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Sample records for stably transformed arabidopsis

  1. Glufosinate ammonium selection of transformed Arabidopsis.

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    Weigel, Detlef; Glazebrook, Jane

    2006-12-01

    INTRODUCTIONOne of the most commonly used markers for the selection of transgenic Arabidopsis is resistance to glufosinate ammonium, an herbicide that is sold under a variety of trade names including Basta and Finale. Resistance to glufosinate ammonium is conferred by the bacterial bialophos resistance gene (BAR) encoding the enzyme phosphinotricin acetyl transferase (PAT). This protocol describes the use of glufosinate ammonium to select transformed Arabidopsis plants. The major advantage of glufosinate ammonium selection is that it can be performed on plants growing in soil and does not require the use of sterile techniques.

  2. [Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) secretory expression vector maintained stably in Pro3+ transformants in rich medium].

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    Xie, H Y; Tang, Y; Jiang, W D; He, H Y; Liu, M; Kuang, D R

    2000-01-01

    A yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) secretory expression vector containing PRO3 gene was constructed (pCBy310). beta HCG(Human choriogonadotropin beta subunit)-cDNA was inserted into pCBy310 to form a recombinant plasmid pCBy314. Since yeast proline auxotroph will not survive in rich medium (YPD), YPD could be used as a selection pressure, and pCBy314 could be maintained mitotically stable in transformants of yeast Pro3- auxotroph (MB299-7A) in rich medium. At an improved, yet not optimized cultural condition, the expression of beta HCG in culture medium was 650 micrograms/L. Our results showed not only that YPD could be used as a selection medium, but also that yeast grew better in YPD so as to increase the gene expression product, and that the component of YPD was simple and cheap. Our data suggested that PRO genes might be used widely in constructing vectors to clone and express foreign genes in yeast so that rich medium can be used as a selection pressure for direct selection.

  3. Arabidopsis transformation with large bacterial artificial chromosomes.

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    Alonso, Jose M; Stepanova, Anna N

    2014-01-01

    The study of a gene's function requires, in many cases, the ability to reintroduce the gene of interest or its modified version back into the organism of choice. One potential caveat of this approach is that not only the coding region but also the regulatory sequences of a gene should be included in the corresponding transgenic construct. Even in species with well-annotated genomes, such as Arabidopsis, it is nearly impossible to predict which sequences are responsible for the proper expression of a gene. One way to circumvent this problem is to utilize a large fragment of genomic DNA that contains the coding region of the gene of interest and at least 5-10 kb of flanking genomic sequences. To facilitate these types of experiments, libraries harboring large genomic DNA fragments in binary vectors have been constructed for Arabidopsis and several other plant species. Working with these large clones, however, requires some special precautions. In this chapter, we describe the experimental procedures and extra cautionary measures involved in the identification of the clone containing the gene of interest, its transfer from E. coli to Agrobacterium, and the generation, verification, and analysis of the corresponding transgenic plants.

  4. SPARC Expression Is Selectively Suppressed in Tumor Initiating Urospheres Isolated from As+3- and Cd+2-Transformed Human Urothelial Cells (UROtsa Stably Transfected with SPARC.

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    Andrea Slusser-Nore

    Full Text Available This laboratory previously analyzed the expression of SPARC in the parental UROtsa cells, their arsenite (As(+3 and cadmium (Cd(+2-transformed cell lines, and tumor transplants generated from the transformed cells. It was demonstrated that SPARC expression was down-regulated to background levels in Cd(+2-and As(+3-transformed UROtsa cells and tumor transplants compared to parental cells. In the present study, the transformed cell lines were stably transfected with a SPARC expression vector to determine the effect of SPARC expression on the ability of the cells to form tumors in immune-compromised mice.Real time PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to define the expression of SPARC in the As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed cell lines, and urospheres isolated from these cell lines, following their stable transfection with an expression vector containing the SPARC open reading frame (ORF. Transplantation of the cultured cells into immune-compromised mice by subcutaneous injection was used to assess the effect of SPARC expression on tumors generated from the above cell lines and urospheres.It was shown that the As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed UROtsa cells could undergo stable transfection with a SPARC expression vector and that the transfected cells expressed both SPARC mRNA and secreted protein. Tumors formed from these SPARC-transfected cells were shown to have no expression of SPARC. Urospheres isolated from cultures of the SPARC-transfected As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed cell lines were shown to have only background expression of SPARC. Urospheres from both the non-transfected and SPARC-transfected cell lines were tumorigenic and thus fit the definition for a population of tumor initiating cells.Tumor initiating cells isolated from SPARC-transfected As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed cell lines have an inherent mechanism to suppress the expression of SPARC mRNA.

  5. A rapid and robust method of identifying transformed Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings following floral dip transformation

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    Gray John C

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral dip method of transformation by immersion of inflorescences in a suspension of Agrobacterium is the method of choice for Arabidopsis transformation. The presence of a marker, usually antibiotic- or herbicide-resistance, allows identification of transformed seedlings from untransformed seedlings. Seedling selection is a lengthy process which does not always lead to easily identifiable transformants. Selection for kanamycin-, phosphinothricin- and hygromycin B-resistance commonly takes 7–10 d and high seedling density and fungal contamination may result in failure to recover transformants. Results A method for identifying transformed seedlings in as little as 3.25 d has been developed. Arabidopsis T1 seeds obtained after floral dip transformation are plated on 1% agar containing MS medium and kanamycin, phosphinothricin or hygromycin B, as appropriate. After a 2-d stratification period, seeds are subjected to a regime of 4–6 h light, 48 h dark and 24 h light (3.25 d. Kanamycin-resistant and phosphinothricin-resistant seedlings are easily distinguished from non-resistant seedlings by green expanded cotyledons whereas non-resistant seedlings have pale unexpanded cotyledons. Seedlings grown on hygromycin B differ from those grown on kanamycin and phosphinothricin as both resistant and non-resistant seedlings are green. However, hygromycin B-resistant seedlings are easily identified as they have long hypocotyls (0.8–1.0 cm whereas non-resistant seedlings have short hypocotyls (0.2–0.4 cm. Conclusion The method presented here is an improvement on current selection methods as it allows quicker identification of transformed seedlings: transformed seedlings are easily discernable from non-transformants in as little as 3.25 d in comparison to the 7–10 d required for selection using current protocols.

  6. Dielectric Spectroscopy and Optical Density Measurement for the Online Monitoring and Control of Recombinant Protein Production in Stably Transformed Drosophila melanogaster S2 Cells

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    Jan Zitzmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of recombinant proteins in bioreactors requires real-time process monitoring and control to increase process efficiency and to meet the requirements for a comprehensive audit trail. The combination of optical near-infrared turbidity sensors and dielectric spectroscopy provides diverse system information because different measurement principles are exploited. We used this combination of techniques to monitor and control the growth and protein production of stably transformed Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells expressing antimicrobial proteins. The in situ monitoring system was suitable in batch, fed-batch and perfusion modes, and was particularly useful for the online determination of cell concentration, specific growth rate (µ and cell viability. These data were used to pinpoint the optimal timing of the key transitional events (induction and harvest during batch and fed-batch cultivation, achieving a total protein yield of ~25 mg at the 1-L scale. During cultivation in perfusion mode, the OD880 signal was used to control the bleed line in order to maintain a constant cell concentration of 5 × 107 cells/mL, thus establishing a turbidostat/permittistat culture. With this setup, a five-fold increase in productivity was achieved and 130 mg of protein was recovered after 2 days of induced perfusion. Our results demonstrate that both sensors are suitable for advanced monitoring and integration into online control strategies.

  7. Improvements in the transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana C24 leaf-discs by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

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    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, P J

    1996-01-01

    We report here an efficient Arabidopsis leafdisc transformation protocol yielding an average transformation frequency of 1.6 transgenic shoots per leaf explant 4 weeks after the bacterial infection period. Subsequent cultivation in vitro is such that a high percentage (85-90%) of the primary tran...

  8. Handling Arabidopsis plants: growth, preservation of seeds, transformation, and genetic crosses.

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    Rivero, Luz; Scholl, Randy; Holomuzki, Nicholas; Crist, Deborah; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Growing healthy plants is essential for the advancement of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) research. Over the last 20 years, the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC) has collected and developed a series of best-practice protocols, some of which are presented in this chapter. Arabidopsis can be grown in a variety of locations, growth media, and environmental conditions. Most laboratory accessions and their mutant or transgenic derivatives flower after 4-5 weeks and set seeds after 7-8 weeks, under standard growth conditions (soil, long day, 23 ºC). Some mutant genotypes, natural accessions, and Arabidopsis relatives require strict control of growth conditions best provided by growth rooms, chambers, or incubators. Other lines can be grown in less-controlled greenhouse settings. Although the majority of lines can be grown in soil, certain experimental purposes require utilization of sterile solid or liquid growth media. These include the selection of primary transformants, identification of homozygous lethal individuals in a segregating population, or bulking of a large amount of plant material. The importance of controlling, observing, and recording growth conditions is emphasized and appropriate equipment required to perform monitoring of these conditions is listed. Proper conditions for seed harvesting and preservation, as well as seed quality control, are also described. Plant transformation and genetic crosses, two of the methods that revolutionized Arabidopsis genetics, are introduced as well.

  9. Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, G.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Pedersen, Jan W.

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite profiling study has been carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Wassilewskija and a series of transgenic lines of the ecotype transformed with a CHS (chalcone synthase) antisense construct. Compound identifications by LC/MS and H-1 NMR are discussed. The glucosinolate...

  10. Arabidopsis

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    Khare, Deepa; Choi, Hyunju; Huh, Sung Un; Bassin, Barbara; Kim, Jeongsik; Martinoia, Enrico; Sohn, Kee Hoon; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Youngsook

    2017-07-11

    Plant pathogens cause huge yield losses. Plant defense often depends on toxic secondary metabolites that inhibit pathogen growth. Because most secondary metabolites are also toxic to the plant, specific transporters are needed to deliver them to the pathogens. To identify the transporters that function in plant defense, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana mutants of full-size ABCG transporters for hypersensitivity to sclareol, an antifungal compound. We found that atabcg34 mutants were hypersensitive to sclareol and to the necrotrophic fungi Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea AtABCG34 expression was induced by A brassicicola inoculation as well as by methyl-jasmonate, a defense-related phytohormone, and AtABCG34 was polarly localized at the external face of the plasma membrane of epidermal cells of leaves and roots. atabcg34 mutants secreted less camalexin, a major phytoalexin in A thaliana , whereas plants overexpressing AtABCG34 secreted more camalexin to the leaf surface and were more resistant to the pathogen. When treated with exogenous camalexin, atabcg34 mutants exhibited hypersensitivity, whereas BY2 cells expressing AtABCG34 exhibited improved resistance. Analyses of natural Arabidopsis accessions revealed that AtABCG34 contributes to the disease resistance in naturally occurring genetic variants, albeit to a small extent. Together, our data suggest that AtABCG34 mediates camalexin secretion to the leaf surface and thereby prevents A brassicicola infection.

  11. An improved method for preparing Agrobacterium cells that simplifies the Arabidopsis transformation protocol

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    Ülker Bekir

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Agrobacterium vacuum (Bechtold et al 1993 and floral-dip (Clough and Bent 1998 are very efficient methods for generating transgenic Arabidopsis plants. These methods allow plant transformation without the need for tissue culture. Large volumes of bacterial cultures grown in liquid media are necessary for both of these transformation methods. This limits the number of transformations that can be done at a given time due to the need for expensive large shakers and limited space on them. Additionally, the bacterial colonies derived from solid media necessary for starting these liquid cultures often fail to grow in such large volumes. Therefore the optimum stage of plant material for transformation is often missed and new plant material needs to be grown. Results To avoid problems associated with large bacterial liquid cultures, we investigated whether bacteria grown on plates are also suitable for plant transformation. We demonstrate here that bacteria grown on plates can be used with similar efficiency for transforming plants even after one week of storage at 4°C. This makes it much easier to synchronize Agrobacterium and plants for transformation. DNA gel blot analysis was carried out on the T1 plants surviving the herbicide selection and demonstrated that the surviving plants are indeed transgenic. Conclusion The simplified method works as efficiently as the previously reported protocols and significantly reduces the workload, cost and time. Additionally, the protocol reduces the risk of large scale contaminations involving GMOs. Most importantly, many more independent transformations per day can be performed using this modified protocol.

  12. Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh

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    Bulbul AHMED

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

  13. Transformation of a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant illustrates gibberellin hormone physiology and the function of a Green Revolution gene.

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    Molina, Isabel; Weber, Katrin; Dos Santos, Déborah Y Alves Cursino; Ohlrogge, John

    2009-05-01

    The introduction of dwarfing traits into crops was a major factor in increased grain yields during the "Green Revolution." In most cases those traits were the consequence of altered synthesis or response to the gibberellin (GA) plant hormones. Our current understanding of GA synthesis and physiology has been facilitated by the characterization of mutants. To introduce concepts about GA hormone physiology and plant transformation in an undergraduate laboratory course we have used ga5, a semi-dwarf Arabidopsis mutant with reduced activity of GA 20-oxidase. In this laboratory exercise, Arabidopsis ga5 mutant plants are transformed by the floral-dip method using Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying plasmid constructs conferring kanamycin resistance and containing the GA5 gene. Within 4 weeks, seeds of transformed plants can be easily screened by antibiotic resistance on plates. After transfer to soil the dwarf mutant plants transformed with a wild-type version of the gene show normal size. In addition to offering a visual understanding of the effect of GA on stem elongation, students learn additional techniques in this experiment, including PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. This experiment is cost effective and can be completed within a 4-month term. Copyright © 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Mitochondrial Porin Isoform AtVDAC1 Regulates the Competence of Arabidopsis thaliana to Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation.

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    Kwon, Tackmin

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in plants depends on the virulence of Agrobacterium strains, the plant tissue culture conditions, and the susceptibility of host plants. Understanding the molecular interactions between Agrobacterium and host plant cells is crucial when manipulating the susceptibility of recalcitrant crop plants and protecting orchard trees from crown gall disease. It was discovered that Arabidopsis voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (atvdac1) mutant has drastic effects on Agrobacterium-mediated tumorigenesis and growth developmental phenotypes, and that these effects are dependent on a Ws-0 genetic background. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis vdac1 mutants and yeast porin1-deficient strain with members of the AtVDAC gene family revealed that AtVDAC1 is required for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and there is weak functional redundancy between AtVDAC1 and AtVDAC3, which is independent of porin activity. Furthermore, atvdac1 mutants were deficient in transient and stable transformation by Agrobacterium, suggesting that AtVDAC1 is involved in the early stages of Agrobacterium infection prior to transferred-DNA (T-DNA) integration. Transgenic plants overexpressing AtVDAC1 not only complemented the phenotypes of the atvdac1 mutant, but also showed high efficiency of transient T-DNA gene expression; however, the efficiency of stable transformation was not affected. Moreover, the effect of phytohormone treatment on competence to Agrobacterium was compromised in atvdac1 mutants. These data indicate that AtVDAC1 regulates the competence of Arabidopsis to Agrobacterium infection.

  15. Arabidopsis RETICULON-LIKE3 (RTNLB3) and RTNLB8 Participate in Agrobacterium-Mediated Plant Transformation

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    Huang, Fan-Chen; Fu, Bi-Ju; Liu, Yin-Tzu; Chang, Yao-Ren; Chi, Shin-Fei; Chien, Pei-Ru; Huang, Si-Chi

    2018-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens can genetically transform various eukaryotic cells because of the presence of a resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. During infection, a defined region of the Ti plasmid, transfer DNA (T-DNA), is transferred from bacteria into plant cells and causes plant cells to abnormally synthesize auxin and cytokinin, which results in crown gall disease. T-DNA and several virulence (Vir) proteins are secreted through a type IV secretion system (T4SS) composed of T-pilus and a transmembrane protein complex. Three members of Arabidopsis reticulon-like B (RTNLB) proteins, RTNLB1, 2, and 4, interact with VirB2, the major component of T-pilus. Here, we have identified that other RTNLB proteins, RTNLB3 and 8, interact with VirB2 in vitro. Root-based A. tumefaciens transformation assays with Arabidopsis rtnlb3, or rtnlb5-10 single mutants showed that the rtnlb8 mutant was resistant to A. tumefaciens infection. In addition, rtnlb3 and rtnlb8 mutants showed reduced transient transformation efficiency in seedlings. RTNLB3- or 8 overexpression transgenic plants showed increased susceptibility to A. tumefaciens and Pseudomonas syringae infection. RTNLB1-4 and 8 transcript levels differed in roots, rosette leaves, cauline leaves, inflorescence, flowers, and siliques of wild-type plants. Taken together, RTNLB3 and 8 may participate in A. tumefaciens infection but may have different roles in plants. PMID:29495267

  16. RNA interference in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed roots of Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatula

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    Limpens, E.H.M.; Ramos, J.; Franken, C.; Raz, V.; Compaan, B.; Franssen, H.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2004-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful reverse genetic tool to study gene function. The data presented here show that Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated RNAi is a fast and effective tool to study genes involved in root biology. The Arabidopsis gene KOJAK, involved in root hair development, was

  17. Stably-stratified wall-bounded turbulence

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    Hadi Sichani, Pejman; Zonta, Francesco; Obabko, Aleksandr; Soldati, Alfredo

    2017-11-01

    Stably-stratified (bottom-up cooling) turbulent flows are encountered in a number of industrial applications, environmental processes and geophysical flows. Turbulent entrainment and mixing across density interfaces in terrestrial water bodies (oceans, lakes and rivers) and in industrial heat transfer equipments are just some important examples of stably-stratified flows. In this work we use Direct Numerical Simulation to investigate the fundamental physics of stably-stratified channel turbulence under Boussinesq and Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) conditions. Compared to the neutrally-buoyant case, in the stably-stratified case active turbulence survives only in the near-wall region and coexists with internal gravity waves (IGW) moving in the core region of the channel. This induces a general suppression of turbulence levels, momentum and buoyancy fluxes. Our results show also that NOB effects may be important when the flow is subject to large temperature gradients. The most striking feature observed in case of NOB conditions is the generation of a strong flow asymmetry with possible local flow laminarization in the near wall region.

  18. Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhi; Zhang Zhaoshun; Cui Guixiang; Xu Chunxiao

    2011-01-01

    Stably stratified turbulence is a common phenomenon in atmosphere and ocean. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating homogeneous stably stratified turbulence numerically at Reynolds number Re = uL/v = 10 2 ∼10 3 and Froude number Fr = u/NL = 10 −2 ∼10 0 in which u is root mean square of velocity fluctuations, L is integral scale and N is Brunt-Vaïsälä frequency. Three sets of computation cases are designed with different initial conditions, namely isotropic turbulence, Taylor Green vortex and internal waves, to investigate the statistical properties from different origins. The computed horizontal and vertical energy spectra are consistent with observation in atmosphere and ocean when the composite parameter ReFr 2 is greater than O(1). It has also been found in this paper that the stratification turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominated in the developed stably stratified turbulence.

  19. The FAST technique: a simplified Agrobacterium-based transformation method for transient gene expression analysis in seedlings of Arabidopsis and other plant species

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    von Arnim Albrecht G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant genome sequencing has resulted in the identification of a large number of uncharacterized genes. To investigate these unknown gene functions, several transient transformation systems have been developed as quick and convenient alternatives to the lengthy transgenic assay. These transient assays include biolistic bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation, each having advantages and disadvantages depending on the research purposes. Results We present a novel transient assay based on cocultivation of young Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings with Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the presence of a surfactant which does not require any dedicated equipment and can be carried out within one week from sowing seeds to protein analysis. This Fast Agro-mediated Seedling Transformation (FAST was used successfully to express a wide variety of constructs driven by different promoters in Arabidopsis seedling cotyledons (but not roots in diverse genetic backgrounds. Localizations of three previously uncharacterized proteins were identified by cotransformation with fluorescent organelle markers. The FAST procedure requires minimal handling of seedlings and was also adaptable for use in 96-well plates. The high transformation efficiency of the FAST procedure enabled protein detection from eight transformed seedlings by immunoblotting. Protein-protein interaction, in this case HY5 homodimerization, was readily detected in FAST-treated seedlings with Förster resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence complementation techniques. Initial tests demonstrated that the FAST procedure can also be applied to other dicot and monocot species, including tobacco, tomato, rice and switchgrass. Conclusion The FAST system provides a rapid, efficient and economical assay of gene function in intact plants with minimal manual handling and without dedicated device. This method is potentially

  20. Chemical fingerprinting of Arabidopsis using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic approaches.

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    Gorzsás, András; Sundberg, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a fast, sensitive, inexpensive, and nondestructive technique for chemical profiling of plant materials. In this chapter we discuss the instrumental setup, the basic principles of analysis, and the possibilities for and limitations of obtaining qualitative and semiquantitative information by FT-IR spectroscopy. We provide detailed protocols for four fully customizable techniques: (1) Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS): a sensitive and high-throughput technique for powders; (2) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy: a technique that requires no sample preparation and can be used for solid samples as well as for cell cultures; (3) microspectroscopy using a single element (SE) detector: a technique used for analyzing sections at low spatial resolution; and (4) microspectroscopy using a focal plane array (FPA) detector: a technique for rapid chemical profiling of plant sections at cellular resolution. Sample preparation, measurement, and data analysis steps are listed for each of the techniques to help the user collect the best quality spectra and prepare them for subsequent multivariate analysis.

  1. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance of the transformants yeast cells and the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a novel durum wheat catalase.

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    Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-12-01

    Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The efficiency of Arabidopsis thaliana floral dip transformation is determined not only by the Agrobacterium strain used but also by the physiology and the ecotype of the dipped plant.

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    Ghedira, Rim; De Buck, Sylvie; Nolf, Jonah; Depicker, Ann

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the chromosomal background of different Agrobacterium strains on floral dip transformation frequency, eight wild-type Agrobacterium strains, provided by Laboratorium voor Microbiologie Gent (LMG) and classified in different genomic groups, were compared with the commonly used Agrobacterium strains C58C1 Rif(r) (pMP90) and LBA4404 in Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) and C24 ecotypes. The C58C1 Rif(r) chromosomal background in combination with the pMP90 virulence plasmid showed high Col-0 floral dip transformation frequencies (0.76 to 1.57%). LMG201, which is genetically close to the Agrobacterium C58 strain, with the same virulence plasmid showed comparable or even higher transformation frequencies (1.22 to 2.28%), whereas the LBA4404 strain displayed reproducibly lower transformation frequencies (Agrobacterium chromosomal backgrounds had transformation frequencies between those of the C58C1 Rif(r) (pMP90) and LBA4404 reference strains. None of the strains could transform the C24 ecotype with a frequency higher than 0.1%. Strikingly, all Arabidopsis Col-0 floral dip transformation experiments showed a high transformation variability from plant to plant (even more than 50-fold) within and across the performed biological repeats for all analyzed Agrobacterium strains. Therefore, the physiology of the plant and, probably, the availability of competent flowers to be transformed determine, to a large extent, floral dip transformation frequencies.

  3. Spatiotemporal relationships between growth and microtubule orientation as revealed in living root cells of Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with green-fluorescent-protein gene construct GFP-MBD

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    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants were transformed with GFP-MBD (J. Marc et al., Plant Cell 10: 1927-1939, 1998) under the control of a constitutive (35S) or copper-inducible promoter. GFP-specific fluorescence distributions, levels, and persistence were determined and found to vary with age, tissue type, transgenic line, and individual plant. With the exception of an increased frequency of abnormal roots of 35S GFP-MBD plants grown on kanamycin-containing media, expression of GFP-MBD does not appear to affect plant phenotype. The number of leaves, branches, bolts, and siliques as well as overall height, leaf size, and seed set are similar between wild-type and transgenic plants as is the rate of root growth. Thus, we conclude that the transgenic plants can serve as a living model system in which the dynamic behavior of microtubules can be visualized. Confocal microscopy was used to simultaneously monitor growth and microtubule behavior within individual cells as they passed through the elongation zone of the Arabidopsis root. Generally, microtubules reoriented from transverse to oblique or longitudinal orientations as growth declined. Microtubule reorientation initiated at the ends of the cell did not necessarily occur simultaneously in adjacent neighboring cells and did not involve complete disintegration and repolymerization of microtubule arrays. Although growth rates correlated with microtubule reorientation, the two processes were not tightly coupled in terms of their temporal relationships, suggesting that other factor(s) may be involved in regulating both events. Additionally, microtubule orientation was more defined in cells whose growth was accelerating and less stringent in cells whose growth was decelerating, indicating that microtubule-orienting factor(s) may be sensitive to growth acceleration, rather than growth per se.

  4. TRANSFORMATION

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    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  5. Causal boundary for stably causal space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, I.

    1987-12-01

    The usual boundary constructions for space-times often yield an unsatisfactory boundary set. This problem is reviewed and a new solution is proposed. An explicit identification rule is given on the set of the ideal points of the space-time. This construction leads to a satisfactory boundary point set structure for stably causal space-times. The topological properties of the resulting causal boundary construction are examined. For the stably causal space-times each causal curve has a unique endpoint on the boundary set according to the extended Alexandrov topology. The extension of the space-time through the boundary is discussed. To describe the singularities the defined boundary sets have to be separated into two disjoint sets. (D.Gy.) 8 refs

  6. TRANSFORMER

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    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  7. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  8. Transformation of tobacco and Arabidopsis plants with Stellaria media genes encoding novel hevein-like peptides increases their resistance to fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Shukurov, Rahim; D Voblikova, Vera; Nikonorova, Alexandra K; Komakhin, Roman A; V Komakhina, Vera; A Egorov, Tsezi; V Grishin, Eugene; V Babakov, Alexey

    2012-04-01

    Two novel antifungal hevein-like peptides, SmAMP1.1a and SmAMP2.2a, were previously isolated from seeds of Stellaria media. It has been established that these peptides accumulate in this weed as a result of proteolysis of two propeptides, pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2. The primary structure of these propeptides is unique; in addition to having a signal peptide and negatively charged C-terminus, each of these structures consists of two hevein-like peptides of different length separated by a space rather than a single peptide. In this work, we demonstrated that the expression of the pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2 genes was tissue-specific and increased substantially under exposure to fungal infection. To elucidate whether S. media has any advantages in defending against phytopathogens due to its unusual structure of pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2, on the basis of the pro-SmAMP1 gene, we created three genetic constructs. Arabidopsis and tobacco plants were subsequently transformed with these constructs. Transgenic plants bearing the full-length pro-SmAMP1 gene exhibited the best resistance to the phytopathogens Bipolaris sorokiniana and Thielaviopsis basicola. The resistance of S. media plants to phytopathogenic fungi was likely due to the fungal-inducible expression of pro-SmAMP1 and pro-SmAMP2 genes, and due to the specific features of the primary structure of the corresponding propeptides. As a result of the processing of these propeptides, two different antimicrobial peptides were released simultaneously. Based on our results, we conclude that the genes for antimicrobial peptides from S. media may be promising genetic tools for the improvement of plant resistance to fungal diseases.

  9. Characterization of new cell line stably expressing CHI3L1 oncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonin V. P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To characterize the immortalized 293 cell line after stable transfection with human oncogene (CHI3L1. Methods. 293 cells, stably transfected with pcDNA3.1_CHI3L1, and 293 cells, stably transfected with pcDNA3.1 as a negative control, were used throughout all experiments. The clones of CHI3L1-expressing 293 cells and 293 cells, transfected with pcDNA3.1, were analyzed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay; analyses of ERK1/2 and AKT activation and their cellular localization were performed with anti-phospho-ERK and anti-phospho-AKT antibodies. Specific activation of MAP and PI3 kinases was measured by densitometric analysis of Western-blot signals. Results. The obtained results show quite modest ability of CHI3L1 to stimulate cell growth and reflect rather an improved cellular plating efficiency of the 293 cells stably transfected with pcDNA3.1_CHI3L1 as compared to the 293 cells transfected with an «empty» vector. ERK1/2 and AKT are activated in the 293_CHI3L1 cells. In these cells phosphorylated ERK1/2 were localized in both cell cytoplasm and nuclei while AKT only in cytoplasm. The 293_CHI3L1 cells differed from the 293 cells, transfected with an «empty» vector, in their size and ability to adhere to the culture plates. Conclusions. The overexpression of CHI3L1 is likely to have an important role in tumorigenesis via a mechanism which involves activation of PI3K and ERK1/2 pathways. The tumors which can be induced by orthotopic implantation of the transformed human cells with overexpressed human oncogene CHI3L1 into the rat brain can be used as a target for anticancer drug development.

  10. Stably Expressed Genes Involved in Basic Cellular Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Wang

    Full Text Available Stably Expressed Genes (SEGs whose expression varies within a narrow range may be involved in core cellular processes necessary for basic functions. To identify such genes, we re-analyzed existing RNA-Seq gene expression profiles across 11 organs at 4 developmental stages (from immature to old age in both sexes of F344 rats (n = 4/group; 320 samples. Expression changes (calculated as the maximum expression / minimum expression for each gene of >19000 genes across organs, ages, and sexes ranged from 2.35 to >109-fold, with a median of 165-fold. The expression of 278 SEGs was found to vary ≤4-fold and these genes were significantly involved in protein catabolism (proteasome and ubiquitination, RNA transport, protein processing, and the spliceosome. Such stability of expression was further validated in human samples where the expression variability of the homologous human SEGs was significantly lower than that of other genes in the human genome. It was also found that the homologous human SEGs were generally less subject to non-synonymous mutation than other genes, as would be expected of stably expressed genes. We also found that knockout of SEG homologs in mouse models was more likely to cause complete preweaning lethality than non-SEG homologs, corroborating the fundamental roles played by SEGs in biological development. Such stably expressed genes and pathways across life-stages suggest that tight control of these processes is important in basic cellular functions and that perturbation by endogenous (e.g., genetics or exogenous agents (e.g., drugs, environmental factors may cause serious adverse effects.

  11. Optimal energy growth in a stably stratified shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sharath; Roy, Anubhab; Bale, Rahul; Iyer, Krithika; Govindarajan, Rama

    2018-02-01

    Transient growth of perturbations by a linear non-modal evolution is studied here in a stably stratified bounded Couette flow. The density stratification is linear. Classical inviscid stability theory states that a parallel shear flow is stable to exponentially growing disturbances if the Richardson number (Ri) is greater than 1/4 everywhere in the flow. Experiments and numerical simulations at higher Ri show however that algebraically growing disturbances can lead to transient amplification. The complexity of a stably stratified shear flow stems from its ability to combine this transient amplification with propagating internal gravity waves (IGWs). The optimal perturbations associated with maximum energy amplification are numerically obtained at intermediate Reynolds numbers. It is shown that in this wall-bounded flow, the three-dimensional optimal perturbations are oblique, unlike in unstratified flow. A partitioning of energy into kinetic and potential helps in understanding the exchange of energies and how it modifies the transient growth. We show that the apportionment between potential and kinetic energy depends, in an interesting manner, on the Richardson number, and on time, as the transient growth proceeds from an optimal perturbation. The oft-quoted stabilizing role of stratification is also probed in the non-diffusive limit in the context of disturbance energy amplification.

  12. A mutation in negative regulator of basal resistance WRKY17 of Arabidopsis increases susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated transient genetic transformation [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/ya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Lacroix

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium is a phytopathogenic bacterium that induces crown gall disease in many plant species by transferring and integrating a segment of its own DNA (T-DNA into its host genome. Whereas Agrobacterium usually does not trigger an extensive defense response in its host plants, it induces the expression of several defense-related genes and activates plant stress reactions. In the complex interplay between Agrobacterium and its host plant, Agrobacterium has evolved to take advantage of these plant defense pathways for its own purpose of advancement of the infection process. For example, Agrobacterium utilizes the host stress response transcriptional regulator VIP1 to facilitate nuclear import and proteasomal uncoating of its T-DNA during genetic transformation of the host cell. In Arabidopsis, the VIP1 gene expression is repressed by WRKY17, a negative regulator of basal resistance to Pseudomonas. Thus, we examined whether WRKY17 is also involved in plant susceptibility to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium. Using reverse genetics, we showed that a wrky17 mutant displays higher expression of the VIP1 gene in roots, but not in shoots. In a root infection assay, the wrky17 mutant plants were hyper-susceptible to Agrobacterium compared to wild type plants. WRKY17, therefore, may act as a positive regulator of Arabidopsis resistance to Agrobacterium. This notion is important for understanding the complex regulation of Agrobacterium-mediated transient genetic transformation; thus, although this paper reports a relatively small set of data that we do not plan to pursue further in our lab, we believe it might be useful for the broad community of plant pathologists and plant biotechnologists.

  13. A mutation in negative regulator of basal resistance WRKY17 of Arabidopsis increases susceptibility to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/no

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Lacroix

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium is a phytopathogenic bacterium that induces crown gall disease in many plant species by transferring and integrating a segment of its own DNA (T-DNA into its host genome. Whereas Agrobacterium usually does not trigger an extensive defense response in its host plants, it induces the expression of several defense-related genes and activates plant stress reactions. In the complex interplay between Agrobacterium and its host plant, Agrobacterium has evolved to take advantage of these plant defense pathways for its own purpose of advancement of the infection process. For example, Agrobacterium utilizes the host stress response transcriptional regulator VIP1 to facilitate nuclear import and proteasomal uncoating of its T-DNA during genetic transformation of the host cell. In Arabidopsis, the VIP1 gene expression is repressed by WRKY17, a negative regulator of basal resistance to Pseudomonas. Thus, we examined whether WRKY17 is also involved in plant susceptibility to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium. Using reverse genetics, we showed that a wrky17 mutant displays higher expression of the VIP1 gene in roots, but not in shoots. In a root infection assay, the wrky17 mutant plants were hyper-susceptible to Agrobacterium compared to wild type plants. WRKY17, therefore, may act as a positive regulator of Arabidopsis resistance to Agrobacterium. This notion is important for understanding the complex regulation of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation; thus, although this paper reports a relatively small set of data that we do not plan to pursue further in our lab, we believe it might be useful for the broad community of plant pathologists and plant biotechnologists.

  14. The expression pattern of the Picea glauca Defensin 1 promoter is maintained in Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating the conservation of signalling pathways between angiosperms and gymnosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Hugo; Lachance, Denis; Pelletier, Gervais; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Solheim, Halvor; Séguin, Armand

    2012-01-01

    A 1149 bp genomic fragment corresponding to the 5' non-coding region of the PgD1 (Picea glauca Defensin 1) gene was cloned, characterized, and compared with all Arabidopsis thaliana defensin promoters. The cloned fragment was found to contain several motifs specific to defence or hormonal response, including a motif involved in the methyl jasmonate reponse, a fungal elicitor responsive element, and TC-rich repeat cis-acting element involved in defence and stress responsiveness. A functional analysis of the PgD1 promoter was performed using the uidA (GUS) reporter system in stably transformed Arabidopsis and white spruce plants. The PgD1 promoter was responsive to jasmonic acid (JA), to infection by fungus and to wounding. In transgenic spruce embryos, GUS staining was clearly restricted to the shoot apical meristem. In Arabidopsis, faint GUS coloration was observed in leaves and flowers and a strong blue colour was observed in guard cells and trichomes. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the PgD1::GUS construct were also infiltrated with the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. It caused a suppression of defensin expression probably resulting from the antagonistic relationship between the pathogen-stimulated salicylic acid pathway and the jasmonic acid pathway. It is therefore concluded that the PgD1 promoter fragment cloned appears to contain most if not all the elements for proper PgD1 expression and that these elements are also recognized in Arabidopsis despite the phylogenetic and evolutionary differences that separates them.

