of this study are to establish a stable cell line expressing robust persistent cardiac Na+ currents and to test Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs for selective action against resting and open states. After transient transfection of an inactivation-deficient human cardiac Na+ channel clone (hNav1.5-CW with L409C/A410W double mutations), transfected mammalian HEK293 cells were treated with 1 mg/ml G-418. Individual G-418-resistant colonies were isolated using glass cylinders. One colony with high expression of persistent Na+ currents was subjected to a second colony selection. Cells from this colony remained stable in expressing robust peak Na+ currents of 996 ± 173 pA/pF at +50 mV (n = 20). Persistent late Na+ currents in these cells were clearly visible during a 4-second depolarizing pulse albeit decayed slowly. This slow decay is likely due to slow inactivation of Na+ channels and could be largely eliminated by 5 μM batrachotoxin. Peak cardiac hNav1.5-CW Na+ currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC50 value of 2.27 ± 0.08 μM (n = 6). At clinic relevant concentrations, Class 1 antiarrhythmics are much more selective in blocking persistent late Na+ currents than their peak counterparts, with a selectivity ratio ranging from 80.6 (flecainide) to 3 (disopyramide). We conclude that (1) Class 1 antiarrhythmics differ widely in their resting- vs. open-channel selectivity, and (2) stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing large persistent hNav1.5-CW Na+ currents are suitable for studying as well as screening potent open-channel blockers. PMID:23695971

  6. Dynamics of mixed convective-stably-stratified fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.-A.; Lecoanet, D.; Favier, B.; Le Bars, M.

    2017-09-01

    We study the dynamical regimes of a density-stratified fluid confined between isothermal no-slip top and bottom boundaries (at temperatures Tt and Tb) via direct numerical simulation. The thermal expansion coefficient of the fluid is temperature dependent and chosen such that the fluid density is maximum at the inversion temperature Tb>Ti>Tt . Thus, the lower layer of the fluid is convectively unstable while the upper layer is stably stratified. We show that the characteristics of the convection change significantly depending on the degree of stratification of the stable layer. For strong stable stratification, the convection zone coincides with the fraction of the fluid that is convectively unstable (i.e., where T >Ti ), and convective motions consist of rising and sinking plumes of large density anomaly, as is the case in canonical Rayleigh-Bénard convection; internal gravity waves are generated by turbulent fluctuations in the convective layer and propagate in the upper layer. For weak stable stratification, we demonstrate that a large fraction of the stable fluid (i.e., with temperature T phenomenological description of the transition between the regimes of plume-dominated and entrainment-dominated convection through analysis of the differences in the heat transfer mechanisms, kinetic energy density spectra, and probability density functions for different stratification strengths. Importantly, we find that the effect of the stable layer on the convection decreases only weakly with increasing stratification strength, meaning that the dynamics of the stable layer and convection should be studied self-consistently in a wide range of applications.

  7. Nicotine and tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

  8. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more confident as a nonsmoker, dealing with your nicotine addiction is easier. Some prescription medicines help people stop ... tobacco. Those cravings have less to do with nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of ...

  9. Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxes are widely regarded as a highly effective strategy for reducing tobacco use and its consequences. The voluminous literature on tobacco taxes is assessed, drawing heavily from seminal and recent publications reviewing the evidence on the impact of tobacco taxes on tobacco use and related outcomes, as well as that on tobacco tax administration. Well over 100 studies, including a growing number from low-income and middle-income countries, clearly demonstrate that tobacco excise taxes are a powerful tool for reducing tobacco use while at the same time providing a reliable source of government revenues. Significant increases in tobacco taxes that increase tobacco product prices encourage current tobacco users to stop using, prevent potential users from taking up tobacco use, and reduce consumption among those that continue to use, with the greatest impact on the young and the poor. Global experiences with tobacco taxation and tax administration have been used by WHO to develop a set of 'best practices' for maximising the effectiveness of tobacco taxation. Significant increases in tobacco taxes are a highly effective tobacco control strategy and lead to significant improvements in public health. The positive health impact is even greater when some of the revenues generated by tobacco tax increases are used to support tobacco control, health promotion and/or other health-related activities and programmes. In general, oppositional arguments that higher taxes will have harmful economic effects are false or overstated.

  10. A germline chromothripsis event stably segregating in 11 individuals through three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Nazaryan-Petersen, Lusine; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Parentally transmitted germ-line chromothripsis (G-CTH) has been identified in only a few cases. Most of these rearrangements were stably transmitted, in an unbalanced form, from a healthy mother to her child with congenital abnormalities probably caused by de novo copy-number changes of...

  11. Transformation of tobacco cpDNA with fusion E7GGG/GUS gene and homologous recombination mediated elimination of the marker gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bříza, Jindřich; Vlasák, Josef; Ryba, Š.; Ludvíková, V.; Niedermeierová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2013), s. 3644-3648 ISSN 1310-2818 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960903 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : E7GGG oncogene * chloroplast transformation * marker-free plant * homologous recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2013

  12. Ubiquitin fusion expression and tissue-dependent targeting of hG-CSF in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is an important human cytokine which has been widely used in oncology and infection protection. To satisfy clinical needs, expression of recombinant hG-CSF has been studied in several organisms, including rice cell suspension culture and transient expression in tobacco leaves, but there was no published report on its expression in stably transformed plants which can serve as a more economical expression platform with potential industrial application. Results In this study, hG-CSF expression was investigated in transgenic tobacco leaves and seeds in which the accumulation of hG-CSF could be enhanced through fusion with ubiquitin by up to 7 fold in leaves and 2 fold in seeds, leading to an accumulation level of 2.5 mg/g total soluble protein (TSP) in leaves and 1.3 mg/g TSP in seeds, relative to hG-CSF expressed without a fusion partner. Immunoblot analysis showed that ubiquitin was processed from the final protein product, and ubiquitination was up-regulated in all transgenic plants analyzed. Driven by CaMV 35S promoter and phaseolin signal peptide, hG-CSF was observed to be secreted into apoplast in leaves but deposited in protein storage vacuole (PSV) in seeds, indicating that targeting of the hG-CSF was tissue-dependent in transgenic tobacco. Bioactivity assay showed that hG-CSF expressed in both seeds and leaves was bioactive to support the proliferation of NFS-60 cells. Conclusions In this study, the expression of bioactive hG-CSF in transgenic plants was improved through ubiquitin fusion strategy, demonstrating that protein expression can be enhanced in both plant leaves and seeds through fusion with ubiquitin and providing a typical case of tissue-dependent expression of recombinant protein in transgenic plants. PMID:21985646

  13. A promoter derived from taro bacilliform badnavirus drives strong expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I C; Iommarini, J P; Becker, D K; Hafner, G J; Dale, J L; Harding, R M

    2003-08-01

    Taro bacilliform virus (TaBV) is a pararetrovirus of the genus Badnavirus which infects the monocotyledonous plant, taro ( Colocasia esculenta). A region of the TaBV genome spanning nucleotides 6,281 to 12 (T1200), including the 3' end of open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) and the intergenic region to the end of the tRNA(met)-binding site, was tested for promoter activity along with four different 5' deletion fragments (T600, T500, T250 and T100). In transient assays, only the T1200, T600, T500 fragments were shown to have promoter activity in taro leaf, banana suspension cells and tobacco callus. When these three promoters were evaluated in stably transformed, in vitro-grown transgenic banana and tobacco plants, all were found to drive near-constitutive expression of either the green fluorescent protein or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in the stem (or pseudostem), leaves and roots, with strongest expression observed in the vascular tissue. In transgenic banana leaves, the T600 promoter directed four-fold greater GUS activity than that of the T1200, T500 and the maize polyubiquitin-1 promoters. In transgenic tobacco leaves, the levels of GUS expression directed by the three promoters was between four- and ten-fold lower than that of the double Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. These results indicate that the TaBV-derived promoters may be useful for the high-level constitutive expression of transgenes in either monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous species.

  14. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  15. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, Michel; Perriot, Jean; Peiffer, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    The use of snus (smokeless tobacco) can be detrimental to health. Containing carcinogenic nitrosamines (Swedish snus do not contain nitrosamine). Snus delivers rapidly high doses of nicotine which can lead to dependence. It do not induce bronchial carcinoma differently smoked tobacco. Lesions usually develop in the area of the mouth where the snus is placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leukoedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. The most frequently occurring premalignant lesion is leukoplakia. Studies reveal conflicting evidence about the risk of oral and gastroesophageal cancer with regard to snus users. However, the use of snus has proved to be a risk factor in developing pancreatic cancer and increases the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, snus is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and premature delivery. Nicotine substitution therapy and bupropion and varenicline reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during snus cessation. However, they have not been shown to assist in long-term abstinence. Information concerning potential hazards of using snus products must be incorporated into health educational programmes in order to discourage its use. Snus is not a recommended product to help in stopping to smoke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Colony polymerase chain reaction of stably transfected Trypanosoma cruzi grown on solid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner G dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tools for the genetic manipulation of Trypanosoma cruzi are largely unavailable, although several vectors for transfection of epimastigotes and expression of foreign or recombinant genes have been developed. We have previously constructed several plasmid vectors in which recombinant genes are expressed in T. cruzi using the rRNA promoter. In this report, we demonstrate that one of these vectors can simultaneously mediate expression of neomycin phosphotransferase and green fluorescent protein when used to stably transfect cultured epimastigotes. These stably transfected epimastigotes can be selected and cloned as unique colonies on solid medium. We describe a simple colony PCR approach to the screening of these T. cruzi colonies for relevant genes. Thus, the methodologies outlined herein provide important new tools for the genetic dissection of this important parasite.

  17. Cancer and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of all cancers linked to tobacco use. Secondhand smoke exposure causes about 7,300 lung cancer deaths among ... about the health risks of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. Make their home and vehicle 100% tobacco free ...

  18. Women and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Stop Smoking > Smoking Facts Women and Tobacco Use Smoking and tobacco use pose a serious risk of death and ... social stigma, discrimination and targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Smoking is directly responsible for 80 percent ...

  19. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... Tobacco is a plant. Its leaves are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects. Tobacco ...

  20. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support the collection of baseline data against which to measure future changes in smoking patters and amount of tobacco consumed. ... Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention ... Impact of multinational tobacco companies' penetration on tobacco consumption in China : final technical report ...

  1. Tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Kaufman, Nancy; Sarna, Linda

    2003-11-01

    To review and summarize tobacco control policies, their impact in curbing the tobacco epidemic, and to describe a role for nursing advocacy. Published articles and research studies. Comprehensive tobacco control policy is one of the most effective mechanisms to prevent tobacco-related cancers and other illnesses. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the Master Settlement Agreement in the United States have provided new opportunities for tobacco control. Nursing participation in the policy process can expand and strengthen these policies' activities. Involvement in tobacco control should be integral to oncology nursing efforts to prevent cancer, promote health, and quality of life.

  2. Reduction of vertical transport in two-dimensional stably stratified forced shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toqué, Nathalie; Lignières, François; Vincent, Alain

    2006-04-01

    The effect of stable stratification on the vertical transport of passive contaminants in forced, stationary, two-dimensional (2D) and inhomogeneous shear turbulence is investigated numerically. The mean flow consists of several superimposed parallel sheared layers in a stably stratified medium. We find that, as stratification increases, the vertical transport decreases much faster than predicted by mixing length estimates. For the highest stratification, particles vertical dispersion nearly vanishes. The proposed interpretation emphasizes the role of weakly sheared layers where the relative increase of the mean horizontal velocity with respect to the root-mean-square (rms) vertical velocity causes the decrease of the Lagrangian correlation timescale.

  3. Tobacco Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Klein, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a pervasive public health problem and the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. This article reviews the epidemiology of tobacco use in youth, with a description of cigarettes, alternative tobacco product, and poly-tobacco use patterns among the general population and among adolescents with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. The article also provides an update on the diagnosis and assessment of tobacco use disorder in adolescents, w...

  4. Youth and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, S E; Prokhorov, A V; Klein, J D

    2004-12-01

    Youth around the world take up smoking and use tobacco products at high rates. Young people may not grasp the long-term consequences of tobacco use, although tobacco consumption and exposure has been shown to have significant negative health effects. Youth use a variety of tobacco products that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed, including machine-manufactured cigarettes, cigars, bidis, kreteks, sticks, and snuff. Prevention efforts have focused on countering those aspects that are believed to contribute to smoking uptake, such as tobacco industry advertising and promotion, and access to tobacco. There are many aspects of tobacco promotion through the media that have been more difficult to control, however, such as product placement within popular cinema movies. Once a youth has taken up tobacco, he or she is more likely than an adult to become addicted and should be offered treatment for tobacco cessation. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove efficacy, the same treatments are suggested for youth as are recommended for adults, including nicotine replacement products. Given the severity of the tobacco epidemic worldwide and the devastating health effects on an individual and population basis, there are currently many efforts to curtail the tobacco problem, including the World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It is through comprehensive and collaborative efforts such as this that the global hazard of tobacco is most likely to be overcome.

  5. Turbulent Mechanical Energy Budget in Stably Stratified Baroclinic Flows over Sloping Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łobocki, Lech

    2017-09-01

    Analysis of second-moment budget equations in a slope-oriented coordinate frame exhibits the pathways of exchange between the potential energy of mean flow and the total turbulent mechanical energy. It is shown that this process is controlled by the inclination of the potential temperature gradient. Hence, this parameter should be considered in studies of turbulence in slope flows as well as the slope inclination. The concept of turbulent potential energy is generalized to include baroclinicity, and is used to explain the role of along-slope turbulent heat flux in energy conversions. A generalization of static stability criteria for baroclinic conditions is also proposed. In addition, the presence of feedback between the turbulent heat flux and the temperature variance in stably-stratified flows is identified, which implies the existence of oscillatory modes characterized by the Brunt-Väisäla frequency.

  6. HeLa-LAV, an epithelial cell line stably infected with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J; Doe, B; Steimer, K S; Wabl, M

    1991-01-01

    An HeLa-LAV cell line was established by infecting and subcloning previously described CD4-expressing HeLa cells with HIV-1. Cells of this line stably synthesize all major HIV proteins, release infectious particles of HIV-1, but do not die even after long term culture. More than 90% of the cells express the envelope protein gp120 on the surface. The cells can be easily and efficiently labeled with 51chromium, and exhibit a low spontaneous release. Because they are susceptible to killing by allogeneic cytotoxic T cells (CTL) when targeted to gp120, they ought to be a useful source of target cells in any kind of HIV-specific killing assays. The cells may also help studies on HIV replication in non-lymphatic/non-monocytic cells. The HeLa-LAV cell line will be freely available from the AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program.

  7. Numerical Simulations of Stably Stratified Fluid Flow Using Compact Finite-Difference Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnár, T.; Fraunié, Ph.; Kozel, K.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the class of high order compact schemes in the context of numerical simulation of stratified flow. The numerical schemes presented here are based on the approach outlined in Lele [1]. The numerical model presented in this contribution is based on the solution of the Boussinesq approximation by a finite-difference scheme. The numerical scheme itself follows the principle of semi-discretization, with high order compact discretization in space, while the time integration is carried out by suitable Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme. In the case presented here the steady flow was considered and thus the artificial compressibility method was used to resolve the pressure from the modified continuity equation. The test case used to demonstrate the capabilities of the selected model consists of the flow of stably stratified fluid over low, smooth hill.

  8. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in smokeless tobacco include polonium–210 (a radioactive element found in tobacco fertilizer) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ( ... study of the 40 most widely used popular brands of moist snuff showed that the amount of ...

  9. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tobacco today do so despite the efforts that led so many of their peers to remain tobacco- ... by: Not allowing products to be sold to anyone younger than 18 and requiring age verification via ...

  10. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels of academic achievement Low self-image or self-esteem Exposure to tobacco advertising Reducing Youth Tobacco Use ... Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  11. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  12. The politics of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1998-12-01

    Smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable mortality will increase substantially in the Asia- Pacific region well into the next century, due to population expansion, ageing populations, and the fact that more women are smoking. The economic costs of tobacco, already substantial, will rise. Of particular concern is the penetration of the region by the transnational tobacco companies, which deny the health evidence of the harm from tobacco, use sophisticated promotions, and lobby to oppose tobacco control measures. There is an urgent need for robust tobacco control action to be taken by every country, but many governments have little experience in combatting this new epidemic or in countering the tobacco companies. They are needlessly concerned that tobacco control action will harm their economy, leading to loss of tax revenue and jobs. Arguments to convince governments must be shaped to address economic issues and illustrate that such action is not only good for a nation's health, but also good for its economy.

  13. Small high-yielding binary Ti vectors pLSU with co-directional replicons for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seokhyun; Su, Guiying; Lasserre, Eric; Aghazadeh, Monty Arta; Murai, Norimoto

    2012-05-01

    Small high-yielding binary Ti vectors of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were constructed to increase the cloning efficiency and plasmid yield in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens for transformation of higher plants. We reduced the size of the binary vector backbone to 4566bp with ColE1 replicon (715bp) for E. coli and VS1 replicon (2654bp) for A. tumefaciens, a bacterial kanamycin resistance gene (999bp), and the T-DNA region (152bp). The binary Ti vectors with the truncated VS1 replicon were stably maintained with more than 98% efficiency in A. tumefaciens without antibiotic selection for 4 days of successive transfers. The transcriptional direction of VS1 replicon can be the same as that of ColE1 replicon (co-directional transcription), or opposite (head-on transcription) as in the case of widely used vectors (pPZP or pCambia). New binary vectors with co-directional transcription yielded in E. coli up to four-fold higher transformation frequency than those with the head-on transcription. In A. tumefaciens the effect of co-directional transcription is still positive in up to 1.8-fold higher transformation frequency than that of head-on transcription. Transformation frequencies of new vectors are over six-fold higher than those of pCambia vector in A. tumefaciens. DNA yields of new vectors were three to five-fold greater than pCambia in E. coli. The proper functions of the new T-DNA borders and new plant selection marker genes were confirmed after A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of tobacco leaf discs, resulting in virtually all treated leaf discs transformed and induced calli. Genetic analysis of kanamycin resistance trait among the progeny showed that the kanamycin resistance and sensitivity traits were segregated into the 3:1 ratio, indicating that the kanamycin resistance genes were integrated stably into a locus or closely linked loci of the nuclear chromosomal DNA of the primary transgenic tobacco plants and inherited to the second generation. © 2012

  14. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  15. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  16. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  17. A Case Study of Offshore Advection of Boundary Layer Rolls over a Stably Stratified Sea Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Svensson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Streaky structures of narrow (8-9 km high wind belts have been observed from SAR images above the Baltic Sea during stably stratified conditions with offshore winds from the southern parts of Sweden. Case studies using the WRF model and in situ aircraft observations indicate that the streaks originate from boundary layer rolls generated over the convective air above Swedish mainland, also supported by visual satellite images showing the typical signature cloud streets. The simulations indicate that the rolls are advected and maintained at least 30–80 km off the coast, in agreement with the streaks observed by the SAR images. During evening when the convective conditions over land diminish, the streaky structures over the sea are still seen in the horizontal wind field; however, the vertical component is close to zero. Thus advected feature from a land surface can affect the wind field considerably for long times and over large areas in coastal regions. Although boundary layer rolls are a well-studied feature, no previous study has presented results concerning their persistence during situations with advection to a strongly stratified boundary layer. Such conditions are commonly encountered during spring in coastal regions at high latitudes.

  18. Silicon homo-heterojunction solar cells: A promising candidate to realize high performance more stably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Miao; Zhong, Sihua; Wang, Wenjie; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-08-01

    We have investigated the influences of diverse physical parameters on the performances of a silicon homo-heterojunction (H-H) solar cell, which encompasses both homojunction and heterojunction, together with their underlying mechanisms by the aid of AFORS-HET simulation. It is found that the performances of H-H solar cell are less sensitive to (i) the work function of the transparent conductive oxide layer, (ii) the interfacial density of states at the front hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interface, (iii) the peak dangling bond defect densities within the p-type a-Si:H (p-a-Si:H) layer, and (iv) the doping concentration of the p-a-Si:H layer, when compared to that of the conventional heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) counterparts. These advantages are due to the fact that the interfacial recombination and the recombination within the a-Si:H region are less affected by all the above parameters, which fundamentally benefit from the field-effect passivation of the homojunction. Therefore, the design of H-H structure can provide an opportunity to produce high-efficiency solar cells more stably.

  19. Silicon homo-heterojunction solar cells: A promising candidate to realize high performance more stably

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Tan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influences of diverse physical parameters on the performances of a silicon homo-heterojunction (H-H solar cell, which encompasses both homojunction and heterojunction, together with their underlying mechanisms by the aid of AFORS-HET simulation. It is found that the performances of H-H solar cell are less sensitive to (i the work function of the transparent conductive oxide layer, (ii the interfacial density of states at the front hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si interface, (iii the peak dangling bond defect densities within the p-type a-Si:H (p-a-Si:H layer, and (iv the doping concentration of the p-a-Si:H layer, when compared to that of the conventional heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT counterparts. These advantages are due to the fact that the interfacial recombination and the recombination within the a-Si:H region are less affected by all the above parameters, which fundamentally benefit from the field-effect passivation of the homojunction. Therefore, the design of H-H structure can provide an opportunity to produce high-efficiency solar cells more stably.

  20. The turbulent decay of trailing vortex pairs in stably stratified environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T.; Baumann, R.

    2000-03-01

    The decay of trailing vortex pairs in thermally stably stratified environments is investigated by means of large eddy simulations. Results of in-situ measurements in the wakes of different aircraft are used to find appropriate intitializations for the simulation of wake turbulence in the quiescent atmosphere. Furthermore, cases with weak atmospheric turbulence are investigated. It is shown that the early development of the vortices is not affected by turbulence and develops almost identically as in 2D simulations. In a quiescent atmosphere the subsequent vortex decay is controlled by the interaction of short-wave disturbances, owing to the aircraft induced turbulence, and baroclinic vorticity, owing to stable stratification. As a consequence, vertical vorticity streaks between the vortices are induced which are substantially intensified by vortex stretching and finally lead to rapid turbulent wake-vortex decay. When in addition also atmospheric turbulence is present, the long-wave instability is dominantly promoted. For very strong stratification (Fr < 1) it is observed that wake vortices may rebound but lose most of their strength before reaching the flight level. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the predictive capabilities of Greene's approximate model. (orig.)

  1. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  2. Genetic transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Q; Sautter, C; Potrykus, I; Puonti-Kaerlas, J

    1996-06-01

    Genetic engineering can be used to complement traditional breeding methods in crop plant improvement. Transfer of genes from heterologous species provides the means of selectively introducing new traits into crop plants and expanding the gene pool beyond what has been available to traditional breeding systems. The prerequisites for genetic engineering are efficient transformation and tissue culture systems that allow selection and regeneration of transgenic plants. Cassava, an integral plant for food security in developing countries, has until now been recalcitrant to transformation approaches. We report here a method for regenerating stably transformed cassava plants after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which opens cassava for future improvement via biotechnology.

  3. Tobacco Diversity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco variants in Indonesia are very diverse which can be identified from their morphology or their characteristics. This is related to tobacco long adaptation in different agro ecology of plantation areas which spread out at 15 provinces, from dry to irrigated land and from low land to high land areas. Tobacco has been introduced in Indonesia for more than four centuries and mostly used as cigarette. This commodity and its products are still economically important for government and farmer income. It contributes in government income which reached up to 114 trillion rupiahs and farmer income up to 70% in 2014. Tobacco diversity in Indonesia can be grouped according to their growing season and their usage in cigarette blending. Tobaccos which grown at the end of wet season and harvested in dry season are called Voor Oogst tobaccos, otherwise tobaccos which grown at dry season and harvested in wet season are called Na Oogst tobaccos. Based on their usage, tobaccos are categorized as main ingredients for kretek cigarette, Rolled Your Own (RYO cigarette, and cigar industries.

  4. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Turbulent jet erosion of a stably stratified gas layer in a nuclear reactor test containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishay, Liel [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Bieder, Ulrich [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, Centre de SACLAY DEN/SAC/DANS/DM2S/STMF/LMSF, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ziskind, Gennady [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Rashkovan, Alex, E-mail: rashbgu@gmail.com [Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center Negev (NRCN), PO Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We model stably stratified layer erosion by vertical turbulent round jet. • Separate effect studies are performed as a platform for choosing modeling approach. • A test performed in MISTRA facility, CEA, Saclay is modeled using Fluent and Trio-U codes. • The proposed modeling approach showed good agreement with the MISTRA facility LOWMA-3 test. - Abstract: A number of integral and separate effect experiments were performed in the last two decades for validation of containment computational tools. The main goal of these benchmark experiments was to assess the ability of turbulence models and computational fluid dynamics codes to predict hydrogen concentration distribution and steam condensation rate in a nuclear reactor containment in the course of severe accidents. It appears from the published literature that the predictive capability of the existing computational tools still needs to be improved. This work examines numerically the temporal evolution of helium concentration in the experiment called LOWMA-3, performed in the MISTRA facility of CEA-Saclay, France. In the experiment, helium is used to mimic hydrogen of a real-case accident. The aim of this separate effect experiment, where steam condensation was not involved, is to predict helium concentration field. The conditions of the experiment are such that both the momentum transport and molecular diffusion contributions to the mixing process are of the same order of magnitude (Fr ∼ 1). A commercial CFD code, Fluent, and a CEA in-house code, Trio-U, are used for flow and helium concentration fields temporal evolution prediction in the present study. The preliminary separate effect studies provide guidance to an optimal modeling approach for the LOWMA-3 experiment. Temporal evolution of helium concentration in the stratification layer is shown, and a comparison to the experiment is discussed. It is shown that correct modeling of the round jet flowfield is essential for a reliable

  6. Stem cells expanded from the human embryonic hindbrain stably retain regional specification and high neurogenic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Jignesh; Kittappa, Raja; Leto, Ketty; Gates, Monte; Borel, Melodie; Paulsen, Ole; Spitzer, Sonia; Karadottir, Ragnhildur Thora; Rossi, Ferdinando; Falk, Anna; Smith, Austin

    2013-07-24

    Stem cell lines that faithfully maintain the regional identity and developmental potency of progenitors in the human brain would create new opportunities in developmental neurobiology and provide a resource for generating specialized human neurons. However, to date, neural progenitor cultures derived from the human brain have either been short-lived or exhibit restricted, predominantly glial, differentiation capacity. Pluripotent stem cells are an alternative source, but to ascertain definitively the identity and fidelity of cell types generated solely in vitro is problematic. Here, we show that hindbrain neuroepithelial stem (hbNES) cells can be derived and massively expanded from early human embryos (week 5-7, Carnegie stage 15-17). These cell lines are propagated in adherent culture in the presence of EGF and FGF2 and retain progenitor characteristics, including SOX1 expression, formation of rosette-like structures, and high neurogenic capacity. They generate GABAergic, glutamatergic and, at lower frequency, serotonergic neurons. Importantly, hbNES cells stably maintain hindbrain specification and generate upper rhombic lip derivatives on exposure to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). When grafted into neonatal rat brain, they show potential for integration into cerebellar development and produce cerebellar granule-like cells, albeit at low frequency. hbNES cells offer a new system to study human cerebellar specification and development and to model diseases of the hindbrain. They also provide a benchmark for the production of similar long-term neuroepithelial-like stem cells (lt-NES) from pluripotent cell lines. To our knowledge, hbNES cells are the first demonstration of highly expandable neuroepithelial stem cells derived from the human embryo without genetic immortalization.

  7. Direct numerical simulations of stably-stratified sheared turbulence: Implications for oceanic mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsweire, E. C.; Holt, S. E.; Koseff, J. R.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of the time evolution of homogeneous stably stratified turbulent shear flows have been performed for several Richardson numbers Ri and Reynolds numbers R(sub lambda) in earlier works. The results show excellent agreement with length scale models developed from laboratory experiments to characterize oceanic turbulence. When the Richardson number Ri is less than the stationary value Ri(sub s), the turbulence intensity grows at all scales, and the growth rate appears to be a function of Ri. The size of the vertical density inversions also increases. On the other hand, when Ri is greater than or equal to Ri(sub s) the largest turbulent eddies become vertically constrained by buoyancy when the Ellison (turbulence) scale L(sub E) and the Ozmidov (buoyancy) scale L(sub O) are equal. At this point, the mixing efficiency is maximal and corresponds to a flux Richardson number R(sub f) = 0.20. The vertical mass flux becomes counter-gradient when epsilon = 19(nu)N(exp 2) and vertical density overturns are suppressed in less than half a Brunt-Vaisala period. The results of the simulations were also recast in terms of the Hydrodynamic Phase Diagram introduced in fossil turbulence models. The so-called point of fossilization occurs when epsilon = 4DCN(exp 2); Gibson proposed 13DCN(exp 2). This value is in agreement with indirect laboratory observations and field observations. Finally, the validity of the steady-state models to estimate vertical eddy diffusivities in the oceanic thermocline is discussed.

