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Sample records for stable time increment

  1. Stable isotope time series and dentin increments elucidate Pleistocene proboscidean paleobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Daniel; Rountrey, Adam; Smith, Kathlyn; Fox, David

    2010-05-01

    Investigations of stable isotope composition of mineralized tissues have added greatly to our knowledge of past climates and dietary behaviors of organisms, even when they are implemented through 'bulk sampling', in which a single assay yields a single, time-averaged value. Likewise, the practice of 'sclerochronology', which documents periodic structural increments comprising a growth record for accretionary tissues, offers insights into rates of growth and age data at a scale of temporal resolution permitted by the nature of structural increments. We combine both of these approaches to analyze dental tissues of late Pleistocene proboscideans. Tusk dentin typically preserves a record of accretionary growth consisting of histologically distinct increments on daily, approximately weekly, and yearly time scales. Working on polished transverse or longitudinal sections, we mill out a succession of temporally controlled dentin samples bounded by clear structural increments with a known position in the sequence of tusk growth. We further subject each sample (or an aliquot thereof) to multiple compositional analyses - most frequently to assess δ18O and δ13C of hydroxyapatite carbonate, and δ13C and δ15N of collagen. This yields, for each animal and each series of years investigated, a set of parallel compositional time series with a temporal resolution of 1-2 months (or finer if we need additional precision). Patterns in variation of thickness of periodic sub-annual increments yield insight into intra-annual and inter-annual variation of tusk growth rate. This is informative even by itself, but it is still more valuable when coupled with compositional time series. Further, the controls on different stable isotope systems are sufficiently different that the data ensemble yields 'much more than the sum of its parts.' By assessing how compositions and growth rates covary, we monitor with greater confidence changes in local climate, diet, behavior, and health status. We

  2. FDTD Stability: Critical Time Increment

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Skvor; L. Pauk

    2003-01-01

    A new approach suitable for determination of the maximal stable time increment for the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) algorithm in common curvilinear coordinates, for general mesh shapes and certain types of boundaries is presented. The maximal time increment corresponds to a characteristic value of a Helmholz equation that is solved by a finite-difference (FD) method. If this method uses exactly the same discretization as the given FDTD method (same mesh, boundary conditions, order of ...

  3. FDTD Stability: Critical Time Increment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Skvor

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach suitable for determination of the maximal stable timeincrement for the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD algorithm incommon curvilinear coordinates, for general mesh shapes and certaintypes of boundaries is presented. The maximal time incrementcorresponds to a characteristic value of a Helmholz equation that issolved by a finite-difference (FD method. If this method uses exactlythe same discretization as the given FDTD method (same mesh, boundaryconditions, order of precision etc., the maximal stable time incrementis obtained from the highest characteristic value. The FD system issolved by an iterative method, which uses only slightly alteredoriginal FDTD formulae. The Courant condition yields a stable timeincrement, but in certain cases the maximum increment is slightlygreater [2].

  4. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  5. Stable Myoelectric Control of a Hand Prosthesis using Non-Linear Incremental Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan eGijsberts

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable myoelectric control of hand prostheses remains an open problem. The only successful human-machine interface is surface electromyography, typically allowing control of a few degrees of freedom. Machine learning techniques may have the potential to remove these limitations, but their performance is thus far inadequate: myoelectric signals change over time under the influence of various factors, deteriorating control performance. It is therefore necessary, in the standard approach, to regularly retrain a new model from scratch.We hereby propose a non-linear incremental learning method in which occasional updates with a modest amount of novel training data allow continual adaptation to the changes in the signals. In particular, Incremental Ridge Regression and an approximation of the Gaussian Kernel known as Random Fourier Features are combined to predict finger forces from myoelectric signals, both finger-by-finger and grouped in grasping patterns.We show that the approach is effective and practically applicable to this problem by first analyzing its performance while predicting single-finger forces. Surface electromyography and finger forces were collected from 10 intact subjects during four sessions spread over two different days; the results of the analysis show that small incremental updates are indeed effective to maintain a stable level of performance.Subsequently, we employed the same method on-line to teleoperate a humanoid robotic arm equipped with a state-of-the-art commercial prosthetic hand. The subject could reliably grasp, carry and release everyday-life objects, enforcing stable grasping irrespective of the signal changes, hand/arm movements and wrist pronation and supination.

  6. Geometry of finite deformations and time-incremental analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, May (2016), s. 230-244 ISSN 0020-7462 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : solid mechanics * finite deformations * time-incremental analysis * Lagrangian system * evolution equation of Lie type Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.074, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020746216000330

  7. Context-dependent incremental timing cells in the primate hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakon, John J; Naya, Yuji; Wirth, Sylvia; Suzuki, Wendy A

    2014-12-23

    We examined timing-related signals in primate hippocampal cells as animals performed an object-place (OP) associative learning task. We found hippocampal cells with firing rates that incrementally increased or decreased across the memory delay interval of the task, which we refer to as incremental timing cells (ITCs). Three distinct categories of ITCs were identified. Agnostic ITCs did not distinguish between different trial types. The remaining two categories of cells signaled time and trial context together: One category of cells tracked time depending on the behavioral action required for a correct response (i.e., early vs. late release), whereas the other category of cells tracked time only for those trials cued with a specific OP combination. The context-sensitive ITCs were observed more often during sessions where behavioral learning was observed and exhibited reduced incremental firing on incorrect trials. Thus, single primate hippocampal cells signal information about trial timing, which can be linked with trial type/context in a learning-dependent manner.

  8. Scalable Prediction of Energy Consumption using Incremental Time Series Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Noor, Muhammad Usman

    2013-10-09

    Time series datasets are a canonical form of high velocity Big Data, and often generated by pervasive sensors, such as found in smart infrastructure. Performing predictive analytics on time series data can be computationally complex, and requires approximation techniques. In this paper, we motivate this problem using a real application from the smart grid domain. We propose an incremental clustering technique, along with a novel affinity score for determining cluster similarity, which help reduce the prediction error for cumulative time series within a cluster. We evaluate this technique, along with optimizations, using real datasets from smart meters, totaling ~700,000 data points, and show the efficacy of our techniques in improving the prediction error of time series data within polynomial time.

  9. One Step at a Time: SBM as an Incremental Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Discusses incremental SBM budgeting and answers questions regarding resource equity, bookkeeping requirements, accountability, decision-making processes, and purchasing. Approaching site-based management as an incremental process recognizes that every school system engages in some level of site-based decisions. Implementation can be gradual and…

  10. The Time Course of Incremental Word Processing during Chinese Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junyi; Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan; Taft, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In the current study, we report two eye movement experiments investigating how Chinese readers process incremental words during reading. These are words where some of the component characters constitute another word (an embedded word). In two experiments, eye movements were monitored while the participants read sentences with incremental words…

  11. Appropriate use of the increment entropy for electrophysiological time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xue; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Aimin

    2018-04-01

    The increment entropy (IncrEn) is a new measure for quantifying the complexity of a time series. There are three critical parameters in the IncrEn calculation: N (length of the time series), m (dimensionality), and q (quantifying precision). However, the question of how to choose the most appropriate combination of IncrEn parameters for short datasets has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this research was to provide guidance on choosing suitable IncrEn parameters for short datasets by exploring the effects of varying the parameter values. We used simulated data, epileptic EEG data and cardiac interbeat (RR) data to investigate the effects of the parameters on the calculated IncrEn values. The results reveal that IncrEn is sensitive to changes in m, q and N for short datasets (N≤500). However, IncrEn reaches stability at a data length of N=1000 with m=2 and q=2, and for short datasets (N=100), it shows better relative consistency with 2≤m≤6 and 2≤q≤8 We suggest that the value of N should be no less than 100. To enable a clear distinction between different classes based on IncrEn, we recommend that m and q should take values between 2 and 4. With appropriate parameters, IncrEn enables the effective detection of complexity variations in physiological time series, suggesting that IncrEn should be useful for the analysis of physiological time series in clinical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Incremental fuzzy C medoids clustering of time series data using dynamic time warping distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingli; Wu, Shuai; Liu, Zhizhong; Chao, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Clustering time series data is of great significance since it could extract meaningful statistics and other characteristics. Especially in biomedical engineering, outstanding clustering algorithms for time series may help improve the health level of people. Considering data scale and time shifts of time series, in this paper, we introduce two incremental fuzzy clustering algorithms based on a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance. For recruiting Single-Pass and Online patterns, our algorithms could handle large-scale time series data by splitting it into a set of chunks which are processed sequentially. Besides, our algorithms select DTW to measure distance of pair-wise time series and encourage higher clustering accuracy because DTW could determine an optimal match between any two time series by stretching or compressing segments of temporal data. Our new algorithms are compared to some existing prominent incremental fuzzy clustering algorithms on 12 benchmark time series datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed approaches could yield high quality clusters and were better than all the competitors in terms of clustering accuracy. PMID:29795600

  13. Incremental fuzzy C medoids clustering of time series data using dynamic time warping distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongli; Chen, Jingli; Wu, Shuai; Liu, Zhizhong; Chao, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Clustering time series data is of great significance since it could extract meaningful statistics and other characteristics. Especially in biomedical engineering, outstanding clustering algorithms for time series may help improve the health level of people. Considering data scale and time shifts of time series, in this paper, we introduce two incremental fuzzy clustering algorithms based on a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance. For recruiting Single-Pass and Online patterns, our algorithms could handle large-scale time series data by splitting it into a set of chunks which are processed sequentially. Besides, our algorithms select DTW to measure distance of pair-wise time series and encourage higher clustering accuracy because DTW could determine an optimal match between any two time series by stretching or compressing segments of temporal data. Our new algorithms are compared to some existing prominent incremental fuzzy clustering algorithms on 12 benchmark time series datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed approaches could yield high quality clusters and were better than all the competitors in terms of clustering accuracy.

  14. Stable non-Gaussian self-similar processes with stationary increments

    CERN Document Server

    Pipiras, Vladas

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a self-contained presentation on the structure of a large class of stable processes, known as self-similar mixed moving averages. The authors present a way to describe and classify these processes by relating them to so-called deterministic flows. The first sections in the book review random variables, stochastic processes, and integrals, moving on to rigidity and flows, and finally ending with mixed moving averages and self-similarity. In-depth appendices are also included. This book is aimed at graduate students and researchers working in probability theory and statistics.

  15. An Environment for Incremental Development of Distributed Extensible Asynchronous Real-time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Charles K.; Burleigh, Scott; Briggs, Hugh C.; Auernheimer, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Incremental parallel development of distributed real-time systems is difficult. Architectural techniques and software tools developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Flight System Testbed make feasible the integration of complex systems in various stages of development.

  16. Maximal Increments of Local Time of a Random Walk

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Naresh C.; Pruitt, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Let $(S_j)$ be a lattice random walk, i.e., $S_j = X_1 + \\cdots + X_j$, where $X_1, X_2,\\ldots$ are independent random variables with values in $\\mathbb{Z}$ and common nondegenerate distribution $F$. Let $\\{t_n\\}$ be a nondecreasing sequence of positive integers, $t_n \\leq n$, and $L^\\ast_n = \\max_{0\\leq j\\leq n-t_n}(L_{j+t_n} - L_j)$, where $L_n = \\sum^n_{j=1}1_{\\{0\\}}(S_j)$, the number of times zero is visited by the random walk by time $n$. Assuming that the random walk is recurrent and sa...

  17. Space-time quantitative source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Guo, Mingwu; Xiao, Lu; Huang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the space-time trends and detecting the sources of heavy metal accumulation in soils have important consequences in the prevention and treatment of soil heavy metal pollution. In this study, we collected soil samples in the eastern part of the Qingshan district, Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, during the period 2010-2014. The Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in soils exhibited a significant accumulation during 2010-2014. The spatiotemporal Kriging technique, based on a quantitative characterization of soil heavy metal concentration variations in terms of non-separable variogram models, was employed to estimate the spatiotemporal soil heavy metal distribution in the study region. Our findings showed that the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations have an obvious incremental tendency from the southwestern to the central part of the study region. However, the Pb concentrations exhibited an obvious tendency from the northern part to the central part of the region. Then, spatial overlay analysis was used to obtain absolute and relative concentration increments of adjacent 1- or 5-year periods during 2010-2014. The spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentration increments showed that the larger increments occurred in the center of the study region. Lastly, the principal component analysis combined with the multiple linear regression method were employed to quantify the source apportionment of the soil heavy metal concentration increments in the region. Our results led to the conclusion that the sources of soil heavy metal concentration increments should be ascribed to industry, agriculture and traffic. In particular, 82.5% of soil heavy metal concentration increment during 2010-2014 was ascribed to industrial/agricultural activities sources. Using STK and SOA to obtain the spatial distribution of heavy metal concentration increments in soils. Using PCA-MLR to quantify the source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments. Copyright © 2017

  18. On the search for an appropriate metric for reaction time to suprathreshold increments and decrements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Angel; Murzac, Adrian; Zlatkova, Margarita B; Anderson, Roger S

    2009-03-01

    Weber contrast, DeltaL/L, is a widely used contrast metric for aperiodic stimuli. Zele, Cao & Pokorny [Zele, A. J., Cao, D., & Pokorny, J. (2007). Threshold units: A correct metric for reaction time? Vision Research, 47, 608-611] found that neither Weber contrast nor its transform to detection-threshold units equates human reaction times in response to luminance increments and decrements under selective rod stimulation. Here we show that their rod reaction times are equated when plotted against the spatial luminance ratio between the stimulus and its background (L(max)/L(min), the larger and smaller of background and stimulus luminances). Similarly, reaction times to parafoveal S-cone selective increments and decrements from our previous studies [Murzac, A. (2004). A comparative study of the temporal characteristics of processing of S-cone incremental and decremental signals. PhD thesis, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Murzac, A., & Vassilev, A. (2004). Reaction time to S-cone increments and decrements. In: 7th European conference on visual perception, Budapest, August 22-26. Perception, 33, 180 (Abstract).], are better described by the spatial luminance ratio than by Weber contrast. We assume that the type of stimulus detection by temporal (successive) luminance discrimination, by spatial (simultaneous) luminance discrimination or by both [Sperling, G., & Sondhi, M. M. (1968). Model for visual luminance discrimination and flicker detection. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 58, 1133-1145.] determines the appropriateness of one or other contrast metric for reaction time.

  19. Numerical simulation of pseudoelastic shape memory alloys using the large time increment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Weihong; Zaki, Wael; Moumni, Ziad

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents a numerical implementation of the large time increment (LATIN) method for the simulation of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in the pseudoelastic range. The method was initially proposed as an alternative to the conventional incremental approach for the integration of nonlinear constitutive models. It is adapted here for the simulation of pseudoelastic SMA behavior using the Zaki-Moumni model and is shown to be especially useful in situations where the phase transformation process presents little or lack of hardening. In these situations, a slight stress variation in a load increment can result in large variations of strain and local state variables, which may lead to difficulties in numerical convergence. In contrast to the conventional incremental method, the LATIN method solve the global equilibrium and local consistency conditions sequentially for the entire loading path. The achieved solution must satisfy the conditions of static and kinematic admissibility and consistency simultaneously after several iterations. 3D numerical implementation is accomplished using an implicit algorithm and is then used for finite element simulation using the software Abaqus. Computational tests demonstrate the ability of this approach to simulate SMAs presenting flat phase transformation plateaus and subjected to complex loading cases, such as the quasi-static behavior of a stent structure. Some numerical results are contrasted to those obtained using step-by-step incremental integration.

  20. Feasibility of Incremental 2-Times Weekly Hemodialysis in Incident Patients With Residual Kidney Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew I. Chin

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: More than 50% of incident HD patients with RKF have adequate kidney urea clearance to be considered for 2-times weekly HD. When additionally ultrafiltration volume and blood pressure stability are taken into account, more than one-fourth of the total cohort could optimally start HD in an incremental fashion.

  1. Real Time Implementation of Incremental Fuzzy Logic Controller for Gas Pipeline Corrosion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust virtual instrumentation based fuzzy incremental corrosion controller is presented to protect metallic gas pipelines. Controller output depends on error and change in error of the controlled variable. For corrosion control purpose pipe to soil potential is considered as process variable. The proposed fuzzy incremental controller is designed using a very simple control rule base and the most natural and unbiased membership functions. The proposed scheme is tested for a wide range of pipe to soil potential control. Performance comparison between the conventional proportional integral type and proposed fuzzy incremental controller is made in terms of several performance criteria such as peak overshoot, settling time, and rise time. Result shows that the proposed controller outperforms its conventional counterpart in each case. Designed controller can be taken in automode without waiting for initial polarization to stabilize. Initial startup curve of proportional integral controller and fuzzy incremental controller is reported. This controller can be used to protect any metallic structures such as pipelines, tanks, concrete structures, ship, and offshore structures.

  2. An Incremental Time-delay Neural Network for Dynamical Recurrent Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An incremental time-delay neural network based on synapse growth, which is suitable for dynamic control and learning of autonomous robots, is proposed to improve the learning and retrieving performance of dynamical recurrent associative memory architecture. The model allows steady and continuous establishment of associative memory for spatio-temporal regularities and time series in discrete sequence of inputs. The inserted hidden units can be taken as the long-term memories that expand the capacity of network and sometimes may fade away under certain condition. Preliminary experiment has shown that this incremental network may be a promising approach to endow autonomous robots with the ability of adapting to new data without destroying the learned patterns. The system also benefits from its potential chaos character for emergence.

  3. Just-in-Time Technology to Encourage Incremental, Dietary Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Intille, Stephen S.; Kukla, Charles; Farzanfar, Ramesh; Bakr, Waseem

    2003-01-01

    Our multi-disciplinary team is developing mobile computing software that uses “just-in-time” presentation of information to motivate behavior change. Using a participatory design process, preliminary interviews have helped us to establish 10 design goals. We have employed some to create a prototype of a tool that encourages better dietary decision making through incremental, just-in-time motivation at the point of purchase.