  15. Stably Doped Conducting Polymer Nanoshells by Surface Initiated Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Yoon, Soon Joon; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Tai, Wanyi; O'Donnell, Matthew; Gao, Xiaohu

    2015-12-09

    Despite broad applications ranging from electronics to biomedical sensing and imaging, a long-standing problem of conducting polymers is the poor resistance to dedoping, which directly affects their signature electrical and optical properties. This problem is particularly significant for biomedical uses because of fast leaching of dopant ions in physiological environments. Here, we describe a new approach to engineer multimodal core-shell nanoparticles with a stably doped conductive polymer shell in biological environments. It was achieved by making a densely packed polymer brush rather than changing its molecular structure. Polyaniline (PANI) was used as a model compound due to its concentrated near-infrared (NIR) absorption. It was grafted onto a magnetic nanoparticle via a polydopamine intermediate layer. Remarkably, at pH 7 its conductivity is ca. 2000× higher than conventional PANI nanoshells. Similarly, its NIR absorption is enhanced by 2 orders of magnitude, ideal for photothermal imaging and therapy. Another surprising finding is its nonfouling property, even outperforming polyethylene glycol. This platform technology is also expected to open exciting opportunities in engineering stable conductive materials for electronics, imaging, and sensing.

  16. Persistent human cardiac Na+ currents in stably transfected mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ging Kuo; Russell, Gabriella; Wang, Sho-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Miniature persistent late Na+ currents in cardiomyocytes have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The goals of this study are to establish a stable cell line expressing robust persistent cardiac Na+ currents and to test Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs for selective action against resting and open states. After transient transfection of an inactivation-deficient human cardiac Na+ channel clone (hNav1.5-CW with L409C/A410W double mutations), transfected mammalian HEK293 cells were treated with 1 mg/ml G-418. Individual G-418-resistant colonies were isolated using glass cylinders. One colony with high expression of persistent Na+ currents was subjected to a second colony selection. Cells from this colony remained stable in expressing robust peak Na+ currents of 996 ± 173 pA/pF at +50 mV (n = 20). Persistent late Na+ currents in these cells were clearly visible during a 4-second depolarizing pulse albeit decayed slowly. This slow decay is likely due to slow inactivation of Na+ channels and could be largely eliminated by 5 μM batrachotoxin. Peak cardiac hNav1.5-CW Na+ currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC50 value of 2.27 ± 0.08 μM (n = 6). At clinic relevant concentrations, Class 1 antiarrhythmics are much more selective in blocking persistent late Na+ currents than their peak counterparts, with a selectivity ratio ranging from 80.6 (flecainide) to 3 (disopyramide). We conclude that (1) Class 1 antiarrhythmics differ widely in their resting- vs. open-channel selectivity, and (2) stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing large persistent hNav1.5-CW Na+ currents are suitable for studying as well as screening potent open-channel blockers. PMID:23695971

  17. Dynamics of mixed convective-stably-stratified fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.-A.; Lecoanet, D.; Favier, B.; Le Bars, M.

    2017-09-01

    We study the dynamical regimes of a density-stratified fluid confined between isothermal no-slip top and bottom boundaries (at temperatures Tt and Tb) via direct numerical simulation. The thermal expansion coefficient of the fluid is temperature dependent and chosen such that the fluid density is maximum at the inversion temperature Tb>Ti>Tt . Thus, the lower layer of the fluid is convectively unstable while the upper layer is stably stratified. We show that the characteristics of the convection change significantly depending on the degree of stratification of the stable layer. For strong stable stratification, the convection zone coincides with the fraction of the fluid that is convectively unstable (i.e., where T >Ti ), and convective motions consist of rising and sinking plumes of large density anomaly, as is the case in canonical Rayleigh-Bénard convection; internal gravity waves are generated by turbulent fluctuations in the convective layer and propagate in the upper layer. For weak stable stratification, we demonstrate that a large fraction of the stable fluid (i.e., with temperature T phenomenological description of the transition between the regimes of plume-dominated and entrainment-dominated convection through analysis of the differences in the heat transfer mechanisms, kinetic energy density spectra, and probability density functions for different stratification strengths. Importantly, we find that the effect of the stable layer on the convection decreases only weakly with increasing stratification strength, meaning that the dynamics of the stable layer and convection should be studied self-consistently in a wide range of applications.

  18. The circular F-actin bundles provide a track for turnaround and bidirectional movement of mitochondria in Arabidopsis root hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The movement of organelles in root hairs primarily occurs along the actin cytoskeleton. Circulation and "reverse fountain" cytoplasmic streaming constitute the typical forms by which most organelles (such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus in plant root hair cells engage in bidirectional movement. However, there remains a lack of in-depth research regarding the relationship between the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton and turnaround organelle movement in plant root hair cells.In this paper, Arabidopsis seedlings that had been stably transformed with a GFP-ABD2-GFP (green fluorescent protein-actin-binding domain 2-green fluorescent protein construct were utilized to study the distribution of bundles of filamentous (F-actin and the directed motion of mitochondria along these bundles in root hairs. Observations with a confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that there were widespread circular F-actin bundles in the epidermal cells and root hairs of Arabidopsis roots. In root hairs, these circular bundles primarily start at the sub-apical region, which is the location where the turnaround movement of organelles occurs. MitoTracker probes were used to label mitochondria, and the dynamic observation of root hair cells with a confocal laser scanning microscope indicated that turnaround mitochondrial movement occurred along circular F-actin bundles.Relevant experimental results demonstrated that the circular F-actin bundles provide a track for the turnaround and bidirectional movement of mitochondria.

  19. An Intergenic Region Shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Tissue Specific and Stress Inducible Bidirectional Promoter Analyzed in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joydeep; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Houtz, Robert L.; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985) are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS) in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85) showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold) compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87). The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold) under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications. PMID:24260266

  20. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  1. A germline chromothripsis event stably segregating in 11 individuals through three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Nazaryan-Petersen, Lusine; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Parentally transmitted germ-line chromothripsis (G-CTH) has been identified in only a few cases. Most of these rearrangements were stably transmitted, in an unbalanced form, from a healthy mother to her child with congenital abnormalities probably caused by de novo copy-number changes of...

  2. Zinc finger nuclease and homing endonuclease-mediated assembly of multigene plant transformation vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevi, Vardit; Liang, Zhuobin; Arieli, Uri; Tzfira, Tzvi

    2012-01-01

    Binary vectors are an indispensable component of modern Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant genetic transformation systems. A remarkable variety of binary plasmids have been developed to support the cloning and transfer of foreign genes into plant cells. The majority of these systems, however, are limited to the cloning and transfer of just a single gene of interest. Thus, plant biologists and biotechnologists face a major obstacle when planning the introduction of multigene traits into transgenic plants. Here, we describe the assembly of multitransgene binary vectors by using a combination of engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and homing endonucleases. Our system is composed of a modified binary vector that has been engineered to carry an array of unique recognition sites for ZFNs and homing endonucleases and a family of modular satellite vectors. By combining the use of designed ZFNs and commercial restriction enzymes, multiple plant expression cassettes were sequentially cloned into the acceptor binary vector. Using this system, we produced binary vectors that carried up to nine genes. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplasts and plants were transiently and stably transformed, respectively, by several multigene constructs, and the expression of the transformed genes was monitored across several generations. Because ZFNs can potentially be engineered to digest a wide variety of target sequences, our system allows overcoming the problem of the very limited number of commercial homing endonucleases. Thus, users of our system can enjoy a rich resource of plasmids that can be easily adapted to their various needs, and since our cloning system is based on ZFN and homing endonucleases, it may be possible to reconstruct other types of binary vectors and adapt our vectors for cloning on multigene vector systems in various binary plasmids.

  3. Cloning of taxadiene synthase gene into Arabidopsis thaliana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... construct for further uses in transformation of Agro- bacterium and Arabidopsis. Cloning was confirmed by. PCR reaction and the result showed that all of the selective colonies have an 800 bp band in gel electrophoresis. For transformation of Agro-bacterium, a natural method entitled Triparental mating was ...

  4. Identification of a root-specific glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCH U

    helper. Transformation of Arabidopsis in planta was carried out using the method of Bechtold et al (1993). Transformants were selected by plating seeds on MS plates containing. 2% sucrose and 50 mg/l kanamycin. GUS expression was analysed as described in Sundaresan et al (1995). 2.4 cDNA isolation and expression ...

  5. Identification of a root-specific glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCH U

    2.3 Plant transformation and analysis of GUS expression. Promoter::GUS constructs in the binary vector pBI101 ... helper. Transformation of Arabidopsis in planta was carried out using the method of Bechtold et al (1993). ..... on the digital northern data of the Genevestigator database. (Zimmermann et al 2004), At4g19460 is ...

  6. Colony polymerase chain reaction of stably transfected Trypanosoma cruzi grown on solid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner G dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tools for the genetic manipulation of Trypanosoma cruzi are largely unavailable, although several vectors for transfection of epimastigotes and expression of foreign or recombinant genes have been developed. We have previously constructed several plasmid vectors in which recombinant genes are expressed in T. cruzi using the rRNA promoter. In this report, we demonstrate that one of these vectors can simultaneously mediate expression of neomycin phosphotransferase and green fluorescent protein when used to stably transfect cultured epimastigotes. These stably transfected epimastigotes can be selected and cloned as unique colonies on solid medium. We describe a simple colony PCR approach to the screening of these T. cruzi colonies for relevant genes. Thus, the methodologies outlined herein provide important new tools for the genetic dissection of this important parasite.

  7. Reduction of vertical transport in two-dimensional stably stratified forced shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toqué, Nathalie; Lignières, François; Vincent, Alain

    2006-04-01

    The effect of stable stratification on the vertical transport of passive contaminants in forced, stationary, two-dimensional (2D) and inhomogeneous shear turbulence is investigated numerically. The mean flow consists of several superimposed parallel sheared layers in a stably stratified medium. We find that, as stratification increases, the vertical transport decreases much faster than predicted by mixing length estimates. For the highest stratification, particles vertical dispersion nearly vanishes. The proposed interpretation emphasizes the role of weakly sheared layers where the relative increase of the mean horizontal velocity with respect to the root-mean-square (rms) vertical velocity causes the decrease of the Lagrangian correlation timescale.

  8. Intergenic sequence between Arabidopsis caseinolytic protease B-cytoplasmic/heat shock protein100 and choline kinase genes functions as a heat-inducible bidirectional promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Grover, Anil

    2014-11-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the At1g74310 locus encodes for caseinolytic protease B-cytoplasmic (ClpB-C)/heat shock protein100 protein (AtClpB-C), which is critical for the acquisition of thermotolerance, and At1g74320 encodes for choline kinase (AtCK2) that catalyzes the first reaction in the Kennedy pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Previous work has established that the knockout mutants of these genes display heat-sensitive phenotypes. While analyzing the AtClpB-C promoter and upstream genomic regions in this study, we noted that AtClpB-C and AtCK2 genes are head-to-head oriented on chromosome 1 of the Arabidopsis genome. Expression analysis showed that transcripts of these genes are rapidly induced in response to heat stress treatment. In stably transformed Arabidopsis plants harboring this intergenic sequence between head-to-head oriented green fluorescent protein and β-glucuronidase reporter genes, both transcripts and proteins of the two reporters were up-regulated upon heat stress. Four heat shock elements were noted in the intergenic region by in silico analysis. In the homozygous transfer DNA insertion mutant Salk_014505, 4,393-bp transfer DNA is inserted at position -517 upstream of ATG of the AtClpB-C gene. As a result, AtCk2 loses proximity to three of the four heat shock elements in the mutant line. Heat-inducible expression of the AtCK2 transcript was completely lost, whereas the expression of AtClpB-C was not affected in the mutant plants. Our results suggest that the 1,329-bp intergenic fragment functions as a heat-inducible bidirectional promoter and the region governing the heat inducibility is possibly shared between the two genes. We propose a model in which AtClpB-C shares its regulatory region with heat-induced choline kinase, which has a possible role in heat signaling. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Epigenetic variation in the FWA gene within the genus Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Ryo; Sasaki, Taku; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kakutani, Tetsuji; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2011-06-01

    fwa is a late flowering epi-mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana. FWA is silenced by DNA methylation in vegetative tissue but is demethylated in the central cell of the female ovule and continues to be expressed in the endosperm from the maternal copy. FWA is stably silenced in A. thaliana, but in related Arabidopsis species, FWA expression and DNA methylation levels vary in vegetative tissue. In this study, we show that variation in FWA expression in field isolates having identical DNA sequences is associated with changes in DNA methylation and may change over time. Vegetative FWA expression is correlated with decreased methylation at non-CG sites in the region upstream of the transcription start site in species related to A. thaliana and we conclude that methylation of this region is critical for FWA silencing in these species. In A. thaliana, FWA expression is affected by methylation in regions both upstream and downstream of the transcription start site. Ectopic A. thaliana FWA expression causes a late flowering phenotype, but over-expression of Arabidopsis lyrata FWA does not. In A. thaliana, stable silencing of FWA to prevent late flowering may have evolved through the selection of large tandem repeats and spread of the critical methylated region to include these repeats. © 2011 CSIRO. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Assessing the utility of photoswitchable fluorescent proteins for tracking intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wu

    Full Text Available One way in which cells communicate is through the direct transfer of proteins. In plants, many of these proteins are transcription factors, which are made by one cell type and traffic into another. In order to understand how this movement occurs and its role in development, we would like to track this movement in live, intact plants in real-time. Here we examine the utility of the photoconvertible proteins, Dendra2 and (to a lesser extent EosFP as tags for studying intracellular and intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root. To this end, we made fusions between Dendra2 and six mobile transcription factors. Our results show that Dendra2 is an effective tool for studying protein movement between plant cells. Interestingly, we found that Dendra2 could not simply be swapped into existing constructs that had originally contained GFP. Most of the fusions made in this way failed to produce a fluorescent fusion. In addition we found that the optimal settings for photoconversion of Dendra2 in stably transformed roots were different from what has been published for photoconversion in transient assays in plants or in animal cells. By modifying the confocal setting, we were able to photoconvert Dendra2 in all cell layers in the root. However the efficiency of photoconversion was affected by the position of the cell layer within the root, with more internal tissues requiring more energy. By examining the Dendra2 fusions, we confirmed the mobility of the SHORT-ROOT (SHR and CAPRICE (CPC transcription factors between cells and we further discovered that SHR movement in stele and CPC movement in the epidermis are non-directional.

  11. Progress in planta transformation without tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yunhong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei; Qin Guangyong; Huo Yuping; Yu Zengliang

    2004-01-01

    With the development of planta genetic engineering, more emphases have been laid on convenient and high efficient genetic transformation methods. And transformation without tissue culture is a prospective direction of it. In this paper, traditional transformation methods and the methods of non-tissue culture were summarized. With the exploration and application of Arabidopsis transformation mechanism, with the use of ion beam-mediated transformation invented by Chinese scientists and the development of other transformation methods, transformation methods without tissue culture and planta genetic engineering could be improved rapidly. (authors)

  12. Turbulent Mechanical Energy Budget in Stably Stratified Baroclinic Flows over Sloping Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łobocki, Lech

    2017-09-01

    Analysis of second-moment budget equations in a slope-oriented coordinate frame exhibits the pathways of exchange between the potential energy of mean flow and the total turbulent mechanical energy. It is shown that this process is controlled by the inclination of the potential temperature gradient. Hence, this parameter should be considered in studies of turbulence in slope flows as well as the slope inclination. The concept of turbulent potential energy is generalized to include baroclinicity, and is used to explain the role of along-slope turbulent heat flux in energy conversions. A generalization of static stability criteria for baroclinic conditions is also proposed. In addition, the presence of feedback between the turbulent heat flux and the temperature variance in stably-stratified flows is identified, which implies the existence of oscillatory modes characterized by the Brunt-Väisäla frequency.

  13. HeLa-LAV, an epithelial cell line stably infected with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J; Doe, B; Steimer, K S; Wabl, M

    1991-01-01

    An HeLa-LAV cell line was established by infecting and subcloning previously described CD4-expressing HeLa cells with HIV-1. Cells of this line stably synthesize all major HIV proteins, release infectious particles of HIV-1, but do not die even after long term culture. More than 90% of the cells express the envelope protein gp120 on the surface. The cells can be easily and efficiently labeled with 51chromium, and exhibit a low spontaneous release. Because they are susceptible to killing by allogeneic cytotoxic T cells (CTL) when targeted to gp120, they ought to be a useful source of target cells in any kind of HIV-specific killing assays. The cells may also help studies on HIV replication in non-lymphatic/non-monocytic cells. The HeLa-LAV cell line will be freely available from the AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Stably Stratified Fluid Flow Using Compact Finite-Difference Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnár, T.; Fraunié, Ph.; Kozel, K.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the class of high order compact schemes in the context of numerical simulation of stratified flow. The numerical schemes presented here are based on the approach outlined in Lele [1]. The numerical model presented in this contribution is based on the solution of the Boussinesq approximation by a finite-difference scheme. The numerical scheme itself follows the principle of semi-discretization, with high order compact discretization in space, while the time integration is carried out by suitable Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme. In the case presented here the steady flow was considered and thus the artificial compressibility method was used to resolve the pressure from the modified continuity equation. The test case used to demonstrate the capabilities of the selected model consists of the flow of stably stratified fluid over low, smooth hill.

  15. A Case Study of Offshore Advection of Boundary Layer Rolls over a Stably Stratified Sea Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Svensson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Streaky structures of narrow (8-9 km high wind belts have been observed from SAR images above the Baltic Sea during stably stratified conditions with offshore winds from the southern parts of Sweden. Case studies using the WRF model and in situ aircraft observations indicate that the streaks originate from boundary layer rolls generated over the convective air above Swedish mainland, also supported by visual satellite images showing the typical signature cloud streets. The simulations indicate that the rolls are advected and maintained at least 30–80 km off the coast, in agreement with the streaks observed by the SAR images. During evening when the convective conditions over land diminish, the streaky structures over the sea are still seen in the horizontal wind field; however, the vertical component is close to zero. Thus advected feature from a land surface can affect the wind field considerably for long times and over large areas in coastal regions. Although boundary layer rolls are a well-studied feature, no previous study has presented results concerning their persistence during situations with advection to a strongly stratified boundary layer. Such conditions are commonly encountered during spring in coastal regions at high latitudes.

  16. Silicon homo-heterojunction solar cells: A promising candidate to realize high performance more stably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Miao; Zhong, Sihua; Wang, Wenjie; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-08-01

    We have investigated the influences of diverse physical parameters on the performances of a silicon homo-heterojunction (H-H) solar cell, which encompasses both homojunction and heterojunction, together with their underlying mechanisms by the aid of AFORS-HET simulation. It is found that the performances of H-H solar cell are less sensitive to (i) the work function of the transparent conductive oxide layer, (ii) the interfacial density of states at the front hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interface, (iii) the peak dangling bond defect densities within the p-type a-Si:H (p-a-Si:H) layer, and (iv) the doping concentration of the p-a-Si:H layer, when compared to that of the conventional heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) counterparts. These advantages are due to the fact that the interfacial recombination and the recombination within the a-Si:H region are less affected by all the above parameters, which fundamentally benefit from the field-effect passivation of the homojunction. Therefore, the design of H-H structure can provide an opportunity to produce high-efficiency solar cells more stably.

  17. Silicon homo-heterojunction solar cells: A promising candidate to realize high performance more stably

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Tan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influences of diverse physical parameters on the performances of a silicon homo-heterojunction (H-H solar cell, which encompasses both homojunction and heterojunction, together with their underlying mechanisms by the aid of AFORS-HET simulation. It is found that the performances of H-H solar cell are less sensitive to (i the work function of the transparent conductive oxide layer, (ii the interfacial density of states at the front hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si interface, (iii the peak dangling bond defect densities within the p-type a-Si:H (p-a-Si:H layer, and (iv the doping concentration of the p-a-Si:H layer, when compared to that of the conventional heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT counterparts. These advantages are due to the fact that the interfacial recombination and the recombination within the a-Si:H region are less affected by all the above parameters, which fundamentally benefit from the field-effect passivation of the homojunction. Therefore, the design of H-H structure can provide an opportunity to produce high-efficiency solar cells more stably.

  18. The turbulent decay of trailing vortex pairs in stably stratified environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T.; Baumann, R.

    2000-03-01

    The decay of trailing vortex pairs in thermally stably stratified environments is investigated by means of large eddy simulations. Results of in-situ measurements in the wakes of different aircraft are used to find appropriate intitializations for the simulation of wake turbulence in the quiescent atmosphere. Furthermore, cases with weak atmospheric turbulence are investigated. It is shown that the early development of the vortices is not affected by turbulence and develops almost identically as in 2D simulations. In a quiescent atmosphere the subsequent vortex decay is controlled by the interaction of short-wave disturbances, owing to the aircraft induced turbulence, and baroclinic vorticity, owing to stable stratification. As a consequence, vertical vorticity streaks between the vortices are induced which are substantially intensified by vortex stretching and finally lead to rapid turbulent wake-vortex decay. When in addition also atmospheric turbulence is present, the long-wave instability is dominantly promoted. For very strong stratification (Fr < 1) it is observed that wake vortices may rebound but lose most of their strength before reaching the flight level. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the predictive capabilities of Greene's approximate model. (orig.)

  19. Genetic transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Q; Sautter, C; Potrykus, I; Puonti-Kaerlas, J

    1996-06-01

    Genetic engineering can be used to complement traditional breeding methods in crop plant improvement. Transfer of genes from heterologous species provides the means of selectively introducing new traits into crop plants and expanding the gene pool beyond what has been available to traditional breeding systems. The prerequisites for genetic engineering are efficient transformation and tissue culture systems that allow selection and regeneration of transgenic plants. Cassava, an integral plant for food security in developing countries, has until now been recalcitrant to transformation approaches. We report here a method for regenerating stably transformed cassava plants after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which opens cassava for future improvement via biotechnology.

  20. Turbulent jet erosion of a stably stratified gas layer in a nuclear reactor test containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishay, Liel [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Bieder, Ulrich [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, Centre de SACLAY DEN/SAC/DANS/DM2S/STMF/LMSF, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ziskind, Gennady [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Rashkovan, Alex, E-mail: rashbgu@gmail.com [Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center Negev (NRCN), PO Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We model stably stratified layer erosion by vertical turbulent round jet. • Separate effect studies are performed as a platform for choosing modeling approach. • A test performed in MISTRA facility, CEA, Saclay is modeled using Fluent and Trio-U codes. • The proposed modeling approach showed good agreement with the MISTRA facility LOWMA-3 test. - Abstract: A number of integral and separate effect experiments were performed in the last two decades for validation of containment computational tools. The main goal of these benchmark experiments was to assess the ability of turbulence models and computational fluid dynamics codes to predict hydrogen concentration distribution and steam condensation rate in a nuclear reactor containment in the course of severe accidents. It appears from the published literature that the predictive capability of the existing computational tools still needs to be improved. This work examines numerically the temporal evolution of helium concentration in the experiment called LOWMA-3, performed in the MISTRA facility of CEA-Saclay, France. In the experiment, helium is used to mimic hydrogen of a real-case accident. The aim of this separate effect experiment, where steam condensation was not involved, is to predict helium concentration field. The conditions of the experiment are such that both the momentum transport and molecular diffusion contributions to the mixing process are of the same order of magnitude (Fr ∼ 1). A commercial CFD code, Fluent, and a CEA in-house code, Trio-U, are used for flow and helium concentration fields temporal evolution prediction in the present study. The preliminary separate effect studies provide guidance to an optimal modeling approach for the LOWMA-3 experiment. Temporal evolution of helium concentration in the stratification layer is shown, and a comparison to the experiment is discussed. It is shown that correct modeling of the round jet flowfield is essential for a reliable

  1. Stem cells expanded from the human embryonic hindbrain stably retain regional specification and high neurogenic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Jignesh; Kittappa, Raja; Leto, Ketty; Gates, Monte; Borel, Melodie; Paulsen, Ole; Spitzer, Sonia; Karadottir, Ragnhildur Thora; Rossi, Ferdinando; Falk, Anna; Smith, Austin

    2013-07-24

    Stem cell lines that faithfully maintain the regional identity and developmental potency of progenitors in the human brain would create new opportunities in developmental neurobiology and provide a resource for generating specialized human neurons. However, to date, neural progenitor cultures derived from the human brain have either been short-lived or exhibit restricted, predominantly glial, differentiation capacity. Pluripotent stem cells are an alternative source, but to ascertain definitively the identity and fidelity of cell types generated solely in vitro is problematic. Here, we show that hindbrain neuroepithelial stem (hbNES) cells can be derived and massively expanded from early human embryos (week 5-7, Carnegie stage 15-17). These cell lines are propagated in adherent culture in the presence of EGF and FGF2 and retain progenitor characteristics, including SOX1 expression, formation of rosette-like structures, and high neurogenic capacity. They generate GABAergic, glutamatergic and, at lower frequency, serotonergic neurons. Importantly, hbNES cells stably maintain hindbrain specification and generate upper rhombic lip derivatives on exposure to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). When grafted into neonatal rat brain, they show potential for integration into cerebellar development and produce cerebellar granule-like cells, albeit at low frequency. hbNES cells offer a new system to study human cerebellar specification and development and to model diseases of the hindbrain. They also provide a benchmark for the production of similar long-term neuroepithelial-like stem cells (lt-NES) from pluripotent cell lines. To our knowledge, hbNES cells are the first demonstration of highly expandable neuroepithelial stem cells derived from the human embryo without genetic immortalization.

  2. Direct numerical simulations of stably-stratified sheared turbulence: Implications for oceanic mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsweire, E. C.; Holt, S. E.; Koseff, J. R.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of the time evolution of homogeneous stably stratified turbulent shear flows have been performed for several Richardson numbers Ri and Reynolds numbers R(sub lambda) in earlier works. The results show excellent agreement with length scale models developed from laboratory experiments to characterize oceanic turbulence. When the Richardson number Ri is less than the stationary value Ri(sub s), the turbulence intensity grows at all scales, and the growth rate appears to be a function of Ri. The size of the vertical density inversions also increases. On the other hand, when Ri is greater than or equal to Ri(sub s) the largest turbulent eddies become vertically constrained by buoyancy when the Ellison (turbulence) scale L(sub E) and the Ozmidov (buoyancy) scale L(sub O) are equal. At this point, the mixing efficiency is maximal and corresponds to a flux Richardson number R(sub f) = 0.20. The vertical mass flux becomes counter-gradient when epsilon = 19(nu)N(exp 2) and vertical density overturns are suppressed in less than half a Brunt-Vaisala period. The results of the simulations were also recast in terms of the Hydrodynamic Phase Diagram introduced in fossil turbulence models. The so-called point of fossilization occurs when epsilon = 4DCN(exp 2); Gibson proposed 13DCN(exp 2). This value is in agreement with indirect laboratory observations and field observations. Finally, the validity of the steady-state models to estimate vertical eddy diffusivities in the oceanic thermocline is discussed.

  3. Turbulent jet erosion of a stably stratified gas layer in a nuclear reactor test containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishay, Liel; Bieder, Ulrich; Ziskind, Gennady; Rashkovan, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We model stably stratified layer erosion by vertical turbulent round jet. • Separate effect studies are performed as a platform for choosing modeling approach. • A test performed in MISTRA facility, CEA, Saclay is modeled using Fluent and Trio-U codes. • The proposed modeling approach showed good agreement with the MISTRA facility LOWMA-3 test. - Abstract: A number of integral and separate effect experiments were performed in the last two decades for validation of containment computational tools. The main goal of these benchmark experiments was to assess the ability of turbulence models and computational fluid dynamics codes to predict hydrogen concentration distribution and steam condensation rate in a nuclear reactor containment in the course of severe accidents. It appears from the published literature that the predictive capability of the existing computational tools still needs to be improved. This work examines numerically the temporal evolution of helium concentration in the experiment called LOWMA-3, performed in the MISTRA facility of CEA-Saclay, France. In the experiment, helium is used to mimic hydrogen of a real-case accident. The aim of this separate effect experiment, where steam condensation was not involved, is to predict helium concentration field. The conditions of the experiment are such that both the momentum transport and molecular diffusion contributions to the mixing process are of the same order of magnitude (Fr ∼ 1). A commercial CFD code, Fluent, and a CEA in-house code, Trio-U, are used for flow and helium concentration fields temporal evolution prediction in the present study. The preliminary separate effect studies provide guidance to an optimal modeling approach for the LOWMA-3 experiment. Temporal evolution of helium concentration in the stratification layer is shown, and a comparison to the experiment is discussed. It is shown that correct modeling of the round jet flowfield is essential for a reliable

  4. Phenomenology of two-dimensional stably stratified turbulence under large-scale forcing

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Abhishek

    2017-01-11

    In this paper, we characterise the scaling of energy spectra, and the interscale transfer of energy and enstrophy, for strongly, moderately and weakly stably stratified two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, restricted in a vertical plane, under large-scale random forcing. In the strongly stratified case, a large-scale vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF) coexists with small scale turbulence. The VSHF consists of internal gravity waves and the turbulent flow has a kinetic energy (KE) spectrum that follows an approximate k−3 scaling with zero KE flux and a robust positive enstrophy flux. The spectrum of the turbulent potential energy (PE) also approximately follows a k−3 power-law and its flux is directed to small scales. For moderate stratification, there is no VSHF and the KE of the turbulent flow exhibits Bolgiano–Obukhov scaling that transitions from a shallow k−11/5 form at large scales, to a steeper approximate k−3 scaling at small scales. The entire range of scales shows a strong forward enstrophy flux, and interestingly, large (small) scales show an inverse (forward) KE flux. The PE flux in this regime is directed to small scales, and the PE spectrum is characterised by an approximate k−1.64 scaling. Finally, for weak stratification, KE is transferred upscale and its spectrum closely follows a k−2.5 scaling, while PE exhibits a forward transfer and its spectrum shows an approximate k−1.6 power-law. For all stratification strengths, the total energy always flows from large to small scales and almost all the spectral indicies are well explained by accounting for the scale-dependent nature of the corresponding flux.

  5. Establishment of Stably Transfected Cells Constitutively Expressing the Full-Length and Truncated Antigenic Proteins of Two Genetically Distinct Mink Astroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidokhti, Mehdi R. M.; Ullman, Karin; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    to circumvent this drawback, we have developed stably transfected mink fetal cells and BHK21 cells constitutively expressing the full-length and truncated capsid proteins of two distinct genotypes of mink astrovirus. Protein expression in these stably transfected cells was demonstrated by strong signals...

  6. Identifying stably expressed housekeeping genes in the endometrium of fertile women, women with recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Linden; Cagampang, Felino; Cheong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Housekeeping genes (HKG) are presumed to be constitutively expressed throughout tissue types but recent studies have shown they vary with pathophysiology. Often, validation of appropriate HKG is not made. There is no consensus on which HKGs are most stably expressed in endometrial tissue so this study aimed to identify the most stable HKG in the endometrium of women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent miscarriages (RM). Inclusion criteria were women between 25-45 years (...

  7. Assembly of homotrimeric type XXI minicollagen by coexpression of prolyl 4-hydroxylase in stably transfected Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Chuan-Chuan; Chen, Sung-Fang; Chou, Min-Yuan

    2005-10-21

    We established stably transfected insect cell lines containing cDNAs encoding the alpha and beta subunits of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase in both Trichoplusia ni and Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. The expression level and enzymatic activity of recombinant prolyl 4-hydroxylase produced in the Drosophila expression system were significantly higher than those produced in the T. ni system. We further characterized the involvement of prolyl 4-hydroxylase in the assembly of the three alpha chains to form trimeric type XXI minicollagen, which comprises the intact C-terminal non-collagenous (NC1) and collagenous domain (COL1), in the Drosophila system. When minicollagen XXI was stably expressed in Drosophila S2 cells alone, negligible amounts of interchain disulfide-bonded trimers were detected in the culture media. However, minicollagen XXI was secreted as disulfide-bonded homotrimers by coexpression with prolyl 4-hydroxylase in the stably transfected Drosophila S2 cells. Minicollagen XXI coexpressed with prolyl 4-hydroxylase contained sufficient amounts of hydroxyproline to form thermal stable pepsin-resistant triple helices consisting of both interchain and non-interchain disulfide-bonded trimers. These results demonstrate that a sufficient amount of active prolyl 4-hydroxylase is required for the assembly of type XXI collagen triple helices in Drosophila cells and the trimeric assembly is governed by the C-terminal collagenous domain.

  8. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  9. NF-kappa B activity in T cells stably expressing the Tax protein of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, J.; Cohen, L.; Hiscott, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of constitutive Tax expression on the interaction of NF-κ B with its recognition sequence and on NF-κ B-dependent gene expression was examined in T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines (19D and 9J) stably transformed with a Tax expression vector. Tax expressing T cell lines contained a constitutive level of NF-κ B binding activity, detectable by mobility shift assay and uv cross-linking using a palindromic NF-κ B probe homologous to the interferon beta PRDII site. In Jurkat and NC2.10 induction with phorbol esters resulted in the appearance of new DNA binding proteins of 85, 75, and 54 kDa, whereas in Tax expressing cells the 85-kDa protein and a 92-kDa DNA binding protein were constitutively induced. Expression of Tax protein in 19D and 9J resulted in transcription of the endogenous NF-kappa B-dependent granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor gene and increased basal level expression of transfected NF-kappa B-regulated promoters. Nonetheless transcription of both the endogenous and the transfected gene was inducible by PMA treatment. Tax expression in Jurkat T cells may alter the stoichiometry of NF-kappa B DNA binding proteins and thus change the expression of NF-kappa B-regulated promoters

  10. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole

    2002-01-01

    in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...... expression of the nahG salicylate hydroxylase reduces AtGsl5 mRNA levels in the mpk4 mutant. These results indicate that AtGsl5 is likely involved in callose synthesis in flowering tissues and in the mpk4 mutant....

  11. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.Z.; Yee, J.; Mitchell, D.L.; Britt, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  12. Arabidopsis peroxisome proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Bussell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The analytical depth of investigation of the peroxisomal proteome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has not yet reached that of other major cellular organelles such as chloroplasts or mitochondria. This is primarily due to the difficulties associated with isolating and obtaining purified samples of peroxisomes from Arabidopsis. So far only a handful of research groups have been successful in obtaining such fractions. To make things worse, enriched peroxisome fractions frequently suffer from significant organellar contamination, lowering confidence in localization assignment of the identified proteins. As with other cellular compartments, identification of peroxisomal proteins forms the basis for investigations of the dynamics of the peroxisomal proteome. It is therefore not surprising that, in terms of functional analyses by proteomic means, there remains a considerable gap between peroxisomes and chloroplasts or mitochondria. Alternative strategies are needed to overcome the obstacle of hard-to-obtain organellar fractions. This will help to close the knowledge gap between peroxisomes and other organelles and provide a full picture of the physiological pathways shared between organelles. In this review we briefly summarize the status quo and discuss some of the methodological alternatives to classic organelle proteomic approaches.

  13. Arabidopsis Growth Simulation Using Image Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a method to represent the virtual Arabidopsis plant at each growth stage. It includes simulating the shape and providing growth parameters. The shape is described with elliptic Fourier descriptors. First, the plant is segmented from the background with the chromatic coordinates. With the segmentation result, the outer boundary series are obtained by using boundary tracking algorithm. The elliptic Fourier analysis is then carried out to extract the coefficients of the contour. The coefficients require less storage than the original contour points and can be used to simulate the shape of the plant. The growth parameters include total area and the number of leaves of the plant. The total area is obtained with the number of the plant pixels and the image calibration result. The number of leaves is derived by detecting the apex of each leaf. It is achieved by using wavelet transform to identify the local maximum of the distance signal between the contour points and the region centroid. Experiment result shows that this method can record the growth stage of Arabidopsis plant with fewer data and provide a visual platform for plant growth research.

