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Sample records for stably expressing rat

  1. Expression of calmodulin and calmodulin binding proteins in rat fibroblasts stably transfected with protein kinase C and oncogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Q; Wei, Y; Fischer, R

    1997-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms leading to elevated calmodulin (CaM) expression in cancer have not yet been discovered. We have quantitated the levels of transcripts derived from all three CaM genes in a variety of the same origin rat fibroblasts transformed with oncogenes in combination with gene for prote...

  2. Expression of calmodulin and calmodulin binding proteins in rat fibroblasts stably transfected with protein kinase C and oncogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Q; Wei, Y; Fischer, R

    1997-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms leading to elevated calmodulin (CaM) expression in cancer have not yet been discovered. We have quantitated the levels of transcripts derived from all three CaM genes in a variety of the same origin rat fibroblasts transformed with oncogenes in combination with gene for protein...

  3. Stably Expressed Genes Involved in Basic Cellular Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Wang

    Full Text Available Stably Expressed Genes (SEGs whose expression varies within a narrow range may be involved in core cellular processes necessary for basic functions. To identify such genes, we re-analyzed existing RNA-Seq gene expression profiles across 11 organs at 4 developmental stages (from immature to old age in both sexes of F344 rats (n = 4/group; 320 samples. Expression changes (calculated as the maximum expression / minimum expression for each gene of >19000 genes across organs, ages, and sexes ranged from 2.35 to >109-fold, with a median of 165-fold. The expression of 278 SEGs was found to vary ≤4-fold and these genes were significantly involved in protein catabolism (proteasome and ubiquitination, RNA transport, protein processing, and the spliceosome. Such stability of expression was further validated in human samples where the expression variability of the homologous human SEGs was significantly lower than that of other genes in the human genome. It was also found that the homologous human SEGs were generally less subject to non-synonymous mutation than other genes, as would be expected of stably expressed genes. We also found that knockout of SEG homologs in mouse models was more likely to cause complete preweaning lethality than non-SEG homologs, corroborating the fundamental roles played by SEGs in biological development. Such stably expressed genes and pathways across life-stages suggest that tight control of these processes is important in basic cellular functions and that perturbation by endogenous (e.g., genetics or exogenous agents (e.g., drugs, environmental factors may cause serious adverse effects.

  4. Characterization of new cell line stably expressing CHI3L1 oncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonin V. P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To characterize the immortalized 293 cell line after stable transfection with human oncogene (CHI3L1. Methods. 293 cells, stably transfected with pcDNA3.1_CHI3L1, and 293 cells, stably transfected with pcDNA3.1 as a negative control, were used throughout all experiments. The clones of CHI3L1-expressing 293 cells and 293 cells, transfected with pcDNA3.1, were analyzed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay; analyses of ERK1/2 and AKT activation and their cellular localization were performed with anti-phospho-ERK and anti-phospho-AKT antibodies. Specific activation of MAP and PI3 kinases was measured by densitometric analysis of Western-blot signals. Results. The obtained results show quite modest ability of CHI3L1 to stimulate cell growth and reflect rather an improved cellular plating efficiency of the 293 cells stably transfected with pcDNA3.1_CHI3L1 as compared to the 293 cells transfected with an «empty» vector. ERK1/2 and AKT are activated in the 293_CHI3L1 cells. In these cells phosphorylated ERK1/2 were localized in both cell cytoplasm and nuclei while AKT only in cytoplasm. The 293_CHI3L1 cells differed from the 293 cells, transfected with an «empty» vector, in their size and ability to adhere to the culture plates. Conclusions. The overexpression of CHI3L1 is likely to have an important role in tumorigenesis via a mechanism which involves activation of PI3K and ERK1/2 pathways. The tumors which can be induced by orthotopic implantation of the transformed human cells with overexpressed human oncogene CHI3L1 into the rat brain can be used as a target for anticancer drug development.

  5. Antigenic structures stably expressed by recombinant TGEV-derived vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becares, Martina; Sanchez, Carlos M; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Zuñiga, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-stranded RNA viruses with potential as immunization vectors, expressing high levels of heterologous genes and eliciting both secretory and systemic immune responses. Nevertheless, its high recombination rate may result in the loss of the full-length foreign gene, limiting their use as vectors. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was engineered to express porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) small protein domains, as a strategy to improve heterologous gene stability. After serial passage in tissue cultures, stable expression of small PRRSV protein antigenic domains was achieved. Therefore, size reduction of the heterologous genes inserted in CoV-derived vectors led to the stable expression of antigenic domains. Immunization of piglets with these TGEV vectors led to partial protection against a challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain, as immunized animals showed reduced clinical signs and lung damage. Further improvement of TGEV-derived vectors will require the engineering of vectors with decreased recombination rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Nav1.9 Voltage Dependent Sodium Channels Stably Expressed in HEK-293 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Lin

    Full Text Available The voltage dependent sodium channel Nav1.9, is expressed preferentially in peripheral sensory neurons and has been linked to human genetic pain disorders, which makes it target of interest for the development of new pain therapeutics. However, characterization of Nav1.9 pharmacology has been limited due in part to the historical difficulty of functionally expressing recombinant channels. Here we report the successful generation and characterization of human, mouse and rat Nav1.9 stably expressed in human HEK-293 cells. These cells exhibit slowly activating and inactivating inward sodium channel currents that have characteristics of native Nav1.9. Optimal functional expression was achieved by coexpression of Nav1.9 with β1/β2 subunits. While recombinantly expressed Nav1.9 was found to be sensitive to sodium channel inhibitors TC-N 1752 and tetracaine, potency was up to 100-fold less than reported for other Nav channel subtypes despite evidence to support an interaction with the canonical local anesthetic (LA binding region on Domain 4 S6. Nav1.9 Domain 2 S6 pore domain contains a unique lysine residue (K799 which is predicted to be spatially near the local anesthetic interaction site. Mutation of this residue to the consensus asparagine (K799N resulted in an increase in potency for tetracaine, but a decrease for TC-N 1752, suggesting that this residue can influence interaction of inhibitors with the Nav1.9 pore. In summary, we have shown that stable functional expression of Nav1.9 in the widely used HEK-293 cells is possible, which opens up opportunities to better understand channel properties and may potentially aid identification of novel Nav1.9 based pharmacotherapies.

  7. Identifying stably expressed housekeeping genes in the endometrium of fertile women, women with recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Linden; Cagampang, Felino; Cheong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Housekeeping genes (HKG) are presumed to be constitutively expressed throughout tissue types but recent studies have shown they vary with pathophysiology. Often, validation of appropriate HKG is not made. There is no consensus on which HKGs are most stably expressed in endometrial tissue so this study aimed to identify the most stable HKG in the endometrium of women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent miscarriages (RM). Inclusion criteria were women between 25-45 years (...

  8. Establishment of Stably Transfected Cells Constitutively Expressing the Full-Length and Truncated Antigenic Proteins of Two Genetically Distinct Mink Astroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidokhti, Mehdi R. M.; Ullman, Karin; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    to circumvent this drawback, we have developed stably transfected mink fetal cells and BHK21 cells constitutively expressing the full-length and truncated capsid proteins of two distinct genotypes of mink astrovirus. Protein expression in these stably transfected cells was demonstrated by strong signals...

  9. Stably transfected human cell lines as fluorescent screening assay for nuclear factor KB activation dependent gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Horneck, Gerda

    2004-06-01

    Activation of the Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway as a possible antiapoptotic route represents one important cellular stress response. For identifying conditions which are capable to modify this pathway, a screening assay for detection of NF-kappaB-dependent gene activation using the reporter proteins Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) and its destabilized variant (d2EGFP) has been developed. Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK/293) cells were stably transfected with a vector carrying EGFP or d2EGFP under control of a synthetic promoter containing four copies of the NF-kappaB response element. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gave rise to substantial EGFP / d2EGFP expression in up to 90 % of the cells and was therefore used to screen different stably transfected clones for induction of NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The time course of d2EGFP expression after treatment with TNF-alpha or phorbol ester was measured using flow cytometry. Cellular response to TNF-alpha was faster than to phorbol ester. Treatment of cells with TNF-alpha and DMSO revealed antagonistic interactions of these substances in the activation NF-kappaB dependent gene expression. The detection of d2EGFP expression required FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy, while EGFP could also be measured in the microplate reader, rendering the assay useful for high-throughput screening.

  10. The antagonistic effect of antipsychotic drugs on a HEK293 cell line stably expressing human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nourian, Zahra; Mulvany, Michael J; Nielsen, Karsten Bork

    2008-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs often cause orthostatic hypotension, probably through antagonist action on resistance vessel alpha(1A)-adrenoceptors. Here we have tested this possibility directly using cells transfected with a relevant human alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor splice variant. To determine a splice variant...... a cell line stably expressing a functional form of this splice variant. The expression of recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptor subtype was confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis, and its functionality demonstrated using a Fura-2 assay by a rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) when...... human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors in competition binding studies confirmed much higher antagonist affinity of sertindole and risperidone than haloperidol for these receptors. In summary, it can be concluded that there is an approximately 10-fold higher adrenoceptor affinity of risperidone and sertindole...

  11. [Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) secretory expression vector maintained stably in Pro3+ transformants in rich medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H Y; Tang, Y; Jiang, W D; He, H Y; Liu, M; Kuang, D R

    2000-01-01

    A yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) secretory expression vector containing PRO3 gene was constructed (pCBy310). beta HCG(Human choriogonadotropin beta subunit)-cDNA was inserted into pCBy310 to form a recombinant plasmid pCBy314. Since yeast proline auxotroph will not survive in rich medium (YPD), YPD could be used as a selection pressure, and pCBy314 could be maintained mitotically stable in transformants of yeast Pro3- auxotroph (MB299-7A) in rich medium. At an improved, yet not optimized cultural condition, the expression of beta HCG in culture medium was 650 micrograms/L. Our results showed not only that YPD could be used as a selection medium, but also that yeast grew better in YPD so as to increase the gene expression product, and that the component of YPD was simple and cheap. Our data suggested that PRO genes might be used widely in constructing vectors to clone and express foreign genes in yeast so that rich medium can be used as a selection pressure for direct selection.

  12. Cholesterol Down-Regulates BK Channels Stably Expressed in HEK 293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiu-Ling; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is one of the major lipid components of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells and is involved in the regulation of a number of ion channels. The present study investigates how large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels are regulated by membrane cholesterol in BK-HEK 293 cells expressing both the α-subunit hKCa1.1 and the auxiliary β1-subunit or in hKCa1.1-HEK 293 cells expressing only the α-subunit hKCa1.1 using approaches of electrophysiology, molecular biology, and immunocytochemistry. Membrane cholesterol was depleted in these cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), and enriched with cholesterol-saturated MβCD (MβCD-cholesterol) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL). We found that BK current density was decreased by cholesterol enrichment in BK-HEK 293 cells, with a reduced expression of KCa1.1 protein, but not the β1-subunit protein. This effect was fully countered by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin or the lysosome function inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Interestingly, in hKCa1.1-HEK 293 cells, the current density was not affected by cholesterol enrichment, but directly decreased by MβCD, suggesting that the down-regulation of BK channels by cholesterol depends on the auxiliary β1-subunit. The reduced KCa1.1 channel protein expression was also observed in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells with cholesterol enrichment using MβCD-cholesterol or LDL. These results demonstrate the novel information that cholesterol down-regulates BK channels by reducing KCa1.1 protein expression via increasing the channel protein degradation, and the effect is dependent on the auxiliary β1-subunit. PMID:24260325

  13. Stably expressed housekeeping genes across developmental stages in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a reliable and reproducible technique for measuring mRNA expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is mandatory. In this study, ten housekeeping genes, including beta-actin (Actin) , elongation factor 1 α (EF1A) , glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) , ribosomal protein L13 (RPL13) , ribosomal protein 49 (RP49) , α-tubulin (Tubulin) , vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase) , succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA) , 28S ribosomal RNA (28S) , and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, were selected as the candidate reference genes. Four algorithms, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the performance of these candidates as endogenous controls across different developmental stages. In addition, RefFinder, which integrates the above-mentioned software tools, provided the overall ranking of the stability/suitability of these candidate reference genes. Among them, PRL13 and v-ATPase were the two most stable housekeeping genes across different developmental stages. This work is the first step toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis in T. urticae following the MIQE guideline. With the recent release of the T. urticae genome, results from this study provide a critical piece for the subsequent genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging model system.

  14. Identifying stably expressed housekeeping genes in the endometrium of fertile women, women with recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Linden; Cagampang, Felino; Cheong, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Housekeeping genes (HKG) are presumed to be constitutively expressed throughout tissue types but recent studies have shown they vary with pathophysiology. Often, validation of appropriate HKG is not made. There is no consensus on which HKGs are most stably expressed in endometrial tissue so this study aimed to identify the most stable HKG in the endometrium of women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent miscarriages (RM). Inclusion criteria were women between 25-45 years (n = 45) suffering recurrent miscarriage (RM), recurrent implantation failure (RIF) or fertile controls. Endometrial biopsies were taken and total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and PCR was performed using 10 candidate HKG. The genes were arranged in terms of stability and normalisation was determined. Several HKGs not previously tested in endometrial samples were found to be more stable than those previously identified as the most stable. Of these, the 5 most stable HKG (in order of stability) were Prdm4 (PR domain 4) > Ube4a (Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 4a) > Enox2 (Ecto-NOX Disulfide-Thiol Exchanger 2) > Ube2d2 (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 2) > Actb (Actin beta). We therefore recommend using at least four of the aforementioned HKG for normalisation of endometrial tissues taken from patients with RM and RIF.

  15. Live Imaging of Type I Collagen Assembly Dynamics in Osteoblasts Stably Expressing GFP and mCherry-Tagged Collagen Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongbo; Kamel-El Sayed, Suzan A; Wang, Kun; Tiede-Lewis, LeAnn M; Grillo, Michael A; Veno, Patricia A; Dusevich, Vladimir; Phillips, Charlotte L; Bonewald, Lynda F; Dallas, Sarah L

    2018-02-20

    Type I collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in bone and other connective tissues and plays key roles in normal and pathological bone formation as well as in connective tissue disorders and fibrosis. Although much is known about the collagen biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory steps, the mechanisms by which it is assembled extracellularly are less clear. We have generated GFPtpz and mCherry-tagged collagen fusion constructs for live imaging of type I collagen assembly by replacing the α2(I)-procollagen N-terminal propeptide with GFPtpz or mCherry. These novel imaging probes were stably transfected into MLO-A5 osteoblast-like cells and fibronectin-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (FN-null-MEFs) and used for imaging type I collagen assembly dynamics and its dependence on fibronectin. Both fusion proteins co-precipitated with α1(I)-collagen and remained intracellular without ascorbate but were assembled into α1(I) collagen-containing extracellular fibrils in the presence of ascorbate. Immunogold-EM confirmed their ultrastuctural localization in banded collagen fibrils. Live cell imaging in stably transfected MLO-A5 cells revealed the highly dynamic nature of collagen assembly and showed that during assembly the fibril networks are continually stretched and contracted due to the underlying cell motion. We also observed that cell-generated forces can physically reshape the collagen fibrils. Using co-cultures of mCherry- and GFPtpz-collagen expressing cells, we show that multiple cells contribute collagen to form collagen fiber bundles. Immuno-EM further showed that individual collagen fibrils can receive contributions of collagen from more than one cell. Live cell imaging in FN-null-MEFs expressing GFPtpz-collagen showed that collagen assembly was both dependent upon and dynamically integrated with fibronectin assembly. These GFP-collagen fusion constructs provide a powerful tool for imaging collagen in living cells and have revealed novel

  16. Characteristics of stably expressed human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors: atypical behavior of the dopamine D1b receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U B; Norby, B; Jensen, Anders A.

    1994-01-01

    Human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stably expressed in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]SCH23390 saturation experiments indicated the presence of only a single binding site in the D1a expressing cell line with a Kd of 0.5 nM. In D1b expressing cell lines...

  17. NF-kappa B activity in T cells stably expressing the Tax protein of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, J.; Cohen, L.; Hiscott, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of constitutive Tax expression on the interaction of NF-κ B with its recognition sequence and on NF-κ B-dependent gene expression was examined in T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines (19D and 9J) stably transformed with a Tax expression vector. Tax expressing T cell lines contained a constitutive level of NF-κ B binding activity, detectable by mobility shift assay and uv cross-linking using a palindromic NF-κ B probe homologous to the interferon beta PRDII site. In Jurkat and NC2.10 induction with phorbol esters resulted in the appearance of new DNA binding proteins of 85, 75, and 54 kDa, whereas in Tax expressing cells the 85-kDa protein and a 92-kDa DNA binding protein were constitutively induced. Expression of Tax protein in 19D and 9J resulted in transcription of the endogenous NF-kappa B-dependent granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor gene and increased basal level expression of transfected NF-kappa B-regulated promoters. Nonetheless transcription of both the endogenous and the transfected gene was inducible by PMA treatment. Tax expression in Jurkat T cells may alter the stoichiometry of NF-kappa B DNA binding proteins and thus change the expression of NF-kappa B-regulated promoters

  18. SPARC Expression Is Selectively Suppressed in Tumor Initiating Urospheres Isolated from As+3- and Cd+2-Transformed Human Urothelial Cells (UROtsa Stably Transfected with SPARC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Slusser-Nore

    Full Text Available This laboratory previously analyzed the expression of SPARC in the parental UROtsa cells, their arsenite (As(+3 and cadmium (Cd(+2-transformed cell lines, and tumor transplants generated from the transformed cells. It was demonstrated that SPARC expression was down-regulated to background levels in Cd(+2-and As(+3-transformed UROtsa cells and tumor transplants compared to parental cells. In the present study, the transformed cell lines were stably transfected with a SPARC expression vector to determine the effect of SPARC expression on the ability of the cells to form tumors in immune-compromised mice.Real time PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to define the expression of SPARC in the As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed cell lines, and urospheres isolated from these cell lines, following their stable transfection with an expression vector containing the SPARC open reading frame (ORF. Transplantation of the cultured cells into immune-compromised mice by subcutaneous injection was used to assess the effect of SPARC expression on tumors generated from the above cell lines and urospheres.It was shown that the As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed UROtsa cells could undergo stable transfection with a SPARC expression vector and that the transfected cells expressed both SPARC mRNA and secreted protein. Tumors formed from these SPARC-transfected cells were shown to have no expression of SPARC. Urospheres isolated from cultures of the SPARC-transfected As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed cell lines were shown to have only background expression of SPARC. Urospheres from both the non-transfected and SPARC-transfected cell lines were tumorigenic and thus fit the definition for a population of tumor initiating cells.Tumor initiating cells isolated from SPARC-transfected As(+3-and Cd(+2-transformed cell lines have an inherent mechanism to suppress the expression of SPARC mRNA.

  19. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) stably expressing CRISPR-based synergistic activation mediator (SAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Kai; Zhou, Yan; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Human fibroblasts were engineered to express the CRISPR-based synergistic activation mediator (SAM) complex: dCas9-VP64 and MS2-P65-HSF1. Two induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) clones expressing SAM were established by transducing these fibroblasts with lentivirus expressing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4...... a novel, useful tool to investigate genetic regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation through CRISPR-mediated activation of endogenous genes....

  20. Characterization of Caco-2 cells stably expressing the protein-based zinc probe eCalwy-5 as a model system for investigating intestinal zinc transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maares, Maria; Keil, Claudia; Thomsen, Susanne; Günzel, Dorothee; Wiesner, Burkhard; Haase, Hajo

    2018-01-29

    Intestinal zinc resorption, in particular its regulation and mechanisms, are not yet fully understood. Suitable intestinal cell models are needed to investigate zinc uptake kinetics and the role of labile zinc in enterocytes in vitro. Therefore, a Caco-2 cell clone was produced, stably expressing the genetically encoded zinc biosensor eCalwy-5. The aim of the present study was to reassure the presence of characteristic enterocyte-specific properties in the Caco-2-eCalwy clone. Comparison of Caco-2-WT and Caco-2-eCalwy cells revealed only slight differences regarding subcellular localization of the tight junction protein occludin and alkaline phosphatase activity, which did not affect basic integrity of the intestinal barrier or the characteristic brush border membrane morphology. Furthermore, introduction of the additional zinc-binding protein in Caco-2 cells did not alter mRNA expression of the major intestinal zinc transporters (zip4, zip5, znt-1 and znt-5), but increased metallothionein 1a-expression and cellular resistance to higher zinc concentrations. Moreover, this study examines the effect of sensor expression level on its saturation with zinc. Fluorescence cell imaging indicated considerable intercellular heterogeneity in biosensor-expression. However, FRET-measurements confirmed that these differences in expression levels have no effect on fractional zinc-saturation of the probe. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient propagation of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-type JC virus in COS-7-derived cell lines stably expressing Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukuzuma, Souichi; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kameoka, Masanori; Sugiura, Shigeki; Nukuzuma, Chiyoko; Miyoshi, Isao; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2010-12-01

    The high incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in AIDS patients compared with many other immunosuppressive diseases suggests that HIV-1 infection is strictly related to the activation of JC virus (JCV) propagation. In this report, propagation of PML-type JCV in COS-7-derived cell lines stably expressing HIV-1 Tat (COS-tat cells) has been examined. In COS-tat cells, production of viral particles and replication of genomic DNA were markedly increased compared to COS-7 cells, as judged by HA and real-time PCR analyses. These results demonstrate that COS-tat cells provide a useful model system for studying HIV-1 Tat-mediated propagation of PML-type JCV. © 2010 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Microfibrillated cellulose sheets coating oxygen-permeable PDMS membranes induce rat hepatocytes 3D aggregation into stably-attached 3D hemispheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenou, Fanny; Couderc, Sandrine; Kim, Beomjoon; Fujii, Teruo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the use of natural, chemically-unmodified, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) as a matrix for hepatocyte culture. We developed an original cell-culture design composed of a thin 3D-microstructured fibrous substrate consisting of a MFC sheet coating a highly O(2)-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The MFC-coated PDMS membranes were obtained according to a simple process where cellulose fibres were deposited from an aqueous suspension on the PDMS surfaces and the films were dried under mild conditions. To enable oxygen diffusion through the membranes, they were assembled on bottomless frames ('O(2)+' condition). Rat hepatocytes primary-cultured on such MFC-PDMS membranes quickly organized themselves into large hemispherical 3D aggregates which were tightly anchored to the MFC sheets. In contrast, hepatocytes cultured on smooth PDMS membranes in the O(2)+ system (O(2)+, PDMS) organized into unstable 2D monolayers which easily detached from the surfaces. Hepatocyte 3D cultures obtained on MFC-PDMS membranes exhibited higher liver-specific functions over a 2-week culture period, as assessed by both the higher albumin secretion and urea synthesis rate. The MFC-PDMS membranes appear suitable for obtaining stably-attached and functional hepatocyte 3D cultures and appear interesting for drug/chemical screenings in a microplate format, but also for microfluidic applications.

  3. Characterization of calcium signals in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dentate gyrus neuronal progenitors and mature neurons, stably expressing an advanced calcium indicator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vőfély, Gergő; Berecz, Tünde; Szabó, Eszter; Szebényi, Kornélia; Hathy, Edit; Orbán, Tamás I; Sarkadi, Balázs; Homolya, László; Marchetto, Maria C; Réthelyi, János M; Apáti, Ágota

    2018-04-01

    Pluripotent stem cell derived human neuronal progenitor cells (hPSC-NPCs) and their mature neuronal cell culture derivatives may efficiently be used for central nervous system (CNS) drug screening, including the investigation of ligand-induced calcium signalization. We have established hippocampal NPC cultures derived from human induced PSCs, which were previously generated by non-integrating Sendai virus reprogramming. Using established protocols these NPCs were differentiated into hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons. In order to study calcium signaling without the need of dye loading, we have stably expressed an advanced calcium indicator protein (GCaMP6fast) in the NPCs using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system. We observed no significant effects of the long-term GCaMP6 expression on NPC morphology, gene expression pattern or neural differentiation capacity. In order to compare the functional properties of GCaMP6-expressing neural cells and the corresponding parental cells loaded with calcium indicator dye Fluo-4, a detailed characterization of calcium signals was performed. We found that the calcium signals induced by ATP, glutamate, LPA, or proteases - were similar in these two systems. Moreover, the presence of the calcium indicator protein allowed for a sensitive, repeatable detection of changes in calcium signaling during the process of neurogenesis and neuronal maturation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of a human cell line stably over-expressing the candidate oncogene, dual specificity phosphatase 12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Cain

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of chromosomal rearrangements within primary tumors has been influential in the identification of novel oncogenes. Identification of the "driver" gene(s within cancer-derived amplicons is, however, hampered by the fact that most amplicons contain many gene products. Amplification of 1q21-1q23 is strongly associated with liposarcomas and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization narrowed down the likely candidate oncogenes to two: the activating transcription factor 6 (atf6 and the dual specificity phosphatase 12 (dusp12. While atf6 is an established transcriptional regulator of the unfolded protein response, the potential role of dusp12 in cancer remains uncharacterized.To evaluate the oncogenic potential of dusp12, we established stable cell lines that ectopically over-express dusp12 in isolation and determined whether this cell line acquired properties frequently associated with transformed cells. Here, we demonstrate that cells over-expressing dusp12 display increased cell motility and resistance to apoptosis. Additionally, over-expression of dusp12 promoted increased expression of the c-met proto-oncogene and the collagen and laminin receptor intergrin alpha 1 (itga1 which is implicated in metastasis.Collectively, these results suggest that dusp12 is oncologically relevant and exposes a potential association between dusp12 and established oncogenes that could be therapeutically targeted.

  5. Characteristics of stably expressed human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors: atypical behavior of the dopamine D1b receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U B; Norby, B; Jensen, Anders A.

    1994-01-01

    Human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stably expressed in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]SCH23390 saturation experiments indicated the presence of only a single binding site in the D1a expressing cell line with a Kd of 0.5 nM. In D1b expressing cell lines......, two binding sites were observed with Kd values of 0.5 and 5 nM in CHO cells and 0.05 and 1.6 nM in BHK cells, respectively. Neither of the receptors affected Ca2+ metabolism whereas they both were coupled in a stimulatory fashion to adenylyl cyclase. The pharmacological profile of both the D1a and D1b...... for these receptors. Besides SCH 23390, only NNC 112, fluphenazine and bulbocapnine were able to discriminate between the two states of the D1b receptor. In case of the D1a receptor, the Ki values obtained in binding experiments were very similar to Ki values obtained from inhibition of dopamine stimulated adenylyl...

  6. Persistent human cardiac Na+ currents in stably transfected mammalian cells: Robust expression and distinct open-channel selectivity among Class 1 antiarrhythmics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ging Kuo; Russell, Gabriella; Wang, Sho-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Miniature persistent late Na(+) currents in cardiomyocytes have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The goals of this study are to establish a stable cell line expressing robust persistent cardiac Na(+) currents and to test Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs for selective action against resting and open states. After transient transfection of an inactivation-deficient human cardiac Na(+) channel clone (hNav1.5-CW with L409C/A410W double mutations), transfected mammalian HEK293 cells were treated with 1 mg/ml G-418. Individual G-418-resistant colonies were isolated using glass cylinders. One colony with high expression of persistent Na(+) currents was subjected to a second colony selection. Cells from this colony remained stable in expressing robust peak Na(+) currents of 996 ± 173 pA/pF at +50 mV (n = 20). Persistent late Na(+) currents in these cells were clearly visible during a 4-second depolarizing pulse albeit decayed slowly. This slow decay is likely due to slow inactivation of Na(+) channels and could be largely eliminated by 5 μM batrachotoxin. Peak cardiac hNav1.5-CW Na(+) currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC(50) value of 2.27 ± 0.08 μM (n = 6). At clinic relevant concentrations, Class 1 antiarrhythmics are much more selective in blocking persistent late Na(+) currents than their peak counterparts, with a selectivity ratio ranging from 80.6 (flecainide) to 3 (disopyramide). We conclude that (1) Class 1 antiarrhythmics differ widely in their resting- vs. open-channel selectivity, and (2) stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing large persistent hNav1.5-CW Na(+) currents are suitable for studying as well as screening potent open-channel blockers.

  7. Pharmacological and functional characterisation of the wild-type and site-directed mutants of the human H1 histamine receptor stably expressed in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguilevsky, N; Varsalona, F; Guillaume, J P; Noyer, M; Gillard, M; Daliers, J; Henichart, J P; Bollen, A

    1995-01-01

    A cDNA clone for the human histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a lung cDNA library and stably expressed in CHO cells. The recombinant receptor protein present in the cell membranes, displayed the functional and binding characteristics of histamine H1 receptors. Mutation of Ser155 to Ala in the fourth transmembrane domain did not significantly change the affinity of the receptor for histamine and H1 antagonists. However, mutation of the fifth transmembrane Asn198 to Ala resulted in a dramatic decrease of the affinity for histamine binding, and for the histamine-induced polyphosphoinositides breakdown, whereas the affinity towards antagonists was not significantly modified. In addition, mutation of another fifth transmembrane amino acid, Thr194 to Ala also diminished, but to a lesser extent, the affinity for histamine. These data led us to propose a molecular model for histamine interaction with the human H1 receptor. In this model, the amide moiety of Asn198 and the hydroxyl group of Thr194 are involved in hydrogen bonding with the nitrogen atoms of the imidazole ring of histamine. Moreover, mutation of Thr194 to Ala demonstrated that this residue is responsible for the discrimination between enantiomers of cetirizine.

  8. Phenylpropanoids from cinnamon bark reduced β-amyloid production by the inhibition of β-secretase in Chinese hamster ovarian cells stably expressing amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Jeong; Seo, Dae-Gun; Park, So-Young

    2016-11-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ) is a substance of Alzheimer disease (AD), which is generated via the amyloidogenic pathway from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase. Inhibition of Aβ production is a potential therapeutic approach to AD. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that cinnamon bark (Cinnamomi Cortex Spissus), the dried bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Lauraceae), and its constituents are beneficial to AD. The methanol extract of cinnamon bark efficiently reduced Aβ40 production in Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells stably expressing APP as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bioassay-guided isolation of cinnamon bark extract was carried out using open column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and the following 6 phenylpropanoids were isolated: syringaresinol (1); medioresinol (2); coumarin (3); 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (4); cryptamygin A (5); and 3',5,7-trimethoxy epicatechin (6). Among these, 4 μg/mL medioresinol and cryptamygin A reduced Aβ40 production by 50% and 60%, respectively, compared with dimethyl sulfoxide-treated control cells. The IC 50 values of medioresinol and cryptamygin A for the inhibition of Aβ40 production were 10.8 and 8.2 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of APP-CHO cells with either compound decreased the amount of β-secretase and sAPPβ (the proteolytic fragment of APP catalyzed by β-secretase). These results suggest that the antiamyloidogenic activity of cinnamon bark extract was exerted by medioresinol and cryptamygin A via a reduction in the amount of β-secretase. The extract of cinnamon bark contains potentially valuable antiamyloidogenic agents for the prevention and treatment of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nicotine Component of Cigarette Smoke Extract (CSE) Decreases the Cytotoxicity of CSE in BEAS-2B Cells Stably Expressing Human Cytochrome P450 2A13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Minghui; Zhang, Yudong; Li, Na; Wang, Chao; Xia, Rong; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2017-10-13

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), an extrahepatic enzyme mainly expressed in the human respiratory system, has been reported to mediate the metabolism and toxicity of cigarette smoke. We previously found that nicotine inhibited 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism by CYP2A13, but its influence on other components of cigarette smoke remains unclear. The nicotine component of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was separated, purified, and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), splitting CSE into a nicotine section (CSE-N) and nicotine-free section (CSE-O). Cell viability and apoptosis by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry assays were conducted on immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells stably expressing CYP2A13 (B-2A13) or vector (B-V), respectively. Interestingly, CSE and CSE-O were toxic to BEAS-2B cells whereas CSE-N showed less cytotoxicity. CSE-O was more toxic to B-2A13 cells than to B-V cells (IC 50 of 2.49% vs. 7.06%), which was flatted by 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a CYP inhibitor. CSE-O rather than CSE or CSE-N increased apoptosis of B-2A13 cells rather than B-V cells. Accordingly, compared to CSE-N and CSE, CSE-O significantly changed the expression of three pairs of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 Associated X Protein/B cell lymphoma-2 (Bax/Bcl-2), Cleaved Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase/Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase (C-PARP/PARP), and C-caspase-3/caspase-3, in B-2A13 cells. In addition, recombination of CSE-N and CSE-O (CSE-O/N) showed similar cytotoxicity and apoptosis to the original CSE. These results demonstrate that the nicotine component decreases the metabolic activation of CYP2A13 to CSE and aids in understanding the critical role of CYP2A13 in human respiratory diseases caused by cigarette smoking.

  10. Cerebrovascular gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Frederiksen, Simona Denise; Edvinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    in the middle cerebral arteries from hypertensive compared to normotensive rats. The gene expression of 72 genes was decreased and the gene expression of 97 genes was increased. The following genes with a fold difference ≥1.40 were verified by quantitative PCR; Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1, Serpine1......, Mmp11, Cd34, Ptgs1 and Ptgs2. The gene expression of Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1 and Serpine1 and the protein expression of LOX1 (also known as OLR1) were significantly increased in the middle cerebral arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar-Kyoto rats. In conclusion...

  11. [Selection and construction of cell line stably expressing survivin gene in lower level through eukaryotic plasmid vector of shRNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xia; Sun, Shan-Zhen; Song, Ying

    2008-06-01

    To construct a short hairpin RNA(shRNA) interference expression plasmid vector of survivin gene, transfect tongue squamous cell carcinoma line Tca8113 which expressed survivin gene in a high level, and choose the cells whose survivin gene were suppressed significantly. Two pairs of oligonucleotide sequences specific for survivin gene were designed and synthesized, and cloned into pSilencer-2.1U6-neo plasmid. The recombinant plasmids (named PS1 and PS2) were amplified in Ecoli. DH5alpha was identified by restriction digestion, PCR and sequencing. The vectors were transfected into Tca8113 cells with lipofectamine 2000. After selection with G418, the stable cell clones were attained. Survivn expression was assayed with real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting. SAS8.0 software package was used for Student t test. Two vectors were constructed successfully and stable cell clones with PS1 or PS2 plasmid were obtained. As compared with those of control, survivin expression of transfected cell with PS1 or PS2 in mRNA level was significantly suppressed (P<0.05). In protein level, only those of transfected cell with PS2 was significantly suppressed (P<0.01). The shRNA interference expression plasmid vectors of survivin gene are successfully constructed, and Tca8113 cells which express survivin gene in a stable lower level are attained, which enable us to carry out further research on gene therapy of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.30572056).

  12. GH induced lipolysis stimulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes stably expressing hGHR: analysis on signaling pathway and activity of 20K hGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, N; Takahashi, Y; Wada, M; Naito, N; Uchida, H; Ikeda, M; Honjo, M

    2000-04-25

    We have constructed a cell line of 3T3-L1 which can efficiently express human GHR (3T3-L1-hGHR) after differentiation to adipocytes. The expressed hGHR was detected as two bands with approximate molecular sizes of 120K by Western analysis using hGHR specific monoclonal antibody. Maximum lipolytic activity induced by hGH in the 3T3-L1-hGHR was enhanced 10-fold as compared to that in 3T3-L1, suggesting that expressed hGHR is functionally active. Comparative analysis using bGH and hGH revealed that 70% of lipolysis stimulation by 1-10 ng/ml hGH could be attributed to hGHR-mediated response. Analyses on inhibition and phosphorylation of signaling molecules suggested that GH-induced lipolysis stimulation is dependent on gene expression and not mediated through PKA-, PKC-, PLA-, PLC-, nor MAPK-pathway but possibly through JAK-STATs pathway. Duration of STAT5 activation by hGH continued up to 48 h. We also revealed that 22 K hGH isoform, 20K hGH which has been reported as a weaker agonist for GH-induced lipolysis stimulation, possesses equipotent activity and shows stronger action in the presence of hGHBP as compared to 22 K hGH. Taken together we conclude that the hGH-induced lipolysis was not mediated through MAP-, PKA-, PKC-, nor PLA-pathway but might be mediated through STAT pathway and that 20K hGH might show higher lipolytic activity than 22 K hGH in adipose tissue that produces a large amount of GHBP.

  13. Biologically active, magnICON®-expressed EPO-Fc from stably transformed Nicotiana benthamiana plants presenting tetra-antennary N-glycan structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Bieke; Van Damme, Els J M; Callewaert, Nico; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Delanghe, Joris R; Boets, Annemie; Castilho, Alexandra; Weterings, Koen

    2012-08-31

    In the past two decades plants have emerged as a valuable alternative for the production of pharmaceutical proteins. Since N-glycosylation influences functionality and stability of therapeutic proteins, the plant N-glycosylation pathway should be humanized. Here, we report the transient magnICON(®) expression of the erythropoietin fusion protein (EPO-Fc) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that produce multi-antennary N-glycans without the plant-specific β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues in a stable manner (Nagels et al., 2011). The EPO-Fc fusion protein consists of EPO with a C-terminal-linked IgG-Fc domain and is used for pulmonary delivery of recombinant EPO to patients (Bitonti et al., 2004). Plant expressed EPO-Fc was quantified using a paramagnetic-particle chemiluminescent immunoassay and shown to be active in vitro via receptor binding experiments in HEK293T cells. Mass spectrometry-based N-glycan analysis confirmed the presence of multi-antennary N-glycans on plant-expressed EPO-Fc. The described research is the next step towards the development of a production platform for pharmaceutical proteins in plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Stably Expressing Human PET Reporter Genes After Zinc Finger Nuclease-Mediated Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Esther; Holvoet, Bryan; Ordovas, Laura; Breuls, Natacha; Helsen, Nicky; Schönberger, Matthias; Raitano, Susanna; Struys, Tom; Vanbilloen, Bert; Casteels, Cindy; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Van Laere, Koen; Lambrichts, Ivo; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Deroose, Christophe M

    2017-10-01

    Molecular imaging is indispensable for determining the fate and persistence of engrafted stem cells. Standard strategies for transgene induction involve the use of viral vectors prone to silencing and insertional mutagenesis or the use of nonhuman genes. Methods: We used zinc finger nucleases to induce stable expression of human imaging reporter genes into the safe-harbor locus adeno-associated virus integration site 1 in human embryonic stem cells. Plasmids were generated carrying reporter genes for fluorescence, bioluminescence imaging, and human PET reporter genes. Results: In vitro assays confirmed their functionality, and embryonic stem cells retained differentiation capacity. Teratoma formation assays were performed, and tumors were imaged over time with PET and bioluminescence imaging. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the application of genome editing for targeted integration of human imaging reporter genes in human embryonic stem cells for long-term molecular imaging. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  15. Development of an Immunoperoxidase Monolayer Assay for the Detection of Antibodies against Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Based on BHK-21 Cell Line Stably Expressing the Goat Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Zhang

    Full Text Available From 2013 to 2015, peste des petits ruminants (PPR broke out in more than half of the provinces of China; thus, the application and development of diagnostic methods are very important for the control of PPR. Here, an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA was developed to detect antibodies against PPR. However, during IPMA development, we found that Vero cells were not the appropriate choice because staining results were not easily observed. Therefore, we first established a baby hamster kidney-goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (BHK-SLAM cell line that could stably express goat SLAM for at least 20 generations. Compared with Vero cells, the PPR-mediated cytopathic effect occurred earlier in BHK-SLAM cells, and large syncytia appeared after virus infection. Based on this cell line and recombinant PPR virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP (rPPRV-GFP, an IPMA for PPR diagnosis was developed. One hundred and ninety-eight PPR serum samples from goats or sheep were tested by the IPMA and virus neutralization test (VNT. Compared with the VNT, the sensitivity and specificity of the IPMA were 91% and 100%, respectively, and the coincidence rate of the two methods was 95.5%. The IPMA assay could be completed in 4 h, compared with more than 6 d for the VNT using rPPRV-GFP, and it is easily performed, as the staining results can be observed under a microscope. Additionally, unlike the VNT, the IPMA does not require antigen purification, which will reduce its cost. In conclusion, the established IPMA will be an alternative method that replaces the VNT for detecting antibodies against PPRV in the field.

  16. Expression of acid-sensing ion channels and selection of reference genes in mouse and naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Smith, Ewan St John

    2016-12-13

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment. Previous studies of ASIC expression in the mammalian nervous system have often not examined all subunits, or have failed to adequately quantify expression between tissues; to date there has been no attempt to determine ASIC expression in the central nervous system of the naked mole-rat. Here we perform a geNorm study to identify reliable housekeeping genes in both mouse and naked mole-rat and then use quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the relative amounts of ASIC transcripts in different tissues of both species. We identify RPL13A (ribosomal protein L13A) and CANX (calnexin), and β-ACTIN and EIF4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4a) as being the most stably expressed housekeeping genes in mouse and naked mole-rat, respectively. In both species, ASIC3 was most highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and ASIC1a, ASIC2b and ASIC3 were more highly expressed across all brain regions compared to the other subunits. We also show that ASIC4, a proton-insensitive subunit of relatively unknown function, was highly expressed in all mouse tissues apart from DRG and hippocampus, but was by contrast the lowliest expressed ASIC in all naked mole-rat tissues.

  17. Diet induced gene expression in rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caimari, A.; Oliver, P.; Rodenburg, W.; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression of rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed by microarray analysis in normoweight and in diet-induced obese rats (cafeteria rats). The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in energy homeostasis that are altered in the obese state.

  18. Stably-stratified wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Sichani, Pejman; Zonta, Francesco; Obabko, Aleksandr; Soldati, Alfredo

    2017-11-01

    Stably-stratified (bottom-up cooling) turbulent flows are encountered in a number of industrial applications, environmental processes and geophysical flows. Turbulent entrainment and mixing across density interfaces in terrestrial water bodies (oceans, lakes and rivers) and in industrial heat transfer equipments are just some important examples of stably-stratified flows. In this work we use Direct Numerical Simulation to investigate the fundamental physics of stably-stratified channel turbulence under Boussinesq and Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) conditions. Compared to the neutrally-buoyant case, in the stably-stratified case active turbulence survives only in the near-wall region and coexists with internal gravity waves (IGW) moving in the core region of the channel. This induces a general suppression of turbulence levels, momentum and buoyancy fluxes. Our results show also that NOB effects may be important when the flow is subject to large temperature gradients. The most striking feature observed in case of NOB conditions is the generation of a strong flow asymmetry with possible local flow laminarization in the near wall region.

  19. Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhi; Zhang Zhaoshun; Cui Guixiang; Xu Chunxiao

    2011-01-01

    Stably stratified turbulence is a common phenomenon in atmosphere and ocean. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating homogeneous stably stratified turbulence numerically at Reynolds number Re = uL/v = 10 2 ∼10 3 and Froude number Fr = u/NL = 10 −2 ∼10 0 in which u is root mean square of velocity fluctuations, L is integral scale and N is Brunt-Vaïsälä frequency. Three sets of computation cases are designed with different initial conditions, namely isotropic turbulence, Taylor Green vortex and internal waves, to investigate the statistical properties from different origins. The computed horizontal and vertical energy spectra are consistent with observation in atmosphere and ocean when the composite parameter ReFr 2 is greater than O(1). It has also been found in this paper that the stratification turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominated in the developed stably stratified turbulence.

  20. Identification of genes differentially expressed between benign and osteopontin transformed rat mammary epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudland Philip S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopontin is a secreted, integrin-binding and phosphorylated acidic glycoprotein which has an important role in tumor progression. Findings In this study, we have utilized suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH to evaluate OPN regulated gene expression, using the Rama 37 benign non-invasive rat mammary cell line and a subclone, Rama 37-OPN. Rama 37-OPN was produced by stably transfecting Rama 37 with an OPN expression vector and it demonstrates increased malignant properties in vitro. Sequence and expression array analysis of the respective cDNA libraries of over 1600 subtracted cDNA fragments revealed 982 ESTs, 45 novel sequences and 659 known genes. The known up-regulated genes in the Rama 37-OPN library code for proteins with a variety of functions including those involved in metabolism, cell adhesion and migration, signal transduction and in apoptosis. Four of the most differentially expressed genes between the benign and in vitro malignant rat mammary cell lines are tumor protein translationally controlled I (TPTI, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM and RAN GTPase (RAN. The largest difference (ca 10,000 fold between the less aggressively (MCF-7, ZR-75 and more aggressively malignant (MDA MB 231, MDA MB 435S human breast cancer cell lines is that due to RAN, the next is that due to osteopontin itself. Conclusion The results suggest that enhanced properties associated with the malignant state in vitro induced by osteopontin may be due to, in part, overexpression of RAN GTPase and these biological results are the subject of a subsequent publication 1.

  1. Increased parathyroid expression of klotho in uremic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, J.; Martuseviciene, G.; Santini, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    /6 nephrectomy rat model of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid klotho gene expression and protein were significantly increased in severely uremic hyperphosphatemic rats, but not affected by moderate uremia and normal serum phosphorus. Calcitriol suppressed klotho gene and protein expression in severe...... secondary hyperparathyroidism, despite a further increase in plasma phosphate. Both FGFR1 IIIC and Na+/K+-ATPase gene expression were significantly elevated in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid gland klotho expression and the plasma calcium ion concentration were inversely correlated. Thus......, our study suggests that klotho may act as a positive regulator of PTH expression and secretion in secondary hyperparathyroidism....

  2. Tissue-specific expression of transfected human insulin genes in pluripotent clonal rat insulinoma lines induced during passage in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, O.D.; Andersen, L.C.; Michelsen, B.; Owerbach, D.; Larsson, L.I.; Lernmark, A.; Steiner, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    The pluripotent rat islet tumor cell line MSL-G2 expresses primarily glucagon or cholecystokinin and not insulin in vitro but changes phenotype completely after prolonged in vivo cultivation to yield small-sized hypoglycemic tumors composed almost entirely of insulin-producing beta cells. When a genomic DNA fragment containing the coding and upstream regulatory regions of the human insulin gene was stably transfected into MSL-G2 cells no measurable amounts of insulin or insulin mRNA were detected in vitro. However, successive transplantation of two transfected clones resulted in hypoglycemic tumors that efficiently coexpressed human and rat insulin as determined by human C-peptide-specific immunoreagents. These results demonstrate that cis-acting tissue-specific insulin gene enhancer elements are conserved between rat and human insulin genes. The authors propose that the in vivo differentiation of MSL-G2 cells and transfected subclones into insulin-producing cells reflects processes of natural beta-cell ontogeny leading to insulin gene expression

  3. Genome organization and expression of the rat ACBP gene family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, S; Andreasen, P H; Knudsen, J

    1993-01-01

    pool former. We have molecularly cloned and characterized the rat ACBP gene family which comprises one expressed and four processed pseudogenes. One of these was shown to exist in two allelic forms. A comprehensive computer-aided analysis of the promoter region of the expressed ACBP gene revealed...

  4. Glomerulonephritis-induced changes in kidney gene expression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Pavkovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a glomerulonephritis (GN model in rats induced by nephrotoxic serum (NTS which contains antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM. The anti-GBM GN model in rats is widely used since its biochemical and histopathological characteristics are similar to crescentic nephritis and Goodpasture's disease in humans (Pusey, 2003 [2]. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY and Sprague–Dawley (SD rats were dosed once with 1, 2.5 and 5 ml/kg nephrotoxic serum (NTS or 1.5 and 5 ml/kg NTS, respectively. GN and tubular damage were observed histopathologically in all treated rats after 14 days. To obtain insight into molecular processes during GN pathogenesis, mRNA expression was investigated in WKY and SD kidneys using Affymetrix's GeneChip Rat genome 230_2.0 arrays (GSE64265. The immunopathological processes during GN are still not fully understood and likely involve both innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, several hundred mRNAs were found deregulated, which functionally were mostly associated with inflammation and regeneration. The β-chain of the major histocompatibility complex class II RT1.B (Rt1-Bb and complement component 6 (C6 were identified as two mRNAs differentially expressed between WKY and SD rat strains which could be related to known different susceptibilities to NTS of different rat strains; both were increased in WKY and decreased in SD rats (Pavkovic et al., 2015 [1]. Increased Rt1-Bb expression in WKY rats could indicate a stronger and more persistent cellular reaction of the adaptive immune system in this strain, in line with findings indicating adaptive immune reactions during GN. The complement cascade is also known to be essential for GN development, especially terminal cascade products like C6.

  5. Generation of H9 T-cells stably expressing a membrane-bound form of the cytoplasmic tail of the Env-glycoprotein: lack of transcomplementation of defective HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Valerie; Pfeiffer Tanya; Holtkotte Denise

    2006-01-01

    Abstract H9-T-cells do not support the replication of mutant HIV-1 encoding Env protein lacking its long cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (Env-CT). Here we describe the generation of a H9-T-cell population constitutively expressing the HIV-1 Env-CT protein domain anchored in the cellular membrane by it homologous membrane-spanning domain (TMD). We confirmed that the Env-TMD-CT protein was associated with cellular membranes, that its expression did not have any obvious cytotoxic effects on the ce...

  6. Muc5ac Mucin Expression During Rat Skin Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, V.; Segal-Eiras, A.; Barbeito, C.G.; Croce, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Some mucin genes have been detected during human embryonic and fetal organ development; however, little is known about mucin expression in epidermal development, neither in humans nor in other species. The present research was developed to explore Muc5ac skin expression during prenatal and postnatal rat development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting (WB) and RT-PCR were employed. By IHC, Muc5ac protein was found early in embryonic epidermis from day 13 of gestation until seven days...

  7. Lactase gene expression during early development of rat small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rings, E. H.; de Boer, P. A.; Moorman, A. F.; van Beers, E. H.; Dekker, J.; Montgomery, R. K.; Grand, R. J.; Büller, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    Expression of lactase messenger (m) RNA and protein in rat small intestine during fetal and postnatal development was analyzed using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Lactase mRNA was first identified at 18 days of development, and lactase protein was first detected at day 20. Lactase

  8. Effect of stress on hippocampal nociceptin expression in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativio, Paola; Pascale, Esterina; Maffei, Angelo; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Passarelli, Francesca

    2012-07-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide and its receptor are not only ubiquitously expressed in mammalian brain and spinal cord but are also abundant in limbic structures, particularly in the hippocampus. The widespread distribution of N/OFQ reflects the broad spectrum of its biological actions such as nociception, food intake, spontaneous locomotor activity, and learning and memory processes. Since the hippocampus is involved in the control of adrenocortical activity, its role in stress-related phenomena is well characterized. In male Wistar rats, we first examined the effects of acute restraint stress (120 min) on the brain immunohistochemical localization of N/OFQ. The analysis carried out on sections obtained at the onset of stress revealed enhanced expression of N/OFQ in CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus as well as increased plasma corticosterone concentrations. Next, we examined whether endogenous glucocorticoid hormone plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal N/OFQ expression in response to stress. To this end, rats were injected with corticosterone (1 mg/kg) or subjected to restraint stress 1 week after adrenalectomy. Two hours after corticosterone administration, plasma glucocorticoid concentrations were comparable to those observed after restraint stress, while N/OFQ expression had significantly increased in all the hippocampal subfields examined. By contrast, in adrenalectomized rats, stress did not modify protein expression. These results confirm that stress can affect N/OFQ expression and that glucocorticoids may constitute hormonal mediators of this complex interplay.

  9. Muc5ac mucin expression during rat skin development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ferretti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some mucin genes have been detected during human embryonic and fetal organ development; however, little is known about mucin expression in epidermal development, neither in humans nor in other species. The present research was developed to explore Muc5ac skin expression during prenatal and postnatal rat development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, Western blotting (WB and RT-PCR were employed. By IHC, Muc5ac protein was found early in embryonic epidermis from day 13 of gestation until seven days after birth when the surface epidermis became negative and the reaction was restricted to secreting sebum cells. In coincidence with IHC findings, WB analysis showed a band at approximately 200KDa at the same periods of development. Results were also confirmed by RT-PCR. Muc5ac expression in rat embryonic epidermis suggests that Muc5ac may play a protective role in embryonic skin previous to birth which may be replaced by pile covering. To our knowledge, this is the first report which confirmed Muc5ac expression during skin development.Conclusion:  Muc5ac expression in rat embryonic epidermis suggests that Muc5ac may play a protective role in embryonic skin previous to birth which may be replaced by pile covering. To our knowledge, this is the first report which confirmed Muc5ac expression during skin development. 

  10. Muc5ac mucin expression during rat skin development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, V; Segal-Eiras, Á; Barbeito, C G; Croce, M V

    2015-02-20

    Some mucin genes have been detected during human embryonic and fetal organ development; however, little is known about mucin expression in epidermal development, neither in humans nor in other species. The present research was developed to explore Muc5ac skin expression during prenatal and postnatal rat development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting (WB) and RT-PCR were employed. By IHC, Muc5ac protein was found early in embryonic epidermis from day 13 of gestation until seven days after birth when the surface epidermis became negative and the reaction was restricted to secreting sebum cells. In coincidence with IHC findings, WB analysis showed a band at approximately 200KDa at the same periods of development. Results were also confirmed by RT-PCR. Muc5ac expression in rat embryonic epidermis suggests that Muc5ac may play a protective role in embryonic skin previous to birth which may be replaced by pile covering. To our knowledge, this is the first report which confirmed Muc5ac expression during skin development.   Muc5ac expression in rat embryonic epidermis suggests that Muc5ac may play a protective role in embryonic skin previous to birth which may be replaced by pile covering. To our knowledge, this is the first report which confirmed Muc5ac expression during skin development.

  11. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells expressing the Shh transgene promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yijia; Wu, Dou; Zhang, Ruiping; Shuang, Weibing; Sun, Jiping; Hao, Haihu; An, Qijun; Liu, Qiang

    2014-06-24

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most disabling diseases. Cell-based gene therapy is becoming a major focus for the treatment of SCI. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a promising stem cell type useful for repairing SCI. However, the effects of BMSCs transplants are likely limited because of low transplant survival after SCI. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a multifunctional growth factor which can facilitate neuronal and BMSCs survival, promote axonal growth, prevent activation of the astrocyte lineage, and enhance the delivery of neurotrophic factors in BMSCs. However, treatment of SCI with Shh alone also has limited effects on recovery, because the protein is cleared quickly. In this study, we investigated the use of BMSCs overexpressing the Shh transgene (Shh-BMSCs) in the treatment of rats with SCI, which could stably secrete Shh and thereby enhance the effects of BMSCs, in an attempt to combine the advantages of Shh and BMSCs and so to promote functional recovery. After Shh-BMSCs treatment of SCI via the subarachnoid, we detected significantly greater damage recovery compared with that seen in rats treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and BMSCs. Use of Shh-BMSCs increased the expression and secretion of Shh, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), improved the behavioral function, enhanced the BMSCs survival, promoted the expression level of neurofilament 200 (NF200), and reduced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Thus, our results indicated that Shh-BMSCs enhanced recovery of neurological function after SCI in rats and could be a potential valuable therapeutic intervention for SCI in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation of H9 T-cells stably expressing a membrane-bound form of the cytoplasmic tail of the Env-glycoprotein: lack of transcomplementation of defective HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env

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    Bosch Valerie

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract H9-T-cells do not support the replication of mutant HIV-1 encoding Env protein lacking its long cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (Env-CT. Here we describe the generation of a H9-T-cell population constitutively expressing the HIV-1 Env-CT protein domain anchored in the cellular membrane by it homologous membrane-spanning domain (TMD. We confirmed that the Env-TMD-CT protein was associated with cellular membranes, that its expression did not have any obvious cytotoxic effects on the cells and that it did not affect wild-type HIV-1 replication. However, as measured in both a single-round assay as well as in spreading infections, replication competence of mutant pNL-Tr712, lacking the Env-CT, was not restored in this H9 T-cell population. This means that the Env-CT per se cannot transcomplement the replication block of HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env proteins and suggests that the Env-CT likely exerts its function only in the context of the complete Env protein.

  13. Adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism rats

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    Ningning Gong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to observe adipokine expression and endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT rats and to determine whether levothyroxine (LT4 treatment affects these changes. Sixty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group; sHT A, B and C groups and the sHT + T4 group. The sHT rats were induced by methimazole (MMI and the sHT + T4 rats were administered LT4 treatment after 8 weeks of MMI administration. Thyroid function and lipid levels were measured using radioimmunoassays and enzymatic colorimetric methods, respectively. Serum adiponectin (APN, chemerin, TNF-α, endothelin (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO levels were measured using ELISA kits and a nitric-reductive assay. The expression of APN, chemerin and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured in experimental rats using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Hematoxylin–eosin (HE staining was used to observe changes in adipose tissue. The sHT rats had significantly higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, TNF-α, chemerin, ET-1, total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and lower levels of APN and NO than those in control and sHT + T4 rats. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, the levels of chemerin, TNF-α, ET-1, LDL-C, TC and triglyceride (TG were positively correlated with TSH, but APN and NO levels were negatively correlated with TSH. These findings demonstrated that high TSH levels contribute to the changes of adipokines and endothelial dysfunction in sHT, but LT4 treatment ameliorates those changes.

  14. A transgenic rat with ubiquitous expression of firefly luciferase gene

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    Hakamata, Yoji; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    In vivo imaging strategies provide cellular and molecular events in real time that helps us to understand biological processes in living animals. The development of molecular tags such as green fluorescent proteins and luciferase from the firefly Photinus pyralis has lead to a revolution in the visualization of complex biochemical processes. We developed a novel inbred transgenic rat strain containing firefly luciferase based on the transgenic (Tg) technique in rats. This Tg rat expressed the luciferase gene ubiquitously under control of the ROSA26 promoter. Cellular immune responsiveness against the luciferase protein was evaluated using conventional skin grafting and resulted in the long-term acceptance of Tg rat skin on wild-type rats. Strikingly, organ transplant with heart and small bowel demonstrated organ viability and graft survival, suggesting that cells from luciferase-Tg are transplantable to track their fate. Taking advantage of the less immunogenic luciferase, we also tested the role of hepatocyte-infusion in a liver injury model, and bone marrow-derived cells in a skin defect model. Employed in conjunction with modern advances in optical imaging, this luciferase-Tg rat system provides an innovative animal tool and a new means of facilitating biomedical research such as in the case of regeneration medicine.

  15. Prostaglandin F receptor expression in intrauterine tissues of pregnant rats

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    Kanca, Halit; Yar, Atiye Seda; Helvacioğlu, Fatma; Menevşe, Sevda; Çalgüner, Engin; Erdoğan, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we studied the expression and localization of rat prostaglandin F (FP) receptor in uterine tissues of rats on gestational Days 10, 15, 18, 20, 21, 21.5 and postpartal Days 1 and 3 using Western blotting analysis, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. A high level of immunoreactivity was observed on gestational Days 20, 21, and 21.5 with the most significant signals found on Day 20. FP receptor protein was expressed starting on gestational Day 15, and a fluctuating unsteady increase was observed until delivery. Uterine FP receptor mRNA levels were low between Days 10 and 18 of gestation (p < 0.05). The transcript level increased significantly on Day 20 and peaked on Day 21.5 just before labor (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between FP receptor mRNA expression and serum estradiol levels (rs = 0.78; p < 0.01) along with serum estradiol/progesterone ratios (rs = 0.79; p < 0.01). In summary, we observed an increase FP receptor expression in rat uterus with advancing gestation, a marked elevation of expression at term, and a concominant decrease during the postpartum period. These findings indicate a role for uterine FP receptors in the mediation of uterine contractility at term. PMID:24136214

  16. Increased renal adrenomedullin expression in rats with ureteral obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Rikke; Bødker, Tina; Jensen, Boye L

    2009-01-01

    expression of AM and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1alpha) in kidneys. Rats were exposed to bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) for 2, 6, 12, and 24 h or sham operation and compared with unilateral obstruction (UUO). AM mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR in cortex and outer medulla (C......+OM) and inner medulla (IM). AM and HIF-1alpha protein abundance and localization were determined in rats subjected to 24-h BUO. AM mRNA expression in C+OM increased significantly after 12-h BUO and further increased after 24 h. In IM, AM mRNA expression increased significantly in response to BUO for 6 h...... and further increased after 24 h. AM peptide abundance was enhanced in C+OM and IM after 24-h BUO. Immunohistochemical labeling of kidneys showed a wider distribution and more intense AM signal in 24-h BUO compared with Sham. In UUO rats, AM mRNA expression increased significantly in IM of the obstructed...