  8. Turbulent jet erosion of a stably stratified gas layer in a nuclear reactor test containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishay, Liel; Bieder, Ulrich; Ziskind, Gennady; Rashkovan, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We model stably stratified layer erosion by vertical turbulent round jet. • Separate effect studies are performed as a platform for choosing modeling approach. • A test performed in MISTRA facility, CEA, Saclay is modeled using Fluent and Trio-U codes. • The proposed modeling approach showed good agreement with the MISTRA facility LOWMA-3 test. - Abstract: A number of integral and separate effect experiments were performed in the last two decades for validation of containment computational tools. The main goal of these benchmark experiments was to assess the ability of turbulence models and computational fluid dynamics codes to predict hydrogen concentration distribution and steam condensation rate in a nuclear reactor containment in the course of severe accidents. It appears from the published literature that the predictive capability of the existing computational tools still needs to be improved. This work examines numerically the temporal evolution of helium concentration in the experiment called LOWMA-3, performed in the MISTRA facility of CEA-Saclay, France. In the experiment, helium is used to mimic hydrogen of a real-case accident. The aim of this separate effect experiment, where steam condensation was not involved, is to predict helium concentration field. The conditions of the experiment are such that both the momentum transport and molecular diffusion contributions to the mixing process are of the same order of magnitude (Fr ∼ 1). A commercial CFD code, Fluent, and a CEA in-house code, Trio-U, are used for flow and helium concentration fields temporal evolution prediction in the present study. The preliminary separate effect studies provide guidance to an optimal modeling approach for the LOWMA-3 experiment. Temporal evolution of helium concentration in the stratification layer is shown, and a comparison to the experiment is discussed. It is shown that correct modeling of the round jet flowfield is essential for a reliable

  9. Phenomenology of two-dimensional stably stratified turbulence under large-scale forcing

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Abhishek

    2017-01-11

    In this paper, we characterise the scaling of energy spectra, and the interscale transfer of energy and enstrophy, for strongly, moderately and weakly stably stratified two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, restricted in a vertical plane, under large-scale random forcing. In the strongly stratified case, a large-scale vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF) coexists with small scale turbulence. The VSHF consists of internal gravity waves and the turbulent flow has a kinetic energy (KE) spectrum that follows an approximate k−3 scaling with zero KE flux and a robust positive enstrophy flux. The spectrum of the turbulent potential energy (PE) also approximately follows a k−3 power-law and its flux is directed to small scales. For moderate stratification, there is no VSHF and the KE of the turbulent flow exhibits Bolgiano–Obukhov scaling that transitions from a shallow k−11/5 form at large scales, to a steeper approximate k−3 scaling at small scales. The entire range of scales shows a strong forward enstrophy flux, and interestingly, large (small) scales show an inverse (forward) KE flux. The PE flux in this regime is directed to small scales, and the PE spectrum is characterised by an approximate k−1.64 scaling. Finally, for weak stratification, KE is transferred upscale and its spectrum closely follows a k−2.5 scaling, while PE exhibits a forward transfer and its spectrum shows an approximate k−1.6 power-law. For all stratification strengths, the total energy always flows from large to small scales and almost all the spectral indicies are well explained by accounting for the scale-dependent nature of the corresponding flux.

  10. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  11. Establishment of Stably Transfected Cells Constitutively Expressing the Full-Length and Truncated Antigenic Proteins of Two Genetically Distinct Mink Astroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidokhti, Mehdi R. M.; Ullman, Karin; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    to circumvent this drawback, we have developed stably transfected mink fetal cells and BHK21 cells constitutively expressing the full-length and truncated capsid proteins of two distinct genotypes of mink astrovirus. Protein expression in these stably transfected cells was demonstrated by strong signals...

  12. Tobacco control and tobacco farming in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H

    2015-02-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.

  13. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarettes in this U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance document How tobacco smoke causes disease in this Centers for Disease ... affects cigarette smoke from this Surgeon General report FDA's work to ensure tobacco products are labeled properly The definitions of common ...

  14. Tobacco control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaly Preetha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a ′smoking epidemic′ in developing countries. India′s anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations.

  15. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoking and Tobacco Use Among People of Low Socioeconomic Status Tobacco Use Among Adults with Mental Illness ... cancers include cancers of the lip, pharynx and oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, ... General’s Report: The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress, Chapter ...

  16. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  17. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tobacco Control Programs Best Practices User Guide: Health Communications Best Practices User Guide: Health Equity Best Practices ... tobacco use on TV and in movies, music videos, billboards and magazines–most teens, ... computer games, and movies. Get involved: make your team, school, ...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2309 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco...

  19. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  20. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  1. Identifying stably expressed housekeeping genes in the endometrium of fertile women, women with recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Linden; Cagampang, Felino; Cheong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Housekeeping genes (HKG) are presumed to be constitutively expressed throughout tissue types but recent studies have shown they vary with pathophysiology. Often, validation of appropriate HKG is not made. There is no consensus on which HKGs are most stably expressed in endometrial tissue so this study aimed to identify the most stable HKG in the endometrium of women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent miscarriages (RM). Inclusion criteria were women between 25-45 years (...

  2. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M. Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs...

  3. Assembly of homotrimeric type XXI minicollagen by coexpression of prolyl 4-hydroxylase in stably transfected Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Chuan-Chuan; Chen, Sung-Fang; Chou, Min-Yuan

    2005-10-21

    We established stably transfected insect cell lines containing cDNAs encoding the alpha and beta subunits of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase in both Trichoplusia ni and Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. The expression level and enzymatic activity of recombinant prolyl 4-hydroxylase produced in the Drosophila expression system were significantly higher than those produced in the T. ni system. We further characterized the involvement of prolyl 4-hydroxylase in the assembly of the three alpha chains to form trimeric type XXI minicollagen, which comprises the intact C-terminal non-collagenous (NC1) and collagenous domain (COL1), in the Drosophila system. When minicollagen XXI was stably expressed in Drosophila S2 cells alone, negligible amounts of interchain disulfide-bonded trimers were detected in the culture media. However, minicollagen XXI was secreted as disulfide-bonded homotrimers by coexpression with prolyl 4-hydroxylase in the stably transfected Drosophila S2 cells. Minicollagen XXI coexpressed with prolyl 4-hydroxylase contained sufficient amounts of hydroxyproline to form thermal stable pepsin-resistant triple helices consisting of both interchain and non-interchain disulfide-bonded trimers. These results demonstrate that a sufficient amount of active prolyl 4-hydroxylase is required for the assembly of type XXI collagen triple helices in Drosophila cells and the trimeric assembly is governed by the C-terminal collagenous domain.

  4. NF-kappa B activity in T cells stably expressing the Tax protein of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, J.; Cohen, L.; Hiscott, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of constitutive Tax expression on the interaction of NF-κ B with its recognition sequence and on NF-κ B-dependent gene expression was examined in T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines (19D and 9J) stably transformed with a Tax expression vector. Tax expressing T cell lines contained a constitutive level of NF-κ B binding activity, detectable by mobility shift assay and uv cross-linking using a palindromic NF-κ B probe homologous to the interferon beta PRDII site. In Jurkat and NC2.10 induction with phorbol esters resulted in the appearance of new DNA binding proteins of 85, 75, and 54 kDa, whereas in Tax expressing cells the 85-kDa protein and a 92-kDa DNA binding protein were constitutively induced. Expression of Tax protein in 19D and 9J resulted in transcription of the endogenous NF-kappa B-dependent granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor gene and increased basal level expression of transfected NF-kappa B-regulated promoters. Nonetheless transcription of both the endogenous and the transfected gene was inducible by PMA treatment. Tax expression in Jurkat T cells may alter the stoichiometry of NF-kappa B DNA binding proteins and thus change the expression of NF-kappa B-regulated promoters

  5. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The combination of low-cost Marlboro cigarettes and Western marketing practices is likely to appeal in particular to young people and women (whose current rate of smoking is 4%). This project will support the collection of baseline data against which to measure future changes in smoking patters and amount of tobacco ...

  6. Science for Tobacco Control Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Vardavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent adoption of the Tobacco Products Directive is a unique opportunity to enhance the regulation of tobacco products in the European Union. In this presentation a brief overview of the development of an EU common reporting format for submission of data on ingredients contained in tobacco and related products will be presented, as an example of European tobacco regulatory science.

  7. An Intergenic Region Shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Tissue Specific and Stress Inducible Bidirectional Promoter Analyzed in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joydeep; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Houtz, Robert L.; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985) are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS) in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85) showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold) compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87). The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold) under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications. PMID:24260266

  8. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  9. Appearance of actin microfilament 'twin peaks' in mitosis and their function in cell plate formation, as visualized in tobacco BY-2 cells expressing GFP-fimbrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Toshio; Higaki, Takumi; Oda, Yoshihisa; Hayashi, Tomomi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2005-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton of higher plants plays an essential role in plant morphogenesis and in maintaining various cellular activities. In this study we established a tobacco BY-2 cell line, stably transformed with a GFP-fimbrin actin-binding domain (ABD) 2 construct, that allows visualization of actin microfilaments (MFs) in living cells. Using this cell line, designated BY-GF11, we performed time-sequential observations of MF dynamics during cell-cycle progression. Detailed analyses revealed the appearance of a broad MF band in the late G2 phase that separated to form a structure corresponding to the so-called actin-depleted zone (ADZ) in mitosis. In BY-GF11, the MF structure at the cell cortex in mitosis appeared to form two bands rather than the ADZ. Measurements of fluorescent intensities of the cell cortex indicated an MF distribution that resembled two peaks, and we therefore named the structure MF 'twin peaks' (MFTP). The cell plate formed exactly within the valley between the MFTP at cytokinesis, and this cell-plate guidance was distorted by disruption of the MFTP by an inhibitor of actin polymerization. These results suggest that the MFTP originates from the broad MF band in the G2 phase and functions as a marker of cytokinesis.

  10. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  11. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  12. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  13. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  14. Price and consumption of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Saxena, Puneet; Meena, Hardayal; Mangal, Daya Krishan

    2012-07-01

    It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%). Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  15. Expression of bacterial genes in transgenic tobacco: methods, applications and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms, because it is easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. Many bacterial proteins involved in the synthesis of commercial products are currently engineered for production in tobacco. Bacterial enzymes synthesized in tobacco can enhance protection against abiotic stresses and diseases, and provide a system to test appli...

  16. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  17. Insect-resistance and high-yield transgenic tobacco obtained by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The modified synthesized VHb gene and insectidal gene (GFMcryIA) were transferred to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The bivalent genes were inserted successfully into the tobacco genome and detected by PCR amplification. Southern blot and Western blot analyses showed that VHb gene ...

  18. Insect-resistance and high-yield transgenic tobacco obtained by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... The modified synthesized VHb gene and insectidal gene (GFMcryIA) were transferred to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The bivalent genes were inserted successfully into the tobacco genome and detected by PCR amplification. Southern blot and Western blot analyses showed.

  19. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T

    2018-02-19

    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. An Archaea 5S rRNA analog is stably expressed in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Mini-genes for 5S-like rRNA were constructed. These genes had a sequence which largely resembles that of the naturally occurring 5S rRNA of a bacterium, Halococcus morrhuae, which phylogenetically belongs to the Archaea. Plasmids carrying the mini-genes were transformed into Escherichia coli (Ec). Ribosomal incorporation was not a prerequisite for stable accumulation of the RNA product. However, only those constructs with a well-base-paired helix I accumulated RNA product. This result strongly implies that this aspect of the structure is likely to be an important condition for stabilizing 5S rRNA-like products. The results are consistent with our current understanding of 5S rRNA processing in Ec. When used in conjunction with rRNA probe technology, the resulting chimeric RNA may be useful as a monitoring tool for genetically engineered microorganisms or naturally occurring organisms that are released into the environment.

  1. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  2. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    aminophenyl)-porphyrin, heavy metal ions. 1. Introduction ..... Application. This method was applied to the determination of Co, Ni, Sn,. Hg, Pb and Cd in the glycerol, tobacco leaf, tobacco sauce and cigarette samples. The samples were prepared ...

  3. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  4. Stably transfected human cell lines as fluorescent screening assay for nuclear factor KB activation dependent gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Horneck, Gerda

    2004-06-01

    Activation of the Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway as a possible antiapoptotic route represents one important cellular stress response. For identifying conditions which are capable to modify this pathway, a screening assay for detection of NF-kappaB-dependent gene activation using the reporter proteins Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) and its destabilized variant (d2EGFP) has been developed. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK/293) cells were stably transfected with a vector carrying EGFP or d2EGFP under control of a synthetic promoter containing four copies of the NF-kappaB response element. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gave rise to substantial EGFP / d2EGFP expression in up to 90 % of the cells and was therefore used to screen different stably transfected clones for induction of NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The time course of d2EGFP expression after treatment with TNF-alpha or phorbol ester was measured using flow cytometry. Cellular response to TNF-alpha was faster than to phorbol ester. Treatment of cells with TNF-alpha and DMSO revealed antagonistic interactions of these substances in the activation NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The detection of d2EGFP expression required FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy, while EGFP could also be measured in the microplate reader, rendering the assay useful for high-throughput screening.

  5. Tobacco Free * Japan: Recommendations for Tobacco Control Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Y; Samet, JM; Yamaguchi, N

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide, tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable disease and premature death. For a century, large corporations have manufactured and sold cigarettes, a highly, addictive tobacco product. Today, over 1 billion people smoke. In recent decades, as smoking has declined in developed countries, the multinational tobacco companies have aggressively sought new markets in the developing countries. In Japan, tobacco smoking is one of the main avoidable causes of disease and death. The...

  6. [Construction of transgenic tobacco expressing tomato GGPS2 gene and analysis of its low light tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Dong, Weihua; Zhang, Xingguo

    2015-05-01

    To explore the influence of low light on the synthesis of carotenoids, chlorophyll and the adaptability of transgenic plants with tomato Solanum lycopersicon L. GGPS2 gene, we constructed a vector containing a GGPS2 gene with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as report gene under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and introduced it into tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR analysis of the DNA from kanamycin resistant tobacco indicated that the transgenic tobacco containing the nptII gene, SlaGGPS2 gene and without contamination of Agrobacterium. We also detected the root tip of kanamycin resistant tobacco showing characteristic fluorescence. The contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and photosynthesis of transgenic tobacco increased in comparison with wild tobacco after low light treatment. In addition, leaf mass per unit area, total dry weight, ratio of root to shoot in transgenic tobacco were all higher than that of the wild tobacco, which proved that the transgenic tobacco could increase the accumulation of biomass and promote it transport to root. The transgenic tobacco with SlaGGPS2 gene can increase the contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll, enhance the photosynthetic rate, promote the biomass accumulation and its distribution to root. Hence, the transgenic tobacco with SlaGGPS2 gene had increased low light tolerance and the SlaGGPS2 gene maybe can be used in other crops.

  7. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Eritrea has taken steps to control tobacco use. Its 2004 proclamation aims to curb consumption, as do higher tax rates on cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, in spite of these measures, tobacco consumption is increasing. Enforcement of the proclamation is weak, and cheap, smuggled cigarettes and other ...

  8. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    assess the impact of taxation on tobacco consumption and use control;; determine the price elasticity of tobacco products (change in demand based on cost), particularly cigarettes;; assess trends and identify networks of smuggling and legal cross-border shopping for tobacco products, particularly between Sudan and ...

  9. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  10. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  11. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  12. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Convenience Stores Not Your Grandfather's Cigar Global Marlboro Campaign YOUTH INITIATIVES Kick Butts Day Taking Down Tobacco ... Advocacy Incubator draws on lessons from tobacco control campaigns in over 50 countries to provide training and ...

  13. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND...

  14. Polonium-210 in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the measurements that have been made on tobacco and tobacco products and to indicate the studies that show the amount of 210 Po transferred to mainstream smoke and inhaled. The amounts reported to be in the lung are summarized. The authors have shown what average values might be expected in the lung due to normal deposition and clearance of the smoke aerosol and to compare these values with the measurements. The average dose to cells in the bronchial epithelium was estimated for the activities reported to be on the bronchial surface, and a comparison of this dose with a known tumorigenic alpha dose was made

  15. Expression of recombinant interferon α-2a in tobacco chloroplasts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroplast transformation was accomplished upon bombardment of fully expanded 4 to 6 weeks-old tobacco leaves using helium gun. Green shoots regenerated from single antibiotic resistant cells were subjected to further rounds of selection and regeneration to develop homoplasmic clones. The molecular analysis of ...

  16. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-02-27

    This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low-income and middle-income countries.

  17. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Setting Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. Methods The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Results Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Conclusions Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low

  18. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  19. Expression of the Native Cholera Toxin B Subunit Gene and Assembly as Functional Oligomers in Transgenic Tobacco Chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Henry; Lee, Seung-Bum; Panchal, Tanvi; Wiebe, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    The B subunits of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (LTB) and cholera toxin of Vibrio cholerae (CTB) are candidate vaccine antigens. Integration of an unmodified CTB-coding sequence into chloroplast genomes (up to 10,000 copies per cell), resulted in the accumulation of up to 4.1% of total soluble tobacco leaf protein as functional oligomers (410-fold higher expression levels than that of the unmodified LTB gene expressed via the nuclear genome). However, expresssion levels reported are an underestimation of actual accumulation of CTB in transgenic chloroplasts, due to aggregation of the oligomeric forms in unboiled samples similar to the aggregation observed for purified bacterial antigen. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of the CTB gene into the chloroplast genome. Western blot analysis showed that the chloroplast-synthesized CTB assembled into oligomers and were antigenically identical with purified native CTB. Also, binding assays confirmed that chloroplast- synthesized CTB binds to the intestinal membrane GM1-ganglioside receptor, indicating correct folding and disulfide bond formation of CTB pentamers within transgenic chloroplasts. In contrast to stunted nuclear transgenic plants, chloroplast transgenic plants were morphologically indistinguishable from untransformed plants, when CTB was constitutively expressed in chloroplasts. Introduced genes were inherited stably in subsequent generations, as confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Increased production of an efficient transmucosal carrier molecule and delivery system, like CTB, in transgenic chloroplasts makes plant-based oral vaccines and fusion proteins with CTB needing oral administration commercially feasible. Successful expression of foreign genes in transgenic chromoplasts and availability of marker-free chloroplast transformation techniques augurs well for development of vaccines in edible parts of transgenic plants. Furthermore, since the quaternary structure of

  20. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  1. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  2. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  3. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  4. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  5. Tobacco Control in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indeed, while international organizations and donors still shape much of the agenda and are helpful by providing resources and expertise, most of the significant agents of policy reform within countries–a major component of success in tobacco control–are endogenous to countries, not exogenous to them. The structure of ...

  6. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  7. The antagonistic effect of antipsychotic drugs on a HEK293 cell line stably expressing human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nourian, Zahra; Mulvany, Michael J; Nielsen, Karsten Bork

    2008-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs often cause orthostatic hypotension, probably through antagonist action on resistance vessel alpha(1A)-adrenoceptors. Here we have tested this possibility directly using cells transfected with a relevant human alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor splice variant. To determine a splice variant...... a cell line stably expressing a functional form of this splice variant. The expression of recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptor subtype was confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis, and its functionality demonstrated using a Fura-2 assay by a rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) when...... human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors in competition binding studies confirmed much higher antagonist affinity of sertindole and risperidone than haloperidol for these receptors. In summary, it can be concluded that there is an approximately 10-fold higher adrenoceptor affinity of risperidone and sertindole...

  8. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Gerard Hastings

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61% and absence of a coherent strategy (39%.

  9. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  10. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaibelet, Gérald; Tercé, François; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Allart, Sophie; Azalbert, Vincent; Lecompte, Marie-France; Collet, Xavier; Orlowski, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  11. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaibelet, Gérald [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tercé, François [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Bertrand-Michel, Justine [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Lipidomic Platform Metatoul, Toulouse (France); Allart, Sophie [Plateau Technique d’Imagerie Cellulaire, INSERM U1043, Toulouse (France); Azalbert, Vincent [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Lecompte, Marie-France [INSERM U563, Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Collet, Xavier [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Orlowski, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.orlowski@cea.fr [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  12. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadda RK

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.

  13. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  14. A fusion between domains of the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and maize 27 kD gamma-zein accumulates to high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum without forming protein bodies in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCeresoli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (hBMP2 is an osteoinductive agent physiologically involved in bone remodelling processes. A commercialized recombinant hBMP2 produced in mammalian cell lines is available in different clinical applications where bone regeneration is needed, but widespread use has been hindered due to an unfavorable cost/effective ratio. Protein bodies are very large insoluble protein polymers that originate within the endoplasmic reticulum by prolamine accumulation during the cereal seed development. The N-terminal domain of the maize prolamin 27 kD -zein is able to promote protein body biogenesis when fused to other proteins. To produce high yield of recombinant hBMP2 active domain (ad in stably transformed tobacco plants we have fused it to the γ-zein domain. We show that this zein-hBMP2ad fusion is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum without forming insoluble protein bodies. The accumulation levels are above 1% of total soluble leaf proteins, indicating that it could be a rapid and suitable strategy to produce hBMP2ad at affordable costs.

  15. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  16. Tobacco control in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D T; Kosik, R O; Mandell, G A; Chen, Y A; Su, T P; Chiu, A W; Fan, A P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the use of tobacco in Vietnam. Review study. Data were collected through a review of tobacco-related literature in Vietnam. Grey literature and web content from agencies such as the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were consulted. Tobacco smoking is still common in Vietnam, although numerous policies have been issued and implemented over the last two decades. Based on the most recent data (2010), the prevalence of smoking among adults aged >15 years was 23.8%, with a higher percentage among males (47.4%) than females (1.4%). The prevalence of smoking among students aged 13-15 was 3.8% (2007), with a similar gender pattern. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke is of concern, with 73.1% and 55.9% of adults reporting exposure to secondhand smoke at home and at work or other places, respectively. Of the adult respondents, 55.5% believed that smoking may cause lung cancer, stroke and heart disease. Most students (93.4%) and adults (91.6%) had seen anti-smoking media messages. Of the students, 56.4% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements on billboards, 36.9% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements in newspapers or magazines, and 8.2% had been offered free cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. The price of cigarettes decreased by approximately 5% between 1995 and 2006, whereas gross domestic product per capita increased by more than 150%. On average, smokers smoked 13.5 cigarettes per day, and spent US$86 on cigarettes per year. Despite such high levels of tobacco exposure in Vietnam, the total tax on cigarettes remains at 45% of the retail price. Furthermore, only 29.7% of smokers had been advised to quit by a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Strong enforcement and evidence-based regulations which rounded on MPOWER are needed to help protect current smokers and non-smokers from the devastating effects of tobacco. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  17. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  18. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  19. Tobacco and the Movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-01-01

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  20. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  2. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears between...

  3. Live Imaging of Type I Collagen Assembly Dynamics in Osteoblasts Stably Expressing GFP and mCherry-Tagged Collagen Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongbo; Kamel-El Sayed, Suzan A; Wang, Kun; Tiede-Lewis, LeAnn M; Grillo, Michael A; Veno, Patricia A; Dusevich, Vladimir; Phillips, Charlotte L; Bonewald, Lynda F; Dallas, Sarah L

    2018-02-20

    Type I collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in bone and other connective tissues and plays key roles in normal and pathological bone formation as well as in connective tissue disorders and fibrosis. Although much is known about the collagen biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory steps, the mechanisms by which it is assembled extracellularly are less clear. We have generated GFPtpz and mCherry-tagged collagen fusion constructs for live imaging of type I collagen assembly by replacing the α2(I)-procollagen N-terminal propeptide with GFPtpz or mCherry. These novel imaging probes were stably transfected into MLO-A5 osteoblast-like cells and fibronectin-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (FN-null-MEFs) and used for imaging type I collagen assembly dynamics and its dependence on fibronectin. Both fusion proteins co-precipitated with α1(I)-collagen and remained intracellular without ascorbate but were assembled into α1(I) collagen-containing extracellular fibrils in the presence of ascorbate. Immunogold-EM confirmed their ultrastuctural localization in banded collagen fibrils. Live cell imaging in stably transfected MLO-A5 cells revealed the highly dynamic nature of collagen assembly and showed that during assembly the fibril networks are continually stretched and contracted due to the underlying cell motion. We also observed that cell-generated forces can physically reshape the collagen fibrils. Using co-cultures of mCherry- and GFPtpz-collagen expressing cells, we show that multiple cells contribute collagen to form collagen fiber bundles. Immuno-EM further showed that individual collagen fibrils can receive contributions of collagen from more than one cell. Live cell imaging in FN-null-MEFs expressing GFPtpz-collagen showed that collagen assembly was both dependent upon and dynamically integrated with fibronectin assembly. These GFP-collagen fusion constructs provide a powerful tool for imaging collagen in living cells and have revealed novel

  4. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  5. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  6. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  7. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  9. Expression of TLP-3 gene without signal peptide in tobacco plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is routinely used for the transformation of many plants. In the present study, thaumatin-like TLP-3 gene without signal peptide was transferred into tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated technology. The PCR and RT-PCR assays confirmed the presence of TLP-3 gene and ...

  10. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Tobacco and vascular disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco use and exposure may cause an acceleration of coronary artery disease and peptic ulcer disease. It is also linked to reproductive disturbances, esophageal reflux, hypertension, fetal illness ...

  12. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  13. THE EVALUATION OF PEPTIDE/HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER 1 (PHT1) FUNCTION: UPTAKE KINETICS UTILIZING A COS-7 STABLY TRANSFECTED CELL LINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, David J; Carl, Stephen M; Mowery, Stephanie A; Knipp, Gregory T

    2011-10-01

    There have been relatively few studies focused on the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter (POT) superfamily member, Peptide/Histidine Transporter 1 (PHT1), with respect to its contribution to the ADME of peptides and peptide-based drugs. These studies were conducted to determine hPHT1-mediated, H + -dependent uptake kinetics of histidine, carnosine, Gly-Sar and valacyclovir in stably transfected hPHT1-COS-7 cells comparative to kinetics determined in an empty vector (Mock) stably transfected cell line. The results suggest that Gly-Sar appears to be a substrate for PHT1 based on efflux from the stably transfected hPHT1 COS-7 cells. Histidine and Gly-Sar concentration- and time-dependent studies suggest mixed-uptake kinetics. These studies suggest that stably transfected hPHT1-COS-7 cells exhibit different uptake kinetics than those observed in our previous studies and illustrate the requirement for experiments to delineate the physiological role of hPHT1.

  14. Biologically active, magnICON®-expressed EPO-Fc from stably transformed Nicotiana benthamiana plants presenting tetra-antennary N-glycan structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Bieke; Van Damme, Els J M; Callewaert, Nico; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Delanghe, Joris R; Boets, Annemie; Castilho, Alexandra; Weterings, Koen

    2012-08-31

    In the past two decades plants have emerged as a valuable alternative for the production of pharmaceutical proteins. Since N-glycosylation influences functionality and stability of therapeutic proteins, the plant N-glycosylation pathway should be humanized. Here, we report the transient magnICON(®) expression of the erythropoietin fusion protein (EPO-Fc) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that produce multi-antennary N-glycans without the plant-specific β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues in a stable manner (Nagels et al., 2011). The EPO-Fc fusion protein consists of EPO with a C-terminal-linked IgG-Fc domain and is used for pulmonary delivery of recombinant EPO to patients (Bitonti et al., 2004). Plant expressed EPO-Fc was quantified using a paramagnetic-particle chemiluminescent immunoassay and shown to be active in vitro via receptor binding experiments in HEK293T cells. Mass spectrometry-based N-glycan analysis confirmed the presence of multi-antennary N-glycans on plant-expressed EPO-Fc. The described research is the next step towards the development of a production platform for pharmaceutical proteins in plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioactive polyphenols from muscadine grape and blackcurrant stably concentrated onto protein-rich matrices for topical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plundrich, N; Grace, M H; Raskin, I; Ann Lila, M

    2013-08-01

    Natural botanical agents that are antimicrobial, or that modulate skin hyperpigmentation via tyrosinase inhibition, are increasingly sought in the cosmetic industry. In this study, an efficient tactic is demonstrated for concentrating and stabilizing skin-beneficial bioactive compounds from muscadine grape and blackcurrant juice or muscadine pomace, into hemp flour (HF), hemp protein isolate (HPI) and soy protein isolate (SPI) matrices suitable for cosmetic applications. Anthocyanins were most efficiently captured from blackcurrant juice into HF (8.39 mg g(-1) ). HPI most effectively captured total phenolics from muscadine pomace (72.32 and 77.32 mg g(-1) from Noble and Carlos, respectively), while the three matrices incorporated highest levels of ellagic acid, gallic acid, and PAC B1 from Noble muscadine grape juice. The enriched matrices demonstrated effective in vitro inhibition of tyrosinase (up to 57.29% for blackcurrant juice-HPI matrix), and in general, juice sources provided greater inhibition on L-dopamine oxidation by tyrosinase than pomace sources. The polyphenol-enriched matrices effectively inhibited microbial proliferation in a screening assay against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, whereas untreated HF, HPI or SPI did not inhibit bacterial growth. The technology of combining and stably concentrating phytoactive polyphenols with proteins has potential use for cosmetic topical applications. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identifying stably expressed housekeeping genes in the endometrium of fertile women, women with recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Linden; Cagampang, Felino; Cheong, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Housekeeping genes (HKG) are presumed to be constitutively expressed throughout tissue types but recent studies have shown they vary with pathophysiology. Often, validation of appropriate HKG is not made. There is no consensus on which HKGs are most stably expressed in endometrial tissue so this study aimed to identify the most stable HKG in the endometrium of women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent miscarriages (RM). Inclusion criteria were women between 25-45 years (n = 45) suffering recurrent miscarriage (RM), recurrent implantation failure (RIF) or fertile controls. Endometrial biopsies were taken and total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and PCR was performed using 10 candidate HKG. The genes were arranged in terms of stability and normalisation was determined. Several HKGs not previously tested in endometrial samples were found to be more stable than those previously identified as the most stable. Of these, the 5 most stable HKG (in order of stability) were Prdm4 (PR domain 4) > Ube4a (Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 4a) > Enox2 (Ecto-NOX Disulfide-Thiol Exchanger 2) > Ube2d2 (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 2) > Actb (Actin beta). We therefore recommend using at least four of the aforementioned HKG for normalisation of endometrial tissues taken from patients with RM and RIF.