  14. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  15. Overexpression of Nictaba-Like Lectin Genes from Glycine max Confers Tolerance towards Pseudomonas syringae Infection, Aphid Infestation and Salt Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Van Holle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system that allows them to recognize invading pathogens by specialized receptors. Carbohydrate-binding proteins or lectins are part of this immune system and especially the lectins that reside in the nucleocytoplasmic compartment are known to be implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. The class of Nictaba-like lectins (NLL groups all proteins with homology to the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum lectin, known as a stress-inducible lectin. Here we focus on two Nictaba homologs from soybean (Glycine max, referred to as GmNLL1 and GmNLL2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein either transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or stably transformed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells revealed a nucleocytoplasmic localization for the GmNLLs under study. RT-qPCR analysis of the transcript levels for the Nictaba-like lectins in soybean demonstrated that the genes are expressed in several tissues throughout the development of the plant. Furthermore, it was shown that salt treatment, Phytophthora sojae infection and Aphis glycines infestation trigger the expression of particular NLL genes. Stress experiments with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the NLLs from soybean yielded an enhanced tolerance of the plant towards bacterial infection (Pseudomonas syringae, insect infestation (Myzus persicae and salinity. Our data showed a better performance of the transgenic lines compared to wild type plants, indicating that the NLLs from soybean are implicated in the stress response. These data can help to further elucidate the physiological importance of the Nictaba-like lectins from soybean, which can ultimately lead to the design of crop plants with a better tolerance to changing environmental conditions.

  16. The Role of Oxophytodienoate Reductases in the Detoxification of the Explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Supplemental Figure S2. All constructs was transformed into Arabidopsis Col-0 usingAgrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. Transformants and homozygous...White GF (1997) Purifica- tion, properties, and sequence of glycerol trinitrate reductase from Agrobacterium radiobacter. J Bacteriol 179: 7796–7802

  17. Reference: 783 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available xpression of the Arabidopsis 10-kilodalton acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein ACBP6 en...phospholipid metabolism in Arabidopsis, including the possibility of ACBP6 in the cytosolic trafficking of phosphatidylcholine. Overe

  18. Reference: 774 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available an essential gene, the disruption of which causes embryonic lethality. Plants carrying a hypomorphic smg7 mu...e progression from anaphase to telophase in the second meiotic division in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis SMG7 is

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240660 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al to auxin transport protein EIR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|3377507|gb|AAC39513; identical to root gravitropism control protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|4322486|gb|AAD16060 2e-63 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240660 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al to auxin transport protein EIR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|3377507|gb|AAC39513; identical to root gravitropism control protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|4322486|gb|AAD16060 3e-40 ...

  1. Reference: 173 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mical approaches to elucidate the action mechanisms of sirtinol in Arabidopsis. A...tic and chemical analyses of the action mechanisms of sirtinol in Arabidopsis. 8 3129-34 15710899 2005 Feb P

  2. An Archaea 5S rRNA analog is stably expressed in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Mini-genes for 5S-like rRNA were constructed. These genes had a sequence which largely resembles that of the naturally occurring 5S rRNA of a bacterium, Halococcus morrhuae, which phylogenetically belongs to the Archaea. Plasmids carrying the mini-genes were transformed into Escherichia coli (Ec). Ribosomal incorporation was not a prerequisite for stable accumulation of the RNA product. However, only those constructs with a well-base-paired helix I accumulated RNA product. This result strongly implies that this aspect of the structure is likely to be an important condition for stabilizing 5S rRNA-like products. The results are consistent with our current understanding of 5S rRNA processing in Ec. When used in conjunction with rRNA probe technology, the resulting chimeric RNA may be useful as a monitoring tool for genetically engineered microorganisms or naturally occurring organisms that are released into the environment.

  3. Stably transfected human cell lines as fluorescent screening assay for nuclear factor KB activation dependent gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Horneck, Gerda

    2004-06-01

    Activation of the Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway as a possible antiapoptotic route represents one important cellular stress response. For identifying conditions which are capable to modify this pathway, a screening assay for detection of NF-kappaB-dependent gene activation using the reporter proteins Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) and its destabilized variant (d2EGFP) has been developed. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK/293) cells were stably transfected with a vector carrying EGFP or d2EGFP under control of a synthetic promoter containing four copies of the NF-kappaB response element. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gave rise to substantial EGFP / d2EGFP expression in up to 90 % of the cells and was therefore used to screen different stably transfected clones for induction of NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The time course of d2EGFP expression after treatment with TNF-alpha or phorbol ester was measured using flow cytometry. Cellular response to TNF-alpha was faster than to phorbol ester. Treatment of cells with TNF-alpha and DMSO revealed antagonistic interactions of these substances in the activation NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The detection of d2EGFP expression required FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy, while EGFP could also be measured in the microplate reader, rendering the assay useful for high-throughput screening.

  4. Reference: 765 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available el K et al. 2008 Jul. Plant Physiol. 147(3):1046-61. The genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contai...ne family in Arabidopsis. 3 1046-61 18467451 2008 Jul Plant physiology Alerding Anne B|Bandara Aloka B|Crosby Kevin C|Owens Daniel K|Westwood James H|Winkel Brenda S J

  5. Reference: 278 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nthia D et al. 2005 Oct. Plant Physiol. 139(2):722-33. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking a ... is involved in specific aspects of abscisic acid and auxin signaling in Arabidopsis. 2 722-33 16183844 2005 Oct Plant physio

  6. Reference: 222 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g et al. 2005 Jun. Plant Physiol. 138(2):827-36. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains about 130 ATP-b...resistance in Arabidopsis. 2 827-36 15923333 2005 Jun Plant physiology Lee Joohyun|Lee Kiyoul|Lee Miyoung|Lee Youngsook|Noh Eun Woon

  7. Reference: 128 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s et al. 2004 Nov. Plant Physiol. 136(3):3524-36. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) possesses two isoforms ...lism in mature leaves. Molecular physiological analysis of the two plastidic ATP/ADP transporters from Arabi...dopsis. 3 3524-36 15516503 2004 Nov Plant physiology Jeblick Wolfgang|Lemke Lilia|Linka Nicole|Neuhaus H Ekkehard|Reiser Jens

  8. Over-Expression of Arabidopsis EDT1 Gene Confers Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Guangshun; Fan, Cunying; Di, Shaokang; Wang, Xuemin; Xiang, Chengbin; Pang, Yongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important legume forage crop with great economic value. However, as the growth of alfalfa is seriously affected by an inadequate supply of water, drought is probably the major abiotic environmental factor that most severely affects alfalfa production worldwide. In an effort to enhance alfalfa drought tolerance, we transformed the Arabidopsis Enhanced Drought Tolerance 1 (AtEDT1) gene into alfalfa via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild ...

  9. Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A; Ostergaard, L

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the neutral peroxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATP N) has been determined to a resolution of 1.9 A and a free R value of 20.5%. ATP N has the expected characteristic fold of the class III peroxidases, with a C(alpha) r.m.s.d. of 0.82 A when compared with horseradish peroxidase C...... (HRP C). HRP C is 54% identical to ATP N in sequence. When the structures of four class III plant peroxidases are superimposed, the regions with structural differences are non-randomly distributed; all are located in one half of the molecule. The architecture of the haem pocket of ATP N is very similar...... to that of HRP C, in agreement with the low small-molecule substrate specificity of all class III peroxidases. The structure of ATP N suggests that the pH dependence of the substrate turnover will differ from that of HRP C owing to differences in polarity of the residues in the substrate-access channel. Since...

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana—Aphid Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Joe; Singh, Vijay; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are important pests of plants that use their stylets to tap into the sieve elements to consume phloem sap. Besides the removal of photosynthates, aphid infestation also alters source-sink patterns. Most aphids also vector viral diseases. In this chapter, we will summarize on recent significant findings in plant-aphid interaction, and how studies involving Arabidopsis thaliana and Myzus persicae (Sülzer), more commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), are beginning to provide important insights into the molecular basis of plant defense and susceptibility to aphids. The recent demonstration that expression of dsRNA in Arabidopsis can be used to silence expression of genes in GPA has further expanded the utility of Arabidopsis for evaluating the contribution of the aphid genome-encoded proteins to this interaction. PMID:22666177

  11. The antagonistic effect of antipsychotic drugs on a HEK293 cell line stably expressing human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nourian, Zahra; Mulvany, Michael J; Nielsen, Karsten Bork

    2008-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs often cause orthostatic hypotension, probably through antagonist action on resistance vessel alpha(1A)-adrenoceptors. Here we have tested this possibility directly using cells transfected with a relevant human alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor splice variant. To determine a splice variant...... a cell line stably expressing a functional form of this splice variant. The expression of recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptor subtype was confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis, and its functionality demonstrated using a Fura-2 assay by a rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) when...... human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors in competition binding studies confirmed much higher antagonist affinity of sertindole and risperidone than haloperidol for these receptors. In summary, it can be concluded that there is an approximately 10-fold higher adrenoceptor affinity of risperidone and sertindole...

  12. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaibelet, Gérald; Tercé, François; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Allart, Sophie; Azalbert, Vincent; Lecompte, Marie-France; Collet, Xavier; Orlowski, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  13. 21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol stably and specifically associates with lipoprotein peripheral hemi-membrane: A new labelling tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaibelet, Gérald [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tercé, François [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Bertrand-Michel, Justine [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Lipidomic Platform Metatoul, Toulouse (France); Allart, Sophie [Plateau Technique d’Imagerie Cellulaire, INSERM U1043, Toulouse (France); Azalbert, Vincent [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Lecompte, Marie-France [INSERM U563, Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Collet, Xavier [Université Toulouse III, UMR 1048, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1048, Toulouse (France); Orlowski, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.orlowski@cea.fr [INSERM U563, CHU Purpan, Toulouse (France); CEA, SB2SM and UMR8221 CNRS, IBiTec-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •21-Methylpyrenyl-cholesterol specifically and stably associates to lipoproteins. •It is not esterified by LCAT, and thus reliably labels their peripheral hemi-membrane. •HDL vs. LDL are well distinguishable by various fluorescent labelling characteristics. •LDL peripheral hemi-membrane harbors cholesterol-rich ordered lipid (micro)domains. •Cultured cells can be stained by such labelled lipoproteins-mediated delivery. -- Abstract: Lipoproteins are important biological components. However, they have few convenient fluorescent labelling probes currently reported, and their physiological reliability can be questioned. We compared the association of two fluorescent cholesterol derivatives, 22-nitrobenzoxadiazole-cholesterol (NBD-Chol) and 21-methylpyrenyl-cholesterol (Pyr-met-Chol), to serum lipoproteins and to purified HDL and LDL. Both lipoproteins could be stably labelled by Pyr-met-Chol, but virtually not by NBD-Chol. At variance with NBD-Chol, LCAT did not esterify Pyr-met-Chol. The labelling characteristics of lipoproteins by Pyr-met-Chol were well distinguishable between HDL and LDL, regarding dializability, associated probe amount and labelling kinetics. We took benefit of the pyrene labelling to approach the structural organization of LDL peripheral hemi-membrane, since Pyr-met-Chol-labelled LDL, but not HDL, presented a fluorescence emission of pyrene excimers, indicating that the probe was present in an ordered lipid micro-environment. Since the peripheral membrane of LDL contains more sphingomyelin (SM) than HDL, this excimer formation was consistent with the existence of cholesterol- and SM-enriched lipid microdomains in LDL, as already suggested in model membranes of similar composition and reminiscent to the well-described “lipid rafts” in bilayer membranes. Finally, we showed that Pyr-met-Chol could stain cultured PC-3 cells via lipoprotein-mediated delivery, with a staining pattern well different to that observed with NBD

  14. Image of Arabidopsis phenotype - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us Arab...idopsis Phenome Database Image of Arabidopsis phenotype Data detail Data name Image of Arab...idopsis phenotype DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01509-002 Description of data contents Mutant images in Observation of Arab...idopsis phenotype Data file File name: piam_image.tar.gz File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/arab...tory of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Image of Arabidopsis phenotype - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Is VIP1 important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong; Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2014-09-01

    Agrobacterium genetically transforms plants by transferring and integrating T-(transferred) DNA into the host genome. This process requires both Agrobacterium and host proteins. VirE2 interacting protein 1 (VIP1), an Arabidopsis bZIP protein, has been suggested to mediate transformation through interaction with and targeting of VirE2 to nuclei. We examined the susceptibility of Arabidopsis vip1 mutant and VIP1 overexpressing plants to transformation by numerous Agrobacterium strains. In no instance could we detect altered transformation susceptibility. We also used confocal microscopy to examine the subcellular localization of Venus-tagged VirE2 or Venus-tagged VIP1, in the presence or absence of the other untagged protein, in different plant cell systems. We found that VIP1-Venus localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of Arabidopsis roots, agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts and tobacco BY-2 protoplasts, regardless of whether VirE2 was co-expressed. VirE2 localized exclusively to the cytoplasm of tobacco and Arabidopsis protoplasts, whether in the absence or presence of VIP1 overexpression. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants and agroinfiltrated N. benthamina leaves we could occasionally detect small aggregates of the Venus signal in nuclei, but these were likely to be imagining artifacts. The vast majority of VirE2 remained in the cytoplasm. We conclude that VIP1 is not important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation or VirE2 subcellular localization. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. BRX promotes Arabidopsis shoot growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beuchat, J.; Scacchi, E.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Ragni, L.; Strnad, Miroslav; Hardtke, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 1 (2010), s. 23-29 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arabidopsis * auxin * brassinosteroid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.516, year: 2010

  17. Exploiting natural variation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.A.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Sanchez-Serrano, J.J.; Salinas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Natural variation for many traits is present within the species Arabidopsis thaliana. This chapter describes the use of natural variation to elucidate genes underlying the regulation of quantitative traits. It deals with the development and use of mapping populations, the detection and handling of

  18. Observation of Arabidopsis phenotype - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us Arab...idopsis Phenome Database Observation of Arabidopsis phenotype Data detail Data name Observation of Arab...-hunting line. Data file File name: riken_piam_main.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/arabid_...Site Policy | Contact Us Observation of Arabidopsis phenotype - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Identification of a Stelar-Localized Transport Protein That Facilitates Root-to-Shoot Transfer of Chloride in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2015-12-11

    Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl–) in the shoot by regulating their transfer from the root symplast into the xylem-associated apoplast. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we undertook a transcriptional screen of salt stressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Microarrays, quantitative RT-PCR, and promoter-GUS fusions identified a candidate gene involved in Cl– xylem loading from the Nitrate transporter 1/Peptide Transporter family (NPF2.4). This gene was highly expressed in the root stele compared to the cortex, and its expression decreased after exposure to NaCl or abscisic acid. NPF2.4 fused to fluorescent proteins, expressed either transiently or stably, was targeted to the plasma membrane. Electrophysiological analysis of NPF2.4 in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that NPF2.4 catalyzed passive Cl– efflux out of cells and was much less permeable to NO3−. Shoot Cl– accumulation was decreased following NPF2.4 artificial microRNA knockdown, whereas it was increased by overexpression of NPF2.4. Taken together, these results suggest that NPF2.4 is involved in long-distance transport of Cl– in plants, playing a role in the loading and the regulation of Cl– loading into the xylem of Arabidopsis roots during salinity stress.

  20. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  1. Live Imaging of Type I Collagen Assembly Dynamics in Osteoblasts Stably Expressing GFP and mCherry-Tagged Collagen Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongbo; Kamel-El Sayed, Suzan A; Wang, Kun; Tiede-Lewis, LeAnn M; Grillo, Michael A; Veno, Patricia A; Dusevich, Vladimir; Phillips, Charlotte L; Bonewald, Lynda F; Dallas, Sarah L

    2018-02-20

    Type I collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in bone and other connective tissues and plays key roles in normal and pathological bone formation as well as in connective tissue disorders and fibrosis. Although much is known about the collagen biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory steps, the mechanisms by which it is assembled extracellularly are less clear. We have generated GFPtpz and mCherry-tagged collagen fusion constructs for live imaging of type I collagen assembly by replacing the α2(I)-procollagen N-terminal propeptide with GFPtpz or mCherry. These novel imaging probes were stably transfected into MLO-A5 osteoblast-like cells and fibronectin-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (FN-null-MEFs) and used for imaging type I collagen assembly dynamics and its dependence on fibronectin. Both fusion proteins co-precipitated with α1(I)-collagen and remained intracellular without ascorbate but were assembled into α1(I) collagen-containing extracellular fibrils in the presence of ascorbate. Immunogold-EM confirmed their ultrastuctural localization in banded collagen fibrils. Live cell imaging in stably transfected MLO-A5 cells revealed the highly dynamic nature of collagen assembly and showed that during assembly the fibril networks are continually stretched and contracted due to the underlying cell motion. We also observed that cell-generated forces can physically reshape the collagen fibrils. Using co-cultures of mCherry- and GFPtpz-collagen expressing cells, we show that multiple cells contribute collagen to form collagen fiber bundles. Immuno-EM further showed that individual collagen fibrils can receive contributions of collagen from more than one cell. Live cell imaging in FN-null-MEFs expressing GFPtpz-collagen showed that collagen assembly was both dependent upon and dynamically integrated with fibronectin assembly. These GFP-collagen fusion constructs provide a powerful tool for imaging collagen in living cells and have revealed novel

  2. Reference: 297 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is (Arabidopsis thaliana) mineral responses. Confocal microscopic studies localiz...nder normal growth conditions, it significantly altered the expression patterns of WAKL4 under various conditions of miner...oter complemented the phenotypes. Our results suggest versatile roles for WAKL4 in Arabidopsis mineral nutri...tion responses. Involvement of a cell wall-associated kinase, WAKL4, in Arabidopsis mineral responses. 4 170

  3. THE EVALUATION OF PEPTIDE/HISTIDINE TRANSPORTER 1 (PHT1) FUNCTION: UPTAKE KINETICS UTILIZING A COS-7 STABLY TRANSFECTED CELL LINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, David J; Carl, Stephen M; Mowery, Stephanie A; Knipp, Gregory T

    2011-10-01

    There have been relatively few studies focused on the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter (POT) superfamily member, Peptide/Histidine Transporter 1 (PHT1), with respect to its contribution to the ADME of peptides and peptide-based drugs. These studies were conducted to determine hPHT1-mediated, H + -dependent uptake kinetics of histidine, carnosine, Gly-Sar and valacyclovir in stably transfected hPHT1-COS-7 cells comparative to kinetics determined in an empty vector (Mock) stably transfected cell line. The results suggest that Gly-Sar appears to be a substrate for PHT1 based on efflux from the stably transfected hPHT1 COS-7 cells. Histidine and Gly-Sar concentration- and time-dependent studies suggest mixed-uptake kinetics. These studies suggest that stably transfected hPHT1-COS-7 cells exhibit different uptake kinetics than those observed in our previous studies and illustrate the requirement for experiments to delineate the physiological role of hPHT1.

  4. Biologically active, magnICON®-expressed EPO-Fc from stably transformed Nicotiana benthamiana plants presenting tetra-antennary N-glycan structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Bieke; Van Damme, Els J M; Callewaert, Nico; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Delanghe, Joris R; Boets, Annemie; Castilho, Alexandra; Weterings, Koen

    2012-08-31

    In the past two decades plants have emerged as a valuable alternative for the production of pharmaceutical proteins. Since N-glycosylation influences functionality and stability of therapeutic proteins, the plant N-glycosylation pathway should be humanized. Here, we report the transient magnICON(®) expression of the erythropoietin fusion protein (EPO-Fc) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that produce multi-antennary N-glycans without the plant-specific β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues in a stable manner (Nagels et al., 2011). The EPO-Fc fusion protein consists of EPO with a C-terminal-linked IgG-Fc domain and is used for pulmonary delivery of recombinant EPO to patients (Bitonti et al., 2004). Plant expressed EPO-Fc was quantified using a paramagnetic-particle chemiluminescent immunoassay and shown to be active in vitro via receptor binding experiments in HEK293T cells. Mass spectrometry-based N-glycan analysis confirmed the presence of multi-antennary N-glycans on plant-expressed EPO-Fc. The described research is the next step towards the development of a production platform for pharmaceutical proteins in plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioactive polyphenols from muscadine grape and blackcurrant stably concentrated onto protein-rich matrices for topical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plundrich, N; Grace, M H; Raskin, I; Ann Lila, M

    2013-08-01

    Natural botanical agents that are antimicrobial, or that modulate skin hyperpigmentation via tyrosinase inhibition, are increasingly sought in the cosmetic industry. In this study, an efficient tactic is demonstrated for concentrating and stabilizing skin-beneficial bioactive compounds from muscadine grape and blackcurrant juice or muscadine pomace, into hemp flour (HF), hemp protein isolate (HPI) and soy protein isolate (SPI) matrices suitable for cosmetic applications. Anthocyanins were most efficiently captured from blackcurrant juice into HF (8.39 mg g(-1) ). HPI most effectively captured total phenolics from muscadine pomace (72.32 and 77.32 mg g(-1) from Noble and Carlos, respectively), while the three matrices incorporated highest levels of ellagic acid, gallic acid, and PAC B1 from Noble muscadine grape juice. The enriched matrices demonstrated effective in vitro inhibition of tyrosinase (up to 57.29% for blackcurrant juice-HPI matrix), and in general, juice sources provided greater inhibition on L-dopamine oxidation by tyrosinase than pomace sources. The polyphenol-enriched matrices effectively inhibited microbial proliferation in a screening assay against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, whereas untreated HF, HPI or SPI did not inhibit bacterial growth. The technology of combining and stably concentrating phytoactive polyphenols with proteins has potential use for cosmetic topical applications. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identifying stably expressed housekeeping genes in the endometrium of fertile women, women with recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Linden; Cagampang, Felino; Cheong, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Housekeeping genes (HKG) are presumed to be constitutively expressed throughout tissue types but recent studies have shown they vary with pathophysiology. Often, validation of appropriate HKG is not made. There is no consensus on which HKGs are most stably expressed in endometrial tissue so this study aimed to identify the most stable HKG in the endometrium of women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent miscarriages (RM). Inclusion criteria were women between 25-45 years (n = 45) suffering recurrent miscarriage (RM), recurrent implantation failure (RIF) or fertile controls. Endometrial biopsies were taken and total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and PCR was performed using 10 candidate HKG. The genes were arranged in terms of stability and normalisation was determined. Several HKGs not previously tested in endometrial samples were found to be more stable than those previously identified as the most stable. Of these, the 5 most stable HKG (in order of stability) were Prdm4 (PR domain 4) > Ube4a (Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 4a) > Enox2 (Ecto-NOX Disulfide-Thiol Exchanger 2) > Ube2d2 (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 2) > Actb (Actin beta). We therefore recommend using at least four of the aforementioned HKG for normalisation of endometrial tissues taken from patients with RM and RIF.

  7. Extracellular matrix and hormones transcriptionally regulate bovine. beta. -casein 5 prime sequences in stably transfected mouse mammary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidhauser, C. Bissell, M.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Myers, C.A.; Casperson, G.F. (Monsanto Corporate Research, St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Milk protein regulation involves synergistic action of lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix (ECM). It is well established that substratum has a dramatic effect on morphology and function of mammary cells. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the ECM- and hormone-dependent gene expression, however, have not been resolved. To address this question, a subpopulation (designated CID 9) of the mouse mammary epithelial cell strain COMMA-2D has been developed in which more than 35% of the cells express {beta}-casein, form alveoli-like structures when plated onto a reconstituted basement membrane, and secrete {beta}-casein undirectionally into a lumen. These cells were stably transfected with a series of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes to study transcriptional regulation of the bovine {beta}-casein gene. The expression of CAT in these lines demonstrated a striking matrix and hormone dependency. This regulation occurered primarily at the transcriptional level and was dependent on the length of the 5{prime} flanking region of the {beta}-casein promotor. Both matrix and hormonal control of transcription occurred within at least the first 1790 base pairs upstream and/or 42 base pairs downstream of the transcriptional initiation site. The ECM effect was independent of glucocorticoid stimulation. However, prolactin was essential and hydrocortisone further increased CAT expression. Endogenous {beta}-casein expression in these lines was similar to that of the parent CID 9 cells. Our data indicate the existence of matrix-dependent elements that regulate transcription.

  8. Assessing Gravitropic Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Richard; Cox, Benjamin; Silber, Logan; Sangari, Arash; Assadi, Amir; Masson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was the first higher organism to have its genome sequenced and is now widely regarded as the model dicot. Like all plants, Arabidopsis develops distinct growth patterns in response to different environmental stimuli. This can be seen in the gravitropic response of roots. Methods to investigate this particular tropism are presented here. First, we describe a high-throughput time-lapse photographic analysis of root growth and curvature response to gravistimulation allowing the quantification of gravitropic kinetics and growth rate at high temporal resolution. Second, we present a protocol that allows a quantitative evaluation of gravitropic sensitivity using a homemade 2D clinostat. Together, these approaches allow an initial comparative analysis of the key phenomena associated with root gravitropism between different genotypes and/or accessions.

  9. Arabidopsis CAPRICE (MYB and GLABRA3 (bHLH control tomato (Solanum lycopersicum anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Wada

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC and the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3 are central regulators of root-hair differentiation and trichome initiation. By transforming the orthologous tomato genes SlTRY (CPC and SlGL3 (GL3 into Arabidopsis, we demonstrated that these genes influence epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis, suggesting that tomato and Arabidopsis partially use similar transcription factors for epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are also known to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. After transformation into tomato, 35S::CPC inhibited anthocyanin accumulation, whereas GL3::GL3 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes including Phe-ammonia lyase (PAL, the flavonoid pathway genes chalcone synthase (CHS, dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR, and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS were repressed in 35S::CPC tomato. In contrast, the expression levels of PAL, CHS, DFR, and ANS were significantly higher in GL3::GL3 tomato compared with control plants. These results suggest that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin pigment synthesis in tomato.

  10. AGROBEST: an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression method for versatile gene function analyses in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Kun-Hsiang; Wang, Yi-Chieh; Wu, Jing-Fen; Chiu, Wan-Ling; Chen, Chao-Ying; Wu, Shu-Hsing; Sheen, Jen; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-01-01

    Transient gene expression via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer offers a simple and fast method to analyze transgene functions. Although Arabidopsis is the most-studied model plant with powerful genetic and genomic resources, achieving highly efficient and consistent transient expression for gene function analysis in Arabidopsis remains challenging. We developed a highly efficient and robust Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system, named AGROBEST (Agrobacterium-mediated enhanced seedling transformation), which achieves versatile analysis of diverse gene functions in intact Arabidopsis seedlings. Using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assay, we show that the use of a specific disarmed Agrobacterium strain with vir gene pre-induction resulted in homogenous GUS staining in cotyledons of young Arabidopsis seedlings. Optimization with AB salts in plant culture medium buffered with acidic pH 5.5 during Agrobacterium infection greatly enhanced the transient expression levels, which were significantly higher than with two existing methods. Importantly, the optimized method conferred 100% infected seedlings with highly increased transient expression in shoots and also transformation events in roots of ~70% infected seedlings in both the immune receptor mutant efr-1 and wild-type Col-0 seedlings. Finally, we demonstrated the versatile applicability of the method for examining transcription factor action and circadian reporter-gene regulation as well as protein subcellular localization and protein-protein interactions in physiological contexts. AGROBEST is a simple, fast, reliable, and robust transient expression system enabling high transient expression and transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings. Demonstration of the proof-of-concept experiments elevates the transient expression technology to the level of functional studies in Arabidopsis seedlings in addition to previous applications in fluorescent

  11. AGROBEST: an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression method for versatile gene function analyses in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Transient gene expression via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer offers a simple and fast method to analyze transgene functions. Although Arabidopsis is the most-studied model plant with powerful genetic and genomic resources, achieving highly efficient and consistent transient expression for gene function analysis in Arabidopsis remains challenging. Results We developed a highly efficient and robust Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system, named AGROBEST (Agrobacterium-mediated enhanced seedling transformation), which achieves versatile analysis of diverse gene functions in intact Arabidopsis seedlings. Using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assay, we show that the use of a specific disarmed Agrobacterium strain with vir gene pre-induction resulted in homogenous GUS staining in cotyledons of young Arabidopsis seedlings. Optimization with AB salts in plant culture medium buffered with acidic pH 5.5 during Agrobacterium infection greatly enhanced the transient expression levels, which were significantly higher than with two existing methods. Importantly, the optimized method conferred 100% infected seedlings with highly increased transient expression in shoots and also transformation events in roots of ~70% infected seedlings in both the immune receptor mutant efr-1 and wild-type Col-0 seedlings. Finally, we demonstrated the versatile applicability of the method for examining transcription factor action and circadian reporter-gene regulation as well as protein subcellular localization and protein–protein interactions in physiological contexts. Conclusions AGROBEST is a simple, fast, reliable, and robust transient expression system enabling high transient expression and transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings. Demonstration of the proof-of-concept experiments elevates the transient expression technology to the level of functional studies in Arabidopsis seedlings in addition to previous

  12. Transmission of epi-alleles with MET1-dependent dense methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Watson

    Full Text Available DNA methylation in plants targets cytosines in three sequence contexts, CG, CHG and CHH (H representing A, C or T. Each of these patterns has traditionally been associated with distinct DNA methylation pathways with CHH methylation being controlled by the RNA dependent DNA methylation (RdDM pathway employing small RNAs as a guide for the de novo DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE (DRM2, and maintenance DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1 being responsible for faithful propagation of CG methylation. Here we report an unusual 'dense methylation' pattern under the control of MET1, with methylation in all three sequence contexts. We identified epi-alleles of dense methylation at a non coding RNA locus (At4g15242 in Arabidopsis ecotypes, with distinct dense methylation and expression characteristics, which are stably maintained and transmitted in genetic crosses and which can be heritably altered by depletion of MET1. This suggests that, in addition to its classical CG maintenance function, at certain loci MET1 plays a role in creating transcriptional diversity based on the generation of independent epi-alleles. Database inspection identified several other loci with MET1-dependent dense methylation patterns. Arabidopsis ecotypes contain distinct epi-alleles of these loci with expression patterns that inversely correlate with methylation density, predominantly within the transcribed region. In Arabidopsis, dense methylation appears to be an exception as it is only found at a small number of loci. Its presence does, however, highlight the potential for MET1 as a contributor to epigenetic diversity, and it will be interesting to investigate the representation of dense methylation in other plant species.

  13. Construction of stably maintained non-mobilizable derivatives of RSF1010 lacking all known elements essential for mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokmakova Irina L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RSF1010 is a well-studied broad-host-range plasmid able to be mobilized to different bacteria and plants. RSF1010-derived plasmid vectors are widely used in both basic research and industrial applications. In the latter case, exploiting of mobilizable plasmids or even the plasmids possessing negligible mobilization frequency, but containing DNA fragments that could promote conjugal transfer, is undesirable because of biosafety considerations. Previously, several mutations significantly decreasing efficiency of RSF1010 mobilization have been selected. Nevertheless, construction of the RSF1010 derivative lacking all known loci involved in the conjugal transfer has not been reported yet. Results Novel non-mobilizable derivatives of RSF1010 lacking all known DNA sequences involved in the mobilization process have been obtained due to the exploiting of λRed-driven recombination between the plasmid and a constructed in vitro linear DNA fragment. To provide auto-regulated transcription of the essential replication gene, repB, the plasmid loci oriT, mobC and mobA were substituted by the DNA fragment containing PlacUV5→lacI. Mobilization of the obtained RSFmob plasmid was not detected in standard tests. The derivative of RSFmob with increased copy number has been obtained after lacI elimination. High stability of both constructed plasmids has been demonstrated in Escherichia coli and Pantoea ananatis. Design of RSFmob allows easy substitution of PlacUV5 by any desirable promoter for construction of novel derivatives with changed copy number or host range. Conclusion Novel non-mobilizable derivatives of RSF1010 lacking all known DNA sequences involved in the mobilization process and stably maintained at least in E. coli and P. ananatis have been constructed. The obtained plasmids became the progenitors of new cloning vectors answering all biosafety requirements of genetically modified organisms used in scale-up production.

  14. Generation and preclinical immunogenicity study of dengue type 2 virus-like particles derived from stably transfected mosquito cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphatrakul, Amporn; Yasanga, Thippawan; Keelapang, Poonsook; Sriburi, Rungtawan; Roytrakul, Thaneeya; Pulmanausahakul, Rojjanaporn; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Kawilapan, Yanee; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Yoksan, Sutee; Auewarakul, Prasert; Malasit, Prida; Charoensri, Nicha; Sittisombut, Nopporn

    2015-10-13

    Recent phase IIb/III trials of a tetravalent live attenuated vaccine candidate revealed a need for improvement in the stimulation of protective immunity against diseases caused by dengue type 2 virus (DENV-2). Our attempts to develop particulate antigens for possibly supplementing live attenuated virus preparation involve generation and purification of recombinant DENV-2 virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from stably (prM+E)-expressing mosquito cells. Two VLP preparations generated with either negligible or enhanced prM cleavage exhibited different proportions of spherical particles and tubular particles of variable lengths. In BALB/c mice, VLPs were moderately immunogenic, requiring adjuvants for the induction of strong virus neutralizing antibody responses. VLPs with enhanced prM cleavage induced higher levels of neutralizing antibody than those without, but the stimulatory activity of both VLPs was similar in the presence of adjuvants. Comparison of EDIII-binding antibodies in mice following two adjuvanted doses of these VLPs revealed subtle differences in the stimulation of anti-EDIII binding antibodies. In cynomolgus macaques, VLPs with enhanced prM cleavage augmented strongly neutralizing antibody and EDIII-binding antibody responses in live attenuated virus-primed recipients, suggesting that these DENV-2 VLPs may be useful as the boosting antigen in prime-boost immunization. As the levels of neutralizing antibody induced in macaques with the prime-boost immunization were comparable to those infected with wild type virus, this virus-prime VLP-boost regimen may provide an immunization platform in which a need for robust neutralizing antibody response in the protection against DENV-2-associated illnesses could be tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Nav1.9 Voltage Dependent Sodium Channels Stably Expressed in HEK-293 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Lin

    Full Text Available The voltage dependent sodium channel Nav1.9, is expressed preferentially in peripheral sensory neurons and has been linked to human genetic pain disorders, which makes it target of interest for the development of new pain therapeutics. However, characterization of Nav1.9 pharmacology has been limited due in part to the historical difficulty of functionally expressing recombinant channels. Here we report the successful generation and characterization of human, mouse and rat Nav1.9 stably expressed in human HEK-293 cells. These cells exhibit slowly activating and inactivating inward sodium channel currents that have characteristics of native Nav1.9. Optimal functional expression was achieved by coexpression of Nav1.9 with β1/β2 subunits. While recombinantly expressed Nav1.9 was found to be sensitive to sodium channel inhibitors TC-N 1752 and tetracaine, potency was up to 100-fold less than reported for other Nav channel subtypes despite evidence to support an interaction with the canonical local anesthetic (LA binding region on Domain 4 S6. Nav1.9 Domain 2 S6 pore domain contains a unique lysine residue (K799 which is predicted to be spatially near the local anesthetic interaction site. Mutation of this residue to the consensus asparagine (K799N resulted in an increase in potency for tetracaine, but a decrease for TC-N 1752, suggesting that this residue can influence interaction of inhibitors with the Nav1.9 pore. In summary, we have shown that stable functional expression of Nav1.9 in the widely used HEK-293 cells is possible, which opens up opportunities to better understand channel properties and may potentially aid identification of novel Nav1.9 based pharmacotherapies.