  17. Increased parathyroid expression of klotho in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Martuseviciene, Giedre; Santini, Martin A; Olgaard, Klaus; Lewin, Ewa

    2010-12-01

    Klotho is a protein of significant importance for mineral homeostasis. It helps to increase parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and in the trafficking of Na+/K+-ATPase to the cell membrane; however, it is also a cofactor for fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 to interact with its receptor, FGFR1 IIIC, resulting in decreased PTH secretion. Studies on the regulation of parathyroid klotho expression in uremia have provided varying results. To help resolve this, we measured klotho expression in the parathyroid and its response to severe uremia, hyperphosphatemia, and calcitriol treatment in the 5/6 nephrectomy rat model of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid klotho gene expression and protein were significantly increased in severely uremic hyperphosphatemic rats, but not affected by moderate uremia and normal serum phosphorus. Calcitriol suppressed klotho gene and protein expression in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, despite a further increase in plasma phosphate. Both FGFR1 IIIC and Na+/K+-ATPase gene expression were significantly elevated in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid gland klotho expression and the plasma calcium ion concentration were inversely correlated. Thus, our study suggests that klotho may act as a positive regulator of PTH expression and secretion in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  18. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  19. Colony polymerase chain reaction of stably transfected Trypanosoma cruzi grown on solid medium

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    Wagner G dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tools for the genetic manipulation of Trypanosoma cruzi are largely unavailable, although several vectors for transfection of epimastigotes and expression of foreign or recombinant genes have been developed. We have previously constructed several plasmid vectors in which recombinant genes are expressed in T. cruzi using the rRNA promoter. In this report, we demonstrate that one of these vectors can simultaneously mediate expression of neomycin phosphotransferase and green fluorescent protein when used to stably transfect cultured epimastigotes. These stably transfected epimastigotes can be selected and cloned as unique colonies on solid medium. We describe a simple colony PCR approach to the screening of these T. cruzi colonies for relevant genes. Thus, the methodologies outlined herein provide important new tools for the genetic dissection of this important parasite.

  20. Construction of rat beta defensin-2 eukaryotic expression vector and expression in the transfected rat corneal epithelial cell

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    Jing Dan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To construct a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector of rat beta defensin-2(rBD-2, transfect it into the rat corneal epithelial cells with lipofection, determine the expression of target gene in the transfected cells, and discuss the potentiality of recombinant plasmid expressed in corneal epithelial cells, hoping to provide an experimental foundation for further study on the antimicrobial activity of rBD-2 in vitro and in vivo and to assess the probability of defensins as a new application for infectious corneal diseases in the future. METHODS: The synthetic rBD-2 DNA fragment was inserted between the XhoI and BamHI restriction enzyme cutting sites of eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-ZsGreen1 to construct the recombinant plasmid pIRES2-ZsGreen1-rBD-2, then transformed it into E.coli DH5α, positive clones were screened by kanamycin and identified with restriction endonucleases and sequencing analysis. Transfection into the rat corneal epithelial cells was performed by lipofection. Then the experiment was divided into three groups: rat corneal epithelial cell was transfected with the recombinant plasmid pIRES2- ZsGreen1-rBD-2, rat corneal epithelial cell was transfected with the empty plasmid pIRES2-ZsGreen1 and the non-transfected group. The inverted fluorescence microscope was used to observe the transfection process. At last, the level of rBD-2 mRNA expressed in the transfected cells and the control groups are compared by the real-time fluoresence relative quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector of pIRES2-ZsGreen1-rBD-2 was successfully constructed. The level of rBD-2 mRNA in transfected cells was significantly higher than that in control groups through the real-time fluorescence relative quantitative PCR. CONCLUSION: The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-ZsGreen1-rBD-2 could be transfected into rat corneal epithelial cells, and exogenous rBD-2 gene could be transcripted into mRNA in

  1. Persistent human cardiac Na+ currents in stably transfected mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ging Kuo; Russell, Gabriella; Wang, Sho-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Miniature persistent late Na+ currents in cardiomyocytes have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The goals of this study are to establish a stable cell line expressing robust persistent cardiac Na+ currents and to test Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs for selective action against resting and open states. After transient transfection of an inactivation-deficient human cardiac Na+ channel clone (hNav1.5-CW with L409C/A410W double mutations), transfected mammalian HEK293 cells were treated with 1 mg/ml G-418. Individual G-418-resistant colonies were isolated using glass cylinders. One colony with high expression of persistent Na+ currents was subjected to a second colony selection. Cells from this colony remained stable in expressing robust peak Na+ currents of 996 ± 173 pA/pF at +50 mV (n = 20). Persistent late Na+ currents in these cells were clearly visible during a 4-second depolarizing pulse albeit decayed slowly. This slow decay is likely due to slow inactivation of Na+ channels and could be largely eliminated by 5 μM batrachotoxin. Peak cardiac hNav1.5-CW Na+ currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC50 value of 2.27 ± 0.08 μM (n = 6). At clinic relevant concentrations, Class 1 antiarrhythmics are much more selective in blocking persistent late Na+ currents than their peak counterparts, with a selectivity ratio ranging from 80.6 (flecainide) to 3 (disopyramide). We conclude that (1) Class 1 antiarrhythmics differ widely in their resting- vs. open-channel selectivity, and (2) stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing large persistent hNav1.5-CW Na+ currents are suitable for studying as well as screening potent open-channel blockers. PMID:23695971

  2. Prolonged morphine administration alters protein expression in the rat myocardium

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    Drastichova Zdenka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphine is used in clinical practice as a highly effective painkiller as well as the drug of choice for treatment of certain heart diseases. However, there is lack of information about its effect on protein expression in the heart. Therefore, here we aimed to identify the presumed alterations in rat myocardial protein levels after prolonged morphine treatment. Methods Morphine was administered to adult male Wistar rats in high doses (10 mg/kg per day for 10 days. Proteins from the plasma membrane- and mitochondria-enriched fractions or cytosolic proteins isolated from left ventricles were run on 2D gel electrophoresis, scanned and quantified with specific software to reveal differentially expressed proteins. Results Nine proteins were found to show markedly altered expression levels in samples from morphine-treaded rats and these proteins were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. They belong to different cell pathways including signaling, cytoprotective, and structural elements. Conclusions The present identification of several important myocardial proteins altered by prolonged morphine treatment points to global effects of this drug on heart tissue. These findings represent an initial step toward a more complex view on the action of morphine on the heart.

  3. Evaluation of the Expression of Amyloid Precursor Protein and the Ratio of Secreted Amyloid Beta 42 to Amyloid Beta 40 in SH-SY5Y Cells Stably Transfected with Wild-Type, Single-Mutant and Double-Mutant Forms of the APP Gene for the Study of Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahrudin Arrozi, Aslina; Shukri, Siti Nur Syazwani; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Ahmad Damanhuri, Mohd Hanafi; Makpol, Suzana

    2017-11-01

    Neuroblastoma cell lines such as SH-SY5Y are the most frequently utilized models in neurodegenerative research, and their use has advanced the understanding of the pathology of neurodegeneration over the past few decades. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), several pathogenic mutations have been described, all of which cause elevated levels of pathological hallmarks such as amyloid-beta (Aβ). Although the genetics of Alzheimer's disease is well known, familial AD only accounts for a small number of cases in the population, with the rest being sporadic AD, which contains no known mutations. Currently, most of the in vitro models used to study AD pathogenesis only examine the level of Aβ42 as a confirmation of successful model generation and only perform comparisons between wild-type APP and single mutants of the APP gene. Recent findings have shown that the Aβ42/40 ratio in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a better diagnostic indicator for AD patients than is Aβ42 alone and that more extensive Aβ formation, such as accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ, Aβ plaques, soluble oligomeric Aβ (oAβ), and insoluble fibrillar Aβ (fAβ) occurs in TgCRND8 mice expressing a double-mutant form (Swedish and Indiana) of APP, later leading to greater progressive impairment of the brain. In this study, we generated SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected separately with wild-type APP, the Swedish mutation of APP, and the Swedish and Indiana mutations of APP and evaluated the APP expression as well as the Aβ42/40 ratio in those cells. The double-mutant form of APP (Swedish/Indiana) expressed markedly high levels of APP protein and showed a high Aβ2/40 ratio compared to wild-type and single-mutant cells.

  4. Effects of immunosuppressive treatment on protein expression in rat kidney

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    Kędzierska K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Karolina Kędzierska,1 Katarzyna Sporniak-Tutak,2 Krzysztof Sindrewicz,2 Joanna Bober,3 Leszek Domański,1 Mirosław Parafiniuk,4 Elżbieta Urasińska,5 Andrzej Ciechanowicz,6 Maciej Domański,1 Tomasz Smektała,2 Marek Masiuk,5 Wiesław Skrzypczak,6 Małgorzata Ożgo,6 Joanna Kabat-Koperska,1 Kazimierz Ciechanowski1 1Department of Nephrology, Transplantology, and Internal Medicine, 2Department of Dental Surgery, 3Department of Medical Chemistry, 4Department of Forensic Medicine, 5Department of Pathomorphology, Pomeranian Medical University, 6Department of Physiology, Cytobiology, and Proteomics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland Abstract: The structural proteins of renal tubular epithelial cells may become a target for the toxic metabolites of immunosuppressants. These metabolites can modify the properties of the proteins, thereby affecting cell function, which is a possible explanation for the mechanism of immunosuppressive agents' toxicity. In our study, we evaluated the effect of two immunosuppressive strategies on protein expression in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Fragments of the rat kidneys were homogenized after cooling in liquid nitrogen and then dissolved in lysis buffer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined using a protein assay kit, and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The obtained gels were then stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, and their images were analyzed to evaluate differences in protein expression. Identification of selected proteins was then performed using mass spectrometry. We found that the immunosuppressive drugs used in popular regimens induce a series of changes in protein expression in target organs. The expression of proteins involved in drug, glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was pronounced. However, to a lesser extent, we also observed changes in nuclear, structural, and transport proteins' synthesis. Very slight differences

  5. Fear Expression Suppresses Medial Prefrontal Cortical Firing in Rats.

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    Thomas F Giustino

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. On Day 1, rats received either signaled or unsignaled footshocks in the recording chamber; an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS preceded signaled footshocks. Twenty-four hours later, animals were returned to the recording chamber (modified to create a novel context where they received 5 CS-alone trials. After fear conditioning, both signaled and unsignaled rats exhibited high levels of post-shock freezing that was associated with an enduring suppression of mPFC spontaneous firing, particularly in the IL of signaled rats. Twenty-four hours later, CS presentation produced differential conditioned freezing in signaled and unsignaled rats: freezing increased in rats that had received signaled shocks, but decreased in animals in the unsignaled condition (i.e., external inhibition. This group difference in CS-evoked freezing was mirrored in the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in both PL and IL. Interestingly, differences in PL and IL firing rate highly correlated with freezing levels. In other words, in the signaled group IL spontaneous rates were suppressed relative to PL, perhaps limiting IL-mediated suppression of fear and allowing PL activity to dominate performance, resulting in high levels of freezing. This was not observed in the unsignaled group, which exhibited low freezing. These data reveal that the activity of mPFC neurons is modulated by both

  6. Glycine receptor subunits expression in the developing rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Velázquez-Flores, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz Esparza-Garrido, Ruth; Salceda, Rocío

    2017-09-01

    Glycine receptor (GlyR) consists of two α (1-4) and three β subunits. Considerable evidence indicates that the adult retina expresses the four types of α subunits; however, the proportion of these subunits in adult and immature retina is almost unknown. In this report we have studied mRNA and the protein expression of GlyR subunits in the retina during postnatal rat development by Real-Time qRT-PCR and western blot. mRNA and protein expression indicated a gradual increase of the α1, α3, α4 and β GlyR subunits during postnatal ages tested. The mRNA β subunit showed higher expression levels (∼3 fold) than those observed for the α1 and α3 subunits. Very interestingly, the α2 GlyR subunit had the highest expression in the retina, even in the adult. These results revealed the expression of GlyR at early postnatal ages, supporting its role in retina development. In addition, our results indicated that the adult retina expressed a high proportion of the α2 subunit, suggesting the expression of monomeric and/or heteromeric receptors. A variety of studies are needed to further characterize the role of the specific subunits in both adult and immature retina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stem cells expanded from the human embryonic hindbrain stably retain regional specification and high neurogenic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Jignesh; Kittappa, Raja; Leto, Ketty; Gates, Monte; Borel, Melodie; Paulsen, Ole; Spitzer, Sonia; Karadottir, Ragnhildur Thora; Rossi, Ferdinando; Falk, Anna; Smith, Austin

    2013-07-24

    Stem cell lines that faithfully maintain the regional identity and developmental potency of progenitors in the human brain would create new opportunities in developmental neurobiology and provide a resource for generating specialized human neurons. However, to date, neural progenitor cultures derived from the human brain have either been short-lived or exhibit restricted, predominantly glial, differentiation capacity. Pluripotent stem cells are an alternative source, but to ascertain definitively the identity and fidelity of cell types generated solely in vitro is problematic. Here, we show that hindbrain neuroepithelial stem (hbNES) cells can be derived and massively expanded from early human embryos (week 5-7, Carnegie stage 15-17). These cell lines are propagated in adherent culture in the presence of EGF and FGF2 and retain progenitor characteristics, including SOX1 expression, formation of rosette-like structures, and high neurogenic capacity. They generate GABAergic, glutamatergic and, at lower frequency, serotonergic neurons. Importantly, hbNES cells stably maintain hindbrain specification and generate upper rhombic lip derivatives on exposure to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). When grafted into neonatal rat brain, they show potential for integration into cerebellar development and produce cerebellar granule-like cells, albeit at low frequency. hbNES cells offer a new system to study human cerebellar specification and development and to model diseases of the hindbrain. They also provide a benchmark for the production of similar long-term neuroepithelial-like stem cells (lt-NES) from pluripotent cell lines. To our knowledge, hbNES cells are the first demonstration of highly expandable neuroepithelial stem cells derived from the human embryo without genetic immortalization.

  8. Gene expression profiling in rats with depressive-like behavior

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    Yuta Yamamoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences indicate stronger phenotypes than model animals especially in behavioral studies, and some animals show unexpected behaviors in control and animal model groups. High-throughput analysis including cDNA microarray analysis are more affected by individual differences, because more samples are needed to reduce the difference in multiple factor analysis than single factor analysis such as real-time PCR. We measured the depressive-like behavior of over 100 normal rats in the forced swimming test and selected the rats for control and depression group from them to minimize the individual difference using data of force swimming test. Here, we provided the detail of methods and quality control parameters for the cDNA microarray data. This dataset can reflect the increase of depressive-like behavior. The dataset is deposited in the gene expression omnibus (GEO, series GSE63377.

  9. Gene Expression Profiling during Pregnancy in Rat Brain Tissue

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    Phyllis E. Mann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal have led to the coining of the phrases “expectant brain” and “maternal brain”. Although much is known of the hormonal changes during pregnancy, alterations in neurotransmitter gene expression have not been well-studied. We examined gene expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH during pregnancy based on the fact that this nucleus not only modulates the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy but is also involved in the development of maternal behavior. This study was designed to identify genes that are differentially expressed between mid- and late-pregnancy in order to determine which genes may be associated with the onset and display of maternal behavior and the development of the maternal brain. A commercially available PCR array containing 84 neurotransmitter receptor and regulator genes (RT2 Profiler PCR array was used. Brains were harvested from rats on days 12 and 21 of gestation, frozen, and micropunched to obtain the VMH. Total RNA was extracted, cDNA prepared, and SYBR Green qPCR was performed. In the VMH, expression of five genes were reduced on day 21 of gestation compared to day 12 (Chrna6, Drd5, Gabrr2, Prokr2, and Ppyr1 whereas Chat, Chrm5, Drd4, Gabra5, Gabrg2, LOC289606, Nmu5r2, and Npy5r expression was elevated. Five genes were chosen to be validated in an additional experiment based on their known involvement in maternal behavior onset. This experiment confirmed that gene expression for both the CCK-A receptor and the GABAAR γ2 receptor increases at the end of pregnancy. In general, these results identify genes possibly involved in the establishment of the maternal brain in rats and indicate possible new genes to be investigated.

  10. Endothelin-receptor gene-expression in rat endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Michael; Taeger, Kai

    2002-05-01

    The reduced vascular response to endothelin-1 has focused interest onto the regulation of the endothelin-receptor subtypes ET(A) and ET(B) during severe sepsis. Prospective animal trial followed by a controlled cell culture study in the laboratory of the Department of Anesthesiology. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g, aortic vascular smooth muscle cell line A7r5. Rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce severe experimental endotoxemia. ET(A)/ET(B) receptor gene expression was investigated by specific RNase protection assay, and abundance of tumor necrosis factor alpha was determined in the lung and kidney. Aortic vascular smooth muscle cells were incubated with the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma or with the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso- N-acetylpenicillamine to investigate the regulation of ET(A) receptor gene expression during severe inflammation. ET(A)/ET(B) receptor gene expression was markedly downregulated in the lung but was unchanged in the kidney during endotoxemia. ET(A) receptor gene expression was downregulated in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells by tumor necrosis factor alpha but not by interleukin 1beta, interferon gamma, or nitric oxide. In vivo there seems to be a correlation between the tissue concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and gene expression of ET(A) receptors in the lung and kidney. Our data show that sepsis causes downregulation of ET(A) receptors at the level of gene expression, and provide correlative evidence that this effect can be mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. This downregulation of ET(A) receptors possibly contributes to the attenuated vascular response to endothelin-1 in the pulmonary circulation.

  11. Furosemide stimulates macula densa cyclooxygenase-2 expression in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Birgitte; Hartner, A; Jensen, B L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During a low salt intake, maintenance of renal blood flow and renin secretion depends on intact formation of prostaglandins. In the juxtaglomerular apparatus, the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), is restricted to the macula densa and the cortical thick...... ascending limb of Henle (cTALH) cells, and is inversely regulated by dietary salt intake. This study aimed to elucidate whether the effect of NaCl on macula densa COX-2 expression is mediated by transepithelial transport of NaCl. METHODS: To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats received subcutaneous infusions...... of the loop diuretic furosemide (12 mg/day) or were fed with the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (30 mg/kg day) for seven days each. To compensate for their salt and water loss, the animals had free access to normal water and to salt water (0.9% NaCl, 0.1% KCl). COX-2 expression in kidney cortex was assessed...

  12. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumenacker, J. S.; Hyder, S. M.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC alpha(1) 10% and sGC beta(1) 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression.

  13. TRPC1 expression and distribution in rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Niu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC proteins have been identified as a family of plasma membrane calcium-permeable channels. TRPC proteins can be activated by various stimuli and act as cellular sensors in mammals. Stretch-activated ion channels (SACs have been proposed to underlie cardiac mechano-electric feedback (MEF, although the molecular entity of SAC remains unknown. There is evidence suggesting that transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1 is a stretch-activated ion channel. As a non-selective cation channel, TRPC1 may cause stretch-induced depolarization and arrhythmia and thus may contribute to the MEF of the heart. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of TRPC1 in detail at both the mRNA and protein levels in rat hearts.We isolated total RNA from the left and right atria, and the left and right ventricles, and detected TRPC1 mRNA in these tissues using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. To study the protein localization and targeting, we performed immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence labeling with the antibody against TRPC1. TRPC1 was detected in the cardiomyocytes of the ventricle and atrium at both the mRNA and protein levels. The cell membrane and Ttubule showed strong fluorescence labeling in the ventricular myocytes. Purkinje cells, the endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of the coronary arterioles also displayed TRPC1 labeling. No TRPC1 was detected in fibroblasts. In conclusion, TRPC1 is widely expressed in the rat heart, including in working cells, Purkinje cells and vascular cells, suggesting that it plays an important role in the heart. The specific distribution pattern offered a useful insight into its function in adult rat ventricular cells. Further investigations are needed to clarify the role of TRPC1 in regulating cardiac activity, including cardiac MEF.

  14. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Primo Vessel of Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Seok Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating line of evidence support that adult tissues contain a rare population of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, which differentiate into all types of cells in our body. Bonghan microcell (primo microcells (PMCs discovered in 1960s was reported to have a pluripotency like a stem cell in vivo as well as in vitro condition. Here, we describe the detailed morphology and molecular features of PMCs. PMCs reside in Bonghan duct (primo vessel (PV reported as a corresponding structure of acupuncture points and meridian system. We found that PMCs were frequently observed in the liver surface of the rat between 300 g and 400 g from April to June, suggesting that the their detection frequency depends on the weight, the season, and the organ of rat. As reported, PMCs freshly isolated from PVs were spherical ~1-2 μm microsized cells. In contrast, a unique bithread or budding-shaped PMCs emerged during tissue culture around 8 days. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PVs-derived cells express the Oct4, the most important PSCs gene, in addition to several PSCs markers (Sox2, Stella, Rex1, and Klf4. Thus, we for the first time provide the evidence about Oct4-expressing stem-like characteristics for cells resident in PVs, a possible novel stem cell enriched niche.

  15. Differential expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase in rat and human islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J S; Russel, S; Marshall, M O

    1993-01-01

    The GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD is a prominent islet cell autoantigen in type I diabetes. The two forms of GAD (GAD64 and GAD67) are encoded by different genes in both rats and humans. By in situ hybridization analysis of rat and human pancreases, expression of both genes was detected in rat isl...

  16. Tissue Specific Expression of Cre in Rat Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Dopamine Active Transporter-Positive Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyi; Brown, Andrew; Fisher, Dan; Wu, Yumei; Warren, Joe; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The rat is a preferred model system over the mouse for neurological studies, and cell type-specific Cre expression in the rat enables precise ablation of gene function in neurons of interest, which is especially valuable for neurodegenerative disease modeling and optogenetics. Yet, few such Cre rats are available. Here we report the characterization of two Cre rats, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre and dopamine active transporter (DAT or Slc6a3)-Cre, by using a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as well as a fluorescent reporter for Cre activity. We detected Cre expression in expected neurons in both Cre lines. Interestingly, we also found that in Th-Cre rats, but not DAT-Cre rats, Cre is expressed in female germ cells, allowing germline excision of the floxed allele and hence the generation of whole-body knockout rats. In summary, our data demonstrate that targeted integration of Cre cassette lead to faithful recapitulation of expression pattern of the endogenous promoter, and mRNA FISH, in addition to IHC, is an effective method for the analysis of the spatiotemporal gene expression patterns in the rat brain, alleviating the dependence on high quality antibodies that are often not available against rat proteins. The Th-Cre and the DAT-Cre rat lines express Cre in selective subsets of dopaminergic neurons and should be particularly useful for researches on Parkinson's disease.

  17. Hypoxic-induced stress protein expression in rat cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.; Geoghegan, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Mammalian stress proteins can be induced in cells and tissues exposed to a variety of conditions including hyperthermia and diminished O 2 supply. The authors have previously shown that the expression of three stress proteins (71, 85, and 95 kDa) was induced in cardiac tissue from mice exposed to hypoxic conditions. The expression of mRNAs coding for the 85 and 95 kDa proteins increase with time of exposure to hypoxia, while the mRNA coding for the 71 kDa protein is transiently induced. The authors extended these studies to investigate the expression of stress proteins in isolated rat cardiac myocytes. Freshly prepared myocytes were exposed to control, hypoxic, anoxic, or heat-shock environments for up to 16 h. The proteins were then labeled for 6 hours with [ 35 S]methionine. Analysis of the solubilized proteins by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography showed that there was a 6-fold increase in synthesis of the 85 kDa protein upon exposure to hypoxia but not heat-shock conditions. The 71 kDa protein was present at high levels in both control and treated myocyte protein preparations, and presumably had been induced during the isolation procedure. Total RNA isolated from intact rat heart and isolated myocytes was compared by cell-free translation analysis and showed induction of RNAs coding for several stress proteins in the myocyte preparation. The induced proteins at 85 and 95 kDa have molecular weights similar to reported cell stress and/or glucose-regulated proteins

  18. Analysis of the expression of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in the rat uterus during early pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Pérez, Francisco M.; Bello, A. R.; Gallardo-Castro, Manuel; Valladares, Francisco; Almeida, Teresa A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Candenas, M. Luz

    2015-01-01

    data showed that treatment of rats with a tachykinin NK3R antagonist caused a reduction of litter size. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in the rat uterus during early pregnancy. Uterine samples were obtained from early pregnant rats (Days 1-9 of pregnancy) and from nonpregnant rats during the proestrus stage of the ovarian cycle, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot studies were used to investigate t...

  19. Macrophage expression in acute radiation colitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadami, Tokuma; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Niino, Daisuke; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is important in the treatment of tumors in pelvic and abdominal region, it may cause radiation injury as a side effect. But there is no effective way of preventing or curing the damages. The mechanism of acute radiation colitis has not been elucidated yet. Our previous reports have revealed that X-ray irradiation induce apoptosis of epithelial stem cells in colon. Then a hypothesis of the radiation colitis can be put forward, DNA damage by irradiation, apoptosis of mucosal epithelial stem cells and degeneration of epithelial gland structure, macrophages phagocyte the debris, being activated and secreting various inflammatory cytokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells. Several recent reports show that macrophages may play an important role in the process of inflammatory bowel diseases such ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. We studied radiation colitis using rat animal models. Male Wister rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 22.5 Gy X-ray at laparotomy, shielding except for an approximately 2.5 cm length of rectum. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation in the rectum mucosa were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot method with the specimens which were taken on the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14th day after irradiation. Severe macrophage accumulation in the lamina propria of the rectum was observed on the 5th day. At the same time, severe destruction of mucosal structure and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed. Based on the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine producing effects of macrophage in rat and the increased expression in inflammatory bowel disease patients, speculate that intervention in the macrophage-cytokine network could form a future target for the treatment of acute radiation colitis. (author)

  20. Avoidance Expression in Rats as a Function of Signal-Shock Interval: Strain and Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Servatius

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inbred Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats express inhibited temperament, increased sensitivity to stress, and exaggerated expressions of avoidance. A long-standing observation for lever press escape/avoidance learning in rats is the duration of the warning signal (WS determines whether avoidance is expressed over escape. Outbred female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats trained with a 10-s WS efficiently escaped, but failed to exhibit avoidance; avoidance was exhibited to a high degree with WSs longer than 20-s. We examined this longstanding WS duration function and extended it to male SD and male and female WKY rats. A cross-over design with two WS durations (10 s or 60 s was employed. Rats were trained (20 trials/session in four phases: acquisition (10 sessions, extinction (10 sessions, re-acquisition (8 sessions and re-extinction (8 sessions. Consistent with the literature, female and male SD rats failed to express avoidance to an appreciable degree with a 10-s WS. When these rats were switched to a 60-s WS, performance levels in the initial session of training resembled the peak performance of rats trained with a 60-s WS. Therefore, the avoidance relationship was acquired, but not expressed at 10-s WS. Further, poor avoidance at 10-s does not adversely affect expression at 60-s. Failure to express avoidance with a 10-s WS likely reflects contrasting reinforcement value of avoidance, not a reduction in the amount of time available to respond or competing responses. In contrast, WKY rats exhibited robust avoidance with a 10-s WS, which was most apparent in female WKY rats. Exaggerated expression of avoidances by WKY rats, especially female rats, further confirms this inbred strain as a model of anxiety vulnerability.

  1. Expression of messenger molecules and receptors in rat and human sphenopalatine ganglion indicating therapeutic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinberg, Anna; Frederiksen, Simona D.; Blixt, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    were expressed in rat and human SPG. In addition, we found SV2-A and SNAP25 expression in both rat and human SPG. We report that all three 5-HT receptors studied occur in neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the SPG. 5-HT1B receptors were in addition found in the walls of intraganglionic blood...

  2. Differential expression of parvalbumin interneurons in neonatal phencyclidine treated rats and socially isolated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaalund, Sanne Simone; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian

    2013-01-01

    fractionator, we counted neurons, PV(+) interneurons, and glial cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC). In addition, we quantified the mRNA level of parvalbumin in the mPFC. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of PV(+) interneurons (p = 0.021) and glial...... cells (p = 0.024) in the mPFC of neonatal phencyclidine rats. We observed no alterations in the total number of neurons, hippocampal PV(+) interneurons, parvalbumin mRNA expression or volume of the mPFC or HPC in the two models. Thus, as the total number of neurons remains unchanged following...

  3. Gene expression profile analysis of genes in rat hippocampus from antidepressant treated rats using DNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Minkyu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular and biological mechanisms by which many antidepressants function are based on the monoamine depletion hypothesis. However, the entire cascade of mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of antidepressants has not yet been elucidated. Results We used a genome-wide microarray system containing 30,000 clones to evaluate total RNA that had been isolated from the brains of treated rats to identify the genes involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of various antidepressants, a tricyclic antidepressant (imipramine. a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (phenelzine and psychoactive herbal extracts of Nelumbinis Semen (NS. To confirm the differential expression of the identified genes, we analyzed the amount of mRNA that was isolated from the hippocampus of rats that had been treated with antidepressants by real-time RT-PCR using primers specific for selected genes of interest. These data demonstrate that antidepressants interfere with the expression of a large array of genes involved in signaling, survival and protein metabolism, suggesting that the therapeutic effect of these antidepressants is very complex. Surprisingly, unlike other antidepressants, we found that the standardized herbal medicine, Nelumbinis Semen, is free of factors that can induce neurodegenerative diseases such as caspase 8, α-synuclein, and amyloid precursor protein. In addition, the production of the inflammatory cytokine, IFNγ, was significantly decreased in rat hippocampus in response to treatment with antidepressants, while the inhibitory cytokine, TGFβ, was significantly enhanced. Conclusions These results suggest that antidepressants function by regulating neurotransmission as well as suppressing immunoreactivity in the central nervous system.

  4. Causal boundary for stably causal space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, I.

    1987-12-01

    The usual boundary constructions for space-times often yield an unsatisfactory boundary set. This problem is reviewed and a new solution is proposed. An explicit identification rule is given on the set of the ideal points of the space-time. This construction leads to a satisfactory boundary point set structure for stably causal space-times. The topological properties of the resulting causal boundary construction are examined. For the stably causal space-times each causal curve has a unique endpoint on the boundary set according to the extended Alexandrov topology. The extension of the space-time through the boundary is discussed. To describe the singularities the defined boundary sets have to be separated into two disjoint sets. (D.Gy.) 8 refs

  5. Effects of inhaled (S)-linalool on hypothalamic gene expression in rats under restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoto; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Saito-Iizumi, Kana; Kamei, Asuka; Shinozaki, Fumika; Watanabe, Yuki; Abe, Keiko; Nakamura, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Linalool has two enantiomers, (R)-linalool and (S)-linalool. Both are known to possess several biological activities in stressed animals. Our previous work revealed that inhalation of (R)-linalool altered hypothalamic gene expression in rats under stress. In the present study, we monitored hypothalamic gene expression in restrained rats with and without (S)-linalool inhalation by DNA microarray. The entire gene expression profile showed that inhalation of (S)-linalool significantly changed the expression levels of 316 hypothalamic genes in the restrained rats. The differentially expressed genes (e.g., App, Avp, Igf2, Igfbp2, Sst and Syt5) were found to relate to cell-to-cell signaling and nervous system development. These results indicate that (S)-linalool influences hypothalamic gene expression in restrained rats, and that inhalation of (S)-linalool under the stressed condition has some effects on stress-related biological responses.

  6. Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Moine, C.; Normand, E.; Guitteny, A.F.; Fouque, B.; Teoule, R.; Bloch, B. (Universite de Bordeaux II (France))

    1990-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed with brain sections from normal, control and haloperidol-treated rats to identify and map the cells expressing the D2 dopamine receptor gene. D2 receptor mRNA was detected with radioactive or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. D2 receptor mRNA was present in glandular cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe and in neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and forebrain, especially in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex. Hybridization with D2 and preproenkephalin A probes in adjacent sections, as well as combined hybridization with the two probes in the same sections, demonstrated that all detectable enkephalin neurons in the striatum contained the D2 receptor mRNA. Large neurons in caudate putamen, which were unlabeled with the preproenkephalin A probe and which may have been cholinergic, also expressed the D2 receptor gene. Haloperidol treatment (14 or 21 days) provoked an increase in mRNA content for D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A in the striatum. This suggests that the increase in D2 receptor number observed after haloperidol treatment is due to increased activity of the D2 gene. These results indicate that in the striatum, the enkephalin neurons are direct targets for dopamine liberated from mesostriatal neurons.

  7. Expression of Vesicular Nucleotide Transporter in Rat Odontoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Erina; Goto, Tetsuya; Gunjigake, Kaori; Kuroishi, Kayoko; Ueda, Masae; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyono, Takashi; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Seta, Yuji; Kitamura, Chiaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Kawamoto, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed regarding pain transmission mechanisms in tooth. However, the exact signaling mechanism from odontoblasts to pulp nerves remains to be clarified. Recently, ATP-associated pain transmission has been reported, but it is unclear whether ATP is involved in tooth pain transmission. In the present study, we focused on the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), a transporter of ATP into vesicles, and examined whether VNUT was involved in ATP release from odontoblasts. We examined the expression of VNUT in rat pulp by RT-PCR and immunostaining. ATP release from cultured odontoblast-like cells with heat stimulation was evaluated using ATP luciferase methods. VNUT was expressed in pulp tissue, and the distribution of VNUT-immunopositive vesicles was confirmed in odontoblasts. In odontoblasts, some VNUT-immunopositive vesicles were colocalized with membrane fusion proteins. Additionally P2X 3 , an ATP receptor, immunopositive axons were distributed between odontoblasts. The ATP release by thermal stimulation from odontoblast-like cells was inhibited by the addition of siRNA for VNUT. These findings suggest that cytosolic ATP is transported by VNUT and that the ATP in the vesicles is then released from odontoblasts to ATP receptors on axons. ATP vesicle transport in odontoblasts seems to be a key mechanism for signal transduction from odontoblasts to axons in the pulp

  8. SPARC is over-expressed in adipose tissues of diet-induced obese rats and causes insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Zhao, Yuyan; Yuan, Lizhi; Yi, Wei; Zhao, Rui; Yi, Qianru; Yong, Tongwu

    2014-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a secretory multifunctional matricellular glycoprotein. High circulating levels of SPARC have been reported to be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether SPARC induces insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes. Our results showed that feeding high fat diet to rats for 12 weeks significantly increased SPARC expression in adipose tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, SPARC overexpression in stably transfected 3T3-L1 cells induced insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction, as evidenced by inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose transport, lower ATP synthesis and mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mature adipocytes. Finally, overexpression of SPARC also modulated the expression levels of several inflammatory cytokines, which play important roles in insulin resistance, glucose and lipid metabolism during adipogenesis. In conclusion, our data suggest that SPARC is involved in obesity-induced adipose insulin resistance and may serve as a potential target in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Fetal Hypothyroidism on Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Expression in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Nasibeh; Jeddi, Sajad; Alipour, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH) in rats has not been elucidated thus far. The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and β-MHC isoforms. Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of α- MHC and β-MHC were measured by qPCR. Baseline LVDP (74.0 ± 3.1 vs. 92.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, p rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ±dp/dt. In the FH rats, β-MHC expression was higher (201%) and α- MHC expression was lower (47%) than control. Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of β-MHC to α- MHC ratio in the heart.

  10. Expression of Sirtuins in the Retinal Neurons of Mice, Rats, and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdou Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuins are a class of histone deacetylases (HDACs that have been shown to regulate a range of pathophysiological processes such as cellular aging, inflammation, metabolism, and cell proliferation. There are seven mammalian Sirtuins (SIRT1-7 that play important roles in stress response, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the location and function of Sirtuins in neurons are not well defined. This study assessed the retinal expression of Sirtuins in mice, rats, and humans and measured the expression of Sirtuins in aged and injured retinas. Expression of all 7 Sirtuins was confirmed by Western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis in all three species. SIRT1 is highly expressed in mouse, rat, and human retinas, whereas SIRT2-7 expression was relatively lower in human retinas. Immunofluorescence was also used to examine the expression and localization of Sirtuins in rat retinal neurons. Importantly, we demonstrate a marked reduction of SIRT1 expression in aged retinal neurons as well as retinas injured by acute ischemia-reperfusion. On the other hand, none of the other Sirtuins exhibit any significant age-related changes in expression except for SIRT5, which was significantly higher in the retinas of adults compared to both young and aged rats. Our work presents the first composite analysis of Sirtuins in the retinal neurons of mice, rats, and humans, and suggests that increasing the expression and activity of SIRT1 may be beneficial for the treatment of glaucoma and other age-related eye dysfunction.

  11. Regulation of ammonia-metabolizing enzymes expression in the liver of obese rats: differences between genetic and nutritional obesities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roig, R.; Esteve, M.; Remesar, X.; Lamers, W. H.; Arola, L.; Salvadó, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression of carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in two different models of obese rats: genetically obese rats and diet obese rats. SUBJECTS: Lean and genetically obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats were used. DESIGN: Lean animals (30-60 d old) were

  12. Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues from Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Zalesak, Selina M.; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues from rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from lung tissues after being lavaged. The Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray was used to profile global gene expression (44K). The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using various statistical tools.

  13. Enhanced insulin-like growth factor I gene expression in regenerating rat pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.E.; Rosen, K.M.; Villa-Komaroff, L.; Weir, G.C.; Bonner-Weir, S.

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA expression was studied after 90% partial pancreatectomy in the rat to determine whether IGF-I was associated with pancreatic regeneration. The level of IGF-I mRNA was maximally increased (4-fold above control value) 3 days after pancreatectomy, but thereafter gradually decreased, returning to control levels by 14 days after surgery. By in situ hybridization, IGF-I mRNA in both pancreatectomized and sham-operated rats was localized to capillary endothelial cells, indicating that this is the site of IGF-I expression in the normal rat pancreas. However, enhanced IGF-I mRNA expression was localized to focal areas of regeneration unique to pancreatectomized rats. In these areas, epithelial cells of proliferating ductules and individual connective tissue cells expressed IGF-I, suggesting that IGF-I may play an important role in the growth or differentiation of pancreatic tissue

  14. Enhanced insulin-like growth factor I gene expression in regenerating rat pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.E.; Rosen, K.M.; Villa-Komaroff, L.; Weir, G.C.; Bonner-Weir, S. (E. P. Joslin Research Laboratory, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-07-15

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA expression was studied after 90% partial pancreatectomy in the rat to determine whether IGF-I was associated with pancreatic regeneration. The level of IGF-I mRNA was maximally increased (4-fold above control value) 3 days after pancreatectomy, but thereafter gradually decreased, returning to control levels by 14 days after surgery. By in situ hybridization, IGF-I mRNA in both pancreatectomized and sham-operated rats was localized to capillary endothelial cells, indicating that this is the site of IGF-I expression in the normal rat pancreas. However, enhanced IGF-I mRNA expression was localized to focal areas of regeneration unique to pancreatectomized rats. In these areas, epithelial cells of proliferating ductules and individual connective tissue cells expressed IGF-I, suggesting that IGF-I may play an important role in the growth or differentiation of pancreatic tissue.

  15. EXPRESSION PROFILING OF FIVE RAT STRAINS REVEAL TRANSCRIPTIONAL MODES IN THE ANTIGEN PROCESSING PATHWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative gene expression profiling of rat strains with genetic predisposition to diverse cardiovascular diseases can help decode the transcriptional program that governs cellular behavior. We hypothesized that co-transcribed, intra-pathway, functionally coherent genes can be r...

  16. Pioglitazone reverses down-regulation of cardiac PPARγ expression in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Theo; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Segerer, Stephan; Lichtenwald, Margit; Law, Marilyn P.; Schaefers, Michael; Ertl, Georg; Neyses, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models. The functional role of PPARγ in the diabetic heart, however, is not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac gene expression, metabolic control, and cardiac glucose uptake in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF fa/fa) and lean ZDF rats (+/+) treated with the high affinity PPARγ agonist pioglitazone or placebo from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia as well as lower cardiac PPARγ, glucose transporter-4 and α-myosin heavy chain expression levels were detected in diabetic ZDF rats compared to lean animals. Pioglitazone increased body weight and improved metabolic control, cardiac PPARγ, glut-4, and α-MHC expression levels in diabetic ZDF rats. Cardiac [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was not detectable by micro-PET studies in untreated and pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats but was observed after administration of insulin to pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats. PPARγ agonists favorably affect cardiac gene expression in type-2 diabetic rats via activation and up-regulation of cardiac PPARγ expression whereas improvement of impaired cardiac glucose uptake in advanced type-2 diabetes requires co-administration of insulin

  17. Unique expression pattern of the three insulin receptor family members in the rat mammary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Henning; Klopfleisch, Robert; Vienberg, Sara Gry

    2011-01-01

    mammary gland. Using laser micro-dissection, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of IR (insulin receptor), IGF-1R (IGF-1 receptor), IRR (insulin receptor-related receptor), ERα (estrogen receptor alpha), ERβ (estrogen receptor beta) and PR (progesteron receptor......Supra-pharmacological doses of the insulin analog X10 (AspB10) increased the incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats in chronic toxicity studies, most likely via receptor-mediated mechanisms. However, little is known about the expression of the insulin receptor family in the rat......) in young, virgin, female Sprague-Dawley rats and compared to expression in reference organs. The mammary gland displayed the highest expression of IRR and IGF-1R. In contrast, low expression of IR transcripts was observed in the mammary gland tissue with expression of the IR-A isoform being 5-fold higher...

  18. Identification of stable and oestrus cycle-independent housekeeping genes in the rat mammary gland and other tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Henning; Ekstrøm, Claus T; Vienberg, Sara Gry

    2011-01-01

    , liver, skeletal muscle, colon and ovary samples. Expression and ranking of HKGs varied between tissues and oestrus cycle phases and several HKGs were necessary for normalization between samples. In the mammary gland samples, three HKGs (Sdha, Tbp, and Atp5b) were identified as the optimal combination...... of stably expressed genes across oestrus cycle phases. For normalization between samples from the entire panel of rat tissues, eight HKGs (Rps18, Eef1a1, B2m, Actb, Tbp, Hprt, Pgk1, and Sdha) were identified as the optimal combination. These HKGs are of general relevance for studies comparing gene......The function and development of the rat mammary gland is dependent on the oestrus cycle. Normalization of gene expression in mammary gland samples assessed by quantitative RT-PCR therefore requires housekeeping genes (HKGs) which are stably expressed during the oestrus cycle. mRNA expression of 10...

  19. Trabecular bone volume and osteoprotegerin expression in uremic rats given high calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianthavorn, Pornpimol; Ettenger, Robert B; Salusky, Isidro B; Kuizon, Beatriz D

    2010-11-01

    Calcium (Ca)-containing phosphate binders have been recommended for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in children with chronic kidney disease. To study the effects of high Ca levels on trabecular bone volume (BV) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in uremic young rats, a model of marked overcorrection of secondary hyperparathyroidism was created by providing a diet of high Ca to 5/6 nephrectomized young rats (Nx-Ca) for 4 weeks. The results of chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis, osteoclastic activity, OPG expression and BV were compared among intact rats given the control diet, intact rats given a high Ca diet and 5/6 nephrectomized rats given the control diet (Nx-Control) and the high Ca diet (Nx-Ca). Ionized Ca levels were higher and parathyroid hormone levels were lower in Nx-Ca rats than in the other groups. Final weight, final length and final tibial length of Nx-Ca rats were significantly less than those of the other groups, although the length gain did not differ among the groups. The hypertrophic zone width was markedly enlarged in Nx-Ca rats. Chondrocyte proliferation rates did not differ among the groups, whereas osteoclastic activity was decreased in Nx-Ca rats compared with the Nx-Control animals. The OPG expression and BV were increased in Nx-Ca rats compared with the Nx-Control rats. Increased BV should improve bone strength, whereas disturbance of osteoclastogenesis interferes with bone remodeling. Bone quality has yet to be determined in high Ca-fed uremic young rats.

  20. Expression and regulation of Foxa2 in the rat uterus during early pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAGAMI, Kazuki; YAMAUCHI, Nobuhiko; KUBOTA, Kaiyu; NISHIMURA, Sho; CHOWDHURY, Vishwajit Sur; YAMANAKA, Kenichi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; TABATA, Shoji; HATTORI, Masa-aki

    2014-01-01

    The forkhead box a (Foxa) protein family has been found to play important roles in mammals. Recently, the expression of Foxa2 was reported in the mouse uterus, and it was reported to be involved in regulation of implantation. However, the regulation of Foxa2 expression in the uterus is still poorly understood. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the expressional profiles of Foxa2 in the rat uterus during the estrus cycle and pregnancy. Furthermore, the effect of steroid hormones and Hedgehog protein on the expression of Foxa2 was analyzed in vivo and in vitro. In this study, the level of expression of Foxa2 was low in the rat uterus during the different stages of the estrus cycle. However, the expression increased transiently during early pregnancy at 3.5 days post coitus (dpc) and decreased at 5.5 dpc. In ovariectomized rats, P4 treatment had no effect on the expression of Foxa2 compared with the expression in control animals. Moreover, the expression of Foxa2 in cultured epithelial cells was not increased by P4 treatment in vitro. However, Foxa2 expression was significantly decreased in the rat uterus after 24 h of E2 treatment. Treatment of cells with a recombinant Hedgehog protein significantly increased the expression of Foxa2. These results suggest that the expression of Foxa2 may transiently increase just before the implantation and it may be regulated by E2 and Hedgehog protein. PMID:25262775

  1. Expression and regulation of Foxa2 in the rat uterus during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Kubota, Kaiyu; Nishimura, Sho; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi; Tabata, Shoji; Hattori, Masa-aki

    2014-01-01

    The forkhead box a (Foxa) protein family has been found to play important roles in mammals. Recently, the expression of Foxa2 was reported in the mouse uterus, and it was reported to be involved in regulation of implantation. However, the regulation of Foxa2 expression in the uterus is still poorly understood. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the expressional profiles of Foxa2 in the rat uterus during the estrus cycle and pregnancy. Furthermore, the effect of steroid hormones and Hedgehog protein on the expression of Foxa2 was analyzed in vivo and in vitro. In this study, the level of expression of Foxa2 was low in the rat uterus during the different stages of the estrus cycle. However, the expression increased transiently during early pregnancy at 3.5 days post coitus (dpc) and decreased at 5.5 dpc. In ovariectomized rats, P4 treatment had no effect on the expression of Foxa2 compared with the expression in control animals. Moreover, the expression of Foxa2 in cultured epithelial cells was not increased by P4 treatment in vitro. However, Foxa2 expression was significantly decreased in the rat uterus after 24 h of E2 treatment. Treatment of cells with a recombinant Hedgehog protein significantly increased the expression of Foxa2. These results suggest that the expression of Foxa2 may transiently increase just before the implantation and it may be regulated by E2 and Hedgehog protein.

  2. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change...... to phenotype maintenance in the mature retina and pineal gland and may facilitate 24-h changes in the pineal transcriptome....

  3. Optimal energy growth in a stably stratified shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sharath; Roy, Anubhab; Bale, Rahul; Iyer, Krithika; Govindarajan, Rama

    2018-02-01

    Transient growth of perturbations by a linear non-modal evolution is studied here in a stably stratified bounded Couette flow. The density stratification is linear. Classical inviscid stability theory states that a parallel shear flow is stable to exponentially growing disturbances if the Richardson number (Ri) is greater than 1/4 everywhere in the flow. Experiments and numerical simulations at higher Ri show however that algebraically growing disturbances can lead to transient amplification. The complexity of a stably stratified shear flow stems from its ability to combine this transient amplification with propagating internal gravity waves (IGWs). The optimal perturbations associated with maximum energy amplification are numerically obtained at intermediate Reynolds numbers. It is shown that in this wall-bounded flow, the three-dimensional optimal perturbations are oblique, unlike in unstratified flow. A partitioning of energy into kinetic and potential helps in understanding the exchange of energies and how it modifies the transient growth. We show that the apportionment between potential and kinetic energy depends, in an interesting manner, on the Richardson number, and on time, as the transient growth proceeds from an optimal perturbation. The oft-quoted stabilizing role of stratification is also probed in the non-diffusive limit in the context of disturbance energy amplification.

  4. Temporal expression of mutant LRRK2 in adult rats impairs dopamine reuptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongxia; Huang, Cao; Tong, Jianbin; Hong, Weimin C; Liu, Yong-Jian; Xia, Xu-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results from progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Most PD cases are sporadic, but some have pathogenic mutation in the individual genes. Mutation of the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2) gene is associated with familial and sporadic PD, as exemplified by G2019S substitution. While constitutive expression of mutant LRRK2 in transgenic mice fails to induce neuron death, transient expression of the disease gene by viral delivery causes a substantial loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice. To further assess LRRK2 pathogenesis, we created inducible transgenic rats expressing human LRRK2 with G2019S substitution. Temporal overexpression of LRRK2(G2019S) in adult rats impaired dopamine reuptake by dopamine transporter (DAT) and thus enhanced locomotor activity, the phenotypes that were not observed in transgenic rats constitutively expressing the gene throughout life time. Reduced DAT binding activity is an early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction in asymptomatic subjects carrying pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Our transgenic rats recapitulated the initiation process of dopaminergic dysfunction caused by pathogenic mutation in LRRK2. Inducible transgenic approach uncovered phenotypes that may be obscured by developmental compensation in constitutive transgenic rats. Finding in inducible LRRK2 transgenic rats would guide developing effective strategy in transgenic studies: Inducible expression of transgene may induce greater phenotypes than constitutive gene expression, particularly in rodents with short life time.

  5. The Expression Changes of Inflammasomes in the Aging Rat Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Ma, Yuxiang; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms of kidney aging are not yet clear. Studies have shown that immunological inflammation is related to kidney aging. Inflammasomes are important components of innate immune system in the body. However, the function of inflammasomes and their underlying mechanisms in renal aging remain unclear. In this study, for the first time, we systematically investigated the role of the inflammasomes and the inflammatory responses activated by inflammasomes during kidney aging. We found that during kidney aging, the expression levels of the molecules associated with the activation of inflammasomes, including toll-like receptor-4 and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), were significantly increased; their downstream signaling pathway molecule interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 (IRAK4) was markedly activated (Phospho-IRAK4 was obviously increased); the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway was activated (the activated NF-κB pathway molecules Phospho-IKKβ, Phospho-IκBα, and Phospho-NF-κBp65 were significantly elevated); the levels of the inflammasome components NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3), NLRC4, and pro-caspase-1 were prominently upregulated; and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 were notably increased in the kidneys of 24-month-old (elderly group) rats. These results showed that inflammasomes are markedly activated during the renal aging process and might induce inflamm-aging by promoting the maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. HeLa-LAV, an epithelial cell line stably infected with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J; Doe, B; Steimer, K S; Wabl, M

    1991-01-01

    An HeLa-LAV cell line was established by infecting and subcloning previously described CD4-expressing HeLa cells with HIV-1. Cells of this line stably synthesize all major HIV proteins, release infectious particles of HIV-1, but do not die even after long term culture. More than 90% of the cells express the envelope protein gp120 on the surface. The cells can be easily and efficiently labeled with 51chromium, and exhibit a low spontaneous release. Because they are susceptible to killing by allogeneic cytotoxic T cells (CTL) when targeted to gp120, they ought to be a useful source of target cells in any kind of HIV-specific killing assays. The cells may also help studies on HIV replication in non-lymphatic/non-monocytic cells. The HeLa-LAV cell line will be freely available from the AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program.

  7. Similarity of GATA-3 Expression between Rat and Human Mammary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Emoto, Yuko; Yuki, Michiko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2014-07-01

    The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. In particular, GATA-3 is necessary for mammary gland maturation and is a useful marker in the characterization of mammary carcinoma in humans. The expression of GATA-3 protein in normal mammary glands, fibroadenomas and carcinomas was immunohistochemically compared in female rats and humans. In normal mammary glands of rats and humans, scattered luminal cells in the acini and whole ductal epithelial cells were positive for GATA-3 in the nuclei. No positive cells were detected in rat or human fibroadenomas. In rat and human mammary carcinomas, the nuclei of proliferating luminal-derived cancer cells expressed GATA-3. Therefore, GATA-3 protein is a candidate marker for mammary carcinoma in rats as well as humans.

  8. Expression of rat class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alloantigens and hepatocytes and hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.M.; Desai, P.A.; Chakraborty, S.

    1986-01-01

    Altered expression of Class I MHC alloantigens has been reported for murine tumors, and may be associated with the tumorigenic phenotype of tumor cells. To characterize MHC Class I alloantigen expression on a chemically-induced transplantable rat hepatoma cell line, 17X, derived from a (WF x F344) F 1 rat, polyvalent anti-F344 and anti-WF rat alloantisera were first used to immunoprecipitate the rat RT1.A Class I MHC alloantigens expressed on primary (WF x F344) F 1 hepatocyptes in short-term monolayer cultures. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE of immunoprecipitates from 35 S-methionine-labeled (WF x F344) F 1 hepatocytes clearly resolved the RT1.A/sup u/ (WF) and RT1.A/sup LvI/ (F344) parental alloantigens. Identical radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation failed to detect either parental alloantigen on the 17X hepatoma cells. However, indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses demonstrated the presence of parental alloantigens on the 17X cells. Immunization of F344 rats but not of WF rats with 17X cells resulted in antibodies cytotoxic for normal (WF X F344) F 1 spleen cells in the presence of complement. These findings indicate that a combination of detection techniques will be necessary to characterize altered alloantigen expression on rat hepatoma cells

  9. Assembly of homotrimeric type XXI minicollagen by coexpression of prolyl 4-hydroxylase in stably transfected Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsiu-Chuan; Huang, Chuan-Chuan; Chen, Sung-Fang; Chou, Min-Yuan

    2005-10-21

    We established stably transfected insect cell lines containing cDNAs encoding the alpha and beta subunits of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase in both Trichoplusia ni and Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. The expression level and enzymatic activity of recombinant prolyl 4-hydroxylase produced in the Drosophila expression system were significantly higher than those produced in the T. ni system. We further characterized the involvement of prolyl 4-hydroxylase in the assembly of the three alpha chains to form trimeric type XXI minicollagen, which comprises the intact C-terminal non-collagenous (NC1) and collagenous domain (COL1), in the Drosophila system. When minicollagen XXI was stably expressed in Drosophila S2 cells alone, negligible amounts of interchain disulfide-bonded trimers were detected in the culture media. However, minicollagen XXI was secreted as disulfide-bonded homotrimers by coexpression with prolyl 4-hydroxylase in the stably transfected Drosophila S2 cells. Minicollagen XXI coexpressed with prolyl 4-hydroxylase contained sufficient amounts of hydroxyproline to form thermal stable pepsin-resistant triple helices consisting of both interchain and non-interchain disulfide-bonded trimers. These results demonstrate that a sufficient amount of active prolyl 4-hydroxylase is required for the assembly of type XXI collagen triple helices in Drosophila cells and the trimeric assembly is governed by the C-terminal collagenous domain.

  10. The effects of varying the expression of a neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase on the turnover of cholesteryl ester in rat hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, R; Glick, J M; Fisher, E A

    1993-06-25

    A neutral bile salt-dependent cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) in rat liver has been shown to be indistinguishable from the pancreatic CEH by a number of criteria (Harrison, E. H. (1988) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 963, 28-34; Zolfaghari, R., Harrison, E. H., Ross, A. C., and Fisher, E. A. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 6913-6919; Camulli, E. D., Linke, M. J., Brockman, H. L., and Hui, D. Y. (1989) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1005, 177-182). The rat hepatoma cell line Fu5AH, which lacks this particular CEH activity, was stably transfected with the cDNA of rat pancreatic CEH, and the effects on cholesterol and cholesteryl ester metabolism in clones with varying levels of CEH expression determined. In spite of significant amounts of intracellular enzyme protein demonstrated by Western blotting, in cell lysates there was a consistently low level of catalytic activity, and in cultured cells there was no evidence that CEH served as an effective intracellular cholesteryl ester hydrolase or synthase. In contrast, the catalytic activity of the secreted enzyme was relatively higher and there was a small, but significant, increase in the ability of high density lipoprotein (added to the medium) to promote the clearance of cholesteryl ester from cells secreting high levels of CEH. Overall, these results suggest that in the liver, intracellular CEH does not significantly affect the turnover of cholesteryl esters and warrant future studies focusing on the function of the secreted enzyme. For example, secreted CEH may modify lipoproteins and affect their interactions with cells.

  11. 60Co γ-irradiation enhances expression of GAP-43 mRNA in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Bingyin; Cai Wenqin; Zhang Chenggang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the expression of GAP-43 mRNA and nerve regeneration in rat brain after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy 60 Co γ-rays. The expression of GAP-43 was detected by in situ hybridization histochemistry using Dig-cRNA probe. Results: It was found that the expression of GAP-43 mRNA increased in the cerebral cortex, caudate, putamen, globus pallidum, thalamus and hypothalamus one week after 8 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation. The peak of GAP-43 mRNA expression was observed in the fourth week and then began to decrease but still remained at a higher than normal level. However, it decreased to a low level after 7 weeks. Conclusion: Enhanced expression of GAP-43 mRNA after 60 Co γ-irradiation in rat brain is associated with nerve regeneration and reconstruction of synapse

  12. Gene expression changes in rat prostate after activation or blocking of the androgen and estrogen receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Dalgaard, Majken; Holst, Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    responsive genes (complement C3, ER alpha, ER beta, AR, TRPM-2, PBPC3, ODC, and IGF-1 mRNA) was analyzed in rat ventral prostate by real time RT-PCR. Administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) to castrated testosterone-treated rats had no effect on reproductive organ weights or gene expression levels...... and the anti-estrogen, ICI 182780, only affected ODC expression. Therefore, estrogenic or anti-estrogenic compounds would not be expected to seriously affect the outcome of a Hershberger test. However, EB given alone to castrated rats resulted in various effects. EB increased seminal vesicle weight, an effect....... These data indicate that estrogens have various effects in castrated male rats and that expression of several genes is under multi-hormonal control in the ventral prostate. However, interactions between estrogens and androgens do not play a major role in the Hershberger assay, as simultaneous TP...

  13. [Effect of piperine on 5-HT and synaptophysin expression of rats with irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Juan; Wang, Ren-Ye; Xue, Ji-Xiong; Pan, Jian-Chun

    2013-12-01

    This study is to explore the amelioration of piperine on chronic acute combining stress rat with depression-like behavior, visceral sensitivity, and its effect on the expression of serotonin (5-HT) and synaptophysin. Forty two SD rats were divided into seven groups: blank group, model group, piperine (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg-1, ig) and imipramine (10 mgkg-1, ip) groups. The rat model of irritable bowel syndrome was established by chronic acute combining stress, and then to evaluate depression-like behavior and visceral sensitivity. The expressions of 5-HT and synaptophysin in the hippocampus and colon were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Western blotting, respectively. The duration of immobility of IBS rat in the forced swimming test had been significantly increased, the sucrose consumption of IBS rat had been reduced and visceral sensitivity was obviously elevated in the IBS model group as compared with those in the normal control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). As compared with those in the normal control group, the expression of 5-HT significantly decreased, 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio significantly increased in the hippocampus of IBS model group (P<0.05), but opposite presentations were noted in the colon (P<0.05). As compared with that in the normal control group, the synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus decreased significantly but obviously increased in the colon (P<0.05). Piperine improved the behavior of IBS rats, and reversed the levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA, and 5-HIAA/5-HT proportion in the hippocampus and colon (P<0.05); besides, they significantly reverse the synaptophysin level in the hippocampus and colon (P<0.05). The presence of depression and visceral sensitivity had been changed in IBS rats, with abnormal expression of 5-HT and synaptophysin in the brain-gut system. Piperine can ameliorate the changes of the behavior and regulation of serotonin and synaptophysin expression in IBS rat model.

  14. Identification and target prediction of miRNAs specifically expressed in rat neural tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Kang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation. Several studies have indicated that some miRNAs are specifically expressed in human, mouse and zebrafish tissues. For example, miR-1 and miR-133 are specifically expressed in muscles. Tissue-specific miRNAs may have particular functions. Although previous studies have reported the presence of human, mouse and zebrafish tissue-specific miRNAs, there have been no detailed reports of rat tissue-specific miRNAs. In this study, Home-made rat miRNA microarrays which established in our previous study were used to investigate rat neural tissue-specific miRNAs, and mapped their target genes in rat tissues. This study will provide information for the functional analysis of these miRNAs. Results In order to obtain as complete a picture of specific miRNA expression in rat neural tissues as possible, customized miRNA microarrays with 152 selected miRNAs from miRBase were used to detect miRNA expression in 14 rat tissues. After a general clustering analysis, 14 rat tissues could be clearly classified into neural and non-neural tissues based on the obtained expression profiles with p values Conclusion Our work provides a global view of rat neural tissue-specific miRNA profiles and a target map of miRNAs, which is expected to contribute to future investigations of miRNA regulatory mechanisms in neural systems.