  17. Extracellular matrix and hormones transcriptionally regulate bovine. beta. -casein 5 prime sequences in stably transfected mouse mammary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidhauser, C. Bissell, M.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Myers, C.A.; Casperson, G.F. (Monsanto Corporate Research, St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Milk protein regulation involves synergistic action of lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix (ECM). It is well established that substratum has a dramatic effect on morphology and function of mammary cells. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the ECM- and hormone-dependent gene expression, however, have not been resolved. To address this question, a subpopulation (designated CID 9) of the mouse mammary epithelial cell strain COMMA-2D has been developed in which more than 35% of the cells express {beta}-casein, form alveoli-like structures when plated onto a reconstituted basement membrane, and secrete {beta}-casein undirectionally into a lumen. These cells were stably transfected with a series of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes to study transcriptional regulation of the bovine {beta}-casein gene. The expression of CAT in these lines demonstrated a striking matrix and hormone dependency. This regulation occurered primarily at the transcriptional level and was dependent on the length of the 5{prime} flanking region of the {beta}-casein promotor. Both matrix and hormonal control of transcription occurred within at least the first 1790 base pairs upstream and/or 42 base pairs downstream of the transcriptional initiation site. The ECM effect was independent of glucocorticoid stimulation. However, prolactin was essential and hydrocortisone further increased CAT expression. Endogenous {beta}-casein expression in these lines was similar to that of the parent CID 9 cells. Our data indicate the existence of matrix-dependent elements that regulate transcription.

  18. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  19. How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the tobacco-dependent subject′s perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Nicotine-dependent male subjects attending a tertiary level de-addiction center in North India were recruited. Demographic and clinical data was recorded. Open-ended questions were asked to know user′s perspective about the measures by which tobacco use can be effectively stopped in the country. The subjects were allowed as many responses as they desired. Results: A total of 46 subjects were recruited. The median age of the sample was 35 years, with median duration of tobacco use being 12 years. All subjects were males, and most were married, employed, and had urban residence. Supply reducing measures were the most commonly reported to stop tobacco (67.4% of subjects followed by people quitting tobacco use by themselves (19.6% and raising awareness through media (13.1%. Conclusion: This pilot study reflects the perspectives of tobacco users for the measures likely to be effective in tobacco cessation. Evaluating the effect of implementation of individual policies may help focusing towards measures that yield greatest benefits.

  20. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  1. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Tobacco Retail Outlet Density and Young Adult Tobacco Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Pearson, Jennifer L; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Xiao, Haijun; Kirchner, Thomas R; Vallone, Donna

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the density of tobacco retail outlets around the home residence may influence tobacco use among youth and adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of neighborhood tobacco retail outlet density on young adult initiation of different tobacco product types. Cross-sectional data from a 2013 nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18-34 was examined in relation to a 2012 geocoded listing of all outlets likely to sell tobacco in the United States. Separate multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between neighborhood outlet density and past 6 months first use of cigarettes, non-cigarette combustible products, and noncombustible products among adults aged 18-24 and 25-34. Outlet density was significantly associated with recent initiation of cigarettes and other combustibles, but this impact varied for younger and older groups. Increased density was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of initiating cigarette use among adults aged 25-34 (OR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.18, 11.90), and of initiating non-cigarette combustible use among 18-24 year olds (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.03, 9.74). There was no impact of outlet density on recent noncombustible product initiation among either group. This study is the first to examine the impact of tobacco outlet density on young adult initiation of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Findings demonstrate that residential neighborhood outlet density is associated with recent initiation of combustible products and this effect varies by product type and age. The tobacco outlet environment may be a critical factor in promoting young adult tobacco use initiation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Gender, women, and the tobacco epidemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samet, Jonathan M; Yoon, Soon-Young

    2010-01-01

    .... The publication also addresses national economic policy with regard to tobacco control, international treaties, and strategies for tobacco-free mobilization at the regional and international levels...

  4. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  5. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  6. Smokeless tobacco and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ritesh; Gurm, Hitinder; Bartholomew, John R

    2004-09-27

    This article discusses the evolution of smokeless tobacco in the United States and interprets the available data on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular mortality associated with its use. There has been a resurgence of smokeless tobacco use since 1970. Smokeless tobacco consistently produces levels of nicotine higher than those seen with smoking and causes similar sympathetic neural stimulation and acute cardiovascular effects. However, there is conflicting evidence from prospective and case-control studies about cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction caused by smokeless tobacco use. Smokeless tobacco use is also associated with oral cancers and high-risk behavior in adolescents. Although the evidence is not conclusive, the adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco use are less than those caused by smoking but are more than those found in nonusers. It is advisable to counsel all current users of smokeless tobacco to quit. Behavioral counseling, sustained-release bupropion hydrochloride therapy, and nicotine replacement therapy may be safe therapeutic modalities for treatment of smokeless tobacco use.

  7. Smokeless tobacco and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    Various forms of smokeless tobacco (mainly snuff and chewing tobacco) cause an immediate increase in heart rate and blood pressure, but regular users of smokeless tobacco do not have permanent changes of heart rate or blood pressure when not exposed to tobacco. Cardiac output during workload and maximal working capacity are unaffected. Users of smokeless tobacco usually do not have the biochemical stigmata that regular smokers have. Thus, the scientific literature suggests that they are similar to non-tobacco users in terms of levels of hemoglobin/hematocrit, leukocytes, antioxidant vitamins, fibrinogen, components of the fibrinolytic system, C-reactive protein, and thromboxane A2 production. Two studies have found that snuff users, as opposed to smokers, do not have increased intima-media thickness or atherosclerotic lesions when investigated by ultrasound. Results on the risk for myocardial infarction have provided conflicting evidence, 2 case-control studies showing the same risks as in non-tobacco users and one cohort study showing an increased risk for cardiovascular death. In all, the use of smokeless tobacco (with snuff being the most studied variant) involves a much lower risk for adverse cardiovascular effects than smoking does. Whether or not the apparent risk reduction is a useful strategy to help inveterate smokers to quit is a matter of debate, as are the public health effects of a high prevalence of snuff use in some populations. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana benthamiana L.) have been transformed with a T-DNA vector construct carrying the cDNA pBH6-301, encoding the major pathogen induced leaf peroxidase (Prx8) of barley, under control of an enhanced CaMV 35S promoter. Progeny from three independent transformants were analyzed...... genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco Digital Media Tools About Vital Signs Subscribe to RSS ... of tobacco use E nforce bans on tobacco advertising R aise taxes on tobacco Establish comprehensive tobacco ...

  10. Tobacco: coopting our public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, M D

    1996-01-01

    Communication is a tool that can be used to promote public health. The case of tobacco illustrates, however, that behavior change can only be advocated, not ensured. The tobacco industry has focused on individual- and societal-level actions that effectively sabotage antismoking campaigns. Health communication researchers should pay special attention to how politics is subverted, the principle of freedom of speech is abused, message framing encourages the continued marketing of cigarettes, and tobacco advertising swamps public health messages in both quantity and style. The field of health communication should do two things to help counter this campaign. First, we should make a concerted effort to refute the arguments offered by the tobacco companies. Second, we should continue to take action on four levels--as individuals, as responsible citizens, in support of organizations, and to create societal changes that will reduce the use of tobacco.

  11. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo, P; Cruz, TB; Tsai, K-Y; Allem, J-P; Soto, DW; Kirkpatrick, MG; Pattarroyo, M; Unger, JB

    2017-01-01

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites.This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco produ...

  12. Construction of stably maintained non-mobilizable derivatives of RSF1010 lacking all known elements essential for mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokmakova Irina L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RSF1010 is a well-studied broad-host-range plasmid able to be mobilized to different bacteria and plants. RSF1010-derived plasmid vectors are widely used in both basic research and industrial applications. In the latter case, exploiting of mobilizable plasmids or even the plasmids possessing negligible mobilization frequency, but containing DNA fragments that could promote conjugal transfer, is undesirable because of biosafety considerations. Previously, several mutations significantly decreasing efficiency of RSF1010 mobilization have been selected. Nevertheless, construction of the RSF1010 derivative lacking all known loci involved in the conjugal transfer has not been reported yet. Results Novel non-mobilizable derivatives of RSF1010 lacking all known DNA sequences involved in the mobilization process have been obtained due to the exploiting of λRed-driven recombination between the plasmid and a constructed in vitro linear DNA fragment. To provide auto-regulated transcription of the essential replication gene, repB, the plasmid loci oriT, mobC and mobA were substituted by the DNA fragment containing PlacUV5→lacI. Mobilization of the obtained RSFmob plasmid was not detected in standard tests. The derivative of RSFmob with increased copy number has been obtained after lacI elimination. High stability of both constructed plasmids has been demonstrated in Escherichia coli and Pantoea ananatis. Design of RSFmob allows easy substitution of PlacUV5 by any desirable promoter for construction of novel derivatives with changed copy number or host range. Conclusion Novel non-mobilizable derivatives of RSF1010 lacking all known DNA sequences involved in the mobilization process and stably maintained at least in E. coli and P. ananatis have been constructed. The obtained plasmids became the progenitors of new cloning vectors answering all biosafety requirements of genetically modified organisms used in scale-up production.

  13. Generation and preclinical immunogenicity study of dengue type 2 virus-like particles derived from stably transfected mosquito cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphatrakul, Amporn; Yasanga, Thippawan; Keelapang, Poonsook; Sriburi, Rungtawan; Roytrakul, Thaneeya; Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Kawilapan, Yanee; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Yoksan, Sutee; Auewarakul, Prasert; Malasit, Prida; Charoensri, Nicha; Sittisombut, Nopporn

    2015-10-13

    Recent phase IIb/III trials of a tetravalent live attenuated vaccine candidate revealed a need for improvement in the stimulation of protective immunity against diseases caused by dengue type 2 virus (DENV-2). Our attempts to develop particulate antigens for possibly supplementing live attenuated virus preparation involve generation and purification of recombinant DENV-2 virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from stably (prM+E)-expressing mosquito cells. Two VLP preparations generated with either negligible or enhanced prM cleavage exhibited different proportions of spherical particles and tubular particles of variable lengths. In BALB/c mice, VLPs were moderately immunogenic, requiring adjuvants for the induction of strong virus neutralizing antibody responses. VLPs with enhanced prM cleavage induced higher levels of neutralizing antibody than those without, but the stimulatory activity of both VLPs was similar in the presence of adjuvants. Comparison of EDIII-binding antibodies in mice following two adjuvanted doses of these VLPs revealed subtle differences in the stimulation of anti-EDIII binding antibodies. In cynomolgus macaques, VLPs with enhanced prM cleavage augmented strongly neutralizing antibody and EDIII-binding antibody responses in live attenuated virus-primed recipients, suggesting that these DENV-2 VLPs may be useful as the boosting antigen in prime-boost immunization. As the levels of neutralizing antibody induced in macaques with the prime-boost immunization were comparable to those infected with wild type virus, this virus-prime VLP-boost regimen may provide an immunization platform in which a need for robust neutralizing antibody response in the protection against DENV-2-associated illnesses could be tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Nav1.9 Voltage Dependent Sodium Channels Stably Expressed in HEK-293 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Lin

    Full Text Available The voltage dependent sodium channel Nav1.9, is expressed preferentially in peripheral sensory neurons and has been linked to human genetic pain disorders, which makes it target of interest for the development of new pain therapeutics. However, characterization of Nav1.9 pharmacology has been limited due in part to the historical difficulty of functionally expressing recombinant channels. Here we report the successful generation and characterization of human, mouse and rat Nav1.9 stably expressed in human HEK-293 cells. These cells exhibit slowly activating and inactivating inward sodium channel currents that have characteristics of native Nav1.9. Optimal functional expression was achieved by coexpression of Nav1.9 with β1/β2 subunits. While recombinantly expressed Nav1.9 was found to be sensitive to sodium channel inhibitors TC-N 1752 and tetracaine, potency was up to 100-fold less than reported for other Nav channel subtypes despite evidence to support an interaction with the canonical local anesthetic (LA binding region on Domain 4 S6. Nav1.9 Domain 2 S6 pore domain contains a unique lysine residue (K799 which is predicted to be spatially near the local anesthetic interaction site. Mutation of this residue to the consensus asparagine (K799N resulted in an increase in potency for tetracaine, but a decrease for TC-N 1752, suggesting that this residue can influence interaction of inhibitors with the Nav1.9 pore. In summary, we have shown that stable functional expression of Nav1.9 in the widely used HEK-293 cells is possible, which opens up opportunities to better understand channel properties and may potentially aid identification of novel Nav1.9 based pharmacotherapies.

  15. Establishment of a human cell line stably overexpressing mouse Nip45 and characterization of Nip45 subcellular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Kohtaro; Ozaki, Masumi; Kuraoka, Isao; Saitoh, Hisato

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A human cell line expressing a mouse Nip45 has facilitated Nip45 analysis. ► Nip45 does not effectively inhibit polySUMOylation in vivo. ► Nip45 interacts directly with SUMO and SUMO chains. ► Nip45 accumulates at PML bodies in response to proteasome inhibition. -- Abstract: The nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin dependent 2 interacting protein, Nfatc2ip (Nip45), has been implicated as a crucial coordinator of the immune response and of cellular differentiation in humans and mice, and contains SUMO-like domains in its C-terminal region. However, the significance of its N-terminal region and its correlation to the SUMO modification pathway remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, a human cultured cell line was established, in which FLAG-tagged mouse Nip45 (FLAG-mNip45) was stably overexpressed. Under standard, non-stressful conditions, we detected FLAG-mNip45 diffusely distributed in the nucleus. Intriguingly, proteasome inhibition by MG132 caused FLAG-mNip45, together with SUMOylated proteins, to localize in nuclear domains associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein. Finally, using an in vitro binding assay, we showed interaction of the N-terminal region of mNip45 with both free SUMO-3 and SUMO-3 chains, indicating that Nip45 may, in part, exert its function via interaction with SUMO/SUMOylated proteins. Taken together, our study provides novel information on a poorly characterized mammalian protein and suggests that our newly established cell line will be useful for elucidating the physiological role of Nip45.

  16. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Methods: Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. Conclusion: The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously. PMID:15564224

  17. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  18. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T

    2012-05-01

    Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

  19. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  20. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... In Canada people have come to recognize the harmful effects of tobacco on health. In many poorer countries, however, the globalization of the tobacco industry, the lack of tobacco control laws, and limited public awareness about the hazards of tobacco combine to create a growing health crisis. Currently ...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  2. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  3. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type of...

  4. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized.

  5. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  6. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...] Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products...-8900. Contact Person: Karen Templeton-Somers, Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and...

  7. 75 FR 22147 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...] Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products...: Karen Templeton-Somers, Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration...

  8. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    OpenAIRE

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising.

  9. Tobacco Xenobiotics Release Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam EWN

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many xenobiotic compounds exert their actions through the release of free radicals and related oxidants 12, bringing about unwanted biological effects 3. Indeed, oxidative events may play a significant role in tobacco toxicity from cigarette smoke. Here, we demonstrate the direct in vitro release of the free radical nitric oxide (•NO from extracts and components of smokeless tobacco, including nicotine, nitrosonornicotine (NNN and 4-(methyl-N-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK in phosphate buffered saline and human saliva using electron spin resonance and chemiluminescence detection. Our findings suggest that tobacco xenobiotics represent as yet unrecognized sources of •NO in the body.

  10. Characteristics of stably expressed human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors: atypical behavior of the dopamine D1b receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U B; Norby, B; Jensen, Anders A.

    1994-01-01

    Human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stably expressed in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]SCH23390 saturation experiments indicated the presence of only a single binding site in the D1a expressing cell line with a Kd of 0.5 nM. In D1b expressing cell lines...

  11. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Novotny, Thomas E.; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. ...

  12. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Saleeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand. Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS. Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72. Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  13. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeon, T; Siriwong, W; Maldonado-Pérez, H L; Robson, M G

    2015-07-01

    Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L.) is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS). To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand. 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS. The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%). Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73), smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47), skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68), wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23), process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16), and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72). The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  14. Transformed tobacco plants with increased tolerance to drought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gubiš, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Červená, V.; Dragúňová, M.; Hudcovicová, M.; Lichtnerová, H.; Dokupil, T.; Jureková, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 4 (2007), s. 505-511 ISSN 0254-6299 Grant - others:Slovenské Ministerstvo zemědělství(SK) 2003 SP 27/028 0D 01/028 0D 01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Nicotiana tabacum L * pigment * proline Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.444, year: 2007

  15. Tobacco and poverty A Vicious Circle

    OpenAIRE

    Tobacco Free Initiative

    2004-01-01

    Tobacco and poverty: a vicious circle The contribution of tobacco to premature death and disease is well documented. However,little attention has been paid to the link between tobacco and poverty. Tobacco tends to be consumed by those who are poorer. In turn, it contributes to poverty through loss of income,loss of productivity, disease and death. Together, tobacco and poverty form a vicious circle from which it is often difficult to escape.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of tobacco use in India: evidence from recent Global Adult Tobacco Survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akansha Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use in India is characterized by a high prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco use, with dual use also contributing a noticeable proportion. In the context of such a high burden of tobacco use, this study examines the regional variations, and socioeconomic, demographic and other correlates of smoking, smokeless tobacco and dual use of tobacco in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed a cross sectional, nationally representative sample of individuals from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in India (2009-10, which covered 69,296 individuals aged 15 years and above. The current tobacco use in three forms, namely, smoking only, smokeless tobacco use only, and both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were considered as outcomes in this study. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations and multinomial logistic regression analysis were adopted as analytical tools. Smokeless tobacco use was the major form of tobacco use in India followed by smoking and dual tobacco use. Tobacco use was higher among males, the less educated, the poor, and the rural population in India. Respondents lacking knowledge of health hazards of tobacco had higher prevalence of tobacco use in each form. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varies significantly by states. The prevalence of tobacco use increases concomitantly with age among females. Middle-aged adult males had higher prevalence of tobacco use. Age, education and region were found to be significant determinants of all forms of tobacco use. Adults from the poor household had significantly higher risk of consuming smokeless tobacco. Lack of awareness about the selected hazards of tobacco significantly affects tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to curb the use of tobacco among the sub-groups of population with higher prevalence. Tobacco control policies in India should adopt a targeted, population-based approach to control and reduce tobacco consumption in the country.

  17. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  18. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  19. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  20. Tobacco tax and the illicit trade in tobacco products in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Ali; U, Veng Ian

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the size of illegal tobacco trade and consumption and assess the impact of tobacco tax on the illicit tobacco market in New Zealand (NZ). Data on the import and seizure of legal and illegal tobacco in NZ was obtained from NZ Customs. Previous literature was used to calculate interception rates of illegal tobacco being smuggled and grown in NZ. Annual tobacco returns figures, obtained via the NZ Ministry of Health, were analysed to assess the market dynamics of legal tobacco products. This study found that illicit tobacco constituted 1.8-3.9% of total national tobacco consumption in NZ in 2013. This represents a minor increase compared to previous estimates from 2007-09, suggesting that tax increases enacted by the NZ Government since 2010 have had a minimal impact on encouraging the use and procurement of illicit tobacco. The results highlight a slight rise in small-scale tobacco smuggling through ports and mail centres. However, tobacco returns figures show that current tobacco tax policy has forced manufacturers to focus on the production of cheap legal tobacco products, directly competing with and undercutting the demand for illicit tobacco products. At the same time, locally grown illicit tobacco continues to remain a small, isolated problem and, with recent cuts in duty free tobacco allowance, it is expected that overall illicit tobacco will remain a very small proportion of total tobacco consumption in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Expression of calmodulin and calmodulin binding proteins in rat fibroblasts stably transfected with protein kinase C and oncogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Q; Wei, Y; Fischer, R

    1997-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms leading to elevated calmodulin (CaM) expression in cancer have not yet been discovered. We have quantitated the levels of transcripts derived from all three CaM genes in a variety of the same origin rat fibroblasts transformed with oncogenes in combination with gene for prote...

  2. Expression of calmodulin and calmodulin binding proteins in rat fibroblasts stably transfected with protein kinase C and oncogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Q; Wei, Y; Fischer, R

    1997-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms leading to elevated calmodulin (CaM) expression in cancer have not yet been discovered. We have quantitated the levels of transcripts derived from all three CaM genes in a variety of the same origin rat fibroblasts transformed with oncogenes in combination with gene for protein...

  3. Music preferences and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posluszna, Joanna; Burtowy, Agnieszka; Palusinski, Robert

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the association of music preferences with tobacco smoking in a group of 152 high school and college students. Both the questionnaire and the listening survey indicated a higher preference for music associated with anxiety and depressed mood among smokers. These findings may reflect a common etiology of tobacco addiction and a specific type of music preferences. To elucidate this phenomenon further studies are needed.

  4. Tobacco Companies’ Use of Developing Countries’ Economic Reliance on Tobacco to Lobby Against Global Tobacco Control: The Case of Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G.; Mamudu, Hadii M.

    2009-01-01

    Transnational tobacco manufacturing and tobacco leaf companies engage in numerous efforts to oppose global tobacco control. One of their strategies is to stress the economic importance of tobacco to the developing countries that grow it. We analyze tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data to show how tobacco companies used this argument in the case of Malawi, producing and disseminating reports promoting claims of losses of jobs and foreign earnings that would result from the impending passage of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In addition, they influenced the government of Malawi to introduce resolutions or make amendments to tobacco-related resolutions in meetings of United Nations organizations, succeeding in temporarily displacing health as the focus in tobacco control policymaking. However, these efforts did not substantially weaken the FCTC. PMID:19696392

  5. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  6. Global challenges in tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schotte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen unprecedented achievements in global tobacco control. These include the entry into force of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC and 179 states, as well as the European Union, becoming Parties to the Treaty,leading to an increased global cognizance of the negative health and economic impact of tobacco use. Governments around the world continue to adopt and implement effective tobacco control strategies and financial contributions from major philanthropies have increased the levels of financial support for tobacco control efforts in low- and middle-income countries. The UN high-level summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs in 2011 and the 2015 adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, in which NCDs and acceleration of implementation of WHO FCTC are included as specific targets, represent an increased global recognition of the need to address tobacco use prevalence as a key element of NCD interventions...

  7. Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies' use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-11-01

    Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labour practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry websites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990 s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimise their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labour and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labour costs because of child labour and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco-related deforestation in the top 12 tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labour and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies' practices at the farm level.

  8. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...

  9. Plant Transformation by Coinoculation with a Disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain and an Escherichia coli Strain Carrying Mobilizable Transgenes

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Katherine M.; Winans, Stephen C.

    2003-01-01

    Transformation of Nicotiana tabacum leaf explants was attempted with Escherichia coli as a DNA donor either alone or in combination with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We constructed E. coli donor strains harboring either the promiscuous IncP-type or IncN-type conjugal transfer system and second plasmids containing the respective origins of transfer and plant-selectable markers. Neither of these conjugation systems was able to stably transform plant cells at detectable levels, even when VirE2 was...

  10. Tobacco industry denormalisation as a tobacco control intervention: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a review of research examining the effects of tobacco industry denormalisation (TID) on smoking-related and attitude-related outcomes. Methods The authors searched Pubmed and Scopus databases for articles published through December 2010 (see figure 1). We included all peer-reviewed TID studies we could locate that measured smoking-related outcomes and attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Exclusion criteria included: non-English language, focus on tobacco use rather than TID, perceived ad efficacy as sole outcome, complex program interventions without a separately analysable TID component and non peer-reviewed literature. We analysed the literature qualitatively and summarised findings by outcome measured. Results After excluding articles not meeting the search criteria, the authors reviewed 60 studies examining TID and 9 smoking-related outcomes, including smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, intention to smoke and intention to quit. The authors also reviewed studies of attitudes towards the tobacco industry and its regulation. The majority of studies suggest that TID is effective in reducing smoking prevalence and initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Evidence is mixed for some other outcomes, but some of the divergent findings may be explained by study designs. Conclusions A robust body of evidence suggests that TID is an effective tobacco control intervention at the population level that has a clear exposure–response effect. TID may also contribute to other tobacco control outcomes not explored in this review (including efforts to ‘directly erode industry power’), and thus may enhance public support and political will for structural reforms to end the tobacco epidemic. PMID:22345240

  11. Teslin transformator

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanić, Doron

    2015-01-01

    U ovom radu se dotiče povijest transformatora. Općenito je obrađen transformator kao električni uređaj s naglaskom na to kako i što koji elementi rade te je obješnjen princip njegovog rada s matematičkim opisom. Teslin je transformator na isti način detaljnije opisan, uz širi proračun njegovih elemenata.

  12. Covariant Transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisil, Vladimir V, E-mail: kisilv@maths.leeds.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H{sub 2}, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

  13. Landscape transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2014-01-01

    In my work, titled Landscape transformation, in the first theoretical-art part, I focus on a landscape painting style in fifteen exposed works, done by different authors. While analyzing depictions of the landscape I establish how the development of photography has in any way affected the transformation of the landscape. In the practical part I describe my work, soft ground graphics with the motive of the landscape, mountain landscape and caves. I devoted the last chapter of my thesis to the ...

  14. GnRH receptor activation competes at a low level with growth signaling in stably transfected human breast cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Kevin; Meyer, Colette; Miller, Nicola; Sims, Andrew H; Cagnan, Ilgin; Faratian, Dana; Harrison, David J; Millar, Robert P; Langdon, Simon P

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs lower estrogen levels in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients. GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) activation also directly inhibits the growth of certain cells. The applicability of GnRH anti-proliferation to breast cancer was therefore analyzed. GnRH-R expression in 298 primary breast cancer samples was measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Levels of functional GnRH-R in breast-derived cell lines were assessed using 125 I-ligand binding and stimulation of 3 H-inositol phosphate production. Elevated levels of GnRH-R were stably expressed in cells by transfection. Effects of receptor activation on in vitro cell growth were investigated in comparison with IGF-I and EGF receptor inhibition, and correlated with intracellular signaling using western blotting. GnRH-R immunoscoring was highest in hormone receptor (triple) negative and grade 3 breast tumors. However prior to transfection, functional endogenous GnRH-R were undetectable in four commonly studied breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T47D and MDA-MB-231). After transfection with GnRH-R, high levels of cell surface GnRH-R were detected in SVCT and MDA-MB-231 clones while low-moderate levels of GnRH-R occurred in MCF-7 clones and ZR-75-1 clones. MCF-7 sub-clones with high levels of GnRH-R were isolated following hygromycin phosphotransferase transfection. High level cell surface GnRH-R enabled induction of high levels of 3 H-inositol phosphate and modest growth-inhibition in SVCT cells. In contrast, growth of MCF-7, ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-231 clones was unaffected by GnRH-R activation. Cell growth was inhibited by IGF-I or EGF receptor inhibitors. IGF-I receptor inhibitor lowered levels of p-ERK1/2 in MCF-7 clones. Washout of IGF-I receptor inhibitor resulted in transient hyper-elevation of p-ERK1/2, but co-addition of GnRH-R agonist did not alter the dynamics of ERK1/2 re-phosphorylation. Breast cancers exhibit a range of GnRH-R immunostaining, with higher levels of

  15. Hydrothermal carbonization of tobacco stalk for fuel application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaxiao; Li, Bin; Chen, Chaoying; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco stalks are an abundant biomass resource which are otherwise treated as waste. In this work, the effect of hydrothermal carbonization temperature and time on the structures, chemical compositions and combustion characteristics of hydrochars obtained from tobacco stalks were evaluated. The carbon content, higher heating value, and energy yield increased with accompanying decrease in hydrogen and oxygen contents with the increase of treatment temperature and time. The evolution of the H/C and O/C atomic ratios indicated dehydration and devolatilization processes occurred during hydrothermal carbonization. The weight loss, combustion range and characteristic temperatures of tobacco stalks were significantly modified after hydrothermal carbonization, resulting in higher ignition temperatures and higher energy density. The kinetics model, Coats-Redfern method revealed the activation energy of hydrochars in zone 2 and 3 were among 43.7-74.8kJ/mol and 46.7-85.8kJ/mol, respectively. Our results show that hydrothermal carbonization reaction can facilitate transforming tobacco stalks into energy-rich solid fuel. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  17. An efficient procedure to stably introduce genes into an economically important pulp tree (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Vincent; Grat, Sabine; Marque, Christiane; El Kayal, Walid; Penchel, Ricardo; de Andrade, Gisele; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Teulières, Chantal

    2003-08-01

    Regeneration problems are one of the main limitations preventing the wider application of genetic engineering strategies to the genus Eucalyptus. Seedlings from Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla were selected according to their regeneration (adventitious organogenesis) and transformation capacity. After in vitro cloning, the best genotype of 250 tested was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) antisense cDNA from Eucalyptus gunnii was transferred, under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter with a double enhancer sequence, into a selected genotype. According to kanamycin resistance and PCR verification, 120 transformants were generated. 58% were significantly inhibited for CAD activity, and nine exhibited the highest down-regulation, ranging from 69 to 78% (22% residual activity). Southern blot hybridisation showed a low transgene copy number, ranging from 1 to 4, depending on the transgenic line. Northern analyses on the 5-16 and 3-23 lines (respectively one and two insertion sites) demonstrated the antisense origin of CAD gene inhibition. With respectively 26 and 22% of residual CAD activity, these two lines were considered as the most interesting and transferred to the greenhouse for further analyses.