  4. Just-in-Time Technology to Encourage Incremental, Dietary Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intille, Stephen S.; Kukla, Charles; Farzanfar, Ramesh; Bakr, Waseem

    2003-01-01

    Our multi-disciplinary team is developing mobile computing software that uses “just-in-time” presentation of information to motivate behavior change. Using a participatory design process, preliminary interviews have helped us to establish 10 design goals. We have employed some to create a prototype of a tool that encourages better dietary decision making through incremental, just-in-time motivation at the point of purchase. PMID:14728379

  5. Scheduling and Mapping in an Incremental Design Methodology for Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications, aiming at a minimization of the system modification cost. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing system running a set of applicat......In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications, aiming at a minimization of the system modification cost. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing system running a set...... be added to the resulted system. Thus, we propose a heuristic which finds the set of already running applications which have to be remapped and rescheduled at the same time with mapping and scheduling the new application, such that the disturbance on the running system (expressed as the total cost implied...... by the modifications) is minimized. Once this set of applications has been determined, we outline a mapping and scheduling algorithm aimed at fulfilling the requirements stated above. The approaches have been evaluated based on extensive experiments using a large number of generated benchmarks as well as a real...

  6. Proposal for element size and time increment selection guideline by 3-D finite element method for elastic waves propagation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a guideline for selection of element size and time increment by 3-D finite element method, which is applied to elastic wave propagation analysis for a long distance of a large structure. An element size and a time increment are determined by quantitative evaluation of strain, which must be 0 on the analysis model with a uniform motion, caused by spatial and time discretization. (author)

  7. Stable cycling in discrete-time genetic models.

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, A

    1981-01-01

    Examples of stable cycling are discussed for two-locus, two-allele, deterministic, discrete-time models with constant fitnesses. The cases that cycle were found by using numerical techniques to search for stable Hopf bifurcations. One consequence of the results is that apparent cases of directional selection may be due to stable cycling.

  8. Stable cycling in discrete-time genetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, A

    1981-11-01

    Examples of stable cycling are discussed for two-locus, two-allele, deterministic, discrete-time models with constant fitnesses. The cases that cycle were found by using numerical techniques to search for stable Hopf bifurcations. One consequence of the results is that apparent cases of directional selection may be due to stable cycling.

  9. Calculation of the Incremental Conditional Core Damage Probability on the Extension of Allowed Outage Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Han, Sang Hoon

    2006-01-01

    RG 1.177 requires that the conditional risk (incremental conditional core damage probability and incremental conditional large early release probability: ICCDP and ICLERP), given that a specific component is out of service (OOS), be quantified for a permanent change of the allowed outage time (AOT) of a safety system. An AOT is the length of time that a particular component or system is permitted to be OOS while the plant is operating. The ICCDP is defined as: ICCDP = [(conditional CDF with the subject equipment OOS)- (baseline CDF with nominal expected equipment unavailabilities)] [duration of the single AOT under consideration]. Any event enabling the component OOS can initiate the time clock for the limiting condition of operation for a nuclear power plant. Thus, the largest ICCDP among the ICCDPs estimated from any occurrence of the basic events for the component fault tree should be selected for determining whether the AOT can be extended or not. If the component is under a preventive maintenance, the conditional risk can be straightforwardly calculated without changing the CCF probability. The main concern is the estimations of the CCF probability because there are the possibilities of the failures of other similar components due to the same root causes. The quantifications of the risk, given that a subject equipment is in a failed state, are performed by setting the identified event of subject equipment to TRUE. The CCF probabilities are also changed according to the identified failure cause. In the previous studies, however, the ICCDP was quantified with the consideration of the possibility of a simultaneous occurrence of two CCF events. Based on the above, we derived the formulas of the CCF probabilities for the cases where a specific component is in a failed state and we presented sample calculation results of the ICCDP for the low pressure safety injection system (LPSIS) of Ulchin Unit 3

  10. EEG Eye State Identification Using Incremental Attribute Learning with Time-Series Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye state identification is a kind of common time-series classification problem which is also a hot spot in recent research. Electroencephalography (EEG is widely used in eye state classification to detect human's cognition state. Previous research has validated the feasibility of machine learning and statistical approaches for EEG eye state classification. This paper aims to propose a novel approach for EEG eye state identification using incremental attribute learning (IAL based on neural networks. IAL is a novel machine learning strategy which gradually imports and trains features one by one. Previous studies have verified that such an approach is applicable for solving a number of pattern recognition problems. However, in these previous works, little research on IAL focused on its application to time-series problems. Therefore, it is still unknown whether IAL can be employed to cope with time-series problems like EEG eye state classification. Experimental results in this study demonstrates that, with proper feature extraction and feature ordering, IAL can not only efficiently cope with time-series classification problems, but also exhibit better classification performance in terms of classification error rates in comparison with conventional and some other approaches.

  11. On the solution of high order stable time integration methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Sysala, Stanislav; Ahmad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-22 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : evolution equations * preconditioners for quadratic matrix polynomials * a stiffly stable time integration method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2013 http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2013/1/108

  12. Tunable and stable in time ferroelectric imprint through polarization coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a method to tune a ferroelectric imprint, which is stable in time, based on the coupling between the non-switchable polarization of ZnO and switchable polarization of PbZrxTi(1−x)O3. SrRuO3/PbZrxTi(1−x)O3/ZnO/SrRuO3 heterostructures were grown with different ZnO thicknesses. It

  13. Linear Time Local Approximation Algorithm for Maximum Stable Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Király

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a two-sided market under incomplete preference lists with ties, where the goal is to find a maximum size stable matching. The problem is APX-hard, and a 3/2-approximation was given by McDermid [1]. This algorithm has a non-linear running time, and, more importantly needs global knowledge of all preference lists. We present a very natural, economically reasonable, local, linear time algorithm with the same ratio, using some ideas of Paluch [2]. In this algorithm every person make decisions using only their own list, and some information asked from members of these lists (as in the case of the famous algorithm of Gale and Shapley. Some consequences to the Hospitals/Residents problem are also discussed.

  14. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order

  15. Viscous Corrections of the Time Incremental Minimization Scheme and Visco-Energetic Solutions to Rate-Independent Evolution Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minotti, Luca; Savaré, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    We propose the new notion of Visco-Energetic solutions to rate-independent systems {(X, E,} d) driven by a time dependent energy E and a dissipation quasi-distance d in a general metric-topological space X. As for the classic Energetic approach, solutions can be obtained by solving a modified time Incremental Minimization Scheme, where at each step the dissipation quasi-distance d is incremented by a viscous correction {δ} (for example proportional to the square of the distance d), which penalizes far distance jumps by inducing a localized version of the stability condition. We prove a general convergence result and a typical characterization by Stability and Energy Balance in a setting comparable to the standard energetic one, thus capable of covering a wide range of applications. The new refined Energy Balance condition compensates for the localized stability and provides a careful description of the jump behavior: at every jump the solution follows an optimal transition, which resembles in a suitable variational sense the discrete scheme that has been implemented for the whole construction.

  16. Investigating Unsaturated Zone Travel Times with Tritium and Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Van der Velde, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Travel times in the unsaturated zone are notoriously difficult to assess. Travel time tracers relying on the conservative transport of dissolved (noble) gases (tritium-helium, CFCs or SF6) are not applicable. Large water volume requirements of other cosmogenic radioactive isotopes (sulfur-35, sodium-22) preclude application in the unsaturated zone. Prior investigations have relied on models, introduced tracers, profiles of stable isotopes or tritium, or a combination of these techniques. Significant unsaturated zone travel times (UZTT) complicate the interpretation of stream water travel time tracers by ranked StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions. Close examination of rSAS functions in a sloping soil lysimeter[1] show the effect of the UZTT on the shape of the rSAS cumulative distribution function. We studied the UZTT at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SS-CZO) using profiles of tritium and stable isotopes (18O and 2H) in the unsaturated zone, supported by soil water content data. Tritium analyses require 100-500 mL of soil water and therefore large soil samples (1-5L), and elaborate laboratory procedures (oven drying, degassing and noble gas mass spectrometry). The high seasonal and interannual variability in precipitation of the Mediterranean climate, variable snow pack and high annual ET/P ratios lead to a dynamic hydrology in the deep unsaturated soils and regolith and highly variable travel time distributions. Variability of the tritium concentration in precipitation further complicates direct age estimates. Observed tritium profiles (>3 m deep) are interpreted in terms of advective and dispersive vertical transport of the input variability and radioactive decay of tritium. Significant unsaturated zone travel times corroborate previously observed low activities of short-lived cosmogenic radioactive nuclides in stream water. Under these conditions, incorporating the UZTT is critical to adequately reconstruct stream water travel time distributions. 1

  17. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules in CT scans: radiologist performance and reading time with incremental CAD assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Justus E.; Paik, David; Olsen, David; Liu, Emily G.; Leung, Ann N.; Mindelzun, Robert; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Chow, Lawrence C.; Naidich, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic performance of radiologists using incremental CAD assistance for lung nodule detection on CT and their temporal variation in performance during CAD evaluation was assessed. CAD was applied to 20 chest multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scans containing 190 non-calcified ≥3-mm nodules. After free search, three radiologists independently evaluated a maximum of up to 50 CAD detections/patient. Multiple free-response ROC curves were generated for free search and successive CAD evaluation, by incrementally adding CAD detections one at a time to the radiologists' performance. The sensitivity for free search was 53% (range, 44%-59%) at 1.15 false positives (FP)/patient and increased with CAD to 69% (range, 59-82%) at 1.45 FP/patient. CAD evaluation initially resulted in a sharp rise in sensitivity of 14% with a minimal increase in FP over a time period of 100 s, followed by flattening of the sensitivity increase to only 2%. This transition resulted from a greater prevalence of true positive (TP) versus FP detections at early CAD evaluation and not by a temporal change in readers' performance. The time spent for TP (9.5 s ± 4.5 s) and false negative (FN) (8.4 s ± 6.7 s) detections was similar; FP decisions took two- to three-times longer (14.4 s ± 8.7 s) than true negative (TN) decisions (4.7 s ± 1.3 s). When CAD output is ordered by CAD score, an initial period of rapid performance improvement slows significantly over time because of non-uniformity in the distribution of TP CAD output and not to a changing reader performance over time. (orig.)

  18. Robot Mapping With Real-Time Incremental Localization Using Expectation Maximization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Kevin L

    2005-01-01

    This research effort explores and develops a real-time sonar-based robot mapping and localization algorithm that provides pose correction within the context of a singe room, to be combined with pre...

  19. Incremental Activation Detection for Real-Time fMRI Series Using Robust Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI is a technique that enables us to observe human brain activations in real time. However, some unexpected noises that emerged in fMRI data collecting, such as acute swallowing, head moving and human manipulations, will cause much confusion and unrobustness for the activation analysis. In this paper, a new activation detection method for rt-fMRI data is proposed based on robust Kalman filter. The idea is to add a variation to the extended kalman filter to handle the additional sparse measurement noise and a sparse noise term to the measurement update step. Hence, the robust Kalman filter is designed to improve the robustness for the outliers and can be computed separately for each voxel. The algorithm can compute activation maps on each scan within a repetition time, which meets the requirement for real-time analysis. Experimental results show that this new algorithm can bring out high performance in robustness and in real-time activation detection.

  20. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...

  1. Incremental Impact of Time on Students' Use of E-Learning via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Salarzadeh Janatabadi, Hashem

    2018-01-01

    The majority of studies utilised the cross-sectional method to measure students' intention to learn and investigate their corresponding learning behaviours. Only a few studies have measured the process of change in students' learning behaviour in the context of time. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effects of using a Facebook…

  2. Evolution equation of Lie-type for finite deformations, time-discrete integration, and incremental methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 226, č. 1 (2015), s. 17-35 ISSN 0001-5970 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : solid mechanics * finite deformations * evolution equation of Lie-type * time-discrete integration Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 1.694, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00707-014-1162-9#page-1

  3. Post-curing conversion kinetics as functions of the irradiation time and increment thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Scotti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the variation of conversion degree (DC in the 12 hours following initial photoactivation of a low-shrinkage composite resin (Venus Diamond. Material and Methods: The conversion degree was monitored for 12 hours using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR F-TIR Spectroscopy. The composite was placed in 1 or 2 mm rings and cured for 10 or 20 seconds with a LED lamp. ATR spectra were acquired from the bottom surface of each sample immediately after the initial photoactivation (P=0, 30 minutes (P=0.5 and 12 hours after photoactivation (P=12 in order to obtain the DC progression during the post-curing period. Interactions between thickness (T, irradiation time (I and post-curing (P on the DC were calculated through ANOVA testing. Results: All the first order interactions were statistically significant, with the exception of the T-P interaction. Furthermore, the shift from P=0 to P=0.5 had a statistically higher influence than the shift from P=0.5 to P=12. The post-curing period played a fundamental role in reaching higher DC values with the low-shrinkage composite resin tested in this study. Moreover, both the irradiation time and the composite thickness strongly influenced the DC. Conclusions: Increased irradiation time may be useful in obtaining a high conversion degree (DC with a low-shrinkage nano-hybrid composite resin, particularly with 2 mm composite layers.

  4. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order basis functions in time to improve the accuracy of the solver. The method is validated by showing convergence in temporal basis function order, time step size, and geometric discretization order. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Small Steps: Preliminary effectiveness and feasibility of an incremental goal-setting intervention to reduce sitting time in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L K; Rowlands, A V; Gardiner, P A; Standage, M; English, C; Olds, T

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary effectiveness and feasibility of a theory-informed program to reduce sitting time in older adults. Pre-experimental (pre-post) study. Thirty non-working adult (≥ 60 years) participants attended a one hour face-to-face intervention session and were guided through: a review of their sitting time; normative feedback on sitting time; and setting goals to reduce total sitting time and bouts of prolonged sitting. Participants chose six goals and integrated one per week incrementally for six weeks. Participants received weekly phone calls. Sitting time and bouts of prolonged sitting (≥ 30 min) were measured objectively for seven days (activPAL3c inclinometer) pre- and post-intervention. During these periods, a 24-h time recall instrument was administered by computer-assisted telephone interview. Participants completed a post-intervention project evaluation questionnaire. Paired t tests with sequential Bonferroni corrections and Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for all outcomes. Twenty-seven participants completed the assessments (71.7 ± 6.5 years). Post-intervention, objectively-measured total sitting time was significantly reduced by 51.5 min per day (p=0.006; d=-0.58) and number of bouts of prolonged sitting by 0.8 per day (p=0.002; d=-0.70). Objectively-measured standing increased by 39 min per day (p=0.006; d=0.58). Participants self-reported spending 96 min less per day sitting (p<0.001; d=-0.77) and 32 min less per day watching television (p=0.005; d=-0.59). Participants were highly satisfied with the program. The 'Small Steps' program is a feasible and promising avenue for behavioral modification to reduce sitting time in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incremental value of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography over the two-dimensional technique in the assessment of primary cardiac malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Gulay; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Thind, Munveer; Uygur, Begum; Abtahi, Firoozeh; Chahwala, Jugal R; Yıldırımtürk, Özlem; Kayacıoğlu, İlyas; Pehlivanoğlu, Seçkin; Nanda, Navin C

    2015-07-01

    We describe a case of primary cardiac malignant fibrous histiocytoma where live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography added incremental value to the two-dimensional modalities. Specifically, the three-dimensional technique allowed us to delineate the true extent and infiltration of the tumor, to identify characteristics of the tumor mass suggestive of its malignant nature, and to quantitatively assess the total tumor burden. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Great Irish Famine: Identifying Starvation in the Tissues of Victims Using Stable Isotope Analysis of Bone and Incremental Dentine Collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Beaumont

    Full Text Available The major components of human diet both past and present may be estimated by measuring the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N of the collagenous proteins in bone and tooth dentine. However, the results from these two tissues differ substantially: bone collagen records a multi-year average whilst primary dentine records and retains time-bound isotope ratios deriving from the period of tooth development. Recent studies harnessing a sub-annual temporal sampling resolution have shed new light on the individual dietary histories of our ancestors by identifying unexpected radical short-term dietary changes, the duration of breastfeeding and migration where dietary change occurs, and by raising questions regarding factors other than diet that may impact on δ13C and δ15N values. Here we show that the dentine δ13C and δ15N profiles of workhouse inmates dating from the Great Irish Famine of the 19th century not only record the expected dietary change from C3 potatoes to C4 maize, but when used together they also document prolonged nutritional and other physiological stress resulting from insufficient sustenance. In the adults, the influence of the maize-based diet is seen in the δ13C difference between dentine (formed in childhood and rib (representing an average from the last few years of life. The demonstrated effects of stress on the δ13C and δ15N values will have an impact on the interpretations of diet in past populations even in slow-turnover tissues such as compact bone. This technique also has applicability in the investigation of modern children subject to nutritional distress where hair and nails are unavailable or do not record an adequate period of time.

  8. A Compact Unconditionally Stable Method for Time-Domain Maxwell's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher order unconditionally stable methods are effective ways for simulating field behaviors of electromagnetic problems since they are free of Courant-Friedrich-Levy conditions. The development of accurate schemes with less computational expenditure is desirable. A compact fourth-order split-step unconditionally-stable finite-difference time-domain method (C4OSS-FDTD is proposed in this paper. This method is based on a four-step splitting form in time which is constructed by symmetric operator and uniform splitting. The introduction of spatial compact operator can further improve its performance. Analyses of stability and numerical dispersion are carried out. Compared with noncompact counterpart, the proposed method has reduced computational expenditure while keeping the same level of accuracy. Comparisons with other compact unconditionally-stable methods are provided. Numerical dispersion and anisotropy errors are shown to be lower than those of previous compact unconditionally-stable methods.