  15. Hypothyroidism modulates renal antioxidant gene expression during postnatal development and maturation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Srikanta; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-08-01

    In the present study effects of 6-n-propyl thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism on renal antioxidant defence system during postnatal development (from birth to 7, 15 and 30days old) and on adult rats were reported. Hypothyroidism in rats was induced by feeding the lactating mothers (from the day of parturition till weaning, 25days old) or directly to the pups with 0.05% PTU in drinking water. The activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in 30days old hypothyroid rats with respect to their respective controls, on the other hand, levels of translated products and activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) were decreased in hypothyroid rats of all age groups as compared to their respective control rats. SOD1 activity remained unchanged in persistent (PTU-treatment from birth to 90days old) hypothyroid rats as compared to euthyroid. However, a decreased activity of SOD1 was recorded in transient (PTU-treatment from birth to 30days then withdrawal till 90days old) hypothyroid rats with respect to control rats. The mRNA level, protein expression and activity of SOD2 and CAT were significantly decreased in persistent hypothyroid rats as compared to euthyroid rats. The activity of GPx was significantly increased in both persistent and transient hypothyroid rats with respect to euthyroid rats. The present study indicates modulation of antioxidant defence status of rat kidney during postnatal development and maturation by hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of gene expression with thyroid hormone in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Feng Chen

    Full Text Available The expression of hundreds of genes is altered in response to left ventricular (LV remodeling following large transmural myocardial infarction (MI. Thyroid hormone (TH improves LV remodeling and cardiac performance after MI. However, the molecular basis is unknown.MI was produced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in female SD rats. Rats were divided into the following groups: (1 Sham MI, (2 MI, and (3 MI+T4 treatment (T4 pellet 3.3 mg, 60 days release, implanted subcutaneously immediately following MI. Four weeks after surgery, total RNA was isolated from LV non-infarcted areas for microarray analysis using the Illumina RatRef-12 Expression BeadChip Platform.Signals were detected in 13,188 genes (out of 22,523, of which the expression of 154 genes were decreased and the expression of 200 genes were increased in MI rats compared with Sham MI rats (false discovery rate (FDR <0.05. Compared to MI rats, T4 treatment decreased expression of 27 genes and increased expression of 28 genes. In particular, 6 genes down-regulated by MI and 12 genes up-regulated by MI were reversed by T4. Most of the 55 genes altered by T4 treatment are in the category of molecular function under binding (24 and biological processes which includes immune system process (9, multi-organism process (5 and biological regulation (19 nonexclusively.These results suggest that altered expression of genes for molecular function and biological process may be involved in the beneficial effects of thyroid hormone treatment following MI in rats.

  17. Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jae Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInterleukin-15 (IL-15, a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.MethodsMale Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and ZDF lean control (ZLC rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con, and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex. The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius medial muscles.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01 only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04.ConclusionThe present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.

  18. Expression of exogenetic enhanced green fluorescent protein in rat endocranium through lentivirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Qiang; Li, Li; Zhang, Zhaolong; Wu, Yina; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate whether exogenetic green fluorescent protein is able to express in the endocranium of rats, and to establish a method for further study in exogenetic gene knock-in or gene overexpression. Forty female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 in each: low and high dose groups, treated with 10% and 100% EGFP-lentivirus, respectively; negative control group, treated with virus enhancer; sham group, treated with normal saline. Seven days later, half rats' brain tissues were perfusion fixed and fresh brain tissues were obtained from the rest after euthanasia in each group. Immunohistochemical analysis, Western blotting and RT-PCR were respectively performed to detect the site where EGFP expressed and its levels. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that EGFP was successfully expressed in brain tissue of those rats infected with EGFP-lentivirus. Both Western blotting and RT-PCR showed that EGFP was expressed after treatment with EGFP-lentivirus, and the expression level increased with the dosage of the vector. Exogenetic EGFP gene can express in brain tissue of the rat, which laid a solid foundation for future studies in exogenetic gene knock in or gene overexpression.

  19. Altered gene-expression profile in rat plasma and promoted body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... among which five GO annotations and four KEGG pathways were annotated. Findings indicate that EE during pregnancy could positively promote the body and nervous system development of offspring, involving the evidence for altered gene expression profile. Keywords: Environmental enrichment, rats, gene expression ...

  20. Expression and location of α-fetoprotein during rat colon development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Dan; Sun, Peng; Du, Jun; Gu, Luo; Ge, Ying-Bin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of α-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, and its involvement during rat colon development. METHODS: Colons from Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses, young and adult (8 wk old) animals were used in this study. Expression levels of AFP in colons of different development stage were detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. To identify the cell location of AFP in the developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific cell markers and AFP, respectively. RESULTS: The highest levels of AFP mRNA were detected in colons of rats at embryonic day 18.5 (e18.5). Compared to e18.5 d, the AFP expression was significantly decreased during rat development [85% for e20.5, P colon from the embryo to the weaning stage by immunofluorescence and presents 72-kDa isoform in the developing rat colons by Western blotting. The dynamic expression of AFP in the various developmental stages of the colon indicates that AFP might be involved in many aspects of colon development. PMID:19360917

  1. Elevated BSC-1 and ROMK expression in Dahl salt-sensitive rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Kimberly M; Flasch, Averia K; Dahly-Vernon, Annette J; dos Santos, Elisabete Alcantara; Knepper, Mark A; Roman, Richard J

    2004-04-01

    This study compared the expression of enzymes and transport and channel proteins involved in the regulation of sodium reabsorption in the kidney of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant Brown-Norway (BN) and consomic rats (SS.BN13), in which chromosome 13 from the BN rat has been introgressed into the DS genetic background. The expression of the Na+/K+/2Cl- (BSC-1) cotransporter, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), and Na+-K+-ATPase proteins were similar in the renal cortex of DS, BN, and SS.BN13 rats fed either a low-salt (0.1% NaCl) or a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet. The expression of the BSC-1 and the renal outer medullary K+ channel (ROMK) were higher, whereas the expression of the cytochrome P4504A proteins responsible for the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (20-HETE) was lower in the outer medulla of the kidney of DS than in BN or SS.BN13 rats fed either a low-salt or a high-salt diet. In addition, the renal formation and excretion of 20-HETE was lower in DS than in BN and SS.BN13 rats. These results suggest that overexpression of ROMK and BSC-1 in the thick ascending limb combined with a deficiency in renal formation of 20-HETE may predispose Dahl S rats fed a high-salt diet to Na+ retention and hypertension.

  2. Metallothionein expression during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in cadmium-pretreated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeli, A.P. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Theocharis, S.E. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Yannacou, N.N. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Spiliopoulou, C. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Koutselinis, A. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece))

    1994-10-01

    Metallothionein is a low molecular mass protein inducible mainly by heavy metals, having high affinity for binding cadmium, zinc and copper. In the present study we investigated the expression of metallothionein in regenerating liver, at different time intervals, in cadmium pretreated partially hepatectomized rats. Liver metallothionein is highly expressed during regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats, providing zinc within the rapidly growing tissue. Cadmium pretreatment caused inhibition of the first peak of liver regeneration, while metallothionein expression was markedly more prominent in the liver residues of cadmium-pretreated rats. These results demonstrate that although metallothionein able to bind temporarily metal ions as zinc and cadmium has been highly expressed, the liver regenerative process was inhibited possibly due to the effects of cadmium on other pivotal events necessary to the DNA replication. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression between lentiviral and adenoviral vectors in rat mesenchymal stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, So Yeon; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Heui Ran; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chung, June Key; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative comparison of transgene expression within stem cells between lentivirus and adenovirus-mediated delivery systems has not been done. Here, we evaluated the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression in rat mesenchymal stem cell (rMSC) transduced by lentivirus or adenovirus, and compared the hNIS expression quantitatively between the two delivery systems. Lentiviral-mediated stably hNIS expressing rMSC (lenti-hNIS-rMSC) was constructed by cloning the hNIS gene into pLenti6/UbC/V5-DEST (Invitrogen) to obtain pLenti-hNIS, transducing rMSC with the pLenti-hNIS, and selecting with blasticidin for 3 weeks. Recombinant adenovirus expressing hNIS gene (Rad-hNIS) was produced by homologous recombination and Rad-hNIS transduced rMSC (adeno-hNIS-rMSC) was evaluated for the hNIS expression 48 hours post infection at MOI 1, 5, 20, 50, and 100. The hNIS expression in lenti-hNIS-rMSC or adeno-hNIS-rMSC was assessed by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and I-125 uptake. Immunocytochemistry using mono-clonal anti-hNIS antibody revealed that intensity of hNIS immunoreactivity in lenti-hNIS-rMSC was greater than that in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOl 20 but lower than that at MOl 50. Western blot analysis also showed that lenti-hNIS-rMSC was intermediate between adeno-hNIS-rMSCs at MOl 20 and 50 in hNIS expression. However in vitro I-125 uptake test demonstrated that iodide uptake in lenti-hNIS-rMSC (297046659 picomole/106 cells) was greater than that in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 100 (61682134 picomole/106 cells). These results suggest that lentivirus mediated hNIS expression is greater in terms of hNIS function but lower in terms of hNIS protein amount than adenovirus mediated hNIS expression 48 hours post infection. Stem cell tracking using hNIS as a reporter gene should be conducted in consideration of relative viral efficiency of transgene expression

  4. Reference genes for normalization: A study of rat brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Birgit; Elfving, Betina; Wegener, Gregers

    2008-01-01

    Norm software applets. Additionally, we have applied four different normalization approaches for normalization of the three target genes. We found using the NormFinder software that Ywhaz is the most stably expressed gene among the eight tested HKGs. However, the results of the analysis of the target genes...... are warranted. With the overall aim to inspect the gene expression of three target genes, NMDAR1, SORT, and CREB, in rat hippocampus, we tested a panel of eight HKGs, 18s rRNA, ActB, CycA, Gapd, Hmbs, Hprt1, Rpl13A, and Ywhaz in order to select the most stably expressed gene, using the NormFinder and ge...

  5. Differential expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase in rat and human islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J S; Russel, S; Marshall, M O

    1993-01-01

    islets, whereas only GAD64 mRNA was detected in human islets. Immunocytochemical analysis of rat and human pancreatic sections or isolated islets with antibodies to GAD64 and GAD67 in combination with antibodies to insulin, glucagon, or SRIF confirmed that a GAD64 and GAD67 expression were beta......The GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD is a prominent islet cell autoantigen in type I diabetes. The two forms of GAD (GAD64 and GAD67) are encoded by different genes in both rats and humans. By in situ hybridization analysis of rat and human pancreases, expression of both genes was detected in rat...... as observed in vivo, whereas GAD67 was localized not only to the beta-cells but also in the alpha-cells and delta-cells. A small but distinct fraction of GAD positive cells in these monolayer cultures did not accumulate GABA immunoreactivity, which may indicate cellular heterogeneity with respect to GABA...

  6. Expression of Collagen-specific Stress Protein Hsp47 in Rat Epithelial Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    櫻井, 裕子; 奥山, 典子; 玉村, 清治; 小澤, 亮; 伊東, 博司; 山崎, 章; サクライ, ユウコ; オクヤマ, ノリコ; タマムラ, キヨハル; オザワ, リョウ; イトウ, ヒロシ; ヤマサキ, アキラ; Yuuko, SAKURAI; Noriko, OKUYAMA; Kiyoharu, TAMAMURA

    2007-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was undertaken to clarify the role of collagen-specific stress protein Hsp47 in rat epithelial tissue. Basal keratinocytes of squamous epithelia including back skin epidermis and lining epithelia of oral mucosa and esophagus commonly displayed expression of Hsp47 to various extents. The most prominent expression was observed in gingival epithelium. Glomerular podocytes showed a strong expression of Hsp47. The lining epithelia of respiratory, digestive, and urinary...

  7. Modulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression and activity affects streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Marwa A M; Heeba, Gehan H; El-Sheikh, Azza A K

    2017-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has exhibited nephro-protective actions in different animal models; however, its full mechanistic potential in diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not yet been elucidated. Hence, the present study has been undertaken by inducing DN in rats using streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.), with or without either HO-1 inducer; hemin (HM; 40 μmol/kg, s.c.), or HO-1 blocker; zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP; 50 μmol/kg, i.p.), for one month. Compared to control, rats with DN suffered from hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, with signs of renal damage, as assessed by distortion in renal histopathologic architecture and kidney function. Renal oxidative/nitrosative stress was evident by increased malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase, with decreased reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. DN group also exhibited high renal expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine; tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and the apoptotic marker; caspase 3, assessed by Western blot. Renal HO-1 protein expression and activity were increased in DN rats compared to control. Administration of HM, but not ZnPP, to DN rats improved kidney function, histopathologic features, lipid profile, TNF-α, and caspase 3 expressions, with no effect on blood glucose level. HM increased, while ZnPP decreased renal HO-1 activity in DN rats. It is noteworthy that neither intervention affected HO-1 activity or renal oxidative capacity in non-diabetic rats. Interestingly, the expression of HO-1 was upregulated by both HM and ZnPP in DN rats. In conclusion, activation of HO-1 via HM ameliorated renal damage in STZ-induced DN in rats, probably through antioxidant, anti-nitrosative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. Effect of Fetal Hypothyroidism on Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Expression in Male Rats

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    Nasibeh Yousefzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH in rats has not been elucidated thus far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of α-myosin heavy chain (MHC and β-MHC isoforms. Methods: Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of α- MHC and β-MHC were measured by qPCR. Results: Baseline LVDP (74.0 ± 3.1 vs. 92.5 ± 3.2 mmHg, p < 0.05 and heart rate (217 ± 11 vs. 273 ± 6 beat/min, p < 0.05 were lower in the FH rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ±dp/dt. In the FH rats, β-MHC expression was higher (201% and α- MHC expression was lower (47% than control. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of β-MHC to α- MHC ratio in the heart.

  9. Gene expression changes in Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 after inoculation in rat oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Qian; Pan, Chun-Ling; Liu, Jun-Chao; Wang, Hong-Yan; Tan, Li-Si; Pan, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of chronic periodontitis was due to not only periodontal pathogens, but also the interaction between periodontal pathogens and host. The aim of this study is to investigate the alterations in gene expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) W83 after inoculation in rat oral cavity. Results P.gingivalis W83 inoculation in rat oral cavity caused inflammatory responses in gingival tissues and destroyed host alveolar bone. Microarray analysis revealed that 42 ...

  10. Expression Profile of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in Rats with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Ray Hsu; Shu-Wen Chang; Chang-Hao Yang; Yi-An Lee; Tzu-Yun Kao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The transcellular arginine transportation via cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) is the rate-limiting step in nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, which is crucial in intraocular inflammation. In this study, CAT isoforms and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was investigated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Methods. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. In the treatment group, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with the proteasome in...

  11. Thymoquinone Defeats Diabetes-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats Targeting Antioxidant, Inflammatory and Aromatase Expression

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    Mustafa S. Atta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have valuable effects on the process of spermatogenesis, particularly with diabetes mellitus (DM. Therefore, the present study investigated the impact and the intracellular mechanisms by which thymoquinone (TQ works against diabetes-induced testicular deteriorations in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 60 were randomly allocated into four groups; Control, Diabetic (streptozotocin (STZ-treated rats where diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ, 65 mg/kg, Diabetic + TQ (diabetic rats treated with TQ (50 mg/kg orally once daily, and TQ (non-diabetic rats treated with TQ for 12 weeks. Results revealed that TQ significantly improved the sperm parameters with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in testicular tissue. Also, it increased testicular reduced glutathione (GSH levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Interestingly, TQ induced downregulation of testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB and significantly upregulated the aromatase protein expression levels in testicles in comparison with the diabetic rats. In conclusion, TQ treatment exerted a protective effect against reproductive dysfunction induced by diabetes not only through its powerful antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects but also through its downregulation of testicular iNOS and NF-κB along with upregulation of aromatase expression levels in diabetic rats.

  12. Liver myofibroblasts of murine origins express mesothelin: Identification of novel rat mesothelin splice variants.

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    Michel Fausther

    Full Text Available Liver myofibroblasts are specialized effector cells that drive hepatic fibrosis, a hallmark process of chronic liver diseases, leading to progressive scar formation and organ failure. Liver myofibroblasts are increasingly recognized as heterogeneous with regards to their origin, phenotype, and functions. For instance, liver myofibroblasts express cell markers that are universally represented such as, ItgαV and Pdgfrβ, or restricted to a given subpopulation such as, Lrat exclusively expressed in hepatic stellate cells, and Gpm6a in mesothelial cells. To study liver myofibroblasts in vitro, we have previously generated and characterized a SV40-immortalized polyclonal rat activated portal fibroblast cell line called RGF-N2 expressing multiple mesothelin mRNA transcripts. Mesothelin, a cell-surface molecule expressed in normal mesothelial cells and overexpressed in several cancers such as, mesothelioma and cholangiocarcinoma, was recently identified as a key regulator of portal myofibroblast proliferation, and fibrosis progression in the setting of chronic cholestatic liver disease. Here, we identify novel mesothelin splice variants expressed in rat activated portal fibroblasts. RGF-N2 portal fibroblast cDNA was used as template for insertion of hemagglutinin tag consensus sequence into the complete open reading frame of rat mesothelin variant coding sequences by extension PCR. Purified amplicons were subsequently cloned into an expression vector for in vitro translation and transfection in monkey COS7 fibroblasts, before characterization of fusion proteins by immunoblot and immunofluorescence. We show that rat activated portal fibroblasts, hepatic stellate cells, and cholangiocarcinoma cells express wild-type mesothelin and additional splice variants, while mouse activated hepatic stellate cells appear to only express wild-type mesothelin. Notably, rat mesothelin splice variants differ from the wild-type isoform by their protein properties and

  13. Enhanced neuroinflammation and pain hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury in rats expressing mutated superoxide dismutase 1

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    Lavand'homme Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation and nitroxidative stress are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. In view of both processes, microglial and astroglial activation in the spinal dorsal horn play a predominant role. The present study investigated the severity of neuropathic pain and the degree of glial activation in an inflammatory- and nitroxidative-prone animal model. Methods Transgenic rats expressing mutated superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1G93A are classically used as a model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Because of the associated inflammatory- and nitroxidative-prone properties, this model was used to study thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity following partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL. Next to pain hypersensitivity assessment, microglial and astroglial activation states were moreover characterized, as well as inflammatory marker gene expression and the glutamate clearance system. Results PSNL induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in both wild-type (WT and transgenic rats. However, the degree of thermal hypersensitivity was found to be exacerbated in transgenic rats while mechanical hypersensitivity was only slightly and not significantly increased. Microglial Iba1 expression was found to be increased in the ipsilateral dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord after PSNL but such Iba1 up-regulation was enhanced in transgenic rats as compared WT rats, both at 3 days and at 21 days after injury. Moreover, mRNA levels of Nox2, a key enzyme in microglial activation, but also of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-1β and TLR4 were not modified in WT ligated rats at 21 days after PSNL as compared to WT sham group while transgenic ligated rats showed up-regulated gene expression of these 3 targets. On the other hand, the PSNL-induced increase in GFAP immunoreactivity spreading that was evidenced in WT rats was unexpectedly found to be attenuated in transgenic ligated rats. Finally, GLT-1 gene expression and

  14. Analysis of the Expression of Tachykinins and Tachykinin Receptors in the Rat Uterus During Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Francisco M; Bello, Aixa R; Gallardo-Castro, Manuel; Valladares, Francisco; Almeida, Teresa A; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Candenas, Luz

    2015-08-01

    The peptides of the tachykinin family participate in the regulation of reproductive function acting at both central and peripheral levels. Our previous data showed that treatment of rats with a tachykinin NK3R antagonist caused a reduction of litter size. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in the rat uterus during early pregnancy. Uterine samples were obtained from early pregnant rats (Days 1-9 of pregnancy) and from nonpregnant rats during the proestrus stage of the ovarian cycle, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot studies were used to investigate the pattern of expression of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors. We found that all tachykinins and tachykinin receptors were locally synthesized in the uterus of early pregnant rats. The expression of substance P, neurokinin B, and the tachykinin receptors NK1R and NK3R mRNAs and proteins underwent major changes during the days around implantation and they were widely distributed in implantation sites, being particularly abundant in decidual cells. These findings support the involvement of the tachykinin system in the series of uterine events that occur around embryo implantation in the rat. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Spatial and temporal differences of HMGB1 expression in the pancreas of rats with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Can; Huang, Lihua; Li, Xia; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal differences in expression between HMGB1 and early-stage inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) in pancreas tissue in rats with acute pancreatitis. SD rats (BW 350 ± 30 g, n = 48) were randomly divided into the experimental group (n = 36) which were injected with 5% sodium taurocholate into the bilipancreatic duct retrogradely to produce acute necrotic pancreatitis (ANP) rat models, and the sham-operated (SO) group (n = 12) injected with equal dose of saline. The rats were sacrificed at different time points at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h post modeling, respectively. The peripheral blood amylase and different inflammatory factors in ANP rats at different time points were detected by ELISA, and the expression of HMGB1 in the pancreatic tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and Q-PCR methods. Results showed that the serum amylase in the ANP model rats was significantly higher than the sham-operated group (P pancreatitis tissue did not change significantly at 3 h and 6 h (P > 0.05), however, it increased remarkably at 12 h, and maintained up to 24 h (P > 0.05). As a late inflammatory factor, the expression of HMGB1 in acute pancreatitis was obviously later than the early inflammatory factors IL-1, TNF-α and IL-6. HMGB1 may play a key role in maintaining the development of the acute pancreatitis.

  16. Plasma cytokine expression after lower-limb compression in rats

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    Mauricio Wanderley Moral Sgarbi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Muscle injury due to crushing (muscle compression injury is associated with systemic manifestations known as crush syndrome. A systemic inflammatory reaction may also be triggered by isolated muscle injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma levels of interleukins (IL 1, 6 and 10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, which are markers for possible systemic inflammatory reactions, after isolated muscle injury resulting from lower-limb compression in rats.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to 1 h of compression of their lower limbs by means of a rubber band. The plasma levels of IL 1, 6 and 10 and TNF-α were measured 1, 2 and 4 h after the rats were released from compression.RESULTS: The plasma levels of IL 10 decreased in relation to those of the other groups, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05. The method used did not detect the presence of IL 1, IL 6 or TNF-α.CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the changes in plasma levels of IL 10 that were found may have been a sign of the presence of circulating interleukins in this model of lower-limb compression in rats.

  17. Gene expression changes induced by the tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid riddelliine in liver of Big Blue rats

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    Fuscoe James C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are probably the most common plant constituents that poison livestock, wildlife, and humans worldwide. Riddelliine is isolated from plants grown in the western United States and is a prototype of genotoxic PAs. Riddelliine was used to investigate the genotoxic effects of PAs via analysis of gene expression in the target tissue of rats in this study. Previously we observed that the mutant frequency in the liver of rats gavaged with riddelliine was 3-fold higher than that in the control group. Molecular analysis of the mutants indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutational spectra from riddelliine-treated and control rats. Results Riddelliine-induced gene expression profiles in livers of Big Blue transgenic rats were determined. The female rats were gavaged with riddelliine at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight 5 days a week for 12 weeks. Rat whole genome microarray was used to perform genome-wide gene expression studies. When a cutoff value of a two-fold change and a P-value less than 0.01 were used as gene selection criteria, 919 genes were identified as differentially expressed in riddelliine-treated rats compared to the control animals. By analysis with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Network, we found that these significantly changed genes were mainly involved in cancer, cell death, tissue development, cellular movement, tissue morphology, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and cellular growth and proliferation. We further analyzed the genes involved in metabolism, injury of endothelial cells, liver abnormalities, and cancer development in detail. Conclusion The alterations in gene expression were directly related to the pathological outcomes reported previously. These results provided further insight into the mechanisms involved in toxicity and carcinogenesis after exposure to riddelliine, and permitted us to investigate the interaction of gene products

  18. Gene expression changes induced by the tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid riddelliine in liver of Big Blue rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Liu, Ruqing; Fuscoe, James C; Chen, Tao

    2007-01-01

    Background Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are probably the most common plant constituents that poison livestock, wildlife, and humans worldwide. Riddelliine is isolated from plants grown in the western United States and is a prototype of genotoxic PAs. Riddelliine was used to investigate the genotoxic effects of PAs via analysis of gene expression in the target tissue of rats in this study. Previously we observed that the mutant frequency in the liver of rats gavaged with riddelliine was 3-fold higher than that in the control group. Molecular analysis of the mutants indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutational spectra from riddelliine-treated and control rats. Results Riddelliine-induced gene expression profiles in livers of Big Blue transgenic rats were determined. The female rats were gavaged with riddelliine at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight 5 days a week for 12 weeks. Rat whole genome microarray was used to perform genome-wide gene expression studies. When a cutoff value of a two-fold change and a P-value less than 0.01 were used as gene selection criteria, 919 genes were identified as differentially expressed in riddelliine-treated rats compared to the control animals. By analysis with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Network, we found that these significantly changed genes were mainly involved in cancer, cell death, tissue development, cellular movement, tissue morphology, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and cellular growth and proliferation. We further analyzed the genes involved in metabolism, injury of endothelial cells, liver abnormalities, and cancer development in detail. Conclusion The alterations in gene expression were directly related to the pathological outcomes reported previously. These results provided further insight into the mechanisms involved in toxicity and carcinogenesis after exposure to riddelliine, and permitted us to investigate the interaction of gene products inside the signaling networks

  19. Prebiotic and Synbiotic Modifications of Beta Oxidation and Lipogenic Gene Expression after Experimental Hypercholesterolemia in Rat Liver

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    Claudia C. Alves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by the presence of fat in hepatocytes because of decreased β-oxidation and increased lipogenesis. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotic have modulatory effects on intestinal microbiota and may influence the gut-liver axis. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of prebiotic, probiotics, and synbiotic on liver histopathology and gene expression related to β-oxidation and lipogenesis after hypercholesterolemia.Methods: Wistar male adult rats (n = 40 were submitted to hypercholesterolemic conditions (HPC (60 days. On Day 30 of HPC, rats were subdivided in 5 groups: negative control (NC: without HPC + Gv (distilled water; positive control (PC: with HPC + Gv (distilled water; prebiotic (PRE: HPC + Gv with prebiotic (Fiber FOS®; probiotic (PRO: HPC + Gv with probiotic strains Gv (Probiatop®; and synbiotic (SYN: HPC + Gv with synbiotic (Simbioflora®. All rats were sacrificed on Day 30 post-treatment. Blood was collected to verify total serum cholesterol, and liver tissue was sampled to verify histopathological changes and gene expression. Gene expression related to ß-oxidation (PPAR-α and CPT-1 and lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS and ME was evaluated in liver tissue using RT-qPCR.Results: PC had higher cholesterol levels when compared to NC. PRE and SYN rats had lower cholesterol levels than PC. PC rats showed more histopathological changes than NC rats; PRE and SYN rats showed fewer alterations than PC rats. PPAR-α was expressed at higher levels in SYN and PC rats compared with PRE and PRO rats. CPT-1 expression was similar in all groups. SREBP-1c was expressed at higher levels in PC rats compared with NC rats; levels were lower in SYN rats compared with PRO rats; levels were lower in PRE rats compared with PC and PRO rats. FAS was expressed at lower levels in PRE rats compared with SYN rats. ME expression was lower in PC rats compared with NC rats.Conclusion: Prebiotic and

  20. Ketamine induces brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression via phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 5 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Min Hyeop; Kim, Yong-Seok; Son, Hyeon

    2017-08-05

    Ketamine shows promise as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of depression. The increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine, but the mechanism of BDNF induction is not well understood. In the current study, we demonstrate that the treatment of rats with ketamine results in the dose-dependent rapid upregulation of Bdnf promoter IV activity and expression of Bdnf exon IV mRNAs in rat hippocampal neurons. Transfection of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) into rat hippocampal neurons similarly induces Bdnf mRNA expression in response to ketamine, whereas transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259 and Ser498 replaced by Ala259 and Ala498), results in the suppression of ketamine-mediated BDNF promoter IV transcriptional activity. Viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 induces Bdnf mRNA and protein expression, and blocks the enhancing effects of ketamine on BDNF expression in both unstressed and stressed rats, and thereby providing evidence for the role of HDAC5 in the regulation of Bdnf expression. Taken together, our findings implicate HDAC5 in the ketamine-induced transcriptional regulation of Bdnf, and suggest that the phosphorylation of HDAC5 regulates the therapeutic actions of ketamine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain SERT Expression of Male Rats Is Reduced by Aging and Increased by Testosterone Restitution

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    José Jaime Herrera-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In preclinical and clinical studies aging has been associated with a deteriorated response to antidepressant treatment. We hypothesize that such impairment is explained by an age-related decrease in brain serotonin transporter (SERT expression associated with low testosterone (T levels. The objectives of this study were to establish (1 if brain SERT expression is reduced by aging and (2 if the SERT expression in middle-aged rats is increased by T-restitution. Intact young rats (3–5 months and gonad-intact middle-aged rats with or without T-restitution were used. The identification of the brain SERT expression was done by immunofluorescence in prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, hippocampus, and raphe nuclei. An age-dependent reduction of SERT expression was observed in all brain regions examined, while T-restitution recovered the SERT expression only in the dorsal raphe of middle-aged rats. This last action seems relevant since dorsal raphe plays an important role in the antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. All data suggest that this mechanism accounts for the T-replacement usefulness to improve the response to antidepressants in the aged population.

  2. Positive emotion-specific changes in the gene expression profile of tickled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Miyo; Hayashi, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Sakamoto, Shigeko; Urayama, Osamu; Murakami, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression after tactile stimulation (tickling) accompanied by positive emotion in the adolescent rat brain. We observed a positive emotional response (50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations) after tickling using a modified version of the Panksepp method, and then comprehensively compared gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of the tickled rats and control rats using the microarray technique. After 4 weeks of stimulation, the expression levels of 321 of the 41,012 genes (including transcripts) were changed; 136 genes were up-regulated (>1.5-fold) and 185 were down-regulated (>0.67-fold) in the tickled rat group. Upon ontology analysis, the up-regulated genes were assigned to the following Gene Ontology (GO) terms: feeding behavior, neuropeptide signaling pathway, biogenic amine biosynthesis and catecholamine biosynthesis. Down-regulated genes were not assigned to any GO term categorized as a biological process. In conclusion, repeated tickling stimulation with positive emotion affected neuronal circuitry directly and/or indirectly, and altered the expression of genes related to the regulation of feeding in the adolescent rat hypothalamus.

  3. Effects of Synergistic Massage and Physical Exercise on the Expression of Angiogenic Markers in Rat Tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Andrzejewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise and massage are regarded as key factors in regulating tendon structure. However, information on the mechanism through which massage influences the structure and biology of a tendon is scarce. In this study, we attempted to define the impact of these two activities on rat tendons by using morphological and molecular techniques, determining the expression of VEGF-A, FGF-2, and CD34 in the tendons of rats subjected to 10 weeks of physical exercise (running with massage of varied duration. The group of rats that was trained and massaged during the entire study was characterized by the highest expression of these markers, compared to the rats subjected to massage before training and to the control group subjected to physical exercises only. The greatest significant differences, compared to the control, were noted in the expression of all the studied markers at mRNA level, and in the case of VEGF-A, at protein level, in the third and fifth weeks of the experiment. The results of this study could point to the synergistic impact of simultaneous massage and physical exercise on the expression of angiogenesis markers in rat tendons.

  4. Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors in the Retinas of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports show that ER stress plays an important role in diabetic retinopathy (DR, but ER stress is a complicated process involving a network of signaling pathways and hundreds of factors, What factors involved in DR are not yet understood. We selected 89 ER stress factors from more than 200, A rat diabetes model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. The expression of 89 ER stress-related factors was found in the retinas of diabetic rats, at both 1- and 3-months after development of diabetes, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays. There were significant changes in expression levels of 13 and 12 ER stress-related factors in the diabetic rat retinas in the first and third month after the development of diabetes, Based on the array results, homocysteine- inducible, endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1(HERP, and synoviolin(HRD1 were studied further by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses showed that the expression of HERP was reduced in the retinas of diabetic rats in first and third month. The expression of Hrd1 did not change significantly in the retinas of diabetic rats in the first month but was reduced in the third month.

  5. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases.

  6. Stably Doped Conducting Polymer Nanoshells by Surface Initiated Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Yoon, Soon Joon; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Tai, Wanyi; O'Donnell, Matthew; Gao, Xiaohu

    2015-12-09

    Despite broad applications ranging from electronics to biomedical sensing and imaging, a long-standing problem of conducting polymers is the poor resistance to dedoping, which directly affects their signature electrical and optical properties. This problem is particularly significant for biomedical uses because of fast leaching of dopant ions in physiological environments. Here, we describe a new approach to engineer multimodal core-shell nanoparticles with a stably doped conductive polymer shell in biological environments. It was achieved by making a densely packed polymer brush rather than changing its molecular structure. Polyaniline (PANI) was used as a model compound due to its concentrated near-infrared (NIR) absorption. It was grafted onto a magnetic nanoparticle via a polydopamine intermediate layer. Remarkably, at pH 7 its conductivity is ca. 2000× higher than conventional PANI nanoshells. Similarly, its NIR absorption is enhanced by 2 orders of magnitude, ideal for photothermal imaging and therapy. Another surprising finding is its nonfouling property, even outperforming polyethylene glycol. This platform technology is also expected to open exciting opportunities in engineering stable conductive materials for electronics, imaging, and sensing.

  7. Neurochemical phenotype of cytoglobin‑expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2014-01-01

    structure being an important target in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Using triple immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that nearly all the parvalbumin- and heme oxygenase 1-positive neurons co-express Cygb and to a large extent, these neuron populations are distinct from the population...... in a subpopulation of brain neurons. Recently, it has been shown that stress upregulates Cygb expression in the brain and the majority of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive neurons, an enzyme that produces NO, co-express Cygb. However, there are more neurons expressing Cygb than nNOS, thus a large number...... of Cygb neurons remain uncharacterized by the neurochemical content. The aim of the present study was to provide an additional and more detailed neurochemical phenotype of Cygb-expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus. The rat hippocampus was chosen due to the abundance of Cygb, as well as this limbic...

  8. Localization and regulation of dopamine receptor D4 expression in the adult and developing rat retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitten, Laura L; Rath, Martin F; Coon, Steven L

    2008-01-01

    Levels of dopamine and melatonin exhibit diurnal rhythms in the rat retina. Dopamine is high during daytime adapting the retina to light, whereas melatonin is high during nighttime participating in the adaptation of the retina to low light intensities. Dopamine inhibits the synthesis of melatonin...... in the photoreceptors via Drd4 receptors located on the cell membrane of these cells. In this study, we show by semiquantitative in situ hybridization a prominent day/night variation in Drd4 expression in the retina of the Sprague-Dawley rat with a peak during the nighttime. Drd4 expression is seen in all retinal...

  9. Cloning and expression of a rat brain. alpha. sub 2B -adrenergic receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flordellis, C.S.; Handy, D.E.; Bresnahan, M.R.; Zannis, V.I.; Gavras, H. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone (RB{alpha}{sub 2B}) and its homologous gene (GR{alpha}{sub 2B}) encoding an {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype by screening a rat brain cDNA and a rat genomic library. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that both clones code for a protein of 458 amino acids, which is 87% homologous to the human kidney glycosylated adrenergic receptor ({alpha}{sub 2}-C4) and divergent from the rat kidney nonglycosylated {alpha}{sub 2B} subtype (RNG{alpha}{sub 2}). Transient expression of RB{alpha}{sub 2B} in COS-7 cells resulted in high-affinity saturable binding for ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine and a high receptor number in the membranes of transfected COS-7 cells. Pharmacological analysis demonstrated that the expressed receptor bound adrenergic ligands with the following order of potency: rauwolscine {gt} yohimbine {gt} prazosin {gt} oxymetazoline, with a prazosin-to-oxymetazoline K{sub i} ratio of 0.34. This profile is characteristic of the {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype. Blotting analysis of rat brain mRNA gave one major and two minor mRNA species, and hybridization with strand-specific probes showed that both DNA strands of GR{alpha}{sub 2B} may be transcriptionally active. These findings show that rat brain expresses an {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype that is structurally different from the rat kidney nonglycosylated {alpha}{sub 2B} subtype. Thus the rat expresses at least two divergent {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptors.

  10. Induction of Ski protein expression upon luteinization in rat granulosa cells without a change in its mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2012-01-01

    The Ski protein is implicated in the proliferation/differentiation of a variety of cells. We previously reported that the Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. However, granulosa cells cannot only undergo apoptosis but can alternatively differentiate into luteal cells. It is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the localization of the Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinization to examine if Ski might play a role in this process. In order to examine the Ski protein expression during the progression of luteinization, follicular growth was induced in immature female rats by administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadotropin treatment to mimic the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in the preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to the LH surge and was maintained after formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Although the Ski protein is absent from the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-ski) was expressed, and the level of c-ski mRNA was unchanged even after the LH surge. The combined results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggested that its expression is regulated posttranscriptionally.

  11. Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease Demonstrate Distinctive Pulmonary Gene Expressions for Vascular Response Genes: Impact of Ozone Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative gene expression profiling of multiple tissues from rat strains with genetic predisposition to diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVD) can help decode the transcriptional program that governs organ-specific functions. We examined expressions of CVD genes in the lungs of ...

  12. Selective Loss of Podoplanin Protein Expression Accompanies Proteinuria and Precedes Alterations in Podocyte Morphology in a Spontaneous Proteinuric Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Klaas; Eikmans, Michael; Wehland, Markus; Baelde, Hans; Ijpelaar, Daphne; Kreutz, Reinhold; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; de Heer, Emile; Bruijn, Jan Anthonie

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate changes during the development of proteinuria, podocyte morphology and protein expression were evaluated in spontaneously proteinuric, Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) rats. Dahl SS rats on a low-salt diet were compared with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at age 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks. Blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, urinary albumin excretion, and podocyte morphology were evaluated. In addition, the expression of 11 podocyte-related proteins was determined by analyzing protein and mRNA levels. In Dahl SS rats, proteinuria became evident around week 5, increasing thereafter. SHR rats remained non-proteinuric. Dahl SS rats showed widespread foot process effacement at 10 weeks. At ≤8 weeks, expression and distribution of the podocyte proteins was similar between the two strains, except for the protein podoplanin. At 4 weeks, podoplanin began decreasing in the glomeruli of Dahl SS rats in a focal and segmental fashion. Podoplanin loss increased progressively and correlated with albuminuria (r = 0.8, P < 0.001). Double labeling experiments revealed increased expression of the podocyte stress marker desmin in glomerular areas where podoplanin was lost. Dahl SS rats did not show podoplanin gene mutations or decreased mRNA expression. Thus, podocyte morphology and the expression and distribution of most podocyte-specific proteins were normal in young Dahl SS rats, despite marked proteinuria. Our study suggests that decreased expression of podoplanin plays a role in the decrease of glomerular permselectivity. PMID:18599604

  13. Jinwei Tang modulates HDAC2 expression in a rat model of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianjun; Li, Xin; Qin, Yang; Cheng, Juan; Hao, Gaimei; Jin, Ruifeng; Zhu, Chenjun

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM), named Jinwei Tang on histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and its role in the regulation of corticosteroid resistance in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (each n=10): COPD group, established by the intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide and passive smoke exposure, and control, budesonide, theophylline + budesonide and Jinwei Tang + budesonide groups. Lung function was measured, lung tissue histopathology was examined and HDAC2 expression in the lung was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, protein levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and HDAC2 in lung homogenate were quantified by ELISA. The rat COPD model exhibited alterations of the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.2 sec (FEV 0.2 ) to the forced vital capacity, FEV 0.2 , dynamic compliance and airway resistance. HDAC2 expression was markedly reduced in the lung tissue of the COPD group compared with the control group, and treatment with Jinwei Tang + budesonide or theophylline + budesonide resulted in significant attenuation of the reduction of HDAC2 expression in the lungs (PTang + budesonide and theophylline + budesonide groups, IL-8 and TNF-α expression was significantly decreased (PTang modulates airway inflammation and may enhance the anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoid through the upregulation of HADC2 expression in a rat model of COPD.

  14. Gene expression profiling in rat kidney after intratracheal exposure to cadmium-doped nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccini, Teresa; Roda, Elisa; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura; Manzo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    While nephrotoxicity of cadmium is well documented, very limited information exists on renal effects of exposure to cadmium-containing nanomaterials. In this work, “omics” methodologies have been used to assess the action of cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs) in the kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intratracheally. Groups of animals received a single dose of Cd-SiNPs (1 mg/rat), CdCl 2 (400 μg/rat) or 0.1 ml saline (control). Renal gene expression was evaluated 7 and 30 days post exposure by DNA microarray technology using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K. Gene modulating effects were observed in kidney at both time periods after treatment with Cd-SiNPs. The number of differentially expressed genes being 139 and 153 at the post exposure days 7 and 30, respectively. Renal gene expression changes were also observed in the kidney of CdCl 2 -treated rats with a total of 253 and 70 probes modulated at 7 and 30 days, respectively. Analysis of renal gene expression profiles at day 7 indicated in both Cd-SiNP and CdCl 2 groups downregulation of several cluster genes linked to immune function, oxidative stress, and inflammation processes. Differing from day 7, the majority of cluster gene categories modified by nanoparticles in kidney 30 days after dosing were genes implicated in cell regulation and apoptosis. Modest renal gene expression changes were observed at day 30 in rats treated with CdCl 2 . These results indicate that kidney may be a susceptible target for subtle long-lasting molecular alterations produced by cadmium nanoparticles locally instilled in the lung.

  15. KCC2 expression changes in Diazepam-treated neonatal rats with hypoxia-ischaemia brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun-Yuan; Zhang, Su-Pei; Guo, Liu-Bin; Li, Yong-Mei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Sai-Qi; Liu, Hong-Min; Wang, Cong

    2014-05-14

    Hypoxia-ischaemia brain damage (HIBD) is a major type of perinatal brain injury in newborns. In this study, we investigate the short- and long-term neuroprotective effects of Diazepam on neonatal rats with HIBD and the potential mechanisms underlying its protective effects. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left carotid artery ligation followed by a 2-h exposure to 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen. Diazepam was administered immediately via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection after inducing HIBD at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1)8h(-1) for three consecutive days. Three days after HIBD, rats were decapitated, and the extent of brain injury was evaluated using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Additionally, the expression of Potassium-chloride cotransporter-2 (KCC2) was analysed using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Three weeks after HIBD, rats were subjected to the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the locomotor activity test to determine the long-term therapeutic effects of Diazepam. We observed that the volume of infarction in the Diazepam group was significantly less (PDiazepam rats improved significantly compared with the untreated rats (PDiazepam appears to attenuate HIBD and can efficiently improve the long-term learning and memory capabilities of the animal. A potential mechanism underlying these effects may involve preventing the decrease in KCC2 expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucocorticoids regulate metallothionein-1/2 expression in rat choroid plexus: effects on apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, A; Gonçalves, I; Santos, C R

    2013-04-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) participates in the synthesis, secretion and regulation of the cerebrospinal fluid, in the removal of its toxic compounds and in the regulation of the availability of essential metal ions to the brain. It expresses and secretes metallothioneins 1/2 (MT-1/2) which are key components in the maintenance of the central nervous system metal homeostasis and have anti-apoptotic properties, thereby protecting the brain. Glucocorticoids regulate MT-1/2 expression in several brain regions, but within the choroid plexuses (CPs) it remains unknown. Glucocorticoid levels increase in response to stress with implications in apoptosis. Further, CP expresses glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) turning it into likely glucocorticoid responsive structure. Data prompted us to study the regulation of MT-1/2 expression in response to glucocorticoids in the rat CP, and to investigate its implications in apoptosis. MT-1/2 protein and mRNA expression analysis showed that hydrocortisone up-regulates MT-1/2 expression in rat choroid plexus (RCP) cell line and in primary cultures of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPEC) cultures via GR and MR. Also, incubation of RCP cells with hydrocortisone significantly diminished apoptosis, an effect eliminated by the addition of a MT-1/2 antibody. Moreover, induction of psychosocial stress, with concomitant rise of corticosterone levels, increased MT-1/2 expression in liver and in CP of male and female rats, with an exception observed in CP from males subjected to acute stress in which down-regulation in MT-1/2 expression occurred. Altogether, the results obtained demonstrated that stress/glucocorticoids regulate MT-1/2 expression in rat CP, with implications on apoptosis.

  17. The expression of PEDF and VEGF in the gastric wall of prehepatic portal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Liu, Yanzhang; Lin, Nan; Xu, Ruiyun

    2011-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding of portal hypertension cases may result from gastric mucosal lesions due to portal hypertensive gastropathy. The pathological changes in the vessels of the gastric wall are very important in the pathogenesis of portal hypertensive gastropathy. However, the mechanisms of these pathological changes are not completely understood. In this study, we examined the expression levels of PEDF and VEGF in the gastric wall in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension. Eighteen healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups A and B. Group A was used to establish the prehepatic portal hypertensive model and group B to evaluate a sham surgery. The VEGF and PEDF expression in the rat gastric wall were detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. VEGF and PEDF were mainly expressed in the basal layer of the mucosal glands. The expression levels of VEGF and PEDF in group A were higher than that in group B at 7, 10 and 14 days after surgery. The expression levels of VEFG and PEDF in group B did not show significant changes. The results from the present study showed a significantly elevated expression of both VEGF and PEDF in the gastric walls during the development of portal hypertension. The expression of these proteins was mainly located in the basal layer of the gastric mucosa.

  18. Functional expression of rat VPAC1 receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.K.; Tams, J.W.; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1999-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide......G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide...

  19. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Garcia Diaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades.

  20. Relation of exploratory behaviour to plasma corticosterone and Wfs1 gene expression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütt, S; Raud, S; Abramov, U; Innos, J; Luuk, H; Plaas, M; Kõks, S; Zilmer, K; Mahlapuu, R; Zilmer, M; Vasar, E

    2010-06-01

    Male Wistar rats exhibit significant variations in exploratory behaviour in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) model of anxiety. We have now investigated the relation between exploratory behaviour and levels of corticosterone and systemic oxidative stress. Also, the expression levels of endocannabinoid-related and wolframin (Wfs1) genes were measured in the forebrain structures. The rats were divided into high, intermediate and low exploratory activity groups. Exposure to EPM significantly elevated the serum levels of corticosterone in all rats, but especially in the high exploratory group. Oxidative stress indices and expression of endocannabinoid-related genes were not significantly affected by exposure to EPM. Wfs1 mRNA level was highly dependent on exploratory behaviour of animals. In low exploratory activity rats, Wfs1 gene expression was reduced in the temporal lobe, whereas in high exploratory activity group it was reduced in the mesolimbic area and hippocampus. Altogether, present study indicates that in high exploratory activity rats, the activation of brain areas related to novelty seeking is apparent, whereas in low exploratory activity group the brain structures linked to anxiety are activated.

  1. Changes in the Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimzadeh L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclooxygenase 2 is a key enzyme which converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Cyclooxygenase 2 is triggered by inflammatory stimuli, such as cytokines. Its expression increases in tumors and Alzheimer's disease and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a heterogeneous disease characterized by pathological angiogenesis and chronic anovulation. In the present study, the probable role of cyclooxygenase 2 in Wistar rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome was investigated.Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats (170-200 gr were equally divided into three groups: 2 mg estradiol valerate was intramuscularly administered to each rat in the experiment group or group 1; the rats in group 2 were regarded as the sham group and received sesame oil injections and group 3 or the control group received no injections. After 60 days of treatment, animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and killed by decapitation. Ovaries were collected for histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. All the experiments were repeated three times.Results: Morphologically, ovaries from the control group exhibited follicles in various stages of development and many fresh corpus luteum. In estradiol valerate group small follicles in early development were observed in addition to follicles showing evidence of atresia and many large cysts with thickened theca cell layer. Corpus luteum was rare or absent in group 2. The immunohistochemical analysis for cyclooxygenase 2 expression showed an increased expression of cyclooxygenase 2 enzyme in group 1.Conclusion: The results suggested the involvement of cyclooxygenase 2 in the progression to polycystic ovarian syndrome in a rat model.

  2. [Changes of the Expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Trachea Induced by Acrolein Exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bing; Yang, Rui-an; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Yan-yan; Dan, Qi-qin; Zhang, Yun-hui

    2015-07-01

    To investigate expressional changes of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the trachea of rats with acrolein inhalation. Twenty two SD rats were divided into 2 groups: the rats in experimental group were subjected to acrolein inhalation for the induce of trachea inflammatory injury, while the rats with saline (NS) inhalation were as control. All the rats were sacrificed in 1,3,6 weeks after acrolein (n = 11 at each time point) or saline inhalation (n = 11 at each time point), the samples of trachea epithelium were harvested. The immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization was performed to detect the location of BDNF protein and mRNA in trachea. The expression of BDNF mRNA in the trachea tissues were determined by RT-PCR. There are positive cells in epithelium of trachea for BDNF protein and mRNA, with cytoplasm staining. The expression of BDNF mRNA in the trachea was increased at 1 week after acrolein inhalation (P 0.05). The inflammatory injury in trachea induced by acrolein exposure could be associated with the increased expression of BDNF. BDNF may be one of the crucial inflammatory factors in the process of inflammatory reaction in trachea with acrolein stimulation.

  3. Dynamics of mixed convective-stably-stratified fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.-A.; Lecoanet, D.; Favier, B.; Le Bars, M.

    2017-09-01

    We study the dynamical regimes of a density-stratified fluid confined between isothermal no-slip top and bottom boundaries (at temperatures Tt and Tb) via direct numerical simulation. The thermal expansion coefficient of the fluid is temperature dependent and chosen such that the fluid density is maximum at the inversion temperature Tb>Ti>Tt . Thus, the lower layer of the fluid is convectively unstable while the upper layer is stably stratified. We show that the characteristics of the convection change significantly depending on the degree of stratification of the stable layer. For strong stable stratification, the convection zone coincides with the fraction of the fluid that is convectively unstable (i.e., where T >Ti ), and convective motions consist of rising and sinking plumes of large density anomaly, as is the case in canonical Rayleigh-Bénard convection; internal gravity waves are generated by turbulent fluctuations in the convective layer and propagate in the upper layer. For weak stable stratification, we demonstrate that a large fraction of the stable fluid (i.e., with temperature T phenomenological description of the transition between the regimes of plume-dominated and entrainment-dominated convection through analysis of the differences in the heat transfer mechanisms, kinetic energy density spectra, and probability density functions for different stratification strengths. Importantly, we find that the effect of the stable layer on the convection decreases only weakly with increasing stratification strength, meaning that the dynamics of the stable layer and convection should be studied self-consistently in a wide range of applications.

  4. A digital atlas of ion channel expression patterns in the two-week-old rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Carson, James; Yaylaoglu, Murat; Jäckle, Katharina; Grabbe, Frauke; Brockmeyer, Maren; Yavuz, Halenur; Eichele, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The approximately 350 ion channels encoded by the mammalian genome are a main pillar of the nervous system. We have determined the expression pattern of 320 channels in the two-week-old (P14) rat brain by means of non-radioactive robotic in situ hybridization. Optimized methods were developed and implemented to generate stringently coronal brain sections. The use of standardized methods permits a direct comparison of expression patterns across the entire ion channel expression pattern data set and facilitates recognizing ion channel co-expression. All expression data are made publically available at the Genepaint.org database. Inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir, encoded by the Kcnj genes) regulate a broad spectrum of physiological processes. Kcnj channel expression patterns generated in the present study were fitted with a deformable subdivision mesh atlas produced for the P14 rat brain. This co-registration, when combined with numerical quantification of expression strengths, allowed for semi-quantitative automated annotation of expression patterns as well as comparisons among and between Kcnj subfamilies. The expression patterns of Kcnj channel were also cross validated against previously published expression patterns of Kcnj channel genes.

  5. [Expression of c-jun protein after experimental rat brain concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Yong-hong

    2010-02-01

    To observe e-jun protein expression after rat brain concussion and explore the forensic pathologic markers following brain concussion. Fifty-five rats were randomly divided into brain concussion group and control group. The expression of c-jun protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. There were weak positive expression of c-jun protein in control group. In brain concussion group, however, some neutrons showed positive expression of c-jun protein at 15 min after brain concussion, and reach to the peak at 3 h after brain concussion. The research results suggest that detection of c-jun protein could be a marker to determine brain concussion and estimate injury time after brain concussion.

  6. Altered Expression Pattern of Clock Genes in a Rat Model of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, S L; Bouzinova, Elena V.; Fahrenkrug, J

    2016-01-01

    of clock gene expression in depressive patients, many studies have reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms in clock genes in these patients. METHODS: In the present study we investigated whether a depression-like state in rats is associated with alternations of the diurnal expression of clock genes....... The validated chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of depression was used to investigate rhythmic expression of three clock genes: period genes 1 and 2 (Per1 and Per2) and Bmal1. Brain and liver tissue was collected from 96 animals after 3.5 weeks of CMS (48 control and 48 depression-like rats) at a 4h...... sampling interval within 24h. We quantified expression of clock genes on brain sections in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, pineal gland, suprachiasmatic nucleus, substantia nigra, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, subfields of the hippocampus, and the lateral habenula using in situ hybridization...

  7. Ontogenetic expression of the Otx2 and Crx homeobox genes in the retina of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Morin, Fabrice; Shi, Qiong

    2007-01-01

    Otx2 and Crx are vertebrate orthologs of the orthodenticle family of homeobox genes, which are involved in retinal development. In this study, the temporal expression patterns of Otx2 and Crx in the rat retina during embryonic and postnatal stages of development were analyzed in detail. This conf......Otx2 and Crx are vertebrate orthologs of the orthodenticle family of homeobox genes, which are involved in retinal development. In this study, the temporal expression patterns of Otx2 and Crx in the rat retina during embryonic and postnatal stages of development were analyzed in detail....... This confirmed the presence of Otx2 mRNA in both the embryonic retinal pigment epithelium and the developing neural retina. During development, the expression of Otx2 persists in the pigment epithelium, whereas Otx2 expression of the neural retina becomes progressively restricted to the outer nuclear layer...... in the developing and mature mammalian retina....

  8. Expression of serotonin receptors in the colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Juanjuan; Wan, Jiajia; Wang, Fengyun; Tang, Xudong; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the difference among the expression of serotonin receptors (5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7receptors) in colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats. A rat model of chronic diarrhea was established by lactose diet. The expression of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7receptors in the colonic tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. There is no significant difference on the protein expression of 5-HT3receptor between the normal group and the chronic diarrhea model group. The mRNA expression of 5-HT3receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (n = 10; Pchronic diarrhea model group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (n = 10; Pchronic diarrhea model group were significantly decreased compared with the normal group (n = 10; Pdiarrhea by lactose diet.

  9. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression between gingival fibroblast cells from old and young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su-Jung; Chung, Yong-Koo; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Jeong-Ran; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Park, Young-Guk

    2009-01-01

    Gingival fibroblast cells (rGF) from aged rats have an age-related decline in proliferative capacity compared with young rats. We investigated G1 phase cell cycle regulation and MMP-9 expression in both young and aged rGF. G1 cell cycle protein levels and activity were significantly reduced in response to interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulation with increasing in vitro age. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression was also decreased in aged rGF in comparison with young rGF. Mutational analysis and gel shift assays demonstrated that the lower MMP-9 expression in aged rGF is associated with lower activities of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. These results suggest that cell cycle dysregulation and down-regulation of MMP-9 expression in rGF may play a role in gingival remodeling during in vitro aging.

  10. TREM-1 expression in rat corneal epithelium with Aspergillus fumigatus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1 in the aberrant inflammation within the corneal epithelium at early period of fungal infection. METHODS: A total of 65 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group and fungal keratitis (FK group, in which the cornea was infected by Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus. After executed randomly at 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72h after experimental model being established, the severity of keratomycosis in rats was scored visually with the aid of a dissecting microscope and slit lamp. Then corneas in three groups were collected to assess the expression of TREM-1 through quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunofluorescence technique and Western blot analysis. The correlation between FK inflammation and expression of TREM-1 was also analyzed. RESULTS: Corneal inflammation scores increased with time after fungal infection (F=49.74, P=0.000. The inflammation scores in FK group were obviously higher than those in sham group on the whole (F=137.78, P=0.000. Levels of TREM-1 in the infected rat corneal epithelium had elevated at 8h and peaked at 48h (P<0.001, compared with control group. Western blot analysis also showed an obviously elevated TREM-1 level in rat corneal epithelium at 24h and 48h after fungal infection. Immunofluorescence technique showed that TREM-1 mainly existed in corneal epithelium and infected corneal stoma of rat. TREM-1 protein expression was enhanced after fungal infection. Moreover, severity of FK inflammation was significantly related to TREM-1 expression in FK (r=0.942, P=0.000. CONCLUSION: TREM-1 may contribute to amplify the inflammation in the cornea infected with A. fumigatus and play critical roles in the battle against A. fumigatus in the innate immune responses.

  11. Identification of cytochrome P450 differentiated expression related to developmental stages in bromadiolone resistance in rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    over-express the Cyp2a1 gene. TGhe altered gene expression has been suggested to be involved in the bromadiolone resistance by facilitating enhanced anticoagulant metabolism. To investigate the gene expression of these cytochrome P450 genes in rats of different developmental stages we compared...... expression profiles, from 8-, 12- and 20-week-old resistant rats of the Danish strain to profiles of anticoagulant-susceptible rats of same ages. The three age-groups were selected to represent a group of pre-pubertal, pubertal and adult rats. We found expression profiles of the pre-pubertal and pubertal...... resistant rats to concur with profiles of the adults suggesting that cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the Danish bromadiolone resistance regardless of developmental stage. We also investigated the relative importance of the six cytochrome P450s in the different development stages of the resistant...

  12. Glutamatergic signaling and low prodynorphin expression are associated with intact memory and reduced anxiety in rat models of healthy aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eMenard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The LOU/C/Jall (LOU rat strain is considered a model of healthy aging due to its increased longevity, maintenance of stable body weight (BW throughout life and low incidence of age-related diseases. However, aging LOU rat cognitive and anxiety status has yet to be investigated. In the present study, male and female LOU rat cognitive performances (6-42 months were assessed using novel object recognition and Morris Water Maze tasks. Recognition memory remained intact in all LOU rats up to 42 months of age. As for spatial memory, old LOU rat performed similarly as young animals for learning acquisition, reversal learning and retention. While LOU rat BW remained stable despite aging, 20-month-old ad-libitum-fed (OAL male Sprague Dawley rats become obese. We determined if long-term caloric restriction (LTCR prevents age-related BW increase and cognitive deficits in this rat strain, as observed in the obesity-resistant LOU rats. Compared to young animals, recognition memory was impaired in OAL but intact in 20-month-old calorie-restricted (OCR rats. Similarly, OAL spatial learning acquisition was impaired but LTCR prevented the deficits. Exacerbated stress responses may favor age-related cognitive decline. In the elevated plus maze and open field tasks, LOU and OCR rats exhibited high levels of exploratory activity whereas OAL rats displayed anxious behaviors. Expression of prodynorphin (Pdyn, an endogenous peptide involved in stress-related memory impairments, was increased in the hippocampus of OAL rats. Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and immediate early genes Homer 1a and Arc expression, both associated with successful cognitive aging, were unaltered in aging LOU rats but lower in OAL than OCR rats. Altogether, our results, supported by principal component analysis and correlation matrix, suggest that intact memory and low anxiety are associated with glutamatergic signaling and low Pdyn expression in the hippocampus of non obese aging

  13. Ctip2-, Satb2-, Prox1-, and GAD65-Expressing Neurons in Rat Cultures: Preponderance of Single- and Double-Positive Cells, and Cell Type-Specific Expression of Neuron-Specific Gene Family Members, Nsg-1 (NEEP21) and Nsg-2 (P19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilio, Laura; Yap, Chan Choo; Winckler, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    The brain consists of many distinct neuronal cell types, but which cell types are present in widely used primary cultures of embryonic rodent brain is often not known. We characterized how abundantly four cell type markers (Ctip2, Satb2, Prox1, GAD65) were represented in cultured rat neurons, how easily neurons expressing different markers can be transfected with commonly used plasmids, and whether neuronal-enriched endosomal proteins Nsg-1 (NEEP21) and Nsg-2 (P19) are ubiquitously expressed in all types of cultured neurons. We found that cultured neurons stably maintain cell type identities that are reflective of cell types in vivo. This includes neurons maintaining simultaneous expression of two transcription factors, such as Ctip2+/Satb2+ or Prox1+/Ctip2+ double-positive cells, which have also been described in vivo. Secondly, we established the superior efficiency of CAG promoters for both Lipofectamine-mediated transfection as well as for electroporation. Thirdly, we discovered that Nsg-1 and Nsg-2 were not expressed equally in all neurons: whereas high levels of both Nsg-1 and Nsg-2 were found in Satb2-, Ctip2-, and GAD65-positive neurons, Prox1-positive neurons in hippocampal cultures expressed low levels of both. Our findings thus highlight the importance of identifying neuronal cell types for doing cell biology in cultured neurons: Keeping track of neuronal cell type might uncover effects in assays that might otherwise be masked by the mixture of responsive and non-responsive neurons in the dish.

  14. Immunohistochemical analysis of cannabinoid receptor 1 expression in steatotic rat livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Krzysztof; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Regnell, Pontus; Tollet-Egnell, Petra; Åkesson, Lina; Cooper, Martin E

    2016-04-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to determine the expression levels of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in steatotic rat livers. The secondary aim was to clarify whether steatosis and inflammation are more marked in areas with increased CB1 overexpression. For ethical and economic reasons, the present study investigated tissue from archived liver blocks, which were obtained from 38 rats that had been euthanized during the course of previous research at the Karolinska Institute of the Karolinska University Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden) and Lund University (Malmö, Sweden). Liver tissue fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin was used that had been sourced from 36 male Sprague Dawley rats (age, 7 weeks) and 2 rats (age, 180 days) lacking normal leptin receptors. The rat liver tissue was stained with antibodies against CB1 and counterstained with hematoxylin. The expression of CB1 and the number of cells overexpressing CB1 were determined. Steatosis was scored according to the Dixon scoring system. CB1 overexpression and steatosis were detected in hepatocytes from all 38 livers sampled. The expression of CB1 was more marked in hepatocytes localized next to portal triads. Near the central veins, the expression was significantly weaker. Steatosis was more marked in areas of increased CB1 overexpression. Lymphocyte infiltration was more commonly observed in areas of increased CB1 overexpression. Therefore, the present results indicate that CB1 receptors are overexpressed in areas with steatosis, and indicate that CB1 in hepatocytes contributes to the formation of steatosis in rats, even prior to its progression to steatohepatitis. These results are consistent with publications reporting that CB1 in hepatocytes increases lipogenesis and contributes to inflammation.