  18. Self-reported tobacco use, knowledge on tobacco legislation and tobacco hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Jayakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco consumption initiated during the adolescent period is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of fatal diseases in adulthood. Information on tobacco use and awareness regarding tobacco legislation and hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala is limited. Aims: To assess the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescent students in a rural district in Kerala state and to understand the extent of awareness about the prominent legislative measures against tobacco and tobacco hazards. Materials and Methods: Data on awareness regarding health hazards due to tobacco use and legislation against tobacco consumption were collected from students of 15 randomly selected high schools in an educational sub-district in Kerala, using a cross-sectional study design. Chi-square and Fisher′s exact test statistics were used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 1473 students participated in the study, of which 79% were males (mean age 15.4 years, SD 1.5. The overall prevalence of ′current tobacco users′ was 8%. A significant association between age and tobacco use was noted among tobacco habitues (P<0.05. Awareness regarding legislation against smoking in public places was more in the higher age-groups (P<0.05. Females were more aware of the ′smoking ban′ than males (P<0.05. Our survey of the awareness regarding the hazards associated with tobacco use revealed that 41.5% of the students knew about the link between oral cancer and tobacco, with the awareness being greater among females than among males (64.3% vs 35.4%. Conclusion: The finding that tobacco consumption increases with age is a matter of concern. In addition to their clinical work, dental professionals should also educate the public on the hazards of tobacco and conduct tobacco cessation programmes for adolescent groups to control the tobacco epidemic.

  19. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12–16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Results Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Conclusion Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere. PMID:21730099

  20. Isolation and characterization of three fungi with the potential of transforming glycyrrhizin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Guo, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Qi, Feng; Feng, Shi-Jiang; Li, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Three fungi with different types of transformation of glycyrrhizin (GL) were isolated from the soil samples of glycyrrhiza glabra planting area in China. According to their morphologies and 18 S rDNA gene sequence analysis, the three fungi were identified and named as Penicillium purpurogenum Li-3, Aspergillus terreus Li-20 and Aspergillus ustus Li-62. Transforming products analysis by TLC and HPLC-MS indicated that P. purpurogenum Li-3, A. terreus Li-20 and A. ustus Li-62 could stably transform GL into GAMG, GAMG and GA, and GA, respectively. P. purpurogenum Li-3 was especially valuable to directly prepare GAMG for applications in the pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Dehydrins Impart Protection against Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Tanmoy; Upadhyaya, Gouranga; Basak, Chandra; Das, Arup; Chakraborty, Chandrima; Ray, Sudipta

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stresses generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be detrimental to the plants when produced in an uncontrolled way. However, the plants ameliorate such stresses by synthesizing antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ROS. Additionally, the dehydrins were also able to protect the inactivation of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase against hydroxyl radicals (OH ⋅ ) generated during Fenton's reaction. SbDhn1 and SbDhn2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were able to protect against oxidative damage. Transgenic tobacco lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency along with high chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and proline. However, the malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower in transgenic lines. Experimental evidence demonstrates the protective effect of dehydrins on electron transport chain in isolated chloroplast upon methyl viologen (MV) treatment. The transgenic tobacco plants showed significantly lower superoxide radical generation () upon MV treatment. The accumulation of the H 2 O 2 was also lower in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, in the transgenic plants the expression of ROS scavenging enzymes was higher compared to non-transformed (NT) or vector transformed (VT) plants. Taken together these data, during oxidative stress dehydrins function by scavenging the () directly and also by rendering protection to the enzymes responsible for the dismutation of () thereby significantly reducing the amount of hydrogen peroxides formed. Increase in proline content along with other antioxidants might also play a significant role in stress amelioration. Dehydrins thus function co-operatively with other protective mechanisms under oxidative stress conditions rendering protection in stress environment.

  2. Dehydrins Impart Protection against Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Halder

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses generate reactive oxygen species (ROS which might be detrimental to the plants when produced in an uncontrolled way. However, the plants ameliorate such stresses by synthesizing antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ROS. Additionally, the dehydrins were also able to protect the inactivation of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase against hydroxyl radicals (OH⋅ generated during Fenton’s reaction. SbDhn1 and SbDhn2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were able to protect against oxidative damage. Transgenic tobacco lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency along with high chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and proline. However, the malonyl dialdehyde (MDA content was significantly lower in transgenic lines. Experimental evidence demonstrates the protective effect of dehydrins on electron transport chain in isolated chloroplast upon methyl viologen (MV treatment. The transgenic tobacco plants showed significantly lower superoxide radical generation ( upon MV treatment. The accumulation of the H2O2 was also lower in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, in the transgenic plants the expression of ROS scavenging enzymes was higher compared to non-transformed (NT or vector transformed (VT plants. Taken together these data, during oxidative stress dehydrins function by scavenging the ( directly and also by rendering protection to the enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ( thereby significantly reducing the amount of hydrogen peroxides formed. Increase in proline content along with other antioxidants might also play a significant role in stress amelioration. Dehydrins thus function co-operatively with other protective mechanisms under oxidative stress conditions rendering protection in stress environment.

  3. QUITTING TOBACCO AMONG STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Markovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of tobacco quitting is difficult besause of absence of motives to keep good health, nicotine addiction, later beginning of health damages and lack of social suport. The aim of the study was to find out: dominant type of nicotine addiction among students, basic motives for quitting and readines to use pharmaceuticals or profesional help in services which support quitting. The conducted poll comprised 280 senior students of medicine and economy, active and ex-smokers. The obtained answers are as follows: 49.4% active smokers had never tryed to quit smoking; in the group of ex-smokers, 29.3% had never tryed before the first successful attempt. The most frequent motiv for quitting is care for own health in the future time (32% active smokers and 26.3% ex-smokers. The majority of active smokers needed a month or more to quit smoking (50.9%; the same period needed for quitting was reported by 10% of ex-smokers (p < 0.005 χ2=31.59. Quitting process is mostly disturbed by staying in smoked places (67.4% active and 51.2% ex-smokers. Only 2.4% of ex-smokers have used farmaceuticals during the quitting, while 22.2% of active smokers would use farmaceuticals (χ2=8.76 Yates corrected=7.54 p < 0.05. Counseling office for help during the quitting would be used by 12.1% of actual smokers. The same type of help have used 2.4% of ex-smokers. Conclusion: the dominant type of addiction among students smokers is a heavy nikotine addiction type. Care for own health in the future is not characteristic of the students' majority. Students rarely use farmaceuticals or counseling office help during the quitting process.

  4. Beyond the brotherhood: Skoal Bandits' role in the evolution of marketing moist smokeless tobacco pouches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendlin, Yogi H; Veffer, Jessica R; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-01-01

    Since 2006, "snus" smokeless tobacco has been sold in the U.S.. However, U.S. Smokeless Tobacco (USST) and Swedish Match developed and marketed pouched moist snuff tobacco (MST) since 1973. Analysis of previously secret tobacco documents, advertisements and trade press. USST partnered with Swedish Match, forming United Scandia International to develop pouch products as part of the "Lotus Project." Pouched MST was not commonly used, either in Sweden or the U.S. prior to the Lotus Project's innovation in 1973. The project aimed to transform smokeless tobacco from being perceived as an "unsightly habit of old men" into a relevant, socially acceptable urban activity, targeting 15-35 year-old men. While USST's initial pouched product "Good Luck," never gained mainstream traction, Skoal Bandits captured significant market share after its 1983 introduction. Internal market research found that smokers generally used Skoal Bandits in smokefree environments, yet continued to smoke cigarettes in other contexts. Over time, pouch products increasingly featured increased flavor, size, nicotine strength and user imagery variation. Marlboro and Camel Snus advertising mirrors historical advertising for Skoal Bandits, designed to recruit new users and smokers subjected to smokefree places. Despite serious efforts, pouched MST marketing has been unable to dispel its association with traditional smokeless tobacco stereotypes as macho and rural. Public education efforts to discourage new users and dual use of MST and cigarettes should emphasize that "new" pouch products are simply repackaging "old" smokeless tobacco.

  5. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  6. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  7. Chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesaenen, E.; Manninen, P.K.G.; Himberg, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, V.

    1990-01-01

    The chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke in both the particulate and gaseous phases were studied by neutron activation analysis. Eleven popular brands of western filter cigarettes were tested. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide concentrations were measured in the gaseous phase in two leading brands in Finland. The results suggest that the mainstream smoke from one cigarette conveys into the lungs about 150 μg chlorine and about 5 μg bromine. Probably most of the chlorine and bromine is in the form of organic compounds and the main components are methyl chloride and methyl bromide. (author) 14 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  9. Transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccetta-Chapnick, M

    1996-01-01

    Rapid changes in the health care system have caused competition among institutions, as organizations are restructured to increase client satisfaction, resulting in the need for a new style of leadership. The transformational leader communicates the mission and vision of the organization and empowers others to effectively resolve conflicts that may arise with change. The health care team that can cope with changes and conflicts views restructuring as a positive transaction and approaches client satisfaction with energy and motivation. Institutions with transformational leadership are the ones that will survive the transition.

  10. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  11. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  12. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  13. Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries. The Centre for Tobacco Control in Africa (CTCA), based at Makerere University in Uganda, serves as a regional centre, providing tools and evidence to support tobacco control ...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire..., including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff. [37 FR 13626, July 12, 1972...

  15. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  16. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  17. Willingness of tobacco retailers in Oyo State to participate in tobacco control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obioma Uchendu

    2018-01-01

    The sale of tobacco products is a profitable venture for retailers. Willingness to participate in tobacco control was high among the retailers. There is a need to raise awareness and co-opt tobacco retailers as change agents in tobacco control efforts.

  18. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01


    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the

  19. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  20. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  1. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  2. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  3. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  4. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  5. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  6. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  7. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  8. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by tobacco extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J M; Svennerholm, B; Vahlne, A

    1984-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been associated with the genesis of leukoplakias, epithelial atypia, and oral cancer. Tobacco habits, such as snuff dipping, are also definitely correlated with this type of lesion. The normal cytolytic HSV-1 infection can, after in vitro inactivation, transform cells. Extracts of snuff were prepared and assayed for their ability to inhibit HSV-1 replication. Plaque formation assays of HSV-1 in the presence of snuff extract showed that a reduced number of plaques was formed. Different batches of one brand of snuff were tested for inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) production. More than 99% inhibition of 24-hr HSV production was obtained with undiluted batches. The 1:5 dilutions of snuff had an inhibitory effect of 85% and 1:25 dilutions, 39%. In agreement, the attachment of the virus to the host cell and penetration of the virus to the cell nuclei were found to be inhibited as was the synthesis of viral DNA. Nicotine had an inhibitory effect, while aromatic additions to snuff were found to have no major inhibitory effect on HSV replication. Snuff extracts were prepared from different brands of snuff reported to contain high and low quantities of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Brands with reported high levels of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines had significantly greater ability to inhibit HSV replication. In conclusion, this study has shown that extracts of snuff have inhibitory effects on the production of cytolytic HSV-1 infections. A chronic snuff dipper keeps tobacco in the mouth for the major part of the day. Thus, virus shed in the oral cavity in connection with a reactivated latent HSV-1 infection has great possibilities of being affected by snuff or derivatives of snuff. It is suggested that an interaction between tobacco products and HSV-1 might be involved in the development of dysplastic lesions in the oral cavity.

  9. [Smokeless tobacco and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Sosner, P; Herpin, D

    2012-04-01

    The use of "snus" (smokeless tobacco) can be detrimental to health. Snus delivers rapidly high doses of nicotine which can lead to addiction. The use of snus increases the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Nicotine substitution therapy as well as bupropion and varenicline reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during snus cessation. However, they have been shown not to assist in long-term abstinence. Information concerning potential cardiovascular hazards of snus must be incorporated into health educational programs in order to discourage its use. Snus is not a recommended product to help stop smoking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  11. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  12. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an understand......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......, as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  13. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Meanwhile, existing studies on the impact of tobacco taxes are based on average "price elasticity of demand," a measure that shows how overall demand for ... IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  14. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco use in many Latin American countries is high among boys, girls, men, and women. However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates between lower- and higher-income groups in middle-income countries such as Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Meanwhile, existing studies on the impact of ...

  15. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  16. Metabolic engineering of monoterpende biosysnthesis: two step production of (+)-trans-Isopiperitenol by tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Schwab, W.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monoterpenoid biosynthesis in tobacco was modified by introducing two subsequent enzymatic activities targeted to different cell compartments. A limonene-3-hydroxylase (lim3h) cDNA was isolated from Mentha spicata L. 'Crispa'. This cDNA was used to re-transform a transgenic Nicotiana tabacum'Petit

  17. Complementation and recombination between alfalfa mosaic virus RNA3 mutants in tobacco plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Neeleman, L.; Bol, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    Deletions were made in an infectious cDNA clone of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) RNA3 and the replication of RNA transcripts of these cDNAs was studied in tobacco plants transformed with AIMV replicase genes (P12 plants). Previously, we found that deletions in the P3 gene did not affect accumulation

  18. Physical methods for the transformation of plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oard, J H

    1991-01-01

    Transfer and expression of foreign genes in adult plants and their progeny has been achieved by acceleration of DNA-coated particles or microinjection techniques. Cultured cells or embryoids served as targets for the introduction of marker genes that were stably expressed in the nucleus or the chloroplast. Cloned genes from the maize anthocyanin pathway were regulated in a tissue-specific manner when transferred into maize by particle acceleration. In spite of these successes, stable transformation efficiency was low due to uneven particle distribution and cell death after bombardment. Transferred genes did not always segregate in a Mendelian fashion in the succeeding generation, and additional efforts of embryo rescue or shoot grafts were needed to obtain viable progeny from original transformants. New technical advances such as the helium-driven particle gun may improve transformation rates in the future, but some problems of cell manipulation remain.

  19. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, J.E.; Alajbeg, I.; Buchler, S.; Carrassi, A.; Hovius, M.; Jacobs, A.; Jenner, M.; Kinnunen, T.; Ulbricht, S.; Zoitopoulos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  20. Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea). The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting the development process, has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries must ...

  1. Consolidating Research on Alternative Livelihoods to Tobacco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In an attempt to block policies aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products, tobacco companies claim that such policies will have a negative impact on employment ... Moreover, tobacco cropping is associated with negative environmental, health and socioeconomic impacts, making alternative crops desirable from a ...

  2. GLOBAL FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the World Health Assembly in May 2003 the. Member States of the World Health Organization. (WHO) have agreed on a groundbreaking public health treaty to control tobacco supply and consumption. The text of the WHO Framework. Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) covers tobacco taxation, smoking prevention ...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign...

  4. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  5. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3069...

  6. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2308...

  9. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt determination...

  10. Consolidating Research on Alternative Livelihoods to Tobacco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Consolidating Research on Alternative Livelihoods to Tobacco Farming ... Researchers will consolidate the lessons learned to date on the health, environmental and social impacts of tobacco farming; the economic condition of tobacco farmers; ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  11. African Tobacco Situational Analysis : Development Grants | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) is partnering with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) in the African Tobacco Situational Analyses (ATSA), an initiative to understand the critical determinants for tobacco control in Africa. This grant will allow up to 15 national teams or consortiums whose ...

  12. Electronic Medical Record Tobacco Use Vital Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris John W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.

  13. Tobacco Industry Dominating National Tobacco Policy Making in Argentina, 1966-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...

  14. [THE LEVEL OF BENZ(A)PIREN IN TOBACCO SMOKE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurabashvili, D; Parulava, G; Shanidze, L; Kikalishvili, B; Nikolaishvili, M

    2016-05-01

    The medical problems of the environmental pollution with products of tobacco smoke are relatively known. The question of separate components of tobacco smoke, factors such a puff-volume, rate, distance, frequency, length of butt in the environment air is not well understand and should further be investigated. It is shown the dependence of the process on the following factors: physic-chemical parameters of atmospheric environment, brand of tobacco product, activity of smoking process. We aimed to determine the dependence of benz(a)pirene in the air samples of tobacco smoke in the distance of 2,0; 4,0 and 6,0m. from lighting cigarette after puff-by puff. Cigarettes were machine-smoked and the total particulate matter was collected (1,0m3) in room, having no air filtration and substances were analysed and identified by gashromatography. The condacted quantitative and qualitative analyses show, that distance of exposition from burning cigarette can change the volume of benz(a)pirene. In the result of pyrolitic and photochemical reactions in tobacco smoke at certain air space temperature new structures can be formed with high toxity and cancerogenity. The dominant transformation process is reaction with photochemically-produced radicals, which produced benz(a)piren as a minor product. Additional factors effecting indoor concentrations include location and ventilation condition time. Ultrafine particle and benz(a)piren deposition and smoking behavior were observed. The mainstream smoke was also monitored continuously in real time (3, 5 and 10 minute) on a puff-by-puff. Our data show that smoking pastime can change the structure and volume of component of tobacco smoke. The level of benz(a)piren in air samples was evaluated as the main background index of cigarette smoke toxity in relatively small room, having no air filtration system. This question still needs to be explained. It would be interesting to investigate of tobacco smoke components in lung tissue after the

  15. Tobacco and psychiatric dual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Noni A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. The relationship between tobacco smoking and several forms of cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, and other medical diseases is well recognized and accepted. Recent epidemiological studies are now focusing on the link between tobacco use and psychiatric diseases. Experts now suggest that in the differential diagnosis of "smoker," depression, alcohol dependence, and schizophrenia are highest on the list. Studies are also focusing on the role of secondhand tobacco exposure, either in utero or during childhood, in the risk of dual disorders. Prenatal exposure may alter gene expression and change the risk for a variety of life-long psychiatric diseases, e.g., ADD/ADHD, antisocial personality disorders, substance use disorders, and major depression. Considerable time and effort have been devoted to studying the link between smoking and depression and also schizophrenia. We will focus on less well-studied areas in tobacco use and psychiatric dual disorders (including eating disorders), prenatal and early childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and the relationship to the genesis of these dual disorders.

  16. What we fund Tobacco control

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Equity: Understanding the value and impact of tobacco control policies on different social groups. Commercial influence: Understanding ... achievement of the global target to reduce NCDs by. 25% by 2025 and remains a priority for ... Government ministries, academic institutions, and non-governmental organizations are ...

  17. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...

  18. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  19. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  20. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  1. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  2. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  3. Engagement With Online Tobacco Marketing and Associations With Tobacco Product Use Among U.S. Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Pierce, John P; Choi, Kelvin; Portnoy, David B; Margolis, Katherine A; Stanton, Cassandra A; Moore, Rhonda J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Sargent, James

    2017-07-01

    Youth who engage with online tobacco marketing may be more susceptible to tobacco use than unengaged youth. This study examines online engagement with tobacco marketing and its association with tobacco use patterns. Cross-sectional analysis of youths aged 12-17 years who participated in wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (N = 13,651). Engagement with tobacco marketing was based on 10 survey items including signing up for email alerts about tobacco products in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of online engagement with tobacco marketing and susceptibility to use any tobacco product among never-tobacco users, ever having tried tobacco, and past 30-day tobacco use. An estimated 2.94 million U.S. youth (12%) engaged with ≥ one forms of online tobacco marketing. Compared with no engagement, the odds of susceptibility to the use of any tobacco product among never-tobacco users was independently associated with the level of online engagement: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.76) for one form of engagement and AOR = 2.37 (95% CI, 1.53-3.68) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The odds of ever having tried tobacco were also independently associated with the level of online engagement: AOR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60) for one form of engagement and AOR = 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16-2.03) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The level of online engagement was not independently associated with past 30-day tobacco use. Online engagement with tobacco marketing may represent an important risk factor for the onset of tobacco use in youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  5. Tobacco Industry Influences in the Oklahoma Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, James D; Wagener, Theodore L; Anderson, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    To identify recent tobacco industry influences in the Oklahoma Legislature. Relevant public records were compiled and published online in searchable databases. Activities related to two contested tobacco-related legislative initiatives were analyzed. Analyses of voting behavior controlled for party affiliation. Legislators receiving the largest amounts of campaign contributions and gifts from tobacco lobbyists performed actions necessary to advance tobacco industry objectives. Several significant associations with voting behavior were observed, the strongest of which was between votes on a pro-tobacco industry bill and gifts from tobacco lobbyists. Most lobbyists'gifts were meals. Tobacco industry influence in the Oklahoma Legislature is enhanced through tobacco lobbyists' campaign contributions and gifts. Greater investments are made in legislative leaders, those serving as champions or spokespersons, and others taking key roles in advancing tobacco industry objectives. Exposing such influences may diminish their effects. Given the egregious and uniquely destructive behavior of the tobacco industry, lawmakers could, as an ethical matter of principle, refuse tobacco lobbyists' money and seek to remedy past harms.

  6. Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M

    2008-10-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.

  7. Characterization of a human cell line stably over-expressing the candidate oncogene, dual specificity phosphatase 12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Cain

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of chromosomal rearrangements within primary tumors has been influential in the identification of novel oncogenes. Identification of the "driver" gene(s within cancer-derived amplicons is, however, hampered by the fact that most amplicons contain many gene products. Amplification of 1q21-1q23 is strongly associated with liposarcomas and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization narrowed down the likely candidate oncogenes to two: the activating transcription factor 6 (atf6 and the dual specificity phosphatase 12 (dusp12. While atf6 is an established transcriptional regulator of the unfolded protein response, the potential role of dusp12 in cancer remains uncharacterized.To evaluate the oncogenic potential of dusp12, we established stable cell lines that ectopically over-express dusp12 in isolation and determined whether this cell line acquired properties frequently associated with transformed cells. Here, we demonstrate that cells over-expressing dusp12 display increased cell motility and resistance to apoptosis. Additionally, over-expression of dusp12 promoted increased expression of the c-met proto-oncogene and the collagen and laminin receptor intergrin alpha 1 (itga1 which is implicated in metastasis.Collectively, these results suggest that dusp12 is oncologically relevant and exposes a potential association between dusp12 and established oncogenes that could be therapeutically targeted.

  8. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  9. Building the evidence base for global tobacco control.

    OpenAIRE

    Corrao, M. A.; Guindon, G. E.; Cokkinides, V.; Sharma, N.

    2000-01-01

    The tobacco control movement needs a global information system permitting routine monitoring of the tobacco trade, tobacco farming, the tobacco industry, the prevalence of tobacco use, associated mortality, and national resources for combating tobacco. The Tobacco Control Country Profiles database, a data collection initiative led by the American Cancer Society in collaboration with WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, represents the first step in the development of such a ...

  10. Patterns of youth tobacco and polytobacco usage: The shift to alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.

  11. Holonic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeki

    2001-11-01

    Here introduces a new idea of Holonic Transformation Method (HTM) which is able to represent the huge and complexed systems clearly and precisely as they are expected and the time whenever they are wanted, and which is also able to control them intelligently and flexibly. This idea is originated from Arthur Koestler, the late Hungarian novelist, science writer, and philosopher, who defined the idea in terms of living systems. Here, by expanding this idea philosophically and mathematically in order to use for management in the field of engineering, it has made possible to treat the huge and complexed system, which is not possible in the conventional methods.

  12. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an understanding of the cadastral evolution in Denmark with a focus on establishing the cadastre as an outcome of the enclosure movement in the late 1700s. The purpose of the cadastre was collection of tax based on the yielding capacity of the soil. The Danish cadastre, this way......, was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  13. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-05-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products).

  14. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Weishaar

    Full Text Available In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, the World Health Organization (WHO has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs to try to undermine the proposed convention.The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists, and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation.TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help

  15. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help guard against

  16. Efficient propagation of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-type JC virus in COS-7-derived cell lines stably expressing Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukuzuma, Souichi; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kameoka, Masanori; Sugiura, Shigeki; Nukuzuma, Chiyoko; Miyoshi, Isao; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2010-12-01

    The high incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in AIDS patients compared with many other immunosuppressive diseases suggests that HIV-1 infection is strictly related to the activation of JC virus (JCV) propagation. In this report, propagation of PML-type JCV in COS-7-derived cell lines stably expressing HIV-1 Tat (COS-tat cells) has been examined. In COS-tat cells, production of viral particles and replication of genomic DNA were markedly increased compared to COS-7 cells, as judged by HA and real-time PCR analyses. These results demonstrate that COS-tat cells provide a useful model system for studying HIV-1 Tat-mediated propagation of PML-type JCV. © 2010 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent CsPbBr3/CsPb2Br5 core-shell-like structure lead halide perovskite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bo; Song, Pengjie; Cao, Jingyue; Zhao, Suling; Shen, Zhaohui; Gao, Di; Liang, Zhiqin; Xu, Zheng; Song, Dandan; Xu, Xurong

    2017-11-01

    Lead halide perovskite materials are thriving in optoelectronic applications due to their excellent properties, while their instability due to the fact that they are easily hydrolyzed is still a bottleneck for their potential application. In this work, water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent cesium lead bromine perovskite nanocrystals coated with CsPb2Br5 were obtained using a modified non-stoichiometric solution-phase method. CsPb2Br5 2D layers were coated on the surface of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and formed a core-shell-like structure in the synthetic processes. The stability of the luminescence of the CsPbBr3 nanocrystals in water and ethanol atmosphere was greatly enhanced by the photoluminescence-inactive CsPb2Br5 coating with a wide bandgap. The water-stable enhanced nanocrystals are suitable for long-term stable optoelectronic applications in the atmosphere.

  18. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somatunga, L C; Sinha, D N; Sumanasekera, P; Galapatti, K; Rinchen, S; Kahandaliyanage, A; Mehta, F R; Nishirani Lanka, J D

    2012-01-01

    To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

  19. Tobacco farmers and diversification: opportunities and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, D G; Levine, D W; Howard, G; Hamilton, H

    1996-01-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of tobacco growers and allotment owners in the southeastern United States. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Tobacco growers (n = 529) and tobacco allotment owners (n = 417) were interviewed by telephone in March 1995. Tobacco growing states in the southeastern US. Attitudes of tobacco growers and tobacco allotment owners towards, and experience with, diversification; and attitudes towards an increase in the federal excise tax on tobacco. Half of the respondents had done something to learn about on-farm alternatives to tobacco, had an interest in trying other on-farm ventures to supplement tobacco income, and found alternatives that were profitable. There was a strong, negative linear trend between age and being interested in or trying alternative enterprises. Structural and economic impediments to diversification were noted by respondents (especially younger respondents), but 73% supported an increase in the federal excise tax on tobacco if the money was used to help farmers overcome these barriers. These data suggest that farmers and health professionals have reason to establish dialogue around diversification and using excise tax increases to fund diversification and to promote health. Tobacco companies have been successful in mobilising farmers against tax increases, but efforts must be made to show farmers that tax increases can be beneficial both to their diversification efforts and to public health. The outcome of this dialogue may well affect the economic infrastructure of thousands of rural communities, the livelihood of tens of thousands of tobacco farmers and their families, and the health of millions of tobacco users.

  20. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; van Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components w...

  2. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  3. The 'state' of tobacco: Perceptions of tobacco among Appalachian youth in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joy L; Walker, Kandi L; Sears, Clara G; Tompkins, Lindsay K; Lee, Alexander S; Mattingly, Delvon T; Groom, Allison; Landry, Robyn; Giachello, Aida L; Payne, Thomas J; Kesh, Anshula; Siu, Allison; Smith, Courteney; Robertson, Rose M

    2018-01-01

    In Appalachia, youth tobacco-use rates remain higher than the U.S. national average. Past research has indicated that several factors are related to high rates of tobacco use among Appalachian youth (e.g. low socioeconomic status, rural lifestyles). Of the Appalachian states, Kentucky has one of the highest rates of youth tobacco use. The aim of this study was to explore views of tobacco among Kentucky youth living in Appalachian counties. In Fall 2014 - Spring 2015, focus group interviews were conducted with middle and high school students (N=109) in Appalachian counties in Kentucky. Each focus group session included open-ended questions and was conducted by trained facilitators. Focus group transcriptions and field notes were analyzed for themes. Study participants described an entrenched culture of tobacco. Three themes exemplified this culture. First, adult behavior served to enable youth tobacco use (e.g. teachers ignoring dip use in class, adults smoking with youth). Second, tobacco is easily accessible to youth (e.g. restrictions on youth sales are often ignored, family members provide). Third, symbols of tobacco are prevalent (e.g. festivals celebrating tobacco heritage, tobacco barns, and tobacco marketing logos). Youth participants described a deeply rooted tobacco culture, which they believed was unlikely to change. Additional studies and health education efforts are needed in these rural communities. Further, stricter enforcement of tobacco sales and marketing restrictions may be helpful in protecting this vulnerable population.