  9. On excursion increments in heartbeat dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán-Vargas, L.; Reyes-Ramírez, I.; Hernández-Pérez, R.

    2013-01-01

    We study correlation properties of excursion increments of heartbeat time series from healthy subjects and heart failure patients. We construct the excursion time based on the original heartbeat time series, representing the time employed by the walker to return to the local mean value. Next, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the fractal dimension method are applied to the magnitude and sign of the increments in the time excursions between successive excursions for the mentioned groups. Our results show that for magnitude series of excursion increments both groups display long-range correlations with similar correlation exponents, indicating that large (small) increments (decrements) are more likely to be followed by large (small) increments (decrements). For sign sequences and for both groups, we find that increments are short-range anti-correlated, which is noticeable under heart failure conditions

  10. A uniform law for convergence to the local times of linear fractional stable motions

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, James A.

    2016-01-01

    We provide a uniform law for the weak convergence of additive functionals of partial sum processes to the local times of linear fractional stable motions, in a setting sufficiently general for statistical applications. Our results are fundamental to the analysis of the global properties of nonparametric estimators of nonlinear statistical models that involve such processes as covariates.

  11. Investigation of Two Prototypes of Novel Noncontact Technologies for Automated Real-Time Capture of Incremental Drug Administration Data From Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Benjamin; Williams, David J; Dingley, John

    2017-08-01

    An ideal electronic anesthesia recording system would be capable of not only recording physiological data but also injectable drug doses given, including those given incrementally from one syringe, without recourse to manual data entry. We compared 2 prototype devices which wirelessly recognized individual syringes and measured changes in their plunger positions via 2 different optical noncontact means, allowing calculation of incremental drug doses given. Both devices incorporated a radio-frequency identification reader, which wirelessly read a unique code from a radio-frequency identification tag within syringe drug labels. A custom-designed cradle oriented any inserted 1-mL to 20-mL syringe in a repeatable position. The "laser" device had a moving laser beam broken by the end of the syringe plunger. The infrared (IR) device measured time of travel of IR light from a sender to a syringe plunger and back to a receiver. Both devices could therefore determine the drug and volume administered since the previous occasion when any syringe had been used. For each syringe size of 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mL, 121 plunger-length measurements were made over their full range, with each machine against a reference method of water filling and weighing using a randomized de Bruijn sequence. For every syringe size, the laser device showed greater accuracy and precision, lower bias, and narrower limits of agreement (95% confidence intervals = bias ± 1.96 SD) than the IR device when compared to the reference method. For all syringe sizes, the range of bias was -0.05 to 0.32 mL for the laser and -2.42 to 1.38 mL for the IR. Lin concordance correlation coefficient values for the IR versus reference methods ranged from 0.6259 to 0.9255, with the lowest coefficients seen in syringes with the shortest distance of plunger travel (2 and 5 mL), while in laser versus reference comparisons, these coefficients were similar (0.9641-0.9981) over all syringe lengths. Both devices measured syringe

  12. Relation of Different Type Love-Shida Numbers Determined with the Use of Time-Varying Incremental Gravitational Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Peter; Grafarend, Erik; Engels, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    There are different equations to describe relations between different classes of Love-Shida numbers. In this study with the use of the time-varying gravitational potential an integral relation was obtained which connects tidal Love-Shida numbers (h, l, k), load numbers (h', l', k'), potential free Love-Shida numbers generated by normal (h″, l″, k″) and horizontal (h‴, l‴, k‴) stresses. The equations obtained in frame of present study is the only one which - holds for every type of Love-Shida numbers, - describes a relationship not between different, but the same type of Love-Shida numbers, - does not follow from the sixth-order differential equation system of motion usually applied to calculate the Love-Shida numbers.

  13. Discrete-Time Stable Generalized Self-Learning Optimal Control With Approximation Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qinglai; Li, Benkai; Song, Ruizhuo

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a generalized policy iteration (GPI) algorithm with approximation errors is developed for solving infinite horizon optimal control problems for nonlinear systems. The developed stable GPI algorithm provides a general structure of discrete-time iterative adaptive dynamic programming algorithms, by which most of the discrete-time reinforcement learning algorithms can be described using the GPI structure. It is for the first time that approximation errors are explicitly considered in the GPI algorithm. The properties of the stable GPI algorithm with approximation errors are analyzed. The admissibility of the approximate iterative control law can be guaranteed if the approximation errors satisfy the admissibility criteria. The convergence of the developed algorithm is established, which shows that the iterative value function is convergent to a finite neighborhood of the optimal performance index function, if the approximate errors satisfy the convergence criterion. Finally, numerical examples and comparisons are presented.

  14. Energy and time of flight measurements of REX-ISOLDE stable beams using Si detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E D; Fraser, M A; Lanaia, D; Sosa, A; Voulot, D; Zocca, F

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present energy and time spectroscopy measurements for the stable beams of REX-ISOLDE obtained using Si detectors. By using an alpha source as a calibration reference, the absolute energy E of stable beam particles (A/q = 4) was determined in spectroscopy mode in the energy range 1 MeV < E < 8 MeV (0.30 MeV/u < E/A < 1.87 MeV/u). The time of flight of the beam particles (2.18 MeV/u < E/A < 2.27 MeV/u) was determined by installing identical Si detectors in two diagnostic boxes separated by 7.7 m. The results obtained with these two techniques are compared with the values obtained by dipole scans using a bending magnet. The measurements took place between January and February of 2013.

  15. Joint accurate time and stable frequency distribution infrastructure sharing fiber footprint with research network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtěch, J.; Šlapák, M.; Škoda, P.; Radil, J.; Havliš, O.; Altmann, M.; Münster, P.; Velč, R.; Kundrát, J.; Altmannová, L.; Vohnout, R.; Horváth, T.; Hůla, M.; Smotlacha, V.; Čížek, Martin; Pravdová, Lenka; Řeřucha, Šimon; Hrabina, Jan; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 027101. ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : accurate time * stable frequency * wavelength division multiplexing * bidirectional reciprocal path * Sagnac effect Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  16. Increment memory module for spectrometric data recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuchkov, A.A.; Myagkikh, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Incremental memory unit designed to input differential energy spectra of nuclear radiation is described. ROM application as incremental device has allowed to reduce the number of elements and do simplify information readout from the unit. 12-bit 2048 channels present memory unit organization. The device is connected directly with the bus of microprocessor systems similar to KR 580. Incrementation maximal time constitutes 3 mks. It is possible to use this unit in multichannel counting mode

  17. Planning Through Incrementalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Ph.

    1974-01-01

    An incremental model of decisionmaking is discussed and compared with the Comprehensive Rational Approach. A model of reconciliation between the two approaches is proposed, and examples are given in the field of economic development and educational planning. (Author/DN)

  18. Time difference of arrival estimation of microseismic signals based on alpha-stable distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui-Sheng; Gong, Yue; Peng, Yan-Jun; Sun, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Xing-Li; Lu, Xin-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Microseismic signals are generally considered to follow the Gauss distribution. A comparison of the dynamic characteristics of sample variance and the symmetry of microseismic signals with the signals which follow α-stable distribution reveals that the microseismic signals have obvious pulse characteristics and that the probability density curve of the microseismic signal is approximately symmetric. Thus, the hypothesis that microseismic signals follow the symmetric α-stable distribution is proposed. On the premise of this hypothesis, the characteristic exponent α of the microseismic signals is obtained by utilizing the fractional low-order statistics, and then a new method of time difference of arrival (TDOA) estimation of microseismic signals based on fractional low-order covariance (FLOC) is proposed. Upon applying this method to the TDOA estimation of Ricker wavelet simulation signals and real microseismic signals, experimental results show that the FLOC method, which is based on the assumption of the symmetric α-stable distribution, leads to enhanced spatial resolution of the TDOA estimation relative to the generalized cross correlation (GCC) method, which is based on the assumption of the Gaussian distribution.

  19. The effect of two different housing conditions on the welfare of young horses stabled for the first time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Ellis, A.D.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of stabling for the first time on the behaviour and welfare of young and naïve horses has not yet been studied in detail. In this study we examined the effect of two typical housing systems on their subsequent behavioural and physiological responses upon first time stabling. Thirty-six

  20. Decision of Lead-Time Compression and Stable Operation of Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost optimization strategy and a robust control strategy were studied to realize the low-cost robust operation of the supply chain with lead times. Firstly, for the multiple production lead times which existed in the supply chain, a corresponding inventory state model and a supply chain cost model were constructed based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control system. Then, by considering the actual inventory level, the lead-time compression cost, and the stock-out cost, a cost optimization strategy was proposed. Furthermore, a fuzzy robust control strategy was proposed to realize the flexible switching among the models. Finally, the simulation results show that the total cost of the supply chain could be reduced effectively by the cost optimization strategy, and the stable operation of the supply chain could be realized by the proposed fuzzy robust control strategy.

  1. Study of grape contamination at the time of harvest using stable chemical substances analyzed by activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miribel, J.; Delmas, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the sixties the SERE, in conjunction with the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), conducted experiments on the contamination of wine produced from vines contaminated at the roots. The contamination must be carried out via the leaves and at different stages of growth so as to come as close as possible to the conditions of fall-out. An initial study of grape contamination at the time of the harvest was carried out using stable chemical substances which were analysed by activation. This technique makes it possible to use a large number of substances at the same time and is harmless for the environment. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory, and the method will be used next year for studies at other stages in the ripening of grapes [fr

  2. The Use of Stable Isotope Tracers to Quantify the Transit Time Distribution of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, T. M.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution is an important societal problem because it can have harmful effects on human and ecological health. In order to improve water quality, scientists must develop land management methods that can avoid or mitigate environmental pollution. State of the art tools to develop such methods are flow and transport models that trace water and other solutes through the landscape. These models deliver important information that can lead to remediation efforts, and improve the quality of water for humans, plants, and animals. However, these models may be difficult to apply since many details about the catchment may not be available. Instead, a lumped approach is often used to find the water transit time using stable isotope tracers such as 18O and 2H that are naturally applied by precipitation to a catchment. The transit time distribution of water is an important indicator for the amount of solutes soil water and groundwater can contain, and thus a predictor of water quality. We conducted a 2-week long experiment using a tilted weighing lysimeter at Biosphere 2 to observe the breakthrough curves of deuterium and specific artificial DNA particles. We show that hydrological parameters can be computed in order to provide an estimate for the transit time distribution of deuterium. The convolution integral is then used to determine the distribution of the water transit time in the system. Unfortunately, stable isotopes such as deuterium make it difficult to pinpoint a specific flowpath since they naturally occur in the environment. Recent studies have shown that DNA tracers are able to trace water through the landscape. We found that DNA has a similar breakthrough curve happening at similar timescales as the deuterium. Therefore, DNA tracers may be able to identify sources of nonpoint source pollution in the future.

  3. An exploratory study of relative and incremental information content of two non-financial performance measures: Field study evidence on absence frequency and on-time delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this exploratory field study, I test the relative and incremental information content of two non-financial performance measures compared to financial performance measures for future financial performance. The proprietary database used is from the contracts of the managers of 27 responsibility

  4. An energy-stable time-integrator for phase-field models

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2016-12-27

    We introduce a provably energy-stable time-integration method for general classes of phase-field models with polynomial potentials. We demonstrate how Taylor series expansions of the nonlinear terms present in the partial differential equations of these models can lead to expressions that guarantee energy-stability implicitly, which are second-order accurate in time. The spatial discretization relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. We also propose an adaptive time-stepping discretization that relies on a first-order backward approximation to give an error-estimator. This error estimator is accurate, robust, and does not require the computation of extra solutions to estimate the error. This methodology can be applied to any second-order accurate time-integration scheme. We present numerical examples in two and three spatial dimensions, which confirm the stability and robustness of the method. The implementation of the numerical schemes is done in PetIGA, a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework.

  5. An energy-stable time-integrator for phase-field models

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe; Collier, N.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Brown, D.L.; Calo, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a provably energy-stable time-integration method for general classes of phase-field models with polynomial potentials. We demonstrate how Taylor series expansions of the nonlinear terms present in the partial differential equations of these models can lead to expressions that guarantee energy-stability implicitly, which are second-order accurate in time. The spatial discretization relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. We also propose an adaptive time-stepping discretization that relies on a first-order backward approximation to give an error-estimator. This error estimator is accurate, robust, and does not require the computation of extra solutions to estimate the error. This methodology can be applied to any second-order accurate time-integration scheme. We present numerical examples in two and three spatial dimensions, which confirm the stability and robustness of the method. The implementation of the numerical schemes is done in PetIGA, a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework.

  6. Spontaneous variability of pre-dialysis concentrations of uremic toxins over time in stable hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Eloot

    Full Text Available Numerous outcome studies and interventional trials in hemodialysis (HD patients are based on uremic toxin concentrations determined at one single or a limited number of time points. The reliability of these studies however entirely depends on how representative these cross-sectional concentrations are. We therefore investigated the variability of predialysis concentrations of uremic toxins over time.Prospectively collected predialysis serum samples of the midweek session of week 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 16 were analyzed for a panel of uremic toxins in stable chronic HD patients (N = 18 while maintaining dialyzer type and dialysis mode during the study period.Concentrations of the analyzed uremic toxins varied substantially between individuals, but also within stable HD patients (intra-patient variability. For urea, creatinine, beta-2-microglobulin, and some protein-bound uremic toxins, Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC was higher than 0.7. However, for phosphorus, uric acid, symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine, and the protein-bound toxins hippuric acid and indoxyl sulfate, ICC values were below 0.7, implying a concentration variability within the individual patient even exceeding 65% of the observed inter-patient variability.Intra-patient variability may affect the interpretation of the association between a single concentration of certain uremic toxins and outcomes. When performing future outcome and interventional studies with uremic toxins other than described here, one should quantify their intra-patient variability and take into account that for solutes with a large intra-patient variability associations could be missed.

  7. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  8. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  9. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2013-07-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. Numerical results are also presented to verify their analytical counterparts. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Field study of time-dependent selenium partitioning in soils using isotopically enriched stable selenite tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Tullo, Pamela; Pannier, Florence; Thiry, Yves; Le Hécho, Isabelle; Bueno, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of selenium fate in soils at both short and long time scales is mandatory to consolidate risk assessment models relevant for managing both contamination and soil fertilization issues. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate Se retention processes and their kinetics by monitoring time-dependent distribution/speciation changes of both ambient and freshly added Se, in the form of stable enriched selenite-77, over a 2-years field experiment. This study clearly illustrates the complex reactivity of selenium in soil considering three methodologically defined fractions (i.e. soluble, exchangeable, organic). Time-dependent redistribution of Se-77 within solid-phases having different reactivity could be described as a combination of chemical and diffusion controlled processes leading to its stronger retention. Experimental data and their kinetic modeling evidenced that transfer towards less labile bearing phases are controlled by slow processes limiting the overall sorption of Se in soils. These results were used to estimate time needed for "7"7Se to reach the distribution of naturally present selenium which may extend up to several decades. Ambient Se speciation accounted for 60% to 100% of unidentified species as function of soil type whereas "7"7Se(IV) remained the more abundant species after 2-years field experiment. Modeling Se in the long-term without taking account these slow sorption kinetics would thus result in underestimation of Se retention. When using models based on K_d distribution coefficient, they should be at least reliant on ambient Se which is supposed to be at equilibrium.

  11. Field study of time-dependent selenium partitioning in soils using isotopically enriched stable selenite tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Tullo, Pamela, E-mail: pamela.ditullo@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Pannier, Florence, E-mail: florence.pannier@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Thiry, Yves, E-mail: yves.thiry@andra.fr [Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Le Hécho, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.lehecho@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Bueno, Maïté, E-mail: maite.bueno@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE), Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour/CNRS, UMR 5254, IPREM, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-08-15

    A better understanding of selenium fate in soils at both short and long time scales is mandatory to consolidate risk assessment models relevant for managing both contamination and soil fertilization issues. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate Se retention processes and their kinetics by monitoring time-dependent distribution/speciation changes of both ambient and freshly added Se, in the form of stable enriched selenite-77, over a 2-years field experiment. This study clearly illustrates the complex reactivity of selenium in soil considering three methodologically defined fractions (i.e. soluble, exchangeable, organic). Time-dependent redistribution of Se-77 within solid-phases having different reactivity could be described as a combination of chemical and diffusion controlled processes leading to its stronger retention. Experimental data and their kinetic modeling evidenced that transfer towards less labile bearing phases are controlled by slow processes limiting the overall sorption of Se in soils. These results were used to estimate time needed for {sup 77}Se to reach the distribution of naturally present selenium which may extend up to several decades. Ambient Se speciation accounted for 60% to 100% of unidentified species as function of soil type whereas {sup 77}Se(IV) remained the more abundant species after 2-years field experiment. Modeling Se in the long-term without taking account these slow sorption kinetics would thus result in underestimation of Se retention. When using models based on K{sub d} distribution coefficient, they should be at least reliant on ambient Se which is supposed to be at equilibrium.