  15. [Effect of scalp acupuncture on learning ability and hippocampal VEGF expression in chronic cerebral ischemia rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Xia; Sun, Yuan-Zheng

    2012-10-01

    To observe the effect of scalp cluster-needle intervention on cognitive ability and hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in cerebral ischemia (CI) rats. Forty Wistar rats were randomized into sham operation (sham), model, scalp-acupuncture and medication groups. Chronic CI model was established by occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. Acupuncture needles were inserted into "Baihui" (GV 20) and its left and right points (2 mm beside GV 20) and manipulated leftward and rightward for 3 min at a frequency of about 200 times/min, retained for 30 min. The treatment was conducted once daily, for 4 weeks. For rats of the medication group, Nimodipine (1 mg/kg) was given to the animal by gavage, once a day, for 4 weeks. The rats' learning ability was measured by Morris water maze. Changes of hip-pocampal cellular morphology were observed by HE staining and light microscope, and hippocampal VEGF expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. In comparison with the sham group, the escape latency of rats in the model group was prolonged significantly (P acupuncture and medication groups were reduced markedly after the treatment (P acupuncture and medication groups were increased further (P acupuncture and medication groups in escape latency and VEGF expression levels (P > 0.05). HE staining showed that in the model group the hippocampal pyramidal cells were reduced in number, became vaguer in layers and nucleole, and got deformed in structure with karyopycnosis and disappearance of endochylema, and cavitation. These situations were relatively lighter in both acupuncture and medication groups. Scalp acupuncture intervention can significantly improve CI rats' congnitive ability and pathological changes, which may be related to its function in increasing the expression of VEGF in the hippocampus.

  16. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor and glucose transporter-1 during placental development in the diabetic rat

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    Ramazan Demir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In various tissues, glucocorticoids (GCs are known to downregulate glucose transport systems; however, their effects on glucose transporters (GLUTs in the placenta of a diabetic rat are unknown. Glucocorticoid hormone action within the cell is regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between GR and glucose transporter expression in the placenta of the diabetic rat. Our immunohistochemical results indicated that GR and glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT 1 are expressed ubiquitously in the trophoblast and endothelial cells of the labyrinthine zone, where maternal fetal transport takes place in the rat placenta. Expression of GR in the junctional zone of the rat placenta was detected in giant cells, and in some spongiotrophoblast cells, but not in the glycogen cells. GLUT 1 was present, especially in glycogen cells during early pregnancy, and in the spongiotrophoblast cells of the junctional zone during late pregnancy. Amounts of GR and GLUT 1 protein were increased towards the end of gestation both in the control and the diabetic placenta. However, at days 17 and 19 of gestation, only the placental GR protein was significantly increased in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats compared to control rats. Diabetes led to a significant decrease in placental weight at gestation day 15. In contrast, at gestational days 17 and 21, the weights of the diabetic placenta were significantly increased as compared with the controls. Moreover, diabetes induced fetus intrauterine growth retardation at gestational days 13, 17 and 21. In conclusion, the localization pattern of GR and GLUT 1 proteins in the same cell types led us to believe that there might be a relationship between GR and GLUT 1 expressions at the cellular level. GLUT 1 does not play a pivotal role in diabetic pregnancies. However, placental growth abnormalities during diabetic pregnancy may be related to the amount of GR

  17. [Expression of PEPT2 mRNA in lung tissue of rats with pulmonary fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Dianhua; Zhang, Xuan; Song, Xin; Ma, Xiaobiao; Hu, Zaoxiu

    2013-10-20

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a common pathological phenomenon in lung cancer patients after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is also a key hindrance to the transport of drugs to lung tissue. Peptide transporters have become a target of the rational design of peptides and peptide drugs. The aim of this study is to investigates the expression of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2) mRNA in the lungs of rats with bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Fifty healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was untreated (control), the second group was injected with normal saline solution (NS), and the three remaining groups were treated with a single dose of bleomycin to induce pulmonary fibrosis (BLM). Rats from the NS group were killed by exsanguination on day 14. Rats from the BLM group were killed by exsanguination on days 7, 14, and 28. The lung samples were observed under light microscopy and the hydroxyproline concentration was determined. The expression levels of PEPT2 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. The morphological study showed that collagenous fiber proliferated in the lungs of rats injected with BLM, indicating pulmonary fibrosis. This proliferation was apparent at 14 d post-injection and especially at 28 d post-injection. Hydroxyproline levels increased seven days post-injection compared with the control group and NS group, but there was no significant statistical difference (P>0.05). Hydroxyproline levels significantly increased (Ppulmonary PEPT2 mRNA expression levels among the different groups (P>0.05). PEPT2 is a potential peptide drug target in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, although there were no significant changes of PEPT2 mRNA expression in the lungs of rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  18. A transgenic rat expressing human APP with the Swedish Alzheimer's disease mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Ronnie; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Kloskowska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    protein (APP) containing the Swedish AD mutation. The highest level of expression in the brain is found in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Starting after the age of 15 months, the rats show increased tau phosphorylation and extracellular Abeta staining. The Abeta is found predominantly...

  19. Differential expression of melanopsin mRNA and protein in the Brown Norwegian rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2012-01-01

    and negative masking behaviour. Previous studies have demonstrated that melanopsin expression in albino rats is regulated by light and darkness. The present study was undertaken to study the influence of light and darkness during the circadian day and after extended periods of constant light and darkness...

  20. Proteomics of the injured rat sciatic nerve reveals protein expression dynamics during regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, Connie R; Stam, Floor J; Li, Ka Wan; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; Hornshaw, Martin P; De Winter, Fred; Verhaagen, J.; Smit, August B

    Using proteomics, we investigated the temporal expression profiles of proteins in rat sciatic nerve after experimental crush. Extracts of sciatic nerves collected at 5, 10, and 35 days after injury were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitative image analysis. Of the

  1. Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

  2. Rat macrophage C-type lectin is an activating receptor expressed by phagocytic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lobato-Pascual

    Full Text Available Macrophage C-type lectin (MCL is a membrane surface receptor encoded by the Antigen Presenting Lectin-like gene Complex (APLEC. We generated a mouse monoclonal antibody for the study of this receptor in the rat. We demonstrate that rat MCL is expressed on blood monocytes and neutrophils, as well as on several tissue macrophage populations, including alveolar and peritoneal cavity macrophages. We also demonstrate MCL expression on a subset of resident spleen macrophages. Immunohistochemistry analysis of the spleen showed staining specifically in the marginal zone and red pulp. Exposure to pro-inflammatory mediators or to yeast cell wall extract (zymosan increased surface MCL expression on peritoneal macrophages. We characterized a rat myeloid cell line, RMW, which expresses high levels of MCL. We found that MCL co-immunoprecipitated with the activating adaptor protein FcεRIγ in these cells. Moreover, beads coated with anti-MCL antibody increased phagocytosis in the RMW cells. Together, these observations indicate that rat MCL is a receptor that activates phagocytosis in myeloid cells under inflammatory conditions.

  3. Altered gene-expression profile in rat plasma and promoted body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jane

    EE impacts affect the development, behavior, hormones and gene expression of the offspring. 28 pregnant rats were randomized into ... important roles in modulating learning and memory capacity. Although, a large amount of ... labeling kit, one-color' (Cat # 5190-2305, Agilent technologies,. Santa Clara, CA, US) under the ...

  4. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (CYT19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASE (cyt19)Stephen B. Waters1 , Felicia Walton1 , Miroslav Styblo1 , Karen Herbin-Davis2, and David J. Thomas2 1 School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chape...

  5. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-1-METHIONINE: ARSENIC (III) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RAT S-ADENOSYL-L-METHIONINE: ARSENIC(III) METHYLTRANSFERASEStephen B. Waters, Ph.D., Miroslav Styblo, Ph.D., Melinda A. Beck, Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., U.S. Environmental...

  6. EXPRESSION OF THE SPERMATOGENIC CELL-SPECIFIC GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDS) IN RAT TESTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spermatogenic cell-specific variant of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) has been cloned from a rat testis cDNA library and its pattern of expression determined. A 1417 nucleotide cDNA has been found to encode an enzyme with substantial homology to mouse GAPDS...

  7. Circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled genes in the rat retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Willem; Cailotto, Cathy; Dijk, Frederike; Bergen, Arthur; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2005-01-01

    The circadian expression patterns of genes encoding for proteins that make up the core of the circadian clock were measured in rat retina using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Transcript levels of several genes previously used for normalization of qPCR assays were determined and the effect of

  8. Gene expression and molecular changes in cerebral arteries following subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikman, Petter; Beg, Saema; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2006-01-01

    OBJECT: The authors investigated early changes in the cerebral arteries of rats that occur after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: Messenger RNA was investigated by performing microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, and protein expression was shown...

  9. N-myc down regulates neural cell adhesion molecule expression in rat neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akeson, R.; Bernards, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    In human neuroblastoma, amplification of the N-myc oncogene is correlated with increased metastatic ability. We recently showed that transfection of the rat neuroblastoma cell line B104 with an N-myc expression vector resulted in an increase in metastatic ability and a significant reduction in the

  10. [Relationship between PMI and relative expression of myocardial various RNAs in rats died of different causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ye-Hui; Zhang, Heng; Pan, Hui; Ma, Kai-Jun; Li, Wen-Can; Chen, Wen-Feng; Jiang, Jie-Qing'; Xue, Ai-Min; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Hui-Jun; Chen, Long

    2014-02-01

    To observe the changes of relative expression of myocardial various RNAs in rats died of different causes and their relationship with PMI. The rat models were established in which the rats were sacrificed by broken neck, asphyxia, and hemorrhagic shock. Total RNAs were extracted from myocardium. The quantitative real time PCR was used to calculate threshold cycle values of RNAs including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta-actin, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and U6 small nuclear RNA (U6 snRNA) and to study the changes of the relative expressions of various indexes with PMI. U6 snRNA with stable expression level could be used as appropriate internal control. In the early PMI, the relative expression of GAPDH, HIF-1, iNOS, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 more characteristically increased in groups of asphyxia and hemorrhagic shock than in group of broken neck, but the quantity of beta-actin decreased in all groups. In the late PMI, all the relative expressions significantly declined in correlation with the degradation of RNA. The characteristic changes of each RNA expression can be used as references to estimate PMI in deaths by different causes.

  11. Differential RNA Expression Profile of Skeletal Muscle Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Kaminski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential susceptibility of skeletal muscle by myasthenia gravis (MG is not well understood. We utilized RNA expression profiling of extraocular muscle (EOM, diaphragm (DIA, and extensor digitorum (EDL of rats with experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG to evaluate the hypothesis that muscles respond differentially to injury produced by EAMG. EAMG was induced in female Lewis rats by immunization with acetylcholine receptor purified from the electric organ of the Torpedo. Six weeks later after rats had developed weakness and serum antibodies directed against the AChR, animals underwent euthanasia and RNA profiling performed on DIA, EDL, and EOM. Profiling results were validated by qPCR. Across the three muscles between the experiment and control groups, three hundred and fifty-nine probes (1.16% with greater than 2 fold changes in expression in 7 of 9 series pairwise comparisons from 31,090 probes were identified with approximately two-thirds being increased. The three muscles shared 16 genes with increased expression and 6 reduced expression. Functional annotation demonstrated that these common expression changes fell predominantly into categories of metabolism, stress response, and signaling. Evaluation of specific gene function indicated that EAMG led to a change to oxidative metabolism. Genes related to muscle regeneration and suppression of immune response were activated. Evidence of a differential immune response among muscles was not evident. Each muscle had a distinct RNA profile but with commonality in gene categories expressed that are focused on muscle repair, moderation of inflammation, and oxidative metabolism.

  12. Expression patterns and role of PTEN in rat peripheral nerve development and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xiang, Jianping; Wu, Junxia; He, Bo; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Canbin

    2018-04-09

    Studies have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. To better understand the potential role of PTEN with respect to peripheral nerve development and injury, we investigated the expression pattern of PTEN at different stages of rat peripheral nerve development and injury and subsequently assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) on axonal regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. During the early stages of development, PTEN exhibits low expression in neuronal cell bodies and axons. From embryonic day (E) 18.5 and postnatal day (P)5 to adult, PTEN protein becomes more detectable, with high expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and axons. PTEN expression is inhibited in peripheral nerves, preceding myelination during neuronal development and remyelination after acute nerve injury. Low PTEN expression after nerve injury promotes Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activity. In vivo pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) promoted axonal regrowth, increased the number of myelinated nerve fibers, improved locomotive recovery and enhanced the amplitude response and nerve conduction velocity following stimulation in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Thus, we suggest that PTEN may play potential roles in peripheral nerve development and regeneration and that inhibition of PTEN expression is beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Effects of ginsenosides Rb1 on learning and memory and expression of somatostatin in sleep deprivation rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingyin; Wang, Junbo; Fang, Jie; Feng, Rui; Yuan, Zhanggen; Lu, Kejie; Jin, Yi; Zeng, Linghui

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effects of ginsenosides Rb1(GSRb1) on learning and memory and expression of somatostatin (SS) in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex in rat model of sleep deprivation (SD). Rats were randomized into groups of SD 2 d, SD 4 d, SD 6 d, and SD 0 d, while each group was sub-divided into GSRb1 group and normal saline (NS) sub-groups. Rats were intraperitoneal administered with 30 mg/(kg*d) of GSRb1 or NS for 7 d, then the learning and memory abilities were examined by measuring average swimming speed and mean escape latency using Morris maze.Expression of somatostatin was detected with immunohistochemical method and image analysis in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex. Compared with SD 0 d rats, SD rats exhibited significant decrease in the average swimming speed and increase in the escape latency (P sleep deprivation rats and subsequently may improve learning and memory abilities of rats.

  14. Changes in Rat Brain MicroRNA Expression Profiles Following Sevoflurane and Propofol Anesthesia

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    Yu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sevoflurane and propofol are widely used anesthetics for surgery. Studies on the mechanisms of general anesthesia have focused on changes in protein expression properties and membrane lipid. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate neural function by altering protein expression. We hypothesize that sevoflurane and propofol affect miRNA expression profiles in the brain, expect to understand the mechanism of anesthetic agents. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to a 2% sevoflurane group, 600 μg·kg − 1·min − 1 propofol group, and a control group without anesthesia (n = 4, respectively. Treatment group was under anesthesia for 6 h, and all rats breathed spontaneously with continuous monitoring of respiration and blood gases. Changes in rat cortex miRNA expression profiles were analyzed by miRNA microarrays and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Differential expression of miRNA using qRT-PCR among the control, sevoflurane, and propofol groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Of 677 preloaded rat miRNAs, the microarray detected the expression of 277 miRNAs in rat cortex (40.9%, of which 9 were regulated by propofol and (or sevoflurane. Expression levels of three miRNAs (rno-miR-339-3p, rno-miR-448, rno-miR-466b-1FNx01 were significantly increased following sevoflurane and six (rno-miR-339-3p, rno-miR-347, rno-miR-378FNx01, rno-miR-412FNx01, rno-miR-702-3p, and rno-miR-7a-2FNx01 following propofol. Three miRNAs (rno-miR-466b-1FNx01, rno-miR-3584-5p and rno-miR-702-3p were differentially expressed by the two anesthetic treatment groups. Conclusions: Sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia induced distinct changes in brain miRNA expression patterns, suggesting differential regulation of protein expression. Determining the targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs may help reveal both the common and agent-specific actions of anesthetics on neurological and physiological

  15. Life cycle analysis of kidney gene expression in male F344 rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Kwekel

    Full Text Available Age is a predisposing condition for susceptibility to chronic kidney disease and progression as well as acute kidney injury that may arise due to the adverse effects of some drugs. Age-related differences in kidney biology, therefore, are a key concern in understanding drug safety and disease progression. We hypothesize that the underlying suite of genes expressed in the kidney at various life cycle stages will impact susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Therefore, establishing changes in baseline expression data between these life stages is the first and necessary step in evaluating this hypothesis. Untreated male F344 rats were sacrificed at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 78, and 104 weeks of age. Kidneys were collected for histology and gene expression analysis. Agilent whole-genome rat microarrays were used to query global expression profiles. An ANOVA (p1.5 in relative mRNA expression, was used to identify 3,724 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Principal component analyses of these DEGs revealed three major divisions in life-cycle renal gene expression. K-means cluster analysis identified several groups of genes that shared age-specific patterns of expression. Pathway analysis of these gene groups revealed age-specific gene networks and functions related to renal function and aging, including extracellular matrix turnover, immune cell response, and renal tubular injury. Large age-related changes in expression were also demonstrated for the genes that code for qualified renal injury biomarkers KIM-1, Clu, and Tff3. These results suggest specific groups of genes that may underlie age-specific susceptibilities to adverse drug reactions and disease. This analysis of the basal gene expression patterns of renal genes throughout the life cycle of the rat will improve the use of current and future renal biomarkers and inform our assessments of kidney injury and disease.

  16. Expression of isgylation related genes in regenerating rat liver

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    Kuklin A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent studies have revealed the early up-regulated expression of interferon alpha (IFNα in the liver, induced by partial hepatectomy. The role of this cytokine of innate immune response in liver regeneration is still controversial. Aim. To analyze expression of canonical interferon-stimulated genes Ube1l, Ube2l6, Trim25, Usp18 and Isg15 during the liver transition from quiescence to proliferation induced by partial hepatectomy, and acute phase response induced by laparotomy. These genes are responsible for posttranslational modification of proteins by ISGylation. The expression of genes encoding TATA binding protein (TBP and 18S rRNA served as indirect general markers of transcriptional and translational activities. Methods. The abundance of investigated RNAs was assessed in total liver RNA by real time RT–qPCR. Results. Partial hepatecomy induced steady upregulation of the Tbp and 18S rRNA genes expression during 12 hours post-surgery and downregulation or no change in expression of ISGylation-related genes during the first 3 hours followed by slight upregulation at 12 hours. The level of Isg15 transcripts was permanently below that of the control during the prereplicative period. Laparotomy induced a continuous downregulation of Tbp and 18S rRNA expression and early (1–3h upregulation of ISGylation–related transcripts followed by a sharp drop at 6 hours and slight increase/decrease at 12 hours. The changes in the abundance of Ifnα and ISGylation-related mRNAs were oppositely directed at each stage of the response to partial hepatectomy and laparotomy. Conclusion. We suggest that the expression of ISGylation-related genes does not depend on the expression of Ifnα gene after both surgeries. The indirect indices of transcription and translation as well as the expression of ISGylation-relaled genes are principally different in response to partial hepatectomy and laparotomy and argue for the high specificity of innate immune response.

  17. Subcloning, localization, and expression of the rat intestinal sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Chen, Rongji; Ghishan, Fayez K

    2005-07-01

    Apically expressed intestinal and renal sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHEs) play a major role in Na(+) absorption. Our previous studies on NHE ontogeny have shown that NHE-2 and NHE-3 are expressed at very low levels in young animals. Furthermore, single and/or double NHE-2 and NHE-3 knockout mice display no obvious abnormalities before weaning. These observations suggest that other transporter(s) may be involved in intestinal Na+ absorption during early life. The present studies were designed to clone the novel rat intestinal NHE-8 cDNA and to decipher the NHE-8 protein localization and gene expression pattern during different developmental stages. The rat NHE-8 cDNA has 2,160 bp and encodes a 575-amino acid protein. An antibody against NHE-8 protein was developed. Immunohistochemistry staining indicated apical localization of NHE-8 protein in rat intestinal epithelial cells. The apical localization of NHE-8 was also confirmed by its presence in brush-border membrane and its absence in basolateral membrane preparations. Northern blotting utilizing a NHE-8-specific probe demonstrated higher NHE-8 mRNA expression in young animals compared with adult animals. Western blot analysis revealed a similar pattern. Tissue distribution with multiple human tissue RNA blot showed that NHE-8 was expressed in multiple tissues including the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, we have cloned the full-length NHE-8 cDNA from rat intestine and further showed its apical localization in intestinal epithelial cells. We have also shown that NHE-8 gene expression and protein expression were regulated during ontogeny. Our data suggests that NHE-8 may play an important role in intestinal Na+ absorption during early life.

  18. Differential expression of system L amino acid transporters during wound healing process in the skin of young and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Moon-Jin; Kim, Chun Sung; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Heung-Joong; Ko, Yeong Mu; Park, Kyung Jin; Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Endou, Hitoshi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Lim, Do-Seon; Kim, Do Kyung

    2008-03-01

    In order to elucidate the role of the system L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) in the wound healing process of aged and young subjects, we investigated the expression of LAT1, LAT2 and their subunit 4F2hc in the skin healing process after artificial wounds of dorsal skin in the young and old rats. The 1 cm full-thickness incisional wounds were made through the skin and panniculus carnosus muscle. The wounds were harvested at days 1, 3, 5 and 7 post-wounding, the experimental controls were harvested the skin of rat without wounds and the various analyses were performed. In young rats, gradually and noticeable wound healing was detected, however, in old rats, wound healing was found to be greatly delayed. In young rats, the expression of LAT1 was increased rapidly on the day 1 after wound induction, on the other hand, in old rats, the expression of LAT1 after wound induction was not different from the control group. In young rats, the expression of LAT2 after the induction of wound was not different from the control group, however in old rats, the expression of LAT2 on the day 1 of wound induction was rapidly elevated. These results suggest that the LAT1 and LAT2 increase in the wound healing process after cell injury in young and old rats, respectively.

  19. Effects of sevoflurane on NF-кB and TNF-α expression in renal ischemia-reperfusion diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Hu, Fang; Wen, Jianghua; Wei, Xiaohong; Zeng, Yingjuan; Sun, Ying; Luo, Shunkui; Sun, Liao

    2017-10-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main reason of acute renal failure. However, inflammatory response and cell apoptosis are important mechanisms implicated in I/R injury. Recent studies indicated that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-кB) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) are both involved in these mechanisms. Sevoflurane reduces NF-кB and TNF-α expression in rats' heart and decreases their renal I/R injury. However, few studies are available regarding the effect of sevoflurane on kidney of diabetic rats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate sevoflurane effect on NF-кB and TNF-α expression in diabetic rats to decrease renal I/R injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: Group A, non-diabetic rats underwent sham operation; Group B, non-diabetic rats with renal I/R injury; Group C, diabetic rats underwent sham operation; Group D, diabetic rats with renal I/R injury; Group E, diabetic rats with renal I/R injury after sevoflurane pretreatment. Rats of Group E were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane for 30 min. After 24 h, creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), renal cell apoptosis, and NF-кB and TNF-α expression in kidney were assessed. Renal cell apoptosis, NF-кB, and TNF-α expression were significantly higher in diabetic rats with renal I/R injury group compared to diabetic rats that underwent sham operation (P renal injury by lowering the expression of NF-кB and TNF-α in renal I/R diabetic rats.

  20. Reduced expression of perlecan in the aorta of secondary hyperparathyroidism model rats with medial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Maki; Shigematsu, Takashi; Hatamura, Ikuji; Saji, Fumie; Mune, Sachiko; Kunimoto, Ken; Hanba, Yoshiyuki; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Sakaguchi, Toshifumi; Negi, Shigeo

    2010-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an important complication that worsens the prognosis for dialysis patients, although its detailed molecular mechanisms are still unknown. We produced a rat model for vascular calcification with hyperphosphatasemia and hyperparathyroidism, performing a 5/6 nephrectomy and providing a high-phosphorus, low-calcium diet for eight weeks. We examined mRNA obtained from the calcified aortae using microarray analysis, and searched for alterations in gene expression specifically in the calcified lesions. Medial calcification was demonstrated in the abdominal aorta of 12 out of 42 hyperparathyroidism rats. In the aortae of hyperparathyroid rats with vascular calcification, the genes for heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, were found to be down-regulated using microarray analysis and real time PCR. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated reduced production of perlecan in the aortae of hyperparathyroid rats. Perlecan is a major component of the vascular wall basement membrane and may play a role in protecting vascular smooth muscle cells from inflammatory cells and various toxins. It has also been reported that heparan sulfate chains may inhibit osteogenesis. Our findings indicate that perlecan may protect vascular smooth muscle cells from various factors that promote vascular calcification. It may be that reduced expression of perlecan in the calcified aortae of hyperparathyroid rats is a risk factor for vascular calcification.

  1. Expression of NHE1 and NHE4 in rat pancreatic zymogen granule membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderie, I; Blum, R; Haase, W; Grinstein, S; Thévenod, F

    1998-05-19

    We previously characterized a Na+/H+ exchange activity in rat pancreatic zymogen granules [Anderie, I., and Thévenod, F. (1996) J. Membrane Biol, 152, 195-205]. Here we have identified the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) isoforms present in zymogen granules by functional studies with NHE inhibitors. The NHE1 specific blocker HOE 694 [3-(methylsulfonyl-4-piperidino-benzoyl)-guanidine methanesulfonate] inhibited zymogen granule Na+/H+ exchange in a concentration dependent manner, maximally to 53 +/- 5% of controls at 100nM. The remaining Na+/H+ exchange activity was inhibitable by EIPA [5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride] (EC50 approximately 25 microM) or benzamil (EC50 approximately 100 microM). Amiloride inhibited weakly suggesting that "amiloride-resistant" and "amiloride-sensitive" NHE are expressed in zymogen granules. cDNA sequences encoding NHE1- and NHE4-specific transmembrane domains were detected by RT-PCR in rat pancreatic tissue and in the rat pancreatic acinar cell line AR4-2J. The presence of NHE1 and NHE4 in zymogen granule membranes was confirmed by immunoblots of zymogen granule membranes and by pre-embedding immunogold labeling of purified rat pancreatic zymogen granules with polyclonal NHE1 and NHE4 antibodies. Therefore, we propose that NHE1 and NHE4 are expressed in zymogen granule membranes of rat exocrine pancreas.

  2. Inhibition of chemokine expression in rat inflamed paws by systemic use of the antihyperalgesic oxidized ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticozzi Paolo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously showed that local use of periodate oxidized ATP (oATP, a selective inhibitor of P2X7 receptors for ATP in rat paw treated with Freund's adjuvant induced a significant reduction of hyperalgesia Herein we investigate the role of oATP, in the rat paws inflamed by carrageenan, which mimics acute inflammation in humans. Results Local, oral or intravenous administration of a single dose of oATP significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia in hind paws of rats for 24 hours, and such effect was greater than that induced by diclofenac or indomethacin. Following oATP treatment, the expression of the pro-inflammatory chemokines interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10, mon ocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 within the inflamed tissues markedly decreased on vessels and infiltrated cells. In parallel, the immunohistochemical findings showed an impairment, with respect to the untreated rats, in P2X7 expression, mainly on nerves and vessels close to the site of inflammation. Finally, oATP treatment significantly reduced the presence of infiltrating inflammatory macrophages in the paw tissue. Conclusion Taken together these results clearly show that oATP reduces carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

  3. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Taro; Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles

  4. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Taro, E-mail: tamuraka@sgk.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

  5. Expression and role of PAK6 after spinal cord injury in adult rat

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    CHEN Xiang-dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To observe p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6 expression and its possible role after spinal cord injury (SCI in adult rat. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to spinal cord injury. To explore the pathological and physiological significance of PAK6, the expression patterns and distribution of PAK6 were observed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: Western blot analysis showed PAK6 protein level was significantly up-regulated on day 2 and day 4, then reduced and had no up-regulation till day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the expression of PAK6 was significantly increased on day 4 compared with the control group. Besides, double immunofluorescence staining showed PAK6 was primarily expressed in the neurons and astrocytes in the control group. While after injury, the expression of PAK6 was increased significantly in the astrocytes and neurons, and the astrocytes were largely proliferated. We also examined the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and found its change was correlated with the expression of PAK6. Importantly, double immunofluorescence staining revealed that cell proliferation evaluated by PCNA appeared in many PAK6-expressing cells on day 4 after injury. Conclusion: The up-regulation of PAK6 in the injured spinal cord may be associated with glial proliferation. Key words: PAK6 protein, human; p21-activated kinases; Spinal cord injury; Astrocytes

  6. Artemisinin ameliorated proteinuria in rats with adriamycin-induced nephropathy through regulating nephrin and podocin expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xili; An, Peng; Ye, Bingyu; Shi, Xingmin; Dang, Huimin; Fu, Rongguo; Qiao, Chenglin

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effects of artemisinin against proteinuria and glomerular filtration barrier damage in rats with adriamycin-induced nephropathy, and the potential mechanism underpinned the action. Forty adriamycin rats were randomly divided into two groups with the ratio of 1 : 3; the small-number group served as control group (n = 10), and the rats in the large-number group were treated with adriamycin to induce nephropathy; then they were further randomly assigned into 3 subgroups: benazepril group (n = 10), artemisinin group (n = 10), and adriamycin group (n = 10). The benazepril group and artemisinin group were treated with benazepril suspl (5.0 mg/kg daily) and artemisinin suspl (150 mg/kg daily) respectively after being modeled; those in the control group and adriamycin group were intragastrically administered an equivalent volume of distilled water every day. The treatment after model establishment lasted for a total of 4 weeks. The 24 h uric protein, blood biochemicals, renal pathological changes, renal ultrastrutural changes, Nephrin and Podocin proteins and gene expressions were measured by Coomassie brilliant blue assay, completely automatic biochemical analyzer, light microscope, electron microscopy, Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The rats in adriamycin group showed a significant increase in 24 h uric protein excretion, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) and decrease in albumin (Alb) (P 0.05). The renal pathological and ultrastrutural observation indicate that artemisinin could attenuate the severity of foot process effacement and fusion in the nephropathic rats. Artemisinin might have an effect on the nephropathy in rats caused by adriamycin, which may be at least partly correlated with attenu- ation of the severity of foot process effacement and fusion, up-regulation of the expressions of Nephrin and Podocin in the glomeruli in the rats.

  7. [Expression of thrombospondin-1 in the lung of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Juan; Cheng, De-Yun; Zheng, Xi-Wei; Li, Fang; Yang, Gui-Lan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the expression of thrombospondin-1(TSP-1) in the lung of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, pulmonary hypertension group and control group. The mice in experimental group were exposed to isobaric hypoxia for 3 weeks, and those in control group were exposed to air. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by right cardiac catheterization. The expression of TSP-1 and TGF-beta1 in the lungs of rats were measured by immunohistochemical staining. The histological sections of the lungs were examined using a computerized image analyzer. After the induction of hypoxia for 3 weeks, the rats had pulmonary artery pressure increased with the thickening of the wall and the narrowing of the lumen of pulmonary arterioles. In the experimental group, the mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was (2.86 +/- 0.39) kPa, the index of right ventricular hypertrophy RV/(LV+S) was (43.53 +/- 3.38)%, the ratio of vascular wall thickness/vascular external diameter (WA%) was (55.09 +/- 12.38)%, and the ratio of vascular wall area/total vascular area (WT%) was (35.24 +/- 11.2)%, which all were significantly increased in comparison with those of control group [mPAP (1.35 +/- 0.28) kPa, RV/(LV+S) (23.68 +/- 3.48)%, WT% (23.63 +/- 9.74)%, WA% (41.62 +/- 12.83)%, respectively. P pulmonary arteriole of the rats exposed to hypoxia were significantly stronger than those of control rats (P pulmonary hypertension rats, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling.

  8. Passion flower extract antagonizes the expression of nicotine locomotor sensitization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivogel, Chris; Jamerson, Brenda

    2012-10-01

    Nicotine, a bioactive component of tobacco, is highly addictive. Numerous therapies have been developed or are currently under investigation for smoking cessation, and all have met with limited success and/or side effects, indicating the need for additional therapies. This study examines the ability of a commerically-available aqueous extract of Passiflora incarnata Linn. (Passifloraceae) to ameliorate the signs of nicotine sensitization using a rat model. Rats were administered 0.4 mg/kg nicotine or vehicle once a day for four consecutive days. Nicotine adminstration produces sensitization of locomotor activity, a phenomenon implicated in the development of nicotine dependence. On the fifth day, locomotor activity of the subjects was monitored as rats from each treatment group were administered 800 mg/kg of Passiflora incarnata extract (or its vehicle) followed by a challenge dose of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine. When given to rats sensitized to nicotine for 4 days, the challenge dose of nicotine increased locomotor activity by more than 2-fold over activity following nicotine challenge in rats treated with vehicle during the sensitization phase. The difference was significant from 15-40 min after nicotine administration. Rats sensitized to nicotine then treated with Passiflora incarnata extract prior to the nicotine challenge exhibited a level of locomotor activity the same as the vehicle-treated controls. Passiflora incarnata extract did antagonize the expression of nicotine locomotor sensitization. Passiflora incarnata extract should be examined in future studies to evaluate its potential for treating nicotine addiction in humans.

  9. Characteristics of recombinantly expressed rat and human histamine H3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Birgitte S; Hastrup, Sven; Rimvall, Karin

    2002-10-18

    Human and rat histamine H(3) receptors were recombinantly expressed and characterized using receptor binding and a functional cAMP assay. Seven of nine agonists had similar affinities and potencies at the rat and human histamine H(3) receptor. S-alpha-methylhistamine had a significantly higher affinity and potency at the human than rat receptor, and for 4-[(1R*,2R*)-2-(5,5-dimethyl-1-hexynyl)cyclopropyl]-1H-imidazole (Perceptin) the preference was the reverse. Only two of six antagonists had similar affinities and potencies at the human and the rat histamine H(3) receptor. Ciproxifan, thioperamide and (1R*,2R*)-trans-2-imidazol-4 ylcyclopropyl) (cyclohexylmethoxy) carboxamide (GT2394) had significantly higher affinities and potencies at the rat than at the human histamine H(3) receptor, while for N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-N-(7-pyrrolodin-1-ylheptyl)guanidine (JB98064) the preference was the reverse. All antagonists also showed potent inverse agonism properties. Iodoproxyfan, Perceptin, proxyfan and GR175737, compounds previously described as histamine H(3) receptor antagonists, acted as full or partial agonists at both the rat and the human histamine H(3) receptor. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. ZFH4 protein is expressed in many neurons of developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Shigeharu; Ishii, Yoko; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Sakata, Nobuo; Oya, Takeshi; Takagawa, Kiyoshi; Kanamori, Masahiko; Sabit, Hemragul; Obata, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Tomoatsu; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2005-01-31

    The zinc finger-homeodomain (ZFH) transcription factors contain a zinc finger motif and a homeodomain that might regulate neural and mesenchymal cell differentiation. We have cloned the ZFH4 gene that encodes a protein with structures closely related to ATBF1. In order to study the expression pattern of ZFH4 in the developing rat brain, we raised an antibody against a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein of ZFH4. Western blotting with this antibody identified a gene product of 390 kDa in the normal rat brain. Levels of the protein were high in the brainstem at embryonic and neonatal periods and in the midbrain and diencephalon in neonatal rat brain. In addition, the corresponding mRNA of 12.5 kb was detected by Northern blotting. An immunolocalization study showed that postmitotic neurons in the brainstem were the major site of ZFH4 expression, and the levels of expression varied depending on age and anatomical sites. Expression was transient and weak in precursor cells at early neurogenesis. Although ZFH4 levels decreased after birth, ZFH4 continued to be expressed in the mature neurons including DOPA decarboxylase-positive neurons. High levels of expression were also detected in non-neuronal cells of the subcommissural organ, but the expression was almost undetectable throughout precursor cells to mature neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The spatial and temporal expression patterns closely resembled those of ATBF1, and we detected neurons that expressed ZFH4, ATBF1, or both. We postulate that ZFH4 participates in the regulation of neural cell maturation or of region-specific differentiation of the brain. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Expression of PEPT2 mRNA in Lung Tissue of Rats with Pulmonary Fibrosis

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    Li LI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Pulmonary fibrosis is a common pathological phenomenon in lung cancer patients after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is also a key hindrance to the transport of drugs to lung tissue. Peptide transporters have become a target of the rational design of peptides and peptide drugs. The aim of this study is to investigates the expression of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2 mRNA in the lungs of rats with bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods Fifty healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was untreated (control, the second group was injected with normal saline solution (NS, and the three remaining groups were treated with a single dose of bleomycin to induce pulmonary fibrosis (BLM. Rats from the NS group were killed by exsanguination on day 14. Rats from the BLM group were killed by exsanguination on days 7, 14, and 28. The lung samples were observed under light microscopy and the hydroxyproline concentration was determined. The expression levels of PEPT2 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. Results The morphological study showed that collagenous fiber proliferated in the lungs of rats injected with BLM, indicating pulmonary fibrosis. This proliferation was apparent at 14 d post-injection and especially at 28 d post-injection. Hydroxyproline levels increased seven days post-injection compared with the control group and NS group, but there was no significant statistical difference (P>0.05. Hydroxyproline levels significantly increased (P0.05. Conclusion PEPT2 is a potential peptide drug target in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, although there were no significant changes of PEPT2 mRNA expression in the lungs of rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Min; Wu, Kai-Jie; Dang, Qiang; Shi, Qi; Gao, Yang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Shan; Wang, Xin-Yang; He, Da-Lin; Gong, Yong-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b). Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b.

  13. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Min Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b. Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b.

  14. Developmental expression of proprotein convertase 1/3 in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Y C; Damholt, A B; Billestrup, N

    1999-01-01

    described previously. RT-PCR of RNA isolated from rat embryonic tissues using a primer set corresponding to the 3' end of the PC1/3 sequence showed a steady increase of expression in fetal pancreas and intestine during the course of development. In contrast, comparatively high and constant levels of PC1......We have isolated a clone that has 3' end sequence identity with prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) from a rat islet cDNA library. Northern blot analysis and immunocytochemical studies have confirmed its presence in the endocrine pancreas. Analysis of poly A mRNA from various adult tissues....../3 expression were detected in fetal lung, whereas low and constant expression was detected in fetal liver. Double immuno-staining showed that PC1/3 was co-localised with insulin throughout development, and at mid-gestation, PC1/3 immunoreactivity could also be detected within glucagon-producing cells...

  15. Short-term fasting promotes insulin expression in rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakic, Tamara B; Jevdjovic, Tanja V; Peric, Mina I; Bjelobaba, Ivana M; Markelic, Milica B; Milutinovic, Bojana S; Lakic, Iva V; Jasnic, Nebojsa I; Djordjevic, Jelena D; Vujovic, Predrag Z

    2017-07-01

    In the hypothalamus, insulin takes on many roles involved in energy homoeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine hypothalamic insulin expression during the initial phase of the metabolic response to fasting. Hypothalamic insulin content was assessed by both radioimmunoassay and Western blot. The relative expression of insulin mRNA was examined by qPCR. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the distribution of insulin immunopositivity in the hypothalamus. After 6-h fasting, both glucose and insulin levels were decreased in serum but not in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our study showed for the first time that, while the concentration of circulating glucose and insulin decreased, both insulin mRNA expression and insulin content in the hypothalamic parenchyma were increased after short-term fasting. Increased insulin immunopositivity was detected specifically in the neurons of the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus and in the ependymal cells of fasting animals. These novel findings point to the complexity of mechanisms regulating insulin expression in the CNS in general and in the hypothalamus in particular. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Differential expression of heparan sulfate domains in rat spleen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, G.B. ten; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2003-01-01

    The microarchitecture of the spleen is composed of a meshwork of reticulum cells and their matrix. Heparan sulfates (HS) are important components of this meshwork and are involved in processes such as cell adhesion, cell migration, and cytokine/growth factor binding. The expression of HS epitopes

  17. Treadmill exercise does not change gene expression of adrenal catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJUBICA GAVRILOVIC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chronic isolation of adult animals represents a form of psychological stress that produces sympatho-adrenomedullar activation. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenomedullary system. This study aimed to investigate physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-ß-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB in the adrenal medulla, concentrations of catecholamines and corticosterone (CORT in the plasma and the weight of adrenal glands of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20 min treadmill running for 12 weeks. Also, we examined how additional acute immobilization stress changes the mentioned parameters. Treadmill running did not result in modulation of gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes and it decreased the level of CREB mRNA in the adrenal medulla of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats. The potentially negative physiological adaptations after treadmill running were recorded as increased concentrations of catecholamines and decreased morning CORT concentration in the plasma, as well as the adrenal gland hypertrophy of chronically psychosocially stressed rats. The additional acute immobilization stress increases gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the adrenal medulla, as well as catecholamines and CORT levels in the plasma. Treadmill exercise does not change the activity of sympatho-adrenomedullary system of chronically psychosocially stressed rats.

  18. Structural and biochemical properties of cloned and expressed human and rat steroid 5α-reductases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Russell, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The microsomal enzyme steroid 5α-reductase is responsible for the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone. In man, this steroid acts on a variety of androgen-responsive target tissues to mediate such diverse endocrine processes as male sexual differentiation in the fetus and prostatic growth in men. Here we describe the isolation, structure, and expression of a cDNA encoding the human steroid 5α-reductase. A rat cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human prostate cDNA library. A 2.1-kilobase cDNA was identified and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the human steroid 5α-reductase was a hydrophobic protein of 259 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 29,462. A comparison of the human and rat protein sequences revealed a 60% identity. Transfection of expression vectors containing the human and rat cDNAs into simian COS cells resulted in the synthesis of high levels of steroid 5α-reductase enzyme activity. Both enzymes expressed in COS cells showed similar substrate specificities for naturally occurring steroid hormones. However, synthetic 4-azasteroids demonstrated marked differences in their abilities to inhibit the human and rat steroid 5α-reductases

  19. [Changes of TGF-β1 expression during orthodontic tooth movement in rats with osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-He; Wang, Yang; Liao, Nan-Nan; Li, Jin-Yuan; Dong, Qing

    2017-02-01

    To observe the expression and distribution of TGF-β1 in periodontal tissue under intervention of Strontium ranelate and Qianggu capsule during orthodontic tooth movement in rats, and explore the efficacy of the 2 drugs. Seventy male SD rats of 3 months old were selected in the study, and randomly divided into control group, model control group, Strontium ranelate group, Qianggu capsule group, each group had 15 animals. Retinoic acid was given by gavage to animals in the control group, Strontium ranelate group, Qianggu capsule group for 2 weeks, and bone density was detected to determine successful establishment of osteoporosis model. All rats were installed orthodontic device, and were sacrificed at 7 days, 14 days and 21 days, respectively. The tissue blocks of the first maxillary molar and adjacent alveolar bone were taken for H-E staining, immunohistochemical staining and semi-quantitative analysis was used to detect TGF-β1 expression in periodontal tissues. The data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software package. TGF- beta 1 expression was significantly increased in Strontium ranelate group and Qianggu capsule group compared with control group (Posteoporosis rats, which is helpful to the movement of healthy teeth; the effect of Strontium ranelate is stronger than Qianggu capsule.

  20. Expression of inwardly rectifying K+ channels in the carotid body of rat

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Y.; Ishikawa, R.; Omoe, K.; Taniguchi, K.

    2008-01-01

    The inwardly rectifying K+ channels, Kir1.1, Kir2.3, Kir4.1-Kir5.1, and Kir4.2-Kir5.1, are candidate chemosensory molecules for CO2/H+. Here, we determined the mRNA expression and immunohistochemical localization of these channels in the carotid body (CB) and petrosal ganglion (PG) of the rat. RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression of Kir4.1 and Kir5.1 in CB, and Kir1.1, Kir4.1, and Kir5.1 in PG. Immunohistochemistry identified the glomus cells in CB to express bo...

  1. Cocaine place conditioning increases pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression in rat hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Y; Kruyer, A; Ho, A; Kreek, MJ

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests an involvement of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene products in modulating cocaine reward and addiction-like behaviors in rodents. In this study, we investigated whether cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) alters POMC gene expression in the brain or pituitary of rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned with 4 injections of 0, 10 or 30 mg/kg cocaine (i.p.) over 8 days and tested 4 days after the last conditioning session. Another group received the same...

  2. StAR protein and steroidogenic enzyme expressions in the rat Harderian gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvo, Sara; Chieffi Baccaria, Gabriella; Spaziano, Giuseppe; Rosati, Luigi; Venditti, Massimo; Di Flore, Maria Maddalena; Santillo, Alessandra

    2018-03-10

    The Harderian gland (HG) of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) secretes copious amounts of lipids, such as cholesterol. Here we report a study of the expressions of the StAR protein and key steroidogenic enzymes in the HG of male and female rats. The objective of the present investigation was to ascertain (a) whether the rat HG is involved in steroid production starting with cholesterol, and (b) whether the pattern of gene and protein expressions together with the enzymatic activities display sexual dimorphism. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the expression of StAR gene and protein, and Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b3, Srd5a1, Srd5a2 and Cyp19a1 genes in the rat HG. StAR mRNA and protein expressions were much greater in males than in females. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a non-homogeneous StAR distribution among glandular cells. Hsd17b3 and Cyp19a1 mRNA levels were higher in males than in females, whereas Srd5a1 mRNA levels were higher in females than in males. No significant differences were observed in mRNA levels of Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1 and Srd5a2 between sexes. Furthermore, the in vitro experiments demonstrated a higher 5α-reductase activity in the female as compared to the male HG vice versa a higher P450 aro activity in males as compared to females. These results suggest that the Harderian gland can be classified as a steroidogenic tissue because it synthesizes cholesterol, expresses StAR and steroidogenic enzymes involved in both androgen and estrogen synthesis. The dimorphic expression and activity of the steroidogenic enzymes may suggest sex-specific hormonal effects into the HG physiology. Copyright © 2018 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Melatonin reduces the expression of chemokines in rat with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun H.; Zhou, W.; Liu, K.; Li, Hong X.; Wang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the colon inflammatory injury of rats with colitis and determine whether this effect is associated with inhibition of chemoattractant molecules interleukins (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1.The study was designed and implemented in JingMen No.1 People's Hospital, HuBei Province, from May 2006 to April 2007. It involved 72 animals divided into 6 groups of 12 each: normal group, model group, 5-aminosalisalicylic acid group, and melatonin group (dose of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg). Rat colitis model was established by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. Interleukin-8 and MCP-1 proteins in colon tissue were examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The messenger-RNA expressions of chemokines were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid enema resulted in pronounced pathological changes of colonic mucosa in model rats, which were in accordance with the significantly elevated Myeloperoxidase activity. Expressions of chemokines were up-regulated in colitis. Melatonin treatment reduced colonic lesions and improved colitis symptom, and decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of IL-8 and MCP-1 significantly in colon tissues of rats with colitis. Chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 are elevated in mucosal tissues in colitis and play an important role in the perpetuation of tissue destructive inflammatory process; melatonin reduces colonic inflammatory injury of rats colitis through down-regulating the expressions of chemokines. Melatonin can be considered as a novel therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. (author)

  4. Decaffeinated coffee consumption induces expression of tight junction proteins in high fat diet fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzone G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidence indicates that gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of NAFLD through the gut-liver axis. An altered gut permeability induced by alterations of tight junction (TJ proteins allows the passage of bacteria and substances leading to liver inflammation, hepatocyte damage and fibrosis. This study aims to evaluate the influence of decaffeinated coffee on gut permeability in a rat model of fat liver damage induced by a high fat diet (HFD. Methods: Twelve male Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups. The first group received HFD for 5 months and drank water. The second group received HFD for 5 months and drank water added with 1.2mL decaffeinated coffee/day starting from the 4th month. The third group received standard diet (SD and drank water. Protein and mRNA expression levels of Toll-Like Receptor- 4 (TLR-4, Occludin and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 were assessed in rat intestines. Results: A significant reduction of Occludin and ZO-1 was observed in HFD fed rats (0.97±0.05 vs 0.15±0.08 p˂0.01, and 0.97±0.05 vs 0.57±0.14 p˂0.001 respectively. This reduction was reverted in HFD+COFFEE rats (0.15±0.08 vs 0.83±0.27 p˂0.01 and 0.57±0.14 vs 0.85±0.12 p˂0.01 respectively. The TLR-4 expression up-regulated by HFD was partially reduced by coffee administration. Conclusions: HFD impairs the intestinal TJ barrier integrity. Coffee increases the expression of TJ proteins, reverting the altered gut permeability and reducing TLR-4 expression.

  5. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  6. Effect of rat ovary irradiation or OVX on the expression of COLI and TGF-β1 mRNA in the rat bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanhong; Gao Jianjun; Jin Weifang; Wang Hongfu

    2003-01-01

    To observe the effects of exposure of rat ovary to radiation or OVX on the expression of TGF-β 1 and COLI in the rat bone. The mRNA levels of TGF-β 1 and COLI in rat tibiae were measured with RT-PCR after the rat ovaries were irradiated by 50 Gy of 137 Cs γ-rays or OVX. For both the radiation group and the OVX group, the COLI mRNA level in the rat bone increased, whereas the TGF-β 1 decreased. Irradiation of ovary and OVX affect the expression of COLI and TGF-β 1 mRNA in bone probably in a similar way which is related to estrogen decrease

  7. Suppression of calpain expression by NSAIDs is associated with inhibition of cell migration in rat duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Kristopher; Littlejohn, A; Thomas, Laurel; Bawa, Bhupinder; Lillich, James D

    2017-05-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the alleviation of pain and inflammation, but these drugs are also associated with a suite of negative side effects. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is particularly concerning since it affects an estimated 70% of individuals taking NSAIDs routinely, and evidence suggests the majority of toxicity is occurring in the small intestine. Traditionally, NSAID-induced GI toxicity has been associated with indiscriminate inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms, but other mechanisms, including inhibition of cell migration, intestinal restitution, and wound healing, are likely to contribute to toxicity. Previous efforts demonstrated that treatment of cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) with NSAIDs inhibits expression and activity of calpain proteases, but the effects of specific inhibition of calpain expression in vitro or the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal cell migration in vivo remain to be determined. Accordingly, we examined the effect of suppression of calpain protease expression with siRNA on cell migration in cultured IECs and evaluated the effects of NSAID treatment on epithelial cell migration and calpain protease expression in rat duodenum. Our results show that calpain siRNA inhibits protease expression and slows migration in cultured IECs. Additionally, NSAID treatment of rats slowed migration up the villus axis and suppressed calpain expression in duodenal epithelial cells. Our results are supportive of the hypothesis that suppression of calpain expression leading to slowing of cell migration is a potential mechanism through which NSAIDs cause GI toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of liver-specific functions in rat hepatocytes following sublethal and lethal acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygstrup, N; Jensen, S A; Krog, B

    1996-01-01

    AIM: In order to study the short-term effect of moderate and severe reduction of liver function by acetaminophen poisoning of different severity on gene expression for liver-specific functions, rats were given 3.75 and 7.5 g per kg body weight acetaminophen intragastrically. The lower dose...... is associated with low mortality; after the higher dose, most rats die at between 12 and 24 h. METHODS: In the morning, 1 1/2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after the injection, the rats were killed and RNA was extracted from liver tissue. By slot-blot hybridization mRNA steady-state levels were determined for enzymes...

  9. Expression Profile of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in Rats with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ray Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The transcellular arginine transportation via cationic amino acid transporter (CAT is the rate-limiting step in nitric oxide (NO synthesis, which is crucial in intraocular inflammation. In this study, CAT isoforms and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression was investigated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU. Methods. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection. In the treatment group, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib before EIU induction. After 24 hours, leukocyte quantification, NO measurement of the aqueous humor, and histopathological examination were evaluated. The expression of CAT isoforms and iNOS was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used to validate the in vivo findings. Results. LPS significantly stimulated iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B mRNA and protein expression but did not affect CAT-1 in EIU rats and RAW 264.7 cells. Bortezomib attenuated inflammation and inhibited iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B expression through NF-κB inhibition. Conclusions. CAT-2 and iNOS, but not CAT-1, are specifically involved in EIU. NF-κB is essential in the induction of CAT-2 and iNOS in EIU.

  10. Serum expression of HA and LN in lewis rat models of autoimmune myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Li'na; Li Tieling; Zhang Yajing; Yang Tingshu; Ding Yu; Guo Shuli; Zhao Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of dynamic changes of serum expressions of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) in Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Methods: Fifty Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) were established with injection of recombinant cardiac C protein with complete freund adjuvant into two foot-pads plus intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin. At 1w, 2w, 4w, 6w and 8w, 10 models were sacrificed each time;cardiac tissues were examined with HE stain for myocardial inflammatory score and examined with picrosirius red stain for myocardial fibrosis score, also, serum HA and LN expressions were determined with RIA. These examinations were performed in 10 undisturbed animals as controls. Results: The myocardial inflammatory scores of the models at 1w were about the same as those in the controls, but the scores rapidly increased from 2w on to 4w then fell gradually. The myocardial fibrosis scores of the models at 1wk were also not much different from those in controls. The fibrosis scores increased rapidly at 4w and maintained at high level up to 8w. The changes of serum expressions of HA and LN roughly paralleled those of myocardial fibrosis scores i. e. rapidly increased at 4w up to 8w. Conclusion: Serum expressions of HA and LN could faithfully reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis in rat models of EAM. HA and LN were useful markers of myocardial fibrois and were of prognostic importance. (authors)

  11. Expression of FSH receptor in ovary tissue of rats with letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongsheng; An Changxin; Chen Dong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of FSH receptor mRNA and protein in ovary tissue in rats with letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to provide experimental data for the model application. Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=20), in PCOS model group letrozole was administered once daily during 21 d, and in control group without any treatment. The gonadal hormone concentrations in serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, the histologic changes in ovaries were observed by HE staining, the expression of FSH receptor gene in ovary tissue was detected by realtime -PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared with control group, estradiol (E 2 ) and progesterone in model group showed a considerable reduction (P 0.05). Compared with control group, the ovaries from model group showed high incidence of subcapsular ovarian cyst and capsular thickening and decreased number of corpora lute a. The expressions of FSH receptor mRNA and protein were significantly higher in model group than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of FSH receptor gene in letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries is similar with that of PCOS women, the rat model is proved to be an ideal PCOS animal model to study the pathophysiology of PCOS. (authors)

  12. Effects of acupuncture on the gene expression profile of lung tissue from normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lei-Miao; Wang, Yu; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yu-Dong; Liu, Yan-Yan; Jin, Wei-Rong; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Yang, Yong-Qing

    2012-08-01

    Acupuncture has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for various diseases. However, little attention has been paid to its physiological influences, especially on the changes in protein and mRNA levels following acupuncture treatment under normal conditions. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profile of lung tissue from acupuncture-treated normal rats and attempted to characterize the underlying mechanisms of the changes in expression. Three common acupoints, Dazhui (GV14), fengmen (BL12) and feishu (BL13) were selected for analysis, and 2 serial analyses of gene expression (SAGE) tag libraries of the lung tissues that were derived from the normal and acupuncture-treated rats were established. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out using the functional annotation tools of the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID), the gene ontology (GO) Tree Machine and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. In total, 144 tags were differentially expressed (PSAGE libraries. Our results show that the essential effects of acupuncture on normal rats include the regulation of macromolecular biosynthesis, transportation and metabolism. Cellular biosynthesis and cellular lipid metabolism are the common biological processes that occur in response to acupuncture under normal and morbid conditions, which may be the general physiological effects of acupuncture.

  13. A new role for GABAergic transmission in the control of male rat sexual behavior expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela; Canseco-Alba, Ana

    2017-03-01

    GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABA A receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state. To test this hypothesis, in the present work we investigated the effect of GABA A receptor blockade in sexually exhausted males 24h after copulation to satiety, once the sexual inhibitory state is established, and compared it with its effect in sexually experienced rats. Results showed that low doses of systemically administered bicuculline induced sexual behavior expression in sexually exhausted rats, but lacked an effect on copulation of sexually experienced animals. Intra-VTA bilateral infusion of bicuculline did not modify sexual behavior of sexually experienced rats, but induced sexual behavior expression in all the sexually exhausted males. Hence, GABA plays a role in the control of sexual behavior expression at the VTA. The role played by GABAergic transmission in male sexual behavior expression of animals with distinct sexual behavior conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Time-dependent expression and distribution of Egr-1 during skeletal muscle wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan-Yan; Ye, Guang-Hua; Lin, Ke-Zhi; Yu, Lin-Sheng; Wu, Shu-Zhen; Dong, Miao-Wu; Han, Jun-Ge; Feng, Xiang-Ping; Li, Xing-Biao

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) plays an important role in regulation of inflammation and tissue repair, but little is known about its expression after trauma to skeletal muscles. A preliminary study on time-dependent expression and distribution of Egr-1 was performed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blotting during skeletal muscle wound healing in rats. An animal model of skeletal muscle contusion was established in 45 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Samples were taken at 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, 3 days, 5 days, 7 days, 10 days, 14 days and 21 days post-injury, respectively (5 rats in each posttraumatic interval). 5 rats were employed as control. In the uninjured controls, Egr-1 positive staining was observed in the sarcoplasm and nuclei of normal myofibers. In wounded specimens, a small number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), a number of mononuclear cells (MNCs), fibroblastic cells (FBCs) and regenerated multinucleated myotubes showed positive reaction for Egr-1 in contused zones. By morphometric analysis, an increase in Egr-1 expression was verified at inflammatory phase after contusion, which reached a peak in the regenerated phase overlapping with the fibrotic phase during skeletal muscle wound healing. The expression tendency was further confirmed by Western blotting assay. By immunofluorescent staining for co-localization, the Egr-1-positive MNCs and FBCs in wounds were identified as macrophages and myofibroblasts. The results demonstrate that the expression of Egr-1 is up-regulated and temporally distributed in certain cell types after trauma to skeletal muscles, which may be closely involved in inflammatory response, fibrotic repair and muscle regeneration during skeletal muscle wound healing.

  15. Induction Effect of Bisphenol A on Gene Expression Involving Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Bisphenol A (BPA is an abundantly used xenoestrogenic chemical which may cause various disorders in body. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of various doses of BPA on hepatic oxidative stress-related gene expression in rats. Methods. Male Wistar rats weighing 150–200 g were used in this study. Three doses of the BPA (5, 25, and 125 μg/kg in corn oil were administered as gavage during 35 consecutive days. After the experiment, the rats were expired and the livers were removed and stored at −80°C freezer for RNA extraction. Findings. The Real Time PCR showed increased expression of HO-1 in the rats receiving BPA doses compared to the control group. This effect was dose-dependent and higher at doses of 25 and 125 μg/kg than 5 μg/kg of body weight (p<0.05. It was also demonstrated that various doses BPA can increase GADD45B gene expression compared to control group. That expression was significantly dominant in the lowest dose (5 μg/kg of the BPA (p<0.05. The final body weights (168.0±10.0 gr in the treatment group [BPA (125 μg/kg] showed a significant decrease compared to control group (191.60±6.50 gr. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that BPA generated ROS and increased the antioxidant gene expression that causes hepatotoxicity.

  16. [Effect of Xinmailong on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in neonatal rats with asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Xin; Wu, Xing-Heng

    2009-08-01

    Xinmailong, a compound extracted from Periplaneta americana, is used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the effects of Xinmailong on myocardial hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and plasma endothelin-1(ET-1) levels in neonatal rats with asphyxia and explored the protection mechanism of Xinmailong in hypoxia-ischemic myocardial injury. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=30 each): sham-operated, asphyxia, Xinmailong-treated asphyxia. Each group was randomly subdivided into three groups according to the observed time points: 6 hrs, 24 hrs and 72 hrs. Xinmailong (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to the rats in the Xinmailong-treated group five minutes before asphyxia. Myocardial HIF-1alpha expression, and plasma ET-1 and creatine kinase (CK) levels were measured. The histopathologic changes of the myocardium were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Four rats died in the asphyxia group while only one died in the Xinmailong-treated group during the experiment. The plasma ET-1 and CK levels as well as myocardial HIF-1alpha expression increased at 6 hrs, reached a peak at 24 hrs, and declined at 72 hrs after asphyxia in the asphyxia group, being higher than that in the sham-operated group (Pasphyxia in the asphyxia group. Myocardial HIF-1alpha expression was positively correlated with plasma ET-1 levels (r=0.876, Pasphyxia group (PAsphyxia leads to increase in myocardial HIF-1alpha expression and plasma levels of ET-1 and CK. Xinmailong can reduce the myocardial expression of HIF-1alpha and decrease plasma ET-1 levels, thus alleviating hypoxia-ischemic myocardial injury.

  17. Serum leptin concentrations, leptin mRNA expression, and food intake during the estrous cycle in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fungfuang, Wirasak; Nakada, Tomoaki; Nakao, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    :00) of the 4-day estrous cycle in female rats. Serum leptin levels were measured by ELISA, and leptin mRNA expression levels were analyzed using real-time PCR on diestrous- and proestrous-stage rats. Our results revealed that during the sexual cycle, food intake was significantly higher in the dark phase......The aim of this study was to investigate food intake, serum leptin levels, and leptin mRNA expression during the sexual cycle in rats. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats aged 8-10 weeks were used in this experiment. Food intake was measured during the light and dark phases (light on at 07:00 and off at 19...... compared with the light phase. Food intake in proestrous females was significantly lower in the light and dark phases compared with the other groups. Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in both phases in proestrous rats compared with diestrous rats. There was a significant increase...