  4. Instability of repeated DNAs during transformation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Vera I; Klysik, Elzbieta A; Rosche, William A; Sinden, Richard R

    2002-05-22

    Escherichia coli has provided an important model system for understanding the molecular basis for genetic instabilities associated with repeated DNA. Changes in triplet repeat length during growth following transformation in E. coli have been used as a measure of repeat instability. However, very little is known about the molecular and biological changes that may occur on transformation. Since only a small proportion of viable cells become competent, uncertainty exists regarding the nature of these transformed cells. To establish whether the process of transformation can be inherently mutagenic for certain DNA sequences, we used a genetic assay in E. coli to compare the frequency of genetic instabilities associated with transformation with those occurring in plasmid maintained in E. coli. Our results indicate that, for certain DNA sequences, bacterial transformation can be highly mutagenic. The deletion frequency of a 106 bp perfect inverted repeat is increased by as much as a factor of 2 x 10(5) following transformation. The high frequency of instability was not observed when cells stably harboring plasmid were rendered competent. Thus, the process of transformation was required to observe the instability. Instabilities of (CAG).(CTG) repeats are also dramatically elevated upon transformation. The magnitude of the instability is dependent on the nature and length of the repeat. Differences in the methylation status of plasmid used for transformation and the methylation and restriction/modification systems present in the bacterial strain used must also be considered in repeat instability measurements. Moreover, different E. coli genetic backgrounds show different levels of instability during transformation.

  5. A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Tobacco Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.

  6. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed by...

  7. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco shall...

  8. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , with an understanding and rationale for using it, provides students with the opportunity to explore their own entrepreneurial identity in unforeseen ways. It builds on insights from three different streams of literature: (i) Bordieu’s theory of practice is used to analyze student understandings of themselves and others......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...... of the courses lies outside the usual territory of entrepreneurship courses, being aimed at the students in the pre-idea phase. During the course students change their understandings about what an entrepreneurial habitus is and as a result they become more willing to take on this habitus, for some of them...

  9. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  10. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  11. Approaches to tobacco control: the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M Lober; Lowe, J B

    2004-02-01

    Tobacco production, distribution, and use are international issues with significant health and economic implications. This paper provides an overview of the effective approaches to tobacco control including decreasing demand for tobacco products through taxation, consumer education, research, bans on advertising and promotion, warning labels, and restrictions on public smoking. The effectiveness of reducing the supply of tobacco products through prohibition, restrictions on youth access, crop substitution, trade restrictions, and control of smuggling, will also be discussed. Decreasing smoking, particularly among young people, by preventing or delaying initiation, preventing regular use, and increasing cessation through behavioural approaches for all ages is reviewed. Cessation methods including pharmacological approaches, 'quitlines', Internet programmes, and the targeting of specific populations are discussed. Internet availability of tobacco products and sustainability of current efforts are presented as continuing challenges to tobacco control.

  12. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  13. A Behavioral Economics Perspective on Tobacco Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113

  14. Global teens and tobacco: a review of the globalization of the tobacco epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, Bethany; Lando, Harry; Klein, Jonathan; Winickoff, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, the burden of suffering to children caused by tobacco does not just originate from exposure to tobacco smoke or smoking, but includes exposure to tobacco-friendly media, poverty associated with money spent on tobacco, increased incidence of tobacco-related fires, and the harms related to child labor in tobacco cultivation. Despite global efforts through human rights acts, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the MPOWER report, tobacco use continues to accelerate in most countries. While the efforts that have been taken, such as smoking bans in public, are worthy actions, not enough is being done to protect children and teens. More can be done at the policy level, by individuals, and by health care providers. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methodology assessment of the total beta activity in tobacco and tobacco products and certain results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, A.; Srentz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of alpha and beta radionuclides in tobacco and tobacco products is a frequently discussed issue. However, any information in publications about them and their presence in tobacco products is too scarce. World Health care Organization monitors the influence of tobacco smoking on human health. In 2003, a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was accepted with the aim to protect human health, which was signed by 179 countries, including Bulgaria. The first debates on the presence of radionuclides in tobacco products are raised in Moscow in 2014. These were instigated by data on the findings of polonium-210, reported by USA and Russia. The aim of the report is to outline a methodology to detect the presence of beta-active radionuclides in tobacco and its products. Keywords: beta activity, geiger counter, samples with infinite thickness, tobacco samples

  16. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.

  17. The importance of legislative measures on tobacco control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirra, Antonio Pedro; Carvalho, Adriana Pereira de

    2017-10-01

    In the tobacco control program, educational, socioeconomic, ecological and legislative actions should be planned. Legislative actions should include the federal, state and municipal spheres, have a primarily preventive purpose and federal reach. Survey of bills presented in both legislative houses at federal level, House of Representatives and Senate (which together form the National Congress) and the resulting laws. In the period from 1965 to 2015, 254 bills were filed with the House of Representatives and, from 1971 to 2015, 68 others were presented to the Senate. In the House of Representatives, of the 254 bills, 68.9% were archived/rejected/returned, 14.9% did not have a result, 12.2% are currently being processed/analyzed by commissions, 2.0% refer to the inclusion of amendments/law annexes, 1.2% were transformed into legal norm/proposition of origin and 0.8% were transformed into laws. In the Senate, of the 68 bills, 19.1% were filed, 33.8% did not have a result, 4.4% were currently being processed, and 42.7% referred to changes in the law. Anti--tobacco actions were more prevalent in the periods 1979-1984 by the AMB, 1985-2007 by MS/INCA, and in 2008-2015 by the ACT. Tobacco control legislation has progressed constantly, with the provocation of legislators from both Houses triggered by the MS/INCA and civil entities committed to smoking control, such as a number of non-governmental organizations (especially the AMB and the ACT).

  18. The importance of legislative measures on tobacco control in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pedro Mirra

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: In the tobacco control program, educational, socioeconomic, ecological and legislative actions should be planned. Legislative actions should include the federal, state and municipal spheres, have a primarily preventive purpose and federal reach. Objective: Survey of bills presented in both legislative houses at federal level, House of Representatives and Senate (which together form the National Congress and the resulting laws. Method: In the period from 1965 to 2015, 254 bills were filed with the House of Representatives and, from 1971 to 2015, 68 others were presented to the Senate. Results: In the House of Representatives, of the 254 bills, 68.9% were archived/rejected/returned, 14.9% did not have a result, 12.2% are currently being processed/analyzed by commissions, 2.0% refer to the inclusion of amendments/law annexes, 1.2% were transformed into legal norm/proposition of origin and 0.8% were transformed into laws. In the Senate, of the 68 bills, 19.1% were filed, 33.8% did not have a result, 4.4% were currently being processed, and 42.7% referred to changes in the law. Anti--tobacco actions were more prevalent in the periods 1979-1984 by the AMB, 1985-2007 by MS/INCA, and in 2008-2015 by the ACT. Conclusion: Tobacco control legislation has progressed constantly, with the provocation of legislators from both Houses triggered by the MS/INCA and civil entities committed to smoking control, such as a number of non-governmental organizations (especially the AMB and the ACT.

  19. Economic Welfare Effects of the FDA Regulation of Tobacco Products on Tobacco Growers

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Kelly; Feleke, Shiferaw T.; Starnes, Jane H.

    2011-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 (FSPTCA) became federal law on June 22, 2009, authorizing the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of tobacco products in the country. This study examines the potential economic welfare implications for tobacco farms using the Equilibrium Displacement Model. Results suggest that the FDA regulation of tobacco products could induce a significant fall in domestic cigarette sales, leading ...

  20. The ‘state’ of tobacco: Perceptions of tobacco among Appalachian youth in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Joy L. Hart; Kandi L Walker; Clara G. Sears; Lindsay K. Tompkins; Alexander S. Lee; Delvon T. Mattingly; Allison Groom; Robyn Landry; Aida L. Giachello; Thomas J. Payne; Anshula Kesh; Allison Siu; Courteney Smith; Rose Marie Robertson

    2018-01-01

    Introduction In Appalachia, youth tobacco-use rates remain higher than the U.S. national average. Past research has indicated that several factors are related to high rates of tobacco use among Appalachian youth (e.g. low socioeconomic status, rural lifestyles). Of the Appalachian states, Kentucky has one of the highest rates of youth tobacco use. The aim of this study was to explore views of tobacco among Kentucky youth living in Appalachian counties. Methods In Fall 2014 - Spring ...

  1. The ‘state’ of tobacco: Perceptions of tobacco among Appalachian youth in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Joy L.; Walker, Kandi L.; Sears, Clara G.; Tompkins, Lindsay K.; Lee, Alexander S.; Mattingly, Delvon T.; Groom, Allison; Landry, Robyn; Giachello, Aida L.; Payne, Thomas J.; Kesh, Anshula; Siu, Allison; Smith, Courteney; Robertson, Rose M.

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In Appalachia, youth tobacco-use rates remain higher than the U.S. national average. Past research has indicated that several factors are related to high rates of tobacco use among Appalachian youth (e.g. low socioeconomic status, rural lifestyles). Of the Appalachian states, Kentucky has one of the highest rates of youth tobacco use. The aim of this study was to explore views of tobacco among Kentucky youth living in Appalachian counties. METHODS In Fall 2014 - Spring 2015, focu...

  2. U.S. Tobacco Growers’ Concern about the Impact of the FDA Regulation of Tobacco Products

    OpenAIRE

    Feleke, Shiferaw T.; Starnes, Jane H.; Tiller, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to establish an empirical relationship between household characteristics and tobacco growers’ perception of the impact of the FDA regulation. A logistic model is applied on primary data that came from the Center for Tobacco Grower Research’s (CTGR’s) 2011 mail survey of tobacco producers. Results indicate that over 80 percent of the sample tobacco growers are concerned about the impact of the FDA regulation. The profiles of growers who reported to be concerned ab...

  3. Child labour in tobacco production: children's experiences and tobacco companies' corporate social responsibility initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Liwander, Anna M.

    2009-01-01

    An estimated 78,000 children are working under hazardous conditions in tobacco production in Malawi. Without access to protective clothing or cleaning facilities, these children are suffering from the effects of pesticides, fertilizers and nicotine whilst working on tobacco farms for 12 hours a day. Two of the main multinational tobacco companies with production interests in Malawi, British American Tobacco and Philip Morris International, have responded to the public demand for ethical opera...

  4. Construction and transformation of a Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Norris, Stephen M; Xu, Zhaohui

    2012-01-06

    Thermotoga spp. are attractive candidates for producing biohydrogen, green chemicals, and thermostable enzymes. They may also serve as model systems for understanding life sustainability under hyperthermophilic conditions. A lack of genetic tools has hampered the investigation and application of these organisms. This study aims to develop a genetic transfer system for Thermotoga spp. Methods for preparing and handling Thermotoga solid cultures under aerobic conditions were optimized. A plating efficiency of ~50% was achieved when the bacterial cells were embedded in 0.3% Gelrite. A Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vector pDH10 was constructed using pRQ7, a cryptic mini-plasmid found in T. sp. RQ7. Plasmid pDH10 was introduced to T. maritima and T. sp. RQ7 by electroporation and liposome-mediated transformation. Transformants were isolated, and the transformed kanamycin resistance gene (kan) was detected from the plasmid DNA extracts of the recombinant strains by PCR and was confirmed by restriction digestions. The transformed DNA was stably maintained in both Thermotoga and E. coli even without the selective pressure. Thermotoga are transformable by multiple means. Recombinant Thermotoga strains have been isolated for the first time. A heterologous kan gene is functionally expressed and stably maintained in Thermotoga.

  5. Construction and transformation of a Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dongmei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermotoga spp. are attractive candidates for producing biohydrogen, green chemicals, and thermostable enzymes. They may also serve as model systems for understanding life sustainability under hyperthermophilic conditions. A lack of genetic tools has hampered the investigation and application of these organisms. This study aims to develop a genetic transfer system for Thermotoga spp. Results Methods for preparing and handling Thermotoga solid cultures under aerobic conditions were optimized. A plating efficiency of ~50% was achieved when the bacterial cells were embedded in 0.3% Gelrite. A Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vector pDH10 was constructed using pRQ7, a cryptic mini-plasmid found in T. sp. RQ7. Plasmid pDH10 was introduced to T. maritima and T. sp. RQ7 by electroporation and liposome-mediated transformation. Transformants were isolated, and the transformed kanamycin resistance gene (kan was detected from the plasmid DNA extracts of the recombinant strains by PCR and was confirmed by restriction digestions. The transformed DNA was stably maintained in both Thermotoga and E. coli even without the selective pressure. Conclusions Thermotoga are transformable by multiple means. Recombinant Thermotoga strains have been isolated for the first time. A heterologous kan gene is functionally expressed and stably maintained in Thermotoga.

  6. Stable transformation of ferns using spores as targets: Pteris vittata and Ceratopteris thalictroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Joyce, Blake L; Elless, Mark P; Stewart, C Neal

    2013-10-01

    Ferns (Pteridophyta) are very important members of the plant kingdom that lag behind other taxa with regards to our understanding of their genetics, genomics, and molecular biology. We report here, to our knowledge, the first instance of stable transformation of fern with recovery of transgenic sporophytes. Spores of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata and tetraploid 'C-fern Express' (Ceratopteris thalictroides) were stably transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with constructs containing the P. vittata actin promoter driving a GUSPlus reporter gene. Reporter gene expression assays were performed on multiple tissues and growth stages of gametophytes and sporophytes. Southern-blot analysis confirmed stable transgene integration in recovered sporophytes and also confirmed that no plasmid from A. tumefaciens was present in the sporophyte tissues. We recovered seven independent transformants of P. vittata and four independent C. thalictroides transgenics. Inheritance analyses using β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical staining revealed that the GUS transgene was stably expressed in second generation C. thalictroides sporophytic tissues. In an independent experiment, the gusA gene that was driven by the 2× Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was bombarded into P. vittata spores using biolistics, in which putatively stable transgenic gametophytes were recovered. Transformation procedures required no tissue culture or selectable marker genes. However, we did attempt to use hygromycin selection, which was ineffective for recovering transgenic ferns. This simple stable transformation method should help facilitate functional genomics studies in ferns.

  7. The tobacco endgame: it's all about behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningfield, Jack E

    2014-11-01

    One of the ten great public health achievements in the 20th century was turning the tide on one of the greatest public health disasters of that century: the tobacco use and related disease epidemic. The premature death and disease caused by tobacco can be considered largely as a side-effect of tobacco use behavior and the disease of addiction. The spread of that disease was fostered by an industry that researched the behavioral and biological basis of tobacco use and addiction and applied its findings and knowledge to develop products and marketing approaches to increase the likelihood that people, especially young people, would try tobacco products and develop persistent use and addiction. Researchers outside of the tobacco industry also investigated the behavioral biology of tobacco use and their research has been critical in turning the tide of the tobacco and disease epidemic. The behavioral factors are considered vital to understand and address by United States Food and Drug Administration and Surgeon General, as well as the World Health Organization in their tobacco control efforts. This commentary discusses key behavioral factors in the rise and fall of the epidemic, as well as some of those increasingly discussed as potential contributors to the endgame. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The prevention of tobacco-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, M; McNeill, A

    1994-11-01

    The key components of a strategy to prevent tobacco-related disease are outlined. These measures aim to increase the cessation of tobacco use and reduce its uptake. Components are wide-ranging, including a taxation policy, a ban on advertising and promotion, a comprehensive health promotion programme including advice from primary health care professionals and the development of campaigning skills, particularly by the medical profession. The prevention of tobacco-related disease has moved into the domain of campaigners and lobbyists at political, economic and international levels. The key target is countering the activities, especially the unethical trade practices, of the wealthy and powerful tobacco industry.

  9. Mapping the tobacco retailers in edirne, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlıkaya, Celal; Ince, Hüseyin; Ozkan, Nurcan

    2012-12-01

    The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment.

  10. Complementary treatments for tobacco cessation: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Amit; Ebbert, Jon O; Sood, Richa; Stevens, Susanna R

    2006-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the prevalence of use and interest in future use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for tobacco cessation among tobacco users. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey among 1,175 patients seen at a midwestern outpatient tobacco treatment specialty clinic between November 2003 and July 2005. Patient use of CAM for tobacco cessation, perceived efficacy of these treatments, and interest in future use of CAM were ascertained. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and logistic regression models were used to determine the characteristics associated with past CAM use or interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. All of the patients who received the survey completed it. A total of 27% of patients reported previous use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The interventions most commonly used were hypnosis, relaxation, acupuncture, and meditation. CAM treatments most commonly perceived to be efficacious were yoga, relaxation, meditation, and massage therapy. A total of 67% of the patients reported interest in future use of CAM for tobacco cessation. The treatments of greatest interest for use in the future were hypnosis, herbal products, acupuncture, relaxation, and massage therapy. Female gender, previous use of conventional tobacco cessation products, previous use of CAM treatments, and a higher level of education were significantly associated with interest in future CAM use. The high level of interest in CAM among tobacco users underscores the need to conduct further research in this field.

  11. Tobacco use is increasing in popular films

    OpenAIRE

    Stockwell, T. F.; Glantz, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the presentation of smoking in motion pictures. DESIGN: This study examined tobacco use in a random sample of five of the top 20 grossing films each year from 1990-1996 and combined these data with our earlier study of tobacco use in films that covered 1960- 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of tobacco use per minute of film, characters who are smoking, motivation to smoke. RESULTS: The overall rate of tobacco use appears to have "bottomed out" in the 1980s and is no...

  12. The economics of tobacco in Lebanon: an estimation of the social costs of tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Naamani, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Assess the socioeconomic costs of smoking in Lebanon and understand the tobacco market and identify the winners and losers from the Lebanese tobacco trade. We take a close look at the market for tobacco and related markets to identify the main stakeholders and estimate the direct costs and benefits of tobacco. We also estimate lower bounds for the costs of tobacco, in terms of lost productivity, the cost of medical treatment, lost production due to premature death, and environmental damage. The paucity of data means our cost estimates are conservative lower bounds and we explicitly list the effects that we are unable to include. We identify the main actors in the tobacco trade: the Régie (the state-owned monopoly which regulates the tobacco trade), tobacco farmers, international tobacco companies, local distributors, retailers, consumers, and advertising firms. We identify as proximate actors the Ministries of Finance and Health, employers, and patients of smoking-related illnesses. In 2008, tobacco trade in Lebanon led to a total social cost of $326.7 million (1.1% of GDP). Low price tags on imported cigarettes not only increase smoking prevalence, but they also result in a net economic loss. Lebanese policymakers should consider the overall deficit from tobacco trade and implement the guidelines presented in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to at once increase government revenue and reduce government outlays, and save the labor market and the environment substantial costs.

  13. Teenagers' Use of Tobacco and Their Perceptions of Tobacco Control Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Hannah J.; Kulik, Keri S.; Klingaman, Linda; Deutschlander, Sharon; Black, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use leads to more deaths each year than any other single factor. This research examined teenagers' perceptions of anti-tobacco messages to determine which campaigns and educational approaches were most effective in preventing tobacco use among youth. Methods: Students from five rural high schools in western Pennsylvania were…

  14. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  15. Economic cost of tobacco use in India, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, R M; Sung, H-Y; Max, W

    2009-04-01

    To estimate the tobacco-attributable costs of diseases separately for smoked and smokeless tobacco use in India. The prevalence-based attributable-risk approach was used to estimate the economic cost of tobacco using healthcare expenditure data from the National Sample Survey, a nationally representative household sample survey conducted in India in 2004. Four major categories of tobacco-related disease-tuberculosis, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms-were considered. Direct medical costs of treating tobacco related diseases in India amounted to $907 million for smoked tobacco and $285 million for smokeless tobacco. The indirect morbidity costs of tobacco use, which includes the cost of caregivers and value of work loss due to illness, amounted to $398 million for smoked tobacco and $104 million for smokeless tobacco. The total economic cost of tobacco use amounted to $1.7 billion. Tuberculosis accounted for 18% of tobacco-related costs ($311 million) in India. Of the total cost of tobacco, 88% was attributed to men. The cost of tobacco use was many times more than the expenditures on tobacco control by the government of India and about 16% more than the total tax revenue from tobacco. The tobacco-attributable cost of tuberculosis was three times higher than the expenditure on tuberculosis control in India. The economic costs estimated here do not include the costs of premature mortality from tobacco use, which is known to comprise roughly 50% to 80% of the total economic cost of tobacco in many countries.

  16. Tobacco Content in Video Games: Categorization of Tobacco Typologies and Gamer Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-11-15

    Tobacco content has been identified in popular video games played by adolescents. To date, there are no established instruments for categorizing tobacco content. We describe development and demonstrate the use of an instrument to categorize types of tobacco content. Interviews were conducted with 61 participants: 20 adolescents (mean age 17.7), and 41 adults (mean age 23.9), who discussed favorite games and recalled tobacco content. All games mentioned were examined for tobacco content by watching movies of game play on YouTube, examining individual game Wiki sites, and reviewing content descriptors provided by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), Common Sense Media and the Internet Movie Database (IMDb). A typology of tobacco content was created and correlated with gamer recall of tobacco content. Participants together mentioned 366 games, of which 152 were unique. Tobacco content was verified in 39.5% (60/152) of games. Six categories of content were identified, including "no tobacco content." Of games containing tobacco, 88% (53/60) contained at least two categories of content. Games with more categories were associated with greater gamer recall of tobacco content. Tobacco content is present in video games and consciously recalled by players, with higher accuracy of recall associated with games featuring multiple types of tobacco content and more engaging, player-active content. Playing video games is now a daily part of most adolescents' lives. Tobacco content is present in many popular games. Currently there are no published instruments to assist in categorizing tobacco content in video games. This study describes a systematic approach to categorizing tobacco content in video games and demonstrates that games featuring more categories of tobacco content are associated with more accurate gamer recall of the presence of tobacco content when compared with games with fewer categories of content. Understanding the extent of such content will be essential

  17. Tobacco and Pregnancy: Overview of exposures and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This opening paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms...

  18. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  19. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  20. What Does the “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” Mean to Tobacco Growers?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Kelly; Starnes, Jane H.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.

    2010-01-01

    The “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” was signed into law on June 22, 2009. The bill grants the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco leaf is not subject to the regulation. As a result, it is not apparent what it does mean to tobacco growers. However, since the demand for tobacco is in large part determined by the demand for cigarettes, a change in demand for cigarettes due to the FDA ...

  1. Plastid transformation in the monocotyledonous cereal crop, rice (Oryza sativa) and transmission of transgenes to their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sa Mi; Kang, Kyungsu; Chung, Hyungsup; Yoo, Soon Hee; Xu, Xiang Ming; Lee, Seung-Bum; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Daniell, Henry; Kim, Minkyun

    2006-06-30

    The plastid transformation approach offers a number of unique advantages, including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering, transgene containment, and a lack of gene silencing and position effects. The extension of plastid transformation technology to monocotyledonous cereal crops, including rice, bears great promise for the improvement of agronomic traits, and the efficient production of pharmaceutical or nutritional enhancement. Here, we report a promising step towards stable plastid transformation in rice. We produced fertile transplastomic rice plants and demonstrated transmission of the plastid-expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) and aminoglycoside 3'-adenylyltransferase genes to the progeny of these plants. Transgenic chloroplasts were determined to have stably expressed the GFP, which was confirmed by both confocal microscopy and Western blot analyses. Although the produced rice plastid transformants were found to be heteroplastomic, and the transformation efficiency requires further improvement, this study has established a variety of parameters for the use of plastid transformation technology in cereal crops.

  2. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  3. The impact of tobacco additives on cigarette smoke toxicity: a critical appraisal of tobacco industry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Oliveira, Ana Cecilia Amado Xavier de

    2017-09-21

    Cigarette production involves a number of substances and materials other than just tobacco, paper and a filter. Tobacco additives include flavorings, enhancers, humectants, sugars, and ammonium compounds. Although companies maintain that tobacco additives do not enhance smoke toxicity and do not make cigarettes more attractive or addictive, these claims are questioned by independent researchers. This study reviewed the studies on the effects of tobacco additives on smoke chemistry and toxicity. Tobacco additives lead to higher levels of formaldehyde and minor changes in other smoke analytes. Toxicological studies (bacterial mutagenicity and mammalian cytoxicity tests, rat 90 days inhalation studies and bone-marrow cell micronucleus assays) found that tobacco additives did not enhance smoke toxicity. Rodent assays, however, poorly predicted carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke, and were clearly underpowered to disclose small albeit toxicologically relevant differences between test (with tobacco additives) and control (without tobacco additives) cigarettes. This literature review led to the conclusion that the impact of tobacco additives on tobacco smoke harmfulness remains unclear.

  4. Military Line Leadership and Tobacco Control: Perspectives of Military Policy Leaders and Tobacco Control Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S. C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Hoffman, Kevin M.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A.; Winsby, Amelia; Haddock, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Despite progress in policy changes, tobacco use rates are still high in the military. Little is known about the views of those who create and implement tobacco control policies within the Department of Defense. These individuals determine what policy initiatives will be developed, prioritized, and implemented. We conducted key informant interviews with 16 service-level policy leaders (PLs) and 36 installation-level tobacco control managers (TCMs). PLs and TCMs believed that line leadership view tobacco control as a low priority that has minimal impact on successful mission completion. They also identified cultural factors that perpetuate tobacco use, such as low cost and easy accessibility to tobacco, smoke breaks, and uneven or unknown enforcement of current tobacco policies. PMID:20968274

  5. [Integrated tobacco production: health, labor, and working conditions of tobacco farmers in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Hennington, Élida Azevedo

    2016-12-22

    This study aimed to analyze the tobacco farming and marketing process in an integrated system and tobacco farmers' living and working conditions in Southern Brazil. A qualitative study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011, with 31 semi-structured interviews with tobacco farmers and key informants, besides participant observation. The principal analytical reference was the ergological perspective. The integrated system allows the tobacco industry to control the amounts paid and the tobacco's quality. Tobacco growing features high cost of inputs, farmers' indebtedness, insufficient crop insurance, and intensive use of family labor. Accident and disease risks were associated with work in tobacco farming. According to the dynamic three-pole model proposed by ergology, dealing with these problems requires confronting the workers' knowledge with technical and scientific knowledge, linked with ethical and social responsibility.

  6. Japan Tobacco International: To 'be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade

    2017-03-01

    Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world's third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI's rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated's global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of tobacco consumption among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional study was conducted across nine health centres in three districts of Madhya. Pradesh, India. ... and 1.6% of women who did not use tobacco were advised against tobacco consumption by frontline health workers. The .... stipulates free drugs, diagnostics, food, and transport (to.

  8. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of income. Like their counterparts elsewhere, they face many difficulties, including: ...

  9. Aflatoxin B1 and Tobacco Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massey ED

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential for aflatoxin B1 contamination of tobaccos and its subsequent transfer to smoke has been raised. This paper examines published work relevant to this issue and concludes that aflatoxin B1 is not a contamination issue on tobaccos and, even if present, would decompose in the burning cigarette and would not transfer to smoke.

  10. From Tobacco to Food Production : Consolidation, Dissemination ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An earlier IDRC-supported project, 103435 From Tobacco to Food Production : Constraints and Transition Strategies (Bangladesh), provided a detailed understanding of the constraints tobacco farmers face and ... How are public health actors working with the food and drinks industry to prevent diet-related disease? A new ...

  11. Smokeless Tobacco Use among Ontario Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1988-01-01

    Estimated use and characteristics of users of smokeless tobacco among probability sample of 4,267 Ontario (Canada) teenagers. Results indicated that smokeless tobacco use was not common, varying from one to three percent depending on age and gender, but was more likely to occur among smokers (10% to 32%). Group most prone to use was young smoking…

  12. African Tobacco Situation Analyses | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The results will be used to weigh opportunities for and obstacles to tobacco control, gauge country readiness and capacity for action, inform broader development strategies, and guide immediate and long-term action for tobacco control in Africa. A key element will be ensuring the engagement of African stakeholders and ...

  13. Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Fostering Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of mindfulness training in fostering tobacco cessation among undergraduates in a Nigerian university. It also observed the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the causal link between mindfulness training and tobacco cessation. Participants were 57 students randomly assigned to ...