  12. Children’s head motion during fMRI tasks is heritable and stable over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Engelhardt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Head motion during fMRI scans negatively impacts data quality, and as post-acquisition techniques for addressing motion become increasingly stringent, data retention decreases. Studies conducted with adult participants suggest that movement acts as a relatively stable, heritable phenotype that serves as a marker for other genetically influenced phenotypes. Whether these patterns extend downward to childhood has critical implications for the interpretation and generalizability of fMRI data acquired from children. We examined factors affecting scanner motion in two samples: a population-based twin sample of 73 participants (ages 7–12 years and a case-control sample of 32 non-struggling and 78 struggling readers (ages 8–11 years, 30 of whom were scanned multiple times. Age, but not ADHD symptoms, was significantly related to scanner movement. Movement also varied as a function of task type, run length, and session length. Twin pair concordance for head motion was high for monozygotic twins and moderate for dizygotic twins. Cross-session test-retest reliability was high. Together, these findings suggest that children’s head motion is a genetically influenced trait that has the potential to systematically affect individual differences in BOLD changes within and across groups. We discuss recommendations for future work and best practices for pediatric neuroimaging.

  13. Cerebral blood flow measurement using stable xenon CT with very short inhalation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Keiji [Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan)

    1991-02-01

    A noninvasive, simplified method using inhalation of stable xenon (Xe{sup s}) and computed tomographic (CT) scanning to estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional partition coefficient (r{lambda}) is described. Twenty-four patients with cerebrovascular occlusive disease and six volunteer controls inhaled 30% Xe{sup s} and 70% oxygen for 180 seconds and exhaled for 144 seconds during serial CT scanning without denitrogenation. The end-tidal Xe{sup s} concentration was continuously monitored with a thermoconductivity analyzer to determine the build-up range (A value) and build-up rate constant (K value) for arteries with the curve fitting method. The time-CT number (Hounsfield unit) curve for cerebral tissue during the Xe{sup s} washin and washout phases was used to calculate r{lambda} and rCBF using least squares curve fitting analysis. The resultant r{lambda} and rCBF map demonstrated a reliable distribution between the gray and white matter, and infarcted areas. rCBF was high in gray matter, low in white matter, and much lower in infarcted areas than in white matter. r{lambda} was high in white matter, low in gray matter, and much lower in infarcted areas. Xe{sup s} CT-CBF studies with very short inhalation of 180 seconds is a clinically useful method for evaluation of rCBF in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. (author).

  14. Low-priced, time-saving, reliable and stable LR-115 counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear alpha particles leave etches (tracks) when they hit the surface of a LR-115 detector. The density of these tracks is used to measure radon concentration. Counting these tracks by human sense is tedious and time-consuming procedure and may introduce counting error, whereas most available automatic and semiautomatic counting systems are expensive or complex. An uncomplicated, robust, reliable and stable counting system using freely available on the Internet software as Digimizer™ and PhotoScape was developed and proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure was evaluated by comparing the amount of tracks counted by software with the amount of tracks counted manually for 223 detectors. The percentage error for each analysed detector was obtained as a difference between automatic and manual counts divided by manual count. For more than 97% of detectors, the percentage errors oscillated between −3% and 3%. - Highlights: • Semiautomatic, uncomplicated procedure was proposed to count the amount of alpha tracks. • Freely available software on the Internet used as alpha tracks counting system for LR-115. • LR-115 detectors used to measure radon concentration and radon exhalation rate

  15. Use of stable isotope analysis to determine of the timing of ontogenic habitat shifts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SAIP funding for stable isotope research was provided in FY11 and FY13; the FY11 funding was for loggerhead turtles (described below) as opposed to green turtles in...

  16. Time to transient and stable reductions in hot flush frequency in postmenopausal women using conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, JoAnn V; Bushmakin, Andrew G; Abraham, Lucy; Komm, Barry S; Bobula, Joel

    2017-09-01

    This post hoc analysis estimates time to transient and stable reductions in hot flush frequency in postmenopausal women using conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene. In the 12-week Selective estrogens, Menopause, And Response to Therapy (SMART)-2 trial of conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene 0.45 mg/20 mg and 0.625 mg/20 mg, women with at least seven moderate/severe hot flushes per day or 50 per week at screening recorded frequency of moderate/severe hot flushes in diaries. Nonparametric models and SAS Proc Lifetest were used to estimate median times to various degrees of transient reductions (first day with improvement) and stable reductions (first day with improvement maintained through study's end) in hot flush frequency. Treatment produced transient hot flush reductions of 40% to 100% and stable reductions of 30% to 100% significantly faster than placebo. Median time to a transient 50% reduction was 8 days for conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene 0.45 mg/20 mg, 9.5 for 0.625 mg/20 mg, and 10 for placebo; median time to a stable 50% reduction was 9, 10, and 38 days. Median time to a transient 90% reduction was 32 and 22.5 days for 0.45 mg/20 mg and 0.625 mg/20 mg, and median time to a stable 90% reduction was 83 and 29 days, respectively; median times to transient/stable 90% reductions were not reached during the 12-week study in the placebo group. Although not all women using conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene achieve permanent elimination of hot flushes, the frequency is likely to be substantially reduced during the first week to month. Women can expect approximately 50% reduction in hot flush frequency after about 8 to 10 days, and sustained improvement with continued treatment.

  17. A data analysis method for identifying deterministic components of stable and unstable time-delayed systems with colored noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patanarapeelert, K. [Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Frank, T.D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany)]. E-mail: tdfrank@uni-muenster.de; Friedrich, R. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Beek, P.J. [Faculty of Human Movement Sciences and Institute for Fundamental and Clinical Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 9, 1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tang, I.M. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2006-12-18

    A method is proposed to identify deterministic components of stable and unstable time-delayed systems subjected to noise sources with finite correlation times (colored noise). Both neutral and retarded delay systems are considered. For vanishing correlation times it is shown how to determine their noise amplitudes by minimizing appropriately defined Kullback measures. The method is illustrated by applying it to simulated data from stochastic time-delayed systems representing delay-induced bifurcations, postural sway and ship rolling.

  18. Distribution of incremental static stress caused by earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Kagan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations, simulations and measurements of rotation of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest that the stress in earthquake focal zones follows the Cauchy distribution which is one of the stable probability distributions (with the value of the exponent α equal to 1. We review the properties of the stable distributions and show that the Cauchy distribution is expected to approximate the stress caused by earthquakes occurring over geologically long intervals of a fault zone development. However, the stress caused by recent earthquakes recorded in instrumental catalogues, should follow symmetric stable distributions with the value of α significantly less than one. This is explained by a fractal distribution of earthquake hypocentres: the dimension of a hypocentre set, ��, is close to zero for short-term earthquake catalogues and asymptotically approaches 2¼ for long-time intervals. We use the Harvard catalogue of seismic moment tensor solutions to investigate the distribution of incremental static stress caused by earthquakes. The stress measured in the focal zone of each event is approximated by stable distributions. In agreement with theoretical considerations, the exponent value of the distribution approaches zero as the time span of an earthquake catalogue (ΔT decreases. For large stress values α increases. We surmise that it is caused by the δ increase for small inter-earthquake distances due to location errors.

  19. Incremental deformation: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasulea Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the customer requirements are in permanent changing and according with them the tendencies in the modern industry is to implement flexible manufacturing processes. In the last decades, metal forming gained attention of the researchers and considerable changes has occurred. Because for a small number of parts, the conventional metal forming processes are expensive and time-consuming in terms of designing and manufacturing preparation, the manufacturers and researchers became interested in flexible processes. One of the most investigated flexible processes in metal forming is incremental sheet forming (ISF. ISF is an advanced flexible manufacturing process which allows to manufacture complex 3D products without expensive dedicated tools. In most of the cases it is needed for an ISF process the following: a simple tool, a fixing device for sheet metal blank and a universal CNC machine. Using this process it can be manufactured axis-symmetric parts, usually using a CNC lathe but also complex asymmetrical parts using CNC milling machines, robots or dedicated equipment. This paper aim to present the current status of incremental sheet forming technologies in terms of process parameters and their influences, wall thickness distribution, springback effect, formability, surface quality and the current main research directions.

  20. Is Sensation Seeking a Stable Trait or Does It Change over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change…

  1. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  2. First Passage Time for Tempered Stable Process and Its Application to Perpetual American Option and Barrier Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Shin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we will discuss an approximation of the characteristic function of the first passage time for a Levy process using the martingale approach. The characteristic function of the first passage time of the tempered stable process is provided explicitly or by an indirect numerical method. This will be applied to the perpetual American option pricing and the barrier option pricing. Numerical illustrations are provided for the calibrated parameters using the market call and put prices.

  3. Stochastic resonance in a time-delayed mono-stable system with correlated multiplicative and additive white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yu-Rong

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the stochastic resonance for a time-delayed mono-stable system, driven by correlated multiplicative and additive white noise. It finds that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) varies non-monotonically with the delayed times. The SNR varies non-monotonically with the increase of the intensities of the multiplicative and additive noise, with the increase of the correlation strength between the two noises, as well as with the system parameter. (general)

  4. History Matters: Incremental Ontology Reasoning Using Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca Grau, Bernardo; Halaschek-Wiener, Christian; Kazakov, Yevgeny

    The development of ontologies involves continuous but relatively small modifications. Existing ontology reasoners, however, do not take advantage of the similarities between different versions of an ontology. In this paper, we propose a technique for incremental reasoning—that is, reasoning that reuses information obtained from previous versions of an ontology—based on the notion of a module. Our technique does not depend on a particular reasoning calculus and thus can be used in combination with any reasoner. We have applied our results to incremental classification of OWL DL ontologies and found significant improvement over regular classification time on a set of real-world ontologies.

  5. A Comparison of Priority-based and Incremental Real-Time Garbage Collectors in the Implementation of the Shadow Design Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-15

    running the real-time application we used in our previous study on IBM WebSphere Real Time. IBM WebSphere Real Time automatically sets Metronome , its...the experiment show that the modified code for the Shadow Design Pattern runs well under Metronome . 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 25 14. SUBJECT TERMS...includes the real-time garbage collector called the Metronome . Unlike the Sun RTGC, we cannot change the priority of the Metronome RTGC. Metronome is

  6. A time-frequency analysis method to obtain stable estimates of magnetotelluric response function based on Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    The time-frequency analysis method represents signal as a function of time and frequency, and it is considered a powerful tool for handling arbitrary non-stationary time series by using instantaneous frequency and instantaneous amplitude. It also provides a possible alternative to the analysis of the non-stationary magnetotelluric (MT) signal. Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a time-frequency analysis method is proposed to obtain stable estimates of the magnetotelluric response function. In contrast to conventional methods, the response function estimation is performed in the time-frequency domain using instantaneous spectra rather than in the frequency domain, which allows for imaging the response parameter content as a function of time and frequency. The theory of the method is presented and the mathematical model and calculation procedure, which are used to estimate response function based on HHT time-frequency spectrum, are discussed. To evaluate the results, response function estimates are compared with estimates from a standard MT data processing method based on the Fourier transform. All results show that apparent resistivities and phases, which are calculated from the HHT time-frequency method, are generally more stable and reliable than those determined from the simple Fourier analysis. The proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of the traditional Fourier methods, and the resulting parameter minimises the estimation bias caused by the non-stationary characteristics of the MT data.

  7. Stable long-time semiclassical description of zero-point energy in high-dimensional molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garashchuk, Sophya; Rassolov, Vitaly A

    2008-07-14

    Semiclassical implementation of the quantum trajectory formalism [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1181 (2004)] is further developed to give a stable long-time description of zero-point energy in anharmonic systems of high dimensionality. The method is based on a numerically cheap linearized quantum force approach; stabilizing terms compensating for the linearization errors are added into the time-evolution equations for the classical and nonclassical components of the momentum operator. The wave function normalization and energy are rigorously conserved. Numerical tests are performed for model systems of up to 40 degrees of freedom.

  8. Elevated total plasma-adiponectin is stable over time in young women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syk, M; Ramklint, M; Fredriksson, R; Ekselius, L; Cunningham, J L

    2017-03-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by dysregulated eating behaviour and present data suggest adipokines may regulate food intake. We investigated a possible association between BN and adipokine levels and hypothesized that plasma (P)-adiponectin would be elevated and P-leptin and P-leptin-adiponectin-ratio would be reduced in women with BN. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with a longitudinal arm for patients with BN. Plasma-adiponectin and leptin was measured in 148 female patients seeking psychiatric ambulatory care and 45 female controls. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with BN and the remaining with other affective and anxiety disorders. P-adiponectin and P-leptin levels were compared between patients with BN, patients without BN and controls. At follow-up 1-2years later, adipokines were reassessed in patients with BN and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire was used to assess symptom severity. P-adiponectin was elevated in patients with BN at baseline and at follow-up when compared to patients without BN and controls (P<0.004 and <0.008 respectively). The difference remained significant after controlling for body mass index. P-adiponectin was correlated to symptom severity at follow-up in patients with BN without morbid obesity (ρ=0.72, P<0.04). P-leptin-adiponectin-ratio was significantly lower in patients with BN compared to controls (P<0.04) and P-leptin non-significantly lower. Findings indicate a stable elevation of P-adiponectin in women with BN. P-adiponectin at follow-up correlates to eating disorder symptom severity in patients without morbid obesity, indicating that P-adiponectin should be further investigated as a possible potential prognostic biomarker for BN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. FEM Simulation of Incremental Shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosochowski, Andrzej; Olejnik, Lech

    2007-01-01

    A popular way of producing ultrafine grained metals on a laboratory scale is severe plastic deformation. This paper introduces a new severe plastic deformation process of incremental shear. A finite element method simulation is carried out for various tool geometries and process kinematics. It has been established that for the successful realisation of the process the inner radius of the channel as well as the feeding increment should be approximately 30% of the billet thickness. The angle at which the reciprocating die works the material can be 30 deg. . When compared to equal channel angular pressing, incremental shear shows basic similarities in the mode of material flow and a few technological advantages which make it an attractive alternative to the known severe plastic deformation processes. The most promising characteristic of incremental shear is the possibility of processing very long billets in a continuous way which makes the process more industrially relevant

  10. Explicit solution of the time domain volume integral equation using a stable predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed; Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan; Benson, Trevor; Sewell, Phillip D.; Vuković, Ana

    2012-01-01

    An explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain volume integral equation is presented. The proposed method achieves its stability by employing, at each time step, a corrector scheme, which updates/corrects fields computed by the explicit predictor scheme. The proposedmethod is computationally more efficient when compared to the existing filtering techniques used for the stabilization of explicit MOT schemes. Numerical results presented in this paper demonstrate that the proposed method maintains its stability even when applied to the analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions with electrically large structures meshed using approximately half a million discretization elements.

  11. Explicit solution of the time domain volume integral equation using a stable predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2012-11-01

    An explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain volume integral equation is presented. The proposed method achieves its stability by employing, at each time step, a corrector scheme, which updates/corrects fields computed by the explicit predictor scheme. The proposedmethod is computationally more efficient when compared to the existing filtering techniques used for the stabilization of explicit MOT schemes. Numerical results presented in this paper demonstrate that the proposed method maintains its stability even when applied to the analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions with electrically large structures meshed using approximately half a million discretization elements.

  12. Study on the simulation time increments for solar DHW heating systems; Taiyonetsu kyuto simulation ni okeru keisan jikan kankaku no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M; Udagawa, M [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Calculation time intervals effective in simulating solar DHW systems were discussed, taking into account water temperature in a heat storage tank and calorific power in supplied hot water. The discussion was given on a direct heat collecting system in which heat passes through a heat collector from the bottom of the heat storage tank and returns to the center of the tank, and an indirect heat collecting system which has a heat exchanger built inside the heat storage tank at its bottom. The calculation was performed with time intervals of one to sixty minutes and five to forty-five layer divisions. The following results were obtained: because the calorific power of the hot water supplied is underestimated in the calculation if the calorific power of one hot water supply is extremely large, the calculation time intervals must be reduced to 1 to 15 minutes; cumulative calorific power of the hot water supply was found to show little variation if the number of division is greater than fifteen; and the daily cumulative effective heat collection amount shows very little variation due to the calculation time intervals, but errors from the measured value have decreased as the smaller the number of layer division in the direct heat collecting system, and as the greater the number of division in the indirect heat collecting system. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. On a Stable and Consistent Finite Difference Scheme for a Time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJABS

    established time independent Schrodinger Wave Equation (SWE). To develop the stability criterion .... the rate at which signals in the numerical scheme travel will be faster than their real world counterparts and this unrealistic expectation leads ...

  14. Are genetic and environmental influences on job satisfaction stable over time? A three-wave longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Dong; Stanek, Kevin C; Zhang, Zhen; Ones, Deniz S; McGue, Matt

    2016-11-01

    Job satisfaction research has unfolded as an exemplary manifestation of the "person versus environment" debate in applied psychology. With the increasing recognition of the importance of time, it is informative to examine a question critical to the dispositional view of job satisfaction: Are genetic influences on job satisfaction stable across different time points? Drawing upon dispositional and situational perspectives on job satisfaction and recent research in developmental behavioral genetics, we examined whether the relative potency of genetic (i.e., the person) and environmental influences on job satisfaction changed over time in a 3-wave longitudinal twin study. Biometric behavioral genetics analyses showed that genetic influences accounted for 31.2% of the variance in job satisfaction measured at approximately Age 21, which was markedly greater than the 18.7% and 19.8% of variance explained by genetic factors at Age 25 and Age 30. Such genetic influences were mediated via positive affectivity and negative affectivity, but not via general mental ability. After partialing out genetic influences, environmental influences on job satisfaction were related to interpersonal conflict at work and occupational status, and these influences were relatively stable across the 3 time points. These results offer important implications for organizations and employees to better understand and implement practices to enhance job satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Time-Dependent Selection of an Optimal Set of Sources to Define a Stable Celestial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, Karine; Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Temporal statistical position stability is required for VLBI sources to define a stable Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and has been studied in many recent papers. This study analyzes the sources from the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) with the Allan variance, in addition to taking into account the apparent linear motions of the sources. Focusing on the 295 defining sources shows how they are a good compromise of different criteria, such as statistical stability and sky distribution, as well as having a sufficient number of sources, despite the fact that the most stable sources of the entire ICRF2 are mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the selection of a stable set is not unique: studying different solutions (GSF005a and AUG24 from GSFC and OPA from the Paris Observatory) over different time periods (1989.5 to 2009.5 and 1999.5 to 2009.5) leads to selections that can differ in up to 20% of the sources. Observing, recording, and network improvement are some of the causes, showing better stability for the CRF over the last decade than the last twenty years. But this may also be explained by the assumption of stationarity that is not necessarily right for some sources.