  18. Fluvastatin increases insulin-like growth factor-1 gene expression in rat model of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansy, Wael H.; Sourour, Doaa A.; Shaker, Olfat G.; Mahfouz, Mahmoud M.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was found to have a role in both glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to compare the effects of fluvastatin and metformin on IGF-1 mRNA expression within the liver and other individual components of the metabolic syndrome induced in rats by high fructose feeding. Rats fed 60% fructose in diet for 6 weeks were treated daily with fluvastatin (3.75 mg/kg/day) during the last two weeks and were compared with untreated fructose fed group. Fasting levels of plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, nitric oxide products, IGF-1 mRNA within the liver as well as systolic blood pressure and body weight were determined. Compared to control rats, the fructose fed group developed hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and endothelial dysfunction as well as decreased levels of plasma IGF-1 and its mRNA within the liver. Fructose fed rats treated with fluvastatin or metformin for 2 weeks showed significant decrease in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin and glucose levels compared to untreated fructose fed group. Also, both drugs increased significantly plasma levels of nitric oxide products and IGF-1 together with significant increase in IGF-1 mRNA within the liver. However, only metformin treated rats showed significant decrease in systolic blood pressure compared to fructose fed group. This study showed that in a rat model of insulin resistance, fluvastatin improves the metabolic profile and increases plasma level of IGF-1 and its gene expression as effective as metformin. (author)

  19. Expression of rat oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 in COS-7 cells following its eukaryotic expression vector construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, D-W; Han, X-J; Wang, Y-L; Xu, H-S

    2014-08-01

    The basic HLH transcription factor Olig is a key regulator for differentiating the oligodendrocyte lineage cells during development. Oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 (Olig2) plays a crucial role in differentiating the oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord. We aimed to construct and investigate the eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid in the rat Olig2. The experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College from October 2011 to March 2012. The pEGFP-N1 vector was purchased from Invitrogen. JM101 competent cells and COS-7 cells were preserved at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College, China. The Olig2 cDNA fragment was cloned by RT-PCR with the total RNA from the neonatal rat spinal cord, and subsequently cloned into pGEM-T vector. The confirmed Olig2 fragment was then cloned into the pEGFP-N1 vector. The right recombinant was transfected into COS-7 cells by lipofectamine 2000. The expression of the Olig2 in COS-7 cells was detected by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Enzyme digestion and sequencing of the recombinant plasmid; and expression of the Olig2 were analyzed by fluorescence microscope and western blot. The correct pEGFP-N1-Olig2 cloning was verified by restriction endonuclease digestion and sequencing. The western blot analysis indicated that the Olig2-GFP fusion protein was expressed in the COS-7/pEGFP-N1-Olig2 cells at 72 h. The pEGFP-N1-Olig2 vector was constructed successfully. The Olig2-GFP fusion protein was expressed in the COS-7/pEGFP-N1-Olig2 cells. This study lays the foundation for further research in gene therapy for central nervous system demyelinating diseases.

  20. Expression of GLUT1 in stratified squamous epithelia and oral carcinoma from humans and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1997-01-01

    mucosa from rat and man, and a human oral carcinoma by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. The results showed that GLUT1 was expressed in the basal and parabasal layers of the different stratified squamous epithelia, with some variations between keratinized and non-keratinized subtypes. GLUT1...... was also expressed in ductal- and myoepithelial cells of minor salivary glands and perineural sheath located in the lamina propra, and furthermore in the cells of an oral carcinoma. GLUT4 was not expressed in any of the tissues examined. This distribution of GLUT1 does not fit with the idea of GLUT1......Most cells express facilitative glucose transporters. Four isoforms (GLUT1-4) transporting D-glucose across the plasma membrane show a specific tissue distribution, which is the basis for tissue-specific patterns in glucose metabolism. GLUT1 is expressed at high levels in tissue barriers...

  1. Growth hormone regulation of rat liver gene expression assessed by SSH and microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardmo, Cissi; Swerdlow, Harold; Mode, Agneta

    2002-04-25

    The sexually dimorphic secretion of growth hormone (GH) that prevails in the rat leads to a sex-differentiated expression of GH target genes, particularly in the liver. We have used subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH) to search for new target genes induced by the female-characteristic, near continuous, pattern of GH secretion. Microarrays and dot-blot hybridizations were used in an attempt to confirm differential ratios of expression of obtained SSH clones. Out of 173 unique SSH clones, 41 could be verified as differentially expressed. Among these, we identified 17 known genes not previously recognized as differentially regulated by the sex-specific GH pattern. Additional SSH clones may also represent genes subjected to sex-specific GH regulation since only transcripts abundantly expressed could be verified. Optimized analyses, specific for each gene, are required to fully characterize the degree of differential expression.

  2. Study of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Sprague Dawley Rat Gastric Cancer Induced by H. Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aeini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumors; the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer are on the increase nowadays. Helicobacter pylori(H.Pylori causes chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Cycloocygenase-2 (COX-2 is the central enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to prostaglandins. Studies from different laboratories suggested that over-expression of COX-2 was detected in colon and other tumors. To obtain direct evidence concerning this relationship, we investigated the immunohistochemical findings of gastric mucosa using an animal model of gastric cancer induced by H. pylori in sprague dawley rat. Methods: The rats were randomly assigned into three groups(n=5. Those of experimental group2 were given MNU. one week after completion of MNU administration, rats in experimental groups 1 were inoculated with H. pylori three times every other day. Rats in control group(group 3 received neither MNU nor H. pylori. Rats of groups 1, 2, and control group were maintained on standard diets throughout the experiment. Rat were weighed and sacrificed under anesthesia with ether at 20 weeks after infection. One half of the excised stomachs, were fixed in neutral-buffered 10% formalin and were cut into approximately six strips, which were processed by standard methods, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 6 µm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and immunohistochemistry for Cox-2 protein detection. To confirm H. pylori infection, samples ( 3-mm2 of stomach mucosa transferred to appropriate medium  and Colonies were identified by characteristic Gram’s stain morphology, and by urease, catalase, and oxidase activity sample was also placed into the gel of a rapid urease test kit. Results: Data showed a significant decrease of animal body weight in experimental groups compared with control group

  3. Study of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Sprague Dawley Rat Gastric Cancer Induced by H. Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooladi A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Gastric cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumors; the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer are on the increase nowadays. Helicobacter pylori(H.Pylori causes chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Cycloocygenase-2 (COX-2 is the central enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to prostaglandins. Studies from different laboratories suggested that over-expression of COX-2 was detected in colon and other tumors. To obtain direct evidence concerning this relationship, we investigated the immunohistochemical findings of gastric mucosa using an animal model of gastric cancer induced by H. pylori in sprague dawley rat.Methods: The rats were randomly assigned into three groups(n=5. Those of experimental group2 were given MNU. one week after completion of MNU administration, rats in experimental groups 1 were inoculated with H. pylori three times every other day. Rats in control group(group 3 received neither MNU nor H. pylori. Rats of groups 1, 2, and control group were maintained on standard diets throughout the experiment. Rat were weighed and sacrificed under anesthesia with ether at 20 weeks after infection. One half of the excised stomachs, were fixed in neutral-buffered 10% formalin and were cut into approximately six strips, which were processed by standard methods, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 6 µm, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and immunohistochemistry for Cox-2 protein detection. To confirm H. pylori infection, samples ( 3-mm2 of stomach mucosa transferred to appropriate medium and Colonies were identified by characteristic Gram’s stain morphology, and by urease, catalase, and oxidase activity sample was also placed into the gel of a rapid urease test kit.Results: Data showed a significant decrease of animal body weight in experimental groups compared with control group. Histopathological studies showed severe infiltration of the lamina propria and submucusaal layer by

  4. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

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    Jacob Barbara A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier function was assessed by determining lung liquid clearance in vivo and alveolar epithelial monolayer permeability in vitro. Oxidant stress in the alveolar space was determined by measuring the glutathione redox couple by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression and membrane localization of key tight junction proteins were assessed. Finally, the direct effects of the HIV-related proteins gp120 and Tat on alveolar epithelial barrier formation and tight junction protein expression were determined. Results HIV-1 transgene expression caused oxidant stress within the alveolar space and impaired epithelial barrier function even though there was no evidence of overt inflammation within the airways. The expression and membrane localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin were decreased in alveolar epithelial cells from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Further, treating alveolar epithelial monolayers from wild type rats in vitro with recombinant gp120 or Tat for 24 hours reproduced many of the effects on zonula occludens-1 and occludin expression and membrane localization. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-related proteins cause oxidant stress and alter the expression of critical tight junction proteins in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in barrier dysfunction.

  5. Expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat kidneys exposed to high +Gz

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    Hyun-Soo Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to high gravitational acceleration forces acting along the body axis from the head to the feet (+Gz severely reduces blood flow to the visceral organs, including the kidneys. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK figures predominantly in mediating kidney cell responses to a wide variety of stress-related stimuli. Though previous studies have shown the activation of ERK in some experimental models, the regulation of ERK associated with +Gz exposure has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high +Gz exposure on ERK activation in the kidneys. Using a small animal centrifuge, eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to +10Gz or +13Gz three times for 3 minutes each. The bilateral kidneys were obtained from each rat, and the expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. In the control group, the collecting duct epithelium displayed faint cytoplasmic staining with no nuclear staining of p-ERK. By contrast, rats exposed to +10Gz showed strong nuclear staining intensity for p-ERK. In the renal papilla, the epithelial cells of collecting ducts and thin segments of the loop of Henle exhibited strong nuclear immunoreactivity for p-ERK. Rats exposed to +13Gz also showed the same staining intensity and distribution of p-ERK expression as that of rats exposed to +10Gz. This study is the first to describe +Gz exposure-induced alteration in the expression of p-ERK in the kidneys. Our finding suggests that high +Gz exposure leads to the activation of ERK in the renal papilla.

  6. Effects of pharmacological treatments on hippocampal NCAM1 and ERK2 expression in epileptic rats with cognitive dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Qingxia; Min, Xia; Sun, Ran; Gao, Jianying; Liang, Ruqing; Li, Lei; Chu, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of various pharmacological agents on the hippocampal expression of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in epileptic rats with cognitive dysfunction. The experiments were conducted using 120 Wistar rats: 20 controls and 100 with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). The SE rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=20/group) that received daily treatments for 1 month with one of the...

  7. Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Kim, Dong Hun; Park, Soo Bong; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Woo; Do, Yoon Jun; Park, Jae-Hong; Yang, Boh-Suk

    2012-05-01

    Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski) was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.

  8. Sex difference in mecp2 expression during a critical period of rat brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Joseph R; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M; Auger, Anthony P

    2007-09-01

    Pervasive developmental disorder is a classification covering five related conditions including the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT) and autism. Of these five conditions, only RTT has a known genetic cause with mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a global repressor of gene expression, responsible for the majority of RTT cases. However, recent evidence indicates that reduced MeCP2 expression or activity is also found in autism and other disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Considering the sex difference in autism diagnosis, with males diagnosed four times more often than females, we questioned if a sex difference existed in the expression of MeCP2, in particular within the amygdala, a region that develops atypically in autism. We found that male rats express significantly less mecp2 mRNA and protein than females within the amygdala, as well as the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), but not within the preoptic area (POA) on post-natal day 1 (PN1). At PN10 these differences were gone; however, on this day males had more mecp2 mRNA than females within the POA. The transient sex difference of mecp2 expression during the steroid-sensitive period of brain development suggests that mecp2 may participate in normal sexual differentiation of the rat brain. Considering the strong link between MeCP2 and neurodevelopmental disorders, the lower levels of mecp2 expression in males may also underlie a biological risk for mecp2-related neural disorders.

  9. Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL. Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.

  10. Expression of a functional Fc epsilon RI on rat eosinophils and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowicz, D; Quatannens, B; Papin, J P; Capron, A; Capron, M

    2000-08-01

    Besides its crucial role in type I hypersensitivity reactions, IgE is involved in anti-parasite immunity. This role has been clearly demonstrated in both human and rat schistosomiasis, but remains controversial in the mouse. Since the cellular distribution of the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon RI, differs in humans and mice, it might explain the differences in effector function of IgE between the two species. In humans, eosinophils and macrophages induce IgE-dependent cytotoxicity toward Schistosoma mansoni larvae, which involves Fc epsilon RI in the case of eosinophils. In the present study, we have investigated the expression and function of Fc epsilon RI in rat eosinophils and macrophages. We demonstrate, by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and western blot analysis, that in rats, as in humans, a functional alpha gamma 2 trimeric Fc epsilon RI is expressed on eosinophils and macrophages. We also show that these two cell types can induce IgE-mediated, Fc epsilon RI-dependent cellular cytotoxicity toward schistosomula. These results thus provide a molecular basis for the differences observed between rat and mouse regarding IgE-mediated anti-parasite immunity.

  11. Expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in rat blood, heart and brain during induced systemic hypoxia

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    Septelia I. Wanandi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia results in an increased generation of ROS. Until now, little is known about the role of MnSOD - a major endogenous antioxidant enzyme - on the cell adaptation response against hypoxia. The aim of this study was to  determine the MnSOD mRNA expression and levels of specific activity in blood, heart and brain of rats during induced systemic hypoxia.Methods: Twenty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to systemic hypoxia in an hypoxic chamber (at 8-10% O2 for 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. The mRNA relative expression of MnSOD was analyzed using Real Time RT-PCR. MnSOD specific activity was determined using xanthine oxidase inhibition assay.Results: The MnSOD mRNA relative expression in rat blood and heart was decreased during early induced systemic hypoxia (day 1 and increased as hypoxia continued, whereas the mRNA expression in brain was increased since day 1 and reached its maximum level at day 7. The result of MnSOD specific activity during early systemic hypoxia was similar to the mRNA expression. Under very late hypoxic condition (day 21, MnSOD specific activity in blood, heart and brain was significantly decreased. We demonstrate a positive correlation between MnSOD mRNA expression and specific activity in these 3 tissues during day 0-14 of induced systemic hypoxia. Furthermore, mRNA expression and specific activity levels in heart strongly correlate with those in blood.Conclusion: The MnSOD expression at early and late phases of induced systemic hypoxia is distinctly regulated. The MnSOD expression in brain differs from that in blood and heart revealing that brain tissue can  possibly survive better from induced systemic hypoxia than heart and blood. The determination of MnSOD expression in blood can be used to describe its expression in heart under systemic hypoxic condition. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:27-33Keywords: MnSOD, mRNA expression, ROS, specific activity, systemic hypoxia

  12. Cerebrovascular Gene Expression in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats After Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Mostajeran, Maryam; Frederiksen, Simona Denise

    2017-01-01

    the pathological mechanisms set in play after stroke. Verified by quantitative PCR, expression of Ccl2, Edn1, Tgfβ2, Olr1 and Serpine1 was significantly increased in the occluded compared to non-occluded MCAs from both SHRs and WKY rats. Additionally, expression of Mmp9, Icam1, Hif1α and Timp1 was increased......Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, which is one of the leading global causes of death. In the search for new and effective therapeutic targets in stroke research, we need to understand the influence of hypertension in the vasculature following stroke. We used Affymetrix whole...... suggest that Ccl2, Edn1, Tgfβ2, Olr1 and Serpine1 may be possible mediators of the vascular changes in the occluded MCAs from both SHRs and WKY rats after tMCAO. The aforementioned genes possess biological functions that are consistent with early stroke injuries. In conclusion, these genes may...

  13. Expression of liver-specific functions in rat hepatocytes following sublethal and lethal acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygstrup, N; Jensen, S A; Krog, B

    1996-01-01

    AIM: In order to study the short-term effect of moderate and severe reduction of liver function by acetaminophen poisoning of different severity on gene expression for liver-specific functions, rats were given 3.75 and 7.5 g per kg body weight acetaminophen intragastrically. The lower dose......: After the smaller dose of acetaminophen, most of the examined mRNA levels were increasing during the experimental period, being two- to four-fold elevated in relation to control after 6 to 12 h. Rats receiving the lethal dose either showed no or a later and smaller increase, and in several cases a fall......: It is concluded that reversible intoxication with acetaminophen induces an adaptive modulation of mRNA expression of liver functions and regeneration which is lacking after severe intoxication. This adaptation, with emphasis on acute phase response and regeneration, may be crucial for recovery after acetaminophen...

  14. High salt-diet reduces SLC14A1 gene expression in the choroid plexus of Dahl salt sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lirong; Meng, Jie; Xuan, Chengluan; Ge, Jingyan; Sun, Wenzhu; O'Rourke, Stephen T; Sun, Chengwen

    2015-05-29

    Elevated Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contributes to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. CSF is formed by the choroid plexus (CP) in cerebral ventricles, and [Na(+)] in CSF is controlled by transporters in CP. Here, we examined the effect of high salt diet on the expression of urea transporters (UTs) in the CP of Dahl S vs Dahl R rats using real time PCR. High salt intake (8%, for 2 weeks) did not alter the mRNA levels of UT-A (encoded by SLC14A2 gene) in the CP of either Dahl S or Dahl R rats. In contrast, the mRNA levels of UT-B (encoded by SLC14A1 gene) were significantly reduced in the CP of Dahl S rats on high salt diet as compared with Dahl R rats or Dahl S rats on normal salt diet. Reduced UT-B expression was associated with increased [Na(+)] in the CSF and elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) in Dahl S rats treated with high salt diet, as measured by radiotelemetry. High salt diet-induced reduction in UT-B protein expression in the CP of Dahl S rats was confirmed by Western blot. Immunohistochemistry using UT-B specific antibodies demonstrated that UT-B protein was expressed on the epithelial cells in the CP. These data indicate that high salt diet induces elevations in CSF [Na(+)] and in MAP, both of which are associated with reduced UT-B expression in the CP of Dahl S rats, as compared with Dahl R rats. The results suggest that altered UT-B expression in the CP may contribute to an imbalance of water and electrolytes in the CSF of Dahl S rats on high salt diet, thereby leading to alterations in MAP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase expression in the developing rat liver: control at different levels in the prenatal period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, A. T.; Salvadó, J.; Boon, L.; Biharie, G.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    To study the regulation of the expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (Glu-DH) in rat liver during development, the Glu-DH mRNA concentration in the liver of rats ranging in age from 14 days prenatal development to 3 months after birth was determined. This concentration increased up to two days

  16. Soy protein diet alters expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid and thyroid hormone metabolism in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined effects of soy protein (SPI) and the isoflavone genistein (GEN) on mRNA expression of key lipid metabolism and thyroid hormone system genes in young adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. SPI-fed rats had less retroperitoneal fat and less hepato-steatosis than casein (CAS, control protein)-...

  17. Osteoprotegerin and ligand of receptor activator of nuclear factor : kappaB expression in ovariectomized rats during tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Lingyong; Cheng, Hui; Sandham, John; Zhao, Zhihe

    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that increased tooth displacement in ovariectomized rats is not related to differential expressions of OPG and RANKL in the periodontium. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four 12-week female rats were used; half were ovariectomized and half were not. Three months

  18. Major carcinogenic pathways identified by gene expression analysis of peritoneal mesotheliomas following chemical treatment in F344 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was performed to characterize the gene expression profile and to identify the major carcinogenic pathways involved in rat peritoneal mesothelioma (RPM) formation following treatment of Fischer 344 rats with o-nitrotoluene (o-NT) or bromochloracetic acid (BCA). Oligo a...

  19. Expression of circulating leucocytes before, during and after myiasis by Dermatobia hominis in experimentally infected rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Jomara M.; Pereira,Mônica C.T.; Evangelista,Luciene G.; Leite,Antônio C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Expression of circulating white blood cells was investigated in rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with larvae of Dermatobia hominis, the human bot fly. Leucocytes were counted prior to infection (control group) as well as at 6, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days post-infection (dpi) and at 7, 15, 30 and 60 days post-larval emergence (dple). Total leucocyte numbers did not differ markedly among the groups. Significant differences were registered when values from control and animals harborin...

  20. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, M.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, J.R.A. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, A.C.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Fioretto, E.T. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Maria, D.A. [Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biofísica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  1. Direct and specific effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on rat Per2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

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    Megumi Anzai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous studies revealed that application of the inhalation anesthetic, sevoflurane, reversibly repressed the expression of Per2 in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. We aimed to examine whether sevoflurane directly affects the SCN. METHODS: We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate rat Per2 expression under sevoflurane-treatment. The in vivo effects of sevoflurane on rPer2 expression were examined by quantitative in situ hybridization with a radioactively-labeled cRNA probe. Additionally, we examined the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on rest/activity rhythms in the rat. In the in vitro experiments, we applied sevoflurane to SCN explant cultures from Per2-dLuc transgenic rats, and monitored luciferase bioluminescence, representing Per2 promoter activity. Bioluminescence from two peripheral organs, the kidney cortex and the anterior pituitary gland, were also analyzed. RESULTS: Application of sevoflurane in rats significantly suppressed Per2 expression in the SCN compared with untreated animals. We observed no sevoflurane-induced phase-shift in the rest/activity rhythms. In the in vitro experiments, the intermittent application of sevoflurane repressed the increase of Per2-dLuc luminescence and led to a phase delay in the Per2-dLuc luminescence rhythm. Sevoflurane treatment did not suppress bioluminescence in the kidney cortex or the anterior pituitary gland. CONCLUSION: The suppression of Per2-dLuc luminescence by sevoflurane in in vitro SCN cultures isolated from peripheral inputs and other nuclei suggest a direct action of sevoflurane on the SCN itself. That sevoflurane has no such effect on peripheral organs suggests that this action might be mediated through a neuron-specific cellular mechanism or a regulation of the signal transduction between neurons.

  2. Alteration in expression of the rat mitochondrial ATPase 6 gene during Pneumocystis carinii infection

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    Bartlett Marilyn S

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumocystis carinii causes pneumonia in immunocompromised patients with a high morbidity and mortality rate, but the interaction between this organism and the host cell is not well understood. The purpose of this research was to study the response of host cells to P. carinii infection on a molecular level. Results The technique of mRNA differential display was used to detect genes whose expression may be affected by P. carinii infection. The nucleotide sequence of one differentially displayed DNA fragment was found to be identical to that of the rat mitochondrial ATPase 6 gene, which is a subunit of the F0F1-ATP synthase complex. A four-fold increase in expression of this gene was verified by Northern blot analysis of total RNA extracted from P. carinii-infected rat lung versus that from mock-infected rat lung. Localization of the cells containing ATPase 6 mRNA was accomplished by in situ hybridization. In sections of non-infected rat lung, these cells were found lining the distal parts of the respiratory tree and in apical areas of the alveoli. Histological location of these cells suggested that they were Clara cells and type II pneumocytes. This hypothesis was confirmed by co-localizing the mRNAs for ATPase 6 and surfactant protein B (SP-B to the same cells by two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization. Conclusions The ATPase 6 gene is over expressed during P. carinii infection, and type II pneumocytes and Clara cells are the cell types responsible for this over-expression.

  3. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aires, M.B.; Santos, J.R.A.; Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S.; Santos, A.C.V.; Fioretto, E.T.; Maria, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers

  4. Long-Term Behavioral Recovery in Parkinsonian Rats by an HSV Vector Expressing Tyrosine Hydroxylase

    OpenAIRE

    During, Matthew J.; Naegele, Janice R.; O’Malley, Karen L.; Geller, Alfred I.

    1994-01-01

    One therapeutic approach to treating Parkinson’s disease is to convert endogenous striatal cells into levo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa)–producing cells. A defective herpes simplex virus type 1 vector expressing human tyrosine hydroxylase was delivered into the partially denervated striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats, used as a model of Parkinson’s disease. Efficient behavioral and biochemical recovery was maintained for 1 year after gene transfer. Biochemical recovery included ...

  5. Expression of histamine receptor genes Hrh3 and Hrh4 in rat brain endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstedt, K; Jin, C; Panula, P

    2013-09-01

    Brain vascular endothelial cells express histamine H1 and H2 receptors, which regulate brain capillary permeability. We investigated whether H3 and H4 receptors are also expressed in these cells and may thus play a role in permeability regulation. An immortalized rat brain endothelial cell line RBE4 was used to assess the presence of H3 and H4 receptors. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and sequencing were used to identify the receptor mRNAs. The receptors were stimulated with histamine and immepip, and specific inverse agonists/antagonists ciproxifan and JNJ 7777120 were used to block H3 and H4 receptors, respectively. RT-PCR of mRNA extracted from cultured immortalized RBE4 cells revealed two rat H4 receptor gene (Hrh4) transcripts, one full-length (coding sequence 1173 bp), and one with a 164 bp deletion. Also, two rat H3 receptor gene (Hrh3) isoform mRNAs were expressed in RBE4 cells, and sequencing showed they were the full-length H3 receptor and the 144 bp deletion form. Both histamine and immepip (H3 and H4 receptor agonists) activated the Erk1/2 MAPK pathway in the RBE4 cells and in vivo in brain blood vessels by activating H4 receptors, as the H4 receptor-specific inverse agonists/antagonist JNJ 7777120, but not ciproxifan, H3 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently blocked this effect in RBE4 cells. Both Hrh3 and Hrh4 receptors are expressed in rat brain endothelial cells, and activation of the histamine H4 receptor activates the Erk1/2 cascade. H3 and H4 receptors in endothelial cells are potentially important for regulation of blood-brain barrier permeability, including trafficking of immunocompetent cells. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Evidence that CFTR is expressed in rat tracheal smooth muscle cells and contributes to bronchodilation

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    Mettey Yvette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The airway functions are profoundly affected in many diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF. CF the most common lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease is caused by mutations of the CFTR gene, which normally encodes a multifunctional and integral membrane protein, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR expressed in airway epithelial cells. Methods To demonstrate that CFTR is also expressed in tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMC, we used iodide efflux assay to analyse the chloride transports in organ culture of rat TSMC, immunofluorescence study to localize CFTR proteins and isometric contraction measurement on isolated tracheal rings to observe the implication of CFTR in the bronchodilation. Results We characterized three different pathways stimulated by the cAMP agonist forskolin and the isoflavone agent genistein, by the calcium ionophore A23187 and by hypo-osmotic challenge. The pharmacology of the cAMP-dependent iodide efflux was investigated in detail. We demonstrated in rat TSMC that it is remarkably similar to that of the epithelial CFTR, both for activation (using three benzo [c]quinolizinium derivatives and for inhibition (glibenclamide, DPC and CFTRinh-172. Using rat tracheal rings, we observed that the activation of CFTR by benzoquinolizinium derivatives in TSMC leads to CFTRinh-172-sensitive bronchodilation after constriction with carbachol. An immunolocalisation study confirmed expression of CFTR in tracheal myocytes. Conclusion Altogether, these observations revealed that CFTR in the airways of rat is expressed not only in the epithelial cells but also in tracheal smooth muscle cells leading to the hypothesis that this ionic channel could contribute to bronchodilation.

  7. Changes in rat testis morphology and androgen receptor expression around the age of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Meseeh, Nabila A; El-Shaarawy, Ehab A A; AlDomairy, Ahmed F; Sehly, Reem A Abou

    2016-05-01

    Androgens are the keystone in fertility and intact sexual functions in males. It exerts its actions via androgen receptors extensively present in testicular cells, only its presence in germ cells is controversial. The alteration of androgen receptors in different testicular cells is usually accompanied by different sexual disorders. On the other hand, many sexual disorders are treated with androgens. Puberty, being the juncture of hormonal blossom, is an important stage to evaluate the evolution of testicular cells including androgen receptors. The aim of the work was to investigate the morphological and androgen receptor changes in different testicular cells during puberty in the rat testis using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. This study was carried out on 45 male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley). The rats were divided into three age groups; group I (prepubertal) 21 days old, group II (peripubertal) 35 days and group III (postpubertal) 90 days old. The rat testes were examined histologically and immuneohistochemically. Cells and androgen receptors were counted using Leica Qwin 500 image analyzer computer system. Data were analyzed using univariate ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. Histological examination of the different ages showed developmental changes of different testicular cells. Immunohistochemical examination revealed the presence of AR in spermatogenic cells in pubertal and postpubertal groups and partially in prepubertal group. AR was clearly expressed in both Sertoli and Leydig cells in the three groups. The maximum expression in Sertoli cells was at 90 days while that of Leydig cells was at the age of 35 days. Androgen receptors should not be excluded as an effective factor on germ cells through its direct action on AR, clearly expressed in spermatogenic cells and its surge at the age of puberty. Studies and treatments should respect the AR expected levels according to age in other testicular cells as well. Sertoli cells show a linear

  8. Dietary loading and aggrecanase-1/TIMP-3 expression in rat mandibular condylar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Tiilikainen, Petri; Raustia, Aune; Pirttiniemi, Pertti

    2007-01-01

    To examine the expression of aggrecanase-1 and a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-3) in the condylar cartilage of young rats and to determine their relationship during altered dietary loading at different time points after weaning. One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: the soft-diet group, which served as the control group (n=50), or the hard-diet group, which served as the experimental group (n=50). Ten soft- and 10 hard-diet rats were killed at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 9 days after weaning (i.e., after initiation of diet change for hard-diet rats). The right-side temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were prepared for immunohistochemical staining. The cartilage from the left-side mandibular condyles of all 10 animals in each group was combined for Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong staining for aggrecanase-1 localized mainly in the chondrocytes of proliferative and upper hypertrophic cartilage zones at all time points in both groups. The immunohistological expression of aggrecanase-1 was significantly higher in the hard-diet group at 12 and 24 hours than in the soft-diet group. Strong staining for TIMP-3 was mainly localized in the chondrocytes of proliferative and upper hypertrophic zones at all time points in both groups. The expression of TIMP-3 in the hard-diet group was at a significantly lower level compared to the soft-diet group at 6 hours. Western blot analysis also showed time-related differences in aggrecanase-1 and TIMP-3, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. The temporary change in aggrecanase-1 and TIMP-3 expression reflects the complex interaction of these enzymes in the physiologic range and cartilage response to altered dietary loading.

  9. Global expression profile of tumor stem-like cells isolated from MMQ rat prolactinoma cell

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhipeng; Cai, Lin; Lu, Jianglong; Li, Chuzhong; Gui, Songbai; Liu, Chunhui; Wang, Chengde; Li, Qun; Zhuge, Qichuan; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have been isolated from various malignancies, were closely correlated with the occurrence, progression, metastasis and recurrence of the malignant cancer. Little is known about the tumor stem-like cells (TSLCs) isolated from benign tumors. Here we want to explore the global expression profile of RNA of tumor stem-like cells isolated from MMQ rat prolactinoma cells. Methods In this study, total RNA was extracted from MMQ cells and MMQ tumor stem-like ...

  10. Transient Congenital Hypothyroidism Alters Gene Expression of Glucose Transporters and Impairs Glucose Sensing Apparatus in Young and Aged Offspring Rats

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    Hanieh Gholami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH could disturb carbohydrate metabolism in adulthood. Aging is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. This study aims to address effects of TCH on mRNA expressions of glucose transporters (GLUTs and glucokinase (GcK in islets and insulin target tissues of aged offspring rats. Methods: The TCH group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. Offspring from control and TCH groups (n=6 in each group were followed until month 19. Gene expressions of GLUTs and GcK were measured at months 3 and 19. Results: Compared to controls, aged TCH rats had higher GLUT4 expression in heart (4.88 fold and soleus (6.91 fold, while expression was lower in epididymal fat (12%. In TCH rats, GLUT2 and GcK expressions in islets were lower in young (12% and 10%, respectively and higher in aged (10.85 and 8.42 fold, respectively rats. In addition, liver GLUT2 and GcK expressions were higher in young (13.11 and 21.15 fold, respectively and lower in aged rats (44% and 5%, respectively. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal period impaired glucose sensing apparatus and changed glucose transporter expression in insulin-sensitive tissues of aged offspring rats. These changes may contribute to impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

  11. Transient Congenital Hypothyroidism Alters Gene Expression of Glucose Transporters and Impairs Glucose Sensing Apparatus in Young and Aged Offspring Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Hanieh; Jeddi, Sajad; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita; Farrokhfall, Khadije; Rouhollah, Fatemeh; Zarkesh, Maryam; Ghanbari, Mahboubeh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) could disturb carbohydrate metabolism in adulthood. Aging is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. This study aims to address effects of TCH on mRNA expressions of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and glucokinase (GcK) in islets and insulin target tissues of aged offspring rats. The TCH group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. Offspring from control and TCH groups (n=6 in each group) were followed until month 19. Gene expressions of GLUTs and GcK were measured at months 3 and 19. Compared to controls, aged TCH rats had higher GLUT4 expression in heart (4.88 fold) and soleus (6.91 fold), while expression was lower in epididymal fat (12%). In TCH rats, GLUT2 and GcK expressions in islets were lower in young (12% and 10%, respectively) and higher in aged (10.85 and 8.42 fold, respectively) rats. In addition, liver GLUT2 and GcK expressions were higher in young (13.11 and 21.15 fold, respectively) and lower in aged rats (44% and 5%, respectively). Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal period impaired glucose sensing apparatus and changed glucose transporter expression in insulin-sensitive tissues of aged offspring rats. These changes may contribute to impaired carbohydrate metabolism. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Phaleria macrocarpa reduces glomerular growth factor expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Evy Sulistyoningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious complication of diabetes, causing end-stage renal disease throughout the world. Recent studies have reported a direct role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and transforming growth factor-â (TGF-â in DN pathogenesis. VEGF and TGF-â are expressed early in glomeruli in response to hyperglycemia. Active substances of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM pericarp are known to have nephroprotective effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl pericarp extract on VEGF and TGF-â expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on twenty five male albino (Sprague Dawley rats divided into five groups (of five each: normal control; diabetic; diabetic + metformin 100 mg/kgBW; diabetic + methanolic PM extract 250 mg/kgBW; and diabetic + aqueous PM extract 250 mg/kgBW. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/BW intraperitoneally. Treatment was given for 3 weeks. VEGF and TGF-â expression analysis was performed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Differences between groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results VEGF expression in the PM extract group was significantly lower than that in the diabetic group and even metformin group (p<0.01. TGF-â expression in methanolic PM extract group was significantly lower than in diabetic and metformin group (p<0.01, but aqueous PM extract group only showed significancy when compared with diabetic group (p< 0.01. Conclusions Phaleria macrocarpa pericarp extract reduces glomerular expression of TGF-â and VEGF in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  13. Oxidative stress induces the decline of brain EPO expression in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Chen, Yubao; Shao, Siying; Tang, Qing; Chen, Weihai; Chen, Yi; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2016-10-01

    Brain Erythropoietin (EPO), an important neurotrophic factor and neuroprotective factor, was found to be associated with aging. Studies found EPO expression was significantly decreased in the hippocampus of aging rat compared with that of the youth. But mechanisms of the decline of the brain EPO during aging remain unclear. The present study utilized a d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging model in which the inducement of aging was mainly oxidative injury, to explore underlying mechanisms for the decline of brain EPO in aging rats. d-gal-induced aging rats (2months) were simulated by subcutaneously injecting with d-gal at doses of 50mg·kg(-1), 150mg·kg(-1) and 250mg·kg(-1) daily for 8weeks while the control group received vehicle only. These groups were all compared with the aging rats (24months) which had received no other treatment. The cognitive impairment was assessed using Morris water maze (MWM) in the prepared models, and the amount of β-galactosidase, the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the hippocampus was examined by assay kits. The levels of EPO, EPOR, p-JAK2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in the hippocampus were detected by western blot. Additionally, the correlation coefficient between EPO/EPOR expression and MDA level was analyzed. The MWM test showed that compared to control group, the escape latency was significantly extended and the times of crossing the platform was decreased at the doses of 150mg·kg(-1) and 250mg·kg(-1) (paging rats, the expressions of EPO, EPOR, p-JAK2, and HIF-2αin the brain of d-gal-treated rats were significantly decreased (paging could result in the decline of EPO in the hippocampus and oxidative stress might be the main reason for the decline of brain EPO in aging rats, involved with the decrease of HIF-2α stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of high intratesticular estrogen on global gene expression and testicular cell number in rats

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    He Zuping

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of estrogen receptors alpha and beta and aromatase in the testis has highlighted the important role of estrogens in regulating spermatogenesis. There is a wealth of information on the deleterious effects of fetal and neonatal exposure of estrogens and xenoestrogens in the testis, including spermiation failure and germ cell apoptosis. However, very little is known about gene transcripts affected by exogenous estradiol exposure in the testis. The objective of the present study was to unveil global gene expression profiles and testicular cell number changes in rats after estradiol treatment. Methods 17beta-estradiol was administered to adult male rats at a dose of 100 micrograms/kg body weight in saline daily for 10 days; male rats receiving only saline were used as controls. Microarray analysis was performed to examine global gene expression profiles with or without estradiol treatment. Real time RT-PCR was conducted to verify the microarray data. In silico promoter and estrogen responsive elements (EREs analysis was carried out for the differentially expressed genes in response to estradiol. Quantitation of testicular cell number based on ploidy was also performed using flow cytometry in rats with or without estradiol treatment. Results We found that 221 genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs were differentially expressed in rat testes treated with estradiol compared to the control; the microarray data were confirmed by real time RT-PCR. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that a number of the differentially expressed genes are involved in androgen and xenobiotic metabolism, maintenance of cell cytoskeleton, endocytosis, and germ cell apoptosis. A total of 33 up-regulated genes and 67 down-regulated genes showed the presence of EREs. Flow cytometry showed that estradiol induced a significant decrease in 2n cells (somatic and germ cells and 4n cells (pachytene spermatocytes and a marked increase in the number of

  15. Vanillin Differentially Affects Azoxymethane-Injected Rat Colon Carcinogenesis and Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23216109

  16. Cocaine place conditioning increases pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression in rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Kruyer, A; Ho, A; Kreek, M J

    2012-11-14

    Recent research suggests an involvement of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene products in modulating cocaine reward and addiction-like behaviors in rodents. In this study, we investigated whether cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) alters POMC gene expression in the brain or pituitary of rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned with 4 injections of 0, 10 or 30 mg/kg cocaine (i.p.) over 8 days and tested 4 days after the last conditioning session. Another group received the same pattern of cocaine injections without conditioning. POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus (including arcuate nucleus), amygdala and anterior pituitary, as well as plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels were measured. Cocaine place conditioning at 10 and 30 mg/kg doses increased POMC mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner in the hypothalamus, with no effect in the amygdala. Cocaine CPP had no effect on POMC mRNA levels in the anterior pituitary or on plasma ACTH or corticosterone levels. In rats that received cocaine at 30 mg/kg without conditioning, there was no such effect on hypothalamic POMC mRNA levels. Alteration of POMC gene expression in the hypothalamus is region-specific after cocaine place conditioning, and dose-dependent. The increased POMC gene expression in the hypothalamus suggests that it is involved in the reward/learning process of cocaine-induced conditioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CARDIOPULMONARY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN NORMO- AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERSENSITIVE (SH) RATS: IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDIOPULMONARY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN NORMO- AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS: IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE. SS Nadadur UP Kodavanti, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, ORD, NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

  18. [Study on RhBMP-2 induced osteoporosis rat BMSCs in vitro osteogenesis and VEGF expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Yun; Bao, Xiao-ming; Wei, Peng-bin; Zhang, Min

    2015-05-01

    To observe the impact of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) osteogenesis in vitro and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) expression in bone osteoporotic to prevent and treat the osteoporosis. Twenty 6-month-old female SD rats weighted (300±20) g underwent bilateral ovariectomized. At 3 months after operation, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density of rats,the values were compared with preoperative to ensure the model successfully, and the osteoporosis rats' BMSCs were cultured by bone marrow adherent cultured and the BMSCs morphology was observed under a phase contrast microscope upside down. The osteoporosis rats' BMSCs at the 2nd generation (p2) were randomly divided into experimental and control groups and were added complete medium (containing rhBMP-2) and osteogenic induced liquid, respectively. Two weeks later, the formation of cell calcium nodules were detected by Alizarin red staining method,alkaline phosphatase activity was measured by enzyme standard instrument and the expression of VEGF was detected by RT-PCT method. (1)Whole body bone mineral density of rats before and after operation were (0.179±0.007), (0.158±0.006) g/cm2,there was statistically significant (t=4.180,Pinduced by BMSCs (P2) in the experimental group had more strong dyeing effect than the control group obviously. (3)Alkaline phosphatase activity at 2 weeks after osteogenesis induced by BMSCs (P2) of the experimental group (15.62±1.27) ug/gprot was significantly higher than that of the control group (8.62±0.93) ug/gprot,there was statistically significant (t=7.709, Pinduced by BMSCs (P2) of the experimental group 3.723±0.143 was significantly higher than that of the control group 0.950±0.072, there was statistically significant (t=29.462, Posteoporosis rat BMSCs, promote the VEGF expression of osteogenesis factor. Regulating the VEGF expression may be one of the mechanisms of BMP-2 to participate in

  19. Effects of aluminum exposure on serum sex hormones and androgen receptor expression in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Hu, Chongwei; Jia, Linlin; Zhu, Yanzhu; Zhao, Hansong; Shao, Bing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Yanfei

    2011-12-01

    The effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on reproductive functions of male rats were investigated. Forty male Wistar rats (4 weeks old) weighing 75-95 g were randomly divided into four groups and orally exposed to 0 (control group GC), 64.18 (low-dose group GL), 128.36 (middle-dose group GM), and 256.72 (high-dose group GH) mg/kg aluminum trichloride in drinking water for 120 days. The levels of testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by radioimmunoassay. The androgen receptor (AR) expressions in testes were detected respectively by immunohistochemistry and time quantitative PCR. Results showed that the levels of T and LH in GM and GH were lower than those in GC (P  0.05). AR protein expressions in GM and GH were lower than those in GC (P < 0.05), and there was a dose-response relationship between Al-exposure doses and AR protein expressions. The levels of AR mRNA expressions were lower in all Al-treated groups than those of GC (P < 0.05). The results indicate that Al can cause endocrinal disorders and interfere with AR expression, which suppresses development and functional maintenance of the testes.

  20. Neuronal VEGF expression correlates with angiogenesis in postnatal developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunshola, O O; Stewart, W B; Mihalcik, V; Solli, T; Madri, J A; Ment, L R

    2000-01-03

    When exposed to chronic sublethal hypoxia the developing brain responds with increases in permeability and angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may mediate this response. Here, we present data on the localization of VEGF in the rat brain cortex during postnatal development and its correlation to vascularization. We reared newborn rats under normoxic conditions and in hypoxic chambers (FiO(2) 9.5%), removed them at postnatal days (P) 3, 8, 13, 24, and 33 and prepared the cortical brain tissue for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization (ISH), Western blot analyses and vessel density counting. When compared to age-matched controls, hypoxic-reared animals displayed a significant increase in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) protein levels, cerebral microvascular lumen diameter and number and density of vessels (number of capillaries per area). In control animals, ISH and immunohistochemistry revealed that localization of VEGF is restricted almost exclusively to cortical neurons at early stages of development. As the vascular bed begins to stabilize, predominant VEGF expression switches to maturing glial cells which invest vessels while neuronal expression is reduced to a basal level. In hypoxic animals, early localization of VEGF is also restricted to cortical neurons, however, during later developmental stages, glial cells express elevated levels of VEGF protein and high neuronal expression also persists. Thus chronic sublethal hypoxia disrupts the temporal-spatial expression of VEGF, which correlates with continuing hypoxia-driven angiogenesis.

  1. Gestation Related Gene Expression of the Endocannabinoid Pathway in Rat Placenta

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    Kanchan Vaswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian placentation is a vital facet of the development of a healthy and viable offspring. Throughout gestation the placenta changes to accommodate, provide for, and meet the demands of a growing fetus. Gestational gene expression is a crucial part of placenta development. The endocannabinoid pathway is activated in the placenta and decidual tissues throughout pregnancy and aberrant endocannabinoid signaling during the period of placental development has been associated with pregnancy disorders. In this study, the gene expression of eight endocannabinoid system enzymes was investigated throughout gestation. Rat placentae were obtained at E14.25, E15.25, E17.25, and E20, RNA was extracted, and microarray was performed. Gene expression of enzymes Faah, Mgll, Plcd4, Pld1, Nat1, Daglα, and Ptgs2 was studied (cohort 1, microarray. Biological replication of the results was performed by qPCR (cohort 2. Four genes showed differential expression (Mgll, Plcd4, Ptgs2, and Pld1, from mid to late gestation. Genes positively associated with gestational age were Ptgs2, Mgll, and Pld1, while Plcd4 was downregulated. This is the first comprehensive study that has investigated endocannabinoid pathway gene expression during rat pregnancy. This study provides the framework for future studies that investigate the role of endocannabinoid system during pregnancy.

  2. Effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on the expression of amelogenin in rat offspring tooth germ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdiana Dewi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amelogenin is a major protein constituent of the developing enamel matrix that is critical for enamel formation. Mutations of amelogenin cause hypoplastic enamel phenotypes. Previous research found that infant of diabetic mother has higher risk for having enamel hypoplasia. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on the expression of amelogenin in Wistar rats offspring tooth germ. Methods: Sixteen female Wistar rats, aged 2.5-3 months, body weight 150-200 g were used in this study, Wistar rats were mated and divided into two groups and treated on day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was DM group, consisting of 8 rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ injection 40 mg/kg BW. Group B was control group, consisting of 8 rats received citrate buffer injection. Thirty-two rat pups were decapitated on day 5. Immunohistochemical procedures were performed on molar tooth germ of the mandibular rat pups using antibody anti-AMELX to determine the expression of amelogenin. Examination carried out on the images using ImageJ software. All data were then statistically analyzed by Mann Whitney test. Results: There was no significant difference in the expression of amelogenin in the DM group and control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: Gestational diabetes mellitus did not affect the expression of amelogenin in rat offspring tooth germ. Further study is needed to examine the pattern of amelogenin expression with measurement of glucose levels of rat pups.Latar belakang: Amelogenin merupakan protein terbanyak pada matriks email yang berperan penting dalam pembentukan email. Mutasi pada amelogenin dapat menyebabkan email menjadi hipoplastik. Penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa anak yang dilahirkan oleh ibu pengidap diabetes memiliki resiko lebih tinggi untuk mengalami hipoplasia email. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti pengaruh diabetes mellitus gestasional terhadap ekspresi amelogenin pada benih gigi

  3. Differential expression of CART in feeding and reward circuits in binge eating rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharne, Ashish P; Borkar, Chandrashekhar D; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2015-09-15

    Binge eating (BE) disrupts feeding and subverts reward mechanism. Since cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) mediates satiety as well as reward, its role in BE justifies investigation. To induce BE, rats were provided restricted access to high fat sweet palatable diet (HFSPD) for a period of 4 weeks. Immunoreactivity profile of the CART elements, and accompanying neuroplastic changes were studied in satiety- and reward-regulating brain nuclei. Further, we investigated the effects of CART, CART-antibody or rimonabant on the intake of normal chow or HFSPD. Rats fed on HFSPD showed development of BE-like phenotype as reflected by significant consumption of HFSPD in short time frame, suggestive of dysregulated satiety mechanisms. At the mid-point during BE, CART-immunoreactivity was significantly increased in hypothalamic arcuate (ARC), lateral (LH), nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT). However, for next 22-h post-binge time-period, the animals showed no interest in food, and low CART expression. Pre-binge treatment with rimonabant, a drug recommended for the treatment of BE, produced anorexia, increased CART expression in ARC and LH, but not in AcbSh and PVT. Higher dose of CART was required to produce anorexia in binged rats. While neuronal tracing studies confirmed CART fiber connectivity from ARC and LH to AcbSh, increase in CART and synaptophysin immunostaining in this pathway in BE rats suggested strengthening of the CART connectivity. We conclude that CART bearing ARC-LH-PVT-AcbSh reward circuit may override the satiety signaling in ARC-PVN pathway in BE rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie; Frey, Teryl K.

    2012-01-01

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was ∼9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  5. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States); Frey, Teryl K., E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was {approx}9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  6. MyD88 expression in the rat dental follicle: implications for osteoclastogenesis and tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawen; Yao, Shaomian; Wise, Gary E

    2010-08-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a key adaptor molecule in the interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-18 toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Because MyD88 is present in dental follicle (DF) cells in vitro, the purpose of this study was to determine its chronological expression in vivo, as well as its possible role in osteoclastogenesis and tooth eruption. An oligo DNA microarray was used to determine expression of the Myd88 gene in vivo in the DFs from the first mandibular molars of postnatal rats from days 1 to 11. The results showed that MyD88 was expressed maximally on day 3. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down MyD88 expression in the DF cells also reduced the expression of the nuclear factor-kappa B-1 (NFKB1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) genes. Interleukin-1alpha up-regulated the expression of NFKB1, MCP-1, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), but knockdown of MyD88 nullified this IL-1alpha effect. Conditioned medium from DF cells with MyD88 knocked down had reduced chemotactic activity for mononuclear cells and reduced osteoclastogenesis, as opposed to controls. In conclusion, the maximal expression of MyD88 in the DF of postnatal day 3 rats may contribute to the major burst of osteoclastogenesis needed for eruption by up-regulating MCP-1 and RANKL expression. (c) 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Eur J Oral Sci

  7. Xenogeneic gene expression in chimeric mice derived from rat--mouse hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmensee, K; Croce, C M

    1979-02-01

    Thymidine kinase-deficient OTT6050 mouse teratocarcinoma cells were fused with hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells by means of inactivated Sendai virus. The resulting hybrid cells, which were selected in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium, retained almost all of the mouse chromosomes and various numbers of rat chromosomes, and showed many chromosomal rearrangements. The hybrid cells, as well as both parental lines, formed tumors after subcutaneous injection into athymic nude mice. Single rat--mouse hybrid cells from a clonally established subline were transplanted into C57BL6/J mouse blastocysts carrying many genetic markers suitable for the detection of hybrid cell-derived tissue contributions. From 144 blastocysts, each of which was injected with a hybrid cell and then surgically transferred to the uterus of a pseudopregnant foster mother, 62 adult mice developed without any visible coat mosaicism. However, three of these mice showed internal hybrid-cell participation in their livers and a limited number of organs of endomesodermal origin. A tumor classifiable as hemangio endothelioma was found in the liver, the only mosaic tissue, of one of the chimeric mice. Nine different rat-specific enzyme variants were detected in the mosaic organs. A considerable number of variations concerning the presence and quantitative activity of the foreign gene products probably resulted from chromosomal segregation, tissue-specific gene activity, or dosage compensation during differentiation in vivo. Our results demonstrate that cultured malignant rat--mouse hybrid cells differentiate normally and become functionally integrated during development. The appearacne in vivo of certain rat-specific gene products that are not found in the hybrid cells under conditions in vitro indicates differential gene expression of the introduced xenogeneic chromosomes.

  8. Effect of GLP-1 on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in the kidney of type 1 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-jin LIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist, on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX4 and p22phox and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats, and explore the protective effects and mechanisms of exenatide on the kidney of diabetic rats. Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into control group (group A, n=7 and diabetic model group (n=23. Type 1 diabetic model was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. It was successful in 19 rats. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into diabetic control group (group B, n=10 and diabetic with treatment of exenatide group (group C, n=9. Rats in group C were injected subcutaneously with exenatide in dose of 5μg/kg twice daily. Rats in group A and B were given equivalent volume of normal saline by subcutaneous injection. All rats were sacrificed after eight weeks. The mRNA expression of renal p22phox and NOX4 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The protein expression of CTGF was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results The levels of blood glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea nitrogen, the albumin excretion rate, kidney index, the mRNA expressions of renal NOX4 and p22phox, and the protein expression of renal CTGF were significantly increased in group B compared with that in group A (P0.05. Conclusion Exenatide can decrease the expressions of renal NOX4, p22phox and CTGF, decline the index of urinary protein, and alleviate the kidney hypertrophy in type 1 diabetic rats, implying that exenatide exerted a protective effect on the kidney.

  9. mRNA expression profile of prostaglandin D2 receptors in rat trigeminovascular system, and effect of prostaglandins in rat migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekeroglu, A.; Jansen-Olesen, I.; Gupta, S.

    2015-01-01

    processing structures in rat brain; 2.) To study the effect of the DP1 receptor antagonist, MK-0524, on PGD2-induced vasodilation of middle meningeal artery (MMA) in rat closed cranial window (CCW) model; 3.) To investigate if an i.v. infusion of prostaglandin (PG) mix, PGD2, PGE2 and PGI2 (iloprost...... receptor was highly expressed in trigeminal ganglion and dorsal rootganglion. MK-0524 significantly (62%, pMMA. No increase in p-ERK protein level was observed in the TVS after infusion of PG mix in awake rats. Neuronal activation markers, cFOS and EGR-1, were...... not changed in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Conclusions: PGD2 induced vasodilation of MMA is mainly mediated by activation of DP1 receptors. Furthermore, high expression of DP1 mRNA in TG and DRG suggest that PGD2 might play a role in migraine pathophysiology. However, infusion of PG mix in awake rats did...

  10. Gene expression profile in newborn rat lungs after two days of recovery of mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénervaud, Valérie; Gremlich, Sandrine; Trummer-Menzi, Eliane; Schittny, Johannes C; Roth-Kleiner, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Preterm infants having immature lungs often require respiratory support, potentially leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Conventional BPD rodent models based on mechanical ventilation (MV) present outcome measured at the end of the ventilation period. A reversible intubation and ventilation model in newborn rats recently allowed discovering that different sets of genes modified their expression related to time after MV. In a newborn rat model, the expression profile 48 h after MV was analyzed with gene arrays to detect potentially interesting candidates with an impact on BPD development. Rat pups were injected P4-5 with 2 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). One day later, MV with 21 or 60% oxygen was applied during 6 h. Animals were sacrified 48 h after end of ventilation. Affymetrix gene arrays assessed the total gene expression profile in lung tissue. In fully treated animals (LPS + MV + 60% O(2)) vs. controls, 271 genes changed expression significantly. All modified genes could be classified in six pathways: tissue remodeling/wound repair, immune system and inflammatory response, hematopoiesis, vasodilatation, and oxidative stress. Major alterations were found in the MMP and complement system. MMPs and complement factors play a central role in several of the pathways identified and may represent interesting targets for BPD treatment/prevention.Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease occurring in ~30% of preterm infants born less than 30 wk of gestation (1). Its main risk factors include lung immaturity due to preterm delivery, mechanical ventilation (MV), oxygen toxicity, chorioamnionitis, and sepsis. The main feature is an arrest of alveolar and capillary formation (2). Models trying to decipher genes involved in the pathophysiology of BPD are mainly based on MV and oxygen application to young mammals with immature lungs of different species (3). In newborn rodent models, analyses of lung structure and gene and protein

  11. Macrophage gene expression associated with remodeling of the prepartum rat cervix: microarray and pathway analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail E Dobyns

    Full Text Available As the critical gatekeeper for birth, prepartum remodeling of the cervix is associated with increased resident macrophages (Mφ, proinflammatory processes, and extracellular matrix degradation. This study tested the hypothesis that expression of genes unique to Mφs characterizes the prepartum from unremodeled nonpregnant cervix. Perfused cervix from prepartum day 21 postbreeding (D21 or nonpregnant (NP rats, with or without Mφs, had RNA extracted and whole genome microarray analysis performed. By subtractive analyses, expression of 194 and 120 genes related to Mφs in the cervix from D21 rats were increased and decreased, respectively. In both D21 and NP groups, 158 and 57 Mφ genes were also more or less up- or down-regulated, respectively. Mφ gene expression patterns were most strongly correlated within groups and in 5 major clustering patterns. In the cervix from D21 rats, functional categories and canonical pathways of increased expression by Mφ gene related to extracellular matrix, cell proliferation, differentiation, as well as cell signaling. Pathways were characteristic of inflammation and wound healing, e.g., CD163, CD206, and CCR2. Signatures of only inflammation pathways, e.g., CSF1R, EMR1, and MMP12 were common to both D21 and NP groups. Thus, a novel and complex balance of Mφ genes and clusters differentiated the degraded extracellular matrix and cellular genomic activities in the cervix before birth from the unremodeled state. Predicted Mφ activities, pathways, and networks raise the possibility that expression patterns of specific genes characterize and promote prepartum remodeling of the cervix for parturition at term and with preterm labor.

  12. Macrophage gene expression associated with remodeling of the prepartum rat cervix: microarray and pathway analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobyns, Abigail E; Goyal, Ravi; Carpenter, Lauren Grisham; Freeman, Tom C; Longo, Lawrence D; Yellon, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    As the critical gatekeeper for birth, prepartum remodeling of the cervix is associated with increased resident macrophages (Mφ), proinflammatory processes, and extracellular matrix degradation. This study tested the hypothesis that expression of genes unique to Mφs characterizes the prepartum from unremodeled nonpregnant cervix. Perfused cervix from prepartum day 21 postbreeding (D21) or nonpregnant (NP) rats, with or without Mφs, had RNA extracted and whole genome microarray analysis performed. By subtractive analyses, expression of 194 and 120 genes related to Mφs in the cervix from D21 rats were increased and decreased, respectively. In both D21 and NP groups, 158 and 57 Mφ genes were also more or less up- or down-regulated, respectively. Mφ gene expression patterns were most strongly correlated within groups and in 5 major clustering patterns. In the cervix from D21 rats, functional categories and canonical pathways of increased expression by Mφ gene related to extracellular matrix, cell proliferation, differentiation, as well as cell signaling. Pathways were characteristic of inflammation and wound healing, e.g., CD163, CD206, and CCR2. Signatures of only inflammation pathways, e.g., CSF1R, EMR1, and MMP12 were common to both D21 and NP groups. Thus, a novel and complex balance of Mφ genes and clusters differentiated the degraded extracellular matrix and cellular genomic activities in the cervix before birth from the unremodeled state. Predicted Mφ activities, pathways, and networks raise the possibility that expression patterns of specific genes characterize and promote prepartum remodeling of the cervix for parturition at term and with preterm labor.

  13. Altered microRNA expression profiles in a rat model of spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Pan; Li, Lin; Zhang, Da; Liu, Qiu-Liang; Chen, Xin-Rang; Yang, He-Ying; Fan, Ying-Zhong; Wang, Jia-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are dynamically regulated during neurodevelopment, yet few reports have examined their role in spina bifida. In this study, we used an established fetal rat model of spina bifida induced by intragastrically administering olive oil-containing all-trans retinoic acid to dams on day 10 of pregnancy. Dams that received intragastric administration of all-trans retinoic acid-free olive oil served as controls. The miRNA expression profile in the amniotic fluid of rats at 20 days of pregnancy was analyzed using an miRNA microarray assay. Compared with that in control fetuses, the expression of miRNA-9, miRNA-124a, and miRNA-138 was significantly decreased (> 2-fold), whereas the expression of miRNA-134 was significantly increased (> 4-fold) in the amniotic fluid of rats with fetuses modeling spina bifida. These results were validated using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the microarray data showed that these differentially expressed miRNAs could distinguish fetuses modeling spina bifida from control fetuses. Our bioinformatics analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with many cytological pathways, including a nervous system development signaling pathway. These findings indicate that further studies are warranted examining the role of miRNAs through their regulation of a variety of cell functional pathways in the pathogenesis of spina bifida. Such studies may provide novel targets for the early diagnosis and treatment of spina bifida.

  14. Macrophage Gene Expression Associated with Remodeling of the Prepartum Rat Cervix: Microarray and Pathway Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobyns, Abigail E.; Goyal, Ravi; Carpenter, Lauren Grisham; Freeman, Tom C.; Longo, Lawrence D.; Yellon, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    As the critical gatekeeper for birth, prepartum remodeling of the cervix is associated with increased resident macrophages (Mφ), proinflammatory processes, and extracellular matrix degradation. This study tested the hypothesis that expression of genes unique to Mφs characterizes the prepartum from unremodeled nonpregnant cervix. Perfused cervix from prepartum day 21 postbreeding (D21) or nonpregnant (NP) rats, with or without Mφs, had RNA extracted and whole genome microarray analysis performed. By subtractive analyses, expression of 194 and 120 genes related to Mφs in the cervix from D21 rats were increased and decreased, respectively. In both D21 and NP groups, 158 and 57 Mφ genes were also more or less up- or down-regulated, respectively. Mφ gene expression patterns were most strongly correlated within groups and in 5 major clustering patterns. In the cervix from D21 rats, functional categories and canonical pathways of increased expression by Mφ gene related to extracellular matrix, cell proliferation, differentiation, as well as cell signaling. Pathways were characteristic of inflammation and wound healing, e.g., CD163, CD206, and CCR2. Signatures of only inflammation pathways, e.g., CSF1R, EMR1, and MMP12 were common to both D21 and NP groups. Thus, a novel and complex balance of Mφ genes and clusters differentiated the degraded extracellular matrix and cellular genomic activities in the cervix before birth from the unremodeled state. Predicted Mφ activities, pathways, and networks raise the possibility that expression patterns of specific genes characterize and promote prepartum remodeling of the cervix for parturition at term and with preterm labor. PMID:25811906

  15. Comparison of gene expression profiles altered by comfrey and riddelliine in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan; Dial, Stacey; Fuscoe, James; Chen, Tao

    2007-11-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) is a perennial plant and has been consumed by humans as a vegetable, a tea and an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. It, however, is hepatotoxic and carcinogenic in experimental animals and hepatotoxic in humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) exist in many plants and many of them cause liver toxicity and/or cancer in humans and experimental animals. In our previous study, we found that the mutagenicity of comfrey was associated with the PAs contained in the plant. Therefore, we suggest that carcinogenicity of comfrey result from those PAs. To confirm our hypothesis, we compared the expression of genes and processes of biological functions that were altered by comfrey (mixture of the plant with PAs) and riddelliine (a prototype of carcinogenic PA) in rat liver for carcinogenesis in this study. Groups of 6 Big Blue Fisher 344 rats were treated with riddelliine at 1 mg/kg body weight by gavage five times a week for 12 weeks or fed a diet containing 8% comfrey root for 12 weeks. Animals were sacrificed one day after the last treatment and the livers were isolated for gene expression analysis. The gene expressions were investigated using Applied Biosystems Rat Whole Genome Survey Microarrays and the biological functions were analyzed with Ingenuity Analysis Pathway software. Although there were large differences between the significant genes and between the biological processes that were altered by comfrey and riddelliine, there were a number of common genes and function processes that were related to carcinogenesis. There was a strong correlation between the two treatments for fold-change alterations in expression of drug metabolizing and cancer-related genes. Our results suggest that the carcinogenesis-related gene expression patterns resulting from the treatments of comfrey and riddelliine are very similar, and PAs contained in comfrey are the main active components responsible for carcinogenicity of the plant.