  14. Quadratic tracer dynamical models tobacco growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jiyi; Hua Cuncai; Wang Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the non-uniformly transferring process of some tracer dosages, we assume that the absorption of some tracer by tobacco is a quadratic function of the tracer quantity of the tracer in the case of fast absorption, whereas the exclusion of the tracer from tobacco is a linear function of the tracer quantity in the case of slow exclusion, after the tracer is introduced into tobacco once at zero time. A single-compartment quadratic dynamical model of Logistic type is established for the leaves of tobacco. Then, a two-compartment quadratic dynamical model is established for leaves and calms of the tobacco. Qualitative analysis of the models shows that the tracer applied to the leaves of the tobacco is excluded finally; however, the tracer stays at the tobacco for finite time. Two methods are also given for computing the parameters in the models. Finally, the results of the models are verified by the 32 P experiment for the absorption of tobacco. (authors)

  15. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Cutting down tobacco | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco companies have responded in some areas with reforestation programs, often based on fast-growing eucalyptus. ... Those who do factor in their high labour and opportunity costs, often decide they're better off growing mixed food crops for themselves and local markets rather than tobacco, even if those crops yield ...

  17. The Metallothionein Gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii Confers Cd2+ Tolerance in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boru Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress.

  18. The metallothionein gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii confers Cd2+ tolerance in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Boru; Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Shengji; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-06-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys)-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress.

  19. Novel AroA from Pseudomonas putida Confers Tobacco Plant with High Tolerance to Glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai-Qin; Chang, Su-Hua; Tian, Zhe-Xian; Zhang, Le; Sun, Yi-Cheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective broad-spectrum herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, also designated as AroA), a key enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway in microorganisms and plants. Previously, we reported that a novel AroA (PpAroA1) from Pseudomonas putida had high tolerance to glyphosate, with little homology to class I or class II glyphosate-tolerant AroA. In this study, the coding sequence of PpAroA1 was optimized for tobacco. For maturation of the enzyme in chloroplast, a chloroplast transit peptide coding sequence was fused in frame with the optimized aroA gene (PparoA1optimized) at the 5′ end. The PparoA1optimized gene was introduced into the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformed explants were first screened in shoot induction medium containing kanamycin. Then glyphosate tolerance was assayed in putative transgenic plants and its T1 progeny. Our results show that the PpAroA1 from Pseudomonas putida can efficiently confer tobacco plants with high glyphosate tolerance. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing the PparoA1optimized gene exhibit high tolerance to glyphosate, which suggest that the novel PpAroA1 is a new and good candidate applied in transgenic crops with glyphosate tolerance in future. PMID:21611121

  20. Online Information About Harmful Tobacco Constituents: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Katherine A; Bernat, Jennifer K; Keely O'Brien, Erin; Delahanty, Janine C

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco products and smoke contain more than 7000 chemicals (ie, constituents). Research shows that consumers have poor understanding of tobacco constituents and find communication about them to be confusing. The current content analysis describes how information is communicated about tobacco constituents online in terms of source, target audience, and message. A search was conducted in September 2015 using tobacco constituent and tobacco terms and identified 226 relevant Web sites for coding. Web sites were coded for type, target audience, reading level, constituent information, type of tobacco product, health effects, and emotional valence by two coders who independently coded half of the sample. There was a 20% overlap to assess interrater reliability, which was high (κ = .83, p tobacco constituents. Cancer was the most frequently mentioned health effect (51.3%). Nearly a quarter (23%) of the Web sites did not explicitly state that tobacco constituents or tobacco products are associated with health effects. Large gaps exist in online information about tobacco constituents including incomplete information about tobacco constituent-related health effects and limited information about tobacco products other than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. This study highlights opportunities to improve the content and presentation of information related to tobacco constituents. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is required to publicly display a list of tobacco constituents in tobacco products and tobacco smoke by brand. However, little is known about tobacco constituent information available to the public. This is the first systematic content analysis of online information about tobacco constituents. The analysis reveals that although information about tobacco constituents is available online, large information gaps exist, including incomplete information about tobacco constituent-related health effects. This study highlights opportunities to improve the content and

  1. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues.

  2. Are cars the new tobacco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Margaret J; Watkins, Stephen J; Gorman, Dermot R; Higgins, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Public health must continually respond to new threats reflecting wider societal changes. Ecological public health recognizes the links between human health and global sustainability. We argue that these links are typified by the harms caused by dependence on private cars. We present routine data and literature on the health impacts of private car use; the activities of the 'car lobby' and factors underpinning car dependence. We compare these with experience of tobacco. Private cars cause significant health harm. The impacts include physical inactivity, obesity, death and injury from crashes, cardio-respiratory disease from air pollution, noise, community severance and climate change. The car lobby resists measures that would restrict car use, using tactics similar to the tobacco industry. Decisions about location and design of neighbourhoods have created environments that reinforce and reflect car dependence. Car ownership and use has greatly increased in recent decades and there is little public support for measures that would reduce this. Car dependence is a potent example of an issue that ecological public health should address. The public health community should advocate strongly for effective policies that reduce car use and increase active travel.

  3. Attitudes towards tobacco product regulations and their relationship with the tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Sampedro-Vida, Marc; Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; González-Marrón, Adrián; Bunch, Kailey; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2018-02-21

    The objective of this work is to describe the acceptability of some tobacco products regulations and to explore their relation with tobacco control legislation levels in Europe. We used data on tobacco control activities in Europe in 2007, 2010 and 2013 measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) and data regarding attitudes about tobacco control regulations (i.e. adding picture health warnings on all packages of tobacco products or increasing taxes on tobacco products) from the Special Eurobarometer of 2009, 2012 and 2014 (n = 80,831). We calculated the prevalence ratio of favorable attitudes towards tobacco products restrictions in the reference year 2009 vs. the most current year (i.e. 2009 vs 2014), and the effect of previous TCS scores on the attitudes towards tobacco products regulations adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Strong support for the studied tobacco products regulations, which modestly increased over time, was observed. A positive relation was generally observed between TCS scores and support for the studied tobacco products regulations at both the ecological and individual level. A positive correlation was found between TCS scores and support for increasing taxes on tobacco products (r sp :0.29; 95%CI: 0.10, 0.48) at the ecological level, while at the individual level, the positive association was more remarkable in the case of support for adding large health warning labels to packaging. In conclusion, support for the studied tobacco products regulations were positively related with European tobacco control levels of implementation both at the ecological and individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  5. War against tobacco: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Indranil; Paul, Bobby

    2018-01-01

    India has launched war against tobacco epidemic for the past few decades but with partial success; hence, challenges are still there which need to be identified and addressed for winning the battle. Targeted approach directed at motivating smoking cessation of female smokers, frequent changing of pictorial warnings depicting variety of health consequences in cigarette packets and devoid of logos and colors in conjunction with plain packaging, and display of toll-free number for quitting are expected to dissuade tobacco consumers to quit and save themselves from the devastating health, social, environmental, and economic consequences of tobacco consumption. Online reporting system for violating legal enforcements can also be implemented easily. Moreover, guidance from success stories of countries/states who have achieved smoke-free status along with concerted efforts such as innovative anti-tobacco campaigns, involvement of religious leaders in anti-tobacco propaganda, strict legislations, and overall strong political commitment would further aid in winning the war.

  6. Impact of anti-tobacco warning labels on behaviour of tobacco users in one of the cities of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, V R; Dave, V R; Sonaliya, K N

    2013-06-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable deaths, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. Tobacco control must be given the high priority by scaling up tobacco control measures. In India under Control of Tobacco Product Act, it is mandatory to keep the warning labels over all kind of tobacco products in order to minimise the use of tobacco. Review of the knowledge regarding warning labels printed on tobacco products among its users and to evaluate the impact of them on addicting behaviour. A Cross Sectional study was carried out among the group of people using tobacco in any form. Total 776 tobacco users were enrolled in the study. Mean age of tobacco user was 41.4 years. Out of total 776 tobacco users, 561 (72.3%) had ever noticed warning signals over the tobacco products. Among those who have noticed warning labels, 64.4 % became aware about health effects and 66% have thought to quit tobacco. Tobacco users of young age group (15-45) were more aware regarding warning labels. Females were less aware. As level of education increases number of tobacco users who tried to quit or reduced the daily quantity of tobacco intake were also increases. Positive impact of warning labels has been seen among the tobacco users who have noticed them. Not all the tobacco users were aware regarding the presence of warning labels as per the findings of present study.

  7. Double-Stranded Linear Duck Hepatitis B Virus (DHBV) Stably Integrates at a Higher Frequency than Wild-Type DHBV in LMH Chicken Hepatoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shih S.; Jensen, Anne D.; Chang, C. J.; Rogler, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Integration of hepadnavirus DNAs into host chromosomes can have oncogenic consequences. Analysis of host-viral DNA junctions of DHBV identified the terminally duplicated r region of the viral genome as a hotspot for integration. Since the r region is present on the 5′ and 3′ ends of double-stranded linear (DSL) hepadnavirus DNAs, these molecules have been implicated as integration precursors. We have produced a LMH chicken hepatoma cell line (LMH 66-1 DSL) which replicates exclusively DSL duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) DNA. To test whether linear DHBV DNAs integrate more frequently than the wild type open circular DHBV DNAs, we have characterized the integration frequency in LMH 66-1 DSL cells by using a subcloning approach. This approach revealed that 83% of the LMH 66-1 DSL subclones contained new integrations, compared to only 16% of subclones from LMH-D2 cells replicating wild-type open circular DHBV DNA. Also, a higher percentage of the LMH 66-1 DSL subclones contained two or more new integrations. Mathematical analysis suggests that the DSL DHBV DNAs integrated stably once every three generations during subcloning whereas wild-type DHBV integrated only once every four to five generations. Cloning and sequencing of new integrations confirmed the r region as a preferred integration site for linear DHBV DNA molecules. One DHBV integrant was associated with a small deletion of chromosomal DNA, and another DHBV integrant occurred in a telomeric repeat sequence. PMID:9882355

  8. Analytical and numerical study of natural convection in a stably stratified fluid along vertical plates and cylinders with temporally-periodic surface temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.; Fedorovich, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes one-dimensional (parallel) laminar and transitional regimes of natural convection in a viscous stably stratified fluid due to temporally-periodic variations in the surface temperature of infinite vertical plates and cylinders. Analytical solutions are obtained for the periodic laminar regime for arbitrary values of stratification, Prandtl number and forcing frequency. The solutions for plates and cylinders are qualitatively similar and show that (i) the flows are composed of two waves that decay exponentially with distance from the surface; a fast long wave and a slow short wave, (ii) for forcing frequencies less than the natural frequency, both waves propagate away from the surface, while (iii) for forcing frequencies less than this natural frequency, the short wave propagates away from the surface while the long wave propagates toward the surface. The analytical results are complemented, for the plate problem, with three-dimensional numerical simulations of flows that start from rest and are suddenly subjected to a periodic thermal forcing. The numerical results depict the transient (start-up) stage of the laminar flow and the approach to the periodicity, and confirm that the analytical solutions provide the appropriate description of the periodic regime for the laminar convection case. Preliminary numerical data are presented for transition from the laminar to turbulent convection. (authors)

  9. Characterization of Caco-2 cells stably expressing the protein-based zinc probe eCalwy-5 as a model system for investigating intestinal zinc transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maares, Maria; Keil, Claudia; Thomsen, Susanne; Günzel, Dorothee; Wiesner, Burkhard; Haase, Hajo

    2018-01-29

    Intestinal zinc resorption, in particular its regulation and mechanisms, are not yet fully understood. Suitable intestinal cell models are needed to investigate zinc uptake kinetics and the role of labile zinc in enterocytes in vitro. Therefore, a Caco-2 cell clone was produced, stably expressing the genetically encoded zinc biosensor eCalwy-5. The aim of the present study was to reassure the presence of characteristic enterocyte-specific properties in the Caco-2-eCalwy clone. Comparison of Caco-2-WT and Caco-2-eCalwy cells revealed only slight differences regarding subcellular localization of the tight junction protein occludin and alkaline phosphatase activity, which did not affect basic integrity of the intestinal barrier or the characteristic brush border membrane morphology. Furthermore, introduction of the additional zinc-binding protein in Caco-2 cells did not alter mRNA expression of the major intestinal zinc transporters (zip4, zip5, znt-1 and znt-5), but increased metallothionein 1a-expression and cellular resistance to higher zinc concentrations. Moreover, this study examines the effect of sensor expression level on its saturation with zinc. Fluorescence cell imaging indicated considerable intercellular heterogeneity in biosensor-expression. However, FRET-measurements confirmed that these differences in expression levels have no effect on fractional zinc-saturation of the probe. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Microfibrillated cellulose sheets coating oxygen-permeable PDMS membranes induce rat hepatocytes 3D aggregation into stably-attached 3D hemispheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenou, Fanny; Couderc, Sandrine; Kim, Beomjoon; Fujii, Teruo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the use of natural, chemically-unmodified, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) as a matrix for hepatocyte culture. We developed an original cell-culture design composed of a thin 3D-microstructured fibrous substrate consisting of a MFC sheet coating a highly O(2)-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The MFC-coated PDMS membranes were obtained according to a simple process where cellulose fibres were deposited from an aqueous suspension on the PDMS surfaces and the films were dried under mild conditions. To enable oxygen diffusion through the membranes, they were assembled on bottomless frames ('O(2)+' condition). Rat hepatocytes primary-cultured on such MFC-PDMS membranes quickly organized themselves into large hemispherical 3D aggregates which were tightly anchored to the MFC sheets. In contrast, hepatocytes cultured on smooth PDMS membranes in the O(2)+ system (O(2)+, PDMS) organized into unstable 2D monolayers which easily detached from the surfaces. Hepatocyte 3D cultures obtained on MFC-PDMS membranes exhibited higher liver-specific functions over a 2-week culture period, as assessed by both the higher albumin secretion and urea synthesis rate. The MFC-PDMS membranes appear suitable for obtaining stably-attached and functional hepatocyte 3D cultures and appear interesting for drug/chemical screenings in a microplate format, but also for microfluidic applications.

  11. Characterization of calcium signals in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dentate gyrus neuronal progenitors and mature neurons, stably expressing an advanced calcium indicator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vőfély, Gergő; Berecz, Tünde; Szabó, Eszter; Szebényi, Kornélia; Hathy, Edit; Orbán, Tamás I; Sarkadi, Balázs; Homolya, László; Marchetto, Maria C; Réthelyi, János M; Apáti, Ágota

    2018-04-01

    Pluripotent stem cell derived human neuronal progenitor cells (hPSC-NPCs) and their mature neuronal cell culture derivatives may efficiently be used for central nervous system (CNS) drug screening, including the investigation of ligand-induced calcium signalization. We have established hippocampal NPC cultures derived from human induced PSCs, which were previously generated by non-integrating Sendai virus reprogramming. Using established protocols these NPCs were differentiated into hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons. In order to study calcium signaling without the need of dye loading, we have stably expressed an advanced calcium indicator protein (GCaMP6fast) in the NPCs using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system. We observed no significant effects of the long-term GCaMP6 expression on NPC morphology, gene expression pattern or neural differentiation capacity. In order to compare the functional properties of GCaMP6-expressing neural cells and the corresponding parental cells loaded with calcium indicator dye Fluo-4, a detailed characterization of calcium signals was performed. We found that the calcium signals induced by ATP, glutamate, LPA, or proteases - were similar in these two systems. Moreover, the presence of the calcium indicator protein allowed for a sensitive, repeatable detection of changes in calcium signaling during the process of neurogenesis and neuronal maturation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacological and functional characterisation of the wild-type and site-directed mutants of the human H1 histamine receptor stably expressed in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguilevsky, N; Varsalona, F; Guillaume, J P; Noyer, M; Gillard, M; Daliers, J; Henichart, J P; Bollen, A

    1995-01-01

    A cDNA clone for the human histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a lung cDNA library and stably expressed in CHO cells. The recombinant receptor protein present in the cell membranes, displayed the functional and binding characteristics of histamine H1 receptors. Mutation of Ser155 to Ala in the fourth transmembrane domain did not significantly change the affinity of the receptor for histamine and H1 antagonists. However, mutation of the fifth transmembrane Asn198 to Ala resulted in a dramatic decrease of the affinity for histamine binding, and for the histamine-induced polyphosphoinositides breakdown, whereas the affinity towards antagonists was not significantly modified. In addition, mutation of another fifth transmembrane amino acid, Thr194 to Ala also diminished, but to a lesser extent, the affinity for histamine. These data led us to propose a molecular model for histamine interaction with the human H1 receptor. In this model, the amide moiety of Asn198 and the hydroxyl group of Thr194 are involved in hydrogen bonding with the nitrogen atoms of the imidazole ring of histamine. Moreover, mutation of Thr194 to Ala demonstrated that this residue is responsible for the discrimination between enantiomers of cetirizine.

  13. Characteristics of stably expressed human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors: atypical behavior of the dopamine D1b receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U B; Norby, B; Jensen, Anders A.

    1994-01-01

    Human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stably expressed in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]SCH23390 saturation experiments indicated the presence of only a single binding site in the D1a expressing cell line with a Kd of 0.5 nM. In D1b expressing cell lines......, two binding sites were observed with Kd values of 0.5 and 5 nM in CHO cells and 0.05 and 1.6 nM in BHK cells, respectively. Neither of the receptors affected Ca2+ metabolism whereas they both were coupled in a stimulatory fashion to adenylyl cyclase. The pharmacological profile of both the D1a and D1b...... for these receptors. Besides SCH 23390, only NNC 112, fluphenazine and bulbocapnine were able to discriminate between the two states of the D1b receptor. In case of the D1a receptor, the Ki values obtained in binding experiments were very similar to Ki values obtained from inhibition of dopamine stimulated adenylyl...

  14. HTLV-1 Tax mediated downregulation of miRNAs associated with chromatin remodeling factors in T cells with stably integrated viral promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifur Rahman

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a natural cellular mechanism to silence gene expression and is predominantly mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs that target messenger RNA. Viruses can manipulate the cellular processes necessary for their replication by targeting the host RNAi machinery. This study explores the effect of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 transactivating protein Tax on the RNAi pathway in the context of a chromosomally integrated viral long terminal repeat (LTR using a CD4(+ T-cell line, Jurkat. Transcription factor profiling of the HTLV-1 LTR stably integrated T-cell clone transfected with Tax demonstrates increased activation of substrates and factors associated with chromatin remodeling complexes. Using a miRNA microarray and bioinformatics experimental approach, Tax was also shown to downregulate the expression of miRNAs associated with the translational regulation of factors required for chromatin remodeling. These observations were validated with selected miRNAs and an HTLV-1 infected T cells line, MT-2. miR-149 and miR-873 were found to be capable of directly targeting p300 and p/CAF, chromatin remodeling factors known to play critical role in HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Overall, these results are first in line establishing HTLV-1/Tax-miRNA-chromatin concept and open new avenues toward understanding retroviral latency and/or replication in a given cell type.

  15. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  16. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2008-04-01

    Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as "progressives", "Jurassics" or "conservatives" and "crudos" or "spoiled brats". BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the "progressives" using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with "nationalistic values" in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions.

  17. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  18. Tobacco use among students in Bihar (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra N; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh

    2004-01-01

    Determination of the prevalence and attitudes toward tobacco use was assessed among 13-15 years school students in Bihar (India). Schools having grade 8-10 in Bihar. A two stage cluster sample design was used. SUDAAN and the C-sample procedure in Epi-Info was used for statistical analysis. Of the 2636 respondents, 71.8% (76.5% boys, 57.2% girls) were ever tobacco users; of them 48.9% had used tobacco before 10 years of age. Current use was reported by 58.9% (Boys 61.4%, Girls 51.2%); smokeless tobacco by 55.6% (Boys 57.6%, Girls 49.2%); and smoking by 19.4% (23.0% boys, 7.8% girls). Nearly one third (29%) students were exposed to ETS inside their homes and nearly half (48%) outside their homes. Almost all students reported watching cigarette and gutka advertisements in almost all kinds of media and events. Tobacco use by parents and friends, knowledge on harmful effects of chewing tobacco, smoking and environmental smoke, and attitudes on tobacco use by others were strongly associated with student tobacco use. Current tobacco use was reported significantly more by students who received pocket money/or were earning than by students who did not receive any pocket money/or did not earn (p value for trend Teaching in schools regarding harmful effects of tobacco use was non-existent (3%). This urgently requires a comprehensive prevention program in schools and the community especially targeted towards girls.

  19. Tobacco use amongst children in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, G; Girish, N

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence, pattern and correlates of tobacco use amongst the 13-15 year olds in schools of Karnataka. A three stage (area, school level and class level) cluster sample design was adopted and 80 schools from 12 districts of the state were selected. A total of 4,110 students participated in the study with an overall response rate of 87%. Point prevalence of tobacco use amongst 13-15 year old was 4.9%. Current tobacco use was predominantly a male feature and use of smokeless variety predominated (transitional Karnataka (8.2%); metropolis (6.8%); rural (3.4%). One third of current tobacco users (30.8%) purchased tobacco product in a store and one-fifth used it at home. Nearly half of the never smokers (43% to 56.7%) were exposed to tobacco smoke outside home and 83% favored a ban on smoking in public places. A male tobacco user was perceived to have more friends and was reported to make them look attractive. Print media was a predominant source of message, more so in the metropolitan region. Only one-third (31.6%) reported that the reasons of tobacco usage amongst youth was discussed in formal school settings. GYTS Karnataka has provided reliable estimates and shown the feasibility of implementing a surveillance programme. Specific challenges for Public health that emerge from the study are increasing number of users in transitional areas, continued media exposure, tobacco users being perceived to be popular and attractive, easy and relatively unrestricted access, lack of systematic support within schools and social acceptance of tobacco use at home. The need of the hour is to target and focus interventions through comprehensive programmes aimed at children, school authorities, parents and policy makers.

  20. Delay of Disease Development in Transgenic Plants that Express the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell Abel, Patricia; Nelson, Richard S.; de, Barun; Hoffmann, Nancy; Rogers, Stephen G.; Fraley, Robert T.; Beachy, Roger N.

    1986-05-01

    A chimeric gene containing a cloned cDNA of the coat protein (CP) gene of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was introduced into tobacco cells on a Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from which tumor inducing genes had been removed. Plants regenerated from transformed cells expressed TMV mRNA and CP as a nuclear trait. Seedlings from self-fertilized transgenic plants were inoculated with TMV and observed for development of disease symptoms. The seedlings that expressed the CP gene were delayed in symptom development and 10 to 60 percent of the transgenic plants failed to develop symptoms for the duration of the experiments. Increasing the concentration of TMV in the inoculum shortened the delay in appearance of symptoms. The results of these experiments indicate that plants can be genetically transformed for resistance to virus disease development.

  1. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

  2. New Zealand tobacco control experts' views towards policies to reduce tobacco availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet; McGee, Rob

    2017-06-02

    Higher tobacco retailer density promotes smoking by making cigarettes more accessible and available, and by increasing environmental cues to smoke. We aimed to examine tobacco control experts' views on policies that could reduce tobacco retail availability. Telephone interviews with 25 individuals drawn from academia, non-governmental organisations, Māori and Pacific health, smoking cessation services, district health boards and other public health-related organisations. We used a semi-structured interview guide to explore the perceived importance of reducing tobacco retail supply, views on different policy options and barriers to policy adoption. Qualitative content analysis was conducted using transcripts as the data source. Participants believed tobacco retailer licensing was an important short-term step towards the 2025 goal. In the long-term, participants envisaged tobacco only being available at a small number of specialised outlets, either pharmacies or adult-only stores. To achieve that long-term scenario, participants suggested a sinking-lid policy on licences or a zoning approach could be adopted to gradually reduce outlet density. Policies banning sales at certain types of outlet were not considered feasible. There is tension between the tobacco retail reduction policies seen as more likely to be politically acceptable, and the need to make substantial changes to the tobacco retail environment by 2025. Future research could investigate possible legal mechanisms for requiring existing tobacco retailers to transition out of selling tobacco.

  3. Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, N; Hussain, A K M G; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi) and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul) using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most widely used smokeless tobacco product zarda using two-step regression analysis. The analysis is based on data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 3 Survey which is a nationally representative cohort survey of tobacco users and nonusers conducted in in Bangladesh during 2011-12. The price elasticity of lower price brands of zarda is estimated at -0.64 and of higher priced brands at -0.39, and the cross price elasticity of zarda with respect to cigarette price at 0.35. The tax increase on smokeless tobacco needs to be greater than the tax increase on smoked tobacco to bridge the wide price differential between the two types of products that currently encourages downward substitution from smoked to smokeless tobacco and discourages quitting behavior. This paper argues that increasing tax on smokeless tobacco simultaneously with the tax increase on smoked tobacco can have significant negative impact on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh. Finally, a specific excise system replacing the existing ad valorem excise tax can substantially contribute to the revenue collection performance from smokeless tobacco products.

  4. Symptoms of Tobacco Dependence Among Middle and High School Tobacco Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Corey, Catherine G.; Hoffman, Allison C.; Schroeder, Megan J.; Husten, Corinne G.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Backinger, Cathy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that tobacco dependence symptoms can occur soon after smoking onset and with low levels of use. However, limited data are available nationally and among non-cigarette tobacco users. Purpose To examine the prevalence and determinants of tobacco dependence symptoms among adolescent tobacco users in the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative, school-based survey of U.S. middle and high school students. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of dependence symptoms among current users (i.e., past 30-day use) of cigarettes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco. Analyses were conducted in 2013 using SAS-callable SUDAAN, version 11 to account for the complex survey design. Results Prevalence of tobacco dependence symptoms ranged from 20.8% (95% CI=18.6, 23.1) of current tobacco users reporting wanting to use tobacco within 30 minutes of waking to 41.9% (95% CI=39.3, 44.5) reporting recent strong cravings. Reporting of dependence symptoms was most consistently associated with polytobacco use, higher frequency of use, earlier initiation age, and female gender. A 2–4-fold increase in the odds of symptom reporting was found in adolescents using tobacco products on as few as 3–5 days compared to those who only used it for 1–2 of the past 30 days. Conclusions A substantial proportion of U.S. adolescent tobacco users, including those with low levels of use, report symptoms of tobacco dependence. These findings demonstrate the need for full implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent both experimentation and progression to regular tobacco use among youth. PMID:25044195

  5. Acute effects of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Thakran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco are well established, however, the effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamic have not been studied. We intended to analyze the acute effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled seven habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease with single vessel disease or double vessel disease satisfying the criteria for elective PCI. Patients were instructed to keep 1 g of crushed dried tobacco leaves in the mouth after a successful PCI. Lesion in last stented vessels was evaluated for fractional flow reserve (FFR, coronary flow reserve (CFR, and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR post-PCI, after 15 min and 30 min of tobacco chewing along with the measurement of serum cotinine levels. Results: Oral tobacco led to high levels of cotinine in the majority of patients. There was an insignificant rise in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure following tobacco consumption. Baseline CFR (median 1.6, range 1.1–5.5 was low in tobacco chewers after PCI even after optimum FFR (0.9 ± 0.05 in the majority of patients suggesting abnormal microvascular hemodynamics (high IMR in 3 patients, overall median 14.2, range 7–36.2. However, there was no significant change in the estimated CFR or IMR values following tobacco chewing. One patient had bradycardia and hypotension which may be related to vagal reaction or acute nicotine poisoning. Conclusion: Tobacco chewers have abnormal coronary microcirculation hemodynamics even following a successful PCI. However, the coronary micocirculation and hemodynamics do not change acutely following tobacco chewing despite high serum cotinine concentrations.

  6. Role of Oxides of Nitrogen in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation in Flue-Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor TB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is known to contain a class of nitrosamines known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines or TSNA. Nitrosation of naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids is commonly accepted as the mechanism of TSNA formation in tobacco. Because green and freshly harvested tobaccos are virtually free of TSNA, formation and accumulation of TSNA are generally considered to occur during the curing process. Most recent hypotheses have focused on microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and other oxides of nitrogen (NOcompounds that react with tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA during curing. This natural microbial process remains the prevalent hypothesis for TSNA formation in burley and other air-cured tobaccos. However, a different mechanism for the formation of TSNA in flue-cured tobacco, independent of microbial activity, is documented in this paper. It is common practice to flue-cure Virginia or blonde tobacco in bulk barns that incorporate forced air ventilation and temperature control. For the last thirty-five years, many modern bulk barns in North America generally have used liquid propane gas (LPG with direct-fired burners that exhaust combustion gases directly into the barn where the tobacco is exposed to those gases. Our studies indicate that LPG combustion by-products in the exhaust stream, namely NO, react with naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA. Heat exchange curing methods preclude exposure of the tobacco to combustion gases and by-products, thereby eliminating this significant source of TSNA formation, without degrading leaf quality or smoking character. Research findings from 1998 and 1999 are presented to demonstrate the role of NOgases in TSNA formation and the significance of direct-fired curing as a primary source of TSNA formation in flue-cured tobacco. Also, data from an extensive barn conversion program in 2000, which resulted in a 94% average reduction in TSNA levels in cured flue-cured leaf, are presented.