  16. It takes time to see the menu from the body: an experiment on stable isotope composition in freshwater crayfishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussila J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For many applications and ecological studies in which wild individuals are brought to laboratory it would be essential to know accurately how fast novel diet is reflected in composition of different tissues. To study the effects of two different diets on the stable isotope composition of freshwater crayfish muscle and hemolymph, we conducted a three month experiment on noble crayfish (Astacus astacus and signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus by feeding them sweet corn (Zea mays or Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras as novel food. During the experiment, the crayfish were given 0.4 g of selected food daily and the amount consumed was recorded. The samples for the stable isotope analyses were taken at the commencement of the experiment (initial control and three times (hemolymph or twice (muscle tissue during the experiment. We found that stable isotope changes can be similarly, and rather slowly, detected from muscle tissue and hemolymph under studied conditions. Hemolymph sampling, being non-lethal, can be recommended as a practical sampling method. Our results confirm earlier reports according to which diet changes reflect to crayfish isotope ratios slowly implying that isotope ratios indicate long-term diet.

  17. Generating Li–Yorke chaos in a stable continuous-time T–S fuzzy model via time-delay feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu-Ye, Sun; Hua-Guang, Zhang; Yan, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the chaotification problem of a stable continuous-time T–S fuzzy system. A simple nonlinear state time-delay feedback controller is designed by parallel distributed compensation technique. Then, the asymptotically approximate relationship between the controlled continuous-time T–S fuzzy system with time-delay and a discrete-time T–S fuzzy system is established. Based on the discrete-time T–S fuzzy system, it proves that the chaos in the discrete-time T–S fuzzy system satisfies the Li–Yorke definition by choosing appropriate controller parameters via the revised Marotto theorem. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed chaotic anticontrol method is verified by a practical example. (general)

  18. Self-similar anomalous diffusion and Levy-stable laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic principles for constructing the process of anomalous diffusion are considered, and corresponding models of random processes are reviewed. The self-similarity and the independent-increments principles are used to extend the notion of diffusion process to the class of Levy-stable processes. Replacing the independent-increments principle with the renewal principle allows us to take the next step in generalizing the notion of diffusion, which results in fractional-order partial space-time differential equations of diffusion. Fundamental solutions to these equations are represented in terms of stable laws, and their relationship to the fractality and memory of the medium is discussed. A new class of distributions, called fractional stable distributions, is introduced. (reviews of topical problems)

  19. Implementing Kernel Methods Incrementally by Incremental Nonlinear Projection Trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Nojun

    2016-05-20

    Recently, the nonlinear projection trick (NPT) was introduced enabling direct computation of coordinates of samples in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. With NPT, any machine learning algorithm can be extended to a kernel version without relying on the so called kernel trick. However, NPT is inherently difficult to be implemented incrementally because an ever increasing kernel matrix should be treated as additional training samples are introduced. In this paper, an incremental version of the NPT (INPT) is proposed based on the observation that the centerization step in NPT is unnecessary. Because the proposed INPT does not change the coordinates of the old data, the coordinates obtained by INPT can directly be used in any incremental methods to implement a kernel version of the incremental methods. The effectiveness of the INPT is shown by applying it to implement incremental versions of kernel methods such as, kernel singular value decomposition, kernel principal component analysis, and kernel discriminant analysis which are utilized for problems of kernel matrix reconstruction, letter classification, and face image retrieval, respectively.

  20. Design of methodology for incremental compiler construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Haluza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with possibilities of the incremental compiler construction. It represents the compiler construction possibilities for languages with a fixed set of lexical units and for languages with a variable set of lexical units, too. The methodology design for the incremental compiler construction is based on the known algorithms for standard compiler construction and derived for both groups of languages. Under the group of languages with a fixed set of lexical units there belong languages, where each lexical unit has its constant meaning, e.g., common programming languages. For this group of languages the paper tries to solve the problem of the incremental semantic analysis, which is based on incremental parsing. In the group of languages with a variable set of lexical units (e.g., professional typographic system TEX, it is possible to change arbitrarily the meaning of each character on the input file at any time during processing. The change takes effect immediately and its validity can be somehow limited or is given by the end of the input. For this group of languages this paper tries to solve the problem case when we use macros temporarily changing the category of arbitrary characters.

  1. Efficient Incremental Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Many data-intensive applications require real-time analytics over streaming data. In a growing number of domains -- sensor network monitoring, social web applications, clickstream analysis, high-frequency algorithmic trading, and fraud detections to name a few -- applications continuously monitor stream events to promptly react to certain data conditions. These applications demand responsive analytics even when faced with high volume and velocity of incoming changes, large numbers of users, a...

  2. Statistics of wind direction and its increments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorn, Eric van; Dhruva, Brindesh; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Cassella, Victor

    2000-01-01

    We study some elementary statistics of wind direction fluctuations in the atmosphere for a wide range of time scales (10 -4 sec to 1 h), and in both vertical and horizontal planes. In the plane parallel to the ground surface, the direction time series consists of two parts: a constant drift due to large weather systems moving with the mean wind speed, and fluctuations about this drift. The statistics of the direction fluctuations show a rough similarity to Brownian motion but depend, in detail, on the wind speed. This dependence manifests itself quite clearly in the statistics of wind-direction increments over various intervals of time. These increments are intermittent during periods of low wind speeds but Gaussian-like during periods of high wind speeds. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  3. Globally asymptotically stable analysis in a discrete time eco-epidemiological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zengyun; Teng, Zhidong; Zhang, Tailei; Zhou, Qiming; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamical behaviors of a discrete time eco-epidemiological system are discussed. • Global asymptotical stability of this system is obtained by an iteration scheme which can be expended to general dimensional discrete system. • More complex dynamical behaviors are obtained by numerical simulations. - Abstract: In this study, the dynamical behaviors of a discrete time eco-epidemiological system are discussed. The local stability, bifurcation and chaos are obtained. Moreover, the global asymptotical stability of this system is explored by an iteration scheme. The numerical simulations illustrate the theoretical results and exhibit the complex dynamical behaviors such as flip bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation and chaotic dynamical behaviors. Our main results provide an efficient method to analyze the global asymptotical stability for general three dimensional discrete systems.

  4. Unconditionally Energy Stable Implicit Time Integration: Application to Multibody System Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shanshin; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Hansen, John Michael

    1999-01-01

    of ordinary diffferential equations is employed to avoid the instabilities associated with the direct integrations of differential-algebraic equations. To extend the unconditional stability of the implicit Newmark method to nonlinear dynamic systems, a discrete energy balance is enforced. This constraint......Advances in computer hardware and improved algorithms for multibody dynamics over the past decade have generated widespread interest in real-time simulations of multibody mechanics systems. At the heart of the widely used algorithms for multibody dynamics are a choice of coordinates which define...... the kinmatics of the system, and a choice of time integrations algorithms. The current approach uses a non-dissipative implict Newmark method to integrate the equations of motion defined in terms of the independent joint coordinates of the system. The reduction of the equations of motion to a minimal set...

  5. Marginally Stable Triangular Recurrent Neural Network Architecture for Time Series Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Seshadri; Sivakumar, Shyamala

    2017-09-25

    This paper introduces a discrete-time recurrent neural network architecture using triangular feedback weight matrices that allows a simplified approach to ensuring network and training stability. The triangular structure of the weight matrices is exploited to readily ensure that the eigenvalues of the feedback weight matrix represented by the block diagonal elements lie on the unit circle in the complex z-plane by updating these weights based on the differential of the angular error variable. Such placement of the eigenvalues together with the extended close interaction between state variables facilitated by the nondiagonal triangular elements, enhances the learning ability of the proposed architecture. Simulation results show that the proposed architecture is highly effective in time-series prediction tasks associated with nonlinear and chaotic dynamic systems with underlying oscillatory modes. This modular architecture with dual upper and lower triangular feedback weight matrices mimics fully recurrent network architectures, while maintaining learning stability with a simplified training process. While training, the block-diagonal weights (hence the eigenvalues) of the dual triangular matrices are constrained to the same values during weight updates aimed at minimizing the possibility of overfitting. The dual triangular architecture also exploits the benefit of parsing the input and selectively applying the parsed inputs to the two subnetworks to facilitate enhanced learning performance.

  6. Using stable isotopes to estimate and compare mean residence times in contrasting geologic catchments (Attert River, NW Luxembourg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, N.; Fenicia, F.; Frentress, J.; Wrede, S.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, stable isotopes have been increasingly used to characterize important aspects of catchment hydrological functioning, such as water storage dynamics, flow pathways and water sources. These characteristics are often synthesized by the Mean Residence Time (MRT), which is a simple catchment descriptor that employ the relation of distinct stable isotopic signatures in the rainfall input and streamflow output of a catchment that are significantly dampened through sub-surface propagation. In this preliminary study, MRT was estimated in the Attert River catchment (NW Luxembourg), where previous studies have shown that lithology exerts a major control on runoff generation. The Attert catchment lies at the transition zone of contrasting bedrock lithology: the Northern part is characterized by Devonian schist of the Ardennes massif, while sedimentary deposits of sandstone and marls dominate in the south of the catchment. As a consequence of differing lithologic characteristics, hydrological processes change across scales. The schistose catchments exhibit a delayed shallow groundwater component, sandstone catchments have slow-responding year-round groundwater component, whereas flashy runoff regimes prevails in the marly catchments. Under these circumstances, the MRTs are expected to vary significantly according to lithology, and provide additional understanding in internal catchment processes and their scale dependencies. In order to test this, bi-weekly monitoring of rainfall and discharge stable water isotope composition (oxygen-18 and deuterium) has been carried out since 2007 in 10 nested sub-catchments ranging in size from 0.4 to 247 km2 in the Attert catchment. MRT was estimated using different lumped convolution integral models and sine wave functions with varying transit times distributions (TTDs). TTDs were evaluated through calibration. Further research efforts will deal with the application of conceptual models to simulate and compare TTD, using

  7. Long-term stable time integration scheme for dynamic analysis of planar geometrically exact Timoshenko beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Long; Sansour, Carlo; Hjiaj, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an energy-momentum method for geometrically exact Timoshenko-type beam is proposed. The classical time integration schemes in dynamics are known to exhibit instability in the non-linear regime. The so-called Timoshenko-type beam with the use of rotational degree of freedom leads to simpler strain relations and simpler expressions of the inertial terms as compared to the well known Bernoulli-type model. The treatment of the Bernoulli-model has been recently addressed by the authors. In this present work, we extend our approach of using the strain rates to define the strain fields to in-plane geometrically exact Timoshenko-type beams. The large rotational degrees of freedom are exactly computed. The well-known enhanced strain method is used to avoid locking phenomena. Conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum is proved formally and numerically. The excellent performance of the formulation will be demonstrated through a range of examples.

  8. A stable computational scheme for stiff time-dependent constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.F.; Delorenzi, H.G.; Miller, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Viscoplasticity and creep type constitutive equations are increasingly being employed in finite element codes for evaluating the deformation of high temperature structural members. These constitutive equations frequently exhibit stiff regimes which makes an analytical assessment of the structure very costly. A computational scheme for handling deformation in stiff regimes is proposed in this paper. By the finite element discretization, the governing partial differential equations in the spatial (x) and time (t) variables are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations in the independent variable t. The constitutive equations are expanded in a Taylor's series about selected values of t. The resulting system of differential equations are then integrated by an implicit scheme which employs a predictor technique to initiate the Newton-Raphson procedure. To examine the stability and accuracy of the computational scheme, a series of calculations were carried out for uniaxial specimens and thick wall tubes subjected to mechanical and thermal loading. (Auth.)

  9. Simultaneous transmission of accurate time, stable frequency, data, and sensor system over one fiber with ITU 100 GHz grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Tomas; Munster, Petr; Vojtech, Josef; Velc, Radek; Oujezsky, Vaclav

    2018-01-01

    Optical fiber is the most used medium for current telecommunication networks. Besides data transmissions, special advanced applications like accurate time or stable frequency transmissions are more common, especially in research and education networks. On the other hand, new applications like distributed sensing are in ISP's interest because e.g. such sensing allows new service: protection of fiber infrastructure. Transmission of all applications in a single fiber can be very cost efficient but it is necessary to evaluate possible interaction before real application and deploying the service, especially if standard 100 GHz grid is considered. We performed laboratory measurement of simultaneous transmission of 100 G data based on DP-QPSK modulation format, accurate time, stable frequency and sensing system based on phase sensitive OTDR through two types of optical fibers, G.655 and G.653. These fibers are less common than G.652 fiber but thanks to their slightly higher nonlinear character, there are suitable for simulation of the worst case which can arise in a real network.

  10. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses...

  11. Incremental short daily home hemodialysis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M; Mullangi, Surekha; Hwang, Seungyoung; Shafi, Tariq

    2017-07-05

    Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients' residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an incremental home hemodialysis regimen. The biochemical parameters of all patients remained stable on the incremental hemodialysis regimen and they consistently achieved standard Kt/Vurea targets. Of the two patients with follow-up >6 months, residual kidney function was preserved for ≥2 years. Importantly, the patients were able to transition to home hemodialysis without automatically requiring 5 sessions per week at the outset and gradually increased the number of treatments and/or dialysate volume as the residual kidney function declined. An incremental home hemodialysis regimen can be safely prescribed and may improve acceptability of home hemodialysis. Reducing hemodialysis frequency by even one treatment per week can reduce the number of fistula or graft cannulations or catheter connections by >100 per year, an important consideration for patient well-being, access longevity, and access-related infections. The incremental hemodialysis approach, supported by national guidelines, can be considered for all home hemodialysis patients with residual kidney function.

  12. Reduced α-stable dynamics for multiple time scale systems forced with correlated additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William F.; Kuske, Rachel A.; Monahan, Adam H.

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic averaging problems with Gaussian forcing have been the subject of numerous studies, but far less attention has been paid to problems with infinite-variance stochastic forcing, such as an α-stable noise process. It has been shown that simple linear systems driven by correlated additive and multiplicative (CAM) Gaussian noise, which emerge in the context of reduced atmosphere and ocean dynamics, have infinite variance in certain parameter regimes. In this study, we consider the stochastic averaging of systems where a linear CAM noise process in the infinite variance parameter regime drives a comparatively slow process. We use (semi)-analytical approximations combined with numerical illustrations to compare the averaged process to one that is forced by a white α-stable process, demonstrating consistent properties in the case of large time-scale separation. We identify the conditions required for the fast linear CAM process to have such an influence in driving a slower process and then derive an (effectively) equivalent fast, infinite-variance process for which an existing stochastic averaging approximation is readily applied. The results are illustrated using numerical simulations of a set of example systems.

  13. Incremental Trust in Grid Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkløv, Michael Hvalsøe; Sharp, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative simulation study of some incremental trust and reputation algorithms for handling behavioural trust in large distributed systems. Two types of reputation algorithm (based on discrete and Bayesian evaluation of ratings) and two ways of combining direct trust and ...... of Grid computing systems....

  14. Convergent systems vs. incremental stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rüffer, B.S.; Wouw, van de N.; Mueller, M.

    2013-01-01

    Two similar stability notions are considered; one is the long established notion of convergent systems, the other is the younger notion of incremental stability. Both notions require that any two solutions of a system converge to each other. Yet these stability concepts are different, in the sense

  15. Incremental Tensor Principal Component Analysis for Handwritten Digit Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the shortcomings of traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms, incremental tensor principal component analysis (ITPCA based on updated-SVD technique algorithm is proposed in this paper. This paper proves the relationship between PCA, 2DPCA, MPCA, and the graph embedding framework theoretically and derives the incremental learning procedure to add single sample and multiple samples in detail. The experiments on handwritten digit recognition have demonstrated that ITPCA has achieved better recognition performance than that of vector-based principal component analysis (PCA, incremental principal component analysis (IPCA, and multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA algorithms. At the same time, ITPCA also has lower time and space complexity.