  16. Expression of SIRT1 in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome before and after therapeutic intervention with exenatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Zhang, Xiao; Ge, Shu-Qi; Zhang, Er-Hong; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its alteration after exenatide treatment. PCOS rat model was established by dehydroepiandrosterone induction. The animals were randomly divided into exenatide treatment group (EX group, n = 10), metformin treatment group (MF group, n = 10), PCOS group (PCOS group, n = 9) and normal control group (NC group, n = 10). Histological changes of the ovarian tissues were examined by HE staining. SIRT1 expression in the ovarian tissue was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Rats in the PCOS group lost their estrous cycle. Histological observation of the ovary showed saccular dilatation of the follicle, decreased number of corpora lutea, fewer layers of granulosa cells aligned loosely, and thickened layer of theca cells. The changes in reproductive hormones and the development of insulin resistance suggested the successful establishment of the animal models. Immunohistochemistry and Q-PCR detected the mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1 in the ovary tissues of rats in the normal control group. The SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in PCOS group than in control group (P ovary tissue decreases in PCOS rats (compare with the normal rats) but can be up-regulated after Ex or MF treatment. These drugs may affect the process and development of PCOS by regulating the SIRT1 expression. Exenatide may be therapeutic for PCOS by up-regulating the SITR1 expression.

  17. Gene expression in obliterative bronchiolitis-like lesions in 2,3-pentanedione-exposed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Morgan

    Full Text Available Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB is an irreversible lung disease characterized by progressive fibrosis in the small airways with eventual occlusion of the airway lumens. OB is most commonly associated with lung transplant rejection; however, OB has also been diagnosed in workers exposed to artificial butter flavoring (ABF vapors. Research has been limited by the lack of an adequate animal model of OB, and as a result the mechanism(s is unclear and there are no effective treatments for this condition. Exposure of rats to the ABF component, 2,3-pentanedione (PD results in airway lesions that are histopathologically similar to those in human OB. We used this animal model to evaluate changes in gene expression in the distal bronchi of rats with PD-induced OB. Male Wistar Han rats were exposed to 200 ppm PD or air 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 2-wks. Bronchial tissues were laser microdissected from serial sections of frozen lung. In exposed lungs, both fibrotic and non-fibrotic airways were collected. Following RNA extraction and microarray analysis, differential gene expression was evaluated. In non-fibrotic bronchi of exposed rats, 4683 genes were significantly altered relative to air-exposed controls with notable down-regulation of many inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In contrast, in fibrotic bronchi, 3807 genes were significantly altered with a majority of genes being up-regulated in affected pathways. Tgf-β2 and downstream genes implicated in fibrosis were significantly up-regulated in fibrotic lesions. Genes for collagens and extracellular matrix proteins were highly up-regulated. In addition, expression of genes for peptidases and peptidase inhibitors were significantly altered, indicative of the tissue remodeling that occurs during airway fibrosis. Our data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of OB. This new information is of potential significance with regard to future therapeutic targets for treatment.

  18. Dose and temporal effects on gene expression profiles of urothelial cells from rats exposed to diuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihlaseh-Catalano, Shadia M.; Bailey, Kathryn A.; Cardoso, Ana Paula F.; Ren, Hongzu; Fry, Rebecca C.; Camargo, João Lauro V.de; Wolf, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that at high dietary levels (2500 ppm) induces rat urinary bladder hyperplasia after 20 weeks of exposure and neoplasia after 2 years. The effects on the urothelium after short-term exposure have not been described. The present 7-day study evaluated the dose-dependency of urothelial alterations in the urinary bladder using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Male Wistar rats were fed 0, 125, 500, 2500 ppm diuron for 7 days. The urinary bladder and isolated urothelial cells of these animals were processed for microscopic examination and gene expression profiling, respectively. No significant treatment-related morphologic effects were observed. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the exposed groups increased with diuron levels. Diuron-altered genes involved in cell-to-cell interactions and tissue organization were identified in all treatment groups. After 7 days of diuron exposure, transcriptional responses were observed in the urothelium in the absence of clear morphologic changes. These morphological findings are different from those observed in a previous study in which 20 weeks of diuron exposure was associated with simple hyperplasia secondary to the persistent cytotoxicity and necrosis associated with continuous cellular regeneration. Comparison of the gene expression profiles of rats exposed to the 2500 ppm carcinogenic diuron dose for 7 days versus 20 weeks revealed few similarities between these two time points at the gene or pathway level. Taken together, these data provide insight into the dose- and temporal-dependent morphological and transcriptional changes associated with diuron exposure that may lead to the development of tumors in the rat urinary bladder

  19. Dose and temporal effects on gene expression profiles of urothelial cells from rats exposed to diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlaseh-Catalano, Shadia M; Bailey, Kathryn A; Cardoso, Ana Paula F; Ren, Hongzu; Fry, Rebecca C; de Camargo, João Lauro V; Wolf, Douglas C

    2014-11-05

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a substituted urea herbicide that at high dietary levels (2500 ppm) induces rat urinary bladder hyperplasia after 20 weeks of exposure and neoplasia after 2 years. The effects on the urothelium after short-term exposure have not been described. The present 7-day study evaluated the dose-dependency of urothelial alterations in the urinary bladder using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Male Wistar rats were fed 0, 125, 500, 2500 ppm diuron for 7 days. The urinary bladder and isolated urothelial cells of these animals were processed for microscopic examination and gene expression profiling, respectively. No significant treatment-related morphologic effects were observed. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the exposed groups increased with diuron levels. Diuron-altered genes involved in cell-to-cell interactions and tissue organization were identified in all treatment groups. After 7 days of diuron exposure, transcriptional responses were observed in the urothelium in the absence of clear morphologic changes. These morphological findings are different from those observed in a previous study in which 20 weeks of diuron exposure was associated with simple hyperplasia secondary to the persistent cytotoxicity and necrosis associated with continuous cellular regeneration. Comparison of the gene expression profiles of rats exposed to the 2500 ppm carcinogenic diuron dose for 7 days versus 20 weeks revealed few similarities between these two time points at the gene or pathway level. Taken together, these data provide insight into the dose- and temporal-dependent morphological and transcriptional changes associated with diuron exposure that may lead to the development of tumors in the rat urinary bladder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The expression changes of inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus following whole-brain irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu De; Tian Ye; Ding Weijun; Zhu Yaqun; Liu Chunfeng

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the change pattern of some inflammatory cytokines in brain tissue at the acute phase after brain irradiated. The whole brain of SD rats was irradiated by the single dose of 2, 15 or 30 Gy of 4 MeV electron beam. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the measurement of IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α content in hippocampus tissue of rats at 1h, 6h, 12h, 1d, 2 and 1 week post-irradiation. The mRNA of IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α were detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the same experimental groups. It was analyzed about the influence of dosage and post-irradiation duration with the cytokines expression. Compared with both the normal control and the anesthetized with chloral hydrate but sham-irradiation groups, there were no difference about the three inflammatory cytokines expression in rats with 2 Gy irradiated. At 6h after irradiation with 15 Gy, 6 and 12h with 30 Gy groups, the content of IL-1β and TNF-α in hippocampus tissue were significantly increased, and were returned to normal level after 12 to 24h. The same change tendency of their mRNA relational level was observed in 15 and 30 Gy groups, but it happened earlier in 1h after exposure. Although the content of IL-6 in hippocampus kept stable in all the groups, its mRNA level raised obviously in 12h group. After 15-30 Gy whole-brain irradiation, the expression of some inflammatory cytokines increased abruptly in the hippocampus of SD rat within 1 day, but the interplay between inflammatory cytokines changes and the pathogenesis of radiation injury was incompletely understood at present. (authors)

  1. Oxidative stress/reactive metabolite gene expression signature in rat liver detects idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Angelique; Nie, Alex; Brandon Parker, J.; Sawant, Sharmilee; Piechta, Leigh-Anne; Kelley, Michael F., E-mail: mkelley2@its.jnj.com; Mark Kao, L.; Jim Proctor, S.; Verheyen, Geert; Johnson, Mark D.; Lord, Peter G.; McMillian, Michael K.

    2014-03-15

    Previously we reported a gene expression signature in rat liver for detecting a specific type of oxidative stress (OS) related to reactive metabolites (RM). High doses of the drugs disulfiram, ethinyl estradiol and nimesulide were used with another dozen paradigm OS/RM compounds, and three other drugs flutamide, phenacetin and sulindac were identified by this signature. In a second study, antiepileptic drugs were compared for covalent binding and their effects on OS/RM; felbamate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital produced robust OS/RM gene expression. In the present study, liver RNA samples from drug-treated rats from more recent experiments were examined for statistical fit to the OS/RM signature. Of all 97 drugs examined, in addition to the nine drugs noted above, 19 more were identified as OS/RM-producing compounds—chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyproterone acetate, dantrolene, dipyridamole, glibenclamide, isoniazid, ketoconazole, methapyrilene, naltrexone, nifedipine, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen, coumarin, ritonavir, amitriptyline, valproic acid, enalapril, and chloramphenicol. Importantly, all of the OS/RM drugs listed above have been linked to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, excepting chloramphenicol, which does not have a package label for hepatotoxicity, but does have a black box warning for idiosyncratic bone marrow suppression. Most of these drugs are not acutely toxic in the rat. The OS/RM signature should be useful to avoid idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of drug candidates. - Highlights: • 28 of 97 drugs gave a positive OS/RM gene expression signature in rat liver. • The specificity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 98%. • The sensitivity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 75%. • The signature can help eliminate hepatotoxicants from drug development.

  2. Hepatic bile acids and bile acid-related gene expression in pregnant and lactating rats

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    Qiong N. Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Significant physiological changes occur during pregnancy and lactation. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a liver disease closely related to disruption of bile acid homeostasis. The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of bile acid synthesis and transport in normal pregnant and lactating rats.Materials and Methods. Livers from timed pregnant SD rats were collected on gestational days (GD 10, 14 and 19, and postnatal days (PND 1, 7, 14 and 21. Total bile acids were determined by the enzymatic method, total RNA was isolated and subjected to real time RT-PCR analysis. Liver protein was extracted for western-blot analysis.Results. Under physiological conditions hepatic bile acids were not elevated during pregnancy but increased during lactation in rats. Bile acid synthesis rate-limiting enzyme Cyp7a1 was unchanged on gestational days, but increased on PND14 and 21 at mRNA and protein levels. Expression of Cyp8b1, Cyp27a1 and Cyp7b1 was also higher during lactation. The mRNA levels of small heterodimer partner (SHP and protein levels of farnesoid X receptor (FXR were increased during pregnancy and lactation. Bile acid transporters Ntcp, Bsep, Mrp3 and Mrp4 were lower at gestation, but increased during lactation. Hepatic Oatp transporters were decreased during pregnancy and lactation.Conclusion. Hepatic bile acid homeostasis is maintained during normal pregnancy in rats, probably through the FXR-SHP regulation. The expression of bile acid synthesis genes and liver bile acid accumulation were increased during lactation, together with increased expression of bile acid efflux transporter Bsep, Mrp3 and Mrp4.

  3. Prenatal expression of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 in the rat pituitary gland.

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    Moro, J A; Carretero, J; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Gato, A; Mano, A de la

    2008-12-01

    It is known that interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are expressed post-natally in normal and tumoral cells in the anterior pituitary, and that they play a role in both the liberation of different hormones and in the growth, proliferation and tumor formation of the pituitary gland. However, their expression and role during embryonic and fetal development remain unknown. We have performed an immunocytochemistry study of prenatal expression and distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in isolated embryonic rat Rathke's pouch prior to birth, more specifically between 13.5 and 19.5 days p.c. Western-blot analysis carried out on 19.5-day p.c. embryos showed positive immunolabelling for IL-1beta and IL-6. These interleukins were initially expressed simultaneously in the rostral and ventral portions of Rathke's pouch in 15.5-day p.c. embryos, and this expression progressed caudodorsally in later developmental stages, extending to most of the hypophysis before birth. The number of cells expressing these interleukins increased throughout this period: 48.22% of anterior pituitary cells expressed IL-6 in 19.5-day embryos, whilst IL-1beta was positive in 39.8% of the cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that some adenohypophyseal cells co-express both interleukins. Such findings represent the first step towards an understanding of the physiological role of these interleukins in anterior pituitary development.

  4. Regulation of oxidative stress and somatostatin, cholecystokinin, apelin gene expressions by ghrelin in stomach of newborn diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Zeynep Mine; Sacan, Ozlem; Karatug, Ayse; Turk, Neslihan; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Bolkent, Sema

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether ghrelin treatment has a protective effect on gene expression and biochemical changes in the stomach of newborn streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In this study, four groups of Wistar rats were used: control, ghrelin control, diabetic and diabetic+ghrelin. The rats were sacrificed after four weeks of treatment for diabetes. The gene expressions of: somatostatin, cholecystokinin, apelin and the altered active caspase-3, active caspase-8, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, were investigated in the pyloric region of the stomach and antioxidant parameters were measured in all the stomach. Although ghrelin treatment to diabetic rats lowered the stomach lipid peroxidation levels, the stomach glutathione levels were increased. Exogenous ghrelin caused an increased activities of stomach catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in diabetic rats. Numbers of somatostatin, cholecystokinin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactive cells decreased in the diabetic+ghrelin group compared to the diabetic group. Apelin mRNA expressions were remarkably less in the diabetic+ghrelin rats than in diabetic rats. The results may indicate that ghrelin treatment has a protective effect to some extent on the diabetic rats. This protection is possibly accomplished through the antioxidant activity of ghrelin observed in type 2 diabetes. Consequently exogenous ghrelin may be a candidate for therapeutic treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. [The expression and significance of VIP and its receptor in the cochlea of different degrees of chronic alcoholism rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Liu, Haibing

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether chronic alcoholism alters the expression levels of Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor (VIPR1) in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats. We measured their expression levels in 30 SD rats, in which we created models of different degrees of chronic alcoholism. We investigated the presence of the mRNA of VIP in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats and controls by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. We investigated the presence of proteins of VIPR1 in poisoned rats and controls by western blot. We also evaluated the local distribution of VIP cells by immunohistochemistry. We found that the levels of VIP and VIPR1 were downregulated in the chronic alcoholism groups compared to the controls group. The differences in some expression levels were significant different between chronic alcoholism rats and control rats. Moreover, at different degrees of alcohol poisoning in rats, the contents of VIP and VIPR1 differed. Decreased levels of VIP and VIPR1 were detected in the deep chronic alcoholism group compared to the group with low-degree poisoning (P 0.05). These results suggest that VIP and VIPR1 play an important role in the auditory function in rats with chronic alcoholism. Chronic alcoholism may cause a peptide hormone secretion imbalance in the auditory system, eventually leading to hearing loss.

  6. Effects of pharmacological treatments on hippocampal NCAM1 and ERK2 expression in epileptic rats with cognitive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingxia; Min, Xia; Sun, Ran; Gao, Jianying; Liang, Ruqing; Li, Lei; Chu, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of various pharmacological agents on the hippocampal expression of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in epileptic rats with cognitive dysfunction. The experiments were conducted using 120 Wistar rats: 20 controls and 100 with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). The SE rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=20/group) that received daily treatments for 1 month with one of the following: (i) saline (no effect on epilepsy); (ii) carbamazepine (an anticonvulsant); (iii) oxcarbazepine (an anticonvulsant); (iv) aniracetam (a nootropic); or (v) donepezil (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor). Spatial learning and memory were assessed using a Morris Water Maze (MWM). Hippocampal tissue was assessed for NCAM1 and ERK2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression by immunochemistry. The results revealed that SE rats had significantly poorer MWM performances compared with controls (Paniracetam-, saline-, oxcarbazepine- and carbamazepine-treated rats. Compared to controls, saline-treated SE rats exhibited decreased hippocampal ERK2 mRNA expression (Paniracetam, saline, oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine. NCAM1 and ERK2 protein expression levels were parallel to those of the mRNA. In saline-treated SE rats, hippocampal ERK2 expression was decreased and NCAM1 expression was increased; thus, these two molecules may be involved in the impairment of spatial memory. Carbamazepine augmented this impairment, whereas donepezil was found to ameliorate the dysfunction associated with epilepsy. In conclusion, ERK2 and NCAM1 have significant roles in impairment of spatial memory in SE rats. Carbamazepine may increase this impairment, while donepezil may decrease this impairment. PMID:27588125

  7. Effects of telmisartan on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in the myocardium of type 2 diabetic rats

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    Jia-wei LI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of telmisartan on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p22phox and NOX4 in the myocardiam of type 2 diabetic rats.Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: normal control group(group A,n=10,diabetic model group(n=26.Type 2 diabetic model was established by high-fat and high-sugar diet followed by intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin(STZ.After the model was reproduced successfully,20 diabetic rats were randomly divided into diabetic subgroup(group B,n=10 and telmisartan-treated subgroup(group C,n=10.Rats in group C were orally administered telmisartan(5mg/kg/d,and rats in group A and B were given equivalent volume of normal saline.All rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after treatment.The mRNA expressions of myocardial p22phox and NOX4 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR,and the protein expressions of myocardial connective tissue growth factor(CTGF and copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase(Cu-Zn-SOD were detected by immunohistochemical staining.Results Compared with group A,the ratio of heart/body weight,the mRNA expression of myocardial p22phox and NOX4,and the protein expression of myocardial CTGF increased significantly in group B,and the protein expression of myocardial Cu-Zn-SOD decreased significantly(P 0.05.Conclusions Telmisartan can down-regulate the over-expression of myocardial NOX4 and p22phox mRNA in type 2 diabetic rats,lessen the myocardial damage induced by oxidative stress,thus plays a protective role in the myocardium of diabetic rats.

  8. Citrulline counteracts overweight- and aging-related effects on adiponectin and leptin gene expression in rat white adipose tissue

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    Nolwenn Joffin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that citrulline (CIT reduced the expression of inflammatory genes in cultured explants from retroperitoneal (RET white adipose tissue (WAT from young (2–4 months but not old (25 months rats. Here we show that in RET WAT from old rats and high-fat-diet-fed (HFD young rats, the basal expression of the leptin gene was increased (275–345% whereas that of the adiponectin gene was decreased (48–60%, when compared to those from control-diet-fed (CD young rats. We show also that in RET WAT from old rats, a diet supplemented with CIT for 3 months reduced macrophage (F4/80, CD68 and inflammation (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α marker genes 23–97%. CIT supplementation lowered leptin mRNA 62% and increased adiponectin mRNA 232%. In cultured explants of RET WAT from 4 month-old CD, 4 month-old HFD and 25-month-old CD rats, the exposure to 2.5 mmol/L CIT for 24 h up-regulated adiponectin gene expression 151%, 362% and 216% respectively. In contrast, leptin gene expression was down-regulated 66% selectively in CIT-treated explants from 25-month-old CD rats. These results further support the proposed beneficial effect of CIT to counteract the deleterious effects of aging and overweight on the metabolic, inflammatory and endocrine functions of WAT.

  9. [Expression of heparanase in kidney of rats with respiratory syncytial virus nephropathy and its relationship with proteinurina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu-Hong; Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-Ru

    2014-03-01

    To explore the role of heparanase in the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nephropathy in rats model. Twenty 150-200 g Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 5 per group) were inoculated with 6 x 10(6) PFU RSV and sacrificed on days 4, 8, 14 and 28 postinoculation (RSV4, RSV8, RSV14 and RSV29). Five SD rats inoculated with Dulbecco's minimum essential medium were served as normal control. The expression levels of heparanase protein and mRNA in the rat renal tissue of each group were determined by immunohistochemical staining and real-time quantitative RT-PCR respectively. The proteinurina was also measured and then the relationship between the expression level of heparanase and the 24-hour urinary protein was studied. The rats with RSV nephropathy exhibited higher proteinuria in comparison with normal rats, and the 24-hour urinary protein level was significantly different between each RSV nephropathy group (RSV14 > RSV8 > RSV28 > RSV4, P RSV8 > RSV4 > RSV28 , P < 0.05). There was a linear positive correlation between the expression level of renal heparanase mRNA and the quantity of 24-hour urinary protein (r = 0.725, P < 0.05). The increased expression of heparanase in kidney may be important to the loss of glomerular negative charge in glomerular basement membrane which is involved in the pathogenesis of RSV nephropathy in rats.

  10. Gene expression profiling in liver and testis of rats to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, Douglas B.; Bao Wenjun; Goetz, Amber K.; Blystone, Chad R.; Ren, Hongzu; Schmid, Judith E.; Strader, Lillian F.; Wood, Carmen R.; Best, Deborah S.; Narotsky, Michael G.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Rockett, John C.; Dix, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected for hormone measurements, and liver and testes were collected for histology, enzyme biochemistry, or gene expression profiling. Body and testis weights were unaffected, but liver weights were significantly increased by all four triazoles, and hepatocytes exhibited centrilobular hypertrophy. Myclobutanil exposure increased serum testosterone and decreased sperm motility, but no treatment-related testis histopathology was observed. We hypothesized that gene expression profiles would identify potential mechanisms of toxicity and used DNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to generate profiles. Triazole fungicides are designed to inhibit fungal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 51 enzyme but can also modulate the expression and function of mammalian CYP genes and enzymes. Triazoles affected the expression of numerous CYP genes in rat liver and testis, including multiple Cyp2c and Cyp3a isoforms as well as other xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) and transporter genes. For some genes, such as Ces2 and Udpgtr2, all four triazoles had similar effects on expression, suggesting possible common mechanisms of action. Many of these CYP, XME and transporter genes are regulated by xeno-sensing nuclear receptors, and hierarchical clustering of CAR/PXR-regulated genes demonstrated the similarities of toxicogenomic responses in liver between all four triazoles and in testis between myclobutanil and triadimefon. Triazoles also affected expression of multiple genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in the two tissues. Thus, gene expression profiles helped identify possible toxicological mechanisms of the triazole fungicides

  11. [Effect of xenobiotics on microRNA expression in rat liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, L F; Chanyshev, M D; Kolmykov, S K; Ushakov, D S; Nechkin, S S

    2016-01-01

    Using bioinformatics analysis we selected microRNAs which could bind 3'-UTR-region of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Three microRNA miR-21, -221, -222, their potential targets might be mRNA for CYP1A1, and two microRNA miR-143, miR-152 for CYP2B1 accordingly were selected for experimental verification. Expression level of these microRNAs in rat liver upon benzo(a)pyrene (BP), phenobarbital (PB), and DDT induction was determined using RT-qPCR method. In rats treated by both BP, and DDT the hepatic content of miR-21, -221, -222 significantly demonstrated a 2-3-fold decrease. The decrease in miR expression was accompanied by a considerable (5.5-8.7-fold) increase in the CYP1A1-mediated EROD activity. The expression of miR-143 remained unchanged after the PB treatment, while the expression of miR-152 increased by 2 times, however, the (10.5-fold) increase in PROD activity of CYP2B was much higher. In the DDT-treated liver PROD activity increased by 20 times, the expression of miR-152 didn't change, and the expression of miR-143 increased by 2 times. The bioinformatics analysis of interactions between microRNAs and targets showed that the studied miRs can potentially bind 3'-end of AhR, ESR1, GR, CCND1, PTEN mRNA. Thus, the expression profile of miR-21, -221, -222, -143, -152 might change under the xenobiotics exposure. In silico analysis confirmed, that microRNAs target not only cytochrome P450 mRNA but also other genes, including those involved in hormonal carcinogenesis, they also can be regulated with studied miRs.

  12. Ontogenic timing mechanism initiates the expression of rat intestinal sucrase activity

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    Yeh, K.Y.; Holt, P.R.

    1986-03-01

    Morphologic and enzymic differentiation occurs in rat small intestinal epithelium during 16-20 days of postnatal life. This change is considered to be initiated by an ontogenic timing mechanism and is modulated by extrinsic systemic and luminal factors. The importance of the ontogenic timing was tested directly using a transplantation technique in which jejunal isografts from newborn (day 0) and 5-day-old (day 5) rats were implanted under the skin of newborn (day 0) hosts. Isografts showing cryptvillus architecture were obtained in 44% and 21% of transplants, respectively. Day 0 isografts and host intestine expressed sucrase activity at about 16-18 days of age and showed similar crypt cell labeling and epithelial migration after (3H)thymidine injection. Day 5 isografts expressed sucrase activity when the hosts were 13 days of age, whereas host intestine showed no detectable sucrase activity. Isograft lactase activities in both experimental transplant models were significantly higher than host intestinal lactase up to 28 days of age, suggesting that luminal factors are important in modulating lactase activity during the first 4 wk of postnatal life. It is concluded that (a) no systemic factors at day 13 inhibit the expression of sucrase activity and (b) an ontogenic timing mechanism in the jejunum initiates the expression of sucrase activity.

  13. Expression of prosaposin and its receptors in the rat cerebellum after kainic acid injection

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    Xuan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prosaposin (PSAP, a highly conserved glycoprotein, is a precursor of saposins A–D. Accumulating evidence suggests that PSAP is a neurotrophic factor that induces differentiation and prevents death in a variety of neuronal cells through the active region within the saposin C domain both in vivo and in vitro. Recently, GPR37 and GPR37L1 were recognized as PSAP receptors. In this study, we examined the alteration in expression of PSAP and its receptors in the cerebellum using rats injected with kainic acid (KA. The results show that PSAP was strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells and interneurons in the molecular layer, and that PSAP expression in both types of neurons was markedly enhanced following KA treatment. Immunoblotting revealed that the expression of GPR37 was diminished significantly three days after KA injection compared with control rats; however, no changes were observed through immunostaining. No discernable changes were found in GPR37L1. These findings may help us to understand the role of PSAP and the GPR37 and GPR37L1 receptors in alleviating the neural damage caused by KA.

  14. Expression of Tau40 induces activation of cultured rat microglial cells.

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    Lu Wang

    Full Text Available Accumulation of microtubule-associated protein tau has been observed in the brain of aging and tauopathies. Tau was observed in microglia, but its role is not illustrated. By immunofluorescence staining and the fractal dimension value assay in the present study, we observed that microglia were activated in the brains of rats and mice during aging, simultaneously, the immunoreactivities of total tau and the phosphorylated tau were significantly enhanced in the activated microglia. Furtherly by transient transfection of tau40 (human 2N/4R tau into the cultured rat microglia, we demonstrated that expression of tau40 increased the level of Iba1, indicating activation of microglia. Moreover, expression of tau40 significantly enhanced the membranous localization of the phosphorylated tau at Ser396 in microglia possibly by a mechanism involving protein phosphatase 2A, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. It was also found that expression of tau40 promoted microglial migration and phagocytosis, but not proliferation. And we observed increased secretion of several cytokines, including interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide after the expression of tau40. These data suggest a novel role of human 2N/4R tau in microglial activation.

  15. Dietary fat influences the expression of contractile and metabolic genes in rat skeletal muscle.

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    Wataru Mizunoya

    Full Text Available Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases. To determine whether the intake of different types of dietary fats affect the muscle fiber types that govern the metabolic and contractile properties of the skeletal muscle, we fed male Wistar rats with a 15% fat diet derived from different fat sources. Diets composed of soybean oil (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-rich, fish oil (n-3 PUFA-rich, or lard (low in PUFAs were administered to the rats for 4 weeks. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC isoforms were used as biomarkers to delineate the skeletal muscle fiber types. Compared with soybean oil intake, fish oil intake showed significantly lower levels of the fast-type MyHC2B and higher levels of the intermediate-type MyHC2X composition in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle, which is a fast-type dominant muscle. Concomitantly, MyHC2X mRNA levels in fish oil-fed rats were significantly higher than those observed in the soybean oil-fed rats. The MyHC isoform composition in the lard-fed rats was an intermediate between that of the fish oil and soybean oil-fed rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, and porin mRNA showed significantly upregulated levels in the EDL of fish oil-fed rats compared to those observed in soybean oil-fed and lard-fed rats, implying an activation of oxidative metabolism. In contrast, no changes in the composition of MyHC isoforms was observed in the soleus muscle, which is a slow-type dominant muscle. Fatty acid composition in the serum and the muscle was significantly influenced by the type of dietary fat consumed. In conclusion, dietary fat affects the expression of genes related to the contractile and metabolic properties in the fast-type dominant skeletal muscle, where the activation of oxidative metabolism is more pronounced after fish oil intake than that after soybean oil intake.

  16. Steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation

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    Gisele Negro Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation. METHODS: Thirty-two virgin adult female rats were randomized to two groups as follows: the control group GI received vehicle and the experimental group GII received melatonin supplementation (10 µg/night per animal for 60 consecutive days. After the treatment, animals were anesthetized and the collected ovaries were immediately placed in liquid nitrogen for complementary deoxyribonucleic acid microarray analyses. A GeneChip¯ Kit Rat Genome 230 2.0 Affymetrix Array was used for gene analysis and the experiment was repeated three times for each group. The results were normalized with the GeneChip¯ Operating Software program and confirmed through analysis with the secondary deoxyribonucleic acid-Chip Analyzer (dChip software. The data were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Genes related to ovarian function were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We found the upregulation of the type 9 adenylate cyclase and inhibin beta B genes and the downregulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element modulator and cytochrome P450 family 17a1 genes in the ovarian tissue of GII compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that melatonin supplementation decreases gene expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which changes ovarian steroidogenesis.

  17. Digestive enzyme expression and epithelial structure of small intestine in neonatal rats after 16 days spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, M.; Yamasaki, M.; Hazama, A.; Ijiri, K.; Shimizu, T.

    It is important to assure whether digestive system can develop normally in neonates during spaceflight. Because the small intestine changes its function and structure drastically around weaning known as redifferentiation. Lactase expression declines and sucrase increases in small intestine for digestion of solid food before weaning. In this paper, we compared this enzyme transition and structural development of small intestine in neonatal rats after spaceflight. To find digestive genes differentially expressed in fight rats, DNA membrane macroarray was also used. Eight-day old rats were loaded to Space Shuttle Columbia, and housed in the animal facility for 16 days in space (STS-90, Neurolab mission). Two control groups (AGC; asynchronous ground control and VIV; vivarium) against flight group (FLT) were prepared. There was no difference in structure (crypt depth) and cell differentiation of epithelium between FLT and AGC by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that the amount of sucrase mRNA compared to lactase was decreased in FLT by RT-PCR. It reflected the enzyme transition was inhibited. Increase of 5 genes (APO A-I, APO A-IV, ACE, aFABP and aminopeptidase M) and decrease of carboxypeptidase-D were detected in FLT using macroarray. We think nutrition differences (less nourishment and late weaning) during spaceflight may cause inhibition of enzyme transition at least partly. The weightlessness might contribute to the inhibition through behavioral change.

  18. Neural Correlates of Birth: Labor Contractions Induce C-Fos Expression In Newborn Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Daly, M. E.; Baer, L. A.; Hills, E. M.; Conway, G.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At birth, the newborn mammal must make rapid adaptations to the extrauterine environment to survive. We have previously shown that labor contractions augment the appearance of adaptive responses at birth, viz., postpartum breathing and the onset of suckling. Since neuronal activity has been shown to upregulate the activity of immediate early genes (IEGs) in the brain, we analyzed the neural distribution of c-Fos protein expression in newborn rats using immunohistochemistry. Previous studies have reported a burst of c-Fos mRNA expression in mouse and rat brain at birth however relationships to labor and delivery have not been examined. In the present study, we exposed near-term rat fetuses to elements of the vaginal birth process: 1) Simulated labor contractions. 2) Postpartum cooling (22 deg C). 3) Umbilical cord occlusion. and 4) Stroking to mimic postpartum licking by the dam. Cardinally delivered newborns (VG) were compared with those delivered by cesarean section following either prenatal exposure to compressions (C) [simulated labor contractions], or no compressions (NC) [no labor contractions]. Similar patterns of c-fos activation were observed throughout hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei, hippocampus and cerebral cortex in VG and C newborns that were not apparent in NC newborns. Our results indicate that labor contractions play a role in the induction of widespread neural activation in the newborn brain.

  19. Nanosystems based on siRNA silencing HuR expression counteract diabetic retinopathy in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Marialaura; Pascale, Alessia; Cupri, Sarha; Pignatello, Rosario; Osera, Cecilia; D Agata, Velia; D Amico, Agata Grazia; Leggio, Gian Marco; Ruozi, Barbara; Govoni, Stefano; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated whether specifically and directly targeting human antigen R (HuR), a member of embryonic lethal abnormal vision (ELAV) proteins family, may represent a new potential therapeutic strategy to manage diabetic retinopathy. Nanosystems loaded with siRNA silencing HuR expression (lipoplexes), consisting of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and liposomes (SUV) were prepared. Photon correlation spectroscopy analysis, Zeta potential measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies were carried out to characterize the complexation of siRNA with the lipid nanocarriers. Nanosystems were evaluated by using AFM and scanning electron microscopy. The lipoplexes were injected into the eye of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Retinal HuR and VEGF levels were detected by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Retinal histology was also carried out. The results demonstrated that retinal HuR and VEGF are significantly increased in STZ-rats and are blunted by HuR siRNA treatment. Lipoplexes with a weak positive surface charge and with a 4:1 N/P (cationic lipid nitrogen to siRNA phosphate) ratio exert a better transfection efficiency, significantly dumping retinal HuR and VEGF levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that siRNA can be efficiently delivered into the rat retina using lipid-based nanocarriers, and some of the lipoplexes loaded with siRNA silencing HuR expression are potential candidates to manage retinal diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [The expression of thrombospondin-1 in serum and pulmonary arterioles of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Juan; Zheng, Xi-Wei; Yang, Gui-Lan; Cheng, De-Yun; Zhang, Peng

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in serum and pulmonary arterioles of rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups and exposed to air and isobaric hypoxia for 3 weeks respectively. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was measured by right cardiac catheterization. The rates of wall thickness/external diameter (WT%) and wall area/total vascular area (WA%) were calculated. The TSP-1 level in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TSP-1 mRNA expression in lung tissue was evaluated by quantitative PCR. The pulmonary artery pressure increased in the hypoxia exposed rats. The chronic hypoxia also elicited the thicking of the wall and the narrowing of the lumen of pulmonary arterioles. It led to the increases of pulmonary artery pressure, the index of right ventricular hypertrophy [RV/(LV+S)], WA% and WT% compared to the controls [mPAP:(2.86 +/- 0.39) kPa vs. (1.35 +/- 40.28) kPa; RV/(LV+ S): (43.53 +/- 3.38)% vs. (23.68 +/- 3.48)%; WT%: (35.24 +/- 11.20)% vs. (23.63 +/- 9.74)%; WA%: (55.09 +/- 12.38)% vs. (41.62 +/- 12.83)% respectively, Ppulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension.

  1. GLUT4 protein expression in obese and lean 12-month-old rats: insights from different types of data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Seraphim

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available GLUT4 protein expression in white adipose tissue (WAT and skeletal muscle (SM was investigated in 2-month-old, 12-month-old spontaneously obese or 12-month-old calorie-restricted lean Wistar rats, by considering different parameters of analysis, such as tissue and body weight, and total protein yield of the tissue. In WAT, a ~70% decrease was observed in plasma membrane and microsomal GLUT4 protein, expressed as µg protein or g tissue, in both 12-month-old obese and 12-month-old lean rats compared to 2-month-old rats. However, when plasma membrane and microsomal GLUT4 tissue contents were expressed as g body weight, they were the same. In SM, GLUT4 protein content, expressed as µg protein, was similar in 2-month-old and 12-month-old obese rats, whereas it was reduced in 12-month-old obese rats, when expressed as g tissue or g body weight, which may play an important role in insulin resistance. Weight loss did not change the SM GLUT4 content. These results show that altered insulin sensitivity is accompanied by modulation of GLUT4 protein expression. However, the true role of WAT and SM GLUT4 contents in whole-body or tissue insulin sensitivity should be determined considering not only GLUT4 protein expression, but also the strong morphostructural changes in these tissues, which require different types of data analysis.

  2. Exercise-induced differential changes in gene expression among arterioles of skeletal muscles of obese rats

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    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Thorne, Pamela K.; Martin, Jeffrey S.; Rector, R. Scott; Akter, Sadia; Davis, J. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Using next-generation, transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology we assessed the effects of exercise training on transcriptional profiles in skeletal muscle arterioles isolated from the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats that underwent an endurance exercise training program (EX; n = 13), interval sprint training program (SPRINT; n = 14), or remained sedentary (Sed; n = 12). We hypothesized that the greatest effects of exercise would be in the gastrocnemius arterioles. Results show that EX caused the largest number of changes in gene expression in the soleus and white gastrocnemius 2a arterioles with little to no changes in the feed arteries. In contrast, SPRINT caused substantial changes in gene expression in the feed arteries. IPA canonical pathway analysis revealed 18 pathways with significant changes in gene expression when analyzed across vessels and revealed that EX induces increased expression of the following genes in all arterioles examined: Shc1, desert hedgehog protein (Dhh), adenylate cyclase 4 (Adcy4), G protein binding protein, alpha (Gnat1), and Bcl2l1 and decreased expression of ubiquitin D (Ubd) and cAMP response element modulator (Crem). EX increased expression of endothelin converting enzyme (Ece1), Hsp90b, Fkbp5, and Cdcl4b in four of five arterioles. SPRINT had effects on expression of Crem, Dhh, Bcl2l1, and Ubd that were similar to EX. SPRINT also increased expression of Nfkbia, Hspa5, Tubb 2a and Tubb 2b, and Fkbp5 in all five arterioles and increased expression of Gnat1 in all but the soleus second-order arterioles. Many contractile and/or structural protein genes were increased by SPRINT in the gastrocnemius feed artery, but the same genes exhibited decreased expression in red gastrocnemius arterioles. We conclude that training-induced changes in arteriolar gene expression patterns differ by muscle fiber type composition and along the arteriolar tree. PMID:26183477

  3. Acute exposure to high-peak-power pulsed microwaves affecting the histamine H3 receptor expression in rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaodong; Li Bo; Li Dehua; He Qiyi; Yu Zhengping

    2006-01-01

    In the Morris Water test, high-peak-power pulsed microwave (MW)-exposed rats displayed some learning and memory behavior dysfunctions, and their escape time and swimming distance to the submerged platform were longer than those of the sham-exposed rats. to understand the molecular mechanism involved, the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reation (RT-PCR) and the Western-blotting technique were used for investigating the mRNA and protein expression patterns of the histamine H 3 receptor (H 3 R) in rat hippocampus. High-peak-power pulsed microwave-exposure did not remarkably lead to the change in expression of H 3 R mRNA in rat hippocampi; however, it promoted the up-regulatory expression of the H 3 R protein, which was possibly triggered through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Therefore, further investigation of the molecular mechanism of the MW effects on the learning and memory behaviors is required. (authors)

  4. Centella asiatica increases B-cell lymphoma 2 expression in rat prefrontal cortex

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    Kuswati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Stress is one of the factors that cause apoptosis in neuronal cells. Centella asiatica has a neuroprotective effect that can inhibit apoptosis. This study aimed to examine the effect of Centella asiatica ethanol extract on B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 protein expression in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on 34 brain tissue samples from male Sprague Dawley rats exposed to chronic restraint stress for 21 days. The samples were taken from following groups: non-stress group K, negative control group P1 (stress + arabic gum powder, P2 (stress + C.asiatica at 150 mg/kgBW, P3 (stress + C.asiatica at 300 mg/kg BW, P4 (stress + C.asiatica at 600 mg/kg body weight and positive control group P5 (stress + fluoxetine at 10 mg/kgBW. The samples were made into sections that were stained immunohistochemically using Bcl-2 antibody to determine the percentage of cells expressing Bcl-2. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA test followed by a post - hoc test. Results There were significant differences in mean Bcl-2 expression between the groups receiving Centella asiatica compared with the non-stress group and stress-only group (negative control group (p<0.05. The results were comparable to those of the fluoxetine treatment group. Conclusion The Centella asiatica ethanol extract was able to increase Bcl-2 expression in the prefrontal cortex of Sprague Dawley rats exposed to restraint stress. This study suggests that Centella asiatica may be useful in the treatment of cerebral stress.

  5. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and erythropoietin at corneal neovascularization in rats

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    Ji-Min Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To describe the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1αand erythropoietin(EPOin rats' corneal and evaluate its potential effect on corneal neovascularization(CNVgrowth. METHODS: The young SD rats(3mowas chosen and randomly divided into 2 groups, which were experimental group and normal control group. CNV model was established by alkali burn, and the length and area of CNV was observed everyday after operation by slit lamp. After that, the expression of HIF-1α and EPO was measured by SABC and RT-PCR methods at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14d after alkali burn. The data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0. RESULTS: The area of CNV was increasing at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14d after alkali burn, and the peak point appear at 7d. The growth speed was decreased after 14d. SABC method told us that no HIF-1α and very tiny amount EPO was detected at normal rats' corneal. The expression of the two factors increased at 1d after alkali burn in corneal epithelium and endoderm. The results of RT-PCR showed that a few amounts of HIF-1α and EPO mRNA were detected at normal group. The expression of the two factors was increased at 3d after alkali burn, and the peak value was found at 7d, however, it was decreased at 14d. Statistical difference was found at different time(PCONCLUSION: HIF-1α and EPO is closely related to CNV.

  6. The relationship between radiation-induced apoptosis and the expression of cytokines in the rat's liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Eun Joo; Lee, Kyung Ja; Rhee, Chung Sik

    2000-01-01

    To determine the role of cytokines in the apoptosis of rat's liver following irradiation. Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated to entire body with a single dose of 8 Gy. The rats were divided into 5 groups according to the sacrifice day after irradiation. The liver and blood after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days irradiation were sampled for evaluation of mechanism of apoptosis and role of cytokine in relation to radiation-induced tissue damage. The study was composed of microscopic evaluation of liver tissue, in situ detection method for apoptosis, immunohistochemical stain of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6 and TNF, bioassay and radioimmunoassay of IL-6 in liver tissue and blood. Radiation-induced liver damage was noted from first day of radiation, and most severe parenchymal damage associated with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells was seen in the groups of 5 days after radiation. A number of apoptosis were observed 1 day after radiation on both light microscope and in situ method. Afterwards, the number of apoptosis was gradually diminished. On immunohistochemical study, IL-1 and TNF were expressed 1, 3 days after radiation, but not expressed after that. IL-4 was not expressed in the entire groups. IL-6 was expressed with strong positivity in 1, 3 days after radiation. Bioassay and RIA of IL-6 in liver tissue and blood showed the highest value in 1 day after radiation, and the value is diminished after then. Apoptosis seemed to be the important mechanism of radiation-induced liver damage, and is possibly induced by the release of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF in view the simultaneously increased appearance of apoptosis and cytokines

  7. Paradoxical sleep deprivation changes testicular malondialdehyde and caspase-3 expression in male rats

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    Fitranto Arjadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sleep deprivation is a significant problem among adult men and is considered as a risk factor for several diseases. Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD induces Leydig cell apoptosis through elevation of corticosterone, with testicular malondialdehyde (MDA and Leydig cell caspase-3 expression as parameters. The aim of this study was to observe testicular MDA level and caspase-3 expression treated with paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock stress and to determine the stress model with a significant effect in white male rats (Rattus norvegicus . METHODS This experimental randomized study of posttest only with control group design was conducted on 24 white male Wistar strain rats, randomly allocated into four treatment groups, i.e. control (K1 without any stress treatment, PSD (KII, immobilization (KIII, and footshock stress (KIV. Treatments were given for 25 days to produce chronic stress. Testicular MDA concentration was examined by the ELISA method while caspase-3 was examined by the TUNEL method. RESULTS Mean testicular MDA concentration with one-way ANOVA test showed differences in means between the groups (p=0.000 and post hoc Tukey-HSD test showed significant results between PSD stress group versus control, immobilization and footshock stress groups. One-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in caspase-3 expression in at least two treatment groups (p=0.008 and post-hoc Tuckey-LSD test showed significant differences between controls and all stress groups. CONCLUSION Sleep deprivation is a type of stress inducing changes in testicular MDA concentration and caspase-3 expression in male rat testes.

  8. Gene expression in the spinal cord in female lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced with myelin basic protein.

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    Hayley R Inglis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the best available model of multiple sclerosis, can be induced in different animal strains using immunization with central nervous system antigens. EAE is associated with inflammation and demyelination of the nervous system. Micro-array can be used to investigate gene expression and biological pathways that are altered during disease. There are few studies of the changes in gene expression in EAE, and these have mostly been done in a chronic mouse EAE model. EAE induced in the Lewis with myelin basic protein (MBP-EAE is well characterised, making it an ideal candidate for the analysis of gene expression in this disease model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MBP-EAE was induced in female Lewis rats by inoculation with MBP and adjuvants. Total RNA was extracted from the spinal cords and used for micro-array analysis using AffimetrixGeneChip Rat Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Gene expression in the spinal cords was compared between healthy female rats and female rats with MBP-EAE. Gene expression in the spinal cord of rats with MBP-EAE differed from that in the spinal cord of normal rats, and there was regulation of pathways involved with immune function and nervous system function. For selected genes the change in expression was confirmed with real-time PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: EAE leads to modulation of gene expression in the spinal cord. We have identified the genes that are most significantly regulated in MBP-EAE in the Lewis rat and produced a profile of gene expression in the spinal cord at the peak of disease.

  9. Differential Expression of Sirtuin Family Members in the Developing, Adult, and Aged Rat Brain

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    Elena eSidorova-Darmos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain - the most energy demanding tissue in the body - remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain.

  10. Effects of Fenofibrate on Adiponectin Expression in Retinas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Ying-Jung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin has been associated with increased risks of microvascular complications in diabetes; however, its role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR is unknown. Fenofibrate is a lipid-lowering agent that has been shown to be capable of preventing DR progression. We investigated the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in DR and evaluated the effects of fenofibrate on their expression. The mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin and its receptors were elevated in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and were suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that adiponectin and adipoR1 were expressed in cells located within blood vessels, the retinal ganglion, and the inner nuclear layer. AdipoR1 was strongly expressed whereas adipoR2 was only weekly expressed in vascular endothelial cells. The in vitro experiments showed that adiponectin expression was induced by high glucose concentrations in RGC-5 and RAW264.7 cells and was suppressed following fenofibrate treatment. AdipoR1 and adipoR2 levels in RGC-5 cells were elevated in high glucose concentrations and suppressed by fenofibrate. Our results demonstrated that adiponectin may be a proinflammatory mediator in diabetic retinas and fenofibrate appears to modulate the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in diabetic retinas, effectively reducing DR progression.

  11. Synchronized Progression of Prestin Expression and Auditory Brainstem Response during Postnatal Development in Rats

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    Jianfeng Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prestin is the motor protein expressed in the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs of mammalian inner ear. The electromotility of OHCs driven by prestin is responsible for the cochlear amplification which is required for normal hearing in adult animals. Postnatal expression of prestin and activity of OHCs may contribute to the maturation of hearing in rodents. However, the temporal and spatial expression of prestin in cochlea during the development is not well characterized. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of prestin from the OHCs in apical, middle, and basal turns of the cochleae of postnatal rats. Prestin first appeared at postnatal day 6 (P6 for basal turn, P7 in middle turn, and P9 for apical turn of cochlea. The expression level increased progressively over the next few days and by P14 reached the mature level for all three segments. By comparison with the time course of the development of auditory brainstem response for different frequencies, our data reveal that prestin expression synchronized with the hearing development. The present study suggests that the onset time of hearing may require the expression of prestin and is determined by the mature function of OHCs.

  12. Changes in Laminin Chain Expression in Pre- and Postnatal Rat Pituitary Gland

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    Ramadhani, Dini; Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is required for tissue development. Laminin, a major constituent of the basement membrane, is important for structural support and as a ligand in tissue development. Laminin has 19 isoforms, which are determined by combinational assembly of five α, three β, and three γ chains (eg, laminin 121 is α1, β2, and γ1). However, no report has identified the laminin isoforms expressed during pituitary development. We used in situ hybridization to investigate all laminin chains expressed during rat anterior pituitary development. The α5 chain was expressed during early pituitary development (embryonic day 12.5–15.5). Expression of α1 and α4 chains was noted in vasculature cells at embryonic day 19.5, but later diminished. The α1 chain was re-expressed in parenchymal cells of anterior lobe from postnatal day 10 (P10), while the α4 chain was present in vasculature cells from P30. The α2 and α3 chains were transiently expressed in vasculature cells and anterior lobe, respectively, only at P30. Widespread distribution of β and γ chains was also observed during development. These findings suggest that numerous laminin isoforms are involved in anterior pituitary gland development and that alteration of the expression pattern is required for proper development of the gland

  13. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

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    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  14. Rats

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    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  15. Aging diminishes the resistance of AO rats to EAE: putative role of enhanced generation of GM-CSF Expressing CD4+ T cells in aged rats.

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    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Blagojević, Veljko; Kosec, Duško; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Aging influences immune response and susceptibility to EAE in a strain specific manner. The study was designed to examine influence of aging on EAE induction in Albino Oxford (AO) rats. Differently from 3-month-old (young) rats, which were resistant to EAE induction, the majority of aged (24-26-month-old) rats developed mild chronic form of EAE. On 16(th) day post-immunization, when in aged rats the neurological deficit reached plateau, more mononuclear cells, including CD4+ T lymphocytes was retrieved from spinal cord of aged than young rats. The frequencies of IL-17+ and GM-CSF+ cells within spinal cord infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes were greater in aged rats. To their increased frequency contributed the expansion of GM-CSF + IL-17 + IFN-γ+ cells, which are highly pathogenic in mice. The expression of the cytokines (IL-1β and IL-23/p19) driving GM-CSF + IL-17 + IFN-γ + cell differentiation in mice was also augmented in aged rat spinal cord mononuclear cells. Additionally, in aged rat spinal cord the expansion of GM-CSF + IL-17-IFN-γ- CD4+ T lymphocytes was found. Consistently, the expression of mRNAs for IL-3, the cytokine exhibiting the same expression pattern as GM-CSF, and IL-7, the cytokine driving differentiation of GM-CSF + IL-17-IFN-γ- CD4 + lymphocytes in mice, was upregulated in aged rat spinal cord mononuclear cells, and the tissue, respectively. This was in accordance with the enhanced generation of the brain antigen-specific GM-CSF+ CD4+ lymphocytes in aged rat draining lymph nodes, as suggested by (i) the higher frequency of GM-CSF+ cells (reflecting the expansion of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells) within their CD4+ lymphocytes and (ii) the upregulated GM-CSF and IL-3 mRNA expression in fresh CD4+ lymphocytes and MBP-stimulated draining lymph node cells and IL-7 mRNA in lymph node tissue from aged rats. In agreement with the upregulated GM-CSF expression in aged rats, strikingly more CD11b + CD45(int) (activated microglia

  16. [Effect of electroacupuncture on cholecystokinin gene expression in rat hippocampus during penicillin-induced epileptic seizure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Wang, B; Cheng, J

    1996-01-01

    Northern Blot and hybrization in situ techniques were used to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the changes of cholecystokinin (CCK) mRAN levels of the hippocampus in rat penicillin-induced epilepsy model. Epilepsy can significantly increase CCK mRNA levels in dentate gyrus and CA3 areas of hippocampus in diencephalic sections after penicillin-induced seizure, whereas EA not only can attenuate the seizure behaviors and EEG changes, but also can decrease the increase of CCK mRNA contents induced by the seizure. However, in the subiculum, dentate gyrus and CA3 areas of mesencephalic sections of rat hippocampus, EA can further increase the enhancement of CCK mRNA concentration induced by penicillin-induced seizure. The results suggest that EA inhibitory effects on the seizure's behaviors and epileptiform activities may be related to the alteration of CCK gene expression in the different area of hippocampus.

  17. No immune responses by the expression of the yeast Ndi1 protein in rats.

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    Mathieu Marella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rotenone-insensitive internal NADH-quinone oxidoreductase from yeast, Ndi1, has been shown to work as a replacement molecule for complex I in the respiratory chain of mammalian mitochondria. In the so-called transkingdom gene therapy, one major concern is the fact that the yeast protein is foreign in mammals. Long term expression of Ndi1 observed in rodents with no apparent damage to the target tissue was indicative of no action by the host's immune system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we examined rat skeletal muscles expressing Ndi1 for possible signs of inflammatory or immune response. In parallel, we carried out delivery of the GFP gene using the same viral vector that was used for the NDI1 gene. The tissues were subjected to H&E staining and immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific for markers, CD11b, CD3, CD4, and CD8. The data showed no detectable signs of an immune response with the tissues expressing Ndi1. In contrast, mild but distinctive positive reactions were observed in the tissues expressing GFP. This clear difference most likely comes from the difference in the location of the expressed protein. Ndi1 was localized to the mitochondria whereas GFP was in the cytosol. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that Ndi1 expression did not trigger any inflammatory or immune response in rats. These results push forward the Ndi1-based molecular therapy and also expand the possibility of using foreign proteins that are directed to subcellular organelle such as mitochondria.

  18. Chronic antidepressant treatments resulted in altered expression of genes involved in inflammation in the rat hypothalamus.

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    Alboni, Silvia; Benatti, Cristina; Montanari, Claudia; Tascedda, Fabio; Brunello, Nicoletta

    2013-12-05

    To gain insight into the possible immune targets of antidepressant, we evaluated the expression of several inflammatory mediators in the hypothalamus of rats chronically (28 days) treated with the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (5mg/kg, i.p.) or the tricyclic compound imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). We focused our attention on the hypothalamus as it plays a key role in determining many of the somatic symptoms experienced by depressed patients. This brain region, critical also for expression of motivated behaviours, participates in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and in stress response as well as coordinates physiological functions such as sleep and food intake that have been found altered in a high percentage of depressed patients. Notably, hypothalamus is a key structure for brain cytokine expression and function as it integrates signals from the neuro, immune, endocrine systems. By means of quantitative Real Time PCR experiments we demonstrated that a chronic treatment with either fluoxetine or imipramine resulted in a reduction of IL-6 and IFN-γ mRNAs and increased IL-4 mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus. Moreover, we demonstrated that hypothalamic expression of members of IL-18 system was differentially affected by chronic antidepressant treatments. Chronically administered fluoxetine decreased IL-8 and CX3CL1 hypothalamic expression, while a chronic treatment with imipramine decreased p11 mRNA. Our data suggest that a shift in the balance of the inflammation toward an anti-inflammatory state in the hypothalamus may represent a common mechanism of action of both the chronic treatments with fluoxetine and imipramine. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Regulation of caspase-3 expression to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats

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    Banun Kusumawardani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease has been involved in a variety of systemic disorders and suspected as a potential risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria may actively regulate embryonic development, implantation and placental trophoblast cell invasion. This study aimed to analyze the role of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonasgingivalis-infected pregnant rats. Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The weight and length of placentas and fetuses were evaluated. The expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. On GD14, TNF-α (R2=0.416;P=0.000 and IL-10 (R2=0.187;P=0.012 had an important role to increase expression of caspase-3 in the placenta, but only TNF-α (R2=0.393;P=0.000 was able to increase the expression of caspase-3 on GD20. TNF-α and caspase-3 also had an important role (P0.000. The increasing expressions of TNF-α and IL-10 did not only enhance immune protection, but also maintained the trophoblast cells survival by regulating expression of caspase-3. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in maternal periodontal tissue can lead to decrease in placental weight, fetal weight and fetal length which mediated by increasing expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in the placenta.

  20. Osteocytic Sclerostin Expression in Alveolar Bone in Rats With Diabetes Mellitus and Ligature-Induced Periodontitis.

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    Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Dong-Eun; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Bak, Eun-Jung; Yoo, Yun-Jung

    2015-08-01

    Osteocytic sclerostin inhibits bone formation, and its expression is stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. This study investigates sclerostin and TNF-α expression in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis. Rats were divided into control (C), periodontitis (P), and DM + periodontitis (DP) groups. After induction of DM by streptozotocin, periodontitis was induced by ligature. At day 0 (control) and at days 3 and 20 after induction of periodontitis, alveolar bone, osteoclasts, osteoid area, and TNF-α and sclerostin expression were evaluated. The distance between the cemento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone crest of the DP group was longer than that of the P group at day 20 after induction of periodontitis, but the number of osteoclasts was not different. Osteoid area decreased in both the P and DP groups by day 3, but whereas sustained osteoid suppression was observed in the DP group at day 20, osteoid formation was increased in the P group. The number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes increased in both groups at day 3, but the increased number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes was maintained only in the DP group through day 20. The number of TNF-α-positive cells increased more in the DP group than in the P group. Enhanced alveolar bone loss, suppressed bone formation, and prevalent TNF-α expression were characteristic of the DP group compared with the P group. Suppressed bone formation in the DP group was observed simultaneously with increased sclerostin and TNF-α expression. These results suggest that upregulated osteocytic sclerostin expression in periodontitis accompanied by DM may play a role in suppressed bone formation.

  1. Age-associated disruption of molecular clock expression in skeletal muscle of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

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    Mitsunori Miyazaki

    Full Text Available It is well known that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR develop muscle pathologies with hypertension and heart failure, though the mechanism remains poorly understood. Woon et al. (2007 linked the circadian clock gene Bmal1 to hypertension and metabolic dysfunction in the SHR. Building on these findings, we compared the expression pattern of several core-clock genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged SHR (80 weeks; overt heart failure compared to aged-matched control WKY strain. Heart failure was associated with marked effects on the expression of Bmal1, Clock and Rora in addition to several non-circadian genes important in regulating skeletal muscle phenotype including Mck, Ttn and Mef2c. We next performed circadian time-course collections at a young age (8 weeks; pre-hypertensive and adult age (22 weeks; hypertensive to determine if clock gene expression was disrupted in gastrocnemius, heart and liver tissues prior to or after the rats became hypertensive. We found that hypertensive/hypertrophic SHR showed a dampening of peak Bmal1 and Rev-erb expression in the liver, and the clock-controlled gene Pgc1α in the gastrocnemius. In addition, the core-clock gene Clock and the muscle-specific, clock-controlled gene Myod1, no longer maintained a circadian pattern of expression in gastrocnemius from the hypertensive SHR. These findings provide a framework to suggest a mechanism whereby chronic heart failure leads to skeletal muscle pathologies; prolonged dysregulation of the molecular clock in skeletal muscle results in altered Clock, Pgc1α and Myod1 expression which in turn leads to the mis-regulation of target genes important for mechanical and metabolic function of skeletal muscle.

  2. Increased expression of Dock180 protein in the noninfarcted myocardium in rats

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    Xiao-Lan Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The integrin β1 subunit and its downstream molecule focal adhesion kinase have been identified as critical molecules for the inhibition of postinfarction cardiac remodeling, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. However, as a component of the integrin pathway, it is still unclear whether Dock180 (dedicator of cytokinesis 1 protein is expressed in the noninfarcted myocardium of the peri-infarct zones. In this study, experimental myocardial infarction (MI and sham-operation (sham models were established in Sprague Dawley rats and the expression of Dock180 protein in the myocardium of the sham group and in the noninfarcted myocardium of the peri-infarct zones of the MI group was detected by Western blot technique. The Dock180 protein expression in the myocardium was as follows: postsham 24-hour group, 0.10 ± 0.04 (n = 8; post-MI 24-hour group, 0.13 ± 0.03 (n = 8; postsham 12-week group, 0.11 ± 0.05 (n = 8; and post-MI 12-week group 0.17 ± 0.04 (n = 8. The Dock180 protein expression in the myocardium in the post-MI 12-week group was significantly higher than that in the postsham 12-week group (p = 0.019, in the postsham 24-hour group (p = 0.004, and in the post-MI 24-hour group (p = 0.040. We conclude that Dock180 protein is expressed in the myocardium in rats. Furthermore, its expression is significantly increased in the noninfarcted myocardium of the peri-infarct zones.

  3. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

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    Anne Klomp

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+ cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+, revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  4. Attribution and expression of incentive salience are differentially signaled by ultrasonic vocalizations in rats.