  7. Tobacco brand preference among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Page, Randy M; Trinidad, Dennis R; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2012-01-01

    Advertising plays a major role in smoking behavior and forming brand preferences. Additionally, the most advertised tobacco brands have also been the most preferred. Maintaining brand loyalty in Latin America remains a priority for the tobacco industry. The purpose of this study was to explore tobacco brand preference trends from 2003 to 2006, and explore marketing and advertising factors that might be associated with these trends. Data for this study came from Mexican adolescents residing in cities that participated in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in both 2003 and 2006 and reported smoking either Marlboro or Camel cigarettes in the past 30 days. Respondents reported the brand name of their preferred cigarette during the past 30 days. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine differences by brand preference and exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising, which was assessed using six items. In 2003, most adolescents preferred Marlboro. By 2006, older boys preferred Camel cigarettes to Marlboro, while girls' preference for Camel was similar to their preference for Marlboro. Adolescents that preferred Camel cigarettes in 2003 also reported greater exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising. Findings indicate that there are ongoing shifts in youth brand preference in Mexico, and that these shifts might be related to marketing and advertising practices. There is an ongoing need for monitoring marketing and advertising practices in an effort to protect adolescents from tobacco company exploits.

  8. Influence of tobacco type on smoke composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Cigarette smoke quantity and composition is affected by both the physical properties and chemical nature of the tobacco. Flue-cured tobacco exhibits a greater density than does Burley which results in a larger number of standard puffs per cigarette for the former and, thus, increased per cigarette deliveries of most smoke constituents. The greater carbohydrate and polyphenolic content of flue-cured tobaccos contributes to an increased yield of acidic constituents in the smoke. The increased nitrogenous component of Burley tobacco leads to a more alkaline smoke and one enriched in oxides of nitrogen. A quantitative elucidation of the relationship between tobacco type and smoke composition from literature results is complicated by the large number of variables influencing smoke composition which are generally unspecified in the reports. Smokes from cigaretts containing straight Burley and straight Bright tobaccos are compared based on analytical results from this laboratory. With few exceptions, smoke composition is often influenced more by processing variables and agronomic practices than by general tobacco ''type.'' 6 tables.

  9. Mediation designs for tobacco prevention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research designs and statistical analyses to investigate how tobacco prevention programs achieve their effects on tobacco use. A theoretical approach to program development and evaluation useful for any prevention program guides the analysis. The theoretical approach focuses on action theory for how the program affects mediating variables and on conceptual theory for how mediating variables are related to tobacco use. Information on the mediating mechanisms by which tobacco prevention programs achieve effects is useful for the development of efficient programs and provides a test of the theoretical basis of prevention efforts. Examples of these potential mediating mechanisms are described including mediated effects through attitudes, social norms, beliefs about positive consequences, and accessibility to tobacco. Prior research provides evidence that changes in social norms are a critical mediating mechanism for successful tobacco prevention. Analysis of mediating variables in single group designs with multiple mediators are described as well as multiple group randomized designs which are the most likely to accurately uncover important mediating mechanisms. More complicated dismantling and constructive designs are described and illustrated based on current findings from tobacco research. Mediation analysis for categorical outcomes and more complicated statistical methods are outlined. PMID:12324176

  10. CDC Grand Rounds: global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Samira; Song, Yang; Cohen, Joanna; Eriksen, Michael; Pechacek, Terry; Cohen, Nicole; Iskander, John

    2014-04-04

    During the 20th century, use of tobacco products contributed to the deaths of 100 million persons worldwide. In 2011, approximately 6 million additional deaths were linked to tobacco use, the world's leading underlying cause of death, responsible for more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. One third to one half of lifetime users die from tobacco products, and smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Manufactured cigarettes account for 96% of all tobacco sales worldwide. From 1880 to 2009, annual global consumption of cigarettes increased from an estimated 10 billion cigarettes to approximately 5.9 trillion cigarettes, with five countries accounting for 58% of the total consumption: China (38%), Russia (7%), the United States (5%), Indonesia (4%), and Japan (4%). Among the estimated 1 billion smokers worldwide, men outnumber women by four to one. In 14 countries, at least 50% of men smoke, whereas in more than half of these same countries, fewer than 10% of women smoke. If current trends persist, an estimated 500 million persons alive today will die from use of tobacco products. By 2030, tobacco use will result in the deaths of approximately 8 million persons worldwide each year. Yet, every death from tobacco products is preventable.

  11. Tobacco Industry Research on Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. OBJECTIVE Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers’ needs. METHODS Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. RESULTS Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, “ultra low tar” cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers’ motivations. PMID:15109339

  12. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  13. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: Findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Quah, Anne C.K.; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. PMID:25455648

  14. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The implementation of health care aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The summarizing of the experience of medical care at the cessation of tobacco use and the treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation (RF as well as suggestions for their improvement are presented.For the effective implementation of health care, aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the RF it is necessary to solve the following problems:to include doctors of all specialties in the process of medical care and treatment oftobacco addiction and consequences oftobacco consumption in the RF; to ensure effective implementation of the existing legal documents determining the procedure for providing medical aid, aimed at ending the use of tobacco, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, greater control over their performance and quality of their implementation; to expand of the network of medical offices for cessation of tobacco consumption on the basis of existing structures in primary health care settings (including women's and children’s outpatient clinics, as well as hospitals and health resorts, their provision of personnel and equipment, introduction of group forms of work; to ensure a permanent system of training on assistance at the cessation of tobacco consumption, the treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, including the introduction of medical assistance cycle on cessation of tobacco consumption for student training in medical schools and programs for postgraduate education of health professionals

  16. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, Km; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  17. Smokeless tobacco, sport and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Frédéric; Guenancia, Charles; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Moreau, Daniel; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  19. Impact of Tobacco Taxes and Price Increases in Ukraine, Russia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will assess how different tobacco taxation scenarios will affect cigarette consumption, smoking prevalence, tobacco excise tax revenues, and tobacco smuggling, all of which directly or indirectly influence public health. The information generated will also support efforts by tobacco control and health NGOs in ...

  20. Tobacco Industry Interference in the WHO European Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart

    2012-01-01

    WHO selected tobacco industry interference as the theme of the 2012 World No Tobacco Day, recognizing the serious danger the tobacco industry poses to public health and the need to expose and counter the industry’s increasing attempts to undermine the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control...

  1. 7 CFR 29.75 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.75 Section 29.75... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75 Accessibility of tobacco. (a) All tobacco subject to mandatory inspection shall be made readily accessible for inspection. (b)(1) Each...

  2. 7 CFR 29.403 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.403 Section 29.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.403 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco...

  3. "A Roadmap for Flue-curing Tobacco Barns: Towards Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco crop currently provides the best economic return per hectare amongst all the major annual crops grown in Zimbabwe. Tobacco production currently contributes 30 % of the total exports and nearly 10 % of the GDP. According to the Tobacco Industry and Marketing Board, of the 106 127 number of registered tobacco ...

  4. Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh. Research on the links between tobacco farming and health problems among men, women, and children in Bangladesh will examine the health and socio-economic impact of tobacco cultivation. To date, the health hazards of growing tobacco have not been documented ...

  5. Push for higher tobacco taxes in West Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... For the tobacco industry, West Africa is a lucrative market. Although detrimental to health, tobacco consumption is on the rise, particularly among young people. Stringent tax policies on tobacco products are a proven strategy to counter tobacco use at the national, regional, and global levels. In light of the ...

  6. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  7. [Can tobacco companies be good corporate citizens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, G; Mena, S

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco companies have jumped on the Corporate social responsibility (CSR) bandwagon as a tentative to be societally accepted as responsible actors and good corporate citizens. This is however not possible for two reasons. First, the product they sell is lethal and thus not compatible with the precondition of doing no harm to be a good corporate citizen. Second, the behavior of tobacco firms is not responsible, being illustrated by four examples: junk science versus sound science strategy, seducing young smokers, political lobbying and getting customers on new markets. To conclude, three implications for regulating the activities of the tobacco industry are given.

  8. Lung Cancer and Tobacco: What Is New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Sarna, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Tobacco use remains the single most important preventable cause of cancer and is responsible for 80% of all cases of lung cancer. Implementation of tobacco control measures, including preventing initiation and treating dependence, are pivotal to address the lung cancer epidemic. New evidence continues to emerge on the significant positive impact of incorporating tobacco dependence treatment within all lung cancer treatment protocols. Evidence and guidelines on how to implement these strategies exist and present an opportunity for nurses to make a difference in reducing suffering and preventing deaths from lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Virus-derived transgenes expressing hairpin RNA give immunity to Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce RNA silencing by expressing virus-derived dsRNA in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses. Results Inverted repeats of the partial Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV movement protein (MP gene and the partial Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV replication protein (Rep gene were introduced into the plant expression vector and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out and three transgenic tobacco lines (MP16-17-3, MP16-17-29 and MP16-17-58 immune to TMV infection and three transgenic tobacco lines (Rep15-1-1, Rep15-1-7 and Rep15-1-32 immune to CMV infection were obtained. Virus inoculation assays showed that the resistance of these transgenic plants could inherit and keep stable in T4 progeny. The low temperature (15℃ did not influence the resistance of transgenic plants. There was no significant correlation between the resistance and the copy number of the transgene. CMV infection could not break the resistance to TMV in the transgenic tobacco plants expressing TMV hairpin MP RNA. Conclusions We have demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants expressed partial TMV movement gene and partial CMV replicase gene in the form of an intermolecular intron-hairpin RNA exhibited complete resistance to TMV or CMV infection.

  10. Phenylpropanoids from cinnamon bark reduced β-amyloid production by the inhibition of β-secretase in Chinese hamster ovarian cells stably expressing amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Jeong; Seo, Dae-Gun; Park, So-Young

    2016-11-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ) is a substance of Alzheimer disease (AD), which is generated via the amyloidogenic pathway from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase. Inhibition of Aβ production is a potential therapeutic approach to AD. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that cinnamon bark (Cinnamomi Cortex Spissus), the dried bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Lauraceae), and its constituents are beneficial to AD. The methanol extract of cinnamon bark efficiently reduced Aβ40 production in Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells stably expressing APP as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bioassay-guided isolation of cinnamon bark extract was carried out using open column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and the following 6 phenylpropanoids were isolated: syringaresinol (1); medioresinol (2); coumarin (3); 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (4); cryptamygin A (5); and 3',5,7-trimethoxy epicatechin (6). Among these, 4 μg/mL medioresinol and cryptamygin A reduced Aβ40 production by 50% and 60%, respectively, compared with dimethyl sulfoxide-treated control cells. The IC 50 values of medioresinol and cryptamygin A for the inhibition of Aβ40 production were 10.8 and 8.2 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of APP-CHO cells with either compound decreased the amount of β-secretase and sAPPβ (the proteolytic fragment of APP catalyzed by β-secretase). These results suggest that the antiamyloidogenic activity of cinnamon bark extract was exerted by medioresinol and cryptamygin A via a reduction in the amount of β-secretase. The extract of cinnamon bark contains potentially valuable antiamyloidogenic agents for the prevention and treatment of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Persistent human cardiac Na+ currents in stably transfected mammalian cells: Robust expression and distinct open-channel selectivity among Class 1 antiarrhythmics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ging Kuo; Russell, Gabriella; Wang, Sho-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Miniature persistent late Na(+) currents in cardiomyocytes have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The goals of this study are to establish a stable cell line expressing robust persistent cardiac Na(+) currents and to test Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs for selective action against resting and open states. After transient transfection of an inactivation-deficient human cardiac Na(+) channel clone (hNav1.5-CW with L409C/A410W double mutations), transfected mammalian HEK293 cells were treated with 1 mg/ml G-418. Individual G-418-resistant colonies were isolated using glass cylinders. One colony with high expression of persistent Na(+) currents was subjected to a second colony selection. Cells from this colony remained stable in expressing robust peak Na(+) currents of 996 ± 173 pA/pF at +50 mV (n = 20). Persistent late Na(+) currents in these cells were clearly visible during a 4-second depolarizing pulse albeit decayed slowly. This slow decay is likely due to slow inactivation of Na(+) channels and could be largely eliminated by 5 μM batrachotoxin. Peak cardiac hNav1.5-CW Na(+) currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC(50) value of 2.27 ± 0.08 μM (n = 6). At clinic relevant concentrations, Class 1 antiarrhythmics are much more selective in blocking persistent late Na(+) currents than their peak counterparts, with a selectivity ratio ranging from 80.6 (flecainide) to 3 (disopyramide). We conclude that (1) Class 1 antiarrhythmics differ widely in their resting- vs. open-channel selectivity, and (2) stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing large persistent hNav1.5-CW Na(+) currents are suitable for studying as well as screening potent open-channel blockers.

  12. DEAD-box helicase DDX27 regulates 3′ end formation of ribosomal 47S RNA and stably associates with the PeBoW-complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Markus; Rohrmoser, Michaela [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Forné, Ignasi [Adolf Butenandt Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Schillerstr. 44, Munich 80336 (Germany); Voss, Kirsten; Burger, Kaspar; Mühl, Bastian; Gruber-Eber, Anita [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Kremmer, Elisabeth [Institute of Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Center Munich, Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Imhof, Axel [Adolf Butenandt Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Schillerstr. 44, Munich 80336 (Germany); Eick, Dirk, E-mail: eick@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    PeBoW, a trimeric complex consisting of pescadillo (Pes1), block of proliferation (Bop1), and the WD repeat protein 12 (WDR12), is essential for processing and maturation of mammalian 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs. Applying a mass spectrometric analysis, we identified the DEAD-box helicase DDX27 as stably associated factor of the PeBoW-complex. DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW-complex via an evolutionary conserved F×F motif in the N-terminal domain and is recruited to the nucleolus via its basic C-terminal domain. This recruitment is RNA-dependent and occurs independently of the PeBoW-complex. Interestingly, knockdown of DDX27, but not of Pes1, induces the accumulation of an extended form of the primary 47S rRNA. We conclude that DDX27 can interact specifically with the Pes1 and Bop1 but fulfils critical function(s) for proper 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA independently of the PeBoW-complex. - Highlights: • DEAD-box helicase DDX27 is a new constituent of the PeBoW-complex. • The N-terminal F×F motif of DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW components Pes1 and Bop1. • Nucleolar anchoring of DDX27 via its basic C-terminal domain is RNA dependent. • Knockdown of DDX27 induces a specific defect in 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA.

  13. Continued implications of taxing roll-your-own tobacco as pipe tobacco in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Morris, Daniel; Weston, Tara

    2015-06-01

    In 2009, a US$21.95 per pound disparity was created in the Federal excise tax between roll-your-own cigarette tobacco (RYO) and pipe tobacco in the USA. After this disparity was created, pipe tobacco sales increased and RYO sales declined as some manufacturers repackaged roll-your-own tobacco as pipe tobacco and retailers began to offer cigarette rolling machines for consumers to use. A Federal law was passed in 2012 limiting the availability of these machines, however, it was unclear what impact this law had on the sales of roll-your-own tobacco labelled as pipe tobacco. The quantity of RYO sold as pipe tobacco each month was estimated using objective data on Federal excise taxes. From April 2009 through June 2013, 107 million pounds of RYO were sold as pipe tobacco, reducing Federal excise tax collections by US$2.36 billion. The amount of RYO taxed as pipe tobacco climbed steadily and then levelled off following the July 2012 Federal law. The Federal law did not correct the market shift that occurred in pipe and RYO sales beginning in 2009. Even without access to commercial rolling machines, smokers are continuing to take advantage of the tax disparity. Without a solution, states will continue to lose revenue, and smokers who would otherwise quit will continue to have a low-cost alternative product available for purchase. Potential solutions include: (1) US Treasury Department distinguishing between RYO and pipe tobacco based on physical characteristics and (2) changing the Federal excise tax so that RYO and pipe tobacco are taxed at the same rate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Circles of Tobacco Wisdom: learning about traditional and commercial tobacco with Native elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Melanie; Blake, Norby; Poupart, John; Rhodes, Kristine; Forster, Jean L

    2012-11-01

    Circles of Tobacco Wisdom (CTW) was an elder-led, community-based project that aimed to enhance tobacco control in the American Indian community. Its goal was to provide elders with the knowledge, opportunities, and support to enable them to assume leadership of a tobacco control movement that was grounded in the ceremonial traditions of tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of the pilot intervention on participants. The design of this pilot study intervention was a single group, pre-post comparison, with a pre-post survey, monthly check-ins, and a post-1-year focus group. Twelve elders were included in the pre- and post-analyses. All twelve elders were women who self-identified as American Indian (mean age = 64). The CTW elders participated in monthly talking circles, quarterly learning sessions, and a post-1-year focus group, and took part in other learning, support, and community action opportunities. Data were collected from December 2008 through November 2009 and analyzed throughout the process. American Indian Elders' tobacco-related knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors were measured while participating in the CTW project. Knowledge, perceptions, beliefs, and behavior changes were seen with cigarette smoking, secondhand smoke, and ceremonial tobacco use and risk perception. After 6 months, the number of people the elders had talked with about tobacco increased, elders were more likely to have a discussion on tobacco at a community event, and their comfort level talking about commercial and traditional tobacco also increased. A number of themes also were identified in the focus group: feeling more comfortable talking about tobacco issues, learning a lot about traditional and commercial tobacco, and realizing the dangers of smoking. Elders increased their knowledge about commercial and traditional tobacco and changed related attitudes as a result of CTW. Further, American Indian Elders perceived that CTW was effective

  15. Tobacco and the Malays: ethnicity, health and the political economy of tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2017-04-01

    To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports. Malays have the highest smoking prevalence among Malaysia's major ethnic groups. The tobacco industry has consistently been promoted as furthering Malay economic development. Malays play the major role in growing and curing. Government-owned Malay development trusts have been prominent investors in tobacco corporations, which have cultivated linkages with the Malay elite. The religious element of Malay ethnicity has also been significant. All Malays are Muslim, and the National Fatwa Council has declared smoking to be haram (forbidden); however, the Government has declined to implement this ruling. Exaggerated claims for the socio-economic benefits of tobacco production, government investment and close links between tobacco corporations and sections of the Malay elite have created a conflict of interest in public policy, limited the focus on tobacco as a health policy issue among Malays and retarded tobacco control policy. More recently, ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, regional free trade policies reducing the numbers of growers, concerns about smoking from an Islamic viewpoint, and anxieties about the effects of smoking upon youth have increasingly challenged the dominant discourse that tobacco furthers Malay interests. Nevertheless, the industry remains a formidable political and economic presence in Malaysia that is likely to continue to

  16. Local tobacco policy and tobacco outlet density: associations with youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the associations between local tobacco policy, tobacco outlet density, and youth smoking. A primary focus is on whether local tobacco policy moderates the relation between outlet density and youth smoking. In all, 1,491 youth (51.9% male, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.05) in 50 midsized California cities were surveyed through a computer-assisted telephone interview. Measures of local clean air policy and youth access policy were created based on a review of tobacco policies in these cities. Outlet density was calculated as the number of retail tobacco outlets per 10,000 persons, and city characteristics were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census data. Using multilevel regression analyses and controlling for city characteristics, tobacco outlet density was positively associated with youth smoking. No significant main effects were found for the two tobacco policy types on any of the smoking outcomes after controlling for interactions and covariates. However, statistically significant interactions were found between local clean air policy and tobacco outlet density for ever smoked and past 12-month cigarette smoking. Comparisons of simple slopes indicated that the positive associations between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking behaviors were stronger at the lowest level of local clean air policy compared with the moderate and high levels. Our results suggest that tobacco outlet density is related to youth smoking. In addition, local clean air policy may act as a moderator of relationship between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking, such that density is less important at moderate and high levels of this tobacco policy. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Global assessment of deforestation related to tobacco farming

    OpenAIRE

    Geist, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the global amount of forest and woodland consumed annually for curing tobacco between 1990 and 1995; to estimate tobacco's share in total deforestation; to rank tobacco-growing countries by the degree of impact of tobacco deforestation; and to indicate environmental criticality emerging from tobacco's impact on forest resources. 
DESIGN—Production of country-specific estimates of forests/woodlands needed and depleted on the basis of growing stock/increment of woody biomas...

  18. Tobacco Product Demand, Cigarette Taxes, and Market Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Da Pra, Michelle; Arnade, Carlos Anthony

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model of estimated demand for four tobacco products: cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, and smoking tobacco products. Own elasticities and cross-price elasticities are used to obtain insights into the effectiveness and implications of new policy measures. Of particular interest is whether substitution of various tobacco products varies by market outlet. Several variations of the tobacco product outlet-choice model were estimated using iterative SUR. Four separate produ...

  19. Comparisons of the Composition of Tobacco Smoke and the Smokes from Various Tobacco Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the late 1970s, eight technologies in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette were classified as significant. The eight included: The tobacco blend, the filter tip, filter-tip additives, reconstituted tobacco sheet, paper additives, air dilution via paper porosity, expanded tobacco, and air dilution via filter-tip perforation. In addition to these eight cigarette-design technologies was another proposed technology which involved the incorporation of a substitute for some or all of the tobacco in the cigarette filler. Despite considerable research and development (R&D effort on various tobacco substitutes that indicated the replacements in most instances fulfilled the definition of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette with regard to the chemical and biological properties of their mainstream smoke, tobacco substitute-containing cigarettes failed to attain consumer acceptability. As a result, several marketed products containing tobacco substitutes had an extremely brief tenure in the marketplace. Outlined herein is a summary of some detailed research conducted on the composition of the mainstream smokes from cigarettes containing either all-substitute filler or fillers comprising various substitute and tobacco mixtures as well as an all-tobacco cigarette.

  20. Using tobacco-industry marketing research to design more effective tobacco-control campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2002-06-12

    To improve tobacco-control efforts by applying tobacco-industry marketing research and strategies to clinical and public health smoking interventions, we analyzed previously secret tobacco-industry marketing documents. In contrast to public health, the tobacco industry divides markets and defines targets according to consumer attitudes, aspirations, activities, and lifestyles. Tobacco marketing targets smokers of all ages; young adults are particularly important. During the 1980s, cost affected increasing numbers of young and older smokers. During the 1990s, eroding social acceptability of smoking emerged as a major threat, largely from increasing awareness of the dangers of secondhand smoke among nonsmokers and smokers. Physicians and public health professionals should use tobacco-industry psychographic approaches to design more relevant tobacco-control interventions. Efforts to counter tobacco marketing campaigns should include people of all ages, particularly young adults, rather than concentrating on teens and young children. Many young smokers are cost sensitive. Tobacco-control messages emphasizing the dangers of secondhand smoke to smokers and nonsmokers undermine the social acceptability of smoking.

  1. [Legal framework and strategy of the tobacco industry in relation to tobacco advertising in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J; Cortés Blanco, M; Sarriá Santamera, A

    2000-01-01

    Publicity is legally regulated in Spain, in order to avoid its misuse. Tobacco publicity is also under those regulation, having had the companies operating in this sector to adapt themselves through new strategies. In this work, the legal restrictions existing in Spain regarding publicity are analyzed, together with some of the strategies developed by tobacco companies in order to elude them. In this sense, and despite of the existing legal framework, it should be noticed that tobacco companies are cleverly taking advantage of the existence of legal loopholes in tobacco publicity to promote their products.

  2. Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act: banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Smith, Carson; Sorg, Amy A

    2011-03-01

    The tobacco industry has challenged new FDA rules restricting outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds on First Amendment grounds, arguing that they would lead to a near complete ban on tobacco advertising in dense urban areas. To examine how the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) rules banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds would affect tobacco retailers. GIS spatial analyses of two different states (Missouri, New York), along with more detailed analyses of two urban areas within those states (St. Louis, New York City), were conducted in 2010. The percentage of tobacco retailers falling within 350-, 500-, and 1000-foot buffer zones was then calculated. 22% of retailers in Missouri and 51% in New York fall within 1000-foot buffers around schools. In urban settings, more retailers are affected, 29% in St. Louis and 79% in New York City. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that smaller buffers decrease the proportion of affected retailers. That is, 350-foot buffers affect only 6.7% of retailers in St. Louis and 29% in New York City. The effects of new outdoor tobacco advertising restrictions vary by location and population density. In Missouri and New York, outdoor tobacco advertising would still be permitted in many locations if such advertising was prohibited in a 1000-foot buffer zone around schools and playgrounds. Much smaller buffer zones of 350 feet may result in almost no reduction of outdoor advertising in many parts of the country. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. An Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene from Synechocystis sp. Confers Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Synechocystis salt-responsive gene 1 (sysr1 was engineered for expression in higher plants, and gene construction was stably incorporated into tobacco plants. We investigated the role of Sysr1 [a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH superfamily] by examining the salt tolerance of sysr1-overexpressing (sysr1-OX tobacco plants using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bioassays. The sysr1-OX plants exhibited considerably increased ADH activity and tolerance to salt stress conditions. Additionally, the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were upregulated. Moreover, airborne signals from salt-stressed sysr1-OX plants triggered salinity tolerance in neighboring wild-type (WT plants. Therefore, Sysr1 enhanced the interconversion of aldehydes to alcohols, and this occurrence might affect the quality of green leaf volatiles (GLVs in sysr1-OX plants. Actually, the Z-3-hexenol level was approximately twofold higher in sysr1-OX plants than in WT plants within 1–2 h of wounding. Furthermore, analyses of WT plants treated with vaporized GLVs indicated that Z-3-hexenol was a stronger inducer of stress-related gene expression and salt tolerance than E-2-hexenal. The results of the study suggested that increased C6 alcohol (Z-3-hexenol induced the expression of resistance genes, thereby enhancing salt tolerance of transgenic plants. Our results revealed a role for ADH in salinity stress responses, and the results provided a genetic engineering strategy that could improve the salt tolerance of crops.

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  9. Tobacco interventions by dentists and dental hygienists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hanioka

    2013-02-01

    Dental researchers and educators around the world should explore new knowledge and exchange experiences to make full use of the unique opportunity of providing dental interventions against tobacco use.

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  13. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  19. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  20. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  1. Tobacco on trial: evaluation and final report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    The B.C. Committee to Reduce Tobacco Use is a coalition of health care agencies with the common objective of developing and implementing a public relations/radio mass media program targeted at youth 11-18...

  2. Term limits and the tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Glantz, Stanton A; Bero, Lisa A

    2014-03-01

    In the 1990s several American states passed term limits on legislators with the stated intention of reducing the influence of wealthy industries on career legislators. Although term limits in the United States do not have a direct relationship to public health, the tobacco industry anticipated that term limits could have indirect effects by either limiting or expanding industry influence. We detail the strategy of the tobacco industry in the wake of term limits using internal tobacco company documents and a database of campaign contributions made to legislators in term limited states between 1988 and 2002. Despite some expectations that term limits would limit tobacco industry access to state legislators, term limits appear to have had the opposite effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives. Healthy People...

  4. US adult tobacco users' absolute harm perceptions of traditional and alternative tobacco products, information-seeking behaviors, and (mis)beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Jennifer K; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Margolis, Katherine A; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-08-01

    Harm perceptions about tobacco products may influence initiation, continued use, and cessation efforts. We assessed associations between adult traditional tobacco product use and absolute harm perceptions of traditional and alternative tobacco products. We also described the topics individuals looked for during their last search for information, their beliefs about chemicals in cigarettes/cigarette smoke, and how both relate to harm perceptions. We ran multivariable models with jackknife replicate weights to analyze data from the 2015 administration of the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey (N=3376). Compared to never users, individuals reported lower perceived levels of harm for products they use. Among current tobacco users, ethnicity, thinking about chemicals in tobacco, and information-seeking were all factors associated with tobacco product harm perceptions. In the full sample, some respondents reported searching for information about health effects and cessation and held misperceptions about the source of chemicals in tobacco. This study fills a gap in the literature by assessing the absolute harm perceptions of a variety of traditional and alternative tobacco products. Harm perceptions vary among tobacco products, and the relationship among tobacco use, information seeking, thoughts about chemicals in tobacco products, and harm perceptions is complex. Data suggest that some individuals search for information about health effects and cessation and hold misperceptions about chemicals in tobacco products. Future inquiry could seek to understand the mechanisms that contribute to forming harm perceptions and beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmawati, S; Danardono, M; Ng, N; Prabandari, Y; Nichter, Mark

    2009-04-01

    Tobacco advertising in Indonesia is among the most aggressive and innovative in the world, and tobacco advertisements saturate the environment. Tobacco companies are politically and financially powerful in the country because they are one of the largest sources of government revenue. As a result, there are few restrictions on tobacco marketing and advertising. National surveys reveal that 62% of men and 1% to 3% of women are smokers. Over 90% of smokers smoke clove cigarettes (kretek). This paper examines the social and cultural reasons for smoking in Indonesia and discusses how the tobacco industry reads, reproduces and works with culture as a means of selling cigarettes. An analysis is provided of how kretek tobacco companies represent themselves as supporters of Indonesian national identity. This analysis is used to identify strategies to break the chains of positive association that currently support widespread smoking. Between November 2001 and March 2007, tobacco advertisements were collected from a variety of sources, including newspapers and magazines. Frequent photographic documentation was made of adverts on billboards and in magazines. Advertisements were segmented into thematic units to facilitate analysis. In all, 30 interviews were conducted with smokers to explore benefits and risks of smoking, perceptions of advertisements and brand preferences. Focus groups (n = 12) were conducted to explore and pretest counter advertisements. Key themes were identified in tobacco advertisements including control of emotions, smoking to enhance masculinity and smoking as a means to uphold traditional values while simultaneously emphasising modernity and globalisation. Some kretek advertisements are comprised of indirect commentaries inviting the viewer to reflect on the political situation and one's position in society. After identifying key cultural themes in cigarette advertisements, our research group is attempting to engage the tobacco industry on "cultural

  6. Tobacco Control Laws and Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoun, Jonathan; Davis-Plourde, Kendra; Penti, Brian; Cabral, Howard; Kazis, Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke increases pediatric asthma severity. Strict, state-level tobacco control reduces smoking. The Child Asthma Call-Back Survey (Child ACBS) is a nationally representative survey of the guardians of children with asthma. The American Lung Association's annual State of Tobacco Control report grades tobacco control laws in each state including a tax grade (cigarette excise tax relative to the national mean), and a smoke-free air grade (number of locations where smoking is prohibited). We joined Child ACBS data from 2006 to 2010 with corresponding state and year tobacco grades. In the primary analysis, we investigated the effect of state tax grades on a child's asthma severity by using a logistic regression model adjusting for year. A secondary analysis assessed the impact of smoke-free air grades on in-home smoking. Our analysis included 12 860 Child ACBS interviews from 35 states over 5 years, representing over 24 million individuals. We merged 112 unique State of Tobacco Control grades with patient data by state and year. A higher tax grade was associated with reduced severity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40; P = .007, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.80). A better smoke-free air grade was not associated with decreased in-home smoking after adjusting for confounding by income and type of residence. A stronger tobacco tax is associated with reduced asthma severity. Further study is needed to determine the effect of smoke-free air laws on in-home environmental. This work supports ongoing efforts to strengthen tobacco control through federal and state regulations. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Swimming Upstream: Tobacco Policy Making in Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Gregory MPH; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    The tobacco industry is a major political force in Nevada. The industry dominated state politics through a combination of strategic alliances with the hospitality and gaming industries and campaign contributions. From 1990-2006 the tobacco industry contributed $552,111 to the state political parties and individuals running for state office. In 1975, health groups in Nevada attempted to pass a legislative proposal, AB 17, that would have required smoking and non-smoking sections in al...