  16. Establishment of a human cell line stably overexpressing mouse Nip45 and characterization of Nip45 subcellular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Kohtaro; Ozaki, Masumi; Kuraoka, Isao; Saitoh, Hisato

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A human cell line expressing a mouse Nip45 has facilitated Nip45 analysis. ► Nip45 does not effectively inhibit polySUMOylation in vivo. ► Nip45 interacts directly with SUMO and SUMO chains. ► Nip45 accumulates at PML bodies in response to proteasome inhibition. -- Abstract: The nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin dependent 2 interacting protein, Nfatc2ip (Nip45), has been implicated as a crucial coordinator of the immune response and of cellular differentiation in humans and mice, and contains SUMO-like domains in its C-terminal region. However, the significance of its N-terminal region and its correlation to the SUMO modification pathway remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, a human cultured cell line was established, in which FLAG-tagged mouse Nip45 (FLAG-mNip45) was stably overexpressed. Under standard, non-stressful conditions, we detected FLAG-mNip45 diffusely distributed in the nucleus. Intriguingly, proteasome inhibition by MG132 caused FLAG-mNip45, together with SUMOylated proteins, to localize in nuclear domains associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein. Finally, using an in vitro binding assay, we showed interaction of the N-terminal region of mNip45 with both free SUMO-3 and SUMO-3 chains, indicating that Nip45 may, in part, exert its function via interaction with SUMO/SUMOylated proteins. Taken together, our study provides novel information on a poorly characterized mammalian protein and suggests that our newly established cell line will be useful for elucidating the physiological role of Nip45.

  17. Reference: 153 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rnando et al. 2005 Jan. Plant Physiol. 137(1):70-82. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) L. Heynh mutant d...no acid biosynthesis and enhanced growth. 1 70-82 15618410 2005 Jan Plant physiology Balbo Ilse|Carrari Fern

  18. Reference: 322 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available neko et al. 2006 Feb. Plant Physiol. 140(2):591-602. Hypocotyl segments of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana...gene, ROOT PRIMORDIUM DEFECTIVE 1, is required for the maintenance of active cell proliferation. 2 591-602 16407439 2006 Feb Plant physiology Konishi Mineko|Sugiyama Munetaka

  19. Reference: 208 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oshiteru et al. 2005 Jul. Plant Cell Physiol. 46(7):1165-72. We isolated an Arabidopsis albino and pale gree... in histidine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. 7 1165-72 15870096 2005 Jul Plant & cell physiology Ito Takuya|Noutoshi Yoshiteru|Shinozaki Kazuo

  20. Reference: 537 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ukika et al. 2007 Mar. Plant Cell Physiol. 48(3):555-61. Gibberellin levels in imbibed Arabidopsis thaliana ...uppression of germination of dark-imbibed Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. 3 555-61 17289793 2007 Mar Plant & cell physio

  1. Reference: 218 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thea et al. 2005 Jun. Plant J. 42(5):757-71. Despite the fact that Arabidopsis is largely self-pollinating, its flowers...nsible for the complex mixture of sesquiterpenes emitted from Arabidopsis flowers. 5 757-71 15918888 2005 Ju

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070842 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070842 J023074O14 At4g35000.1 L-ascorbate peroxidase 3 (APX3) identical to ascorbat...e peroxidase 3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2444019, L-ascorbate peroxidase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|1523791...|emb|CAA66926; similar to ascorbate peroxidase [Gossypium hirsutum] gi|1019946|gb|AAB52954 1e-112 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK108458 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108458 002-143-D05 At4g35000.1 L-ascorbate peroxidase 3 (APX3) identical to ascorbat...e peroxidase 3 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2444019, L-ascorbate peroxidase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|152379...1|emb|CAA66926; similar to ascorbate peroxidase [Gossypium hirsutum] gi|1019946|gb|AAB52954 2e-35 ...

  4. Using "Arabidopsis" Genetic Sequences to Teach Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to teaching bioinformatics using "Arabidopsis" genetic sequences. Several open-ended and inquiry-based laboratory exercises have been designed to help students grasp key concepts and gain practical skills in bioinformatics, using "Arabidopsis" leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR…

  5. Reference: 255 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ases, AtIPK1 and AtIPK2beta, for the later steps of phytate synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Coincident disruption...olyphosphate kinases in phosphate signaling biology. Generation of phytate-free seeds in Arabidopsis through disruption

  6. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  7. A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite considerable breeding efforts, highly resistant wheat or barley cultivars are not available. We screened an activation tagged Arabidopsis thaliana population for resistance to trichothecin (Tcin, a type B trichothecene in the same class as DON. Here we show that one of the resistant lines identified, trichothecene resistant 1 (trr1 contains a T-DNA insertion upstream of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP genes, AtLTP4.4 and AtLTP4.5. Expression of both nsLTP genes was induced in trr1 over 10-fold relative to wild type. Overexpression of AtLTP4.4 provided greater resistance to Tcin than AtLTP4.5 in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae relative to wild type or vector transformed lines, suggesting a conserved protection mechanism. Tcin treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in Arabidopsis and ROS stain was associated with the chloroplast, the cell wall and the apoplast. ROS levels were attenuated in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls. Exogenous addition of glutathione and other antioxidants enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Tcin while the addition of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, increased sensitivity, suggesting that resistance was mediated by glutathione. Total glutathione content was significantly higher in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls, highlighting the importance of AtLTP4.4 in maintaining the redox state. These results demonstrate that trichothecenes cause ROS accumulation and overexpression of AtLTP4.4 protects against trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione

  8. Characteristics of stably expressed human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors: atypical behavior of the dopamine D1b receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U B; Norby, B; Jensen, Anders A.

    1994-01-01

    Human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stably expressed in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]SCH23390 saturation experiments indicated the presence of only a single binding site in the D1a expressing cell line with a Kd of 0.5 nM. In D1b expressing cell lines...

  9. Expression of calmodulin and calmodulin binding proteins in rat fibroblasts stably transfected with protein kinase C and oncogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Q; Wei, Y; Fischer, R

    1997-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms leading to elevated calmodulin (CaM) expression in cancer have not yet been discovered. We have quantitated the levels of transcripts derived from all three CaM genes in a variety of the same origin rat fibroblasts transformed with oncogenes in combination with gene for prote...

  10. Expression of calmodulin and calmodulin binding proteins in rat fibroblasts stably transfected with protein kinase C and oncogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Q; Wei, Y; Fischer, R

    1997-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms leading to elevated calmodulin (CaM) expression in cancer have not yet been discovered. We have quantitated the levels of transcripts derived from all three CaM genes in a variety of the same origin rat fibroblasts transformed with oncogenes in combination with gene for protein...

  11. Reference: 207 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e have isolated an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ispH null mutant that has an albino phenotype and have... generated Arabidopsis transgenic lines showing various albino patterns caused by IspH transgene-induced gen...e silencing. The initiation of albino phenotypes rendered by IspH gene silencing ...can arise independently from multiple sites of the same plant. After a spontaneous initiation, the albino ph...on site. The development of chloroplasts is severely impaired in the IspH-deficient albino

  12. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...

  13. Plant Transformation by Coinoculation with a Disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strain and an Escherichia coli Strain Carrying Mobilizable Transgenes

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Katherine M.; Winans, Stephen C.

    2003-01-01

    Transformation of Nicotiana tabacum leaf explants was attempted with Escherichia coli as a DNA donor either alone or in combination with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We constructed E. coli donor strains harboring either the promiscuous IncP-type or IncN-type conjugal transfer system and second plasmids containing the respective origins of transfer and plant-selectable markers. Neither of these conjugation systems was able to stably transform plant cells at detectable levels, even when VirE2 was...

  14. Systemic acquired resistance in soybean is regulated by two proteins, Orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Devinder

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is induced in non-inoculated leaves following infection with certain pathogenic strains. SAR is effective against many pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA is a signaling molecule of the SAR pathway. The development of SAR is associated with the induction of pathogenesis related (PR genes. Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1 is a regulatory gene of the SA signal pathway 123. SAR in soybean was first reported following infection with Colletotrichum trancatum that causes anthracnose disease. We investigated if SAR in soybean is regulated by a pathway, similar to the one characterized in Arabidopsis. Results Pathogenesis-related gene GmPR1 is induced following treatment of soybean plants with the SAR inducer, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA or infection with the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. In P. sojae-infected plants, SAR was induced against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. Soybean GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes showed high identities to Arabidopsis NPR1. They showed similar expression patterns among the organs, studied in this investigation. GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 are the only soybean homologues of NPR1and are located in homoeologous regions. In GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 transformed Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutant plants, SAR markers: (i PR-1 was induced following INA treatment and (ii BGL2 following infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst, and SAR was induced following Pst infection. Of the five cysteine residues, Cys82, Cys150, Cys155, Cys160, and Cys216 involved in oligomer-monomer transition in NPR1, Cys216 in GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 proteins was substituted to Ser and Leu, respectively. Conclusion Complementation analyses in Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutants revealed that homoeologous GmNPR1-1 and GmNPR1-2 genes are orthologous to Arabidopsis NPR1. Therefore, SAR pathway in soybean is most likely regulated by GmNPR1 genes. Substitution of Cys216 residue, essential

  15. The COP9 signalosome interacts with SCF UFO and participates in Arabidopsis flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiping; Feng, Suhua; Nakayama, Naomi; Crosby, W L; Irish, Vivian; Deng, Xing Wang; Wei, Ning

    2003-05-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is involved in multiple developmental processes. It interacts with SCF ubiquitin ligases and deconjugates Nedd8/Rub1 from cullins (deneddylation). CSN is highly expressed in Arabidopsis floral tissues. To investigate the role of CSN in flower development, we examined the expression pattern of CSN in developing flowers. We report here that two csn1 partially deficient Arabidopsis strains exhibit aberrant development of floral organs, decline of APETALA3 (AP3) expression, and low fertility in addition to defects in shoot and inflorescence meristems. We show that UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) forms a SCF(UFO) complex, which is associated with CSN in vivo. Genetic interaction analysis indicates that CSN is necessary for the gain-of-function activity of the F-box protein UFO in AP3 activation and in floral organ transformation. Compared with the previously reported csn5 antisense and csn1 null mutants, partial deficiency of CSN1 causes a reduction in the level of CUL1 in the mutant flowers without an obvious defect in CUL1 deneddylation. We conclude that CSN is an essential regulator of Arabidopsis flower development and suggest that CSN regulates Arabidopsis flower development in part by modulating SCF(UFO)-mediated AP3 activation.

  16. [Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana thioesterase gene in Pichia pastoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhaocheng; Wang, Tengfei; Li, Zhongkui; Hao, Zikai; Dai, Kun; Wang, Ruiming

    2015-01-01

    Thioesterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-ACP and saturated fatty acyl chain. It plays a key role in the accumulation of medium chain fatty acids in vivo. In this study, to construct an engineering strain to produce MCFAs, the Arabidopsis acyl-ACP thioesterase gene AtFatA was amplified by PCR from cDNA of arabidopsis and double digested by EcoR I/Xba I, then linked to the plasmid digested with same enzymes to get the recombinant plasmid pPICZaA-AtFatA. We transformed the gene into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation and screened positive colonies by YPD medium with Zeocin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that the recombinant enzyme had a molecular of 45 kDa band which was consistent with the predicted molecular mass and we constructed the expression system of gene AtFatA in fungus for the first time. Under shake-flask conditions, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer-computer results indicated that recombinant strain produced 51% more extracellular free MCFAs than the wild and its yield reached 28.7% of all extracellular fatty acids. This figure is 10% higher than the control group. The result provides a new way to produce MCFAs.

  17. Teslin transformator

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanić, Doron

    2015-01-01

    U ovom radu se dotiče povijest transformatora. Općenito je obrađen transformator kao električni uređaj s naglaskom na to kako i što koji elementi rade te je obješnjen princip njegovog rada s matematičkim opisom. Teslin je transformator na isti način detaljnije opisan, uz širi proračun njegovih elemenata.

  18. Covariant Transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisil, Vladimir V, E-mail: kisilv@maths.leeds.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H{sub 2}, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

  19. Landscape transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2014-01-01

    In my work, titled Landscape transformation, in the first theoretical-art part, I focus on a landscape painting style in fifteen exposed works, done by different authors. While analyzing depictions of the landscape I establish how the development of photography has in any way affected the transformation of the landscape. In the practical part I describe my work, soft ground graphics with the motive of the landscape, mountain landscape and caves. I devoted the last chapter of my thesis to the ...

  20. GnRH receptor activation competes at a low level with growth signaling in stably transfected human breast cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Kevin; Meyer, Colette; Miller, Nicola; Sims, Andrew H; Cagnan, Ilgin; Faratian, Dana; Harrison, David J; Millar, Robert P; Langdon, Simon P

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs lower estrogen levels in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients. GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) activation also directly inhibits the growth of certain cells. The applicability of GnRH anti-proliferation to breast cancer was therefore analyzed. GnRH-R expression in 298 primary breast cancer samples was measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Levels of functional GnRH-R in breast-derived cell lines were assessed using 125 I-ligand binding and stimulation of 3 H-inositol phosphate production. Elevated levels of GnRH-R were stably expressed in cells by transfection. Effects of receptor activation on in vitro cell growth were investigated in comparison with IGF-I and EGF receptor inhibition, and correlated with intracellular signaling using western blotting. GnRH-R immunoscoring was highest in hormone receptor (triple) negative and grade 3 breast tumors. However prior to transfection, functional endogenous GnRH-R were undetectable in four commonly studied breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T47D and MDA-MB-231). After transfection with GnRH-R, high levels of cell surface GnRH-R were detected in SVCT and MDA-MB-231 clones while low-moderate levels of GnRH-R occurred in MCF-7 clones and ZR-75-1 clones. MCF-7 sub-clones with high levels of GnRH-R were isolated following hygromycin phosphotransferase transfection. High level cell surface GnRH-R enabled induction of high levels of 3 H-inositol phosphate and modest growth-inhibition in SVCT cells. In contrast, growth of MCF-7, ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-231 clones was unaffected by GnRH-R activation. Cell growth was inhibited by IGF-I or EGF receptor inhibitors. IGF-I receptor inhibitor lowered levels of p-ERK1/2 in MCF-7 clones. Washout of IGF-I receptor inhibitor resulted in transient hyper-elevation of p-ERK1/2, but co-addition of GnRH-R agonist did not alter the dynamics of ERK1/2 re-phosphorylation. Breast cancers exhibit a range of GnRH-R immunostaining, with higher levels of

  1. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing Tomato Glutathione S-Transferase Showed Enhanced Resistance to Salt and Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Xing, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Xue, Yong; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Although glutathione S-transferases (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) are involved in response to abiotic stress, limited information is available regarding gene function in tomato. In this study, a GST gene from tomato, designated LeGSTU2, was cloned and functionally characterized. Expression profile analysis results showed that it was expressed in roots and flowers, and the transcription was induced by salt, osmotic, and heat stress. The gene was then introduced to Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were normal in terms of growth and maturity compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic plants also showed an enhanced resistance to salt and osmotic stress induced by NaCl and mannitol. The increased tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the changes in proline, malondialdehyde and antioxidative emzymes activities. Our results indicated that the gene from tomato plays a positive role in improving tolerance to salinity and drought stresses in Arabidopsis.

  2. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing Tomato Glutathione S-Transferase Showed Enhanced Resistance to Salt and Drought Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available Although glutathione S-transferases (GST, EC 2.5.1.18 are involved in response to abiotic stress, limited information is available regarding gene function in tomato. In this study, a GST gene from tomato, designated LeGSTU2, was cloned and functionally characterized. Expression profile analysis results showed that it was expressed in roots and flowers, and the transcription was induced by salt, osmotic, and heat stress. The gene was then introduced to Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were normal in terms of growth and maturity compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic plants also showed an enhanced resistance to salt and osmotic stress induced by NaCl and mannitol. The increased tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the changes in proline, malondialdehyde and antioxidative emzymes activities. Our results indicated that the gene from tomato plays a positive role in improving tolerance to salinity and drought stresses in Arabidopsis.

  3. Reference: 39 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available membrane proteins that is evolutionarily conserved among higher plants. The enzym...nimal extracellular matrix are synthesized by evolutionarily related enzymes even... gene of Arabidopsis encodes a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase that is evolutionarily related to animal exo

  4. Reference: 368 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al. 2006 May. Plant Cell 18(5):1213-25. To investigate how and when sister chromatid cohesion is released f...rom chromosomes in plants, we isolated the Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of separase (AESP) and investigated

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243192 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243192 J100039M06 At3g20330.1 68416.m02576 aspartate carabmoyltransferase, chloro...loroplast precursor (EC 2.1.3.2) (Aspartate transcarbamylase) (ATCase) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 3e-22 ...

  6. Reference: 150 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ridization, Pht1;4 was found mainly expressed in inorgan...physiological characterization of Arabidopsis pht1;4 high affinity phosphate transporter mutants. Using GUS-gene trap and in situ hyb

  7. Reference: 504 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o et al. 2007 Feb. Plant Cell Physiol. 48(2):375-80. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes a small family ... 17202180 2007 Feb Plant & cell physiology Iwama Ayako|Kakimoto Tatsuo|Kato Tomoh

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119708 002-157-E08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060981 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060981 006-202-H08 At1g28330.1 dormancy-associated protein, putative (DRM1) identical to dormancy...-associated protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2995990; similar to dormancy-associated protei

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK099152 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099152 J023070H02 At4g01900.1 P II nitrogen sensing protein (GLB I) identical to P II nitrogen... sensing protein GLB I (GI:7268574) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to nitrogen regulatory prot

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068407 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068407 J013149B08 At4g01900.1 P II nitrogen sensing protein (GLB I) identical to P II nitrogen... sensing protein GLB I (GI:7268574) [Arabidopsis thaliana]; similar to nitrogen regulatory prot

  12. Reference: 643 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lament disruption and cytoplasmic disorganisation in the tip growth zone. Mutant ...that plant CAP has evolved to attain plant-specific signalling functions. Arabidopsis CAP1 - a key regulator of actin organisation

  13. Reference: 645 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rter AtDUR3 in nitrogen nutrition in Arabidopsis. In transgenic lines expressing ... impaired growth on urea as a sole nitrogen source were used to investigate a role of the H+/urea co-transpo

  14. Reference: 758 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ol for future investigations into the biological roles of RLPs. A genome-wide fun...ctional investigation into the roles of receptor-like proteins in Arabidopsis. 2 503-17 18434605 2008 Jun Pl

  15. Reference: 572 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available largely unknown. Here, we examined the functional roles of GRP2 in Arabidopsis t...under cold stress. These results provide new evidence indicating that GRP2 plays important roles in seed ger

  16. Reference: 681 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inity and abscisic acid, suggesting that these genes play specific roles in the control of proline biosynthe...icated P5CS genes of Arabidopsis play distinct roles in stress regulation and dev

  17. Reference: 627 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omal processing protease (GPP) from the fat-storing cotyledons of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) by column ...ptidase, and a Lon-protease. Specific antibodies against the peroxisomal Deg-protease from Arabidopsis (Deg15) identify the watermelo

  18. Reference: 107 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available duction in hypocotyl elongation in the dark, demonstrating a role for endospermic TAG reserves in fueling sk...ve mobilization in the Arabidopsis endosperm fuels hypocotyl elongation in the dark, is independent of absci

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At3g03050.1 68416.m00301 cellulose synthase family protein (CslD3) similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose syntha

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At3g03050.1 68416.m00301 cellulose synthase family protein (CslD3) similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose syntha

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110467 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110467 002-166-G08 At3g03050.1 cellulose synthase family protein (CslD3) similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-7 (gi:962

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066835 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066835 J013087I16 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-171 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102695 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102695 J033103F21 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At3g03050.1 68416.m00301 cellulose synthase family protein (CslD3) similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose syntha

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK100523 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100523 J023100P04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065259 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065259 J013002J18 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102134 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102134 J033085F12 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  8. Reference: 21 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ication of a number of mutant lines with altered Chl fluorescence characteristics. Analysis of photosynthesis...cation of mutants of Arabidopsis defective in acclimation of photosynthesis to th

  9. Reference: 789 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylakoid membranes. Microarray analysis of the chl27-t mutant showed repression of numerous nuclear genes involved in photosynthesis...d CHL27 proteins. Role of Arabidopsis CHL27 protein for photosynthesis, chloroplast development and gene exp

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242788 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3) identical to transcription factor 3 (TCP3) [Arabidopsis thaliana] (GI:3243274); similar to flower development protein cycloidea (cyc3) GI:6358611 from [Misopates orontium] 8e-22 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241658 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3) identical to transcription factor 3 (TCP3) [Arabidopsis thaliana] (GI:3243274); similar to flower development protein cycloidea (cyc3) GI:6358611 from [Misopates orontium] 1e-41 ...

  12. Reference: 241 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available development of Arabidopsis thaliana. 9 2473-85 16024589 2005 Sep The Plant cell Bevan Mike|Calderon-Villalobos Luz I A|Dohmann Esther M N|Kuhnle Carola|Li Hanbing|Schwechheimer Claus

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101318 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101318 J033034D12 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multipl...ication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-125 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK066854 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066854 J013075C10 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multipl...ication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-119 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104882 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104882 001-044-H04 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multip...lication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-119 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061395 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061395 006-305-E02 At2g02180.1 tobamovirus multiplication protein 3 (TOM3) identical to tobamovirus multip...lication protein (TOM3) GI:15425641 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-125 ...

  17. Reference: 313 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ze that LEA proteins act by mitigating water loss and maintaining cellular stability within the desiccated seed, although the mechani...sms of their actions remain largely unknown. The model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidops

  18. The fifth international conference on Arabidopsis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangarter, R.; Scholl, R.; Davis, K.; Feldmann, K.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations made in conjunction with the Fifth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research held August 19--22, 1993 at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

  19. Populus: arabidopsis for forestry. Do we need a model tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gail

    2002-12-01

    Trees are used to produce a variety of wood-based products including timber, pulp and paper. More recently, their use as a source of renewable energy has also been highlighted, as has their value for carbon mitigation within the Kyoto Protocol. Relative to food crops, the domestication of trees has only just begun; the long generation time and complex nature of juvenile and mature growth forms are contributory factors. To accelerate domestication, and to understand further some of the unique processes that occur in woody plants such as dormancy and secondary wood formation, a 'model' tree is needed. Here it is argued that Populus is rapidly becoming accepted as the 'model' woody plant and that such a 'model' tree is necessary to complement the genetic resource being developed in arabidopsis. The genus Populus (poplars, cottonwoods and aspens) contains approx. 30 species of woody plant, all found in the Northern hemisphere and exhibiting some of the fastest growth rates observed in temperate trees. Populus is fulfilling the 'model' role for a number of reasons. First, and most important, is the very recent commitment to sequence the Populus genome, a project initiated in February 2002. This will be the first woody plant to be sequenced. Other reasons include the relatively small genome size (450-550 Mbp) of Populus, the large number of molecular genetic maps and the ease of genetic transformation. Populus may also be propagated vegetatively, making mapping populations immortal and facilitating the production of large amounts of clonal material for experimentation. Hybridization occurs routinely and, in these respects, Populus has many similarities to arabidopsis. However, Populus also differs from arabidopsis in many respects, including being dioecious, which makes selfing and back-cross manipulations impossible. The long time-to-flower is also a limitation, whilst physiological and biochemical experiments are more readily conducted in Populus compared with the

  20. An efficient procedure to stably introduce genes into an economically important pulp tree (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Vincent; Grat, Sabine; Marque, Christiane; El Kayal, Walid; Penchel, Ricardo; de Andrade, Gisele; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Teulières, Chantal

    2003-08-01

    Regeneration problems are one of the main limitations preventing the wider application of genetic engineering strategies to the genus Eucalyptus. Seedlings from Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla were selected according to their regeneration (adventitious organogenesis) and transformation capacity. After in vitro cloning, the best genotype of 250 tested was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) antisense cDNA from Eucalyptus gunnii was transferred, under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter with a double enhancer sequence, into a selected genotype. According to kanamycin resistance and PCR verification, 120 transformants were generated. 58% were significantly inhibited for CAD activity, and nine exhibited the highest down-regulation, ranging from 69 to 78% (22% residual activity). Southern blot hybridisation showed a low transgene copy number, ranging from 1 to 4, depending on the transgenic line. Northern analyses on the 5-16 and 3-23 lines (respectively one and two insertion sites) demonstrated the antisense origin of CAD gene inhibition. With respectively 26 and 22% of residual CAD activity, these two lines were considered as the most interesting and transferred to the greenhouse for further analyses.

  1. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Saez-Aguayo; Corinne Rondeau-Mouro; Audrey Macquet; Ilkka Kronholm; Marie-Christine Ralet; Adeline Berger; Christine Sallé; Damien Poulain; Fabienne Granier; Lucy Botran; Olivier Loudet; Juliette de Meaux; Annie Marion-Poll; Helen M North

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was mod...

  2. Local Evolution of Seed Flotation in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Saez Aguayo, S.; Rondeau Mouro, C.; Macquet, A.; Kronholm, I.; Ralet, M.C.; Berger, A.; Sallé, C.; Poulain, D.; Granier, F.; Botran, L.; Loudet, O.; De Meaux, J.; Marion-Poll, A.; North, H.; Botran, L.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was mod...

  3. Isolation and characterization of three fungi with the potential of transforming glycyrrhizin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Guo, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Qi, Feng; Feng, Shi-Jiang; Li, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Three fungi with different types of transformation of glycyrrhizin (GL) were isolated from the soil samples of glycyrrhiza glabra planting area in China. According to their morphologies and 18 S rDNA gene sequence analysis, the three fungi were identified and named as Penicillium purpurogenum Li-3, Aspergillus terreus Li-20 and Aspergillus ustus Li-62. Transforming products analysis by TLC and HPLC-MS indicated that P. purpurogenum Li-3, A. terreus Li-20 and A. ustus Li-62 could stably transform GL into GAMG, GAMG and GA, and GA, respectively. P. purpurogenum Li-3 was especially valuable to directly prepare GAMG for applications in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented. PMID:24465172

  5. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  6. Accumulation and phytotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xinping; Ye, Chengchen; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is widely used in the manufacture of many industrial and household products. To assess the potential environmental risk of PFOA, its accumulation, translocation and phytotoxic effects were investigated using the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Exposure to 18 μM PFOA-F in agar plates did not affect plant growth, but 181–1811 μM PFOA-F inhibited root and shoot growth. PFOA was more phytotoxic on shoot growth than NaF at the equivalent F concentration, with the latter having 3.9–7.6 times higher EC50 for shoot biomass than PFOA. PFOA was efficiently translocated from roots to shoots, where it existed as intact PFOA molecules without transformation evidenced by the 19 F NMR spectra. PFOA caused a significant increase in the concentration of H 2 O 2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) in shoots, indicating that oxidative stress is a likely cause of PFOA phytotoxicity. - Highlights: • PFOA is more phytotoxic on shoot growth than NaF at the equivalent F concentration. • PFOA is readily taken up and translocated from roots to shoots. • PFOA exists as intact molecules without transformation in Arabidopsis shoots. • PFOA causes oxidative stress in Arabidopsis shoots. - Perfluorooctanoic acid causes oxidative stress and is more phytotoxic on shoot growth than inorganic fluoride at the equivalent F concentration.

  7. Transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccetta-Chapnick, M

    1996-01-01

    Rapid changes in the health care system have caused competition among institutions, as organizations are restructured to increase client satisfaction, resulting in the need for a new style of leadership. The transformational leader communicates the mission and vision of the organization and empowers others to effectively resolve conflicts that may arise with change. The health care team that can cope with changes and conflicts views restructuring as a positive transaction and approaches client satisfaction with energy and motivation. Institutions with transformational leadership are the ones that will survive the transition.

  8. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  9. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  10. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  11. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an understand......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......, as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  12. EMF1, a novel protein involved in the control of shoot architecture and flowering in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, D.; Chen, L.; Moon, Y.-H.

    2001-01-01

    shares common motifs that include nuclear localization signals, P-loop, and LXXLL elements. Alteration of EMF1 expression in transgenic plants caused progressive changes in flowering time, shoot determinacy, and inflorescence architecture. EMF1 and its related sequence may belong to a new class......Shoot architecture and flowering time in angiosperms depend on the balanced expression of a large number of flowering time and flower meristem identity genes. Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis EMBRYONIC FLOWER (EMF) genes cause Arabidopsis to eliminate rosette shoot growth and transform...... the apical meristem from indeterminate to determinate growth by producing a single terminal flower on all nodes. We have identified the EMF1 gene by positional cloning. The deduced polypeptide has no homology with any protein of known function except a putative protein in the rice genome with which EMF1...

  13. Physical methods for the transformation of plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oard, J H

    1991-01-01

    Transfer and expression of foreign genes in adult plants and their progeny has been achieved by acceleration of DNA-coated particles or microinjection techniques. Cultured cells or embryoids served as targets for the introduction of marker genes that were stably expressed in the nucleus or the chloroplast. Cloned genes from the maize anthocyanin pathway were regulated in a tissue-specific manner when transferred into maize by particle acceleration. In spite of these successes, stable transformation efficiency was low due to uneven particle distribution and cell death after bombardment. Transferred genes did not always segregate in a Mendelian fashion in the succeeding generation, and additional efforts of embryo rescue or shoot grafts were needed to obtain viable progeny from original transformants. New technical advances such as the helium-driven particle gun may improve transformation rates in the future, but some problems of cell manipulation remain.

  14. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Shipp, Jessie; Hamilton, George A.; Morgan, Jennifer L.L.; Keebaugh, Michael; Hill, Hansina; Dutta, Arnab; Zhuo, Xiaoding; Upadhyay, Nabin; Hutchings, James; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D.; Shock, Everett; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3–67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. -- Highlights: ► Iron nanoparticles were synthesized and assessed for bioavailability to Arabidopsis. ► Arabidopsis grew better in the presence of EDTA-bound iron than nanoparticulate iron. ► Arabidopsis grew the same in the presence of nanoparticulate iron compared to no iron. -- Synthesized iron nanoparticles were not bioavailable to Arabidopsis thaliana in agar nutrient media

  15. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  16. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  17. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  18. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  19. A multi-colour/multi-affinity marker set to visualize phosphoinositide dynamics in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mathilde Laetitia Audrey; Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Assil, Sonia; van Wijk, Ringo; Chen, William Yawei; Chory, Joanne; Dreux, Marlène; Munnik, Teun; Jaillais, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    Summary Phosphatidylinositolphosphates (PIPs) are phospholipids that contain a phosphorylated inositol head group. PIPs represent a minor fraction of the total phospholipids, yet they are involved in many regulatory processes such as cell signalling and intracellular trafficking. Membrane compartments are enriched or depleted in specific PIPs, which constitute a signature for these compartments and contribute to their identity. The precise subcellular localisation and dynamics of most PIP species is not fully understood in plants. Here, we designed genetically encoded biosensors with distinct relative affinities and expressed them stably in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of this multi-affinity “PIPline” marker set revealed previously unrecognized localisation for various PIPs in root epidermis. Notably, we found that PI(4,5)P2 is able to drive PIP2-interacting protein domains to the plasma membrane in non-stressed root epidermal cells. Our analysis further revealed that there is a gradient of PI4P, with the highest concentration at the plasma membrane, intermediate concentration in post-Golgi/endosomal compartments and lowest concentration in the Golgi. Finally, we also uncovered that there is a similar gradient of PI3P from high in late endosomes to low in the tonoplast. All together our library extends the palette of available PIP biosensors and should promote rapid progress in our understanding of PIP dynamics in plants. PMID:24147788

  20. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara Elizabeth

    2016-05-11

    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  1. Characterization of a human cell line stably over-expressing the candidate oncogene, dual specificity phosphatase 12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Cain

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of chromosomal rearrangements within primary tumors has been influential in the identification of novel oncogenes. Identification of the "driver" gene(s within cancer-derived amplicons is, however, hampered by the fact that most amplicons contain many gene products. Amplification of 1q21-1q23 is strongly associated with liposarcomas and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization narrowed down the likely candidate oncogenes to two: the activating transcription factor 6 (atf6 and the dual specificity phosphatase 12 (dusp12. While atf6 is an established transcriptional regulator of the unfolded protein response, the potential role of dusp12 in cancer remains uncharacterized.To evaluate the oncogenic potential of dusp12, we established stable cell lines that ectopically over-express dusp12 in isolation and determined whether this cell line acquired properties frequently associated with transformed cells. Here, we demonstrate that cells over-expressing dusp12 display increased cell motility and resistance to apoptosis. Additionally, over-expression of dusp12 promoted increased expression of the c-met proto-oncogene and the collagen and laminin receptor intergrin alpha 1 (itga1 which is implicated in metastasis.Collectively, these results suggest that dusp12 is oncologically relevant and exposes a potential association between dusp12 and established oncogenes that could be therapeutically targeted.

  2. In vitro culture of Arabidopsis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Michael; Friml, Jirí

    2008-01-01

    Embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana follows a nearly invariant cell division pattern and provides an ideal system for studies of early plant development. However, experimental manipulation with embryogenesis is difficult, as the embryo develops deeply inside maternal tissues. Here, we present a method to culture zygotic Arabidopsis embryos in vitro. It enables culturing for prolonged periods of time from the first developmental stages on. The technique omits excision of the embryo by culturing the entire ovule, which facilitates the manual procedure. It allows pharmacological manipulation of embryo development and does not interfere with standard techniques for localizing gene expression and protein localization in the cultivated embryos.

  3. DNA methylation increases throughout Arabidopsis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, L; Cervera, M T; Martínez-Zapater, J M

    2005-10-01

    We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) to analyze the stability of DNA methylation throughout Arabidopsis development. AFLP can detect genome-wide changes in cytosine methylation produced by DNA demethylation agents, such as 5-azacytidine, or specific mutations at the DDM1 locus. In both cases, cytosine demethylation is associated with a general increase in the presence of amplified fragments. Using this approach, we followed DNA methylation at methylation sensitive restriction sites throughout Arabidopsis development. The results show a progressive DNA methylation trend from cotyledons to vegetative organs to reproductive organs.

  4. Reference: 576 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available shi et al. 2007 Jun. Plant Physiol. 144(2):1039-51. In the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway, isoforms of gl... the induction of these genes in photosynthetic tissues. The physiological functions of AtHEMA2 and AtFC1 we...ynthetic enzymes, AtHEMA2 and AtFC1, under stress conditions and their physiological functions in Arabidopsi...s. 2 1039-51 17416636 2007 Jun Plant physiology Aono Mitsuko|Kikuta Akihiro|Koide Masumi|Masuda Tatsuru|Naga

  5. Reference: 727 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available epigenetic control of gene expression during plant development. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis SET domain protein, SDG...h, thus affecting fertilization. Using an SDG4-GFP fusion construct, the chromosomal localization of SDG4 wa...s established in tobacco BY-2 cells. In Arabidopsis, sdg4 knockout showed reproductive defects. Tissue-speci...fic expression analyses indicated that SDG4 is the major ASH1-related gene expres...sed in the pollen. Immunological analyses demonstrated that SDG4 was involved in the methylation of histone

  6. Holonic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shigeki

    2001-11-01

    Here introduces a new idea of Holonic Transformation Method (HTM) which is able to represent the huge and complexed systems clearly and precisely as they are expected and the time whenever they are wanted, and which is also able to control them intelligently and flexibly. This idea is originated from Arthur Koestler, the late Hungarian novelist, science writer, and philosopher, who defined the idea in terms of living systems. Here, by expanding this idea philosophically and mathematically in order to use for management in the field of engineering, it has made possible to treat the huge and complexed system, which is not possible in the conventional methods.