  16. Determination of groundwater travel time in a karst aquifer by stable water isotopes, Tanour and Rasoun spring (Jordan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Wiegand, Bettina; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Key words: karst aquifers, stable isotopes, water travel time, Jordan. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs are located about 75 kilometers northwest of the city of Amman in Jordan. The aquifer is composed of Upper Cretaceous limestone that exhibits a moderate to high degree of karstification. The two springs represent the main drinking water resources for the surrounding villages. The yearly water production is about 1,135,000 m3/yr for Tanour spring and 125,350 m3/yr for Rasoun spring (MWI 2015). Due to contamination from microbiological pollution (leakage of wastewater from septic tanks) or infiltration of wastewater from local olive presses, drinking water supply from the two springs is frequently interrupted. From November 2014 through March 2015, spring water samples were collected from Tanour and Rasoun spring for the analysis of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes to investigate spring response to precipitation and snowmelt events. Both Tanour and Rasoun spring show a fast response to precipitation and snowmelt events, implying short water travel times. Based on the variation of δ 18O and δ 2H in spring discharge, the average maximum water travel time is in the order of 8 days for Tanour spring and 6 days for Rasoun spring. Due to fast water travel times, Tanour and Rasoun spring can be considered as highly vulnerable to pollutants. δ 18O and δ 2H values of Tanour and Rasoun springs parallel other monitored parameter like water temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity and spring discharge. In addition, a high turbidity peak was monitored in Tanour spring during a pollution event from olive mills wastewater (Hamdan et al., 2016; Hamdan, in prep.). The fast response in both Tanour and Rasoun springs to precipitation events requires monitoring potential sources of pollution within the catchment area. References: MWI (Ministry of Water and Irrigation) (2015) Monthly Production values for Tanour and Rasoun Springs for the time period between 1996 and 2014

  17. A maximal incremental effort alters tear osmolarity depending on the fitness level in military helicopter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Madinabeitia, Iker; Masiulis, Nerijus; Cárdenas, David

    2017-10-01

    Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill. A tear sample was collected before and after physical effort to determine the exercise-induced changes on Tosm. The Bayesian statistical analysis demonstrated that Tosm significantly increased from 303.72 ± 6.76 to 310.56 ± 8.80 mmol/L after performance of a maximal incremental test. However, while the untrained group showed an acute Tosm rise (12.33 mmol/L of increment), the trained group experienced a stable Tosm physical effort (1.45 mmol/L). There was a significant positive linear association between fat indices and Tosm changes (correlation coefficients [r] range: 0.77-0.89), whereas the Tosm changes displayed a negative relationship with the cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2 max; r = -0.75) and performance parameters (r = -0.75 for velocity, and r = -0.67 for time to exhaustion). The findings from this study provide evidence that fitness level is a major determinant of Tosm response to maximal incremental physical effort, showing a fairly linear association with several indices related to fitness level. High fitness level seems to be beneficial to avoid Tosm changes as consequence of intense exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Shakedown analysis by finite element incremental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, A.; Kleiber, M.

    1979-01-01

    It is a common occurence in many practical problems that external loads are variable and the exact time-dependent history of loading is unknown. Instead of it load is characterized by a given loading domain: a convex polyhedron in the n-dimensional space of load parameters. The problem is then to check whether a structure shakes down, i.e. responds elastically after a few elasto-plastic cycles, or not to a variable loading as defined above. Such check can be performed by an incremental procedure. One should reproduce incrementally a simple cyclic process which consists of proportional load paths that connect the origin of the load space with the corners of the loading domain. It was proved that if a structure shakes down to such loading history then it is able to adopt itself to an arbitrary load path contained in the loading domain. The main advantage of such approach is the possibility to use existing incremental finite-element computer codes. (orig.)

  19. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of ⁴He nanodroplets on surfaces: ⁴He/graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara-Castells, María Pilar; Stoll, Hermann; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Causà, Mauro; Voloshina, Elena; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O; Pi, Martí

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He-surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on (4)He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of (4)He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the (4)He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  20. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of {sup 4}He nanodroplets on surfaces: {sup 4}He/graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Castells, María Pilar de, E-mail: Pilar.deLara.Castells@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental (C.S.I.C.), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Stoll, Hermann [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Civalleri, Bartolomeo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS, Universitá di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Causà, Mauro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e delle Produzioni Industriali, Universiá di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Voloshina, Elena [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Chemie, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Pi, Martí [Department ECM, Facultat de Física, and IN" 2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He–surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on {sup 4}He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of {sup 4}He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the {sup 4}He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  1. A Syntactic-Semantic Approach to Incremental Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bianculli, Domenico; Filieri, Antonio; Ghezzi, Carlo; Mandrioli, Dino

    2013-01-01

    Software verification of evolving systems is challenging mainstream methodologies and tools. Formal verification techniques often conflict with the time constraints imposed by change management practices for evolving systems. Since changes in these systems are often local to restricted parts, an incremental verification approach could be beneficial. This paper introduces SiDECAR, a general framework for the definition of verification procedures, which are made incremental by the framework...

  2. Are clusters of dietary patterns and cluster membership stable over time? Results of a longitudinal cluster analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walthouwer, Michel Jean Louis; Oenema, Anke; Soetens, Katja; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2014-11-01

    Developing nutrition education interventions based on clusters of dietary patterns can only be done adequately when it is clear if distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived and reproduced over time, if cluster membership is stable, and if it is predictable which type of people belong to a certain cluster. Hence, this study aimed to: (1) identify clusters of dietary patterns among Dutch adults, (2) test the reproducibility of these clusters and stability of cluster membership over time, and (3) identify sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. This study had a longitudinal design with online measurements at baseline (N=483) and 6 months follow-up (N=379). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed, followed by a K-means cluster analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. At baseline and follow-up, a comparable three-cluster solution was derived, distinguishing a healthy, moderately healthy, and unhealthy dietary pattern. Male and lower educated participants were significantly more likely to have a less healthy dietary pattern. Further, 251 (66.2%) participants remained in the same cluster, 45 (11.9%) participants changed to an unhealthier cluster, and 83 (21.9%) participants shifted to a healthier cluster. Men and people living alone were significantly more likely to shift toward a less healthy dietary pattern. Distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived. Yet, cluster membership is unstable and only few sociodemographic factors were associated with cluster membership and cluster transition. These findings imply that clusters based on dietary intake may not be suitable as a basis for nutrition education interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-correlation of instantaneous phase increments in pressure-flow fluctuations: Applications to cerebral autoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Hu, Kun; Stanley, H. Eugene; Novak, Vera; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the relationship between the blood flow velocities (BFV) in the middle cerebral arteries and beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) recorded from a finger in healthy and post-stroke subjects during the quasisteady state after perturbation for four different physiologic conditions: supine rest, head-up tilt, hyperventilation, and CO2 rebreathing in upright position. To evaluate whether instantaneous BP changes in the steady state are coupled with instantaneous changes in the BFV, we compare dynamical patterns in the instantaneous phases of these signals, obtained from the Hilbert transform, as a function of time. We find that in post-stroke subjects the instantaneous phase increments of BP and BFV exhibit well-pronounced patterns that remain stable in time for all four physiologic conditions, while in healthy subjects these patterns are different, less pronounced, and more variable. We propose an approach based on the cross-correlation of the instantaneous phase increments to quantify the coupling between BP and BFV signals. We find that the maximum correlation strength is different for the two groups and for the different conditions. For healthy subjects the amplitude of the cross-correlation between the instantaneous phase increments of BP and BFV is small and attenuates within 3-5 heartbeats. In contrast, for post-stroke subjects, this amplitude is significantly larger and cross-correlations persist up to 20 heartbeats. Further, we show that the instantaneous phase increments of BP and BFV are cross-correlated even within a single heartbeat cycle. We compare the results of our approach with three complementary methods: direct BP-BFV cross-correlation, transfer function analysis, and phase synchronization analysis. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of cerebral vascular control in healthy subjects, suggesting that this control mechanism may involve rapid adjustments (within a heartbeat) of the cerebral vessels, so that BFV remains steady in

  4. Unmanned Maritime Systems Incremental Acquisition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH 5. FUNDING...Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH Thomas Driscoll, Lieutenant...UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH ABSTRACT The purpose of this MBA report is to explore and understand the issues

  5. Microbial communities of the Lemon Creek Glacier show subtle structural variation yet stable phylogenetic composition over space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Springer Sheik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are geologically important yet transient ecosystems that support diverse, biogeochemically significant microbial communities. During the melt season glaciers undergo dramatic physical, geochemical and biological changes that exert great influence on downstream biogeochemical cycles. Thus, we sought to understand the temporal melt-season dynamics of microbial communities and associated geochemistry at the terminus of Lemon Creek Glacier (LCG in coastal southern Alaska. Due to late season snowfall, sampling of LCG occurred in three interconnected areas: proglacial Lake Thomas, the lower glacial outflow stream and the glacier’s terminus. LCG associated microbial communities were phylogenetically diverse and varied by sampling location. However, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated communities at all sampling locations. Strict anaerobic groups such as methanogens, SR1, and OP11 were also recovered from glacier outflows, indicating anoxic conditions in at least some portions of the LCG subglacial environment. Microbial community structure was significantly correlated with sampling location and sodium concentrations. Microbial communities sampled from terminus outflow waters exhibited day-to-day fluctuation in taxonomy and phylogenetic similarity. However, these communities were not significantly different from randomly constructed communities from all three sites. These results indicate that glacial outflows share a large proportion of phylogenetic overlap with downstream environments and that the observed significant shifts in community structure are driven by changes in relative abundance of different taxa, and not complete restructuring of communities. We conclude that LCG glacial discharge hosts a diverse and relatively stable microbiome that shifts at fine taxonomic scales in response to geochemistry and likely water residence time.

  6. Stable isotope time-series in mammalian teeth: In situ δ18O from the innermost enamel layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Scott A.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chritz, Kendra L.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in mammalian tooth enamel are commonly used to understand the diets and environments of modern and fossil animals. Isotope variation during the period of enamel formation can be recovered by intra-tooth microsampling along the direction of growth. However, conventional sampling of the enamel surface provides highly time-averaged records in part due to amelogenesis. We use backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope (BSE-SEM) to evaluate enamel mineralization in developing teeth from one rodent and two ungulates. Gray levels from BSE-SEM images suggest that the innermost enamel layer, <20 μm from the enamel-dentine junction, is highly mineralized early in enamel maturation and therefore may record a less attenuated isotopic signal than other layers. We sampled the right maxillary incisor from a woodrat subjected to an experimentally induced water-switch during the period of tooth development, and demonstrate that secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) can be used to obtain δ18O values with 4-5-μm spots from mammalian tooth enamel. We also demonstrate that SIMS can be used to discretely sample the innermost enamel layer, which is too narrow for conventional microdrilling or laser ablation. An abrupt δ18O switch of 16.0‰ was captured in breath CO2, a proxy for body water, while a laser ablation enamel surface intra-tooth profile of the left incisor captured a δ18O range of 12.1‰. The innermost enamel profile captured a δ18O range of 15.7‰, which approaches the full magnitude of δ18O variation in the input signal. This approach will likely be most beneficial in taxa such as large mammalian herbivores, whose teeth are characterized by less rapid mineralization and therefore greater attenuation of the enamel isotope signal.

  7. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave...... or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  8. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  9. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Zachary O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilico, Justin Derrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davis, Warren Leon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dixon, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Brian S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Nathaniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wendt, Jeremy Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  10. Using water stable isotopes to assess evaporation and water residence time of lakes in EPA’s National Lakes Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes of water (18O and 2H) can be very useful in large-scale monitoring programs because water samples are easy to collect and water isotopes integrate information about basic hydrological processes such as evaporation as a percentage of inflow (E/I), w...

  11. Incremental principal component pursuit for video background modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez-Valderrama, Paul A.; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-03-14

    An incremental Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) algorithm for video background modeling that is able to process one frame at a time while adapting to changes in background, with a computational complexity that allows for real-time processing, having a low memory footprint and is robust to translational and rotational jitter.

  12. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  13. Incremental Query Rewriting with Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazanov, Alexandre; Aragão, Marcelo A. T.

    We address the problem of semantic querying of relational databases (RDB) modulo knowledge bases using very expressive knowledge representation formalisms, such as full first-order logic or its various fragments. We propose to use a resolution-based first-order logic (FOL) reasoner for computing schematic answers to deductive queries, with the subsequent translation of these schematic answers to SQL queries which are evaluated using a conventional relational DBMS. We call our method incremental query rewriting, because an original semantic query is rewritten into a (potentially infinite) series of SQL queries. In this chapter, we outline the main idea of our technique - using abstractions of databases and constrained clauses for deriving schematic answers, and provide completeness and soundness proofs to justify the applicability of this technique to the case of resolution for FOL without equality. The proposed method can be directly used with regular RDBs, including legacy databases. Moreover, we propose it as a potential basis for an efficient Web-scale semantic search technology.

  14. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  15. Time-Resolved Three-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Patients with Chronic Expanding and Stable Aortic Dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To prospectively evaluate our hypothesis that three-dimensional time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (TR-MRA is able to detect hemodynamic alterations in patients with chronic expanding aortic dissection compared to stable aortic dissections. Materials and Methods. 20 patients with chronic or residual aortic dissection in the descending aorta and patent false lumen underwent TR-MRA of the aorta at 1.5 T and repeated follow-up imaging (mean follow-up 5.4 years. 7 patients showed chronic aortic expansion and 13 patients had stable aortic diameters. Regions of interest were placed in the nondissected ascending aorta and the false lumen of the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm (FL-diaphragm level resulting in respective time-intensity curves. Results. For the FL-diaphragm level, time-to-peak intensity and full width at half maximum were significantly shorter in the expansion group compared to the stable group (p=0.027 and p=0.003, and upward and downward slopes of time-intensity curves were significantly steeper (p=0.015 and p=0.005. The delay of peak intensity in the FL-diaphragm level compared to the nondissected ascending aorta was significantly shorter in the expansion group compared to the stable group (p=0.01. Conclusions. 3D TR-MRA detects significant alterations of hemodynamics within the patent false lumen of chronic expanding aortic dissections compared to stable aortic dissections.

  16. Support vector machine incremental learning triggered by wrongly predicted samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting-long; Guan, Qiu; Wu, Yi-rong

    2018-05-01

    According to the classic Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) theorem, at every step of incremental support vector machine (SVM) learning, the newly adding sample which violates the KKT conditions will be a new support vector (SV) and migrate the old samples between SV set and non-support vector (NSV) set, and at the same time the learning model should be updated based on the SVs. However, it is not exactly clear at this moment that which of the old samples would change between SVs and NSVs. Additionally, the learning model will be unnecessarily updated, which will not greatly increase its accuracy but decrease the training speed. Therefore, how to choose the new SVs from old sets during the incremental stages and when to process incremental steps will greatly influence the accuracy and efficiency of incremental SVM learning. In this work, a new algorithm is proposed to select candidate SVs and use the wrongly predicted sample to trigger the incremental processing simultaneously. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve good performance with high efficiency, high speed and good accuracy.

  17. Comparison of different incremental analysis update schemes in a realistic assimilation system with Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y.; Barth, A.; Beckers, J. M.; Brankart, J. M.; Brasseur, P.; Candille, G.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, three incremental analysis update schemes (IAU 0, IAU 50 and IAU 100) are compared in the same assimilation experiments with a realistic eddy permitting primitive equation model of the North Atlantic Ocean using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The difference between the three IAU schemes lies on the position of the increment update window. The relevance of each IAU scheme is evaluated through analyses on both thermohaline and dynamical variables. The validation of the assimilation results is performed according to both deterministic and probabilistic metrics against different sources of observations. For deterministic validation, the ensemble mean and the ensemble spread are compared to the observations. For probabilistic validation, the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) is used to evaluate the ensemble forecast system according to reliability and resolution. The reliability is further decomposed into bias and dispersion by the reduced centred random variable (RCRV) score. The obtained results show that 1) the IAU 50 scheme has the same performance as the IAU 100 scheme 2) the IAU 50/100 schemes outperform the IAU 0 scheme in error covariance propagation for thermohaline variables in relatively stable region, while the IAU 0 scheme outperforms the IAU 50/100 schemes in dynamical variables estimation in dynamically active region 3) in case with sufficient number of observations and good error specification, the impact of IAU schemes is negligible. The differences between the IAU 0 scheme and the IAU 50/100 schemes are mainly due to different model integration time and different instability (density inversion, large vertical velocity, etc.) induced by the increment update. The longer model integration time with the IAU 50/100 schemes, especially the free model integration, on one hand, allows for better re-establishment of the equilibrium model state, on the other hand, smooths the strong gradients in dynamically active region.

  18. Some theoretical aspects of capacity increment in gaseous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, J. H.; Guais, J. C.; Lamorlette, G.

    1975-09-01

    Facing to the sharply growing needs of enrichment services, the problem of implementing new capacities must be included in an optimized scheme spread out in time. In this paper the alternative solutions will be studied first for an unique increment decision, and then in an optimum schedule. The limits of the analysis will be discussed.

  19. Variance-optimal hedging for processes with stationary independent increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubalek, Friedrich; Kallsen, J.; Krawczyk, L.

    We determine the variance-optimal hedge when the logarithm of the underlying price follows a process with stationary independent increments in discrete or continuous time. Although the general solution to this problem is known as backward recursion or backward stochastic differential equation, we...

  20. Minimizing System Modification in an Incremental Design Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications, aiming at minimizing the system modification cost. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing sys-tem running a set of applications. We...

  1. Conservation of wildlife populations: factoring in incremental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Abbie; Komers, Petr E

    2017-06-01

    Progressive anthropogenic disturbance can alter ecosystem organization potentially causing shifts from one stable state to another. This potential for ecosystem shifts must be considered when establishing targets and objectives for conservation. We ask whether a predator-prey system response to incremental anthropogenic disturbance might shift along a disturbance gradient and, if it does, whether any disturbance thresholds are evident for this system. Development of linear corridors in forested areas increases wolf predation effectiveness, while high density of development provides a safe-haven for their prey. If wolves limit moose population growth, then wolves and moose should respond inversely to land cover disturbance. Using general linear model analysis, we test how the rate of change in moose ( Alces alces ) density and wolf ( Canis lupus ) harvest density are influenced by the rate of change in land cover and proportion of land cover disturbed within a 300,000 km 2 area in the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Using logistic regression, we test how the direction of change in moose density is influenced by measures of land cover change. In response to incremental land cover disturbance, moose declines occurred where 43% of land cover was disturbed and wolf density declined. Wolves and moose appeared to respond inversely to incremental disturbance with the balance between moose decline and wolf increase shifting at about 43% of land cover disturbed. Conservation decisions require quantification of disturbance rates and their relationships to predator-prey systems because ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance shift across disturbance gradients.