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    Juan C Brenes

    Full Text Available During Pavlovian incentive learning, the affective properties of rewards are thought to be transferred to their predicting cues. However, how rewards are represented emotionally in animals is widely unknown. This study sought to determine whether 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in rats may signal such a state of incentive motivation to natural, nutritional rewards. To this end, rats learned to anticipate food rewards and, across experiments, the current physiological state (deprived vs. sated, the type of learning mechanism recruited (Pavlovian vs. instrumental, the hedonic properties of UCS (low vs. high palatable food, and the availability of food reward (continued vs. discontinued were manipulated. Overall, we found that reward-cues elicited 50-kHz calls as they were signaling a putative affective state indicative of incentive motivation in the rat. Attribution and expression of incentive salience, however, seemed not to be an unified process, and could be teased apart in two different ways: 1 under high motivational state (i.e., hunger, the attribution of incentive salience to cues occurred without being expressed at the USVs level, if reward expectations were higher than the outcome; 2 in all experiments when food rewards were devalued by satiation, reward cues were still able to elicit USVs and conditioned anticipatory activity although reward seeking and consumption were drastically weakened. Our results suggest that rats are capable of representing rewards emotionally beyond apparent, immediate physiological demands. These findings may have translational potential in uncovering mechanisms underlying aberrant and persistent motivation as observed in drug addiction, gambling, and eating disorders.

  5. Identification of the Differential Expression Profiles of Serum and Tissue Proteins During Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis.

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    Sheng, Xia; Huang, Tao; Qin, Jianmin; Yang, Lin; Sa, Zhong-Qiu; Li, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma is complex and not fully known yet. This study aims to screen and identify the differentially expressed proteins in peripheral blood and liver tissue samples from rat hepatocellular carcinoma and to further clarify the pathogenesis and discover the specific tumor markers and molecular targets of hepatocellular carcinoma. The hepatocellular carcinoma model of Wistar rats were induced by chemical carcinogen. The serum and liver tissue samples were obtained after induction for 2, 4, 8, 14, 18, and 21 weeks. The results showed that the clusterin (IPI00198667), heat shock protein a8 (IPI00208205), and N-myc downstream-regulated gene-2 (IPI00382069) being closely related to hepatocarcinogenesis were eventually identified from the 30 different proteins. As the time progressed, the serum levels of clusterin and heat shock protein a8 increased gradually during induced liver cancer in rats. However, the serum N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 level in induced liver cancer in rats underwent biphasic changes, and the serum N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 level decreased at the 8th week, increased at the 14th week, and then decreased significantly. Statistical difference occurred in protein expression of clusterin and heat shock protein a8 in liver tissues at the different time points. In the liver tissues, the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 level decreased gradually at the 8th week, increased gradually at the 14th week, and then decreased significantly after 14 weeks. The study demonstrated that heat shock protein a8, clusterin, and N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 participated in the process of abnormal cell division, proliferation, and carcinogenesis of liver cells during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  6. Effect of HIV-1-related protein expression on cardiac and skeletal muscles from transgenic rats

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    Guidot David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and the consequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has protean manifestations, including muscle wasting and cardiomyopathy, which contribute to its high morbidity. The pathogenesis of these myopathies remains partially understood, and may include nutritional deficiencies, biochemical abnormalities, inflammation, and other mechanisms due to viral infection and replication. Growing evidence has suggested that HIV-1-related proteins expressed by the host in response to viral infection, including Tat and gp120, may also be involved in the pathophysiology of AIDS, particularly in cells or tissues that are not directly infected with HIV-1. To explore the potentially independent effects of HIV-1-related proteins on heart and skeletal muscles, we used a transgenic rat model that expresses several HIV-1-related proteins (e.g., Tat, gp120, and Nef. Outcome measures included basic heart and skeletal muscle morphology, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress, and gene expressions of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGFβ1, three factors associated with muscle catabolism. Results Consistent with HIV-1 associated myopathies in humans, HIV-1 transgenic rats had increased relative heart masses, decreased relative masses of soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles, and decreased total and myosin heavy chain type-specific plantaris muscle fiber areas. In both tissues, the levels of cystine (Cyss, the oxidized form of the anti-oxidant cysteine (Cys, and Cyss:Cys ratios were significantly elevated, and cardiac tissue from HIV-1 transgenic rats had altered glutathione metabolism, all reflective of significant oxidative stress. In HIV-1 transgenic rat hearts, MuRF-1 gene expression was increased. Further, HIV-1-related protein expression also increased atrogin-1 (~14- and ~3-fold and TGFβ1 (~5-fold and ~3-fold in heart and

  7. PFOS prenatal exposure induce mitochondrial injury and gene expression change in hearts of weaned SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Wei; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Huaicai; Lv, Ziquan; Li, Gengqi; Wei, Zhengzheng; Xu, Shun-qing

    2011-01-01

    Xenobiotics exposure in early life may have adverse effects on animals' development through mitochondrial injury or dysfunction. The current study demonstrated the possibility of cardiac mitochondrial injury in prenatal PFOS-exposed weaned rat heart. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at doses of 0.1, 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg/d and 0.05% Tween 80 as control by gavage from gestation days 2-21. The dams were allowed to give nature delivery and then heart tissues from weaned (postnatal day 21) offspring rats were analyzed for mitochondrial injury through ultrastructure observation by electron microscope, global gene expression profile by microarray, as well as related mRNA and proteins expression levels by quantitative PCR and western blot. Ultrastructural analysis revealed significant vacuolization and inner membrane injury occurred at the mitochondria of heart tissues from 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group. Meanwhile, the global gene expression profile showed significant difference in level of some mRNA expression associated with mitochondrial function at 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group, compared to the control. Furthermore, dose-response trends for the expression of selected genes were analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. The selected genes were mainly focused on those encoding for proteins involved in energy production, control of ion levels, and maintenance of heart function. The down-regulation of mitochondrial ATP synthetase (ATP5E, ATP5I and ATP5O) implicated a decrease in energy supply. This was accompanied by down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in energy consumption such as ion transporting ATPase (ATP1A3 and ATP2B2) and inner membrane protein synthesis (SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC25A10, SLC25A29). The up-regulation of gene transcripts encoding for uncoupling proteins (UCP1 and UCP3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was probably a protective process to maintain

  8. Changes in expression of proteasome in rats at different stages of atherosclerosis.

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    Ismawati; Oenzil, Fadil; Yanwirasti; Yerizel, Eti

    2016-06-01

    It has been suggested that proteasome system has a role in initiation, progression, and complication stages of atherosclerosis. Although there is still controversy, there has been no research that compares the expression of proteasome in tissue and serum at each of these stages. This study aimed to investigated the expression of proteasome at different stages of atherosclerosis using rat model. We measured the expression of aortic proteasome by immunohistochemical analyses and were then analyzed using ImageJ software for percentage of area and integrated density. We used Photoshop version 3.0 to analyze aortic proteasome expression as a comparison. We measured serum proteasome expression by enzyme linked immunosorbents assays. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare mean value of percentage of area and serum proteasome. Analysis of variance test was used to compare mean value of integrated density. Correlation test between vascular proteasome expression and serum proteasome expression was made using Spearman test. A P-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Compared with normal, percentage of area was higher in initiation, progression, and complication. Compared with normal, integrated density was higher in initiation and further higher in progression and complication. Data from Image J is similar with data from Photoshop. Serum proteasome expression was higher in initiation compared with normal, and further higher in progression and complication. It was concluded that there were different vascular proteasome expression and serum proteasome expression at the stages of atherosclerosis. These results may be used in research into new marker and therapeutic target in atherosclerosis.

  9. [Gene expressions of xylosyltransferase and heparanase in renal tissue of rat with adriamycin nephropathy and relevance for proteinuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Zheng

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the roles of P-D-xylosyltransferase I (XT-I) and beta-D-endoglycosidase heparanase (Hpa) in renal tissue with the development of adriamycin (ADR) nephropathy and relevance for proteinuria. 150-200 g Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 per group) were used to make the nephropathy model induced by tail intravenous injection of 6 mg/kg ADR. Rats were housed in metabolic cage for 24 hours so as to collect the urine prior to disease induced and at day 7, 14 and 21 following disease induction. By using the method of reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), XT- I and Hpa genes from renal tissue of these groups were assayed respectively. (1) Rats with nephropathy at day 7, 14 and 21 showed the marked up-regulated XT- I mRNA and the significant difference in contrast to the normal rats,and rats at day 21 showed the marked up-regulated XT- I mRNA and significant difference in contrast to nephropathy rats at day 7. There was a positive linear correlation between the expression level of XT- I mRNA from the renal tissue of nephropathy rats and the quantity of urinary protein (r = 0.760, P < 0.05). (2) The nephropathy rats at day 7, 14 and 21 showed marked up-regulated Hpa mRNA and significant difference in contrast to the normal rats,the rats at day 14 and 21 showed marked up-regulated Hpa mRNA and significant difference in contrast to the rats at day 7. There was a positive linear correlation between the expression level of Hpa mRNA from renal tissue and quantity of rat urinary protein (r = 0.757, P < 0.05). The up-regulated expressions of XT- I and Hpa mRNA in rat renal tissue exist in Adriamycin nephropathy. Higher Hpa mRNA expression, more quantity of urinary protein;more quantity of urinary protein,higher XT-I mRNA expression.

  10. [Effect of Jingang Jiangu pill (see text) on expression of integrin beta1 and alphavbeta3 in ovariectomized osteoporosis model rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shao-Feng; Li, Ling-Hui; Chen, Qing; Yao, Gong-He; Deng, Bo; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Nie, Ying; Luo, Zhen-Hua; Guo, Yan-Tao

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the regulatory effect of Jingang Jiangu pill (see text, JGJG) on expression of integrin in ovariectomized rats. Fifty ovariectomized 10 months old female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: Fushanmei group (FSM), Jingang Jiangu pill (see text) group (JGJG), Gusongbao granule group (GSB), Model group (OVX), Sham group. After ovariectomized,the rats were raised in the same environment for 13 weeks. The rats in JGJG group took 0.13 g JGJG pill orally each day for each rat; the rats in GSB group took 0.86 g GSB granule orally each day for each rat; the rats in FSM group took 0.28 mg FSM orally each day for each rat; and the rats in OVX and sham groups took sodium. The treatment duration of rats in above 5 groups was 13 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) and the expression of integrin beta1 and alphavbeta3 were detected in each group after the treatment. RESYKTS: The BMD and the expression of integrin beta1 in FSM group, JGJG group and GSB group improved obviously than that of OVX group. There were statistical difference between these groups (P<0.05). The expression of integrin alphavbeta3 of the three treating groups significantly depressed. The JGJG pill improves BMD and express of integrin beta1, in ovariectomized rats and reduces express of integrin alphavbeta3 through the regulation of the coupling of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  11. Intestinal barrier dysfunction and increased COX-2 gene expression in the gut of elderly rats with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeiro, Denise Frediani; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Coelho, Ana Maria Mendonça; da Silva, Fabiano Pinheiro; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira César

    2016-01-01

    The clinical course of acute pancreatitis can vary from mild to severe. In its most severe manifestation, acute pancreatitis is associated with an exacerbated systemic inflammatory response and high mortality rates. The severe form of acute pancreatitis is more frequent in elderly patients than in young patients, but the mechanisms underlying this difference are still under investigation. Rats were divided into two groups as follows: Group 1, young rats; and Group 2, old rats. Acute pancreatitis group was induced by a retrograde injection of a sodium taurocholate solution into the biliopancreatic duct. Using this model of acute pancreatic injury, we designed a study to investigate possible differences in microbial translocation and characteristics of the intestinal barrier between elderly and young rats. There was a significantly higher number of bacterial colonies in the pancreas of elderly rats compared with young rats following pancreas injury, which was associated with a more severe local intestinal inflammatory response that included elevated gene expression of COX-2 and a decreased gene expression of tight junction proteins. We conclude that intestinal damage during acute pancreatitis is exacerbated in elderly rats compared with young rats and that COX-2 inhibition could be a potential therapeutic target to offer tailored treatment for acute pancreatitis in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The hepatic Raldh1 expression is elevated in Zucker fatty rats and its over-expression introduced the retinal-induced Srebp-1c expression in INS-1 cells.

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    Yang Li

    Full Text Available The roles of vitamin A (VA in the development of metabolic diseases remain unanswered. We have reported that retinoids synergized with insulin to induce the expression of sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1c gene (Srebp-1c expression in primary rat hepatocytes. Additionally, the hepatic Srebp-1c expression is elevated in Zucker fatty (ZF rats, and reduced in those fed a VA deficient diet. VA is metabolized to retinoic acid (RA for regulating gene expression. We hypothesized that the expression of RA production enzymes contributes to the regulation of the hepatic Srebp-1c expression. Therefore, we analyzed their expression levels in Zucker lean (ZL and ZF rats. The mRNA levels of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 gene (Raldh1 were found to be higher in the isolated and cultured primary hepatocytes from ZF rats than that from ZL rats. The RALDH1 protein level was elevated in the liver of ZF rats. Retinol and retinal dose- and time-dependently induced the expression of RA responsive Cyp26a1 gene in hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. INS-1 cells were identified as an ideal tool to study the effects of RA production on the regulation of gene expression because only RA, but not retinal, induced Srebp-1c mRNA expression in them. Recombinant adenovirus containing rat Raldh1 cDNA was made and used to infect INS-1 cells. The over-expression of RALDH1 introduced the retinal-mediated induction of Srebp-1c expression in INS-1 cells. We conclude that the expression levels of the enzymes for RA production may contribute to the regulation of RA responsive genes, and determine the responses of the cells to retinoid treatments. The elevated hepatic expression of Raldh1 in ZF rats may cause the excessive RA production from retinol, and in turn, result in higher Srebp-1c expression. This excessive RA production may be one of the factors contributing to the elevated lipogenesis in the liver of ZF rats.

  13. Effects of Hypothyroidism on Expression of CRMP2B and ARPC5 during Development of the Rat Frontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-rong; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Yong-liang; Liu, Ya-min; Yu, Bao-guo

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) can lead to irreversible central nervous system (CNS) damage. However, the pathogenesis of the developmental brain disorders caused by CH has not been completely elucidated. ARPC5 and CRMP2 are closely associated with neurite outgrowth in brain development. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether CRMP2B and ARPC5 expression is altered in the developing cerebral cortex of rats with CH. Control rats and rats with hypothyroidism were sacrificed at birth and at 15 days postpartum. We performed qRT-PCR to detect differences in the crmp2B and arpc5 mRNA expression in the right half of the frontal cortex of these rats. Western blotting was then used to detect differences in CRMP2B and ARPC5 protein expression. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the left half of the frontal cortex to detect abnormal localization of CRMP2B and ARPC5. Results showed increased expression of the nuclear short isoform of CRMP2B and decreased expression of full-length CRMP2B and ARPC5 in cortical neurons of rats with hypothyroidism. These findings demonstrate that reduced levels of thyroid hormones can inhibit the expression of full-length CRMP2B and ARPC5 and promote nuclear transformation of the short isoform of CRMP2B. CRMP2B and ARPC5 may participate in CNS injury mediated by hypothyroidism by inducing neurite outgrowth inhibition and cytoskeletal protein disorganization. PMID:23459330

  14. Expression of semaphorin 3A in the rat corneal epithelium during wound healing

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    Morishige, Naoyuki [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Ko, Ji-Ae, E-mail: jiae0831@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Morita, Yukiko; Nishida, Teruo [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2010-05-14

    The neural guidance protein semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is expressed in corneal epithelial cells of the adult rat. We have now further investigated the localization of Sema3A in the normal rat corneal epithelium as well as changes in its expression pattern during wound healing after central corneal epithelial debridement. The expression pattern of Sema3A was compared with that of the tight-junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), the gap-junction protein connexin43 (Cx43), or the cell proliferation marker Ki67. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Sema3A was present predominantly in the membrane of basal and wing cells of the intact corneal epithelium. The expression of Sema3A at the basal side of basal cells was increased in the peripheral epithelium compared with that in the central region. Sema3A was detected in all layers at the leading edge of the migrating corneal epithelium at 6 h after central epithelial debridement. The expression of Sema3A was markedly up-regulated in the basal and lateral membranes of columnar basal cells apparent in the thickened, newly healed epithelium at 1 day after debridement, but it had largely returned to the normal pattern at 3 days after debridement. The expression of ZO-1 was restricted to superficial epithelial cells and remained mostly unchanged during the wound healing process. The expression of Cx43 in basal cells was down-regulated at the leading edge of the migrating epithelium but was stable in the remaining portion of the epithelium. Ki67 was not detected in basal cells of the central epithelium at 1 day after epithelial debridement, when Sema3A was prominently expressed. Immunoblot analysis showed that the abundance of Sema3A in the central cornea was increased 1 day after epithelial debridement, whereas that of ZO-1 or Cx43 remained largely unchanged. This increase in Sema3A expression was accompanied by up-regulation of the Sema3A coreceptor neuropilin-1. Our observations have thus shown that the expression of

  15. Use of serial analysis of gene expression to reveal the specific regulation of gene expression profile in asthmatic rats treated by acupuncture

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    Xu Yu-Dong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma has become an important public health issue and approximately 300 million people have suffered from the disease worldwide. Nowadays, the use of acupuncture in asthma is increasing. This study intended to systematically analyze and compare the gene expression profiles between the asthmatic and acupuncture-treated asthmatic rat lung, and tried to gain insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the early airway response (EAR phase of asthma treated by acupuncture. Methods Four tag libraries of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE were established from lung tissues of control rats (CK, asthmatic rats (AS, asthmatic rats treated by acupuncture (ASAC, and control rats treated by acupuncture (CKAC. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out by using the methods including unsupervised hierarchical clustering, functional annotation tool of the database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery (DAVID, gene ontology (GO tree machine, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway analysis. Results There were totally 186 differentially expressed tags (P CK/AS between the libraries of CK and AS, 130 differentially expressed tags between libraries of AS/ASAC (P AS/ASAC, and 144 differentially expressed tags between libraries of CK/CKAC (P CK/CKAC. The gene expression profiles of AS and ASAC were more similar than other libraries via unsupervised SAGE clustering. By comparison of PCK/AS and PAS/ASAC, the DAVID genes functional classification was found to be changed from "immune response" to "response to steroid hormone stimulus", and the GO term "antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen" disappeared in PAS/ASAC. Totally 3 same KEGG pathways were found among the three groups. Moreover, 21 specific tags of the acupuncture in treating asthma were detected using Venn diagrams. Conclusion Our SAGE research indicates that the gene expression profile of the EAR phase of asthma could be

  16. Growth hormone action in rat insulinoma cells expressing truncated growth hormone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Annette; Allevato, G; Dyrberg, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Transfection of the insulin-producing rat islet tumor cell line RIN-5AH with a full length cDNA of the rat hepatic growth hormone (GH) receptor (GH-R1-638) augments the GH-responsive insulin synthesis in these cells. Using this functional system we analyzed the effect of COOH-terminal truncation...... of the GH receptor. Two mutated cDNAs encoding truncated GH receptors, GH-R1-294 and GH-R1-454, respectively, were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and transfected into the RIN cells. Both receptor mutants were expressed on the cell surface and displayed normal GH binding affinity. Whereas GH-R1......-638 had a molecular mass of about 110 kDa, GH-R1-294 and GH-R1-454 showed molecular masses of 49 and 80 kDa, respectively. Cells expressing GH-R1-454 internalized GH to a similar extent as cells transfected with the full length receptor and the parent cell line, but GH-R1-294-expressing cells showed...

  17. Kinetics of gene expression of alkaline phosphatase during healing of alveolar bone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Willian Caetano; Fabris, André Luís da Silva; Hassumi, Jaqueline Suemi; Gonçalves, Alaíde; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Okamoto, Roberta

    2016-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies and molecular biology have enabled us to identify numerous proteins that are involved in the metabolism of bone, and their encoding genes. Among these is alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme that is responsible for the initiation of mineralisation of the extracellular matrix during alveolar bone repair. To evaluate the gene expression of ALP during this process, we studied nine healthy adult male rats, which had their maxillary central incisors extracted from the right side and were randomly divided into three groups. During three experimental periods, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days, the alveoli were curetted, the rats killed, and samples analysed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The RNAm that encodes the gene for the synthesis of ALP was expressed during the three periods analysed, but its concentration was significantly increased at 14 and 28 days compared with at 7 days. There was no significant difference between 14 and 28 days (p=0.0005). We conclude that genes related to ALP are expressed throughout the healing process and more intensively during the later periods (14 and 28 days), which coincides with the increased formation of mineralised bone. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Hemin on Brain Alterations and Neuroglobin Expression in Water Immersion Restraint Stressed Rats

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    Merhan Ragy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, the heme oxygenase (HO system has been reported to be very active and its modulation seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Hemin as HO-1 inducer has been shown to attenuate neuronal injury so the goal of this study was to assess the effect of hemin therapy on the acute stress and how it would modulate neurological outcome. Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups: control group and stressed group with six-hour water immersion restraint stress (WIRS and stressed group, treated with hemin, in which each rat received a single intraperitoneal injection of hemin at a dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight at 12 hours before exposure to WIRS. Stress hormones, oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured and expressions of neuroglobin and S100B mRNA in brain tissue were assayed. Our results revealed that hemin significantly affects brain alterations induced by acute stress and this may be through increased expression of neuroglobin and through antioxidant effect. Hemin decreased blood-brain barrier damage as it significantly decreased the expression of S100B. These results suggest that hemin may be an effective therapy for being neuroprotective against acute stress.

  19. Dose-response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua F; Verhoef, Aart; van Beelen, Vincent A; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Piersma, Aldert H

    2012-10-01

    The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to improved objectivity, sensitivity and predictability of WEC in assessing developmental toxic properties of compounds. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of two phthalates differing in potency, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP, less toxic), on the transcriptome in WEC to examine gene expression in relation with dysmorphogenesis. MEHP was more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes as well as changes on morphology. MEHP induced significant enrichment of cholesterol/lipid/steroid (CLS) metabolism and apoptosis pathways which was associated with developmental toxicity. Regulation of genes within CLS metabolism pathways represented the most sensitive markers of MEHP exposure, more sensitive than classical morphological endpoints. As shown in direct comparisons with toxicogenomic in vivo studies, alterations in the regulation of CLS metabolism pathways has been previously identified to be associated with developmental toxicity due to phthalate exposure in utero. Our results support the application of WEC as a model to examine relative phthalate potency through gene expression and morphological responses. Additionally, our results further define the applicability domain of the WEC model for developmental toxicological investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of HPM irradiation on expression of GR in hypothalamus and pituitary gland of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Li; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Ma Junjie; Wang Shuiming; Hu Wenhua; Wang Dewen; Su Zhentao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression and significance of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hypothalamus and pituitary gland of rats after high power microwave (HPM) exposure. Methods: A total of 130 male Wistar rats were sacrificed at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, 28 d and 3 m after whole body irradiation by 2-90 mW/cm 2 HPM and their hypothalamus and pituitary gland were collected. The changes of GR in the two tissues after HPM exposure were investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining and image analysis. Results: The expression of GR in hypothalamus was decreased after HPM exposure. The level of GR in the group of 10 mW/cm 2 was significantly lower (P 2 group was significantly lower (P 2 group was significantly higher (P 2 group was significantly higher (P<0.01) on 1 d and 3 d after HPM exposure. Conclusion: The expression of GR in hypothalamus was decreased while that in the anterior pituitary was increased after HPM exposure. The refore, the negative feedback of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was upset and the changes of GR is involved in the pathophysiological course of HPA. (authors)

  1. [Effect of dietary fiber in the quantitative expression of butyrate receptor GPR43 in rats colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte Osorio, L Y; Martínez Flores, H E; Ortiz Alvarado, R

    2011-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting enzyme histonedeacetylase (HDAC). Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes. Determine if dietary fiber consumption from nopal (Opuntia ficus I.) containing a ratio of soluble-insoluble fiber 40/60, has a direct influence on the quantitative expression of butyrate-specific receptor GPR43. Wistar rats were fed with four different diets formulated at different concentrations of dietary fiber of 0, 5, 15 and 25% of dietary fiber from opuntia, respectively. The results shown an increase in the expression of GPR43 (93.1%) when rats was fed with a 5% fiber diet, using β-actin as a reference gene. The results of this investigation will contribute to determinate the relation of diet with intestinal health for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of butyric acid on colonic functions.

  2. Effect of amiodarone and dronedarone administration in rats on thyroid hormone-dependent gene expression in different cardiac components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoykov, I.; van Beeren, H. C.; Moorman, A. F. M.; Christoffels, V. M.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Bakker, O.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In view of their different actions on thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms we set out to investigate whether amiodarone (AM) and dronedarone (Dron) have different and/or component-specific effects on cardiac gene expression. DESIGN: Rats were treated with AM or Dron and the expression

  3. Spatiotemporal expression patterns of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan mRNAs in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruiwei; Wang, Minjie; Lin, Jie; Hu, Lan; Li, Zhihua; Chen, Chao; Yuan, Lin

    2017-12-21

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are pluripotent components of the extracellular matrix in the brain. Although previous studies have examined the developmental change in certain CSPGs in the whole brain, no known systematic studies have been carried out on the temporal or spatial expression of CSPGs. Here, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine the CSPG mRNAs expression in the postnatal developing rat brain starting from postnatal day 5-42, mainly focusing on the parietal cortex, hippocampus, and corpus callosum. Results were further verified by immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that aggrecan, brevican, phosphacan, and NG2 generally showed upregulation across developmental stages in all three regions. Neurocan showed a rapid increase until postnatal day 10 in all three regions. Versican, however, showed a sharp decrease until postnatal day 10. Cross-region analysis showed higher expression of most CSPG members in the corpus callosum during later stages of development. Further immunohistochemistry staining confirmed our results by showing prominent CSPGs protein expression in the corpus callosum. In summary, our study reported specific temporal-expression and spatial-expression patterns of the CSPGs species. These results are consistent with the known roles of these members in neurodevelopment. The current study provided clues for the development of CSPGs as potential treatment targets in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  4. Hsp70 Expression Profile in Preeclampsia Model of Pregnant Rat (Rattus norvegicus) after Giving the EVOO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianti, E.; ilyas, S.; Rosidah; Hutahaean, S.

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) has long been known to protect cells from oxidative stress. In this case an increased expression is found on several cases of preeclampsia. One of the efforts to prevent preeclampsia is by giving antioxidants such as Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) or it’s better known as olive oil (Oleoa europaea), in the form of extra virgin known for its rich antioxidant content of tocopherols (vitamin E). The purpose of this study is to determine the expression levels of Hsp70 serum on pregnant white rat model of preeclampsia after being given EVOO. This type of research is true experiment; the subjects were female white rats and male virgin with Sprague Dawley, ± 8-11 weeks old, 180g BB s / d 200g, healthy and didn’t show any physical defects. Samples were 25 animals, divided into 5 groups, which consisted of different control and treatment given to T2 (rat model of preeclampsia), T3 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.45g/bw/day), T4 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.9g/bw/day) and T5 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 1.8g/bw/day). The determination of each group was done by simple random sampling. Result on serum levels of Hsp70 that were tested by Elisa test in rats showed the average control was 14.64 mg / ml, group T2: 22:51 mg/ml, T3: 13.62 mg/ml, T4: 15.92 mg/ml, T5: 16:09 mg/ml. ANOVA test showed the P value was 0.001 <0.005, which meant there were significant differences on serum Hsp70 levels in the control and treatment pregnant rats group. It was known that there was a significant difference level of Hsp70 serum in group of control rats with T2 (P value <0.001) after LSD test was conducted, but not so with the group T3, T4, and T5, where the difference was not significant. There was a significant difference in the levels of Hsp70 serum on group T2 and T3 (P value 0.000), T4 (0004), T5 (0000). The gift of EVOO in the treatment group which was given EVOO with even low doses was able to control the induction of Hsp70 serum levels, which

  5. Cloning of the rat ecotropic retroviral receptor and studies of its expression in intestinal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puppi, M.; Henning, S.J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A long-term goal of our laboratory is to establish a rat model to study the feasibility of using the intestinal tract as a site for somatic gene therapy. As a step toward that goal, the current study reports the cloning of the rat ecotropic retroviral receptor (EcoR) cDNA and the study of various aspects of its expression in the intestinal cDNA library with mouse EcoR cDNA. A clone of approximately 7 kb, designated MP10, was obtained. Partial sequencing of MP10 from the 5{prime} end revealed a level of similarity of 92% compared with mouse EcoR. The presence of a 5{prime} untranslated region and a 3{prime} poly(A)tract, together with the overall size of the cDNA, suggest that is very close to being a full-length cDNA for this large transcript. Northern blots with MP10 showed an RNA of approximately 7.9 kb present along the entire length of the small intestine and somewhat less abundant in the colon. Developmental studies showed high levels of EcoR in fetal rat intestine, a decline in the early postnatal period, then a gradual rise to adulthood. Caco-2 cells were used to assess the expression of EcoR in proliferating compared with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. EcoR mRNA was found to be very much more abundant in nondifferentiated cells and declined to low levels as the cells underwent spontaneous differentiation. These patterns of EcoR expression indicate that ecotropic retroviruses should be suitable vectors with which to attempt gene transfer into the intestinal epithelium. In addition, since the endogenous role of EcoR is as the y{sup +} cationic amino acid transporter, these data have significance for understanding patterns of amino acid transport in the intestinal epithelium. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Glycyrrhizin suppresses the expressions of HMGB1 and relieves the severity of traumatic pancreatitis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xiang

    Full Text Available High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 plays important roles in a large variety of diseases; glycyrrhizin (GL is recognized as an HMGB1 inhibitor. However, few studies have focused on whether glycyrrhizin can potentially improve the outcome of traumatic pancreatitis (TP by inhibiting HMGB1.A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20 in each: Control group, TP group and TP-GL group. Pancreatic trauma was established with a custom-made biological impact machine-III, and GL was administered at 15 minutes after the accomplishment of operation. To determine survival rates during the first 7 days after injury, another 60 rats (n = 20 in each were grouped and treated as mentioned above. At 24 hours of induction of TP, the histopathological changes in pancreas were evaluated and serum amylase levels were tested. Serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and HMGB1 were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. HMGB1 expressions in pancreas were measured using immunohistochemical staining, Western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis.Serum levels of HMGB1, TNF-α and IL-6 were increased dramatically in TP group at 24 hours after induction of TP. However, these indicators were reduced significantly by GL administration in TP-GL group comparing with TP group (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, survival analysis showed that the seven-day survival rate in TP-GL group was significantly higher than that in TP group (85% versus 65%, P < 0.05. GL treatment significantly decreased the pancreatic protein and mRNA expressions of HMGB1 and ameliorated the pancreatic injury in rats with TP.Glycyrrhizin might play an important role in improving survival rates and ameliorating pancreatic injury of TP by suppression of the expressions of HMGB1 and other proinflammatory cytokine.

  7. Gene expression profiling in lung tissues from rats exposed to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Donggeun; Kim, Hyunsook; Oh, Eunha; Phark, Sohee; Cho, Eunkyung; Choi, Seonyoung; Kang, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Kwang-Woo; Jung, Woon-Won

    2007-08-01

    Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous toxic organic compound recently classified as a carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and one of the major factors causing sick building syndrome. In this study, we have investigated the effects of formaldehyde on mRNA expression in rat lung tissues by applying genomics. Rats were exposed to ambient air and two different concentrations of formaldehyde (0, 5, 10 ppm) for 2 weeks at 6 h/day and 5 days/week in an inhalation chamber. Malondialdehyde (MDA) assay and carbonyl spectrometric assay were conducted to determine lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels and Comet assays were used for genotoxicity evaluation. Level of MDA, carbonyl insertion and DNA damage in the lungs of rats exposed to FA were found to be dose dependently increased. Gene expression was evaluated by using a bio-array hybridization analysis. A total of 21 (2 up- and 19 down-regulated) genes were identified as biomarkers for formaldehyde effects. Several differentiated gene groups were found. Genes involved in apoptosis, immunity, metabolism, signal transduction, transportation, coagulation and oncogenesis were found to be up- and down-regulated. Among these genes, the mRNA expressions of cytochrome P450, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, glutathione reductase, carbonic anhydrase 2, natriuretic peptide receptor 3, lysosomal associated protein transmembrane 5, regulator of G-protein signaling 3, olfactomedin related ER localized protein, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. In summary, the MDA lipid peroxidation and the carbonyl protein oxidation assays showed that cytotoxic effects increased with increasing formaldehyde levels. Genomic analysis showed that 21 genes were up- or down-regulated. Of these genes, nine were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and could be potential biomarkers for human diseases associated with formaldehyde exposure.

  8. The expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator in rat sertoli cells following seminal extract administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Akmal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of seminal vesicle extract on cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: This study examined the expression of CREM on 20 male rats (Rattus norvegicus at 4 months of age, weighing 250-300 g. The rats were divided into four groups: K0, KP1, KP2, and KP3. K0 group was injected with 0.2 ml normal saline; KP1 was injected with 25 mg cloprostenol (Prostavet C, Virbac S. A; KP2 and KP3 were injected with 0.2 and 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract, respectively. The treatments were conducted 5 times within 12-day interval. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized by cervical dislocation; then, the testicles were necropsied and processed for histology observation using immunohistochemistry staining. Results: CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells was not altered by the administration of either 0.2 or 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract. Conclusion: The administration of seminal vesicle extract is unable to increase CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells.

  9. Expression of PITX2 homeodomain transcription factor during rat gonadal development in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Ghosh, Pamela; Roy, Sib Sankar

    2011-01-01

    PITX2, a multifunctional Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor, plays obligatory role during development of organs like heart, brain and pituitary. It regulates differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Although we earlier reported the Pitx2/PITX2 expression in gonad, but the expression pattern of its different isoforms in mammalian gonads especially during development is still not known. As PITX2 participates in the development of multiple organs and different homeobox genes have been shown to control gonadal functions, we wanted to investigate the role of PITX2 in gonadal development and its function. The objective of our study was to know the expression profile of different Pitx2/PITX2 isoforms and its localization throughout the development of gonads. Here we show the temporal and spatial expression pattern of Pitx2/PITX2 and its localization throughout the embryonic and postnatal stages of rat gonads. Pitx2/PITX2 expression profile reveals the differential and dimorphic expression pattern of its two isoforms PITX2B2 and-Cβ throughout the embryonic development stages and also in the postnatal stages, where it becomes more prominent. This is the first report where PITX2 homeodomain transcription factor shows isoform-specific sexually dimorphic expression. In addition, PITX2 localization was found in the embryonic ovarian primordial germ cell clusters and germ cells inside the testicular cords and also in somatic cells. In adults, ovarian granulosa and theca cells as well as germ cells inside the seminiferous tubules in testis express PITX2. All the evidences suggest that the differential expression of PITX2 might be associated with sex-specific embryonic and postnatal gonadal development and the physiological processes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  11. Pharmacological characterization and expression of VIP and PACAP receptors in isolated cranial arteries of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Michael; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    and PACAP-38) were investigated versus selective antagonists in segments of rat middle cerebral arteries (MCA), basilar arteries (BA) and middle meningeal arteries (MMA) using myographs. The luminal and abluminal effects of VIP were studied using perfusion myograph. mRNA expression of the relevant receptors...... and the PACAPs in cerebral vessels. In combination, the two antagonists demonstrated better effect than either alone. VIP applied luminally via perfusion myograph caused no dilatation, indicating lack of endothelial involvement. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of mRNA for all three receptors...

  12. Di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate and flutamide alter gene expression in the testis of immature male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Frank H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously demonstrated that the androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs alter reproductive function and exert distinct effects on developing male reproductive organs. To further investigate these effects, we used an immature rat model to examine the effects of di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and flutamide (Flu on the male reproductive system. Immature male SD rats were treated daily with DEHP and Flu on postnatal days (PNDs 21 to 35, in a dose-dependent manner. As results, the weights of the testes, prostate, and seminal vesicle and anogenital distances (AGD decreased significantly in response to high doses of DEHP or Flu. Testosterone (T levels significantly decreased in all DEHP- treated groups, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH plasma levels were not altered by any of the two treatments at PND 36. However, treatment with DEHP or Flu induced histopathological changes in the testes, wherein degeneration and disorders of Leydig cells, germ cells and dilatation of tubular lumen were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, hyperplasia and denseness of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells were observed in rats given with high doses of Flu. The results by cDNA microarray analysis indicated that 1,272 genes were up-regulated by more than two-fold, and 1,969 genes were down-regulated in response to DEHP, Flu or both EDs. These genes were selected based on their markedly increased or decreased expression levels. These genes have been also classified on the basis of gene ontology (e.g., steroid hormone biosynthetic process, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, metabolic process, biosynthetic process.... Significant decreases in gene expression were observed in steroidogenic genes (i.e., Star, Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b. In addition, the expression of a common set of target genes, including CaBP1, Vav2, Plcd1, Lhx1 and Isoc1, was altered following exposure to EDs, suggesting that they may be marker genes to

  13. Proteome Expression and Carbonylation Changes During Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Chagas Disease in Rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian-Jun; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress, elicited by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, are important pathologic events during progressive Chagasic cardiomyopathy. In this study, we infected Sprague-Dawley rats with T. cruzi, and treated with phenyl-α-tert-butylnitrone (PBN-antioxidant) and/or benznidazole (BZ-anti-parasite). We employed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/mass spectrometry to investigate (a) the plasma proteomic changes associated with infection and disease development, and (b) the beneficial effects of PBN and BZ in controlling the disease-associated plasma profile. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight (MALDI-TOF) tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of differentially expressed (total 146) and oxidized (total 48) protein spots yielded 92 unique proteins. Our data showed that treatment with PBN and BZ restored the differential expression of 65% and 30% of the disease-associated proteins to normal level, respectively, and PBN prevented development of oxidative adducts on plasma proteins. Western blotting to detect dinitrophenyl-derivatized carbonyl-proteins revealed plasma proteins were maximally oxidized during acute infection. Functional and disease/disorder analyses allocated a majority of the differentially expressed and oxidized proteins into inflammation/immunity and lipid metabolism categories and to molecular pathways associated with heart disease (e.g. cardiac infarction, contractile dysfunction, hypertrophy, and hypertension) in chagasic rats, and to curative pathways (e.g. ROS scavenging capacity, immune regulation) in infected rats treated with PBN and/or BZ. We validated the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis results by Western blotting, and demonstrated that the disease-associated increased expression of gelsolin and vimentin and release of cardiac MYL2 in the plasma of chagasic rats was returned to control level by PBN/BZ treatment. Increased plasma levels of gelsolin, MYL2 and vimentin were directly correlated with the severity of

  14. Proteome expression and carbonylation changes during Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian-Jun; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2012-04-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress, elicited by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, are important pathologic events during progressive Chagasic cardiomyopathy. In this study, we infected Sprague-Dawley rats with T. cruzi, and treated with phenyl-α-tert-butylnitrone (PBN-antioxidant) and/or benznidazole (BZ-anti-parasite). We employed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/mass spectrometry to investigate (a) the plasma proteomic changes associated with infection and disease development, and (b) the beneficial effects of PBN and BZ in controlling the disease-associated plasma profile. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight (MALDI-TOF) tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of differentially expressed (total 146) and oxidized (total 48) protein spots yielded 92 unique proteins. Our data showed that treatment with PBN and BZ restored the differential expression of 65% and 30% of the disease-associated proteins to normal level, respectively, and PBN prevented development of oxidative adducts on plasma proteins. Western blotting to detect dinitrophenyl-derivatized carbonyl-proteins revealed plasma proteins were maximally oxidized during acute infection. Functional and disease/disorder analyses allocated a majority of the differentially expressed and oxidized proteins into inflammation/immunity and lipid metabolism categories and to molecular pathways associated with heart disease (e.g. cardiac infarction, contractile dysfunction, hypertrophy, and hypertension) in chagasic rats, and to curative pathways (e.g. ROS scavenging capacity, immune regulation) in infected rats treated with PBN and/or BZ. We validated the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis results by Western blotting, and demonstrated that the disease-associated increased expression of gelsolin and vimentin and release of cardiac MYL2 in the plasma of chagasic rats was returned to control level by PBN/BZ treatment. Increased plasma levels of gelsolin, MYL2 and vimentin were directly correlated with the severity of

  15. Pharmacological characterization and expression of VIP and PACAP receptors in isolated cranial arteries of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Michael; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    and PACAP-38) were investigated versus selective antagonists in segments of rat middle cerebral arteries (MCA), basilar arteries (BA) and middle meningeal arteries (MMA) using myographs. The luminal and abluminal effects of VIP were studied using perfusion myograph. mRNA expression of the relevant receptors...... (VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1)) was examined by in situ hybridization. There was no significant difference in relaxant potency of the peptides in the MCA. In BA the relaxant potency was VIP>PACAP-27=PACAP-38. Relaxant responses were either absent or very weak in MMA. VIP was found to be somewhat more...

  16. Neuroglobin expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: colocalization, innervation, and response to light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, C A; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J

    2010-01-01

    protect neurons-remains largely elusive. We have previously described the localization of Ngb in the rat brain and found it to be expressed in areas primarily involved in sleep/wake, circadian, and food regulation. The present study was undertaken, using immunohistochemistry, to characterize......-containing cells received input from neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing nerve fibers of the geniticulo-hypothalamic tract (GHT), whereas no direct input from the eye or the midbrain raphe system was demonstrated. The results indicate that the Ngb could be involved in both photic and nonphotic entrainment via input...

  17. Increased astrocytic expression of metallothioneins I + II in brainstem of adult rats treated with 6-aminonicotinamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan; Moos, Torben

    1997-01-01

    The cerebral distribution of metallothioneins I and II (MT-I + II) was studied in adult rats subjected to i.p. injection with the gliotoxin 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN). Grey matter regions of the brainstem heralded numerous OX-42-positive macrophages and microglia, indicating that 6-AN primarily...... were observed. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) to serum albumin was compromised in the entire brainstem. The astrocytic expression of MT-I + II could reflect the brains needs to scavenge metal ions released from either damaged cells or plasma proteins entering the brain due to the injured BBB, as well...

  18. Pre-translational control of hepatic malic enzyme expression during the development of the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, D J; Bailey, E

    1991-01-01

    The expression of hepatic cytosolic malic enzyme in the developing rat has been studied by molecular-biological techniques. Malic enzyme mRNA was barely detectable throughout the neonatal period, but increased to significant levels immediately before weaning. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated that the two major malic enzyme mRNA species displayed non-co-ordinate control during development, with the 2.0 kb form accumulating to a greater extent than the 3.1 kb form. A novel 1.6 kb mRNA specie...

  19. Impact of obesity on the expression profile of natriuretic peptide system in a rat experimental model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Cabiati

    Full Text Available Natriuretic peptides (NPs play an important role in obesity and aim of this study was to evaluate, in cardiac tissue of obese Zucker rats (O, n = 29 their transcriptomic profile compared to controls (CO, n = 24 by Real-Time PCR study; CNP protein expression was evaluated by immunostaining and immunometric tests. Myocardial histology was performed, confirming no alteration of organ structure. While ANP and BNP are cardiac peptides, CNP is mainly an endothelial hormone; thus its expression, as well as that of NPR-B and NPR-C, was also evaluated in kidney and lung of an animal subgroup (n = 20. In heart, lower BNP mRNA levels in O vs CO (p = 0.02 as well as ANP and CNP (p = ns, were detected. NPR-B/NPR-A mRNA was similar in O and CO, while NPR-C was numerically lower (p = ns in O than in CO. In kidney, CNP/NPR-B/NPR-C mRNA was similar in O and CO, while in lung CNP/NPR-C expression decreased and NPR-B increased (p = ns in O vs CO. Subdividing into fasting and hyperglycemic rats, the pattern of mRNA expression for each gene analyzed remained unchanged. The trend observed in heart, kidney and lung for CNP protein concentrations and immunohistochemistry reflected the mRNA expression. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA were measured in each tissue and no significant genotype effect was detected in any tissue. The main NP variations were observed at the cardiac level, suggesting a reduced release by cardiac cells. The understanding of mechanisms involved in the modulation of the NP system in obesity could be a useful starting point for future clinical study devoted to identifying new obesity treatment strategies.

  20. Dose–response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Joshua F. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Beelen, Vincent A. van; Pennings, Jeroen L.A. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H., E-mail: aldert.piersma@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to improved objectivity, sensitivity and predictability of WEC in assessing developmental toxic properties of compounds. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of two phthalates differing in potency, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP, less toxic), on the transcriptome in WEC to examine gene expression in relation with dysmorphogenesis. MEHP was more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes as well as changes on morphology. MEHP induced significant enrichment of cholesterol/lipid/steroid (CLS) metabolism and apoptosis pathways which was associated with developmental toxicity. Regulation of genes within CLS metabolism pathways represented the most sensitive markers of MEHP exposure, more sensitive than classical morphological endpoints. As shown in direct comparisons with toxicogenomic in vivo studies, alterations in the regulation of CLS metabolism pathways has been previously identified to be associated with developmental toxicity due to phthalate exposure in utero. Our results support the application of WEC as a model to examine relative phthalate potency through gene expression and morphological responses. Additionally, our results further define the applicability domain of the WEC model for developmental toxicological investigations. -- Highlights: ► We examine the effect of two phthalates on gene expression and morphology in WEC. ► MEHP is more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes and dysmorphogenesis. ► MEHP significantly disrupts cholesterol metabolism pathways in a dose-dependent manner. ► Specific phthalate-related mechanisms in WEC are relevant to mechanisms in vivo.

  1. Apple juice intervention modulates expression of ARE-dependent genes in rat colon and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyalan, Bülent; Minn, Jutta; Schmitz, Hans J; Schrenk, Dieter; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Janzowski, Christine

    2011-03-01

    The risk of cancer and other degenerative diseases is inversely correlated with consumption of fruits and vegetables. This beneficial effect is mainly attributed to secondary plant constituents such as polyphenols, supposed to play a major role in protection against ROS (reactive oxygen species)-associated toxicity. To elucidate the potential of differently manufactured apple juices (clear AJ/cloudy AJ/smoothie, in comparison with a polyphenol-free control juice) to modulate expression of ARE-dependent genes. In male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8/group; 10d juice intervention, 4d wash-out; 4 treatment cycles), expression of target genes (superoxide dismutase, SOD1/SOD2; glutathione peroxidase, GPX1/GPX2; γ-glutamylcysteine ligase, GCLC/GCLM; glutathione reductase, GSR; catalase, CAT; NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, NQO1 and transcription factor erythroid-derived 2-like-2, Nrf2) was quantified with duplex RT-PCR, using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as control. In colon and liver of rats consuming polyphenol-free control juice, rather similar basic expressions were observed (relative GAPDH ratios ranging from 2 to 0.7 and 2.5-0.3, respectively). In the distal colon, apple juice intervention slightly but significantly induced most genes (e.g. GPX2, GSR, CAT, Nrf2; p target genes were not affected or down-regulated (SOD1, SOD2, GCLC/M, GSR), concomitant with the absence of Nrf2 induction. Induction of antioxidant gene expression differed with juice type (cloudy AJ > clear AJ ~ smoothie). Taken together, the results underline the potential of polyphenol-rich apple juice to increase the expression of ARE-dependent antioxidant genes.

  2. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats induces differential expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and zinc transporters in the liver and the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly effective antiviral treatment can suppress HIV-1 infection, but the chronic effects of HIV-1-related viral proteins, including gp120 and Tat, on organs such as the lungs can be damaging. HIV-1 transgenic rodent models are useful for studying the systemic effects of these proteins independently of viral infection. We have previously shown that HIV-1 transgene expression (and therefore, HIV-1-related protein expression in rats decreases alveolar macrophage zinc levels and phagocytic capacity by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that HIV-1 transgene expression induces chronic inflammation and zinc sequestration within the liver and thereby decreases zinc bioavailability in the lung. We examined the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, the zinc storage protein, metallothionein (MT1, and the zinc exporter, ZNT1 in the livers and the lungs of wild type and HIV-1 transgenic rats ± dietary zinc supplementation. In addition, we measured zinc levels, the zinc importing protein ZIP1, and the phagocytic capacity in the alveolar macrophages. Results HIV-1 transgene expression increased the liver-specific expression of TNFα, suggesting a chronic inflammatory response within the liver in response to HIV-1-related protein expression. In parallel, HIV-1 transgene expression significantly increased MT1 and ZNT1 expression in the liver as compared to the lung, a pattern that is consistent with zinc sequestration in the liver as occurs during systemic inflammation. Further, HIV-1 transgene expression decreased intracellular zinc levels and increased expression of ZIP1 in the alveolar macrophages, a pattern consistent with zinc deficiency, and decreased their bacterial phagocytic capacity. Interestingly, dietary zinc supplementation in HIV-1 transgenic rats decreased gene expression of TNFα, MT1, and ZNT1 in the liver while simultaneously increasing their expression in the lung. In parallel

  3. Extensive sex- and/or hormone-dependent expression of rat housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rajat K; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Shapiro, Bernard H

    2013-01-01

    Identify sex- and hormone-independent housekeeping genes in rat liver by using a commercially available quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction array designed to measure the expression of 32 rat housekeeping genes. We found that the levels of five of the genes were sexually dimorphic, 22 genes were overexpressed, and one was underexpressed in multi-hormone-deficient hypophysectomized rats of both sexes. Only three genes fulfilled the stability criteria determined by geNorm and NormFinder as suitable housekeeping genes. Normalizing quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction data with either of these three genes alone, the geometric means of any two of the genes, or even the geometric mean of all the three genes, produced similar results. In contrast, application of unproven housekeeping genes could lead to erroneous conclusions, having found that insulin-like growth factor 1 messenger RNA levels could be calculated dramatically either as male or as female predominant depending on the choice of housekeeping gene. It is essential to validate the constancy of housekeeping genes under every experimental condition. (This research protocol was approved by the university's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.).

  4. Decreased Fos protein expression in rat caudal vestibular nucleus is associated with motion sickness habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi-Ling; Wang, Jun-Qin; Chen, Xin-Min; Li, Hong-Xia; Li, Min; Guo, Jun-Sheng

    2010-08-09

    We investigated the temporal change of Fos protein expression in the caudal vestibular nucleus of rats exposed to daily 2-h Ferris-wheel like (FWL) rotation. Repeated rotation (2h daily for 14 consecutive days) caused an initial increase in defecation, followed by a gradual decline back to the baseline level after 8 rotation sessions. Unlike defecation, the Kaolin consumption of rats showed a bitonic function during the daily rotation sessions (2h daily for 33 consecutive days) and finally recovered to the baseline after about 31 sessions. Immunohistochemistry study revealed increased Fos immunolabeled (Fos-LI) neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus and spinal vestibular nucleus during the initial 7 rotation sessions, and it decreased to the baseline level after 10 rotation sessions. There was a strong linear relationship between the amount of Fos-LI neurons and rat defecation level throughout the whole rotation sessions. These results suggest that the change of neuronal plasticity in the caudal vestibular nucleus might contribute to attenuation of gastrointestinal symptoms during motion sickness habituation process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of steroid 5α-reductase isozymes in prostate of adult rats after environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Pilar; Torres, Jesús M; Castro, Beatriz; Olmo, Asunción; del Moral, Raimundo G; Ortega, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    The elevated incidence of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy is a cause of increasing public health concern in the Western world. The normal and pathological growth of the prostate are both dependent on stimulation by dihydrotestosterone, which is synthesized from circulating testosterone by two 5α-reductase (5α-R) isozymes, 5α-reductase type 1 (5α-R1) and 5α-reductase type 2 (5α-R2). Both isozymes have been implicated in prostate disease. We used quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, to quantify mRNA and protein levels of 5α-R isozymes in the ventral prostate of adult rats under environmental stress conditions analogous to those found in some common workplace situations, i.e. artificial light, excessive heat, and the sensation of immobility in a small space. Transcription and expression levels of both 5α-R isozymes were significantly higher in environmentally stressed rats than in unstressed rats. Increased 5α-R isozyme levels may play a role in the development or maintenance of prostate disease. Further research is warranted to explore these effects of environmental stress on human health and their implications for environmental and occupational health policies. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  6. [Altered expressions of alkane monooxygenase and hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression in lung tissue of rat hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua-jun; Yuan, Ya-dong

    2013-10-29

    To explore the altered expressions of alkane monooxygenase (AlkB) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in a rat model of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twenty Wistar rats were divided randomly into normal control and hypoxia groups after 1-week adaptive feeding. Hypoxia group was raised in a homemade organic glass tank with a 24-h continuous supply of air and nitrogen atmospheric mixed gas. And the oxygen concentration of (10.0 ± 0.5)% was controlled by oxygen monitoring control system. The control group was maintained in room air. Both groups stayed in the same room with the same diet. After 8 weeks, the level of mean pulmonary pressure (mPAP) was measured by right-heart catheterization, right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) calculated by the ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum and hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling (HPSR) observed under microscope. And the levels of AlkB and HIF-1α mRNA and protein in lungs were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. At 8 weeks post-hypoxia, compared with the control group [11.0 ± 0.7 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa), 0.210 ± 0.035], the levels of mPAP and RVHI in hypoxia group (33.3 ± 1.3 mm Hg, 0.448 ± 0.013) increased significantly (both P < 0.05), the expressions of AlkB mRNA and protein in pulmonary tissue decreased significantly (0.338 ± 0.085 vs 0.688 ± 0.020, P < 0.01) (0.483 ± 0.052 vs 0.204 ± 0.010, P < 0.01), and the expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein increased significantly (0.790 ± 0.161 vs 0.422 ± 0.096, P < 0.01) (0.893 ± 0.080 vs 0.346 ± 0.008, P < 0.01). The down-regulation of AlkB in lung tissue may increase the activity of HIF-1 to participate in the occurrence and development of pulmonary hypertension.

  7. Increased expression of heat shock protein 105 in rat uterus of early pregnancy and its significance in embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhao-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a set of highly conserved proteins, Hsp105, has been suggested to play a role in reproduction. Methods Spatio-temporal expression of Hsp105 in rat uterus during peri-implantation period was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, pseudopregnant uterus was used as control. Injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into pregnant rat uteri was carried out to look at effect of Hsp105 on embryo implantation. Results Expression of Hsp105 was mainly in the luminal epithelium on day 1 of pregnancy, and reached a peak level on day 5, whereas in stroma cells, adjacent to the implanting embryo, the strongest expression of Hsp105 was observed on day 6. The immunostaining profile in the uterus was consistent with that obtained by Western blot in the early pregnancy. In contrast, no obvious peak level of Hsp105 was observed in the uterus of pseudopregnant rat on day 5 or day 6. Furthermore, injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into the rat uterine horn on day 3 of pregnancy obviously suppressed the protein expression as expected and reduced number of the implanted embryos as compared with the control. Conclusion Temporal and spatial changes in Hsp105 expression in pregnant rat uterus may play a physiological role in regulating embryo implantation.

  8. Expression of aquaporins, vasopressin type 2 receptor, and Na+₋K+₋Cl⁻ cotransporters in the rat endolymphatic sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Kakigi, Akinobu; Takeda, Taizo; Takeda, Setsuko; Doi, Katsumi

    2009-08-01

    Since many water channels and pumps, such as aquaporin (AQP) 1-4, AQP6-9, vasopressin type 2 receptor (V(2)-R), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) 1, and NKCC2 were expressed in the rat endolymphatic sac, it should play an important role in the physiological function of acid-based metabolism and water balance in endolymphatic fluid homeostasis. To evaluate the expression and immunolocalization of AQP1-9, V(2)-R, NKCC1, and NKCC2 in the rat endolymphatic sac. Wistar rats were used. Expression of AQP1-9, V(2)-R, NKCC1, and NKCC2 mRNA in the rat endolymphatic sac was investigated using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, and detailed immunolocalization of AQP1-9, V(2)-R, NKCC1, and NKCC2 was investigated using immunohistochemical methods, including immunofluorescence microscopy. mRNAs and proteins of AQP1-4, AQP6-9, V(2)-R, NKCC1, and NKCC2 were expressed, but AQP5 was not expressed in the rat endolymphatic sac.

  9. Effect of implantation of biodegradable magnesium alloy on BMP-2 expression in bone of ovariectomized osteoporosis rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yue, E-mail: 373073766@qq.com [Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121000 (China); Ren, Ling, E-mail: lren@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Liu, Chang, E-mail: meixifan1971@163.com [Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121000 (China); Yuan, Yajiang, E-mail: yuan925@163.com [Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121000 (China); Lin, Xiao, E-mail: linx@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Tan, Lili, E-mail: lltan@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Chen, Shurui, E-mail: 272146792@qq.com [Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121000 (China); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016 (China); Mei, Xifan, E-mail: meixifan1971@163.com [Liaoning Medical University, 40 Songpo Road, Jinzhou, 121000 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The study was focused on the implantation of a biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy into the femoral periosteal of the osteoporosis modeled rats. The experimental results showed that after 4 weeks implantation of AZ31 alloy in the osteoporosis modeled rats, the expression of BMP-2 in bone tissues of the rats was much enhanced, even higher than the control group, which should promote the bone formation and be beneficial for reducing the harmful effect of osteoporosis. Results of HE stains showed that the implantation of AZ31 alloy did not have obvious pathological changes on both the liver and kidney of the animal. - Highlights: • Mg alloy greatly increased expression of BMP-2 in osteoporosis modeled rat bone. • Mg alloy showed good biological safety. • Mg alloy is beneficial for reducing the symptom of osteoporosis.

  10. Vitamin A and feeding statuses modulate the insulin-regulated gene expression in Zucker lean and fatty primary rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Unattended hepatic insulin resistance predisposes individuals to dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and many other metabolic complications. The mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance at the gene expression level remains unrevealed. To examine the effects of vitamin A (VA, total energy intake and feeding conditions on the insulin-regulated gene expression in primary hepatocytes of Zucker lean (ZL and fatty (ZF rats, we analyze the expression levels of hepatic model genes in response to the treatments of insulin and retinoic acid (RA. We report that the insulin- and RA-regulated glucokinase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expressions are impaired in hepatocytes of ZF rats fed chow or a VA sufficient (VAS diet ad libitum. The impairments are partially corrected when ZF rats are fed a VA deficient (VAD diet ad libitum or pair-fed a VAS diet to the intake of their VAD counterparts in non-fasting conditions. Interestingly in the pair-fed ZL and ZF rats, transient overeating on the last day of pair-feeding regimen changes the expression levels of some VA catabolic genes, and impairs the insulin- and RA-regulated gene expression in hepatocytes. These results demonstrate that VA and feeding statuses modulate the hepatic insulin sensitivity at the gene expression level.