  7. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an understanding of the cadastral evolution in Denmark with a focus on establishing the cadastre as an outcome of the enclosure movement in the late 1700s. The purpose of the cadastre was collection of tax based on the yielding capacity of the soil. The Danish cadastre, this way......, was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  8. Identification of a retroelement from the resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica that confers osmotic and alkaline tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available Functional genomic elements, including transposable elements, small RNAs and non-coding RNAs, are involved in regulation of gene expression in response to plant stress. To identify genomic elements that regulate dehydration and alkaline tolerance in Boea hygrometrica, a resurrection plant that inhabits drought and alkaline Karst areas, a genomic DNA library from B. hygrometrica was constructed and subsequently transformed into Arabidopsis using binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC vectors. Transgenic lines were screened under osmotic and alkaline conditions, leading to the identification of Clone L1-4 that conferred osmotic and alkaline tolerance. Sequence analyses revealed that L1-4 contained a 49-kb retroelement fragment from B. hygrometrica, of which only a truncated sequence was present in L1-4 transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Additional subcloning revealed that activity resided in a 2-kb sequence, designated Osmotic and Alkaline Resistance 1 (OAR1. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis lines carrying an OAR1-homologue also showed similar stress tolerance phenotypes. Physiological and molecular analyses demonstrated that OAR1-transgenic plants exhibited improved photochemical efficiency and membrane integrity and biomarker gene expression under both osmotic and alkaline stresses. Short transcripts that originated from OAR1 were increased under stress conditions in both B. hygrometrica and Arabidopsis carrying OAR1. The relative copy number of OAR1 was stable in transgenic Arabidopsis under stress but increased in B. hygrometrica. Taken together, our results indicated a potential role of OAR1 element in plant tolerance to osmotic and alkaline stresses, and verified the feasibility of the BIBAC transformation technique to identify functional genomic elements from physiological model species.

  9. Enhancement of Thiamin Content in Arabidopsis thaliana by Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Stockwell, Virginia O; Goyer, Aymeric

    2015-12-01

    Thiamin is an essential nutrient in the human diet. Severe thiamin deficiency leads to beriberi, a lethal disease which is common in developing countries. Thiamin biofortification of staple food crops is a possible strategy to alleviate thiamin deficiency-related diseases. In plants, thiamin plays a role in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses, and data from the literature suggest that boosting thiamin content could increase resistance to stresses. Here, we tested an engineering strategy to increase thiamin content in Arabidopsis. Thiamin is composed of a thiazole ring linked to a pyrimidine ring by a methylene bridge. THI1 and THIC are the first committed steps in the synthesis of the thiazole and pyrimidine moieties, respectively. Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a vector containing the THI1-coding sequence under the control of a constitutive promoter. Total thiamin leaf content in THI1 plants was up approximately 2-fold compared with the wild type. THI1-overexpressing lines were then crossed with pre-existing THIC-overexpressing lines. Resulting THI1 × THIC plants accumulated up to 3.4- and 2.6-fold more total thiamin than wild-type plants in leaf and seeds, respectively. After inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae, THI1 × THIC plants had lower populations than the wild-type control. However, THI1 × THIC plants subjected to various abiotic stresses did not show any visible or biochemical changes compared with the wild type. We discuss the impact of engineering thiamin biosynthesis on the nutritional value of plants and their resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Isolation and characterization of CNGC17 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Mutsumi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a possible countermeasure for cleaning up soil contaminated by 137 Cs, and development of plants which can effectively absorb 137 Cs is important for it. It is expected that capability of Cs extraction from soil can be strengthened by genetic alteration of the Cs + root-uptake mechanism of plants. This study aimed at elucidating the uptake mechanism of Cs + for future genetic engineering. Plant roots take up Cs + from the soil solution via transport proteins at the plasma membrane of root cells. Voltage-insensitive cation channels (VICCs) are a possible transfer route of Cs + , and they are encoded by cyclic-nucleotide gated channel (CNGC) and glutamate receptor (GLR) gene families. The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 20 CNGC genes. We have cloned a putative AtCNGC17 gene from cDNAs which were generated with total-RNA obtained from leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana by RT-PCR. The cDNA contained 2163 bp with an ORF that encoded a protein consisting of 721 amino acids residues. The plasmid prepared by the insertion of the gene under a Taq promoter was used to transform an E. coli deficient in the three major K + uptake systems (Kdp, Trk, and Kup). Only the E. coli with AtCNGC17 gene grew in low K + concentration minimal medium. This result suggested that the AtCNGC17 protein has a function of K + uptake. Growth rates of the E. coli cells expressing the gene were strongly inhibited by CsCl in low K + concentration minimal medium, suggesting that the AtCNGC17 transporter also carries Cs + . (author)

  11. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 is involved in Arabidopsis pollen grain germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christelle; Bouton, Sophie; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Fabrice, Tohnyui Ndinyanka; Mareck, Alain; Guénin, Stéphanie; Fournet, Françoise; Ringli, Christoph; Pelloux, Jérôme; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    Germination of pollen grains is a crucial step in plant reproduction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the role of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 (PME48), an enzyme implicated in the remodeling of pectins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen. A combination of functional genomics, gene expression, in vivo and in vitro pollen germination, immunolabeling, and biochemical analyses was used on wild-type and Atpme48 mutant plants. We showed that AtPME48 is specifically expressed in the male gametophyte and is the second most expressed PME in dry and imbibed pollen grains. Pollen grains from homozygous mutant lines displayed a significant delay in imbibition and germination in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, numerous pollen grains showed two tips emerging instead of one in the wild type. Immunolabeling and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the degree of methylesterification of the homogalacturonan was higher in pme48-/- pollen grains. In contrast, the PME activity was lower in pme48-/-, partly due to a reduction of PME48 activity revealed by zymogram. Interestingly, the wild-type phenotype was restored in pme48-/- with the optimum germination medium supplemented with 2.5 mm calcium chloride, suggesting that in the wild-type pollen, the weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan is a source of Ca(2+) necessary for pollen germination. Although pollen-specific PMEs are traditionally associated with pollen tube elongation, this study provides strong evidence that PME48 impacts the mechanical properties of the intine wall during maturation of the pollen grain, which, in turn, influences pollen grain germination. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Efficient propagation of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-type JC virus in COS-7-derived cell lines stably expressing Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukuzuma, Souichi; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kameoka, Masanori; Sugiura, Shigeki; Nukuzuma, Chiyoko; Miyoshi, Isao; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2010-12-01

    The high incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in AIDS patients compared with many other immunosuppressive diseases suggests that HIV-1 infection is strictly related to the activation of JC virus (JCV) propagation. In this report, propagation of PML-type JCV in COS-7-derived cell lines stably expressing HIV-1 Tat (COS-tat cells) has been examined. In COS-tat cells, production of viral particles and replication of genomic DNA were markedly increased compared to COS-7 cells, as judged by HA and real-time PCR analyses. These results demonstrate that COS-tat cells provide a useful model system for studying HIV-1 Tat-mediated propagation of PML-type JCV. © 2010 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent CsPbBr3/CsPb2Br5 core-shell-like structure lead halide perovskite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bo; Song, Pengjie; Cao, Jingyue; Zhao, Suling; Shen, Zhaohui; Gao, Di; Liang, Zhiqin; Xu, Zheng; Song, Dandan; Xu, Xurong

    2017-11-01

    Lead halide perovskite materials are thriving in optoelectronic applications due to their excellent properties, while their instability due to the fact that they are easily hydrolyzed is still a bottleneck for their potential application. In this work, water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent cesium lead bromine perovskite nanocrystals coated with CsPb2Br5 were obtained using a modified non-stoichiometric solution-phase method. CsPb2Br5 2D layers were coated on the surface of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and formed a core-shell-like structure in the synthetic processes. The stability of the luminescence of the CsPbBr3 nanocrystals in water and ethanol atmosphere was greatly enhanced by the photoluminescence-inactive CsPb2Br5 coating with a wide bandgap. The water-stable enhanced nanocrystals are suitable for long-term stable optoelectronic applications in the atmosphere.

  14. Transformation of Medicago truncatula via infiltration of seedlings or flowering plants with Agrobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trieu, A.T.; Burleigh, S.H.; Kardailsky, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    Two rapid and simple in planta transformation methods have been developed for the model legume Medicago truncatula. The first approach is based on a method developed for transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and involves infiltration of flowering plants with a suspension of Agrobacterium....... The second method involves infiltration of young seedlings with Agrobacterium. In both cases a proportion of the progeny of the infiltrated plants is transformed. The transformation frequency ranges from 4.7 to 76% for the flower infiltration method, and from 2.9 to 27.6% for the seedling infiltration method...

  15. Novel sulI binary vectors enable an inexpensive foliar selection method in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jamison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is conferred by the sulI gene found on many Enterobacteriaceae R plasmids and Tn21 type transposons. The sulI gene encodes a sulfonamide insensitive dihydropteroate synthase enzyme required for folate biosynthesis. Transformation of tobacco, potato or Arabidopsis using sulI as a selectable marker generates sulfadiazine-resistant plants. Typically sulI-based selection of transgenic plants is performed on tissue culture media under sterile conditions. Findings A set of novel binary vectors containing a sulI selectable marker expression cassette were constructed and used to generate transgenic Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the sulI selectable marker can be utilized for direct selection of plants grown in soil with a simple foliar spray application procedure. A highly effective and inexpensive high throughput screening strategy to identify transgenic Arabidopsis without use of tissue culture was developed. Conclusion Novel sulI-containing Agrobacterium binary vectors designed to over-express a gene of interest or to characterize a test promoter in transgenic plants have been constructed. These new vector tools combined with the various beneficial attributes of sulfonamide selection and the simple foliar screening strategy provide an advantageous alternative for plant biotechnology researchers. The set of binary vectors is freely available upon request.

  16. Natural variation in a polyamine transporter determines paraquat tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Miki; Fujita, Yasunari; Iuchi, Satoshi; Yamada, Kohji; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Urano, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2012-04-17

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous, polycationic compounds that are essential for the growth and survival of all organisms. Although the PA-uptake system plays a key role in mammalian cancer and in plant survival, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) family transporter, named RMV1 (resistant to methyl viologen 1), responsible for uptake of PA and its analog paraquat (PQ). The natural variation in PQ tolerance was determined in 22 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions based on the polymorphic variation of RMV1. An RMV1-GFP fusion protein localized to the plasma membrane in transformed cells. The Arabidopsis rmv1 mutant was highly resistant to PQ because of the reduction of PQ uptake activity. Uptake studies indicated that RMV1 mediates proton gradient-driven PQ transport. RMV1 overexpressing plants were hypersensitive to PA and PQ and showed elevated PA/PQ uptake activity, supporting the notion that PQ enters plant cells via a carrier system that inherently functions in PA transport. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polymorphic variation in RMV1 controls PA/PQ uptake activity. Our identification of a molecular entity for PA/PQ uptake and sensitivity provides an important clue for our understanding of the mechanism and biological significance of PA uptake.

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068130 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068130 J013132D11 At5g04140.2 glutamate synthase (GLU1) / ferredoxin-dependent glutamate... synthase (Fd-GOGAT 1) identical to ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase precursor [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:3869251 0.0 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241281 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-12 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241762 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 9e-17 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 3e-13 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242986 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor, putative / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum a...nd contains PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-13 ...

  2. Reference: 55 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /H+ antiporter in leaf vacuoles in Arabidopsis and also suggest that its contribu...nce of NaCl, nhx1 seedling establishment was impaired. These results place AtNHX1 as the dominant K+ and Na+

  3. Reference: 591 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available loroplast development, we systematically analyzed albino and pale green Arabidopsis thaliana mutants by use ...e focused on one of these albino mutants, designated apg3-1 (for a lbino or p ale g reen mutant 3). A gene e

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065420 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065420 J013022D10 At5g13630.1 magnesium-chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, puta...tive / Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium chelatase subunit GI:11...54627 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium chelatase family protein 1e-166 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK062262 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062262 001-047-H04 At5g13630.1 magnesium-chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, put...ative / Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium chelatase subunit GI:1...154627 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069545 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069545 J023025I06 At5g13630.1 magnesium-chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, puta...tive / Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium chelatase subunit GI:11...54627 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067323 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067323 J013106B16 At5g13630.1 magnesium-chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, puta...tive / Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium chelatase subunit GI:11...54627 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060612 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060612 001-025-F03 At5g13630.1 magnesium-chelatase subunit chlH, chloroplast, put...ative / Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase, putative (CHLH) nearly identical to magnesium chelatase subunit GI:1...154627 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profile: PF02514 CobN/magnesium chelatase family protein 0.0 ...

  9. Reference: 689 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available the high affinity of MOT1 allows plants to obtain scarce Mo from soil. An Arabidopsis thaliana high-affinity... molybdate transporter required for efficient uptake of molybdate from soil. 47 18807-12 18003916 2007 Nov P

  10. Light signal perception in Arabidopsis rosettes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.; Pierik, R.; Krol, van der A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Light signals are important signals for future and present competition. We used an architectural model of Arabidopsis development to show that vertical growth of neighboring vegetation is more important than proximity for early detection of competition. Self-signaling is greatly enhanced when own

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103188 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103188 J033121M03 At3g56850.1 ABA-responsive element-binding protein 3 (AREB3) id...entical to ABA-responsive element binding protein 3 (AREB3) [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9967421 2e-32 ...

  12. Reference: 56 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Y et al. 2003 Nov. Plant Physiol. 133(3):1170-80. Mutations in the QUARTET loci in Arabidopsis result in fai...cell wall degradation. 3 1170-80 14551328 2003 Nov Plant physiology Osborne Erin|Poindexter Patricia D|Rhee Seung Y|Somerville Chris R

  13. Reference: 724 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t Sjoerd et al. 2008 Mar. Plant Physiol. 146(3):1293-304. Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots by nonp... 3 1293-304 18218967 2008 Mar Plant physiology Bakker Daniel|Joosten Ruth G|Pel Michiel J C|Pieterse Corné M

  14. Reference: 751 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Jayashree et al. 2008 Jun. Plant Physiol. 147(2):672-81. Transcription corepressors play important roles in ...unctions during Arabidopsis embryo and floral development. 2 672-81 18390806 2008 Jun Plant physiology Bui Minh|Liu Zhongchi|Sitaraman Jayashree

  15. Reference: 386 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drea et al. 2006 Jul. Plant Physiol. 141(3):942-56. In many plant species, a subset of the genes of the chlo...d mesophyll cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. 3 942-56 16698900 2006 Jul Plant physiology Hricová Andrea|Micol José Luis|Quesada Victor

  16. Reference: 276 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sholpan et al. 2005 Oct. Plant Physiol. 139(2):847-56. Plant acclimation to environmental stress is controll...role in reactive oxygen and abiotic stress signaling in Arabidopsis. 2 847-56 16183833 2005 Oct Plant phys...iology Coutu Jesse|Davletova Sholpan|Mittler Ron|Schlauch Karen

  17. Reference: 215 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Shinya et al. 2005 Jun. Plant Physiol. 138(2):870-81. Plants have mechanisms for repairing and tolerating de...-damaging agents. Roles of Arabidopsis AtREV1 and AtREV7 in translesion synthesis. 2 870-81 15908599 2005 Jun Plant physio

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241942 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein similar to fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|13377776|gb|AAK20857; 3e-21 ... ...AK241942 J075088H12 At3g12660.1 68416.m01578 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121828 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121828 J033099G20 At3g46550.1 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family protein similar to fasciclin-like arab...inogalactan protein FLA8 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|10880493|gb|AAG24276 4e-87 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119375 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119375 001-132-A06 At3g46550.1 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family protein similar to fasciclin-like ara...binogalactan protein FLA8 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|10880493|gb|AAG24276 2e-85 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241942 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein similar to fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|13377776|gb|AAK20857 9e-20 ... ...AK241942 J075088H12 At2g24450.1 68415.m02922 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241942 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein similar to fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|13377776|gb|AAK20857 2e-15 ... ...AK241942 J075088H12 At4g31370.1 68417.m04448 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109762 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109762 002-146-G11 At3g12660.1 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family protein similar to fasciclin-like ara...binogalactan-protein 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|13377776|gb|AAK20857; 3e-24 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK108772 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108772 002-150-H07 At3g12660.1 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family protein similar to fasciclin-like ara...binogalactan-protein 1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|13377776|gb|AAK20857; 1e-35 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289211 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein similar to fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein FLA8 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|10880493|gb|AAG24276 4e-90 ... ...AK289211 J100060N06 At3g46550.1 68416.m05053 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan family

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK071661 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071661 J023105D07 At5g37770.1 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-33 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242428 J080089P09 At5g37770.1 68418.m04547 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 9e-19 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242428 J080089P09 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 8e-18 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241786 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241786 J065207F05 At5g37770.1 68418.m04547 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-19 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 8e-44 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242428 J080089P09 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-14 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242428 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242428 J080089P09 At2g41100.2 68415.m05077 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-16 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At5g37770.1 68418.m04547 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-11 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK108506 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108506 002-143-H11 At5g37770.1 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 7e-14 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-41 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At5g37770.1 68418.m04547 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-25 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At2g41100.2 68415.m05077 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-26 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-19 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At2g41100.2 68415.m05077 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 5e-20 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At2g41100.2 68415.m05077 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-44 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243656 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243656 J100088L22 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-17 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK062711 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062711 001-106-C02 At5g37770.1 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 2, touch...-induced (TCH2) identical to calmodulin-related protein 2,touch-induced SP:P25070 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 9e-34 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288095 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288095 J075191E21 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-16 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242346 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242346 J080012M07 At2g41100.1 68415.m05076 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-26 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288095 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288095 J075191E21 At2g41100.2 68415.m05077 touch-responsive protein / calmodulin-related protein 3, touch...-induced (TCH3) identical to calmodulin-related protein 3, touch-induced SP:P25071 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 2e-15 ...

  6. Reference: 677 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ae et al. 2007 Dec. Plant Cell Physiol. 48(12):1713-23. Methionine residues of proteins are a major target f... in cold acclimation in Arabidopsis. 12 1713-23 17956860 2007 Dec Plant & cell physiology Bae Min Seok|Cho Eun Ju|Kwon Soon Il|Kwon Sun Jae|Park Ohkmae K

  7. Reference: 763 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ín M Carmen et al. 2008 Jun. Plant Physiol. 147(2):562-72. Plant cells contain different O-acetylserine(thio...footprints of mutant plants had predicted functions associated with various physiological responses that are...f the cytosol to maintain discrete concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in Arabidopsis. 2 562-72 18441224 2008 Jun Plant physio

  8. Reference: 516 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hien et al. 2007 Mar. Plant Physiol. 143(3):1189-202. Far-red (FR) insensitive 219 (FIN219) was previously s...ing in Arabidopsis. 3 1189-202 17220357 2007 Mar Plant physiology Chen Ing-Chien|Chung Shu-Shiang|Hsieh Hsu-Liang|Huang I-Ching|Liu Ming-Jung|Wang Zhi-Gong

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068433 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068433 J013156D16 At1g20620.2 catalase 3 (SEN2) almost identical to catalase 3 SP...:Q42547, GI:3123188 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to catalase 3 (SEN2) mRNA, partial cds GI:3158369 1e-63 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121261 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121261 J023104H13 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  11. Self-consuming innate immunity in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    . However, it has been unclear by which molecular mechanisms plants execute PCD during innate immune responses. We recently examined HR PCD in autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis knockout mutants (atg) and find that PCD conditioned by one class of plant innate immune receptors is suppressed in atg mutants...

  12. Regulated Proteolysis of Arabidopsis Argonaute1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kausika, Swathi Pranavi

    on the function of poorly characterized N domain. Arabidopsis thaliana AGO1 is a peripheral membrane protein and membrane association is important for function. Previous studies in the model plant showed that mutation in the N domain resulted in reduced levels of AGO1 at the membrane. In this study we use N...

  13. Divergent regulation of Arabidopsis SAUR genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van Hilda; Dijk, van Aalt D.J.; Stortenbeker, Niek; Angenent, Gerco C.; Bemer, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Small Auxin-Upregulated RNA (SAUR) genes encode growth regulators that induce cell elongation. Arabidopsis contains more than 70 SAUR genes, of which the growth-promoting function has been unveiled in seedlings, while their role in other tissues remained largely unknown. Here, we

  14. Reference: 250 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bolite profiling of dark-treated leaves of the wild type and mutants revealed a drama...s accumulated in long-term dark-treated leaves. Analysis of three independent insertional mutants of Arabidopsis ETFQO revealed a dra...matic reduction in their ability to withstand extended darkness, resulting in senes

  15. Die Regulation der Camalexinbiosynthese in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Rauhut, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Camalexin ist das charakteristische Phytoalexin von Arabidopsis thaliana. Bei Pathogeninfektion wird die Synthese von Camalexin z. B. durch die Erkennung von Peptidoglycan oder Nep1-artigen Proteinen (NLPs) ausgelöst. Pflanzen, welche ein NLP unter der Kontrolle eines Ethanol-induzierbaren Promotors exprimieren zeigten eine starke Induktion der Tryptophan- und Camalexinbiosynthesegene und eine reproduzierbare Camalexinakkumulation. Retrobiosynthetische NMR-Analysen und Markierungsexperimente ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241438 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241438 J065162G03 At4g32040.1 68417.m04561 homeobox protein knotted-1 like 5 (KNAT5) / home...odomain containing protein 1 (H1) identical to homeobox protein knotted-1 like 5 (KNAT5) SP:P48002 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-98 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289177 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289177 J100024E07 At4g32040.1 68417.m04561 homeobox protein knotted-1 like 5 (KNAT5) / home...odomain containing protein 1 (H1) identical to homeobox protein knotted-1 like 5 (KNAT5) SP:P48002 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 4e-98 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111761 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111761 J023058F21 At3g20740.1 fertilization-independent endosperm protein (FIE) c...ontains 6 WD-40 repeats (PF00400); identical to fertilization-independent endosperm protein (GI:4567095) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-158 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242200 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242200 J075166M12 At3g20740.1 68416.m02624 fertilization-independent endosperm pr...otein (FIE) contains 6 WD-40 repeats (PF00400); identical to fertilization-independent endosperm protein (GI:4567095) [Arabidopsis thaliana] 1e-142 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103126 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0S proteasome beta subunit PBB1 (PBB1) GB:AAC32066 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Genetics 149 (2), 677-692 (1998)); contains Pfam profile: PF00227 proteasome A-type and B-type; 1e-129 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK058440 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 20S proteasome beta subunit PBB1 (PBB1) GB:AAC32066 [Arabidopsis thaliana] (Genetics 149 (2), 677-692 (1998)); contains Pfam profile: PF00227 proteasome A-type and B-type; 1e-92 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242707 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242707 J090040M15 At1g70550.2 68414.m08120 expressed protein similar to hypotheti...cal protein GB:AAD31338 [Arabidopsis thaliana] and to putative putative carboxyl-terminal peptidase GB:AAC16

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241860 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241860 J065216G12 At1g70550.1 68414.m08119 expressed protein similar to hypotheti...cal protein GB:AAD31338 [Arabidopsis thaliana] and to putative putative carboxyl-terminal peptidase GB:AAC16

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242707 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242707 J090040M15 At1g70550.1 68414.m08119 expressed protein similar to hypotheti...cal protein GB:AAD31338 [Arabidopsis thaliana] and to putative putative carboxyl-terminal peptidase GB:AAC16

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241860 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241860 J065216G12 At1g70550.2 68414.m08120 expressed protein similar to hypotheti...cal protein GB:AAD31338 [Arabidopsis thaliana] and to putative putative carboxyl-terminal peptidase GB:AAC16

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242472 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242472 J080303B22 At1g70550.2 68414.m08120 expressed protein similar to hypotheti...cal protein GB:AAD31338 [Arabidopsis thaliana] and to putative putative carboxyl-terminal peptidase GB:AAC16

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK073288 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073288 J033028L24 At1g70550.2 expressed protein similar to hypothetical protein G...B:AAD31338 [Arabidopsis thaliana] and to putative putative carboxyl-terminal peptidase GB:AAC16072 [Arabidop

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242472 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242472 J080303B22 At1g70550.1 68414.m08119 expressed protein similar to hypotheti...cal protein GB:AAD31338 [Arabidopsis thaliana] and to putative putative carboxyl-terminal peptidase GB:AAC16

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242472 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242472 J080303B22 At5g46200.1 68418.m05684 expressed protein contains similarity to carboxyl-term...inal proteinase contains Pfam profile PF03080: Arabidopsis proteins of unknown function; expression supported by MPSS 2e-33 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104980 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104980 001-125-D09 At1g70550.2 expressed protein similar to hypothetical protein ...GB:AAD31338 [Arabidopsis thaliana] and to putative putative carboxyl-terminal peptidase GB:AAC16072 [Arabido

  11. Reference: 632 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ludmila et al. 2007 Sep. Plant J. 51(5):874-85. One of the earliest responses of plants to environmental str...elopment in reaction to adverse environmental conditions. We show that the AtCHR12 chromatin-remodeling gene...R12 mediates temporary growth arrest in Arabidopsis thaliana upon perceiving environmental

  12. Reference: 43 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iam L et al. 2003 Sep. Development 130(18):4249-58. The mechanisms regulating cell layer organisation in dev...guments. Insertion mutations show that ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 is required for regulation of cellular organisation...e plays a role in cell layer organisation during ovule integument and sepal margin development. 18 4249-58 1

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243046 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available like protein identical to SP|Q9S7R5 TWIN SISTER of FT protein (TFL1 like protein) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; c...AK243046 J100010A16 At4g20370.1 68417.m02973 twin sister of FT protein (TSF) / TFL1

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240877 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available like protein identical to SP|Q9S7R5 TWIN SISTER of FT protein (TFL1 like protein) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; c...AK240877 J065027B08 At4g20370.1 68417.m02973 twin sister of FT protein (TSF) / TFL1

  15. Reference: 206 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ,5-trichlorophenol (TCP). To determine its importance in detoxifying xenobiotics ...oxification as bound-residue formation. Functional importance of the family 1 glucosyltransferase UGT72B1 in the metabolism of xenobi...otics in Arabidopsis thaliana. 4 556-66 15860014 2005 May The Plant journal Brazier-Hicks Melissa|Edwards Robert

  16. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments resulted in the differential expression of hundreds of genes. A 5 day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β -Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on two fronts. First, expression patterns visualized with the Adh/GUS transgene were used to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response, and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. (Paul et al., Plant Physiol. 2001, 126:613). Second, genome-wide patterns of native gene expression were evaluated utilizing the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip? array of 8,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes identified with the arrays was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - TaqmanTM). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays of hybridized with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to the control arrays revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially expressed in response to spaceflight, yet most genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were unaffected. These results will be discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment, and with regard to potential future flight opportunities.

  17. Reference: 749 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available former mutant had decreased electron transport rates, a lower DeltapH gradient across the grana membranes, r...the PSII particles of these plants were organized in unusual two-dimensional arrays in the grana membranes. ...d the electron transport rate in grana membranes of Arabidopsis. 4 1012-28 18381925 2008 Apr The Plant cell

  18. Reference: 486 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available time in many plant species through the photoperiod and vernalization pathways, re...cipates in both the photoperiod and vernalization pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression ... of VIN3 in a photoperiod-dependent manner. A PHD finger protein involved in both the vernalization and photoperiod pathways

  19. Reference: 412 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available the tobacco arcA gene, mediates hormone responses and plays a regulatory role in multiple developmental processes...in RACK1A confer defects in multiple developmental processes including seed germination, leaf production, an...ltiple hormone responsiveness and developmental processes in Arabidopsis. 11 2697-708 16829549 2006 Journal

  20. Reference: 145 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mediating seedling deetiolation. In summary, our results support the notion that FRS family members play distinct roles...g nuclear gene expression. Arabidopsis FHY3/FAR1 gene family and distinct roles of its members in light cont

  1. Reference: 691 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ants. Nine genomic sequences encode putative Bsas proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The physiological roles ...thione in the bsas mutants indicated that cytosolic Bsas1;1, plastidic Bsas2;1, and mitochondrial Bsas2;2 play major roles...ucial role of Bsas3;1 in beta-cyano-Ala metabolism in vivo. Physiological roles o

  2. Reference: 109 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) and RELATIVE OF EARLY FLOWERING 6 (REF6), play divergent roles in the regulation of Arabidopsis flowering.... show that ELF6 and REF6 have different cellular roles and are also regulated differentially despite their s...in higher eukaryotes. Divergent roles of a pair of homologous jumonji/zinc-finger-class transcription factor

  3. Reference: 590 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 590 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u17450124i Caro Elena et al. 2007 May. Nature... to root epidermis patterning in Arabidopsis. 7141 213-7 17450124 2007 May Nature Caro Elena|Castellano M Mar|Gutierrez Crisanto

  4. Reference: 239 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 239 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16015335i Bundock Paul et al. 2005 Jul. Natur...functions. An Arabidopsis hAT-like transposase is essential for plant development. 7048 282-4 16015335 2005 Jul Nature Bundock Paul|Hooykaas Paul

  5. Reference: 81 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 81 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15075397i Culligan Kevin...le checkpoint in Arabidopsis thaliana. 5 1091-104 15075397 2004 May The Plant cell Britt Anne|Culligan Kevin|Tissier Alain

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241627 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241627 J065187G05 At3g12280.1 68416.m01533 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retin...oblastoma-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121431 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121431 J023138G19 At3g12280.1 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retinoblastoma...-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240830 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240830 J065014C16 At3g12280.1 68416.m01533 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retin...oblastoma-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064987 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064987 J013001D03 At3g12280.1 retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR1) nearly identical to retinoblastoma...-related protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:8777927; contains Pfam profiles: PF01858 retinoblastoma...-associated protein A domain, PF01857 retinoblastoma-associated protein B domain 0.0 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241364 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2) identical to Dof zinc finger protein ADOF2 GI:3608263 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA adof...AK241364 J065152E11 At3g21270.1 68416.m02688 Dof-type zinc finger domain-containing protein (ADOF

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288349 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2) identical to Dof zinc finger protein ADOF2 GI:3608263 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA adof...AK288349 J090023P19 At3g21270.1 68416.m02688 Dof-type zinc finger domain-containing protein (ADOF

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287447 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2) identical to Dof zinc finger protein ADOF2 GI:3608263 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to cDNA adof...AK287447 J043016O04 At3g21270.1 68416.m02688 Dof-type zinc finger domain-containing protein (ADOF

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121003 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121003 J023045B21 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 8e-63 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK109812 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109812 002-147-H02 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 5e-90 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-26 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK069071 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069071 J023010H01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-167 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-47 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110534 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110534 002-168-A07 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-114 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-31 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-28 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-25 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-126 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-45 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-25 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 2e-65 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 1e-24 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-29 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g32180.1 68414.m03958 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-9 (gi:9622890) from Zea mays 3e-66 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g23990.1 68417.m03448 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 1e-124 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK105393 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105393 001-123-B04 At5g16910.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 2e-45 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 1e-130 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 1e-125 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061162 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061162 006-209-A01 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 3e-35 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32540.1 68415.m03975 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-98 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At5g16910.1 68418.m01982 cellulose synthase family protein similar to gi:2827143 cellulo...se synthase catalytic subunit, Arabidopsis thaliana, gi:9622886 cellulose synthase-7 from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 8e-98 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At4g38190.1 68417.m05391 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit gi:2827143 from [Arabidopsis thaliana], cellulose synthase-5 (gi:9622882) from Zea mays 4e-27 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK060286 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060286 001-006-C08 At2g32540.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 6e-78 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 4e-50 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At2g32530.1 68415.m03974 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit from Arabidopsis thaliana [gi:5230423], cellulose synthase-5 from Zea mays [gi:9622882] 5e-48 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241112 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241112 J065091K02 At4g16390.1 68417.m02481 chloroplastic RNA-binding protein P67,... putative nearly identical to 67kD chloroplastic RNA-binding protein, P67 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9755842 3e-13 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK289251 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289251 J100081E23 At4g16390.1 68417.m02481 chloroplastic RNA-binding protein P67,... putative nearly identical to 67kD chloroplastic RNA-binding protein, P67 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9755842 6e-21 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241112 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241112 J065091K02 At4g16390.1 68417.m02481 chloroplastic RNA-binding protein P67,... putative nearly identical to 67kD chloroplastic RNA-binding protein, P67 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9755842 1e-14 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK240855 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240855 J065021H02 At4g16390.1 68417.m02481 chloroplastic RNA-binding protein P67,... putative nearly identical to 67kD chloroplastic RNA-binding protein, P67 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9755842 7e-25 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288612 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288612 J090053J15 At4g16390.1 68417.m02481 chloroplastic RNA-binding protein P67,... putative nearly identical to 67kD chloroplastic RNA-binding protein, P67 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9755842 5e-24 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287737 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287737 J065143M09 At4g16390.1 68417.m02481 chloroplastic RNA-binding protein P67,... putative nearly identical to 67kD chloroplastic RNA-binding protein, P67 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9755842 7e-14 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287434 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287434 J043012F24 At4g16390.1 68417.m02481 chloroplastic RNA-binding protein P67,... putative nearly identical to 67kD chloroplastic RNA-binding protein, P67 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9755842 2e-27 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241784 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241784 J065206N09 At4g16390.1 68417.m02481 chloroplastic RNA-binding protein P67,... putative nearly identical to 67kD chloroplastic RNA-binding protein, P67 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9755842 4e-11 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241112 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241112 J065091K02 At4g16390.1 68417.m02481 chloroplastic RNA-binding protein P67,... putative nearly identical to 67kD chloroplastic RNA-binding protein, P67 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:9755842 1e-16 ...

  14. Reference: 438 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ity and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. 18 6902-12 16943431 2006 Sep Molecular and cellular bio...logy Chen Zhizhong|Gong Zhizhong|Hong Xuhui|Jablonowski Daniel|Ren Xiaozhi|Schaffrath Raffael|Zhang Hairong|Zhou Xiaofeng|Zhu Jian-Kang

  15. Reference: 356 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 006 Mar Plant molecular biology Deng Xingwang|Dong Li|Wang Lei|Xue Yongbiao|Zhang Yansheng|Zhang Yu'e ...ein CEGENDUO negatively regulates auxin-mediated lateral root formation in Arabidopsis. 4 599-615 16525894 2

  16. Reference: 223 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 223 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15923347i Dohmann Es... cause the cop/det/fus mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis. 7 1967-78 15923347 2005 Jul The Plant cell Dohmann Esther M N|Kuhnle Carola|Schwechheimer Claus

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241402 J065159A02 At4g19070.1 68417.m02810 cadmium-responsive protein / cadmium i...nduced protein (AS8) identical to cadmium induced protein AS8 SP:P42735 from [Arabidopsis thaliana] 3e-11 ...

  18. Reference: 369 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available availability is the hydrolysis of phospholipids. Hydrolyzed phospholipids are replaced by nonphosphorus lipids such as galactolipids... and sulfolipids, which help to maintain the functionali...we show that an Arabidopsis pldz2 mutant is defective in the hydrolysis of phospholipids... and has a reduced capacity to accumulate galactolipids under limiting Pi conditions. Morphological a

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288349 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288349 J090023P19 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 1e-23 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241364 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241364 J065152E11 At2g46590.1 68415.m05811 Dof zinc finger protein DAG2 / Dof affecting germination... 2 (DAG2) identical to SP|Q9ZPY0 DOF zinc finger protein DAG2 (Dof affecting germination 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 2e-20 ...

  1. Reference: 439 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or IID (TFIID) complex. Overexpression of atTAF10 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis impro...is TATA box-binding protein (TBP)-associated factor 10 (atTAF10), which constitutes the transcriptional fact

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104030 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104030 001-020-C01 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manga...nese superoxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|3273751|gb|AAC24832 9e-99 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK070528 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070528 J023060D13 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manga...nese superoxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|3273751|gb|AAC24832 9e-99 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK104160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104160 006-211-E09 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manga...nese superoxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|3273751|gb|AAC24832 9e-99 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119904 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119904 002-182-A05 At3g10920.1 superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial (SODA) / manga...nese superoxide dismutase (MSD1) identical to manganese superoxide dismutase [Arabidopsis thaliana] gi|3273751|gb|AAC24832 9e-78 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064663 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064663 002-115-A10 At2g34450.1 high mobility group (HMG1/2) family protein simila...r to HMG protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:2832361; contains Pfam profile PF00505: HMG (high mobility group) box 2e-27 ...