  2. Motion-Induced Blindness Using Increments and Decrements of Luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Wm Wren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Motion-induced blindness describes the disappearance of stationary elements of a scene when other, perhaps non-overlapping, elements of the scene are in motion. We measured the effects of increment (200.0 cd/m2 and decrement targets (15.0 cd/m2 and masks presented on a grey background (108.0 cd/m2, tapping into putative ON- and OFF-channels, on the rate of target disappearance psychophysically. We presented two-frame motion, which has coherent motion energy, and dynamic Glass patterns and dynamic anti-Glass patterns, which do not have coherent motion energy. Using the method of constant stimuli, participants viewed stimuli of varying durations (3.1 s, 4.6 s, 7.0 s, 11 s, or 16 s in a given trial and then indicated whether or not the targets vanished during that trial. Psychometric function midpoints were used to define absolute threshold mask duration for the disappearance of the target. 95% confidence intervals for threshold disappearance times were estimated using a bootstrap technique for each of the participants across two experiments. Decrement masks were more effective than increment masks with increment targets. Increment targets were easier to mask than decrement targets. Distinct mask pattern types had no effect, suggesting that perceived coherence contributes to the effectiveness of the mask. The ON/OFF dichotomy clearly carries its influence to the level of perceived motion coherence. Further, the asymmetry in the effects of increment and decrement masks on increment and decrement targets might lead one to speculate that they reflect the ‘importance’ of detecting decrements in the environment.

  3. Estimation of arterial arrival time and cerebral blood flow from QUASAR arterial spin labeling using stable spline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellaro, Marco; Peruzzo, Denis; Mehndiratta, Amit; Pillonetto, Gianluigi; Petersen, Esben Thade; Golay, Xavier; Chappell, Michael A; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2015-12-01

    QUASAR arterial spin labeling (ASL) permits the application of deconvolution approaches for the absolute quantification of cerebral perfusion. Currently, oscillation index regularized singular value decomposition (oSVD) combined with edge-detection (ED) is the most commonly used method. Its major drawbacks are nonphysiological oscillations in the impulse response function and underestimation of perfusion. The aim of this work is to introduce a novel method to overcome these limitations. A system identification method, stable spline (SS), was extended to address ASL peculiarities such as the delay in arrival of the arterial blood in the tissue. The proposed framework was compared with oSVD + ED in both simulated and real data. SS was used to investigate the validity of using a voxel-wise tissue T1 value instead of using a single global value (of blood T1 ). SS outperformed oSVD + ED in 79.9% of simulations. When applied to real data, SS exhibited a physiologically realistic range for perfusion and a higher mean value with respect to oSVD + ED (55.5 ± 9.5 SS, 34.9 ± 5.2 oSVD + ED mL/100 g/min). SS can represent an alternative to oSVD + ED for the quantification of QUASAR ASL data. Analysis of the retrieved impulse response function revealed that using a voxel wise tissue T1 might be suboptimal. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A comparative study of velocity increment generation between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Norilmi Amilia, E-mail: aenorilmi@usm.my [School of Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    The motorized momentum exchange tether (MMET) is capable of generating useful velocity increments through spin–orbit coupling. This study presents a comparative study of the velocity increments between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET. The equations of motions of both models in the time domain are transformed into a function of true anomaly. The equations of motion are integrated, and the responses in terms of the velocity increment of the rigid body and flexible models are compared and analysed. Results show that the initial conditions, eccentricity, and flexibility of the tether have significant effects on the velocity increments of the tether.

  5. Incremental fold tests of remagnetized carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Voo, R.; van der Pluijm, B.

    2017-12-01

    Many unmetamorphosed carbonates all over the world are demonstrably remagnetized, with the age of the secondary magnetizations typically close to that of the nearest orogeny in space and time. This observation did not become compelling until the mid-1980's, when the incremental fold test revealed the Appalachian carbonates to carry a syn-deformational remanence of likely Permian age (Scotese et al., 1982, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., v. 30, p. 385-395; Cederquist et al., 2006, Tectonophysics v. 422, p. 41-54). Since that time scores of Appalachian and Rocky Mountain carbonate rocks have added results to the growing database of paleopoles representing remagnetizations. Late Paleozoic remagnetizations form a cloud of results surrounding the reference poles of the Laurentian APWP. Remagnetizations in other locales and with inferred ages coeval with regional orogenies (e.g., Taconic, Sevier/Laramide, Variscan, Indosinian) are also ubiquitous. To be able to transform this cornucopia into valuable anchor-points on the APWP would be highly desirable. This may indeed become feasible, as will be explained next. Recent studies of faulted and folded carbonate-shale sequences have shown that this deformation enhances the illitization of smectite (Haines & van der Pluijm, 2008, Jour. Struct. Geol., v. 30, p. 525-538; Fitz-Diaz et al., 2014, International Geol. Review, v. 56, p. 734-755). 39Ar-40Ar dating of the authigenic illite (neutralizing any detrital illite contribution by taking the intercept of a mixing line) yields, therefore, the age of the deformation. We know that this date is also the age of the syndeformational remanence; thus we have the age of the corresponding paleopole. Results so far are obtained for the Canadian and U.S. Rocky Mountains and for the Spanish Cantabrian carbonates (Tohver et al., 2008, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 274, p. 524-530) and make good sense in accord with geological knowledge. Incremental fold tests are the tools used for this

  6. Determination of Tree and Understory Water Sources and Residence Times Using Stable Isotopes in a Southern Appalachian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. N.; Knoepp, J.; Miniat, C.; Oishi, A. C.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The development of accurate hydrologic models is key to describing changes in hydrologic processes due to land use and climate change. Hydrologic models typically simplify biological processes associated with plant water uptake and transpiration, assuming that roots take up water from the same moisture pool that feeds the stream; however, this assumption is not valid for all systems. Novel combinations of climate and forest composition and structure, caused by ecosystem succession, management decisions, and climate variability, will require a better understanding of sources of water for transpiration in order to accurately estimate impact on forest water yield. Here we examine red maple (Acer rubrum), rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum), tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), and white oak (Quercus alba) trees at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, a long-term hydrological and ecological research site in western NC, USA, and explore whether source water use differs by species and landscape position. We analyzed stable isotopes of water (18O and 2H) in tree cores, stream water, soil water, and precipitation using laser spectrometry and compare the isotopic composition of the various pools. We place these results in broader context using meteorological and ecophysiological data collected nearby. These findings have implications for plant water stress and drought vulnerability. They also contribute to process-based knowledge of plant water use that better captures the sensitivity of transpiration to physical and biological controls at the sub-catchment scale. This work aims to help establish novel ways to model transpiration and improve understanding of water balance, biogeochemical cycling, and transport of nutrients to streams.

  7. Efficient Incremental Checkpointing of Java Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of language-level checkpointing of Java programs. First, we describe how to systematically associate incremental checkpoints with Java classes. While being safe, the genericness of this solution induces substantial execution overhead. Second, to solve...

  8. Pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithm decreases time to stable anticoagulation and the risk of major hemorrhage: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Peng-Pai; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Jian; Wang, Jun; Feng, Xiang-Fei; Lu, Qiu-Fen; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-04-01

    Warfarin is yet the most widely used oral anticoagulant for thromboembolic diseases, despite the recently emerged novel anticoagulants. However, difficulty in maintaining stable dose within the therapeutic range and subsequent serious adverse effects markedly limited its use in clinical practice. Pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithm is a recently emerged strategy to predict the initial and maintaining dose of warfarin. However, whether this algorithm is superior over conventional clinically guided dosing algorithm remains controversial. We made a comparison of pharmacogenetics-based versus clinically guided dosing algorithm by an updated meta-analysis. We searched OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant citations. The primary outcome was the percentage of time in therapeutic range. The secondary outcomes were time to stable therapeutic dose and the risks of adverse events including all-cause mortality, thromboembolic events, total bleedings, and major bleedings. Eleven randomized controlled trials with 2639 participants were included. Our pooled estimates indicated that pharmacogenetics-based dosing algorithm did not improve percentage of time in therapeutic range [weighted mean difference, 4.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.50 to 9.01; P = 0.08], but it significantly shortened the time to stable therapeutic dose (weighted mean difference, -8.67; 95% CI, -11.86 to -5.49; P pharmacogenetics-based algorithm significantly reduced the risk of major bleedings (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.98; P = 0.04), but it did not reduce the risks of all-cause mortality, total bleedings, or thromboembolic events. Our results suggest that pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithm significantly improves the efficiency of International Normalized Ratio correction and reduces the risk of major hemorrhage.

  9. Automatic Incrementalization of Functional Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken Friis; Henglein, Fritz

    An essential part of many organisations is the ability to provide the users and decision makers with reports on key data based on large amounts data, and these reports should be delivered in a timely manner to stay relevant. To get the desired performance the programs generating these reports...

  10. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  11. Natural Gas pipelines: economics of incremental capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, M.

    2000-01-01

    A number of gas transmission pipeline systems in Australia exhibit capacity constraints, and yet there is little evidence of creative or innovative processes from either the service provides of the regulators which might provide a market-based response to these constraints. There is no provision in the Code in its current form to allow it to accommodate these processes. This aspect is one of many that require review to make the Code work. It is unlikely that the current members of the National Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee (NGPAC) or its advisers have sufficient understanding of the analysis of risk and the consequential commercial drivers to implement the necessary changes. As a result, the Code will increasingly lose touch with the commercial realities of the energy market and will continue to inhibit investment in new and expanded infrastructure where market risk is present. The recent report prepared for the Business Council of Australia indicates a need to re-vitalise the energy reform process. It is important for the Australian energy industry to provide leadership and advice to governments to continue the process of reform, and, in particular, to amend the Code to make it more relevant. These amendments must include a mechanism by which price signals can be generated to provide timely and effective information for existing service providers or new entrants to install incremental pipeline capacity

  12. Evolution of cooperation driven by incremental learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Duan, Haibin

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that the details of microscopic rules in structured populations can have a crucial impact on the ultimate outcome in evolutionary games. So alternative formulations of strategies and their revision processes exploring how strategies are actually adopted and spread within the interaction network need to be studied. In the present work, we formulate the strategy update rule as an incremental learning process, wherein knowledge is refreshed according to one's own experience learned from the past (self-learning) and that gained from social interaction (social-learning). More precisely, we propose a continuous version of strategy update rules, by introducing the willingness to cooperate W, to better capture the flexibility of decision making behavior. Importantly, the newly gained knowledge including self-learning and social learning is weighted by the parameter ω, establishing a strategy update rule involving innovative element. Moreover, we quantify the macroscopic features of the emerging patterns to inspect the underlying mechanisms of the evolutionary process using six cluster characteristics. In order to further support our results, we examine the time evolution course for these characteristics. Our results might provide insights for understanding cooperative behaviors and have several important implications for understanding how individuals adjust their strategies under real-life conditions.

  13. Explaining the Substantial Inter-Domain and Over-Time Correlations in Student Achievement: The Importance of Stable Student Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-domain and longitudinal studies of student achievement routinely find moderate to strong correlations across achievement domains and even stronger within-domain correlations over time. The purpose of this study is to examine the sources of these patterns analysing student achievement in 5 domains across Years 3, 5 and 7. The analysis is of…

  14. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, Amur

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  15. Using stable isotope tracers to assess hydrological flow paths, residence times and landscape influences in a nested mesoscale catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rodgers

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available δ18O measurements in precipitation and stream waters were used to investigate hydrological flow paths and residence times at nested spatial scales in the mesoscale (233 km2 River Feugh catchment in the northeast of Scotland over the 2001-2002 hydrological year. Precipitation δ18O exhibited strong seasonal variation, which although significantly damped within the catchment, was reflected in stream water at six sampling sites. This allowed δ18O variations to be used to infer the relative influence of soil-derived storm flows with a seasonally variable isotopic signature, and groundwater of apparently more constant isotopic composition. Periodic regression analysis was then used to examine the sub-catchment difference using an exponential flow model to provide indicative estimates of mean stream water residence times, which varied between approximately 3 and 14 months. This showed that the effects of increasing scale on estimated mean stream water residence time was minimal beyond that of the smallest (ca. 1 km2 headwater catchment scale. Instead, the interaction of catchment soil cover and topography appeared to be the dominant controlling influence. Where sub-catchments had extensive peat coverage, responsive hydrological pathways produced seasonally variable δ18O signatures in runoff with short mean residence times (ca. 3 months. In contrast, areas dominated by steeper slopes, more freely draining soils and larger groundwater storage in shallow valley-bottom aquifers, deeper flow paths allow for more effective mixing and damping of δ18O indicating longer residence times (>12 months. These insights from δ18O measurements extend the hydrological understanding of the Feugh catchment gained from previous geochemical tracer studies, and demonstrate the utility of isotope tracers in investigating the interaction of hydrological processes and catchment characteristics at larger spatial scales.

  16. Volatilities, Traded Volumes, and Price Increments in Derivative Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, Soo Yong; Scalas, Enrico

    2007-03-01

    We apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to the statistics of the Korean treasury bond (KTB) futures from which the logarithmic increments, volatilities, and traded volumes are estimated over a specific time lag. For our case, the logarithmic increment of futures prices has no long-memory property, while the volatility and the traded volume exhibit the existence of long-memory property. To analyze and calculate whether the volatility clustering is due to the inherent higher-order correlation not detected by applying directly the DFA to logarithmic increments of the KTB futures, it is of importance to shuffle the original tick data of futures prices and to generate the geometric Brownian random walk with the same mean and standard deviation. It is really shown from comparing the three tick data that the higher-order correlation inherent in logarithmic increments makes the volatility clustering. Particularly, the result of the DFA on volatilities and traded volumes may be supported the hypothesis of price changes.

  17. Uniform stable conformal convolutional perfectly matched layer for enlarged cell technique conformal finite-difference time-domain method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yue; Wang Jian-Guo; Chen Zai-Gao

    2015-01-01

    Based on conformal construction of physical model in a three-dimensional Cartesian grid, an integral-based conformal convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) is given for solving the truncation problem of the open port when the enlarged cell technique conformal finite-difference time-domain (ECT-CFDTD) method is used to simulate the wave propagation inside a perfect electric conductor (PEC) waveguide. The algorithm has the same numerical stability as the ECT-CFDTD method. For the long-time propagation problems of an evanescent wave in a waveguide, several numerical simulations are performed to analyze the reflection error by sweeping the constitutive parameters of the integral-based conformal CPML. Our numerical results show that the integral-based conformal CPML can be used to efficiently truncate the open port of the waveguide. (paper)

  18. Determination of the residence time of rain water in some hydrographic basins by means of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.R.L.

    1979-10-01

    Samples of rain-and river water, monthly collected during one year from ten stations of the Amazon basin analysed in their 18 O and D content. The residence time of rain water for each station was determined using the values of Δ 18 O(%o) and ΔD(%). The values of Δ 18 O(%o) were correlated with the precipitation ones (mm) in order to determine the occurence of 'amount effect' in the stations. An analysis of samples was done along the Amazon River for simple observation of the 'isotopic fractionation' phenomenon the values of Δ 18 O(%o). (Author) [pt

  19. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  20. Characterization of the Gacka River basin karst aquifer (Croatia): Hydrochemistry, stable isotopes and tritium-based mean residence times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozyurt, Nur N. [Department of Geological Engineering, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Lutz, Hans O. [Stable Isotope Laboratory, Medical Faculty, Rijeka University, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Hunjak, Tamara; Mance, Diana [Stable Isotope Laboratory, Medical Faculty, Rijeka University, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Roller-Lutz, Zvjezdana, E-mail: roller@medri.uniri.hr [Stable Isotope Laboratory, Medical Faculty, Rijeka University, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia)

    2014-07-01

    The Gacka River basin aquifer is a highly-developed karst system, located in the Croatian Dinarides. It is mostly composed of permeable Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate rocks, and clastic sedimentary rocks of Paleogene age. Gacka River provides high quality water for the town of Otočac and several villages; together with the neighboring Lika River, the water is used for the Hydroelectric Power Plant at Senj on the coast. About 10 perennial and over 20 seasonal springs are located at 450 to 460 m a.s.l. (above sea level). Three major springs (Pećina, Majerovo and Tonkovića) provide 57% of the mean annual river flow. Similarities between the average groundwater temperatures as well as between the average specific electrical conductivity values (9.0 °C-328 μS/cm, 9.6 °C-350 μS/cm and 8.9 °C-312 μS/cm) of the springs imply that they are fed from aquifers with similar mean residence times (MRTs). The mean δ{sup 18}O contents of Majerovo, Tonkovića, and Pećina are around − 10.1‰, − 9.2‰ and − 8.9‰, respectively, revealing differences in the mean recharge area elevations. Compared to the temporal amplitude of the{sup 18}O signal of precipitation, the {sup 18}O signal variations of the springs are substantially attenuated because the recharges occurring at different times are well mixed within the aquifers. This indicates MRTs of more than just a few years. The average tritium contents of Pećina, Majerovo and Tonkovića are 5.48 TU, 6.13 TU and 6.17 TU, respectively. Serially connected exponential-plug type unsteady lumped-parameter models run on an annual time scale resulted in rather satisfactory matches between the observed and calculated tritium contents for all studied springs. The models revealed similar MRTs (and corresponding reservoir volumes) for Pećina, Tonkovića and Majerovo of 12 years (470 Mm{sup 3}), 12 years (1190 Mm{sup 3}), and 12.2 years (1210 Mm{sup 3}), respectively. Plug flow conditions dominate in about 90% of the total

  1. 3T deep gray matter T2 hypointensity correlates with disability over time in stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 3-year pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Metz, L M; Yong, V W; Mitchell, J R

    2010-10-15

    Abnormally decreased deep gray matter (GM) signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI (T2 hypointensity) is associated with brain atrophy and disability progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is believed to represent excessive iron deposition. We investigated the time course of deep GM T2 hypointensity and its relationship with disability at 3T in 8 stable relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients treated with minocycline over 3years. MRI and disability measurements were compared at baseline, 6, 12, 24, and 36months. Grand mean deep GM T2 hypointensity was negatively correlated with EDSS over time (r=-0.94, P=0.02). This correlation was strongest in the head of caudate (r=-0.95, P=0.01) and putamen (r=-0.89, P=0.04). Additionally, baseline grand mean deep GM T2 hypointensity appears to predict third year EDSS (r=-0.72, P=0.04). These results suggest that iron associated deep GM injury correlates with patient disability in stable RRMS. Measurements of deep GM T2 hypointensity at high field MRI may prove to be useful in monitoring individuals with MS. Further studies are required to confirm these results in a large sample and to determine if T2 hypointensity changes in clinically active MS patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  3. Incremental projection approach of regularization for inverse problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souopgui, Innocent, E-mail: innocent.souopgui@usm.edu [The University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Marine Science (United States); Ngodock, Hans E., E-mail: hans.ngodock@nrlssc.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Vidard, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.vidard@imag.fr; Le Dimet, François-Xavier, E-mail: ledimet@imag.fr [Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann (France)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents an alternative approach to the regularized least squares solution of ill-posed inverse problems. Instead of solving a minimization problem with an objective function composed of a data term and a regularization term, the regularization information is used to define a projection onto a convex subspace of regularized candidate solutions. The objective function is modified to include the projection of each iterate in the place of the regularization. Numerical experiments based on the problem of motion estimation for geophysical fluid images, show the improvement of the proposed method compared with regularization methods. For the presented test case, the incremental projection method uses 7 times less computation time than the regularization method, to reach the same error target. Moreover, at convergence, the incremental projection is two order of magnitude more accurate than the regularization method.