  11. Association of brominated proteins and changes in protein expression in the rat kidney with subcarcinogenic to carcinogenic doses of bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolisetty, Narendrababu [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Bull, Richard J. [MoBull Consulting, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Costyn, Leah J. [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Delker, Don A. [School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States); Guo, Zhongxian [Water Quality Office, Public Utilities Board, 608576 (Singapore); Cotruvo, Joseph A. [Joseph Cotruvo and Associates, LLC, Washington, DC 20016 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Cummings, Brian S., E-mail: bsc@rx.uga.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The water disinfection byproduct bromate (BrO{sub 3}{sup −}) produces cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects in rat kidneys. Our previous studies demonstrated that BrO{sub 3}{sup −} caused sex-dependent differences in renal gene and protein expression in rats and the elimination of brominated organic carbon in their urine. The present study examined changes in renal cell apoptosis and protein expression in male and female F344 rats treated with BrO{sub 3}{sup −} and associated these changes with accumulation of 3-bromotyrosine (3-BT)-modified proteins. Rats were treated with 0, 11.5, 46 and 308 mg/L BrO{sub 3}{sup −} in drinking water for 28 days and renal sections were prepared and examined for apoptosis (TUNEL-staining), 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG), 3-BT, osteopontin, Kim-1, clusterin, and p-21 expression. TUNEL-staining in renal proximal tubules increased in a dose-related manner beginning at 11.5 mg BrO{sub 3}{sup −}/L in female rats and 46 mg/L in males. Increased 8-oxoG staining was observed at doses as low as 46 mg/L. Osteopontin expression also increased in a dose-related manner after treatment with 46 mg/L, in males only. In contrast, Kim-1 expression increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes, although to a greater extent in females at the highest dose. Clusterin and p21 expression also increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes. The expression of 3-BT-modified proteins only increased in male rats, following a pattern previously reported for accumulation of α-2{sub u}-globulin. Increases in apoptosis in renal proximal tubules of male and female rats at the lowest doses suggest a common mode of action for renal carcinogenesis for the two sexes that is independent of α-2{sub u}-globulin nephropathy. - Highlights: • Bromate induced nephrotoxicity in both male and female rats by similar mechanisms. • Apoptosis was seen in both male and female rats at the lowest doses tested. • Bromate-induced apoptosis correlated to 8-oxo

  12. Microenvironment alters epigenetic and gene expression profiles in Swarm rat chondrosarcoma tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamm Christopher A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage tumors that do not respond to traditional chemotherapy or radiation. The 5-year survival rate of histologic grade III chondrosarcoma is less than 30%. An animal model of chondrosarcoma has been established - namely, the Swarm Rat Chondrosarcoma (SRC - and shown to resemble the human disease. Previous studies with this model revealed that tumor microenvironment could significantly influence chondrosarcoma malignancy. Methods To examine the effect of the microenvironment, SRC tumors were initiated at different transplantation sites. Pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the DNA methylation of the tumors, and SAGE libraries were constructed and sequenced to determine the gene expression profiles of the tumors. Based on the gene expression analysis, subsequent functional assays were designed to determine the relevancy of the specific genes in the development and progression of the SRC. Results The site of transplantation had a significant impact on the epigenetic and gene expression profiles of SRC tumors. Our analyses revealed that SRC tumors were hypomethylated compared to control tissue, and that tumors at each transplantation site had a unique expression profile. Subsequent functional analysis of differentially expressed genes, albeit preliminary, provided some insight into the role that thymosin-β4, c-fos, and CTGF may play in chondrosarcoma development and progression. Conclusion This report describes the first global molecular characterization of the SRC model, and it demonstrates that the tumor microenvironment can induce epigenetic alterations and changes in gene expression in the SRC tumors. We documented changes in gene expression that accompany changes in tumor phenotype, and these gene expression changes provide insight into the pathways that may play a role in the development and progression of chondrosarcoma. Furthermore, specific functional analysis indicates that

  13. Developmental expression of glutamate transporters and glutamate dehydrogenase in astrocytes of the postnatal rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Peter; Schleyer, Verena

    2004-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the CNS and plays distinct roles in a number of developmental events. Its extracellular concentration, which mediates these activities, is regulated by glutamate transporters in glial cells and neurons. In the present study, we have used nonradioactive in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblotting to show the cellular and regional expression of the high-affinity glutamate transporters GLAST (EAAT1) and generic GLT1 (EAAT2; glial form of GLT1) in the rat hippocampus during postnatal development (P1-60). The results of transporter expression were compared with the localization and activity pattern of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), an important glutamate-metabolizing enzyme. The study showed that both transporters and GDH were demonstrable at P1 (day of birth). The expression of GLAST (detected by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry) in the early postnatal development was higher than GLT1. Thereafter, the expression of both transporters increased, showing adult levels at between P20 and P30 (detected by in situ hybridization and immunoblotting). At these time points, the expression of GLT1 appeared to be significantly higher than the GLAST expression. GLT1 and GLAST proteins were demonstrable only in astrocytes. The increase of GDH activities (steepest increase from P5-P8), which were localized preferentially in astrocytes, was in agreement with the increase of transporter expression, preferentially with that of GLT1. These observations suggest that the extent of glutamate transporter expression and of glutamate-metabolizing GDH activity in astrocytes is intimately correlated with the formation of glutamatergic synapses in the developing hippocampus. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Microenvironment alters epigenetic and gene expression profiles in Swarm rat chondrosarcoma tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Christopher A; Wang, Deli; Malchenko, Sergey; Fatima Bonaldo, Maria de; Casavant, Thomas L; Hendrix, Mary JC; Soares, Marcelo B; Stevens, Jeff W; Xie, Hehuang; Vanin, Elio F; Morcuende, Jose A; Abdulkawy, Hakeem; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Sredni, Simone T; Bischof, Jared M

    2010-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage tumors that do not respond to traditional chemotherapy or radiation. The 5-year survival rate of histologic grade III chondrosarcoma is less than 30%. An animal model of chondrosarcoma has been established - namely, the Swarm Rat Chondrosarcoma (SRC) - and shown to resemble the human disease. Previous studies with this model revealed that tumor microenvironment could significantly influence chondrosarcoma malignancy. To examine the effect of the microenvironment, SRC tumors were initiated at different transplantation sites. Pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the DNA methylation of the tumors, and SAGE libraries were constructed and sequenced to determine the gene expression profiles of the tumors. Based on the gene expression analysis, subsequent functional assays were designed to determine the relevancy of the specific genes in the development and progression of the SRC. The site of transplantation had a significant impact on the epigenetic and gene expression profiles of SRC tumors. Our analyses revealed that SRC tumors were hypomethylated compared to control tissue, and that tumors at each transplantation site had a unique expression profile. Subsequent functional analysis of differentially expressed genes, albeit preliminary, provided some insight into the role that thymosin-β4, c-fos, and CTGF may play in chondrosarcoma development and progression. This report describes the first global molecular characterization of the SRC model, and it demonstrates that the tumor microenvironment can induce epigenetic alterations and changes in gene expression in the SRC tumors. We documented changes in gene expression that accompany changes in tumor phenotype, and these gene expression changes provide insight into the pathways that may play a role in the development and progression of chondrosarcoma. Furthermore, specific functional analysis indicates that thymosin-β4 may have a role in chondrosarcoma metastasis

  15. Extracellular matrix and hormones transcriptionally regulate bovine. beta. -casein 5 prime sequences in stably transfected mouse mammary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidhauser, C. Bissell, M.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Myers, C.A.; Casperson, G.F. (Monsanto Corporate Research, St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Milk protein regulation involves synergistic action of lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix (ECM). It is well established that substratum has a dramatic effect on morphology and function of mammary cells. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the ECM- and hormone-dependent gene expression, however, have not been resolved. To address this question, a subpopulation (designated CID 9) of the mouse mammary epithelial cell strain COMMA-2D has been developed in which more than 35% of the cells express {beta}-casein, form alveoli-like structures when plated onto a reconstituted basement membrane, and secrete {beta}-casein undirectionally into a lumen. These cells were stably transfected with a series of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes to study transcriptional regulation of the bovine {beta}-casein gene. The expression of CAT in these lines demonstrated a striking matrix and hormone dependency. This regulation occurered primarily at the transcriptional level and was dependent on the length of the 5{prime} flanking region of the {beta}-casein promotor. Both matrix and hormonal control of transcription occurred within at least the first 1790 base pairs upstream and/or 42 base pairs downstream of the transcriptional initiation site. The ECM effect was independent of glucocorticoid stimulation. However, prolactin was essential and hydrocortisone further increased CAT expression. Endogenous {beta}-casein expression in these lines was similar to that of the parent CID 9 cells. Our data indicate the existence of matrix-dependent elements that regulate transcription.

  16. GPR expression in the rat taste bud relating to fatty acid sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shigenobu; Mizushige, Takafumi; Yoneda, Takeshi; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the expression of G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 and GPR120 in the rat tongue. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we detected a significant expression of GPR120 mRNA in the epithelium of the circumvallate papillae but not in the nonsensory epithelium, while the expression of GPR40 mRNA was undetectable in the sensory papillae. Western blotting analysis of colon and circumvallate papillae for GPR120 showed a protein band with a molecular weight that corresponds to that of GPR120, indicating that this antibody could recognize a native form of GPR120. Immunohistochemistry using anti-GPR120 antibody revealed GPR120 immunoreactivity in the enteroendocrine cells of the colon. Furthermore, some cells in each taste bud were stained positively with more intense labeling in the apical part of the cells. These results suggested that GPR120 is expressed in the taste cells of the circumvallate papillae to sense dietary fat, like the receptor expressed in the enteroendocrine cells.

  17. Differential expression of BK channel isoforms and beta-subunits in rat neuro-vascular tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Wulf, Helle; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the expression of splice variants and beta-subunits of the BK channel (big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, Slo1, MaxiK, K(Ca)1.1) in rat cerebral blood vessels, meninges, trigeminal ganglion among other tissues. An alpha-subunit splice variant X1(+24) was found expressed...... (RT-PCR) in nervous tissue only where also the SS4(+81) variant was dominating with little expression of the short form SS4(0). SS4(+81) was present in some cerebral vessels too. The SS2(+174) variant (STREX) was found in both blood vessels and in nervous tissue. In situ hybridization data supported...... the finding of SS4(+81) and SS2(+174) in vascular smooth muscle and trigeminal ganglion. beta-subunits beta2 and beta4 showed high expression in brain and trigeminal ganglion and some in cerebral vessels while beta1 showed highest expression in blood vessels. beta3 was found only in testis and possibly brain...

  18. Expression of steroid receptors in ameloblasts during amelogenesis in rat incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Houari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs play a part in the modern burst of diseases and interfere with the steroid hormone axis. Bisphenol A (BPA, one of the most active and widely used EDCs, affects ameloblast functions, leading to an enamel hypomineralization pattern similar to that of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH. In order to explore the molecular pathways stimulated by BPA during amelogenesis, we thoroughly investigated the receptors known to directly or indirectly mediate the effects of BPA. The expression patterns of high affinity BPA receptors (ERRγ, GPR30, of ketosteroid receptors (ERs, AR, PGR, GR, MR, of the retinoid receptor RXRα and PPARγ were established using RT-qPCR analysis of RNAs extracted from microdissected enamel organ of adult rats. Their expression was dependent on the stage of ameloblast differentiation, except that of ERβ and PPARγ which remained undetectable. An additional large scale microarray analysis revealed three main groups of receptors according to their level of expression in maturation stage ameloblasts. The expression level of RXRα was the highest, similar to the vitamin D receptor (VDR, whereas the others were 13 to 612 fold lower, with AR and GR being intermediate. Immunofluorescent analysis of VDR, ERα and AR confirmed their presence mainly in maturation- stage ameloblasts. These data provide further evidence that ameloblasts express a specific combination of hormonal receptors depending on their developmental stage. This study represents the first step towards understanding dental endocrinology as well as some of the effects of EDCs on the pathophysiology of amelogenesis.

  19. Expression of Steroid Receptors in Ameloblasts during Amelogenesis in Rat Incisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houari, Sophia; Loiodice, Sophia; Jedeon, Katia; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) play a part in the modern burst of diseases and interfere with the steroid hormone axis. Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most active and widely used EDCs, affects ameloblast functions, leading to an enamel hypomineralization pattern similar to that of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). In order to explore the molecular pathways stimulated by BPA during amelogenesis, we thoroughly investigated the receptors known to directly or indirectly mediate the effects of BPA. The expression patterns of high affinity BPA receptors (ERRγ, GPR30), of ketosteroid receptors (ERs, AR, PGR, GR, MR), of the retinoid receptor RXRα, and PPARγ were established using RT-qPCR analysis of RNAs extracted from microdissected enamel organ of adult rats. Their expression was dependent on the stage of ameloblast differentiation, except that of ERβ and PPARγ which remained undetectable. An additional large scale microarray analysis revealed three main groups of receptors according to their level of expression in maturation-stage ameloblasts. The expression level of RXRα was the highest, similar to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), whereas the others were 13 to 612-fold lower, with AR and GR being intermediate. Immunofluorescent analysis of VDR, ERα and AR confirmed their presence mainly in maturation- stage ameloblasts. These data provide further evidence that ameloblasts express a specific combination of hormonal receptors depending on their developmental stage. This study represents the first step toward understanding dental endocrinology as well as some of the effects of EDCs on the pathophysiology of amelogenesis. PMID:27853434

  20. Ketamine and aminoguanidine differentially affect Bdnf and Mtor gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Pereira, Vitor; Elfving, Betina; Joca, Sâmia R L; Wegener, Gregers

    2017-11-15

    The rapid and sustained antidepressant properties of ketamine provide evidence of the importance of the glutamatergic system in the neurobiology of depression. The antidepressant-like effects of ketamine are dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in limbic brain areas. The nitrergic system is closely related to the glutamatergic system and generates antidepressant-like effects when blocked. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the behavioural effects induced by the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by aminoguanidine or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade by ketamine would affect the gene expression of Bdnf and Mtor in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in rats. The effects of ketamine or aminoguanidine were investigated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), a genetic rat model of depression, and their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. In the studies, the three protocols evaluated to which the animals/rats were exposed were: (1) pre-test and test sessions of forced swim test (FST), (2) pre-test session of FST alone, or (3) not exposed to the FST. Ketamine and aminoguanidine both induce antidepressant-like effects in SD and FSL rats. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses in SD rats demonstrated that none of the treatments can change the Bdnf or Mtor gene expression, but in FSL rats the treatment with ketamine increased only Bdnf gene expression. The data obtained strengthens the role of NMDA antagonists and NO inhibitors as potential antidepressant drugs, albeit with different effects on Bdnf gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-dependent expression of Nav1.9 channels in medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlak, Maciej; Szulczyk, Bartłomiej; Berłowski, Adam; Grzelka, Katarzyna; Stachurska, Anna; Pełka, Justyna; Czarzasta, Katarzyna; Małecki, Maciej; Kurowski, Przemysław; Nurowska, Ewa; Szulczyk, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Developmental changes that occur in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence alter behavior. These behavioral alterations likely stem from changes in prefrontal cortex neuronal activity, which may depend on the properties and expression of ion channels. Nav1.9 sodium channels conduct a Na + current that is TTX resistant with a low threshold and noninactivating over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of Nav1.9 channels in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) layer II and V pyramidal neurons in young (20-day old), late adolescent (60-day old), and adult (6- to 7-month old) rats. First, we demonstrated that layer II and V mPFC pyramidal neurons in slices obtained from young rats exhibited a TTX-resistant, low-threshold, noninactivating, and voltage-dependent Na + current. The mRNA expression of the SCN11a gene (which encodes the Nav1.9 channel) in mPFC tissue was significantly higher in young rats than in late adolescent and adult rats. Nav1.9 protein was immunofluorescently labeled in mPFC cells in slices and analyzed via confocal microscopy. Nav1.9 immunolabeling was present in layer II and V mPFC pyramidal neurons and was more prominent in the neurons of young rats than in the neurons of late adolescent and adult rats. We conclude that Nav1.9 channels are expressed in layer II and V mPFC pyramidal neurons and that Nav1.9 protein expression in the mPFC pyramidal neurons of late adolescent and adult rats is lower than that in the neurons of young rats. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1371-1384, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

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    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Godbole, Madan M., E-mail: madangodbole@yahoo.co.in [Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)

    2010-07-02

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1{alpha}, NRF-1{alpha} and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  3. Early Exercise Affects Mitochondrial Transcription Factors Expression after Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

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    Yongshan Hu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that exercise training is neuroprotective after stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of early treadmill exercise on the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Expression of two genes critical for transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1 and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1, were examined by RT-PCR after five days of exercise starting at 24 h after ischemia. Mitochondrial protein cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV (COX IV was detected by Western blot. Neurological status and cerebral infarct volume were evaluated as indices of brain damage. Treadmill training increased levels of PGC-1 and NRF-1 mRNA, indicating that exercise promotes rehabilitation after ischemia via regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

  4. Nap Interferes with Hypoxia-Inducible Factors and VEGF Expression in Retina of Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Maugeri, Grazia; Bucolo, Claudio; Saccone, Salvatore; Federico, Concetta; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; D'Agata, Velia

    2017-02-01

    The retinal microvascular damage is a complication of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemia and hypoxia are responsible of aberrant vessel's proliferation. The cellular response to hypoxia is mediated through activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Among these, HIF-1α modulates expression of its target gene, VEGF, whose upregulation controls the angiogenic event during DR development. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a small peptide, NAP, is able to protect retina from hyperglycemic insult. Here, we have demonstrated that its intraocular administration in a rat model of diabetic retinopathy has reduced expression of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and VEGF by increasing HIF-3α levels. These data have been also confirmed by immunolocalization study by confocal microscopy. Although these evidences need to be further deepened to understand the molecular mechanism involved in the protective NAP action, the present data suggest that this small peptide may be effective to prevent the development of this ocular pathology.

  5. Neonatal local noxious insult affects gene expression in the spinal dorsal horn of adult rats

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    Dubner Ronald

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal noxious insult produces a long-term effect on pain processing in adults. Rats subjected to carrageenan (CAR injection in one hindpaw within the sensitive period develop bilateral hypoalgesia as adults. In the same rats, inflammation of the hindpaw, which was the site of the neonatal injury, induces a localized enhanced hyperalgesia limited to this paw. To gain an insight into the long-term molecular changes involved in the above-described long-term nociceptive effects of neonatal noxious insult at the spinal level, we performed DNA microarray analysis (using microarrays containing oligo-probes for 205 genes encoding receptors and transporters for glutamate, GABA, and amine neurotransmitters, precursors and receptors for neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, cytokines and their receptors to compare gene expression profiles in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn (LDH of adult (P60 male rats that received neonatal CAR treatment within (at postnatal day 3; P3 and outside (at postnatal 12; P12 of the sensitive period. The data were obtained both without inflammation (at baseline and during complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation of the neonatally injured paw. The observed changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. This study revealed significant basal and inflammation-associated aberrations in the expression of multiple genes in the LDH of adult animals receiving CAR injection at P3 as compared to their expression levels in the LDH of animals receiving either no injections or CAR injection at P12. In particular, at baseline, twelve genes (representing GABA, serotonin, adenosine, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, opioid, tachykinin and interleukin systems were up-regulated in the bilateral LDH of the former animals. The baseline condition in these animals was also characterized by up-regulation of seven genes (encoding members of GABA, cholecystokinin, histamine, serotonin, and neurotensin systems in the LDH ipsilateral to the

  6. Antioxidant inhibits HMGB1 expression and reduces pancreas injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong Wei; Zhang, Qi Yu; Zhou, Meng Tao; Liu, Na Xin; Chen, Tong Ke; Zhu, Ye Fan; Wu, Liang

    2010-09-01

    Pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis is still unclear, which leads to a lack of proper treatment in severe acute pancreatitis therapeutic strategy. To investigate the effect of treatment with antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on pancreas injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanism. A total of 144 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into a sham operation group (n=48), a severe acute pancreatitis group (n=48), and a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-treated group (n=48). All the rats were killed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after operation. The pancreas histopathologies were observed and serum amylase levels were tested. Meanwhile, the nuclear factor-kappaB activation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels and high-mobility group box protein-1 expression levels in pancreatic tissue were studied. Animals receiving pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate had significantly improved pancreas histopathology and lower serum amylase levels (pacute pancreatitis group, pancreas tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels reached a peak at 6 h after operation and afterwards rapidly declined to normal levels. However, high-mobility group box protein-1 levels in pancreatic tissue increased remarkably at the 12th hour, reached a peak at 24 h, and maintained up to 48 h post-severe acute pancreatitis. Compared to the severe acute pancreatitis group, the pancreas nuclear factor-kappaB activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, high-mobility group box protein-1 levels in the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-treated group all remarkably decreased (pacute pancreatitis. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate might inhibit the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB to blockade tumor necrosis factor-alpha, thereby indirectly suppressing the high-mobility group box protein-1 and reducing pancreatic tissue damage in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.

  7. [Study on the expression of uncoupling protein 2 in the kidney of the rats with hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Tian, Xiu-biao; Fang, Hui; Liu, Peng; Meng, Qing-yi

    2010-12-01

    To observe the change in the expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in kidney mitochondria in rats with hypothyroidism, and study the mechanism of renal injury due to hypothyroidism. The Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (n=10) and hypothyroidism group (n=10). The hypothyroidism rat model was reproduced by low-iodine diet. The intake of iodine in control group and hypothyroidism group were 10.00 μg/d and 1.24 μg/d, respectively. The rats were raised under these conditions respectively for 3 months after they adapted to the feeding for 1 week. Then the thyroid function parameters were measured in blood, and the expressions of UCP2 protein and mRNA in renal tissue were measured by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The thyrotropic-stimulating hormone (TSH, mU/L) in hypothyroidism group was significantly higher than that in control group (4.88±1.37 vs. 1.65±0.33, Phypothyroidism group were significantly lower than those in control group [TT(3) (nmol/L) : 0.54±0.07 vs. 0.98±0.17, TT(4) (nmol/L): 7.82±2.18 vs. 48.78±3.65, FT(3) (pmol/L): 2.28±0.22 vs. 2.99±0.10, FT(4) (pmol/L): 11.38±1.74 vs. 29.27±0.95, all Phypothyroidism group was significantly lower than that of control group (renal glomeruli: 0.17±0.02 vs. 0.24±0.04, renal tubule: 0.19±0.02 vs. 0.25±0.02, both Phypothyroidism group was significantly lower than that of control group (0.70±0.19 vs. 1.30±0.09, PHypothyroidism may produce damage to kidney, which is related to the down-regulation of UCP2 expression in the mitochondria of renal cells.

  8. Advanced glycation end-product expression is upregulated in the gastrointestinal tract of type 2 diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peng-Min; Gregersen, Hans; Zhao, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate changes in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Eight inherited type 2 diabetic rats Goto-Kakizak (GK) and ten age-matched normal rats were used in the study. From 18 wk...... software. RESULTS: The blood glucose concentration (mmol/L) at 18 wk age was highest in the GK group (8.88 ± 1.87 vs 6.90 ± 0.43, P end of the experiment. The wet weight per unit length (mg/cm) increased in esophagus, jejunum and colon from...

  9. Expression of S100A6 in Rat Hippocampus after Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Lateral Head Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Fang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI, we investigated changes in cognitive function and S100A6 expression in the hippocampus. TBI-associated changes in this protein have not previously been reported. Rat S100A6 was studied via immunohistochemical staining, Western blot, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR after either lateral head acceleration or sham. Reduced levels of S100A6 protein and mRNA were observed 1 h after TBI, followed by gradual increases over 6, 12, 24, and 72 h, and then a return to sham level at 14 day. Morris water maze (MWM test was used to evaluate animal spatial cognition. TBI- and sham-rats showed an apparent learning curve, expressed as escape latency. Although TBI-rats displayed a relatively poorer cognitive ability than sham-rats, the disparity was not significant early post-injury. Marked cognitive deficits in TBI-rats were observed at 72 h post-injury compared with sham animals. TBI-rats showed decreased times in platform crossing in the daily MWM test; the performance at 72 h post-injury was the worst. In conclusion, a reduction in S100A6 may be one of the early events that lead to secondary cognitive decline after TBI, and its subsequent elevation is tightly linked with cognitive improvement. S100A6 may play important roles in neuronal degeneration and regeneration in TBI.

  10. Expression of neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in neurogenic inflammation of the rat retina

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    E Bronzetti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Antidromic stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion triggers the release of substance P (SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP from sensory nerve terminals of the capsaicin sensitive C-fibers. These pro-inflammatory neuropeptides produce a marked hyperemia in the anterior segment of the eye, accompanied by increased intraocular pressure, breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier and myosis. To assess the effects of neurogenic inflammation on the retina, specifically on the immunostaining of neurotransmitters and neurotrophins, as well as on the expression of neurotrophin receptors in the retina. RT-PCR was also accomplished in control and stimulated animals to confirm the immunohistochemical results. In the electrically stimulated eyes, immunostaining for SP, CGRP, VIP and nNOS demonstrated a marked increase in the RPE/POS (Retinal Pigment Epithelium/Photoreceptor Outer Segments, in the inner and outer granular layers and in the ganglion cells in comparison to the control eyes. CGRP and SP were found increased in stimulated animals and this result has been confirmed by RT- PCR. Changes in neurotrophin immunostaining and in receptor expression were also observed after electric stimulation of trigeminal ganglia. Decrease of BDNF and NT4 in the outer and inner layers and in ganglion cells was particularly marked. In stimulated rat retinas immunostaining and RT-PCR showed a NGF expression increase. Neurotrophin receptors remained substantially unchanged. These studies demonstrated, for the first time, that antidromic stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion and subsequent neurogenic inflammation affect immunostaining of retinal cell neurotransmitter/ neuropeptides and neurotrophins as well as the expression of neurotrophin receptors.

  11. Expression of non-neuronal cholinergic system in maxilla of rat in vivo

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    Jie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acetylcholine (ACh is known to be a key neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is also produced in a variety of non-neuronal tissues and cell. The existence of ACh in maxilla in vivo and potential regulation role for osteogenesis need further study. RESULTS: Components of the cholinergic system (ACh, esterase, choline acetyltransferase, high-affinity choline uptake, n- and mAChRs were determined in maxilla of rat in vivo, by means of Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results showed RNA for CarAT, carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase member 20 (Slc25a20, VAChT, OCTN2, OCT1, OCT3, organic cation transporter member 4 (Slc22a4, AChE, BChE, nAChR subunits α1, α2, α3, α5, α7, α10, β1, β2, β4, γ and mAChR subunits M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 were detected in rat's maxilla. RNA of VAChT, AChE, nAChR subunits α2, β1, β4 and mAChR subunits M4 had abundant expression (2-ΔCt > 0.03. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted for ACh, VAChT, nAChRα7 and AChE. ACh was expressed in mesenchymal cells, chondroblast, bone and cartilage matrix and bone marrow cells, The VAChT expression was very extensively while ACh receptor α7 was strongly expressed in newly formed bone matrix of endochondral and bone marrow ossification, AchE was found only in mesenchymal stem cells, cartilage and bone marrow cells. CONCLUSIONS: ACh might exert its effect on the endochondral and bone marrow ossification, and bone matrix mineralization in maxilla.

  12. Changes in cardiac heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression and streptozotocin-induced diastolic dysfunction in rats

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    Cestari Ismar N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the proteoglycans glypican and syndecan-4 have been reported in several pathological conditions, but little is known about their expression in the heart during diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo heart function changes and alterations in mRNA expression and protein levels of glypican-1 and syndecan-4 in cardiac and skeletal muscles during streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by STZ administration. The rats were assigned to one of the following groups: control (sham injection, after 24 hours, 10 days, or 30 days of STZ administration. Echocardiography was performed in the control and STZ 10-day groups. Western and Northern blots were used to quantify protein and mRNA levels in all groups. Immunohistochemistry was performed in the control and 30-day groups to correlate the observed mRNA changes to the protein expression. Results In vivo cardiac functional analysis performed using echocardiography in the 10-day group showed diastolic dysfunction with alterations in the peak velocity of early (E diastolic filling and isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT indices. These functional alterations observed in the STZ 10-day group correlated with the concomitant increase in syndecan-4 and glypican-1 protein expression. Cardiac glypican-1 mRNA and skeletal syndecan-4 mRNA and protein levels increased in the STZ 30-day group. On the other hand, the amount of glypican in skeletal muscle was lower than that in the control group. The same results were obtained from immunohistochemistry analysis. Conclusion Our data suggest that membrane proteoglycans participate in the sequence of events triggered by diabetes and inflicted on cardiac and skeletal muscles.

  13. Aromatase is abundantly expressed by neonatal rat penis but downregulated in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, S; Mowa, C N; Sakuma, I; Matsuda, N; Togashi, H; Yoshioka, M; Hattori, Y; Kitabatake, A

    2004-10-01

    Although synthesis of estrogen by male gonads has been well documented for over half a century, it is only recently that the role of estrogen in male reproductive events has gained appreciation. We recently reported abundant expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta in different cell types of the rat penis, whose levels diminished with advancing age. The present study, which builds on data from the ER study, was designed to determine whether the penis is capable of generating its own local estrogen by examining evidence of the expression of aromatase, a microsomal enzymatic complex which irreversibly converts androgens to estrogens, using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, in situ hybridization and real-time PCR analyses. Secondly, the effects of sex steroid hormones on penile aromatase were examined. Discrete aromatase immunoreactive cells were localized in primordial corpus cavernosum, corpus spongiosus and os penis, blood vessels and sensory corpuscle of glans penis. In situ hybridization signals corresponded with immunohistochemical findings. Western blot, enzyme immunoassay and real-time PCR analyses of rat penile samples revealed an age-dependent expression of aromatase and estrogen, with levels at week 1 almost resembling those of the ovary, but they decreased sharply by week 8, and decreased further by week 35. This expression pattern was strikingly similar to that of ER-alpha reported previously. Testosterone and diethylstilbesterol administered prenatally upregulate levels of aromatase mRNA and protein, and estrogen postnatally. Dihydrotestosterone upregulated aromatase mRNA and protein, but not estrogen. We conclude that estrogen acts via ER in a paracrine and/or autocrine manner to regulate penile events, particularly during development, and that estrogen synthesis is regulated by estrogen and androgens.

  14. Decreased adrenoceptor stimulation in heart failure rats reduces NGF expression by cardiac parasympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib; Smith, Peter G

    2014-04-01

    Postganglionic cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves are physically proximate in atrial cardiac tissue allowing reciprocal inhibition of neurotransmitter release, depending on demands from central cardiovascular centers or reflex pathways. Parasympathetic cardiac ganglion (CG) neurons synthesize and release the sympathetic neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), which may serve to maintain these close connections. In this study we investigated whether NGF synthesis by CG neurons is altered in heart failure, and whether norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons promotes NGF synthesis. NGF and proNGF immunoreactivity in CG neurons in heart failure rats following chronic coronary artery ligation was investigated. NGF immunoreactivity was decreased significantly in heart failure rats compared to sham-operated animals, whereas proNGF expression was unchanged. Changes in neurochemistry of CG neurons included attenuated expression of the cholinergic marker vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and increased expression of the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. To further investigate norepinephrine's role in promoting NGF synthesis, we cultured CG neurons treated with adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. An 82% increase in NGF mRNA levels was detected after 1h of isoproterenol (β-AR agonist) treatment, which increased an additional 22% at 24h. Antagonist treatment blocked isoproterenol-induced increases in NGF transcripts. In contrast, the α-AR agonist phenylephrine did not alter NGF mRNA expression. These results are consistent with β-AR mediated maintenance of NGF synthesis in CG neurons. In heart failure, a decrease in NGF synthesis by CG neurons may potentially contribute to reduced connections with adjacent sympathetic nerves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced RANKL expression impedes osteoclast activation and tooth eruption in alendronate-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradaschia-Correa, Vivian; Moreira, Mariana M; Arana-Chavez, Victor E

    2013-07-01

    The creation of the eruption pathway requires the resorption of the occlusal alveolar bone by osteoclasts and signaling events between bone and dental follicle are necessary. The aim of the present study has been to evaluate the effect of alendronate on osteoclastogenesis and the expression of the regulator proteins of osteoclast activation, namely RANK, RANKL and OPG, in the bone that covers the first molar germ. Newborn Wistar rats were treated daily with 2.5 mg/kg alendronate for 4, 8, 14, 21 and 28 days, whereas controls received sterile saline solution. At the time points cited, maxillae were fixed, decalcified and processed for light and electron microscopic analysis. TRAP histochemistry was performed on semi-serial sections and the osteoclasts in the occlusal half of the bony crypt surface were counted. TUNEL analysis was carried out on paraffin sections. The occlusal bone that covers the upper first molar was removed in additional 4- and 8-day-old alendronate-treated and control rats in which the expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG was analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. TRAP-positive osteoclasts were more numerous in the alendronate group at all time points, despite their unactivated phenotype and the presence of apoptotic cells. RANKL expression in the alendronate specimens was inhibited at all time points, unlike in controls. Our findings indicate that the expression of RANKL in the occlusal portion of the bony crypt is unrelated to osteoclast recruitment and differentiation but is crucial to their activation during the creation of the eruption pathway.

  16. Involvement of aberrant DNA methylation on reduced expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene in rat tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Kyoko; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshio; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Recently, it has been reported that alterations of LPA receptor expression might be important in the malignant transformation of tumor cells. Therefore, to assess an involvement of DNA methylation in reduced expression of the LPA receptor-1 (lpa1) gene, we investigated the expression of the lpa1 gene and its DNA methylation patterns in rat tumor cell lines. Both rat brain-derived neuroblastoma B103 and liver-derived hepatoma RH7777 cells used in this study indicated no expression of lpa1. For the analysis of methylation status, bisulfite sequencing was performed with B103 and RH7777 cells, comparing with other lpa1 expressed cells and normal tissues of brain and liver. The lpa1 expressed cells and tissues were all unmethylated in this region of lpa1. In contrast, both B103 and RH7777 cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expression of the lpa1. Treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine induced expression of lpa1 gene in B103 and RH7777 cells after 24 h. In RH7777 cells treated with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine, stress fiber formation was also observed in response to LPA in RH7777 cells, but not in untreated RH7777 cells. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of the lpa1 gene may be involved in its reduced expression in rat tumor cells

  17. Subacute effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on hepatic gene expression profiles in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canton, Rocio F.; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Ven, Leo T.M. van der; Berg, Martin van den; Heneweer, Marjoke

    2008-01-01

    Hexabromoyclododecane (HBCD), used as flame retardant (FR) mainly in textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacture, has been identified as a contaminant at levels comparable to other brominated FRs (BFRs). HBCD levels in biota are increasing slowly and seem to reflect the local market demand. The toxicological database of HBCD is too limited to perform at present a solid risk assessment, combining data from exposure and effect studies. In order to fill in some gaps, a 28-day HBCD repeated dose study (OECD407) was done in Wistar rats. In the present work liver tissues from these animals were used for gene expression profile analysis. Results show clear gender specificity with females having a higher number of regulated genes and therefore being more sensitive to HBCD than males. Several specific pathways were found to be affected by HBCD exposure, like PPAR-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism, triacylglycerol metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, and phase I and II pathways. These results were corroborated with quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Cholesterol biosynthesis and lipid metabolism were especially down-regulated in females. Genes involved in phase I and II metabolism were up-regulated predominantly in males, which could explain the observed lower HBCD hepatic disposition in male rats in this 28-day study. These sex-specific differences in gene expression profiles could also underlie sex-specific differences in toxicity (e.g. decreased thyroid hormone or increased serum cholesterol levels). To our knowledge, this is the fist study that describes the changes in rat hepatic gene profiles caused by this commonly used flame retardant

  18. Sex-different and growth hormone-regulated expression of microRNA in rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollet-Egnell Petra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs playing an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. We have previously shown that hepatic transcript profiles are different between males and females; that some of these differences are under the regulation of growth hormone (GH; and that mild starvation diminishes some of the differences. In this study, we tested if hepatic miRNAs are regulated in a similar manner. Results Using microarrays, miRNA screening was performed to identify sex-dependent miRNAs in rat liver. Out of 324 unique probes on the array, 254 were expressed in the liver and eight (3% of 254 of those were found to be different between the sexes. Among the eight putative sex-different miRNAs, only one female-predominant miRNA (miR-29b was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, 1 week of continuous GH-treatment in male rats reduced the levels of miR-451 and miR-29b, whereas mild starvation (12 hours raised the levels of miR-451, miR-122a and miR-29b in both sexes. The biggest effects were obtained on miR-29b with GH-treatment. Conclusion We conclude that hepatic miRNA levels depend on the hormonal and nutritional status of the animal and show that miR-29b is a female-predominant and GH-regulated miRNA in rat liver.

  19. Gene expression and protein distribution of orexins and orexin receptors in rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Xu, G Z; Wang, L; Jiang, S X; Yang, X L; Zhong, Y M

    2011-08-25

    Orexins, composed of orexin A and orexin B, are identified as endogenous ligands of two orphan G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R). Orexins are implicated in regulating wake/sleep states, feeding behaviors, etc. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactive (RT-PCR) analysis and immunofluorescence double labeling, we investigated the distributions of orexin A, orexin B, OX1R and OX2R in rat retina. RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of mRNAs of prepro-orexin, OX1R and OX2R in rat retina. Immunostaining for orexin A and orexin B was observed in many cells in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. In the outer retina, horizontal cells, labeled by calbindin, and bipolar cells, labeled by homeobox protein Chx10, were orexin A- and orexin B-positive. In the inner retina, two orexins were both found in GABAergic amacrine cells (ACs), including dopaminergic and cholinergic ones, stained by tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase respectively. Glycinergic ACs, including AII ACs, also expressed orexins. Weak to moderate labeling for orexin A and orexin B was diffusely distributed in the inner plexiform layer. Additionally, orexins were expressed in almost all ganglion cells (GCs) retrogradely labeled by cholera toxin B subunit. Specifically, double-labeling experiments demonstrated that melanopsin-positive GCs (intrinsically photosensitive retinal GCs, ipRGCs) were labeled by two orexins. Morever, OX1R immunoreactivity was observed in most of GCs and all dopaminergic ACs, as well as in both outer and inner plexiform layers. In contrast, no obvious OX2R immunostaining was detectable in the rat retina. These results suggest that orexins may modulate the function of neurons, especially in the inner retina. We further hypothesize that the orexin signaling via ipRGCs may be involved in setting the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Expression of orexin B and its receptor 2 in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Giovanna; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Assisi, Loredana; Langella, Emilia; Tafuri, Simona; Mirabella, Nicola; Costagliola, Anna; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2017-02-01

    The peptides orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) deriving from a common precursor molecule, prepro-orexin, by proteolytic cleavage, bind the two G-coupled OX 1 and OX 2 receptors. While OX 1 selectively binds OxA, OX 2 shows similar affinity for both orexins. Firstly discovered in the hypothalamus, orexins and their receptors have been found in other brain regions as well as in peripheral tissues of mammals, thus resulting involved in the regulation of a broad variety of physiological functions. While the functional localization of OxA and OX 1 in the mammalian genital tract has been already described, the expression of OxB and OX 2 and their potential role in the reproductive functions remain to be explored. Here, we investigated the presence of OxB and OX 2 in the rat testis by immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. The results definitely demonstrated the localization of OxB and OX 2 in pachytene and second spermatocytes as well as in spermatids at all stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. The expression of both OX 2 mRNA and protein in the rat testis was also established by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The analysis of the molecular mechanism of action of OxB in the rat testis showed that OxB, in contrast with OxA, is unable to promote steroidogenesis. These results translate into the regulation of diverse biological actions by OxA and OxB in the male gonad. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preserved learning about allocentric cues but impaired flexible memory expression in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Juan M J

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have shown that slight modifications in the standard reference spatial memory procedure normally used for allocentric learning in the Morris water maze and the radial maze, can overcome the classic deficit in allocentric navigation typically observed in rats with hippocampal damage. In these special paradigms, however, there is only intramaze manipulation of a salient stimulus. The present study was designed to investigate whether extramaze manipulations produce a similar outcome. With this aim a four-arm plus-shaped maze and a reference spatial memory paradigm were used, in which the goal arm was marked in two ways: by a prominent extramaze cue (intermittent light), which maintained a constant relation with the goal, and by the extramaze constellation of stimuli around the maze. Experiment 1 showed that, unlike the standard version of the task, using this special training procedure hippocampally-damaged rats could learn a place response as quickly as control animals; importantly, one day after reaching criterion, lesioned and control subjects performed the task perfectly during a transfer test in which the salient extramaze stimulus used during the acquisition was removed. However, although acquisition deficit was overcomed in these lesioned animals, a profound deficit in retention was detected 15 days later. Experiment 2 suggests that although under our special paradigm hippocampal rats can learn a place response, spatial memory only can be expressed when the requisites of behavioral flexibility are minimal. These findings suggest that, under certain circumstances, extrahippocampal structures are sufficient for building a coherent allocentric representation of space; however, flexible memory expression is dependent, fundamentally, on hippocampal functioning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphodiesterase 3 and 5 and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel expression in rat trigeminovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Lars S; Sandholdt, Nicolai T H; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2006-01-01

    may be associated with mutations in ion channels. The aim of the present study was to describe the expression of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) and 5 (PDE5) and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNG) in cerebral arteries, meninges, and the trigeminal ganglion. mRNA for PDE and CNG was determined...... in the rat middle cerebral artery, basilar artery, trigeminal ganglion, and dura mater using real-time PCR. PDE and CNG proteins were identified using Western blot. For comparison, rat aorta and mesenteric artery were analysed. PDE3A, PDE3B, and PDE5A mRNA were detected in all tissues examined except for PDE......3A mRNA in dura mater and the trigeminal ganglion. PDE5A and PDE3A protein expression was present in both cerebral and peripheral arteries, whereas PDE3B protein was present only in the cerebral arteries. The CNGA4 and B1 subunit mRNAs were detected in cerebral arteries and CNGA2 also...

  3. Dietary soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression changes in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets. PMID:26857845

  4. Prolonged radiation damage in rat colon and urokinase expression in epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, Masayuki; Minami, Kazunori; Okimoto, Tomoaki [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Sekine, Ichiro

    2001-12-01

    Although radiation therapy plays important role in the treatment of gynecological tumors, it may cause radiation injury as a late effect. Several recent reports show that urokinase such as urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) contributes to the repair of ulcerative lesions of the colon epithelium. We studied radiation induced enterocolitis using rat animal models. Seventy-two female Wistar rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 36 Gy at laparotomy. Histological changes and activity of urokinase system were investigated after irradiation. Ulcers were observed in irradiated field in 12 of 19 animals (63%) even at 60th week after irradiation. Urokinase expressions were observed in the margins of active ulcer. Urokinase was thought to play important role in exacerbation of ulcer formation. Expression of uPA was also observed in submucosal glands. Ischaemic changes were not observed in irradiated colon despite sclerosing vasculitis. It is suggested that uPA played reciprocal roles in radiation induced enterocolitis: healing and aggravation of ulcer. (author)

  5. Serial analysis of gene expression in a rat lung model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lei-Miao; Jiang, Gong-Hao; Wang, Yu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan-Yan; Jin, Wei-Rong; Zhang, Zen; Xu, Yu-Dong; Yang, Yong-Qing

    2008-11-01

    The pathogenesis and molecular mechanism underlying asthma remain undetermined. The purpose of this study was to identify genes and pathways involved in the early airway response (EAR) phase of asthma by using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Two SAGE tag libraries of lung tissues derived from a rat model of asthma and controls were generated. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and IntegratedDiscovery Functional Annotation Tool, Gene Ontology (GO) TreeMachine and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. A total of 26 552 SAGE tags of asthmatic rat lung were obtained, of which 12 221 were unique tags. Of the unique tags, 55.5% were matched with known genes. By comparison of the two libraries, 186 differentially expressed tags (P SAGE libraries have provided information on regulatory networks of the EAR phase of asthma. Analyses of the regulated genes of interest may inform new hypotheses, increase our understanding of the disease and provide a foundation for future research.

  6. [Effect of total glucosides of paeony on Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway expression in kidney of diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Chao; Chen, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Ping; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jing

    2014-10-01

    The study is to explore the effect of total glucosides of paeony (TGP)on Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway expression in kidney of diabetic rats, and discuss the protection of TGP in diabetic nephropathy and possible mechanism. Ninety male SD rats of 8 weeks age were randomly divided into normal control group (n = 10) and model group (n = 80). Rats of the normal control group were fed with regular diet, while rats of the model group were fed with high-fat high-sugar diet and 4 weeks later were given an intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg x kg(-1) streptozotocin (STZ). The successfully induced type 2 diabetic rat models were then randomly divided into DM group, three TGP (50, 100, 200 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) treatment group and tripterygium wilfordii glycosides (8 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) control group. Rats of DM group and each treatment group were given high-fat high-sugar diet. At week 14, the levels of blood sugar, 24 hour urine protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were tested. The rats were then sacrificed. Renal pathological changes were examined. Renal tissue Wnt-1 and β-catenin expressions were detected by immunohistochemical assay. Wnt-1 mRNA and β-catenin mRNA expression was semi-quantified by RT-PCR. Wnt-1 protein and β-catenin protein expression was semi-quantified by Western blot. The Result show that Wnt-1 and β-catenin expression increased in kidney of high-fat high-sugar induced type 2 diabetic rats. Compared with diabetic group, the level of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, 24 h urine protein, mean glomerular area and mean glomerular volume were decreased, renal histopathology were improved, expression of Wnt-1 and β-catenin mRNA and protein was reduced in TGP group. Tripterygium wilfordii glycosides had the similar effect. In conclusion, these results showed that Wnt/β-catenin abnormal activation in kidney of type 2 diabetic rats, TGP can improve kidney damage in diabetic rats and delay the development of diabetic

  7. A germline chromothripsis event stably segregating in 11 individuals through three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Nazaryan-Petersen, Lusine; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Parentally transmitted germ-line chromothripsis (G-CTH) has been identified in only a few cases. Most of these rearrangements were stably transmitted, in an unbalanced form, from a healthy mother to her child with congenital abnormalities probably caused by de novo copy-number changes of...

  8. Glial- and Neuronal-Specific Expression of CCL5 mRNA in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fe Lanfranco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5 belongs to a group of chemokines that play a role in the peripheral immune system, mostly as chemoattractant molecules, and mediate tactile allodynia. In the central nervous system (CNS, CCL5 and its receptors have multiple functions, including promoting neuroinflammation, insulin signaling, neuromodulator of synaptic activity and neuroprotection against a variety of neurotoxins. Evidence has also suggested that this chemokine may regulate opioid response. The multifunctional profile of CCL5 might correlate with its ability to bind different chemokine receptors, as well as with its unique cellular expression. In this work, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry to examine the expression profile of CCL5 mRNA in the adult rat brain and provide evidence of its cellular localization. We have observed that the highest expression of CCL5 mRNA occurs in all major fiber tracts, including the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, and cerebral peduncle. In these tracts, CCL5 mRNA was localized in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Astrocytic and microglial expression was also evident in several brain areas including the cerebral cortex, caudate/putamen, hippocampus, and thalamus. Furthermore, using a specific neuronal marker, we observed CCL5 mRNA expression in discrete layers of the cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, in the midbrain, CCL5 mRNA co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH positive cells of the ventral tegmental area, suggesting that CCL5 might be expressed by a subset of dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic system. The expression of CCL5 mRNA and protein, together with its receptors, in selected brain cell populations proposes that this chemokine could be involved in neuronal/glial communication.

  9. Patagonfibrase modifies protein expression of tissue factor and protein disulfide isomerase in rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María Elisa; Santoro, Marcelo Larami

    2016-09-01

    Patagonfibrase is a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of the South American rear-fanged snake Philodryas patagoniensis, and is an important contributor to local lesions inflicted by this species. The tissue factor (TF)-factor VIIa complex, besides triggering the coagulation cascade, has been demonstrated to be involved in inflammatory events. Our aim was to determine whether patagonfibrase affects the expression of TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an enzyme that controls TF biological activity, at the site of patagonfibrase injection, and thus if they may play a role in hemostatic and inflammatory events induced by snake venoms. Patagonfibrase (60 μg/kg) was administered s.c. to rats, and after 3 h blood was collected to evaluate hemostasis parameters, and skin fragments close to the site of injection were taken to assess TF and PDI expression. Patagonfibrase did not alter blood cell counts, plasma fibrinogen levels, or levels of TF activity in plasma. However, by semiquantitative Western blotting, patagonfibrase increased TF expression by 2-fold, and decreased PDI expression by 3-fold in skin samples. In agreement, by immunohistochemical analyses, prominent TF expression was observed in the subcutaneous tissue. Thus, patagonfibrase affects the local expression of TF and PDI without inducing any systemic hemostatic disturbance, although that they may be involved in the local inflammatory events induced by hemorrhagic metalloproteinases. Once antivenom therapy is not totally effective to treat the local injury induced by snake venoms, modulation of the activity and expression of TF and/or PDI might become a strategy for treating snake envenomation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global expression profile of tumor stem-like cells isolated from MMQ rat prolactinoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhipeng; Cai, Lin; Lu, Jianglong; Li, Chuzhong; Gui, Songbai; Liu, Chunhui; Wang, Chengde; Li, Qun; Zhuge, Qichuan; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have been isolated from various malignancies, were closely correlated with the occurrence, progression, metastasis and recurrence of the malignant cancer. Little is known about the tumor stem-like cells (TSLCs) isolated from benign tumors. Here we want to explore the global expression profile of RNA of tumor stem-like cells isolated from MMQ rat prolactinoma cells. In this study, total RNA was extracted from MMQ cells and MMQ tumor stem-like cells. RNA expression profiles were determined by Agilent Rat 8 × 60 K Microarray. Then we used the qRT-PCR to test the result of Microarray, and found VEGFA had a distinct pattern of expression in MMQ tumor stem-like cells. Then WB and ELISA were used to confirm the VEGFA protein level of tumor sphere cultured from both MMQ cell and human prolactinoma cell. Finally, CCK-8 was used to evaluate the reaction of MMQ tumor stem-like cells to small interfering RNAs intervention and bevacizumab treatment. The results of Microarray showed that 566 known RNA were over-expressed and 532 known RNA were low-expressed in the MMQ tumor stem-like cells. These genes were mainly involved in 15 different signaling pathways. In pathway in cancer and cell cycle, Bcl2, VEGFA, PTEN, Jun, Fos, APC2 were up-regulated and Ccna2, Cdc25a, Mcm3, Mcm6, Ccnb2, Mcm5, Cdk1, Gadd45a, Myc were down-regulated in the MMQ tumor stem-like cells. The expression of VEGFA were high in tumor spheres cultured from both MMQ cell and human prolactinomas. Down-regulation of VEGFA by small interfering RNAs partially decreased cell viability of MMQ tumor stem-like cells in vitro. Bevacizumab partially suppressed the proliferation of MMQ tumor stem-like cells. Our findings characterize the pattern of RNA expression of tumor stem-like cells isolated from MMQ cells. VEGFA may act as a potential therapeutic target for tumor stem-like cells of prolactinomas.

  11. Effects of 2G on Gene Expression of Stress-Related Hormones in Rat Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S.; Talyansky, Y.; Moyer, E. L.; Lowe, M.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of spaceflight on mammalian reproductive and developmental physiology is important to future human space exploration and permanent settlement beyond Earth orbit. Fetal developmental programming, including modulation of the HPA axis, is thought to originate at the placental-uterine interface, where both transfer of maternal hormones to the fetus and synthesis of endogenous hormones occurs. In healthy rats, fetal corticosterone levels are kept significantly lower by 11BetaHSD-2, which inactivates corticosterone by conversion into cortisone. Placental tissues express endogenous HPA axis-associated hormones including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), pre-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and vasopressin, which may contribute to fetal programming alongside maternal hormones. DNA methylase 3A, 11BetaHSD-2, and 11BetaHSD-1, which are involved in the regulation of maternal cortisol transfer and modulation of the HPA axis, are also expressed in placental tissues along with glucocorticoid receptor and may be affected by differential gravity exposure during pregnancy. Fetuses may respond differently to maternal glucocorticoid exposure during gestation through sexually dimorphic expression of corticosterone-modulating hormones. To elucidate effects of altered gravity on placental gene expression, here we present a ground-based analogue study involving continuous centrifugation to produce 2g hypergravity. We hypothesized that exposure to 2g would induce a decrease in 11BetaHSD-2 expression through the downregulation of DNA methylase 3a and GC receptor, along with concurrent upregulation in endogenous CRH, POMC, and vasopressin expression. Timed pregnant female rats were exposed to 2G from Gestational day 6 to Gestational day 20, and comparisons made with Stationary Control (SC) and Vivarium Control (VC) dams at 1G. Dams were euthanized and placentas harvested on G20. We homogenized placental tissues, extracted and purified RNA, synthesized cDNA, and

  12. Disruption of the blood-brain interface in neonatal rat neocortex induces a transient expression of metallothionein in reactive astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Moos, T

    1995-01-01

    rats were subjected to a localized freeze lesion of the neocortex of the right temporal cortex. This lesion results in a disrupted blood-brain interface, leading to extravasation of plasma proteins. From 16 h, reactive astrocytosis, defined as an increase in the number and size of cells expressing GFAP...... revealed that histochemically reactive zinc had disappeared from the lesion site. Extracellular albumin and metallothionein-positive astrocytes were absent approximately 2 weeks after the lesion, whereas reactive astrocytosis was still observed. These results show that a lesion of the neonatal rat brain......Exposure of the adult rat brain parenchyma to zinc induces an increase in the intracerebral expression of the metal-binding protein, metallothionein, which is normally confined to astrocytes, ependymal cells, choroid plexus epithelial cells, and brain endothelial cells. Metallothionein is expressed...

  13. [Genistein attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yukun; Wang, Daoxin; Zhu, Tao; Li, Changyi

    2012-02-01

    To study the effect of genistein on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by monocrotaline (MCT). Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=15), namely the control group, model group, low-dose (20 µg/kg) genistein group and high-dose (80 µg/kg) genistein group. The hemodynamic parameters were measured and the remodeling of pulmonary small arteries was observed by electron microscope (EM). The expression of HO-1 in the lung tissues were detected by Western blotting. Compared with the model group, genistein treatment significantly reduced the elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure, improved the right ventricular hypertrophy index, and increased the expression of HO-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Genistein attentuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in MCT-treated rats possibly by up-regulation of HO-1 in the lung tissues.

  14. Maternal deprivation enhances behavioral vulnerability to stress associated with miR-504 expression in nucleus accumbens of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study, the effect of maternal deprivation (MD and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS in inducing depressive behaviors and associated molecular mechanism were investigated in rats. METHODS: Maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 6 hours daily from postnatal day 1 to day 14. Chronic unpredictable stress was established by water deprivation, elevated open platform, food deprivation, restraint stress and electric foot shock. The depressive behaviors were determined by use of sucrose preference test and forced swim test. RESULTS: Rats in MD/CUS group exhibited lower sucrose preference rate, longer immobility time, and lighter body weights than rats in other groups (MD/control, non-MD/CUS and non-MD/control group. Meanwhile, higher miR-504 expression and lower dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1 and D2 (DRD2 expression were observed in the nucleus accumbens of rats in the MD/CUS group than in the other three groups. MiR-504 expression correlated negatively with DRD1 gene expression and sucrose preference rate in the sucrose preference test, but correlated positively with immobility time in forced swim test. Both DRD2 mRNA and protein expression correlated negatively with immobility time in forced swim test. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MD enhances behavioral vulnerability to stress during adulthood, which is associated with the upregulation of miR-504 and downregulation of DRD2 expression in the nucleus accumbens.

  15. Altered mRNA expression of hepatic lipogenic enzyme and PPARalpha in rats fed dietary levan from Zymomonas mobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ah; Hong, Kyunghee; Jang, Ki-Hyo; Kim, Yun-Young; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Yoongho

    2006-06-01

    Levan or high molecular beta-2,6-linked fructose polymer is produced extracellularly from sucrose-based substrates by bacterial levansucrase. In the present study, to investigate the effect of levan feeding on serum leptin, hepatic lipogenic enzyme and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha expression in high-fat diet-induced obese rats, 4-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed high-fat diet (beef tallow, 40% of calories as fat), and, 6 weeks later, the rats were fed 0%, 1%, 5% or 10% levan-supplemented diets for 4 weeks. Serum leptin and insulin level were dose dependently reduced in levan-supplemented diet-fed rats. The mRNA expressions of hepatic fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase, which are the key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis, were down-regulated by dietary levan. However, dietary levan did not affect the gene expression of hepatic malic enzyme, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and HMG CoA reductase. Also, the lipogenic enzyme gene expression in the white adipose tissue (WAT) was not affected by the diet treatments. However, hepatic PPARalpha mRNA expression was dose dependently up-regulated by dietary levan, whereas PPARgamma in the WAT was not changed. The results suggest that the in vivo hypolipidemic effect of dietary levan, including anti-obesity and lipid-lowering, may result from the inhibition of lipogenesis and stimulation of lipolysis, accompanied with regulation of hepatic lipogenic enzyme and PPARalpha gene expression.

  16. Temporal gene expression profiling of the rat knee joint capsule during immobilization-induced joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kayleigh; Sun, Fangui; Trudel, Guy; Sebastiani, Paola; Laneuville, Odette

    2015-05-26

    Contractures of the knee joint cause disability and handicap. Recovering range of motion is recognized by arthritic patients as their preference for improved health outcome secondary only to pain management. Clinical and experimental studies provide evidence that the posterior knee capsule prevents the knee from achieving full extension. This study was undertaken to investigate the dynamic changes of the joint capsule transcriptome during the progression of knee joint contractures induced by immobilization. We performed a microarray analysis of genes expressed in the posterior knee joint capsule following induction of a flexion contracture by rigidly immobilizing the rat knee joint over a time-course of 16 weeks. Fold changes of expression values were measured and co-expressed genes were identified by clustering based on time-series analysis. Genes associated with immobilization were further analyzed to reveal pathways and biological significance and validated by immunohistochemistry on sagittal sections of knee joints. Changes in expression with a minimum of 1.5 fold changes were dominated by a decrease in expression for 7732 probe sets occurring at week 8 while the expression of 2251 probe sets increased. Clusters of genes with similar profiles of expression included a total of 162 genes displaying at least a 2 fold change compared to week 1. Functional analysis revealed ontology categories corresponding to triglyceride metabolism, extracellular matrix and muscle contraction. The altered expression of selected genes involved in the triglyceride biosynthesis pathway; AGPAT-9, and of the genes P4HB and HSP47, both involved in collagen synthesis, was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression in the knee joint capsule was sensitive to joint immobility and provided insights into molecular mechanisms relevant to the pathophysiology of knee flexion contractures. Capsule responses to immobilization was dynamic and characterized by modulation of at least three

  17. Altered expression of miRNAs in the uterus from a letrozole-induced rat PCOS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjin; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Shuxiong; Fu, Lulu; Jiang, Yanwen; Gao, Shan; Liu, Zhuo; Wang, Fengge; Zhu, Xiaoling; Rao, Jiahui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Xu

    2017-01-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes female subfertility with ovarian disorders and may be associated with increased rate of early-pregnancy failure. Rat PCOS models were established using letrozole to understand the uterine pathogenesis of PCOS. The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) was observed in rat uterus with PCOS. After estrous cycles were disrupted, significantly abnormal ovarian morphology and hormone level were observed in rats with PCOS. A total of 148 miRNAs differentially expressed were identified in the uterus from the letrozole-induced rat model compared with the control. These miRNAs included 111 upregulated miRNAs and 37 downregulated miRNAs. The differential expression of miR-484, miR-375-3p, miR-324-5p, and miR-223-3p was further confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatic analysis showed that these four miRNAs were predicted to regulate a large number of genes with different functions. Pathway analysis supported that target genes of miRNAs were involved in insulin secretion and signaling pathways, such as wnt, AMPK, PI3K-Akt, and Ras. These data indicated that miRNAs differentially expressed in rat uterus with PCOS may be associated with PCOS pathogenesis in the uterus. Our findings can help clarify the mechanism of uterine defects in PCOS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Regional gene expression of LOX-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in aorta of HIV-1 transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Fisker Hag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients has been observed. The cause of this accelerated atherosclerosis is a matter of controversy. As clinical studies are complicated by a multiplicity of risk-factors and a low incidence of hard endpoints, studies in animal models could be attractive alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated gene expression of lectin-like oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg rats; these genes are all thought to play important roles in early atherogenesis. Furthermore, the plasma level of sICAM-1 was measured. We found that gene expressions of LOX-1 and VCAM-1 were higher in the aortic arch of HIV-1Tg rats compared to controls. Also, the level of sICAM-1 was elevated in the HIV-1Tg rats compared to controls, but the ICAM-1 gene expression profile did not show any differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-1Tg rats have gene expression patterns indicating endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis in aorta, suggesting that HIV-infection per se may cause atherosclerosis. This transgenic rat model may be a very promising model for further studies of the pathophysiology behind HIV-associated cardiovascular disease.

  19. Phenobarbital reduces blood glucose and gluconeogenesis through down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Hiroaki; Okuda, Yuji; Yoshida, Yukiko; Kimura, Noriko; Kakinuma, Atsushi

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of phosphoenolpyruvate carboykinase (GTP) (EC 4.1.1.32) (PEPCK) gene expression and gluconeogenesis by phenobarbital (PB), which is known to induce drug-metabolizing enzymes, was investigated. Higher level of PEPCK mRNA was observed in spherical rat primary hepatocytes on EHS-gel than monolayer hepatocytes on TIC (type I collagen). We found that PB directly suppressed PEPCK gene expression in spherical hepatocytes on EHS-gel, but not in those on TIC. PB strongly suppressed cAMP-dependent induction of PEPCK gene expression. Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), another gluconeogenic enzyme, was induced by cAMP, but not suppressed by PB. Chronic administration of PB reduced hepatic PEPCK mRNA in streptozotocin-induced diabetic and nondiabetic rats, and PB reduced blood glucose level in diabetic rats. Increased TAT mRNA in diabetic rats was not suppressed by PB. These results indicated that PB-dependent reduction is specific to PEPCK. From pyrvate challenge test, PB suppressed the increased gluconeogenesis in diabetic rats. PEPCK gene promoter activity was suppressed by PB in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, we found that spherical hepatocytes cultured on EHS-gel are capable to respond to PB to suppress PEPCK gene expression. Moreover, our results indicate that hypoglycemic action of PB result from transcriptional repression of PEPCK gene and subsequent suppression of gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Phenotypic Modulation of Mesenteric Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Type 2 Diabetic Rats is Associated with Decreased Caveolin-1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alicia Carrillo-Sepulveda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Diabetes-induced vascular complications are associated with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC phenotypic modulation, switching from a contractile to a synthetic-proliferative phenotype. Loss of caveolin-1 is involved with proliferation of VSMCs. We tested the hypothesis that mesenteric VSMCs from type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rat undergo phenotypic modulation and it is linked to decreased caveolin-1 expression. Methods: VSMCs were isolated from mesenteric arteries from GK rats and age-matched control Wistar rats. Western blotting was used to determine expression of target proteins such as caveolin-1, calponin (marker of differentiation, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, marker of proliferation. In addition, we measured intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production using H2DCF-DA and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 by western blotting in VSMCs from GK stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin upregulated in diabetes. Results: Mesenteric VSMCs from diabetic GK rats exhibited decreased caveolin-1 and calponin expression and increased PCNA expression compared to control. Increased levels of ROS and phospho-ERK1/2 expression were also found in GK VSMCs. LPS augmented ROS and phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels to a greater extent in GK VSMCs than in control. Likewise, high glucose decreased caveolin-1 and calponin expression, increased PCNA expression and augmented ROS production in control mesenteric VSMCs. Conclusion: These results sugges