  7. Polyamines and Paraquat Toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina, Kurepa; Jan, Smalle; Marc Van, Montagu; Dirk, Inze; Laboratorium voor Genetica, Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Universiteit Gent; Laboratorium voor Genetica, Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Universiteit Gent; Laboratorium voor Genetica, Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Universiteit Gent; Laboratorium voor Genetica, Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Universiteit Gent:Laboratoire Associe de l'Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique(France), Universiteit Gent

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between paraquat toxicity and polyamine levels was analyzed in Arabidopsis wild-type and gi-3 plants. Paraquat treatment led to an increase in putrescine, but not of spermidine and spermine content. Additionally, polyamine feeding offered high levels of protection against paraquat toxicity with spermidine being the most effective protectant.

  8. Reference: 379 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available randomization of Arabidopsis hypocotyl orientation provides a fitness advantage to seedlings developing in p...hypocotyls requires GIL1 and confers a fitness advantage. 4 641-8 16640600 2006 May The Plant journal Allen Trudie|Ingles Patricia J|Praekelt Uta|Smith Harry|Whitelam Garry C

  9. Reference: 112 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ecca A et al. 2004 Oct. Plant Physiol. 136(2):3095-103; discussion 3002. The gravitropism defective 2 (grv2)... mutants of Arabidopsis show reduced shoot phototropism and gravitropism. Amyloplasts in the shoot endoderma...g via amyloplasts sedimentation and the subsequent more general tropic growth response. The gravitropism

  10. Reference: 389 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 389 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16716192i Jolivet Sy...of the Ski8/Rec103 homolog in Arabidopsis. 6 615-22 16716192 2006 Jun Genes to cells Froger Nicole|Jolivet Sylvie|Mercier Raphaël|Vezon Daniel

  11. Genome-wide comparative analysis of the IQD gene families in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Steffen; Savchenko, Tatyana; Levy, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Background Calcium signaling plays a prominent role in plants for coordinating a wide range of developmental processes and responses to environmental cues. Stimulus-specific generation of intracellular calcium transients, decoding of calcium signatures, and transformation of the signal into cellular responses are integral modules of the transduction process. Several hundred proteins with functions in calcium signaling circuits have been identified, and the number of downstream targets of calcium sensors is expected to increase. We previously identified a novel, calmodulin-binding nuclear protein, IQD1, which stimulates glucosinolate accumulation and plant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we present a comparative genome-wide analysis of a new class of putative calmodulin target proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. Results We identified and analyzed 33 and 29 IQD1-like genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, respectively. The encoded IQD proteins contain a plant-specific domain of 67 conserved amino acid residues, referred to as the IQ67 domain, which is characterized by a unique and repetitive arrangement of three different calmodulin recruitment motifs, known as the IQ, 1-5-10, and 1-8-14 motifs. We demonstrated calmodulin binding for IQD20, the smallest IQD protein in Arabidopsis, which consists of a C-terminal IQ67 domain and a short N-terminal extension. A striking feature of IQD proteins is the high isoelectric point (~10.3) and frequency of serine residues (~11%). We compared the Arabidopsis and rice IQD gene families in terms of gene structure, chromosome location, predicted protein properties and motifs, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary history. The existence of an IQD-like gene in bryophytes suggests that IQD proteins are an ancient family of calmodulin-binding proteins and arose during the early evolution of land plants. Conclusion Comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that the major IQD gene lineages originated before the

  12. Instability of repeated DNAs during transformation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Vera I; Klysik, Elzbieta A; Rosche, William A; Sinden, Richard R

    2002-05-22

    Escherichia coli has provided an important model system for understanding the molecular basis for genetic instabilities associated with repeated DNA. Changes in triplet repeat length during growth following transformation in E. coli have been used as a measure of repeat instability. However, very little is known about the molecular and biological changes that may occur on transformation. Since only a small proportion of viable cells become competent, uncertainty exists regarding the nature of these transformed cells. To establish whether the process of transformation can be inherently mutagenic for certain DNA sequences, we used a genetic assay in E. coli to compare the frequency of genetic instabilities associated with transformation with those occurring in plasmid maintained in E. coli. Our results indicate that, for certain DNA sequences, bacterial transformation can be highly mutagenic. The deletion frequency of a 106 bp perfect inverted repeat is increased by as much as a factor of 2 x 10(5) following transformation. The high frequency of instability was not observed when cells stably harboring plasmid were rendered competent. Thus, the process of transformation was required to observe the instability. Instabilities of (CAG).(CTG) repeats are also dramatically elevated upon transformation. The magnitude of the instability is dependent on the nature and length of the repeat. Differences in the methylation status of plasmid used for transformation and the methylation and restriction/modification systems present in the bacterial strain used must also be considered in repeat instability measurements. Moreover, different E. coli genetic backgrounds show different levels of instability during transformation.

  13. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , with an understanding and rationale for using it, provides students with the opportunity to explore their own entrepreneurial identity in unforeseen ways. It builds on insights from three different streams of literature: (i) Bordieu’s theory of practice is used to analyze student understandings of themselves and others......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...... of the courses lies outside the usual territory of entrepreneurship courses, being aimed at the students in the pre-idea phase. During the course students change their understandings about what an entrepreneurial habitus is and as a result they become more willing to take on this habitus, for some of them...

  14. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  15. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  16. Database Description - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Arabidopsis Phenome Database Database Description General information of database Database n...ame Arabidopsis Phenome Database Alternative name - DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01509-000 Creator Creator Name: H... BioResource Center Hiroshi Masuya Database classification Plant databases - Arabidopsis thaliana Organism T...axonomy Name: Arabidopsis thaliana Taxonomy ID: 3702 Database description The Arabidopsis thaliana phenome i...heir effective application. We developed the new Arabidopsis Phenome Database integrating two novel database

  17. Construction and transformation of a Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Norris, Stephen M; Xu, Zhaohui

    2012-01-06

    Thermotoga spp. are attractive candidates for producing biohydrogen, green chemicals, and thermostable enzymes. They may also serve as model systems for understanding life sustainability under hyperthermophilic conditions. A lack of genetic tools has hampered the investigation and application of these organisms. This study aims to develop a genetic transfer system for Thermotoga spp. Methods for preparing and handling Thermotoga solid cultures under aerobic conditions were optimized. A plating efficiency of ~50% was achieved when the bacterial cells were embedded in 0.3% Gelrite. A Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vector pDH10 was constructed using pRQ7, a cryptic mini-plasmid found in T. sp. RQ7. Plasmid pDH10 was introduced to T. maritima and T. sp. RQ7 by electroporation and liposome-mediated transformation. Transformants were isolated, and the transformed kanamycin resistance gene (kan) was detected from the plasmid DNA extracts of the recombinant strains by PCR and was confirmed by restriction digestions. The transformed DNA was stably maintained in both Thermotoga and E. coli even without the selective pressure. Thermotoga are transformable by multiple means. Recombinant Thermotoga strains have been isolated for the first time. A heterologous kan gene is functionally expressed and stably maintained in Thermotoga.

  18. Construction and transformation of a Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dongmei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermotoga spp. are attractive candidates for producing biohydrogen, green chemicals, and thermostable enzymes. They may also serve as model systems for understanding life sustainability under hyperthermophilic conditions. A lack of genetic tools has hampered the investigation and application of these organisms. This study aims to develop a genetic transfer system for Thermotoga spp. Results Methods for preparing and handling Thermotoga solid cultures under aerobic conditions were optimized. A plating efficiency of ~50% was achieved when the bacterial cells were embedded in 0.3% Gelrite. A Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vector pDH10 was constructed using pRQ7, a cryptic mini-plasmid found in T. sp. RQ7. Plasmid pDH10 was introduced to T. maritima and T. sp. RQ7 by electroporation and liposome-mediated transformation. Transformants were isolated, and the transformed kanamycin resistance gene (kan was detected from the plasmid DNA extracts of the recombinant strains by PCR and was confirmed by restriction digestions. The transformed DNA was stably maintained in both Thermotoga and E. coli even without the selective pressure. Conclusions Thermotoga are transformable by multiple means. Recombinant Thermotoga strains have been isolated for the first time. A heterologous kan gene is functionally expressed and stably maintained in Thermotoga.

  19. Stable transformation of ferns using spores as targets: Pteris vittata and Ceratopteris thalictroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Joyce, Blake L; Elless, Mark P; Stewart, C Neal

    2013-10-01

    Ferns (Pteridophyta) are very important members of the plant kingdom that lag behind other taxa with regards to our understanding of their genetics, genomics, and molecular biology. We report here, to our knowledge, the first instance of stable transformation of fern with recovery of transgenic sporophytes. Spores of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata and tetraploid 'C-fern Express' (Ceratopteris thalictroides) were stably transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with constructs containing the P. vittata actin promoter driving a GUSPlus reporter gene. Reporter gene expression assays were performed on multiple tissues and growth stages of gametophytes and sporophytes. Southern-blot analysis confirmed stable transgene integration in recovered sporophytes and also confirmed that no plasmid from A. tumefaciens was present in the sporophyte tissues. We recovered seven independent transformants of P. vittata and four independent C. thalictroides transgenics. Inheritance analyses using β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical staining revealed that the GUS transgene was stably expressed in second generation C. thalictroides sporophytic tissues. In an independent experiment, the gusA gene that was driven by the 2× Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was bombarded into P. vittata spores using biolistics, in which putatively stable transgenic gametophytes were recovered. Transformation procedures required no tissue culture or selectable marker genes. However, we did attempt to use hygromycin selection, which was ineffective for recovering transgenic ferns. This simple stable transformation method should help facilitate functional genomics studies in ferns.

  20. Binary transformation systems based on 'shooter' mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: a simple, efficient and universal gene transfer technology that permits marker gene elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihálka, V; Balázs, E; Nagy, I

    2003-04-01

    A simple transformation procedure with a positive selection scheme using the expression of the isopentenyl transferase ( ipt) gene of transfer DNA (T-DNA) 'shooter' mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was elaborated. After comparing several 'shooter' mutants we found that particular strains frequently produced phenotypically normal shoots after co-culturing with tobacco leaf explants. Shoots selected for normal phenotype showed apical dominance and could be rooted with the same efficiency as non-transformed shoots. When binary vectors were introduced into these strains, stably integrated binary vector T-DNA sequences were found in some regenerants, which were produced under non-selective conditions on growth-regulator-free medium. Such phenotypically normal transformants typically lacked a stably integrated ipt gene. Normal looking shoots could also be produced in tomato, muskmelon and sweet pepper.

  1. Comparison of the spaceflight transcriptome of four commonly used Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This experiment compared the spaceflight transcriptomes of four commonly used natural variants (ecotypes) of Arabidopsis thaliana using RNAseq. In nature Arabidopsis...

  2. High throughput generation of promoter reporter (GFP transgenic lines of low expressing genes in Arabidopsis and analysis of their expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yong-Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the complete genome sequence and annotation of Arabidopsis were released at the end of year 2000, it is still a great challenge to understand the function of each gene in the Arabidopsis genome. One way to understand the function of genes on a genome-wide scale is expression profiling by microarrays. However, the expression level of many genes in Arabidopsis genome cannot be detected by microarray experiments. In addition, there are many more novel genes that have been discovered by experiments or predicted by new gene prediction programs. Another way to understand the function of individual genes is to investigate their in vivo expression patterns by reporter constructs in transgenic plants which can provide basic information on the patterns of gene expression. Results A high throughput pipeline was developed to generate promoter-reporter (GFP transgenic lines for Arabidopsis genes expressed at very low levels and to examine their expression patterns in vivo. The promoter region from a total of 627 non- or low-expressed genes in Arabidopsis based on Arabidopsis annotation release 5 were amplified and cloned into a Gateway vector. A total of 353 promoter-reporter (GFP constructs were successfully transferred into Agrobacterium (GV3101 by triparental mating and subsequently used for Arabidopsis transformation. Kanamycin-resistant transgenic lines were obtained from 266 constructs and among them positive GFP expression was detected from 150 constructs. Of these 150 constructs, multiple transgenic lines exhibiting consistent expression patterns were obtained for 112 constructs. A total 81 different regions of expression were discovered during our screening of positive transgenic plants and assigned Plant Ontology (PO codes. Conclusions Many of the genes tested for which expression data were lacking previously are indeed expressed in Arabidopsis during the developmental stages screened. More importantly, our study

  3. Building a hair: tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs.

    OpenAIRE

    Carol, Rachel J; Dolan, Liam

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana root hair is used as a model for studying tip growth in plants. We review recent advances, made using physiological and genetic approaches, which give rise to different, yet compatible, current views of the establishment and maintenance of tip growth in epidermal cells. For example, an active calcium influx channel localized at the tip of Arabidopsis root hairs has been identified by patch-clamp measurements. Actin has been visualized in vivo in Arabidopsis root hairs...

  4. Plastid transformation in the monocotyledonous cereal crop, rice (Oryza sativa) and transmission of transgenes to their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sa Mi; Kang, Kyungsu; Chung, Hyungsup; Yoo, Soon Hee; Xu, Xiang Ming; Lee, Seung-Bum; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Daniell, Henry; Kim, Minkyun

    2006-06-30

    The plastid transformation approach offers a number of unique advantages, including high-level transgene expression, multi-gene engineering, transgene containment, and a lack of gene silencing and position effects. The extension of plastid transformation technology to monocotyledonous cereal crops, including rice, bears great promise for the improvement of agronomic traits, and the efficient production of pharmaceutical or nutritional enhancement. Here, we report a promising step towards stable plastid transformation in rice. We produced fertile transplastomic rice plants and demonstrated transmission of the plastid-expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) and aminoglycoside 3'-adenylyltransferase genes to the progeny of these plants. Transgenic chloroplasts were determined to have stably expressed the GFP, which was confirmed by both confocal microscopy and Western blot analyses. Although the produced rice plastid transformants were found to be heteroplastomic, and the transformation efficiency requires further improvement, this study has established a variety of parameters for the use of plastid transformation technology in cereal crops.

  5. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  6. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 improves yield, biomass and tolerance to flooding in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A; Chan, Raquel L

    2016-03-20

    HaHB11 is a member of the sunflower homeodomain-leucine zipper I subfamily of transcription factors. The analysis of a sunflower microarray hybridized with RNA from HaHB11-transformed leaf-disks indicated the regulation of many genes encoding enzymes from glycolisis and fermentative pathways. A 1300bp promoter sequence, fused to the GUS reporter gene, was used to transform Arabidopsis plants showing an induction of expression after flooding treatments, concurrently with HaHB11 regulation by submergence in sunflower. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and its own promoter were obtained and these plants exhibited significant increases in rosette and stem biomass. All the lines produced more seeds than controls and particularly, those of high expression level doubled seeds yield. Transgenic plants also showed tolerance to flooding stress, both to submergence and waterlogging. Carbohydrates contents were higher in the transgenics compared to wild type and decreased less after submergence treatments. Finally, transcript levels of selected genes involved in glycolisis and fermentative pathways as well as the corresponding enzymatic activities were assessed both, in sunflower and transgenic Arabidopsis plants, before and after submergence. Altogether, the present work leads us to propose HaHB11 as a biotechnological tool to improve crops yield, biomass and flooding tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypermethylated SUPERMAN epigenetic alleles in arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, S E; Meyerowitz, E M

    1997-08-22

    Mutations in the SUPERMAN gene affect flower development in Arabidopsis. Seven heritable but unstable sup epi-alleles (the clark kent alleles) are associated with nearly identical patterns of excess cytosine methylation within the SUP gene and a decreased level of SUP RNA. Revertants of these alleles are largely demethylated at the SUP locus and have restored levels of SUP RNA. A transgenic Arabidopsis line carrying an antisense methyltransferase gene, which shows an overall decrease in genomic cytosine methylation, also contains a hypermethylated sup allele. Thus, disruption of methylation systems may yield more complex outcomes than expected and can result in methylation defects at known genes. The clark kent alleles differ from the antisense line because they do not show a general decrease in genomic methylation.

  8. Differential Roles of Glucosinolates and Camalexin at Different Stages of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Po-Yuan; Chou, Shu-Jen; Müller, Caroline; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Deeken, Rosalia; Lai, Erh-Min

    2018-03-02

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the causal agent of crown gall disease in a wide range of plants via a unique interkingdom DNA transfer from bacterial cells into the plant genome. A. tumefaciens is capable of transferring its T-DNA into different plant parts at different developmental stages for transient and stable transformation. However, the plant genes and mechanisms involved in these transformation processes are not well understood. We used Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 seedlings to reveal the gene expression profiles at early time points during Agrobacterium infection. Common and differentially expressed genes were found in shoots and roots. A gene ontology analysis showed that the glucosinolate (GS) biosynthesis pathway was an enriched common response. Strikingly, several genes involved in indole glucosinolate (iGS) modification and camalexin biosynthesis pathway were up-regulated while genes in aliphatic GS (aGS) biosynthesis were generally down-regulated upon Agrobacterium infection. Thus, we evaluated the impacts of GSs and camalexin during different stages of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation combining Arabidopsis mutant studies, metabolite profiling, and exogenous applications of various GS hydrolysis products or camalexin. The results suggest that the iGS hydrolysis pathway plays an inhibitory role in transformation efficiency on Arabidopsis seedlings at the early infection stage. Later in the Agrobacterium infection process, accumulation of camalexin was a key factor inhibiting tumor development on Arabidopsis inflorescence stalks. In conclusion, this study revealed the differential roles of glucosinolates and camalexin at different stages of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and provided new insights into crown gall disease control and improvement of plant transformation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101133 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available F|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-10 ... ...eneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum and contains P...AK101133 J033026F23 At1g12980.1 AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, putative / enhancer of shoot reg

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK119645 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PF|00847 AP2 domain; identical to cDNA enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 GI:18028939, enhancer of shoot regeneration ESR1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:18028940 1e-10 ... ...ve / enhancer of shoot regeneration (ESR1) similar to gb|D38124 EREBP-3 from Nicotiana tabacum and contains ...AK119645 002-130-G05 At1g12980.1 AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, putati

  11. Reference: 788 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f PCD by chaperoning and inhibiting Cys proteases during their trafficking to vacuoles...es become the de facto lytic vacuoles that mediate PCD. Arabidopsis protein disulfi...de isomerase-5 inhibits cysteine proteases during trafficking to vacuoles before ... before PCD of the endothelial cells. During this transitional phase of endothelial cell development, the protein storage vacuol...apse of protein storage vacuoles, lytic vacuole shrinkage and degradation, and nuclear condensation and frag

  12. Reference: 567 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tamara et al. 2007 Mar. Plant Cell 19(3):831-46. Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth with pure oxylipins r...oic acid (9-HOT) was a potent inducer of root waving. Studies with noxy2 (for nonresponding to oxylipin...ive) revealed at least three signaling cascades mediating the oxylipin actions. Treatment with 9-HOT resulte...ing genes are consistent with mechanistic links among these processes. The nature of the changes detected suggests that oxylipin

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK065950 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065950 J013049M07 At3g11820.1 syntaxin 121 (SYP121) / syntaxin-related protein (S...YR1) contains Pfam profiles: PF00804 syntaxin and PF05739: SNARE domain; identical to cDNA syntaxin-related ...protein At-SYR1 (At-Syr1) GI:4206788, SP|Q9ZSD4 Syntaxin 121 (AtSYP121) (Syntaxin-related protein At-Syr1) {Arabidopsis thaliana} 5e-88 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK071591 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071591 J023105C08 At2g29570.1 proliferating cell nuclear antigen 2 (PCNA2) identi...cal to SP|Q9ZW35 Proliferating cell nuclear antigen 2 (PCNA 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating... cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam profiles PF00705: Proliferating... cell nuclear antigen N-terminal domain, PF02747: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen C-terminal domain 1e-132 ...

  15. Reference: 494 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hn C et al. 2007 Jan. Plant J. 49(2):194-207. Green-leaf volatiles are commonly emitted from mechanically an...ngi, and induce several important plant defense pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the major volatile released upon mechanical...ighest expression of CHAT occurs in the leaves and stems. Upon mechanical damage, the (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl aceta

  16. Reference: 307 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mo et al. 2006 Jan. Plant Physiol. 140(1):115-26. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates physiologic...esponse on the basis of results obtained by reverse-genetics approaches, its physiological relevance in the ...on confers distinct and indispensable physiological functions in the ABA response. ABA-hypersensitive germin...mination among Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2Cs. 1 115-26 16339800 2006 Jan Plant physio

  17. Reference: 710 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kyun et al. 2008 Feb. Plant Physiol. 146(2):623-35. AtMYB44 belongs to the R2R3 MYB subgroup 22 transcriptio... Arabidopsis. 2 623-35 18162593 2008 Feb Plant physiology Cheong Jong-Joo|Choi Yang Do|Han Sang Won|Jung Choonkyun|Kim Chung Ho|Koo Yeon Jong|Nahm Baek Hie|Seo Jun Sung|Song Sang Ik

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain famil...y cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  19. Reference: 295 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 295 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16284313i Fujita Yas...ng that enhances drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. 12 3470-88 16284313 200...5 Dec The Plant cell Fujita Miki|Fujita Yasunari|Hiratsu Keiichiro|Maruyama Kyonoshin|Ohme-Takagi Masaru|Par

  20. Reference: 495 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Emission of methanethiol from Arabidopsis plants supplied with 10 mM L-methionine was undetectable (cation in an alternat...>homocysteine-->cystathionine-->cysteine) in which methanethiol is an intermediate. Functional characterizat...wth on L-methionine as sole nitrogen source and conferred a high rate of methanethiol emission. The purified...mol min(-1) g(-1) FW), suggesting that AtMGL is not an important source of volatile methanethiol. Knocking o

  1. Reference: 125 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available et al. 2004 Nov. Plant Physiol. 136(3):3616-27. The actin cytoskeleton mediates cellular processes through t...AP and AtPIR participate in a variety of growth and developmental processes. Mutations in AtNAP and AtPIR ca...ting trichome cell growth. Arabidopsis NAP and PIR regulate actin-based cell morphogenesis and multiple developmental processes

  2. Reference: 435 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis. 7107 106-9 16936718 2006 Sep Nature Fobis-Loisy Isabelle|Gaude Thierry|Jaillais Yvon|Miège Christine|Rollin Claire ... 435 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16936718i Jaillais Yvon et al. 2006 Sep. Natu...re 443(7107):106-9. Polarized cellular distribution of the phytohormone auxin and i

  3. Reference: 584 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ing in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot and root stem cell organizers. 7137 811-4 17429400 2007 Apr Nature Hashimo...nda K et al. 2007 Apr. Nature 446(7137):811-4. Throughout the lifespan of a plant, which in some cases can l... 584 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u17429400i Sarkar Ana

  4. Reference: 497 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hal albino phenotype. Rescue of tha2 mutants and tha1 tha2 double mutants by overproduction of feedback-inse...-specific expression of feedback-insensitive Thr deaminase in both tha1 and tha2 Thr aldolase mutants greatl...nsitive Thr deaminase (OMR1) shows that Gly formation by THA1 and THA2 is not essential in Arabidopsis. Seed

  5. Reference: 2 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available at share 60 to 80% protein sequence identity. Gene disruptions of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ortho... that these syntaxins are not essential for growth in yeast. However, we have isolated and characterized gene disruption...s in two genes from each family, finding that disruption of individual syntaxins from these fami...lies is lethal in the male gametophyte of Arabidopsis. Complementation of the syp21-1 gene disruption

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK110331 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110331 002-164-D12 At2g31510.1 IBR domain-containing protein / ARIADNE-like prote...in ARI7 (ARI7) identical to ARIADNE-like protein ARI7 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:29125028; contains similarit...y to Swiss-Prot:Q94981 ariadne-1 protein (Ari-1) [Drosophila melanogaster]; contains Pfam profile PF01485: IBR domain 3e-59 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242789 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242789 J090057B20 At2g31510.1 68415.m03850 IBR domain-containing protein / ARIADN...E-like protein ARI7 (ARI7) identical to ARIADNE-like protein ARI7 [Arabidopsis thaliana] GI:29125028; contai...ns similarity to Swiss-Prot:Q94981 ariadne-1 protein (Ari-1) [Drosophila melanogaster]; contains Pfam profile PF01485: IBR domain 8e-12 ...

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Arabidopsis Pollen Transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honys, David; Twell, D.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 132, - (2003), s. 640ů652 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5038207 Grant - others:Royal Society(GB) NATO Postdoctoral Fellowship (to D.H.) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : transcriptome profiling * Arabidopsis pollen * male gametophyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.634, year: 2003

  9. Double-Stranded Linear Duck Hepatitis B Virus (DHBV) Stably Integrates at a Higher Frequency than Wild-Type DHBV in LMH Chicken Hepatoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shih S.; Jensen, Anne D.; Chang, C. J.; Rogler, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Integration of hepadnavirus DNAs into host chromosomes can have oncogenic consequences. Analysis of host-viral DNA junctions of DHBV identified the terminally duplicated r region of the viral genome as a hotspot for integration. Since the r region is present on the 5′ and 3′ ends of double-stranded linear (DSL) hepadnavirus DNAs, these molecules have been implicated as integration precursors. We have produced a LMH chicken hepatoma cell line (LMH 66-1 DSL) which replicates exclusively DSL duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) DNA. To test whether linear DHBV DNAs integrate more frequently than the wild type open circular DHBV DNAs, we have characterized the integration frequency in LMH 66-1 DSL cells by using a subcloning approach. This approach revealed that 83% of the LMH 66-1 DSL subclones contained new integrations, compared to only 16% of subclones from LMH-D2 cells replicating wild-type open circular DHBV DNA. Also, a higher percentage of the LMH 66-1 DSL subclones contained two or more new integrations. Mathematical analysis suggests that the DSL DHBV DNAs integrated stably once every three generations during subcloning whereas wild-type DHBV integrated only once every four to five generations. Cloning and sequencing of new integrations confirmed the r region as a preferred integration site for linear DHBV DNA molecules. One DHBV integrant was associated with a small deletion of chromosomal DNA, and another DHBV integrant occurred in a telomeric repeat sequence. PMID:9882355

  10. Analytical and numerical study of natural convection in a stably stratified fluid along vertical plates and cylinders with temporally-periodic surface temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.; Fedorovich, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes one-dimensional (parallel) laminar and transitional regimes of natural convection in a viscous stably stratified fluid due to temporally-periodic variations in the surface temperature of infinite vertical plates and cylinders. Analytical solutions are obtained for the periodic laminar regime for arbitrary values of stratification, Prandtl number and forcing frequency. The solutions for plates and cylinders are qualitatively similar and show that (i) the flows are composed of two waves that decay exponentially with distance from the surface; a fast long wave and a slow short wave, (ii) for forcing frequencies less than the natural frequency, both waves propagate away from the surface, while (iii) for forcing frequencies less than this natural frequency, the short wave propagates away from the surface while the long wave propagates toward the surface. The analytical results are complemented, for the plate problem, with three-dimensional numerical simulations of flows that start from rest and are suddenly subjected to a periodic thermal forcing. The numerical results depict the transient (start-up) stage of the laminar flow and the approach to the periodicity, and confirm that the analytical solutions provide the appropriate description of the periodic regime for the laminar convection case. Preliminary numerical data are presented for transition from the laminar to turbulent convection. (authors)

  11. Characterization of Caco-2 cells stably expressing the protein-based zinc probe eCalwy-5 as a model system for investigating intestinal zinc transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maares, Maria; Keil, Claudia; Thomsen, Susanne; Günzel, Dorothee; Wiesner, Burkhard; Haase, Hajo

    2018-01-29

    Intestinal zinc resorption, in particular its regulation and mechanisms, are not yet fully understood. Suitable intestinal cell models are needed to investigate zinc uptake kinetics and the role of labile zinc in enterocytes in vitro. Therefore, a Caco-2 cell clone was produced, stably expressing the genetically encoded zinc biosensor eCalwy-5. The aim of the present study was to reassure the presence of characteristic enterocyte-specific properties in the Caco-2-eCalwy clone. Comparison of Caco-2-WT and Caco-2-eCalwy cells revealed only slight differences regarding subcellular localization of the tight junction protein occludin and alkaline phosphatase activity, which did not affect basic integrity of the intestinal barrier or the characteristic brush border membrane morphology. Furthermore, introduction of the additional zinc-binding protein in Caco-2 cells did not alter mRNA expression of the major intestinal zinc transporters (zip4, zip5, znt-1 and znt-5), but increased metallothionein 1a-expression and cellular resistance to higher zinc concentrations. Moreover, this study examines the effect of sensor expression level on its saturation with zinc. Fluorescence cell imaging indicated considerable intercellular heterogeneity in biosensor-expression. However, FRET-measurements confirmed that these differences in expression levels have no effect on fractional zinc-saturation of the probe. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Microfibrillated cellulose sheets coating oxygen-permeable PDMS membranes induce rat hepatocytes 3D aggregation into stably-attached 3D hemispheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenou, Fanny; Couderc, Sandrine; Kim, Beomjoon; Fujii, Teruo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the use of natural, chemically-unmodified, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) as a matrix for hepatocyte culture. We developed an original cell-culture design composed of a thin 3D-microstructured fibrous substrate consisting of a MFC sheet coating a highly O(2)-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The MFC-coated PDMS membranes were obtained according to a simple process where cellulose fibres were deposited from an aqueous suspension on the PDMS surfaces and the films were dried under mild conditions. To enable oxygen diffusion through the membranes, they were assembled on bottomless frames ('O(2)+' condition). Rat hepatocytes primary-cultured on such MFC-PDMS membranes quickly organized themselves into large hemispherical 3D aggregates which were tightly anchored to the MFC sheets. In contrast, hepatocytes cultured on smooth PDMS membranes in the O(2)+ system (O(2)+, PDMS) organized into unstable 2D monolayers which easily detached from the surfaces. Hepatocyte 3D cultures obtained on MFC-PDMS membranes exhibited higher liver-specific functions over a 2-week culture period, as assessed by both the higher albumin secretion and urea synthesis rate. The MFC-PDMS membranes appear suitable for obtaining stably-attached and functional hepatocyte 3D cultures and appear interesting for drug/chemical screenings in a microplate format, but also for microfluidic applications.

  13. Characterization of calcium signals in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dentate gyrus neuronal progenitors and mature neurons, stably expressing an advanced calcium indicator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vőfély, Gergő; Berecz, Tünde; Szabó, Eszter; Szebényi, Kornélia; Hathy, Edit; Orbán, Tamás I; Sarkadi, Balázs; Homolya, László; Marchetto, Maria C; Réthelyi, János M; Apáti, Ágota

    2018-04-01

    Pluripotent stem cell derived human neuronal progenitor cells (hPSC-NPCs) and their mature neuronal cell culture derivatives may efficiently be used for central nervous system (CNS) drug screening, including the investigation of ligand-induced calcium signalization. We have established hippocampal NPC cultures derived from human induced PSCs, which were previously generated by non-integrating Sendai virus reprogramming. Using established protocols these NPCs were differentiated into hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons. In order to study calcium signaling without the need of dye loading, we have stably expressed an advanced calcium indicator protein (GCaMP6fast) in the NPCs using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system. We observed no significant effects of the long-term GCaMP6 expression on NPC morphology, gene expression pattern or neural differentiation capacity. In order to compare the functional properties of GCaMP6-expressing neural cells and the corresponding parental cells loaded with calcium indicator dye Fluo-4, a detailed characterization of calcium signals was performed. We found that the calcium signals induced by ATP, glutamate, LPA, or proteases - were similar in these two systems. Moreover, the presence of the calcium indicator protein allowed for a sensitive, repeatable detection of changes in calcium signaling during the process of neurogenesis and neuronal maturation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacological and functional characterisation of the wild-type and site-directed mutants of the human H1 histamine receptor stably expressed in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguilevsky, N; Varsalona, F; Guillaume, J P; Noyer, M; Gillard, M; Daliers, J; Henichart, J P; Bollen, A

    1995-01-01

    A cDNA clone for the human histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a lung cDNA library and stably expressed in CHO cells. The recombinant receptor protein present in the cell membranes, displayed the functional and binding characteristics of histamine H1 receptors. Mutation of Ser155 to Ala in the fourth transmembrane domain did not significantly change the affinity of the receptor for histamine and H1 antagonists. However, mutation of the fifth transmembrane Asn198 to Ala resulted in a dramatic decrease of the affinity for histamine binding, and for the histamine-induced polyphosphoinositides breakdown, whereas the affinity towards antagonists was not significantly modified. In addition, mutation of another fifth transmembrane amino acid, Thr194 to Ala also diminished, but to a lesser extent, the affinity for histamine. These data led us to propose a molecular model for histamine interaction with the human H1 receptor. In this model, the amide moiety of Asn198 and the hydroxyl group of Thr194 are involved in hydrogen bonding with the nitrogen atoms of the imidazole ring of histamine. Moreover, mutation of Thr194 to Ala demonstrated that this residue is responsible for the discrimination between enantiomers of cetirizine.

  15. Characteristics of stably expressed human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors: atypical behavior of the dopamine D1b receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U B; Norby, B; Jensen, Anders A.

    1994-01-01

    Human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stably expressed in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]SCH23390 saturation experiments indicated the presence of only a single binding site in the D1a expressing cell line with a Kd of 0.5 nM. In D1b expressing cell lines......, two binding sites were observed with Kd values of 0.5 and 5 nM in CHO cells and 0.05 and 1.6 nM in BHK cells, respectively. Neither of the receptors affected Ca2+ metabolism whereas they both were coupled in a stimulatory fashion to adenylyl cyclase. The pharmacological profile of both the D1a and D1b...... for these receptors. Besides SCH 23390, only NNC 112, fluphenazine and bulbocapnine were able to discriminate between the two states of the D1b receptor. In case of the D1a receptor, the Ki values obtained in binding experiments were very similar to Ki values obtained from inhibition of dopamine stimulated adenylyl...

  16. HTLV-1 Tax mediated downregulation of miRNAs associated with chromatin remodeling factors in T cells with stably integrated viral promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifur Rahman

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a natural cellular mechanism to silence gene expression and is predominantly mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs that target messenger RNA. Viruses can manipulate the cellular processes necessary for their replication by targeting the host RNAi machinery. This study explores the effect of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 transactivating protein Tax on the RNAi pathway in the context of a chromosomally integrated viral long terminal repeat (LTR using a CD4(+ T-cell line, Jurkat. Transcription factor profiling of the HTLV-1 LTR stably integrated T-cell clone transfected with Tax demonstrates increased activation of substrates and factors associated with chromatin remodeling complexes. Using a miRNA microarray and bioinformatics experimental approach, Tax was also shown to downregulate the expression of miRNAs associated with the translational regulation of factors required for chromatin remodeling. These observations were validated with selected miRNAs and an HTLV-1 infected T cells line, MT-2. miR-149 and miR-873 were found to be capable of directly targeting p300 and p/CAF, chromatin remodeling factors known to play critical role in HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Overall, these results are first in line establishing HTLV-1/Tax-miRNA-chromatin concept and open new avenues toward understanding retroviral latency and/or replication in a given cell type.

  17. Knock-out of Arabidopsis AtNHX4 gene enhances tolerance to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Tao; Liu, Hua; Gao, Xiao-Shu [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Hongxia, E-mail: hxzhang@sippe.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2009-05-08

    AtNHX4 belongs to the monovalent cation:proton antiporter-1 (CPA1) family in Arabidopsis. Several members of this family have been shown to be critical for plant responses to abiotic stress, but little is known on the biological functions of AtNHX4. Here, we provide the evidence that AtNHX4 plays important roles in Arabidopsis responses to salt stress. Expression of AtNHX4 was responsive to salt stress and abscisic acid. Experiments with CFP-AtNHX4 fusion protein indicated that AtNHX4 is vacuolar localized. The nhx4 mutant showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress, and lower Na{sup +} content under high NaCl stress compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, heterologous expression of AtNHX4 in Escherichia coli BL21 rendered the transformants hypersensitive to NaCl. Deletion of the hydrophilic C-terminus of AtNHX4 dramatically increased the hypersensitivity of transformants, indicating that AtNHX4 may function in Na{sup +} homeostasis in plant cell, and its C-terminus plays a role in regulating the AtNHX4 activity.