  8. Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Evidence Review

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2014-01-01

    The current report reviews the scientific evidence on standardised or “plain” packaging, and the extent to which plain packaging regulations would help Ireland to achieve its tobacco control objectives.   Plain packaging is a form of marketing restriction that prohibits the use of logos, colours, brand images and promotional information on tobacco packaging. Under plain packaging regulations, the colour of the pack is uniform across different brands and varieties. Regulations ma...

  9. Spiraling into Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranton, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how technical and vocational learning may spiral into transformative learning. Transformative learning theory is reviewed and the learning tasks of critical theory are used to integrate various approaches to transformative learning. With this as a foundation, the article explores how transformative learning can be fostered in…

  10. Stable Transformation of Ferns Using Spores as Targets: Pteris vittata and Ceratopteris thalictroides1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Joyce, Blake L.; Elless, Mark P.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2013-01-01

    Ferns (Pteridophyta) are very important members of the plant kingdom that lag behind other taxa with regards to our understanding of their genetics, genomics, and molecular biology. We report here, to our knowledge, the first instance of stable transformation of fern with recovery of transgenic sporophytes. Spores of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata and tetraploid ‘C-fern Express’ (Ceratopteris thalictroides) were stably transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with constructs containing the P. vittata actin promoter driving a GUSPlus reporter gene. Reporter gene expression assays were performed on multiple tissues and growth stages of gametophytes and sporophytes. Southern-blot analysis confirmed stable transgene integration in recovered sporophytes and also confirmed that no plasmid from A. tumefaciens was present in the sporophyte tissues. We recovered seven independent transformants of P. vittata and four independent C. thalictroides transgenics. Inheritance analyses using β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical staining revealed that the GUS transgene was stably expressed in second generation C. thalictroides sporophytic tissues. In an independent experiment, the gusA gene that was driven by the 2× Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was bombarded into P. vittata spores using biolistics, in which putatively stable transgenic gametophytes were recovered. Transformation procedures required no tissue culture or selectable marker genes. However, we did attempt to use hygromycin selection, which was ineffective for recovering transgenic ferns. This simple stable transformation method should help facilitate functional genomics studies in ferns. PMID:23933990

  11. Pyrolysis characteristic of tobacco stem studied by Py-GC/MS, TG-FTIR, and TG-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Bei Liu; You-Ming Li; Shu-Bin Wu; Yan-Heng Li; Shan-Shan Deng; Zheng-Lin Xia

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics and mechanism of tobacco stem were studied by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and mass spectrometry (TG-FTIR and TG-MS) techniques. The composition of evolved volatiles from fast pyrolysis of tobacco stem was determined by Py-GC/MS analysis, and the evolution patterns of the major products were investigated by TG-FTIR and TG-MS. Py-GC/MS data indic...

  12. Banning tobacco sales and advertisements near educational institutions may reduce students' tobacco use risk: evidence from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Pednekar, Mangesh; Pimple, Sharmila; Gupta, Prakash C; McCarthy, William J; Raute, Lalit J; Patel, Minal; Shastri, Surendra S

    2015-03-01

    India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act bans tobacco sales and advertisements within 100 yards of educational institutions. In school-adjacent neighbourhoods in Mumbai, we assessed adherence to these policies and whether tobacco vendor and advertisement densities were associated with students' tobacco use. High school students' tobacco use was measured using a multistage cluster sampling survey (n=1533). Field geographic information systems data were obtained for all tobacco vendors and advertisements within 500 m of schools (n=26). Random-effects multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations of tobacco vendor and advertisement densities with ever tobacco use, current smokeless tobacco use and current tobacco use. There were 1741 tobacco vendors and 424 advertisements within 500 m of schools, with 221 vendors (13%) and 42 advertisements (10%) located within 100 m. School-adjacent tobacco vendor density within 100 m was not associated with the tobacco use outcomes, but tobacco advertisement density within 100 m was associated with all outcomes when comparing highest to lowest density tertiles: ever use (OR: 2.01; 95% CI 1.00 to 4.07), current use (2.23; 1.16, 4.28) and current smokeless tobacco use (2.01; 1.02, 3.98). Tobacco vendor density within 200, 300, 400 and 500 m of schools was associated with current tobacco use and current smokeless tobacco use, but not ever use. The tobacco sales ban near educational institutions could be expanded beyond 100 m. Greater enforcement is needed regarding the current bans, particularly because advertisement density within 100 m of schools was associated with all students' tobacco use outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Poverty, tobacco, and health: an Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majra, J P; Gur, A

    2009-06-01

    Poverty and health have a two-way relationship. Poverty increases the vulnerability of people to disease, and sickness affects their income leading to poverty. Tobacco has been identified as a major avoidable cause of illness and premature death. In India, more than half of men and one-tenth of women use one or more forms of tobacco. Tobacco-use shows a clear and continual increase with decreasing wealth quintiles. Poor smokers, who are at a greater risk of illness, are also at a greater risk of not being treated or of falling into greater poverty if they seek treatment. Poor people spend money on tobacco that could be spent on food, shelter, education, and healthcare. These decisions can entrench families in an ongoing cycle of poverty and ill-health. The direct and indirect costs of tobacco-use are immense for national economy. This has positioned control of tobacco relevant in India's per suite to achieve the goals of poverty eradication and health for all.

  14. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, T; Swe, T; Toe, M M; Zaw, K K; Sein, T O

    2014-12-01

    Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  15. Differential effects of overexpression of ERα and ERβ in MCF10A immortalised, non-transformed human breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugazhendhi, Dhamayanthi; Darbre, Philippa D

    2010-01-01

    Cellular effects of oestrogen are mediated by two intracellular receptors ERα and ERβ. However, to compare responses mediated through these two receptors, experimental models are needed where ERα and ERβ are individually stably overexpressed in the same cell type. We compared the effects of stable overexpression of ERα and ERβ in the MCF10A cell line, which is an immortalised but non-transformed breast epithelial cell line without high endogenous ER expression. Clones of MCF10A cells were characterised which stably overexpressed ERα (10A-ERα2, 10A-ERα13) or which stably overexpressed ERβ (10A-ERβ12, 10A-ERβ15). Overexpression of either ERα or ERβ allowed induction of an oestrogen-regulated ERE-LUC reporter gene by oestradiol which was not found in the untransfected cells. Oestradiol also increased proliferation of 10A-ERα13 and 10A-ERβ12 cells, but not untransfected cells, by 1.3-fold over 7 days. The phytoestrogen, genistein, which is reported to bind more strongly to ERβ than to ERα, could induce luciferase gene expression from an ERE-LUC reporter gene at concentrations of 10-6 M and 10-5 M but only in the clones overexpressing ERβ and not in those overexpressing ERα. Clone 10A-ERβ12 also yielded growth stimulation with 10-6 M genistein. Finally, the overexpression of ERα, but not ERβ, gave rise to increased growth in semi-solid methocel suspension culture in the presence of 70 nM oestradiol, suggesting that overexpression of ERα, but not ERβ, produces characteristics of a transformed phenotype. This provides a model system to compare effects of oestradiol with other oestrogenic ligands in cells stably overexpressing individually ERα or ERβ.

  16. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. [/sup 14/C]NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned

  17. GENE TRANSFER IN TOBACCO MITOCHONDRIA IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katyshev A.I.

    2012-08-01

    -cob* genetic construct with integrative properties. It contains the selective gene and the gene of interest under control of the 5'-regulatory regions of Arabidopsis orf262 gene and the tobacco cob gene. We used modified variant of the tobacco apocytochrome b gene as a gene for selection with the nucleotide substitution G128T (G43V which results in antimycin A resistance. The maize sod3.1 gene was used as a gene of interest. The construct was delivered into tobacco callus cells and leaf disks by biolistic method. The callus lines demonstrating the high growth rates in the presence of antimycin A in comparison with the non-transformed control lines were selected. PCR analysis of transformed callus lines revealed the presence of heterologous maize sod3.1 sequence and the integration of the construct elements in tobacco mitochondrial genome.

  18. New Zealand tobacco retailers' attitudes to selling tobacco, point-of-sale display bans and other tobacco control measures: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaine, Richard; Russell, Marie; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2014-06-20

    We aimed to explore New Zealand tobacco retailers' views on selling tobacco, the forthcoming 2012 point of sale display ban and two other potential tobacco control interventions in the retail setting: compulsory sales of nicotine replacement therapy and licensing of tobacco retailers. We carried out in-depth interviews with 18 retailers from a variety of store types where tobacco was sold. Stores were selected from a range of locations with varying levels of deprivation. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. All but four of the retailers were ambivalent about selling tobacco, would rather not sell it, or fell back on a business imperative for justification. Only one retailer was explicitly unconcerned about selling tobacco products. Most participants had few or no concerns about the removal of point-of-sale displays. Issues which were raised were mainly practical and logistical issues with the removal of displays. Only three thought sales would definitely be reduced. The majority of the retailers were not opposed to a possible requirement that nicotine replacement therapy products be made available wherever tobacco products are sold. Ten supported a licensing or registration scheme for tobacco retailers, and only three were opposed. We found widespread ambivalence about selling tobacco. There was considerable support for the licensing of tobacco retailers and other potential tobacco control measures. The retailers' attitudes about potential financial costs and security issues from a tobacco display ban were at odds with the tobacco industry predictions and the views of retailers' organisations. Some retailers appear to be potential allies for tobacco control. This is in contrast to retailer organisations, which may be out of step with many of their members in their strong opposition to retail tobacco control interventions.

  19. Hazardous compounds in tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; van Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2011-02-01

    Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC) have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 μg day(-1) for all risks, and 1.2 μg day(-1) for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs.

  20. Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Wester

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 µg day−1 for all risks, and 1.2 µg day−1 for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs.

  1. Nicotine Component of Cigarette Smoke Extract (CSE) Decreases the Cytotoxicity of CSE in BEAS-2B Cells Stably Expressing Human Cytochrome P450 2A13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Minghui; Zhang, Yudong; Li, Na; Wang, Chao; Xia, Rong; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2017-10-13

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), an extrahepatic enzyme mainly expressed in the human respiratory system, has been reported to mediate the metabolism and toxicity of cigarette smoke. We previously found that nicotine inhibited 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism by CYP2A13, but its influence on other components of cigarette smoke remains unclear. The nicotine component of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was separated, purified, and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), splitting CSE into a nicotine section (CSE-N) and nicotine-free section (CSE-O). Cell viability and apoptosis by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry assays were conducted on immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells stably expressing CYP2A13 (B-2A13) or vector (B-V), respectively. Interestingly, CSE and CSE-O were toxic to BEAS-2B cells whereas CSE-N showed less cytotoxicity. CSE-O was more toxic to B-2A13 cells than to B-V cells (IC 50 of 2.49% vs. 7.06%), which was flatted by 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a CYP inhibitor. CSE-O rather than CSE or CSE-N increased apoptosis of B-2A13 cells rather than B-V cells. Accordingly, compared to CSE-N and CSE, CSE-O significantly changed the expression of three pairs of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 Associated X Protein/B cell lymphoma-2 (Bax/Bcl-2), Cleaved Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase/Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase (C-PARP/PARP), and C-caspase-3/caspase-3, in B-2A13 cells. In addition, recombination of CSE-N and CSE-O (CSE-O/N) showed similar cytotoxicity and apoptosis to the original CSE. These results demonstrate that the nicotine component decreases the metabolic activation of CYP2A13 to CSE and aids in understanding the critical role of CYP2A13 in human respiratory diseases caused by cigarette smoking.

  2. Branding the rodeo: a case study of tobacco sports sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Haber, Lawrence A; Wedl, Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices.

  3. Advertising Receptivity and Youth Initiation of Smokeless Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, David S

    2016-07-28

    Cross-sectional data suggests that adolescents' receptivity to the advertising of smokeless tobacco is correlated with use of chewing tobacco or snuff. Lack of longitudinal data has precluded determination of whether advertising receptivity precedes or follows initiation of smokeless tobacco. The objective of this study was to test for the association between advertising receptivity and subsequent initiation of smokeless tobacco among adolescent males. Adolescent males from the 1993-1999 Teen Longitudinal California Tobacco Survey were selected at the baseline survey for never having used smokeless tobacco. Separate longitudinal analyses corresponded to two dependent variables, ever use of smokeless tobacco (1993-1996; N = 1,388) and use on 20 or more occasions (1993-1999; N = 1,014). Models were adjusted for demographic variables, risk factors for smokeless tobacco use, and exposure to users of smokeless tobacco. Advertising receptivity at baseline was predictive of ever use by late adolescence (RR(95% CI) = 2.0 (1.5, 2.8)) and regular use by young adulthood (RR(95% CI) = 3.7 (2.1, 6.7)) in models that were adjusted for covariates. Conclusions/ Importance: The findings challenge the tobacco industry's assertion that tobacco marketing does not impact youth initiation. This is particularly relevant to tobacco control in the United States because the 2009 Tobacco Control Act places fewer restrictions on smokeless tobacco products compared to cigarettes.

  4. Audit of tobacco retail outlets in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Lv, Jun; Liu, Qingmin; Ren, Yanjun; Li, Liming; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of tobacco advertisements and warning messages at points of sale as well as to examine the density of tobacco retail outlets in neighbourhoods and around schools in Hangzhou, China. Tobacco retail outlets (n=1639) in all food and tobacco specialty stores were observed objectively by trained students. Tobacco advertisements and warning messages were assessed with an audit, and stores' addresses were recorded with Global Positioning System coordinates. The distances (1) between all pairs of tobacco retail outlets (2) between each tobacco retail outlet and 15 middle schools were calculated to assess the density of tobacco retail outlets in neighbourhoods and around schools. Among the 1639 tobacco retail outlets, outlets, the nearest distances to other tobacco retail outlets were outlets within a 100 m radius. Tobacco advertisement in retail outlets is prevalent and the density of tobacco retail outlets is high in Hangzhou, China. Signs indicating 'no sales to minors' and tobacco warning signs are almost non-existent. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of regulations on display of 'no sales to minors' and a new density standard for tobacco retail outlets based on protecting the public's health.

  5. Tobacco Research and Its Relevance to Science, Medicine and Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso TC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a historical review and a vision for the future of tobacco plant research. This is the perspective of an experienced tobacco scientist who devoted his total professional career to tobacco research. From the very beginning, pioneering tobacco research was the foundation of plant science at the dawn of modern development, in such areas as light, nutrition, genetics, growth control, disorders and metabolism. Tobacco research led to current advancements in plant biotechnology. In addition, tobacco plant research contributed significantly to public health research in radioactive elements, mycotoxins, and air pollutants. However, public support for tobacco research has today greatly declined to almost total elimination because of a sense of political correctness. This author points out that tobacco is one of the most valuable research tools, and is a most abundant source of scientific information. Research with tobacco plants will contribute far beyond the frontiers of agricultural science: tobacco can be a source of food supply with nutrition value similar to that of milk; tobacco can be a source of health supplies including medical chemicals and various vaccines; tobacco can be a source of biofuel. All we need is to treat tobacco with respect; the use of tobacco is only in its initial stages.

  6. Tobacco 21: An Important Public Policy to Protect Our Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Pakhale, Smita; Neptune, Enid R

    2016-12-01

    An important approach to reduce youth tobacco use is the adoption of regulations to prohibit tobacco product sale to individuals younger than 21 years, termed Tobacco 21. In the United States, close to 90% of current smokers started smoking before the age of 18 years, and 99% before age 26 years. Earlier age of tobacco use initiation is associated with lower rates of smoking cessation. Increasing minimum age to purchase has been shown to reduce tobacco product use among youth. The critical determinant is likely the loss of social sources of tobacco products. Enforcement activities are important for age-of-purchase laws to be effective. Raising the minimum legal age to purchase tobacco products to 21 years is highly supported among both the smoking and nonsmoking public. Tobacco sales to those younger than 21 years account for just 2% of total tobacco sales, yet produce 90% of new smokers. The short-term effect on small business of raising the minimum age to purchase would be minimal. Small businesses will have time to adapt to the decrease in tobacco sales as fewer youth grow up nicotine addicted. Raising the minimum age to purchase of tobacco and nicotine products to 21 years, combined with enforcement of those restrictions, will help protect future generations from a lifetime of tobacco dependence and associated morbidity. These regulations should apply to all tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems. Respiratory health care providers should educate their local, state, and federal policy makers on the importance of Tobacco 21.

  7. Impact of tobacco tax and price policies on tobacco use in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They will also look at and brand switching and quitting behaviors. Once the estimates of price elasticity are obtained, the study will simulate the impact of cigarette tax/price increases on cigarette consumption, government tax revenue, tobacco industry gross revenue, and tobacco-related employment. Additional simulations ...

  8. The ‘state’ of tobacco: Perceptions of tobacco among Appalachian youth in Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy L. Hart

    2018-01-01

    Youth participants described a deeply rooted tobacco culture, which they believed was unlikely to change. Additional studies and health education efforts are needed in these rural communities. Further, stricter enforcement of tobacco sales and marketing restrictions may be helpful in protecting this vulnerable population.

  9. Tobacco Marketing Receptivity and Other Tobacco Product Use Among Young Adult Bar Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lisha, Nadra E; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-12-01

    Use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, hookah, cigarillo, and e-cigarettes) is increasing, particularly among young adults, and there are few regulations on marketing for these products. We examined the associations between tobacco marketing receptivity and other tobacco product (OTP) use among young adult bar patrons (aged 18-26 years). Time-location sampling was used to collect cross-sectional surveys from 7,540 young adult bar patrons from January 2012 through March of 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in 2015 examined if tobacco marketing receptivity was associated (1) with current (past 30 day) OTP use controlling for demographic factors and (2) with dual/poly use among current cigarette smokers (n = 3,045), controlling for demographics and nicotine dependence. Among the entire sample of young adult bar patrons (Mean age  = 23.7, standard deviation = 1.8; 48.1% female), marketing receptivity was consistently associated with current use of all OTP including smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08-3.16, p marketing receptivity was significantly associated with use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.22-2.18, p marketing receptivity. Efforts to limit tobacco marketing should address OTP in addition to cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tobacco marketing receptivity and other tobacco product use among young adult bar patrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lisha, Nadra E.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, hookah, cigarillo, e-cigarettes) is increasing, particularly among young adults, and there are few regulations on marketing for these products. We examined the associations between tobacco marketing receptivity and other tobacco product (OTP) use among young adult bar patrons (aged 18-26 years). Methods Time-location sampling was used to collect cross-sectional surveys from 7,540 young adult bar patrons from January 2012 through March of 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in 2015 examined if tobacco marketing receptivity was associated (1) with current (past 30 day) OTP use controlling for demographic factors, and (2) with dual/poly use among current cigarette smokers (n=3,045), controlling for demographics and nicotine dependence. Results Among the entire sample of young adult bar patrons (Mage=23.7, SD=1.8; 48.1% female), marketing receptivity was consistently associated with current use of all OTP including smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 2.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.90-3.27, pmarketing receptivity was significantly associated with use of smokeless tobacco (AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.98, pmarketing receptivity. Efforts to limit tobacco marketing should address OTP in addition to cigarettes. PMID:27707516

  11. Adult tobacco cessation in Cambodia: I. Determinants of quitting tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Job, Jayakaran S; Batech, Michael; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    This study determined factors associated with quitting tobacco in Cambodia, a country with a high prevalence of men who smoke and women who use smokeless tobacco. As part of a nationwide survey, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 5145 current and 447 former tobacco users who had quit for ≥ 2 years. Determinants of quitting in multivariate analyses were age >48 years, age at initiation >25 years, ≥ 7 years of education, income ≥ 1 US dollar per day, professional (odds ratio [OR] = 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-5.01) or labor (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.10-3.56) occupations, and heart disease (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.10, 3.42). Smokeless tobacco users were 10-fold less likely to quit (OR = 0.10; 95% = CI 0.05-0.20) than smokers. In conclusion, tobacco cessation among Cambodians was lower than in nations with decades of comprehensive tobacco control policies. Tobacco cessation programs and policies should include all forms of tobacco and target young to middle-aged users before onset of disease and premature death.

  12. Introducing oral tobacco for tobacco harm reduction: what are the main obstacles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohadana Abraham

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the number of smokers worldwide currently on the rise, the regular failure of smokers to give up their tobacco addiction, the direct role of smoke (and, to a much lesser extent, nicotine in most tobacco-related diseases, and the availability of less toxic (but still addictive oral tobacco products, the use of oral tobacco in lieu of smoking for tobacco harm reduction (HR merits assessment. Instead of focusing on the activity itself, HR focuses on the risks related to the activity. Currently, tobacco HR is controversial, generally not discussed, and consequently, poorly evaluated. In this paper, we try to pinpoint some of the main reasons for this lack of interest or reluctance to carry out or fund this type of research. In this paper we deal with the following issues: the status of nicotine in society, the reluctance of the mainstream anti-tobacco lobby toward the HR approach, the absence of smokers from the debate, the lack of information disseminated to the general population and politicians, the need to protect young people, the role of physicians, the future of HR research, and the role of tobacco companies.

  13. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. 132 documents relevant to the topic were reviewed. TMD efforts were created to advertise cigarettes after advertising restrictions on direct advertising were imposed in 1982. To build public credibility the tobacco companies set up small companies and projected them as entities independent of tobacco. Each brand selected an activity or event such as music, travel, fashion, and sports that best suited its image. RJ Reynolds sponsored music events to advertise its Salem brand while Philip Morris used Marlboro World of Sports since advertising restrictions prevented the use of the Marlboro man in broadcast media. Despite a ban on tobacco advertisements in the mass media, tobacco companies were the top advertisers in the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The media's dependence on advertising revenue and support from the ruling elite played a part in delaying efforts to ban indirect advertising. Advertising is crucial for the tobacco industry. When faced with an advertising ban they created ways to circumvent it, such as TMDs.

  15. Sneak Peek into Tobacco Habits and Associated Insidious Oral Lesions in an Odisha Sample Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shibani; Shenoy, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in various forms, including with Areca nut, causes several potentially malignant disorders. Many lesions may transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma. Although patients may be aware of the hazards of tobacco habits, the lesions by themselves are insidious in nature resulting in failure of patients to present to general dentists/specialists at early stages. Our aim was to study the types of habits prevalent in the region of Rourkela in Orissa and to assess the insidious nature of the lesions associated with these habits. Not many studies have been done from this part of India. A camp was conducted for habitual users of tobacco and its products, Areca nut and other mixed habit users. A thorough history was taken of the type, duration and frequency of habits, symptoms of patients along with clinical examination by a single examiner. The data was entered in detail into an excel sheet and analysed. 54.7% had lesions and 60.9 % of them were asymptomatic and rest had mild burning sensation while eating. There was a very low awareness of the presence of lesions among the patients. There is a need to spread the awareness of the ill effects of the tobacco and other associated habits far and wide and more importantly educate the general public on the appearance of associated lesions as these are almost always insidious in nature. The patients can self-examine, detect lesions early when present and approach the dentist at the earliest opportunity.

  16. Overcoming Intrinsic Restriction Enzyme Barriers Enhances Transformation Efficiency in Arthrospira platensis C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeamton, Wattana; Dulsawat, Sudarat; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Vonshak, Avigad; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon

    2017-04-01

    The development of a reliable genetic transformation system for Arthrospira platensis has been a long-term goal, mainly for those trying either to improve its performance in large-scale cultivation systems or to enhance its value as food and feed additives. However, so far, most of the attempts to develop such a transformation system have had limited success. In this study, an efficient and stable transformation system for A. platensis C1 was successfully developed. Based on electroporation and transposon techniques, exogenous DNA could be transferred to and stably maintained in the A. platensis C1 genome. Most strains of Arthrospira possess strong restriction barriers, hampering the development of a gene transfer system for this group of cyanobacteria. By using a type I restriction inhibitor and liposomes to protect the DNA from nuclease digestion, the transformation efficiency was significantly improved. The transformants were able to grow on a selective medium for more than eight passages, and the transformed DNA could be detected from the stable transformants. We propose that the intrinsic endonuclease enzymes, particularly the type I restriction enzyme, in A. platensis C1 play an important role in the transformation efficiency of this industrial important cyanobacterium. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Patricia; Cruz, Tess Boley; Tsai, Kai-Ya; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Pattarroyo, Monica; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-09-11

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites. This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco product category and data from all website visits (n = 699) were analyzed. Adult smokers (n=32) coded websites during a one-year period, indicating whether or not they observed any of 53 marketing themes, seven interactive activities, or five external links to social media sites. Most (58%) websites required online registration before entering, however e-cigarette websites used click-through age verification. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature themes related to "party" lifestyle, and e-cigarette websites were much more likely to feature themes related to harm reduction. Cigarette sites featured greater levels of interactive content compared to other tobacco products. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature activities related to events and music. Compared to cigarette sites, both cigar and e-cigarette sites were more likely to direct visitors to external social media sites. Marketing methods and strategies normalize tobacco use by providing website visitors with positive themes combined with interactive content, and is an area of future research. Moreover, all tobacco products under federal regulatory authority should be required to use more stringent age verification gates. Findings indicate the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should require brand websites of all tobacco products under its regulatory authority use more stringent age verification gates by requiring all visitors be at least 18 years

  18. Tobacco imagery in video games: ratings and gamer recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-09-01

    To assess whether tobacco content found in video games was appropriately labelled for tobacco-related content by the Entertainment and Software Ratings Board (ESRB). Sixty-five gamer participants (self-identified age range 13-50) were interviewed in-person (n=25) or online (n=40) and asked (A) to list favourite games and (B) to name games that they could recall containing tobacco content. The ESRB database was searched for all games mentioned to ascertain whether they had been assigned tobacco-related content descriptors. Games were independently assessed for tobacco content by examining user-created game wiki sites and watching YouTube videos of gameplay. Games with tobacco-related ESRB content descriptors and/or with tobacco imagery verified by researchers were considered to contain tobacco content. Games identified by participants as including tobacco but lacking verifiable tobacco content were treated as not containing tobacco content. Participants recalled playing 140 unique games, of which 118 were listed in the ESRB database. Participants explicitly recalled tobacco content in 31% (37/118) of the games, of which 94% (35/37) included independently verified tobacco content. Only 8% (9/118) of the games had received ESRB tobacco-related content descriptors, but researchers verified that 42% (50/118) contained such content; 42% (49/118) of games were rated 'M' for mature (content deemed appropriate for ages 17+). Of these, 76% (37/49) contained verified tobacco content; however, only 4% (2/49) received ESRB tobacco-related content descriptors. Gamers are exposed to tobacco imagery in many video games. The ESRB is not a reliable source for determining whether video games contain tobacco imagery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Tobacco commerce on the internet: a threat to comprehensive tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    COHEN, J.; SARABIA, V.; ASHLEY, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Although internet use continues to increase and e-commerce sales are expected to exceed US$1 trillion by the end of 2001, there have been few assessments in the literature regarding the implications of this medium for tobacco control efforts. This commentary explores the challenges that the internet may pose to the key components of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, and pinpoints potential approaches for addressing these challenges. Four key challenges that the internet presents for tobacco control are identified: unrestricted sales to minors; cheaper cigarettes through tax avoidance and smuggling; unfettered advertising, marketing and promotion; and continued normalisation of the tobacco industry and its products. Potential strategies for addressing these challenges include international tobacco control agreements, national and state regulation, and legal remedies.

 PMID:11740029

  20. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.