  18. [Imprinting genes and it's expression in Arabidopsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yu; Xu, Pei-Zhou; Yang, Hua; Wu, Xian-Jun

    2010-07-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to the phenomenon that the expression of a gene copy depends on its parent of origin. The Arabidopsis imprinted FIS (Fertilisation-independent seed) genes, mea, fis2, and fie, play essential roles in the repression of central cell and the regulation of early endosperm development. fis mutants display two phenotypes: autonomous diploid endosperm development when fertilization is absent and un-cellularised endosperm formation when fertilization occurs. The FIS Polycomb protein complex including the above three FIS proteins catalyzes histone H3 K27 tri-methylation on target loci. DME (DEMETER), a DNA glycosylase, and AtMET1 (Methyltransferase1), a DNA methyltransferase, are involved in the regulation of imprinted expression of both mea and fis2. This review summarizes the studies on the Arabidopsis imprinted FIS genes and other related genes. Recent works have shown that the insertion of transposons may affect nearby gene expression, which may be the main driving force behind the evolution of genomic imprinting. This summary covers the achievements on Arabidopsis imprinted genes will provide important information for studies on genomic imprinting in the important crops such as rice and maize.

  19. Telomere-binding proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentgraf, U

    1995-02-01

    The nucleoprotein structure of Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres was investigated. A protein specifically binding to telomeric sequences was characterized by gel mobility shift assays with synthetic oligonucleotides consisting of four 7 bp telomeric repeats of Arabidopsis (TTTAGGG) and crude nuclear protein extracts of Arabidopsis leaves. These DNA-protein binding studies revealed that the binding affinity of this telomere-binding protein to the G-rich single-strand as well as to the double-stranded telomeric DNA is much higher than to the C-rich single-strand. The molecular mass of the protein was identified by SDS-PAGE to be 67 kDa. The isoelectric points were determined to be 5.0, 4.85 and 4.7, respectively, indicating that either one protein with different modifications or three slightly different proteins have been isolated. An RNA component, possibly serving as a template for reverse transcription of a plant telomerase, does not mediate the DNA-protein contact because the DNA-protein interactions were not RNAse-sensitive.

  20. Regulatory Proteolysis in Arabidopsis-Pathogen Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogány, Miklós; Dankó, Tamás; Kámán-Tóth, Evelin; Schwarczinger, Ildikó; Bozsó, Zoltán

    2015-09-24

    Approximately two and a half percent of protein coding genes in Arabidopsis encode enzymes with known or putative proteolytic activity. Proteases possess not only common housekeeping functions by recycling nonfunctional proteins. By irreversibly cleaving other proteins, they regulate crucial developmental processes and control responses to environmental changes. Regulatory proteolysis is also indispensable in interactions between plants and their microbial pathogens. Proteolytic cleavage is simultaneously used both by plant cells, to recognize and inactivate invading pathogens, and by microbes, to overcome the immune system of the plant and successfully colonize host cells. In this review, we present available results on the group of proteases in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana whose functions in microbial pathogenesis were confirmed. Pathogen-derived proteolytic factors are also discussed when they are involved in the cleavage of host metabolites. Considering the wealth of review papers available in the field of the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system results on the ubiquitin cascade are not presented. Arabidopsis and its pathogens are conferred with abundant sets of proteases. This review compiles a list of those that are apparently involved in an interaction between the plant and its pathogens, also presenting their molecular partners when available.

  1. Gene introduction into the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana via peptide-based carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jo-Ann; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Kodama, Yutaka; Numata, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Available methods in plant genetic transformation are nuclear and plastid transformations because similar procedures have not yet been established for the mitochondria. The double membrane and small size of the organelle, in addition to its large population in cells, are major obstacles in mitochondrial transfection. Here we report the intracellular delivery of exogenous DNA localized to the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana using a combination of mitochondria-targeting peptide and cell-penetrating peptide. Low concentrations of peptides were sufficient to deliver DNA into the mitochondria and expression of imported DNA reached detectable levels within a short incubation period (12 h). We found that electrostatic interaction with the cell membrane is not a critical factor for complex internalization, instead, improved intracellular penetration of mitochondria-targeted complexes significantly enhanced gene transfer efficiency. Our results delineate a simple and effective peptide-based method, as a starting point for the development of more sophisticated plant mitochondrial transfection strategies.

  2. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

  3. Comparative analysis of drought resistance genes in Arabidopsis and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijatmiko, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: rice, Arabidopsis, drought, genetic mapping,microarray, transcription factor, AP2/ERF, SHINE, wax, stomata, comparative genetics, activation tagging, Ac/Ds, En/IThis thesis describes the use of genomics information and tools from Arabidopsis and

  4. Proteomic analysis of the Arabidopsis nucleolus suggests novel nucleolar functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pendle, Alison F; Clark, Gillian P; Boon, Reinier

    2005-01-01

    analysis of plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) nucleoli, in which we have identified 217 proteins. This allows a direct comparison of the proteomes of an important nuclear structure between two widely divergent species: human and Arabidopsis. The comparison identified many common proteins, plant...

  5. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  6. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real - time rt - pce studies of hydrogenperoxide signaling in arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Han, B.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, J.; Shen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ ) acts as a signaling molecule modulating the expression of various genes in plants. However, the reference gene(s) used for gene expression analysis of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ signaling is still arbitrary. A reliable result obtained by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) highly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes, whereas the inaccurate normalization could easily lead to the false conclusions. In this report, by using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated and compared in root and shoot tissues of Arabidopsis upon different doses of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The results revealed that, in our experimental conditions, three novel reference genes (TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21) were identified and validated as suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in both root and shoot tissues under oxidative stress. This conclusion was further confirmed by publicly available microarray data of methyl viologen and drought stress. In comparison with a single reference gene (EF-1a), the expression pattern of ZAT12 modulated by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, when using TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21 as multiple reference gene(s), was similar with the previous reports by using northern blotting. Thus, we proposed that these three reference genes might be good candidates for other researchers to include in their reference gene validation in gene expression studies under H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ related oxidative stress. (author)

  7. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  8. Phenylpropanoids from cinnamon bark reduced β-amyloid production by the inhibition of β-secretase in Chinese hamster ovarian cells stably expressing amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Jeong; Seo, Dae-Gun; Park, So-Young

    2016-11-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ) is a substance of Alzheimer disease (AD), which is generated via the amyloidogenic pathway from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase. Inhibition of Aβ production is a potential therapeutic approach to AD. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that cinnamon bark (Cinnamomi Cortex Spissus), the dried bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Lauraceae), and its constituents are beneficial to AD. The methanol extract of cinnamon bark efficiently reduced Aβ40 production in Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells stably expressing APP as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bioassay-guided isolation of cinnamon bark extract was carried out using open column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and the following 6 phenylpropanoids were isolated: syringaresinol (1); medioresinol (2); coumarin (3); 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (4); cryptamygin A (5); and 3',5,7-trimethoxy epicatechin (6). Among these, 4 μg/mL medioresinol and cryptamygin A reduced Aβ40 production by 50% and 60%, respectively, compared with dimethyl sulfoxide-treated control cells. The IC 50 values of medioresinol and cryptamygin A for the inhibition of Aβ40 production were 10.8 and 8.2 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of APP-CHO cells with either compound decreased the amount of β-secretase and sAPPβ (the proteolytic fragment of APP catalyzed by β-secretase). These results suggest that the antiamyloidogenic activity of cinnamon bark extract was exerted by medioresinol and cryptamygin A via a reduction in the amount of β-secretase. The extract of cinnamon bark contains potentially valuable antiamyloidogenic agents for the prevention and treatment of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistent human cardiac Na+ currents in stably transfected mammalian cells: Robust expression and distinct open-channel selectivity among Class 1 antiarrhythmics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ging Kuo; Russell, Gabriella; Wang, Sho-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Miniature persistent late Na(+) currents in cardiomyocytes have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The goals of this study are to establish a stable cell line expressing robust persistent cardiac Na(+) currents and to test Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs for selective action against resting and open states. After transient transfection of an inactivation-deficient human cardiac Na(+) channel clone (hNav1.5-CW with L409C/A410W double mutations), transfected mammalian HEK293 cells were treated with 1 mg/ml G-418. Individual G-418-resistant colonies were isolated using glass cylinders. One colony with high expression of persistent Na(+) currents was subjected to a second colony selection. Cells from this colony remained stable in expressing robust peak Na(+) currents of 996 ± 173 pA/pF at +50 mV (n = 20). Persistent late Na(+) currents in these cells were clearly visible during a 4-second depolarizing pulse albeit decayed slowly. This slow decay is likely due to slow inactivation of Na(+) channels and could be largely eliminated by 5 μM batrachotoxin. Peak cardiac hNav1.5-CW Na(+) currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC(50) value of 2.27 ± 0.08 μM (n = 6). At clinic relevant concentrations, Class 1 antiarrhythmics are much more selective in blocking persistent late Na(+) currents than their peak counterparts, with a selectivity ratio ranging from 80.6 (flecainide) to 3 (disopyramide). We conclude that (1) Class 1 antiarrhythmics differ widely in their resting- vs. open-channel selectivity, and (2) stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing large persistent hNav1.5-CW Na(+) currents are suitable for studying as well as screening potent open-channel blockers.

  10. DEAD-box helicase DDX27 regulates 3′ end formation of ribosomal 47S RNA and stably associates with the PeBoW-complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Markus; Rohrmoser, Michaela [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Forné, Ignasi [Adolf Butenandt Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Schillerstr. 44, Munich 80336 (Germany); Voss, Kirsten; Burger, Kaspar; Mühl, Bastian; Gruber-Eber, Anita [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Kremmer, Elisabeth [Institute of Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Center Munich, Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Imhof, Axel [Adolf Butenandt Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Schillerstr. 44, Munich 80336 (Germany); Eick, Dirk, E-mail: eick@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    PeBoW, a trimeric complex consisting of pescadillo (Pes1), block of proliferation (Bop1), and the WD repeat protein 12 (WDR12), is essential for processing and maturation of mammalian 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs. Applying a mass spectrometric analysis, we identified the DEAD-box helicase DDX27 as stably associated factor of the PeBoW-complex. DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW-complex via an evolutionary conserved F×F motif in the N-terminal domain and is recruited to the nucleolus via its basic C-terminal domain. This recruitment is RNA-dependent and occurs independently of the PeBoW-complex. Interestingly, knockdown of DDX27, but not of Pes1, induces the accumulation of an extended form of the primary 47S rRNA. We conclude that DDX27 can interact specifically with the Pes1 and Bop1 but fulfils critical function(s) for proper 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA independently of the PeBoW-complex. - Highlights: • DEAD-box helicase DDX27 is a new constituent of the PeBoW-complex. • The N-terminal F×F motif of DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW components Pes1 and Bop1. • Nucleolar anchoring of DDX27 via its basic C-terminal domain is RNA dependent. • Knockdown of DDX27 induces a specific defect in 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA.

  11. Genome-wide cloning and sequence analysis of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Tong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmembrane receptor kinases play critical roles in both animal and plant signaling pathways regulating growth, development, differentiation, cell death, and pathogenic defense responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are at least 223 Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs, representing one of the largest protein families. Although functional roles for a handful of LRR-RLKs have been revealed, the functions of the majority of members in this protein family have not been elucidated. Results As a resource for the in-depth analysis of this important protein family, the complementary DNA sequences (cDNAs of 194 LRR-RLKs were cloned into the GatewayR donor vector pDONR/ZeoR and analyzed by DNA sequencing. Among them, 157 clones showed sequences identical to the predictions in the Arabidopsis sequence resource, TAIR8. The other 37 cDNAs showed gene structures distinct from the predictions of TAIR8, which was mainly caused by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Most of the genes have been further cloned into GatewayR destination vectors with GFP or FLAG epitope tags and have been transformed into Arabidopsis for in planta functional analysis. All clones from this study have been submitted to the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC at Ohio State University for full accessibility by the Arabidopsis research community. Conclusions Most of the Arabidopsis LRR-RLK genes have been isolated and the sequence analysis showed a number of alternatively spliced variants. The generated resources, including cDNA entry clones, expression constructs and transgenic plants, will facilitate further functional analysis of the members of this important gene family.

  12. Spiraling into Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranton, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how technical and vocational learning may spiral into transformative learning. Transformative learning theory is reviewed and the learning tasks of critical theory are used to integrate various approaches to transformative learning. With this as a foundation, the article explores how transformative learning can be fostered in…

  13. Stable Transformation of Ferns Using Spores as Targets: Pteris vittata and Ceratopteris thalictroides1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Joyce, Blake L.; Elless, Mark P.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2013-01-01

    Ferns (Pteridophyta) are very important members of the plant kingdom that lag behind other taxa with regards to our understanding of their genetics, genomics, and molecular biology. We report here, to our knowledge, the first instance of stable transformation of fern with recovery of transgenic sporophytes. Spores of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata and tetraploid ‘C-fern Express’ (Ceratopteris thalictroides) were stably transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with constructs containing the P. vittata actin promoter driving a GUSPlus reporter gene. Reporter gene expression assays were performed on multiple tissues and growth stages of gametophytes and sporophytes. Southern-blot analysis confirmed stable transgene integration in recovered sporophytes and also confirmed that no plasmid from A. tumefaciens was present in the sporophyte tissues. We recovered seven independent transformants of P. vittata and four independent C. thalictroides transgenics. Inheritance analyses using β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical staining revealed that the GUS transgene was stably expressed in second generation C. thalictroides sporophytic tissues. In an independent experiment, the gusA gene that was driven by the 2× Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was bombarded into P. vittata spores using biolistics, in which putatively stable transgenic gametophytes were recovered. Transformation procedures required no tissue culture or selectable marker genes. However, we did attempt to use hygromycin selection, which was ineffective for recovering transgenic ferns. This simple stable transformation method should help facilitate functional genomics studies in ferns. PMID:23933990

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063098 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK063098 001-111-C03 At1g07370.1 proliferating cell nuclear antigen 1 (PCNA1) ident...ical to SP|Q9M7Q7 Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen 1 (PCNA 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferati...ng cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam profiles PF00705: Proliferating... cell nuclear antigen N-terminal domain, PF02747: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen C-terminal domain 7e-88 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243048 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243048 J100010D20 At1g07370.1 68414.m00786 proliferating cell nuclear antigen 1 (...PCNA1) identical to SP|Q9M7Q7 Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen 1 (PCNA 1) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; near...ly identical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam profiles PF00705: Proliferating... cell nuclear antigen N-terminal domain, PF02747: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen C-terminal domain 1e-131 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243048 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243048 J100010D20 At2g29570.1 68415.m03591 proliferating cell nuclear antigen 2 (...PCNA2) identical to SP|Q9ZW35 Proliferating cell nuclear antigen 2 (PCNA 2) {Arabidopsis thaliana}; nearly i...dentical to SP|Q43124 Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) {Brassica napus}; contains Pfam profiles PF00705: Proliferating... cell nuclear antigen N-terminal domain, PF02747: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen C-terminal domain 1e-132 ...

  17. Reference: 538 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d A et al. 2007 Apr. Plant Physiol. 143(4):1576-89. Membrane proteins within the sieve element-companion cel...RS6, selected from hybridomas raised against sieve elements isolated from Califor...psis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia that is associated specifically with the plasma membrane of sieve... elements, but not companion cells, and accumulates at the earliest stages of sieve...ch domain, and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domain. The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of the 21.5-kD sieve

  18. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  19. Reference: 517 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l C et al. 2007 Mar. Plant Physiol. 143(3):1173-88. Seed dormancy is a common phase of the plant life cycle,... and several parts of the seed can contribute to dormancy. Whole seeds, seeds lacking the testa, embryos, an...eriments designed to identify components of the Arabidopsis seed that contribute to seed dormancy and to learn more about how dormanc... the primary determinant of seed dormancy. Embryos from dormant seeds, however, h...abscisic acid and is sufficient and necessary for seed dormancy. 3 1173-88 17220360 2007 Mar Plant physiolog

  20. Reference: 624 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on of dihydrocamalexic acid to camalexin by CYP71B15 (PAD3). This article reports... characterization of CYP71A13. Plants carrying cyp71A13 mutations produce greatly reduced amounts of camalexin...f CYP79B2 and CYP71A13 in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in conversion of Trp to IAN. Exogenously supplied IAN restored camalexin...hat CYP71A13 catalyzes the conversion of IAOx to IAN in camalexin synthesis and p...rovide further support for the role of camalexin in resistance to A. brassicicola. Arabidopsis cytochrome P4

  1. Reference: 413 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion, and, in the absence of fertilization, flowers senesce. In the Arabidopsis thal...iana mutant fruit without fertilization, a mutation in AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 (AR...F8) results in the uncoupling of fruit development from pollination and fertilization and gives rise to seed...ARF8 acts as an inhibitor to stop further carpel development in the absence of fertilization and the generat... involved in pollination and fertilization and in the carpel wall. After fertilization, the level of GUS act

  2. Reference: 705 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available w that in Arabidopsis thaliana, the degree of H3K36 methylation is regulated by distinct methyltransferases. The SET2 homologs SDG...8 and SDG26 each can methylate oligonucleosomes in vitro, and both proteins are locali...zed in the nucleus. While the previously reported loss-of-function sdg8 mutants h...ave an early-flowering phenotype, the loss-of-function sdg26 mutants show a late-flowering phenotype. Consis...tently, several MADS-box flowering repressors are down-regulated by sdg8 but up-regulated by sdg26. The sdg8 but not the sdg

  3. Reference: 462 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . ATAF1 was one of the first identified NAC proteins in Arabidopsis. In present study, we characterized the ATAF1 express...ion and biological function in response to water deficit stress. ATAF1 mRNA express...ater treatment, suggesting a general role in drought stress responses. Transient expression analysis in onio...otein. Yeast transactivation analysis showed that ATAF1 had ability to activate reporter gene expression. Fu...ught response test. This ataf1 phenotype was coincident with the enhanced expression of stress responsive ma

  4. Reference: 423 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ed T-DNA knockouts to Arabidopsis FAAH (AtFAAH; At5g64440) and generated plants overexpressing AtFAAH. Here ...d seedling growth was hypersensitive to exogenously applied NAE. On the other hand, seeds and seedlings of AtFAAH overexpress...ssors displayed enhanced seedling growth and increased cell size. AtFAAH expression...s fatty acid amide hydrolase expression modifies plant growth and sensitivity to N-acylethanolamines. 32 121...ors had lower endogenous NAE content, and seedlings were less sensitive to exogenous NAE. Moreover, AtFAAH overexpre

  5. Reference: 453 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctor. We demonstrate that this protein functions as a transcriptional repressor in vivo. The express...ion of all members of the CYCLINA2 (CYCA2) family was reduced in an ILP1 overexpressing l...ine, and the mouse (Mus musculus) homolog of ILP1 repressed cyclin A2 expression in mouse NIH3T3 cells. T-DN...A insertion mutants of ILP1 showed reduced polyploidy and upregulated all CYCA2 express...ion. Furthermore, loss of CYCA2;1 expression induces an increase in polyploidy in Arabidopsis. We demo

  6. Reference: 595 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t critical for ring formation or positioning despite its conservation. atftsZ1-1(D159N) and atftsZ1-1(G366A)...hese mutants. However, atftsZ1-1(D159N) exhibits loss of proper midplastid FtsZ positioning...1 are related to its in vivo function. Effects of mutations in Arabidopsis FtsZ1 on plastid division, FtsZ ring formation and positio...ning, and FtsZ filament morphology in vivo. 6 775-91 17468127 2007 Jun Plant & cell

  7. Reference: 562 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Akie et al. 2007 Mar. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(11):4724-9. Roots display hydrotropism in response t...olecular mechanism underlying hydrotropism remains unknown. Here, we report that roots of the Arabidopsis mu...tant mizu-kussei1 (miz1), which are impaired in hydrotropism, show normal gravitropism and elongation growth.... The roots of miz1 plants showed reduced phototropism and a modified wavy growth...wild-type plants. These results suggest that the pathway inducing hydrotropism is independent of the pathway

  8. Evolution and genetic differentiation among relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marcus A; Matschinger, Michaela

    2007-04-10

    Arabidopsis thaliana is one of the most intensively studied plant species. More recently, information is accumulating about its closest relatives, the former genus Cardaminopsis. A. thaliana diverged from these relatives, actually treated within three major lineages (Arabidopsis lyrata, Arabidopsis halleri, and Arabidopsis arenosa), approximately 5 mya. Significant karyotype evolution in A. thaliana with base chromosome number reduction from x=8 to x=5 might indicate and favor effective genetic isolation from these other species, although hybrids are occurring naturally and have been also constituted under controlled conditions. We tested the evolutionary significance to separate the x=5 from the x=8 lineage using DNA sequence data from the plastome and the nuclear ribosomal DNA based on an extensive, representative worldwide sampling of nearly all taxonomic entities. We conclude that (i) A. thaliana is clearly separated phylogenetically from the x=8 lineage, (ii) five major lineages outside A. thaliana can be identified (A. lyrata, A. arenosa, A. halleri, Arabidopsis croatica, and Arabidopsis pedemontana) together with Arabidopsis cebennensis, and (iii) centers of genetic and morphological diversity are mostly in congruence and are located close to the Balkans in Austria and Slovakia outside glaciated and permafrost regions with few notable exceptions.

  9. Differential effects of overexpression of ERα and ERβ in MCF10A immortalised, non-transformed human breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugazhendhi, Dhamayanthi; Darbre, Philippa D

    2010-01-01

    Cellular effects of oestrogen are mediated by two intracellular receptors ERα and ERβ. However, to compare responses mediated through these two receptors, experimental models are needed where ERα and ERβ are individually stably overexpressed in the same cell type. We compared the effects of stable overexpression of ERα and ERβ in the MCF10A cell line, which is an immortalised but non-transformed breast epithelial cell line without high endogenous ER expression. Clones of MCF10A cells were characterised which stably overexpressed ERα (10A-ERα2, 10A-ERα13) or which stably overexpressed ERβ (10A-ERβ12, 10A-ERβ15). Overexpression of either ERα or ERβ allowed induction of an oestrogen-regulated ERE-LUC reporter gene by oestradiol which was not found in the untransfected cells. Oestradiol also increased proliferation of 10A-ERα13 and 10A-ERβ12 cells, but not untransfected cells, by 1.3-fold over 7 days. The phytoestrogen, genistein, which is reported to bind more strongly to ERβ than to ERα, could induce luciferase gene expression from an ERE-LUC reporter gene at concentrations of 10-6 M and 10-5 M but only in the clones overexpressing ERβ and not in those overexpressing ERα. Clone 10A-ERβ12 also yielded growth stimulation with 10-6 M genistein. Finally, the overexpression of ERα, but not ERβ, gave rise to increased growth in semi-solid methocel suspension culture in the presence of 70 nM oestradiol, suggesting that overexpression of ERα, but not ERβ, produces characteristics of a transformed phenotype. This provides a model system to compare effects of oestradiol with other oestrogenic ligands in cells stably overexpressing individually ERα or ERβ.

  10. Nitrate-dependent shoot sodium accumulation and osmotic functions of sodium in Arabidopsis under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Aragón, Rocío; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso

    2017-07-01

    Improving crop plants to be productive in saline soils or under irrigation with saline water would be an important technological advance in overcoming the food and freshwater crises that threaten the world population. However, even if the transformation of a glycophyte into a plant that thrives under seawater irrigation was biologically feasible, current knowledge about Na + effects would be insufficient to support this technical advance. Intriguingly, crucial details about Na + uptake and its function in the plant have not yet been well established. We here propose that under saline conditions two nitrate-dependent transport systems in series that take up and load Na + into the xylem constitute the major pathway for the accumulation of Na + in Arabidopsis shoots; this pathway can also function with chloride at high concentrations. In nrt1.1 nitrate transport mutants, plant Na + accumulation was partially defective, which suggests that NRT1.1 either partially mediates or modulates the nitrate-dependent Na + transport. Arabidopsis plants exposed to an osmotic potential of -1.0 MPa (400 mOsm) for 24 h showed high water loss and wilting in sorbitol or Na/MES, where Na + could not be accumulated. In contrast, in NaCl the plants that accumulated Na + lost a low amount of water, and only suffered transitory wilting. We discuss that in Arabidopsis plants exposed to high NaCl concentrations, root Na + uptake and tissue accumulation fulfil the primary function of osmotic adjustment, even if these processes lead to long-term toxicity. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The ACA10 Ca2+-ATPase regulates adult vegetative development and inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lynn; Romanowsky, Shawn M; Harper, Jeffrey F; Sharrock, Robert A

    2008-02-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) compact inflorescence (cif) genotype causes altered adult vegetative development and a reduction in elongation of inflorescence internodes resulting in formation of floral clusters. The cif trait requires both a recessive mutation, cif1, and the activity of a naturally occurring dominant allele of an unlinked gene, CIF2(D). We show here that the pseudoverticillata mutation is allelic with cif1 and that the product of the CIF1 gene is ACA10, a member of the large family of P-type Ca(2+)-ATPases found in higher plants. T-DNA insertion mutations in ACA10, but not in the two other Arabidopsis plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase-encoding genes, ACA8 and ACA9, cause a cif phenotype when combined with the dominant CIF2(D) modifier allele. Therefore, ACA10 has a unique function in regulating adult phase growth and inflorescence development. The wild-type ACA8 and ACA10 mRNAs are present at similar levels, and the two promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusion transgenes show very similar expression patterns. Moreover, transformation of the cif mutant with an extra copy of the ACA8 gene, which causes overexpression of the ACA8 transcript, can complement the cif phenotype. This suggests that these two Ca(2+) pump genes have distinct but related activities and that their differential functions can be altered by relatively small changes in their patterns or levels of expression. The correspondence between cif1 and mutations in ACA10 establishes a genetic link between calcium transport, vegetative phase change, and inflorescence architecture.

  12. Micro-Tom Tomato as an Alternative Plant Model System: Mutant Collection and Efficient Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Masahito; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tomato is a model plant for fruit development, a unique feature that classical model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice do not have. The tomato genome was sequenced in 2012 and tomato is becoming very popular as an alternative system for plant research. Among many varieties of tomato, Micro-Tom has been recognized as a model cultivar for tomato research because it shares some key advantages with Arabidopsis including its small size, short life cycle, and capacity to grow under fluorescent lights at a high density. Mutants and transgenic plants are essential materials for functional genomics research, and therefore, the availability of mutant resources and methods for genetic transformation are key tools to facilitate tomato research. Here, we introduce the Micro-Tom mutant database "TOMATOMA" and an efficient transformation protocol for Micro-Tom.

  13. Mutaciones de Arabidopsis que producen el fenotipo de nrb2

    OpenAIRE

    TOLOSA ALMENDROS, VÍCTOR MANUEL

    2015-01-01

    [ES] En la resistencia basal de Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) frente a patógenos biotrofos hay una señal fundamental: el ácido salicílico (SA). Pese a la importancia de esta molécula en plantas, todavía se desconocen muchos pasos importantes en esta ruta. El uso de mutantes que presentan alguna alteración en la ruta de señalización del SA puede ser una herramienta útil para estudiar esta ruta. A partir de un rastreo genético en Arabidopsis, hemos identificado catorce ...

  14. Suppression of cell expansion by ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN gene in transgenic petunia and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kater, M M; Franken, J; van Aelst, A; Angenent, G C

    2000-08-01

    Molecular and genetic analyses have shown that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene SUPERMAN (SUP) has at least two functions in Arabidopsis flower development. SUP is necessary to control the correct distribution of cells with either a stamen or carpel fate, and is essential for proper outgrowth of the ovule outer integument. Both these functions indicate a role for SUP in cell proliferation. To study the function of the Arabidopsis SUP gene in more detail, we over-expressed the SUP gene in petunia and tobacco in a tissue-specific manner. The petunia FLORAL BINDING PROTEIN 1 (FBP1) gene promoter was used to restrict the expression of SUP to petals and stamens. The development of petals and stamens was severely affected in both petunia and tobacco plants over-expressing SUP. Petals remained small and did not unfold, resulting in closed flowers. Stamen filaments were thin and very short. Detailed analysis of these floral organs from the petunia transformants showed that cell expansion was dramatically reduced without affecting cell division. These results reveal a novel activity for SUP as a regulator of cell expansion.

  15. The GLABRA2 homeodomain protein directly regulates CESA5 and XTH17 gene expression in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Iwata, Mineko; Sugiyama, Junji; Kotake, Toshihisa; Ishida, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Okada, Kiyotaka; Wada, Takuji

    2009-11-01

    Arabidopsis root hair formation is determined by the patterning genes CAPRICE (CPC), GLABRA3 (GL3), WEREWOLF (WER) and GLABRA2 (GL2), but little is known about the later changes in cell wall material during root hair formation. A combined Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy-principal components analysis (FTIR-PCA) method was used to detect subtle differences in the cell wall material between wild-type and root hair mutants in Arabidopsis. Among several root hair mutants, only the gl2 mutation affected root cell wall polysaccharides. Five of the 10 genes encoding cellulose synthase (CESA1-10) and 4 of 33 xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XTH1-33) genes in Arabidopsis are expressed in the root, but only CESA5 and XTH17 were affected by the gl2 mutation. The L1-box sequence located in the promoter region of these genes was recognized by the GL2 protein. These results indicate that GL2 directly regulates cell wall-related gene expression during root development.

  16. Constitutive production of nitric oxide leads to enhanced drought stress resistance and extensive transcriptional reprogramming in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in plant responses to many environmental stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines that constitutively express rat neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) were described recently. In this study, it is reported that the nNOS transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed high levels of osmolytes and increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Transcriptomic analysis identified 601 or 510 genes that were differentially expressed as a consequence of drought stress or nNOS transformation, respectively. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in photosynthesis, redox, stress, and phytohormone and secondary metabolism were greatly affected by the nNOS transgene. Several CBF genes and members of zinc finger gene families, which are known to regulate transcription in the stress response, were changed by the nNOS transgene. Genes regulated by both the nNOS transgene and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments were compared and identified, including those for two ABA receptors (AtPYL4 and AtPYL5). Moreover, overexpression of AtPYL4 and AtPYL5 enhanced drought resistance, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmolyte levels. These observations increase our understanding of the role of NO in drought stress response in Arabidopsis. PMID:24868034

  17. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of naphthalene tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the ferredoxin-like protein (ADI1) from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Bo; Han, Hong-Juan; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The ADI1 Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance and degradation efficiency to naphthalene and had great potential for phytoremediation of naphthalene in the plant material before composting or harvesting and removal. Naphthalene is a global environmental concern, because this substance is assumed to contribute considerably to human cancer risk. Cleaning up naphthalene contamination in the environment is crucial. Phytoremediation is an efficient technology to clean up contaminants. However, no gene that can efficiently degrade exogenous recalcitrant naphthalene in plants has yet been discovered. Ferredoxin (Fd) is a key player of biological electron transfer reaction in the PAH degradation process. The biochemical pathway for bacterial degradation of naphthalene has been well investigated. In this study, a rice gene, ADI1, which codes for a putative photosynthetic-type Fd, has been transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance and degradation efficiency of naphthalene. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic plants assimilated naphthalene from the culture media faster and removed more of this substance. When taken together, our findings suggest that breeding plants with overexpressed ADI1 gene is an effective strategy to degrade naphthalene in the environment.

  19. Overexpression of herbaceous peony miR156e-3p improves anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lateral branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daqiu; Xia, Xing; Wei, Mengran; Sun, Jing; Meng, Jiasong; Tao, Jun

    2017-12-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, the function of herbaceous peony ( Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) miR156e-3p in the regulation of color formation has been investigated. Firstly, P. lactiflora miR156e-3p precursor sequence (pre-miR156e-3p) was isolated. Subsequently, the overexpression vector of pre-miR156e-3p was constructed and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana . Moreover, the medium screening, GUS staining, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the GUS region and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) of miR156e-3p all confirmed that the purpose gene had been successfully transferred into Arabidopsis plants and expressed, which resulted in apparent purple lateral branches. And this change in color was caused by the improved anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, expression analysis had shown that the level of miR156e-3p transcript was increased, while transcription level of target gene squamosa promoter binding protein-like gene ( SPL1 ), encoding SPL transcription factor that negatively regulated anthocyanin accumulation, was repressed in miR156e-3p-overexpressing transgenic plants, and its downstream gene dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene ( DFR ) that was directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was strongly expressed, which resulted in anthocyanin accumulation of Arabidopsis lateral branches. These findings would improve the understanding of miRNAs regulation of color formation in P. lactiflora .

  20. Nicotine Component of Cigarette Smoke Extract (CSE) Decreases the Cytotoxicity of CSE in BEAS-2B Cells Stably Expressing Human Cytochrome P450 2A13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Minghui; Zhang, Yudong; Li, Na; Wang, Chao; Xia, Rong; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2017-10-13

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), an extrahepatic enzyme mainly expressed in the human respiratory system, has been reported to mediate the metabolism and toxicity of cigarette smoke. We previously found that nicotine inhibited 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism by CYP2A13, but its influence on other components of cigarette smoke remains unclear. The nicotine component of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was separated, purified, and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), splitting CSE into a nicotine section (CSE-N) and nicotine-free section (CSE-O). Cell viability and apoptosis by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry assays were conducted on immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells stably expressing CYP2A13 (B-2A13) or vector (B-V), respectively. Interestingly, CSE and CSE-O were toxic to BEAS-2B cells whereas CSE-N showed less cytotoxicity. CSE-O was more toxic to B-2A13 cells than to B-V cells (IC 50 of 2.49% vs. 7.06%), which was flatted by 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a CYP inhibitor. CSE-O rather than CSE or CSE-N increased apoptosis of B-2A13 cells rather than B-V cells. Accordingly, compared to CSE-N and CSE, CSE-O significantly changed the expression of three pairs of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 Associated X Protein/B cell lymphoma-2 (Bax/Bcl-2), Cleaved Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase/Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase (C-PARP/PARP), and C-caspase-3/caspase-3, in B-2A13 cells. In addition, recombination of CSE-N and CSE-O (CSE-O/N) showed similar cytotoxicity and apoptosis to the original CSE. These results demonstrate that the nicotine component decreases the metabolic activation of CYP2A13 to CSE and aids in understanding the critical role of CYP2A13 in human respiratory diseases caused by cigarette smoking.

  1. Diuretics Prime Plant Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Plant activators are agrochemicals that activate the plant immune system, thereby enhancing disease resistance. Due to their prophylactic and durable effects on a wide spectrum of diseases, plant activators can provide synergistic crop protection when used in combination with traditional pest controls. Although plant activators have achieved great success in wet-rice farming practices in Asia, their use is still limited. To isolate novel plant activators applicable to other crops, we screened a chemical library using a method that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three diuretics, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide and clopamide, as immune-priming compounds. These drugs upregulate the immunity-related cell death of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells induced with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a concentration-dependent manner. The application of these compounds to Arabidopsis plants confers disease resistance to not only the avirulent but also a virulent strain of the pathogen. Unlike salicylic acid, an endogenous phytohormone that governs disease resistance in response to biotrophic pathogens, the three diuretic compounds analyzed here do not induce PR1 or inhibit plant growth, showing potential as lead compounds in a practical application. PMID:23144763

  2. Bacterial RNAs activate innate immunity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Lee, Soohyun; Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The common molecular patterns of microbes play a critical role in the regulation of plant innate immunity. However, little is known about the role of nucleic acids in this process in plants. We pre-infiltrated Arabidopsis leaves with total RNAs from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto DC3000) and subsequently inoculated these plants with the same bacterial cells. Total Pto DC3000 RNAs pre-infiltrated into Arabidopsis leaves elicited plant immune responses against Pto DC3000. However, sheared RNAs and RNase A application failed to induce immunity, suggesting that intact bacterial RNAs function in plant innate immunity. This notion was supported by the positive regulation of superoxide anion levels, callose deposition, two mitogen-activated protein kinases and defense-related genes observed in bacterial RNA-pre-treated leaves. Intriguingly, the Pto DC3000 population was not compromised in known pattern recognition receptor mutants for chitin, flagellin and elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu). Plant defense-related mutant analyses further revealed that bacterial RNA-elicited innate immunity was normally required for salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling. Notably, among total RNAs, the abundant bacterial RNA species 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs were the major determinants of this response. Our findings provide evidence that bacterial RNA serves as a microbe-associated molecular pattern in plants. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Saez-Aguayo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

  4. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Macquet, Audrey; Kronholm, Ilkka; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Sallé, Christine; Poulain, Damien; Granier, Fabienne; Botran, Lucy; Loudet, Olivier; de Meaux, Juliette; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M

    2014-03-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

  5. Overcoming Intrinsic Restriction Enzyme Barriers Enhances Transformation Efficiency in Arthrospira platensis C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeamton, Wattana; Dulsawat, Sudarat; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Vonshak, Avigad; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon

    2017-04-01

    The development of a reliable genetic transformation system for Arthrospira platensis has been a long-term goal, mainly for those trying either to improve its performance in large-scale cultivation systems or to enhance its value as food and feed additives. However, so far, most of the attempts to develop such a transformation system have had limited success. In this study, an efficient and stable transformation system for A. platensis C1 was successfully developed. Based on electroporation and transposon techniques, exogenous DNA could be transferred to and stably maintained in the A. platensis C1 genome. Most strains of Arthrospira possess strong restriction barriers, hampering the development of a gene transfer system for this group of cyanobacteria. By using a type I restriction inhibitor and liposomes to protect the DNA from nuclease digestion, the transformation efficiency was significantly improved. The transformants were able to grow on a selective medium for more than eight passages, and the transformed DNA could be detected from the stable transformants. We propose that the intrinsic endonuclease enzymes, particularly the type I restriction enzyme, in A. platensis C1 play an important role in the transformation efficiency of this industrial important cyanobacterium. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Expression of tomato SlTIP2;2 enhances the tolerance to salt stress in the transgenic Arabidopsis and interacts with target proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shichao; Yu, Guohong; Sun, Linlin; Qiang, Xiaojing; Xu, Na; Cheng, Xianguo

    2014-11-01

    Three independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing SlTIP2;2 from Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Lichun under the control of its endogenous promoter were used to analyze the expression of SlTIP2;2 and the salt stress tolerance under NaCl concentration gradient treatment. The expression patterns of SlTIP2;2 were shown to be tissue-specific and NaCl dose-dependent under salt stress. SlTIP2;2-transformed Arabidopsis plants exhibited enhanced salt stress tolerance, and the physiological parameters suggested that SlTIP2;2 has close links with the ion homeostasis and antioxidant enzymes activities in salt-stressed transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, SlTIP2;2 expression significantly affected the Na(+) and K(+) fluxes from the root meristematic zones and resulted in remarkable changes in the morphology of the pith ray cells in the inflorescence stems of transgenic Arabidopsis. Based on the yeast growth assay, β-galactosidase activity testing and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, SlTIP1;1, SlTIP2;1 and an UDP-galactose transporter were confirmed to interact with SlTIP2;2, which may greatly broaden our understanding of the physiological functions of aquaporins.

  7. The monosaccharide transporter gene, AtSTP4, and the cell-wall invertase, Atbetafruct1, are induced in Arabidopsis during infection with the fungal biotroph Erysiphe cichoracearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Gilbert, Martin J; Pittman, Jon K; Marvier, Alison C; Buchanan, Aram J; Sauer, Norbert; Hall, J L; Williams, Lorraine E

    2003-06-01

    Powdery mildew fungi are biotrophic pathogens that form a complex interface, the haustorium, between the host plant and the parasite. The pathogen acts as an additional sink, competing with host sinks, resulting in considerable modification of photoassimilate production and partitioning within the host tissue. Here, we examine the factors that may contribute to these changes. We show for the first time in one biotrophic interaction (Arabidopsis/Erysiphe cichoracearum) all of the following responses: Glc uptake in host tissues is enhanced after fungal infection; this coincides with the induction of expression of the monosaccharide transporter gene, Arabidopsis sugar transport protein 4 (AtSTP4), in infected leaves; invertase activity and transcript levels for a cell wall invertase, Atbetafruct1, increase substantially in Arabidopsis during attack by this pathogen. Before infection, Arabidopsis plants transformed with an AtSTP4 promoter-beta-glucuronidase construct show expression mainly in sink tissues such as roots; after infection, AtSTP4 expression is induced in the mature leaves and increases over the 6-d time period. Sections of infected leaves stained for beta-glucuronidase show that AtSTP4 expression is not confined to infected epidermal cells but is also evident in a wider range of cells, including those of the vascular tissue. The results are discussed in relation to the possible coordinated expression of hexose transporters and cell wall invertase in the host response to powdery mildew infection.

  8. Analysis of somaclonal variation in transgenic and regenerated plants of Arabidopsis thaliana using methylation related metAFLP and TMD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Carlos J; González, Ana I; Ruiz, María L; Polanco, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    We provide evidence that nucleotide sequence and methylation status changes occur in the Arabidopsis genome during in vitro tissue culture at a frequency high enough to represent an important source of variation. Somaclonal variation is a general consequence of the tissue culture process that has to be analyzed specifically when regenerated plants are obtained in any plant species. Currently, there are few studies about the variability comprising sequence changes and methylation status at the DNA level, generated by the culture of A. thaliana cells and tissues. In this work, two types of highly reproducible molecular markers, modified methylation sensitive AFLP (metAFLP) and transposon methylation display (TMD) have been used for the first time in this species to analyze the nucleotide and cytosine methylation changes induced by transformation and tissue culture protocols. We found significantly higher average methylation values (7.5%) in regenerated and transgenic plants when compared to values obtained from seed derived plants (3.2%) and that the main component of the somaclonal variation present in Arabidopsis clonal plants is genetic rather than epigenetic. However, we have found that the Arabidopsis regenerated and transgenic plants had a higher number of non-fully methylated sites flanking transposable elements than the control plants, and therefore, their mobilization can be facilitated. These data provide further evidence that changes in nucleotide sequence and methylation status occur in the Arabidopsis genome during in vitro tissue culture frequently enough to be an important source of variation in this species.

  9. UV-B-inducible and temperature-sensitive photoreactivation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Qishen; Hays, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CBPDs) in vivo from the DNA of UV-irradiated eight-leaf seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana was rapid in the presence of visible light (half-life about 1 hour); removal of CBPDs in the dark, presumably via excision repair, was an order of magnitude slower. Extracts of plants contained significant photolyase in vitro, as assayed by restoration of transforming activity to UV-irradiated Escherichia coli plasmids; activity was maximal from four-leaf to 12-leaf stages. UV-B treatment of seedlings for 6 hours increased photolyase specific activity in extracts twofold. Arabidopsis photolyase was markedly temperature-sensitive, both in vitro (half-life at 30C about 12 minutes) and in vivo (half-life at 30C, 30 to 45 minutes). The wavelength dependency of the photoreactivation cross-section showed a broad peak at 375 to 400 nm, and is thus similar to that for maize pollen; it overlaps bacterial and yeast photolyase action spectra

  10. Involvement of Multiple Gene-Silencing Pathways in a Paramutation-like Phenomenon in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paramutation is an epigenetic phenomenon that has been observed in a number of multicellular organisms. The epigenetically silenced state of paramutated alleles is not only meiotically stable but also “infectious” to active homologous alleles. The molecular mechanism of paramutation remains unclear, but components involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM are required. Here, we report a multi-copy pRD29A-LUC transgene in Arabidopsis thaliana that behaves like a paramutation locus. The silent state of LUC is induced by mutations in the DNA glycosylase gene ROS1. The silent alleles of LUC are not only meiotically stable but also able to transform active LUC alleles into silent ones, in the absence of ros1 mutations. Maintaining silencing at the LUC gene requires action of multiple pathways besides RdDM. Our study identified specific factors that are involved in the paramutation-like phenomenon and established a model system for the study of paramutation in Arabidopsis.

  11. Identification and molecular properties of SUMO-binding proteins in arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hyeongcheol

    2011-05-20

    Reversible conjugation of the small ubiquitin modifier (SUMO) peptide to proteins (SUMOylation) plays important roles in cellular processes in animals and yeasts. However, little is known about plant SUMO targets. To identify SUMO substrates in Arabidopsis and to probe for biological functions of SUMO proteins, we constructed 6xHis-3xFLAG fused AtSUMO1 (HFAtSUMO1) controlled by the CaMV35S promoter for transformation into Arabidopsis Col-0. After heat treatment, an increased sumoylation pattern was detected in the transgenic plants. SUMO1-modified proteins were selected after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) image analysis and identified using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We identified 27 proteins involved in a variety of processes such as nucleic acid metabolism, signaling, metabolism, and including proteins of unknown functions. Binding and sumoylation patterns were confirmed independently. Surprisingly, MCM3 (At5G46280), a DNA replication licensing factor, only interacted with and became sumoylated by AtSUMO1, but not by SUMO1ΔGG or AtSUMO3. The results suggest specific interactions between sumoylation targets and particular sumoylation enzymes. ©2011 KSMCB.

  12. GALACTURONOSYLTRANSFERASE-LIKE5 is involved in the production of Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yingzhen; Zhou, Gongke; Abdeen, Ashraf A; Schafhauser, James; Richardson, Beth; Atmodjo, Melani A; Jung, Jiyoung; Wicker, Louise; Mohnen, Debra; Western, Tamara; Hahn, Michael G

    2013-11-01

    The function of a putative galacturonosyltransferase from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; At1g02720; GALACTURONOSYLTRANSFERASE-LIKE5 [AtGATL5]) was studied using a combination of molecular genetic, chemical, and immunological approaches. AtGATL5 is expressed in all plant tissues, with highest expression levels in siliques 7 DPA. Furthermore, its expression is positively regulated by several transcription factors that are known to regulate seed coat mucilage production. AtGATL5 is localized in both endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, in comparison with marker proteins resident to these subcellular compartments. A transfer DNA insertion in the AtGATL5 gene generates seed coat epidermal cell defects both in mucilage synthesis and cell adhesion. Transformation of atgatl5-1 mutants with the wild-type AtGATL5 gene results in the complementation of all morphological phenotypes. Compositional analyses of the mucilage isolated from the atgatl5-1 mutant demonstrated that galacturonic acid and rhamnose contents are decreased significantly in atgatl5-1 compared with wild-type mucilage. No changes in structure were observed between soluble mucilage isolated from wild-type and mutant seeds, except that the molecular weight of the mutant mucilage increased 63% compared with that of the wild type. These data provide evidence that AtGATL5 might function in the regulation of the final size of the mucilage rhamnogalacturonan I.

  13. Identification and Shape Analysis of Arabidopsis Cultivated in Nitrogen-free Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmei ZHANG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for segmentation and shape description of Arabidopsis plants with non-green leaves. The image was first calibrated by detecting the corners of a checkerboard. After the preprocessing step, the image was transformed to CIELUV color space, removing the lightness from the chromatic coordinates. The U component showed markedly different textures between the plant and the background. Hence its standard derivation was calculated and thresholded. With this method, significant leaves of the plant were separated while some stalks were not. Therefore, Support Vector Machine was then used to train the LUV data to do further segmentation as a complement of texture analysis. With these two steps, the plant was completely identified and the shape features were then extracted, including the total area, the symmetry and the number of leaves. The real area of the plant was derived with the number of foreground pixels and the calibration result. The symmetries were represented with the degrees of bilateral symmetry in the direction of the major and minor axes. And the number of leaves was obtained by identifying the number of local maximum of the contour-based signature. Experiment result shows that this method is effective in segmentation and shape analysis of Arabidopsis plants.

  14. The Hidden Geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana Epidermis

    KAUST Repository

    Staff, Lee

    2012-09-11

    The quest for the discovery of mathematical principles that underlie biological phenomena is ancient and ongoing. We present a geometric analysis of the complex interdigitated pavement cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.) adaxial epidermis with a view to discovering some geometric characteristics that may govern the formation of this tissue. More than 2,400 pavement cells from 10, 17 and 24 day old leaves were analyzed. These interdigitated cells revealed a number of geometric properties that remained constant across the three age groups. In particular, the number of digits per cell rarely exceeded 15, irrespective of cell area. Digit numbers per 100 ?m2 cell area reduce with age and as cell area increases, suggesting early developmental programming of digits. Cell shape proportions as defined by length:width ratios were highly conserved over time independent of the size and, interestingly, both the mean and the medians were close to the golden ratio 1.618034. With maturity, the cell area:perimeter ratios increased from a mean of 2.0 to 2.4. Shape properties as defined by the medial axis transform (MAT) were calculated and revealed that branch points along the MAT typically comprise one large and two small angles. These showed consistency across the developmental stages considered here at 140° (± 5°) for the largest angles and 110° (± 5°) for the smaller angles. Voronoi diagram analyses of stomatal center coordinates revealed that giant pavement cells (?500 ?m2) tend to be arranged along Voronoi boundaries suggesting that they could function as a scaffold of the epidermis. In addition, we propose that pavement cells have a role in spacing and positioning of the stomata in the growing leaf and that they do so by growing within the limits of a set of \\'geometrical rules\\'. © 2012 Staff et al.

  15. The hidden geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Staff

    Full Text Available The quest for the discovery of mathematical principles that underlie biological phenomena is ancient and ongoing. We present a geometric analysis of the complex interdigitated pavement cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana (Col. adaxial epidermis with a view to discovering some geometric characteristics that may govern the formation of this tissue. More than 2,400 pavement cells from 10, 17 and 24 day old leaves were analyzed. These interdigitated cells revealed a number of geometric properties that remained constant across the three age groups. In particular, the number of digits per cell rarely exceeded 15, irrespective of cell area. Digit numbers per 100 µm(2 cell area reduce with age and as cell area increases, suggesting early developmental programming of digits. Cell shape proportions as defined by length:width ratios were highly conserved over time independent of the size and, interestingly, both the mean and the medians were close to the golden ratio 1.618034. With maturity, the cell area:perimeter ratios increased from a mean of 2.0 to 2.4. Shape properties as defined by the medial axis transform (MAT were calculated and revealed that branch points along the MAT typically comprise one large and two small angles. These showed consistency across the developmental stages considered here at 140° (± 5° for the largest angles and 110° (± 5° for the smaller angles. Voronoi diagram analyses of stomatal center coordinates revealed that giant pavement cells (≥ 500 µm(2 tend to be arranged along Voronoi boundaries suggesting that they could function as a scaffold of the epidermis. In addition, we propose that pavement cells have a role in spacing and positioning of the stomata in the growing leaf and that they do so by growing within the limits of a set of 'geometrical rules'.

  16. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S.

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and γ-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  17. Chromatin reprogramming: gender equality during Arabidopsis germline differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Yannick; Martienssen, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale histone H3 reprogramming during male germline differentiation is conserved between animals and plants. A new report now shows that H3 reprogramming also occurs in the female germline of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:21215930

  18. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of oleaginous yeast Lipomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziyu; Deng, Shuang; Culley, David E; Bruno, Kenneth S; Magnuson, Jon K

    2017-08-01

    Interest in using renewable sources of carbon, especially lignocellulosic biomass, for the production of hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals has fueled interest in exploring various organisms capable of producing hydrocarbon biofuels and chemicals or their precursors. The oleaginous (oil-producing) yeast Lipomyces starkeyi is the subject of active research regarding the production of triacylglycerides as hydrocarbon fuel precursors using a variety of carbohydrate and nutrient sources. The genome of L. starkeyi has been published, which opens the door to production strain improvements through the development and use of the tools of synthetic biology for this oleaginous species. The first step in establishment of synthetic biology tools for an organism is the development of effective and reliable transformation methods with suitable selectable marker genes and demonstration of the utility of the genetic elements needed for expression of introduced genes or deletion of endogenous genes. Chemical-based methods of transformation have been published but suffer from low efficiency. To address these problems, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was investigated as an alternative method for L. starkeyi and other Lipomyces species. In this study, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was demonstrated to be effective in the transformation of both L. starkeyi and other Lipomyces species. The deletion of the peroxisomal biogenesis factor 10 gene was also demonstrated in L. starkeyi. In addition to the bacterial antibiotic selection marker gene hygromycin B phosphotransferase, the bacterial β-glucuronidase reporter gene under the control of L. starkeyi translation elongation factor 1α promoter was also stably expressed in six different Lipomyces species. The results from this study demonstrate that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a reliable and effective genetic tool for homologous recombination and expression of heterologous genes in L. starkeyi and other Lipomyces

  19. Light responses in Photoperiodism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Cashmore

    2006-08-01

    ADO1: An Arabidopsis blue light photoreceptor We have reported the characterization of an Arabidopsis gene encoding the ADAGIO 1 (ADO1) protein (Jarillo et al., 2001a). ADO1 contains a LOV domain, similar to WHITE COLLAR 1 (WC1), a photoreceptor for entrainment of Neurospora circadian rhythms (Froehlich et al., 2002), as well as PHOT1 and PHOT2, the blue light photoreceptors for phototropism (Briggs et al., 2001; Christie et al., 1998; Jarillo et al., 2001b; Kinoshita et al., 2001). Loss of function ado1 mutants show an unusually long periodicity for their free running circadian rhythm (Jarillo et al., 2001a). This observation holds for plants grown under white light as well as blue light and surprisingly, plants grown under red light also show altered circadian properties. The similarity of the LOV domain of ADO1 to those of PHOT1, PHOT2 and WC1 (known flavoprotein photoreceptors) as well as the genetic and molecular properties of ADO1, indicate that ADO1 is likely a new class of blue light photoreceptor. Indeed, the LOV domain of the related FKF1/ADO3 has been shown to bind FMN, and exhibit the in vitro photochemistry characteristic of PHOT1 (Imaizumi et al., 2003). Furthermore, ZTL/ADO1 has been shown to participate in the circadian and proteasome mediated degradation of the Arabidopsis clock protein, TOC1 (Mas et al., 2003). We also showed that the ado1 mutation selectively confers hypersensitivity to red light — when grown under red light (but not blue light) the ado1 mutant possesses an unusually short hypocotyl. This red light hypersensivity is even more severe in a triple ado1 ado2 ado3 mutant — ADO2 and ADO3 being the two other members of this ADAGIO gene family. This finding of a mutant phenotype under red light is somewhat unexpected for a protein thought to function as a photoreceptor for blue light. We have pursued our studies of ADO1 by preparing a mutant gene for which we have altered the codon for the cysteine residue conserved in all LOV

  20. A spatial dissection of the Arabidopsis floral transcriptome by MPSS

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Leon Nidia; Arteaga-Vazquez Mario; Sakai Hajime; Kaushik Shail; Peiffer Jason A; Ghazal Hassan; Vielle-Calzada Jean-Philippe; Meyers Blake C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We have further characterized floral organ-localized gene expression in the inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana by comparison of massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) data. Six libraries of RNA sequence tags from immature inflorescence tissues were constructed and matched to their respective loci in the annotated Arabidopsis genome. These signature libraries survey the floral transcriptome of wild-type tissue as well as the floral homeotic mutants, apetala1, ape...

  1. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  2. Diffusionless phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejman, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered

  3. Transformations of CCP programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Gabbrielli, Maurizio; Meo, Maria Chiara

    We introduce a transformation system for concurrent constraint programming (CCP). We define suitable applicability conditions for the transformations that guarantee the input/output CCP semantics is also preserved when distinguishing deadlocked computations from successful ones and when considering

  4. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  5. Evaluation of Nicotiana tabacum plants transformed for the expression of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lombardi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, carrying respectively the F18 adhesive fimbriae and the B subunit of verocytotoxin genes from O138 Verocytotoxic E.coli serotype were developed as a model of edible vaccine. Tobacco plants were transformed by agroinfection according to Rossi et al. (2013 stably.  The F18 adhesive fimbriae and VT2e B-subunit were placed under control of the GLOB promoter for the seed-specific protein expression. Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector system is an efficient tool to transform plant cells; however, the exogenous gene integrates at semi-random into the nuclear chromosome. PCR products, using specific oligonucleotides putatively encoding the B-subunit of VT2e-B and F18 fimbriae were identified on agarose gel (1.5% - 0.9% as bands with a length of 270 and 519 base pairs, respectively. We showed that the foreign VT2e-B and F18 fimbriae genes were stably integrated into the tobacco genome. Northern blot and Western blot analyses carried out respectively on total mRNA and total soluble protein extract obtained from seeds. For each line, the obtained amount of antigens is sufficient for subsequent oral immunization trials. Three lines of tobacco seeds (F18, VT2e-B, and WT were seeded in homogeneous conditions and were harvested simultaneously. Tobacco plants were analysed also by optical and electronic microscope in different phases of growth. Germination of transgenic seeds were delayed of three/five days compared to WT in two replicated experiments, suggesting that genetic manipulation may influenced mechanisms leading to germination. In conclusion the genes coding for VT2e-B and the F18 are stably maintained in the seeds and obtained tobacco seeds represent a valid strategy to ferry antigenic proteins to the gut and a promising non-invasive method of vaccination in pig industry.

  6. Identification of Polyadenylation Sites within Arabidopsis Thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Kalkatawi, Manal

    2011-09-01

    Machine Learning (ML) is a field of artificial intelligence focused on the design and implementation of algorithms that enable creation of models for clustering, classification, prediction, ranking and similar inference tasks based on information contained in data. Many ML algorithms have been successfully utilized in a variety of applications. The problem addressed in this thesis is from the field of bioinformatics and deals with the recognition of polyadenylation (poly(A)) sites in the genomic sequence of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. During the RNA processing, a tail consisting of a number of consecutive adenine (A) nucleotides is added to the terminal nucleotide of the 3’- untranslated region (3’UTR) of the primary RNA. The process in which these A nucleotides are added is called polyadenylation. The location in the genomic DNA sequence that corresponds to the start of terminal A nucleotides (i.e. to the end of 3’UTR) is known as a poly(A) site. Recognition of the poly(A) sites in DNA sequence is important for better gene annotation and understanding of gene regulation. In this study, we built an artificial neural network (ANN) for the recognition of poly(A) sites in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Our study demonstrates that this model achieves improved accuracy compared to the existing predictive models for this purpose. The key factor contributing to the enhanced predictive performance of our ANN model is a distinguishing set of features used in creation of the model. These features include a number of physico-chemical characteristics of relevance, such as dinucleotide thermodynamic characteristics, electron-ion interaction potential, etc., but also many of the statistical properties of the DNA sequences from the region surrounding poly(A) site, such as nucleotide and polynucleotide properties, common motifs, etc. Our ANN model was compared in performance with several other ML models, as well as with the PAC tool that is specifically developed for

  7. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, Francisco

    2017-11-28

    Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.

  8. On Fast Fourier Transform

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    digital methods of spectrum estimation which influenced the research in almost every field of engineering and science. In this article, we will first introduce the conti- nuous-time Fourier transform (eFT), discrete-time Fourier transform and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and then present an example to illustrate the relation ...

  9. Developing Global Transformational Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Rutti, Raina M.; Lorenz, Melanie P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant increases in training and development of global managers, little is known about the precursors of transformational leadership in Multilatinas. While prior cross-cultural literature suggests that being an autocratic leader is ideal in Multilatinas, using transformational leader...... of transformational leadership because they are better able to understand the differences of other cultures, and appropriately adjust their behavior....

  10. Monolignol radical-radical coupling networks in western red cedar and Arabidopsis and their evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung K.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of a nine-member multigene dirigent family involved in control of monolignol radical-radical coupling in the ancient gymnosperm, western red cedar, suggested that a complex multidimensional network had evolved to regulate such processes in vascular plants. Accordingly, in this study, the corresponding promoter regions for each dirigent multigene member were obtained by genome-walking, with Arabidopsis being subsequently transformed to express each promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. It was found that each component gene of the proposed network is apparently differentially expressed in individual tissues, organs and cells at all stages of plant growth and development. The data so obtained thus further support the hypothesis that a sophisticated monolignol radical-radical coupling network exists in plants which has been highly conserved throughout vascular plant evolution.

  11. PMR6, a Pectate Lyase–Like Gene Required for Powdery Mildew Susceptibility in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, John P.; Raab, Theodore K.; Schiff, Celine; Somerville, Shauna C.

    2002-01-01

    The plant genes required for the growth and reproduction of plant pathogens are largely unknown. In an effort to identify these genes, we isolated Arabidopsis mutants that do not support the normal growth of the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe cichoracearum. Here, we report on the cloning and characterization of one of these genes, PMR6. PMR6 encodes a pectate lyase–like protein with a novel C-terminal domain. Consistent with its predicted gene function, mutations in PMR6 alter the composition of the plant cell wall, as shown by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. pmr6-mediated resistance requires neither salicylic acid nor the ability to perceive jasmonic acid or ethylene, indicating that the resistance mechanism does not require the activation of well-described defense pathways. Thus, pmr6 resistance represents a novel form of disease resistance based on the loss of a gene required during a compatible interaction rather than the activation of known host defense pathways. PMID:12215508

  12. PMR6, a pectate lyase-like gene required for powdery mildew susceptibility in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, John P; Raab, Theodore K; Schiff, Celine; Somerville, Shauna C

    2002-09-01

    The plant genes required for the growth and reproduction of plant pathogens are largely unknown. In an effort to identify these genes, we isolated Arabidopsis mutants that do not support the normal growth of the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe cichoracearum. Here, we report on the cloning and characterization of one of these genes, PMR6. PMR6 encodes a pectate lyase-like protein with a novel C-terminal domain. Consistent with its predicted gene function, mutations in PMR6 alter the composition of the plant cell wall, as shown by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. pmr6-mediated resistance requires neither salicylic acid nor the ability to perceive jasmonic acid or ethylene, indicating that the resistance mechanism does not require the activation of well-described defense pathways. Thus, pmr6 resistance represents a novel form of disease resistance based on the loss of a gene required during a compatible interaction rather than the activation of known host defense pathways.

  13. Overexpression of Selenocysteine Methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian Mustard Increases Selenium Tolerance and Accumulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDuc, Danika L.; Tarun, Alice S.; Montes-Bayon, Maria; Meija, Juris; Malit, Michele F.; Wu, Carol P.; AbdelSamie, Manal; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Tagmount, Abderrhamane; deSouza, Mark; Neuhierl, Bernhard; Böck, August; Caruso, Joseph; Terry, Norman

    2004-01-01

    A major goal of phytoremediation is to transform fast-growing plants with genes from plant species that hyperaccumulate toxic trace elements. We overexpressed the gene encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) from the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). SMT detoxifies selenocysteine by methylating it to methylselenocysteine, a nonprotein amino acid, thereby diminishing the toxic misincorporation of Se into protein. Our Indian mustard transgenic plants accumulated more Se in the form of methylselenocysteine than the wild type. SMT transgenic seedlings tolerated Se, particularly selenite, significantly better than the wild type, producing 3- to 7-fold greater biomass and 3-fold longer root lengths. Moreover, SMT plants had significantly increased Se accumulation and volatilization. This is the first study, to our knowledge, in which a fast-growing plant was genetically engineered to overexpress a gene from a hyperaccumulator in order to increase phytoremediation potential. PMID:14671009

  14. Overexpression of selenocysteine methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard increases selenium tolerance and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDuc, Danika L; Tarun, Alice S; Montes-Bayon, Maria; Meija, Juris; Malit, Michele F; Wu, Carol P; AbdelSamie, Manal; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Tagmount, Abderrhamane; deSouza, Mark; Neuhierl, Bernhard; Böck, August; Caruso, Joseph; Terry, Norman

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of phytoremediation is to transform fast-growing plants with genes from plant species that hyperaccumulate toxic trace elements. We overexpressed the gene encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) from the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). SMT detoxifies selenocysteine by methylating it to methylselenocysteine, a nonprotein amino acid, thereby diminishing the toxic misincorporation of Se into protein. Our Indian mustard transgenic plants accumulated more Se in the form of methylselenocysteine than the wild type. SMT transgenic seedlings tolerated Se, particularly selenite, significantly better than the wild type, producing 3- to 7-fold greater biomass and 3-fold longer root lengths. Moreover, SMT plants had significantly increased Se accumulation and volatilization. This is the first study, to our knowledge, in which a fast-growing plant was genetically engineered to overexpress a gene from a hyperaccumulator in order to increase phytoremediation potential.

  15. Reference: 351 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available similarly high levels of ABA. ABA levels decreased rapidly upon imbibition, although they fell further in ND than in D. Gene express...e family (CYP707A)] genes. Of these, only the AtCYP707A2 gene was differentially expressed between D and ND seeds, being express...ed to a much higher level in ND seeds. Similarly, a barley CYP707 homologue, (HvABA8'OH-1) was express...ins. Consistent with this, in situ hybridization studies showed HvABA8'OH-1 mRNA expression was stronger in ... plays a key role in dormancy release. Constitutive expression of a CYP707A gene in transgenic Arabidopsis r

  16. A Space Flight Cultivation Protocol for Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.

    2008-06-01

    A tube-based method is presented for the cultivation and manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana during space flight experimentation. Seeds were germinated on rock-wool plugs and subsequently transferred into modified polypropylene conical tubes (cut to 5 cm lengths) at 7 days after planting. Each tube contained four side-situated slits through which capillary mat strips were woven. An additional capillary mat wick extended from below the tube up through the bottom to the mid-interior portion. The incorporation of Fibrous Ion Exchange Resin Substrate provided nutrients. The tubes were transferred to plant compartments containing a horticulture foam matrix that received water inputs. Vigorous seedling development through to seed production was achieved. Dispersed seeds frequently germinated on top of the foam substrate, yielding a 2nd generation of seedlings. The methods used herein could be applied to other plant species to be flown in space.

  17. Transient plant transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Principles, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenek, Pavel; Samajova, Olga; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely used as a versatile tool for development of stably transformed model plants and crops. However, the development of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation methods attracted substantial attention in recent years. Transient transformation methods offer several applications advancing stable transformations such as rapid and scalable recombinant protein production and in planta functional genomics studies. Herein, we highlight Agrobacterium and plant genetics factors affecting transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium into the plant cell nucleus and subsequent transient transgene expression. We also review recent methods concerning Agrobacterium mediated transient transformation of model plants and crops and outline key physical, physiological and genetic factors leading to their successful establishment. Of interest are especially Agrobacterium based reverse genetics studies in economically important crops relying on use of RNA interference (RNAi) or virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology. The applications of Agrobacterium based transient plant transformation technology in biotech industry are presented in thorough detail. These involve production of recombinant proteins (plantibodies, vaccines and therapeutics) and effectoromics-assisted breeding of late blight resistance in potato. In addition, we also discuss biotechnological potential of recombinant GFP technology and present own examples of successful Agrobacterium mediated transient plant transformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A simple bacterial transformation method using magnesium- and calcium-aminoclays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyoung-An; Lee, Young-Chul; Lee, Jin-Young; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Han, Hyo-Kyung; Kim, Geun-Joong

    2013-11-01

    An efficient and user-friendly bacterial transformation method by simple spreading cells with aminoclays was demonstrated. Compared to the reported transformation approaches using DNA adsorption or wrapping onto (in)organic fibers, the spontaneously generated clay-coated DNA suprastructures by mixing DNA with aminoclay resulted in transformants in both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive cells (Streptococcus mutans). Notably, the wild type S. mutans showed comparable transformation efficiency to that of the E. coli host for recombinant DNA cloning. This is a potentially promising result because other trials such as heat-shock, electroporation, and treatment with sepiolite for introducing DNA into the wild type S. mutans failed. Under defined conditions, the transformation efficiency of E. coli XL1-Blue and S. mutans exhibited ~2 × 10(5) and ~6 × 10(3)CFU/μg of plasmid DNA using magnesium-aminoclay. In contrast, transformation efficiency was higher in S. mutans than that in E. coli XL1-Blue for calcium-aminoclay. It was also confirmed that each plasmid transformed into E. coli and S. mutans was stably maintained and that they expressed the inserted gene encoding the green fluorescent protein during prolonged growth of up to 80 generations. © 2013.

  19. Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronse De Craene, Louis; Tréhin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Bisexual flowers of Carica papaya range from highly regular flowers to morphs with various fusions of stamens to the ovary. Arabidopsis thaliana sup1 mutants have carpels replaced by chimeric carpel-stamen structures. Comparative analysis of stamen to carpel conversions in the two different plant systems was used to understand the stage and origin of carpeloidy when derived from stamen tissues, and consequently to understand how carpeloidy contributes to innovations in flower evolution. Floral development of bisexual flowers of Carica was studied by scanning electron microscopy and was compared with teratological sup mutants of A. thaliana. In Carica development of bisexual flowers was similar to wild (unisexual) forms up to locule initiation. Feminization ranges from fusion of stamen tissue to the gynoecium to complete carpeloidy of antepetalous stamens. In A. thaliana, partial stamen feminization occurs exclusively at the flower apex, with normal stamens forming at the periphery. Such transformations take place relatively late in development, indicating strong developmental plasticity of most stamen tissues. These results are compared with evo-devo theories on flower bisexuality, as derived from unisexual ancestors. The Arabidopsis data highlight possible early evolutionary events in the acquisition of bisexuality by a patchy transformation of stamen parts into female parts linked to a flower axis-position effect. The Carica results highlight tissue-fusion mechanisms in angiosperms leading to carpeloidy once bisexual flowers have evolved. We show two different developmental routes leading to stamen to carpel conversions by late re-specification. The process may be a fundamental aspect of flower development that is hidden in most instances by developmental homeostasis.

  20. Ascorbic acid deficiency activates cell death and disease resistance responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavet, Valeria; Olmos, Enrique; Kiddle, Guy; Mowla, Shaheen; Kumar, Sanjay; Antoniw, John; Alvarez, María E; Foyer, Christine H

    2005-11-01

    Programmed cell death, developmental senescence, and responses to pathogens are linked through complex genetic controls that are influenced by redox regulation. Here we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low vitamin C mutants, vtc1 and vtc2, which have between 10% and 25% of wild-type ascorbic acid, exhibit microlesions, express pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, and have enhanced basal resistance against infections caused by Pseudomonas syringae. The mutants have a delayed senescence phenotype with smaller leaf cells than the wild type at maturity. The vtc leaves have more glutathione than the wild type, with higher ratios of reduced glutathione to glutathione disulfide. Expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP) fused to the nonexpressor of PR protein 1 (GFP-NPR1) was used to detect the presence of NPR1 in the nuclei of transformed plants. Fluorescence was observed in the nuclei of 6- to 8-week-old GFP-NPR1 vtc1 plants, but not in the nuclei of transformed GFP-NPR1 wild-type plants at any developmental stage. The absence of senescence-associated gene 12 (SAG12) mRNA at the time when constitutive cell death and basal resistance were detected confirms that elaboration of innate immune responses in vtc plants does not result from activation of early senescence. Moreover, H2O2-sensitive genes are not induced at the time of systemic acquired resistance execution. These results demonstrate that ascorbic acid abundance modifies the threshold for activation of plant innate defense responses via redox mechanisms that are independent of the natural senescence program.