  4. Decoupled Simulation Method For Incremental Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastiani, G.; Brosius, A.; Tekkaya, A. E.; Homberg, W.; Kleiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    Within the scope of this article a decoupling algorithm to reduce computing time in Finite Element Analyses of incremental forming processes will be investigated. Based on the given position of the small forming zone, the presented algorithm aims at separating a Finite Element Model in an elastic and an elasto-plastic deformation zone. Including the elastic response of the structure by means of model simplifications, the costly iteration in the elasto-plastic zone can be restricted to the small forming zone and to few supporting elements in order to reduce computation time. Since the forming zone moves along the specimen, an update of both, forming zone with elastic boundary and supporting structure, is needed after several increments.The presented paper discusses the algorithmic implementation of the approach and introduces several strategies to implement the denoted elastic boundary condition at the boundary of the plastic forming zone

  5. Growth increments in teeth of Diictodon (Therapsida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francis Thackeray

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth increments circa 0.02 mm in width have been observed in sectioned tusks of Diictodon from the Late Permian lower Beaufort succession of the South African Karoo, dated between about 260 and 245 million years ago. Mean growth increments show a decline from relatively high values in the Tropidostoma/Endothiodon Assemblage Zone, to lower values in the Aulacephalodon/Cistecephaluszone, declining still further in the Dicynodon lacerficeps/Whaitsia zone at the end of the Permian. These changes coincide with gradual changes in carbon isotope ratios measured from Diictodon tooth apatite. It is suggested that the decline in growth increments is related to environmental changes associated with a decline in primary production which contributed to the decline in abundance and ultimate extinction of Diictodon.

  6. Theory of Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in-plan......-plane contact friction and is focused on the extreme modes of deformation that are likely to be found in single point incremental forming processes. The overall investigation is supported by experimental work performed by the authors and data retrieved from the literature.......This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in...

  7. Stable Versus Unstable Grade II High Ankle Sprains: A Prospective Study Predicting the Need for Surgical Stabilization and Time to Return to Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, James D; Bamford, Richard; Petrie, Aviva; McCollum, Graham A

    2016-04-01

    To investigate grade II syndesmosis injuries in athletes and identify factors important in differentiating stable from dynamically unstable ankle sprains and those associated with a longer time to return to sports. Sixty-four athletes with an isolated syndesmosis injury (without fracture) were prospectively assessed, with a mean follow-up period of 37 months (range, 24 to 66 months). Those with an associated deltoid ligament injury or osteochondral lesion were included. Those whose injuries were considered stable (grade IIa) were treated conservatively with a boot and rehabilitation. Those whose injuries were clinically unstable underwent arthroscopy, and if instability was confirmed (grade IIb), the syndesmosis was stabilized. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging assessments of injury to individual ligaments were recorded, along with time to return to play. A power analysis estimated that each group would need 28 patients. All athletes returned to the same level of professional sport. The 28 patients with grade IIa injuries returned at a mean of 45 days (range, 23 to 63 days) compared with 64 days (range, 27 to 104 days) for those with grade IIb injuries (P < .0001). There was a highly significant relationship between clinical and magnetic resonance imaging assessments of ligament injury (anterior tibiofibular ligament [ATFL], anterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament [AITFL], and deltoid ligament, P < .0001). Instability was 9.5 times as likely with a positive squeeze test and 11 times as likely with a deltoid injury. Combined injury to the anterior-inferior tibiofibular ligament and deltoid ligament was associated with a delay in return to sports. Concomitant injury to the ATFL indicated a different mechanism of injury-the syndesmosis is less likely to be unstable and is associated with an earlier return to sports. A positive squeeze test and injury to the ATFL and deltoid ligament are important factors in differentiating stable from dynamically unstable grade

  8. Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.

  9. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... programs and evaluated using incremental tabled evaluation, a technique for efficiently updating memo tables in response to changes in facts and rules. The approach has been implemented and integrated into the Eclipse IDE. Our measurements show that this technique is effective for automatically...

  10. Incremental Integrity Checking: Limitations and Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    Integrity checking is an essential means for the preservation of the intended semantics of a deductive database. Incrementality is the only feasible approach to checking and can be obtained with respect to given update patterns by exploiting query optimization techniques. By reducing the problem...... to query containment, we show that no procedure exists that always returns the best incremental test (aka simplification of integrity constraints), and this according to any reasonable criterion measuring the checking effort. In spite of this theoretical limitation, we develop an effective procedure...

  11. A Stable Marching on-in-time Scheme for Solving the Time Domain Electric Field Volume Integral Equation on High-contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-05-05

    A time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) solver is proposed for characterizing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast dielectric scatterers. The TD-EFVIE is discretized using the Schaubert- Wilton-Glisson (SWG) and approximate prolate spherical wave (APSW) functions in space and time, respectively. The resulting system of equations can not be solved by a straightforward application of the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme since the two-sided APSW interpolation functions require the knowledge of unknown “future” field samples during time marching. Causality of the MOT scheme is restored using an extrapolation technique that predicts the future samples from known “past” ones. Unlike the extrapolation techniques developed for MOT schemes that are used in solving time domain surface integral equations, this scheme trains the extrapolation coefficients using samples of exponentials with exponents on the complex frequency plane. This increases the stability of the MOT-TD-EFVIE solver significantly, since the temporal behavior of decaying and oscillating electromagnetic modes induced inside the scatterers is very accurately taken into account by this new extrapolation scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed MOT solver maintains its stability even when applied to analyzing wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers.

  12. A Stable Marching on-in-time Scheme for Solving the Time Domain Electric Field Volume Integral Equation on High-contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, Huseyin; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    A time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) solver is proposed for characterizing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast dielectric scatterers. The TD-EFVIE is discretized using the Schaubert- Wilton-Glisson (SWG) and approximate prolate spherical wave (APSW) functions in space and time, respectively. The resulting system of equations can not be solved by a straightforward application of the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme since the two-sided APSW interpolation functions require the knowledge of unknown “future” field samples during time marching. Causality of the MOT scheme is restored using an extrapolation technique that predicts the future samples from known “past” ones. Unlike the extrapolation techniques developed for MOT schemes that are used in solving time domain surface integral equations, this scheme trains the extrapolation coefficients using samples of exponentials with exponents on the complex frequency plane. This increases the stability of the MOT-TD-EFVIE solver significantly, since the temporal behavior of decaying and oscillating electromagnetic modes induced inside the scatterers is very accurately taken into account by this new extrapolation scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed MOT solver maintains its stability even when applied to analyzing wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers.

  13. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  14. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  15. Hydraulic retention time affects stable acetate production from tofu processing wastewater in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Ting; Shen, Nan; Yu, Zhong-Wei; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-09-01

    Acetate is an important industrial chemical and its production from wastes via mixed culture fermentation (MCF) is economic. In this work, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on acetate production from tofu processing wastewater (TPW) in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) MCF was first investigated. It was found that long HRT (>3days) could lead to less acetate production while stable acetate production was achieved at short HRT (3days) with the yield of 0.57g-COD/g-CODTPW. The microbial community analysis showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter) occupied up to 90% of archaea at both HRTs of 3 and 5days. However, Coprothermobacter, the main acetate-degraders, decreased from 35.74% to 10.58% of bacteria when HRT decreased from 5 to 3days, supporting the aggravation of syntrophic acetate oxidation in long HRT. This work demonstrated that HRT was a crucial factor to maintain stable acetate production from TPW in extreme-thermophilic MCF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Existing School Buildings: Incremental Seismic Retrofit Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    The intent of this document is to provide technical guidance to school district facility managers for linking specific incremental seismic retrofit opportunities to specific maintenance and capital improvement projects. The linkages are based on logical affinities, such as technical fit, location of the work within the building, cost saving…

  17. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  18. The Cognitive Underpinnings of Incremental Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sashank; Schleisman, Katrina B.

    2014-01-01

    Incremental rehearsal (IR) is a flashcard technique that has been developed and evaluated by school psychologists. We discuss potential learning and memory effects from cognitive psychology that may explain the observed superiority of IR over other flashcard techniques. First, we propose that IR is a form of "spaced practice" that…

  19. Incremental Support Vector Machine Framework for Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Motai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the emerging requirements of surveillance networks, we present in this paper an incremental multiclassification support vector machine (SVM technique as a new framework for action classification based on real-time multivideo collected by homogeneous sites. The technique is based on an adaptation of least square SVM (LS-SVM formulation but extends beyond the static image-based learning of current SVM methodologies. In applying the technique, an initial supervised offline learning phase is followed by a visual behavior data acquisition and an online learning phase during which the cluster head performs an ensemble of model aggregations based on the sensor nodes inputs. The cluster head then selectively switches on designated sensor nodes for future incremental learning. Combining sensor data offers an improvement over single camera sensing especially when the latter has an occluded view of the target object. The optimization involved alleviates the burdens of power consumption and communication bandwidth requirements. The resulting misclassification error rate, the iterative error reduction rate of the proposed incremental learning, and the decision fusion technique prove its validity when applied to visual sensor networks. Furthermore, the enabled online learning allows an adaptive domain knowledge insertion and offers the advantage of reducing both the model training time and the information storage requirements of the overall system which makes it even more attractive for distributed sensor networks communication.

  20. Parallel Algorithm for Incremental Betweenness Centrality on Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Jamour, Fuad Tarek

    2017-10-17

    Betweenness centrality quantifies the importance of nodes in a graph in many applications, including network analysis, community detection and identification of influential users. Typically, graphs in such applications evolve over time. Thus, the computation of betweenness centrality should be performed incrementally. This is challenging because updating even a single edge may trigger the computation of all-pairs shortest paths in the entire graph. Existing approaches cannot scale to large graphs: they either require excessive memory (i.e., quadratic to the size of the input graph) or perform unnecessary computations rendering them prohibitively slow. We propose iCentral; a novel incremental algorithm for computing betweenness centrality in evolving graphs. We decompose the graph into biconnected components and prove that processing can be localized within the affected components. iCentral is the first algorithm to support incremental betweeness centrality computation within a graph component. This is done efficiently, in linear space; consequently, iCentral scales to large graphs. We demonstrate with real datasets that the serial implementation of iCentral is up to 3.7 times faster than existing serial methods. Our parallel implementation that scales to large graphs, is an order of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art parallel algorithm, while using an order of magnitude less computational resources.

  1. Speleothem stable isotope records for east-central Europe: resampling sedimentary proxy records to obtain evenly spaced time series with spectral guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor Hatvani, István; Kern, Zoltán; Leél-Őssy, Szabolcs; Demény, Attila

    2018-01-01

    Uneven spacing is a common feature of sedimentary paleoclimate records, in many cases causing difficulties in the application of classical statistical and time series methods. Although special statistical tools do exist to assess unevenly spaced data directly, the transformation of such data into a temporally equidistant time series which may then be examined using commonly employed statistical tools remains, however, an unachieved goal. The present paper, therefore, introduces an approach to obtain evenly spaced time series (using cubic spline fitting) from unevenly spaced speleothem records with the application of a spectral guidance to avoid the spectral bias caused by interpolation and retain the original spectral characteristics of the data. The methodology was applied to stable carbon and oxygen isotope records derived from two stalagmites from the Baradla Cave (NE Hungary) dating back to the late 18th century. To show the benefit of the equally spaced records to climate studies, their coherence with climate parameters is explored using wavelet transform coherence and discussed. The obtained equally spaced time series are available at PANGAEA.875917" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.875917.

  2. Hot flush frequency and severity at baseline as predictors of time to transient and stable treatment success: pooled analysis of two CE/BZA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, JoAnn V; Bushmakin, Andrew G; Bobula, Joel; Lavenberg, Joanne; Komm, Barry S; Abraham, Lucy

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of baseline hot flush frequency and severity on time to symptom improvement during treatment with conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene (CE/BZA). Data were pooled through week 12 from two randomized placebo-controlled trials (SMART-1 and SMART-2) of nonhysterectomized postmenopausal women with hot flushes treated with CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg or CE 0.625 mg/BZA 20 mg. Time to transient and stable improvement (≥ 50% reduction in hot flush frequency/severity) was estimated using nonparametric models. Transient improvement in hot flush frequency occurred earlier in women treated with CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg with less frequent versus more frequent baseline hot flushes per day: median time to transient improvement was 2, 7, and 11 days for women with hot flushes per day at baseline, respectively (P = 0.0009). Transient improvement in severity occurred earlier for women with less severe versus more severe baseline hot flushes: median time to transient improvement was 2, 6, and 16 days for women with mild, moderate, and severe hot flushes at baseline, respectively (P hot flushes take longer to achieve transient improvements with CE/BZA and should be encouraged to continue treatment, as it may take longer than a few weeks to achieve significant improvement.

  3. Observers for a class of systems with nonlinearities satisfying an incremental quadratic inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Martin, Corless

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation from nonlinear time-varying system whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero.

  4. An Approach to Incremental Design of Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to incremental design of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications. We start from an already existing system running a set of applications and the design problem is to implement new functionality on this system. Thus, we propose mapping...... strategies of functionality so that the already running functionality is not disturbed and there is a good chance that, later, new functionality can easily be mapped on the resulted system. The mapping and scheduling for hard real-time embedded systems are considered the context of a realistic communication...

  5. Effect of multiple forming tools on geometrical and mechanical properties in incremental sheet forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, S.; Dang, T.; Gies, S.; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2018-05-01

    The tendency to a higher variety of products requires economical manufacturing processes suitable for the production of prototypes and small batches. In the case of complex hollow-shaped parts, single point incremental forming (SPIF) represents a highly flexible process. The flexibility of this process comes along with a very long process time. To decrease the process time, a new incremental forming approach with multiple forming tools is investigated. The influence of two incremental forming tools on the resulting mechanical and geometrical component properties compared to SPIF is presented. Sheets made of EN AW-1050A were formed to frustums of a pyramid using different tool-path strategies. Furthermore, several variations of the tool-path strategy are analyzed. A time saving between 40% and 60% was observed depending on the tool-path and the radii of the forming tools while the mechanical properties remained unchanged. This knowledge can increase the cost efficiency of incremental forming processes.

  6. Motor function declines over time in human immunodeficiency virus and is associated with cerebrovascular disease, while HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Elicer, Isabel; Byrd, Desiree; Clark, Uraina S; Morgello, Susan; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2018-04-25

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in the combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) era, especially the milder forms. Despite these milder phenotypes, we have shown that motor abnormalities persist and have quantified them with the HIV Dementia Motor Scale (HDMS). Our objectives were to replicate, in an independent sample, our prior findings that the HDMS is associated with cognitive impairment in HIV, while adding consideration of age-associated comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease, and to examine the longitudinal trajectories of cognitive and motor dysfunction. We included all participants enrolled in the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank (MHBB) from January 2007 to May 2017 who had complete baseline data (N = 164). MHBB participants undergo standardized longitudinal assessments including documentation of comorbidities and medications, blood work, the HDMS, and neurocognitive testing. We found that motor dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and cerebrovascular disease were significantly associated with each other at baseline. Cerebrovascular disease independently predicted cognitive impairment in a multivariable model. Longitudinal analysis in a subset of 78 participants with ≥ 4 years of follow-up showed a stable cognition but declining motor function. We conclude that the HDMS is a valid measurement of motor dysfunction in HIV-infected patients and is associated with cognitive impairment and the presence of cerebrovascular disease. Cognitive impairment is mild and stable in CART-treated HIV; however, motor function declines over time, which may be related to the accrual of comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease. Further research should examine the mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction in HIV and its clinical impact.

  7. Internal motion time scales of a small, highly stable and disulfide-rich protein: A 15N, 13C NMR and molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenneugues, Marc; Gilquin, Bernard; Wolff, Nicolas; Menez, Andre; Zinn-Justin, Sophie

    1999-01-01

    Motions of the backbone CαHα and threonine CβHβ bonds of toxin α were investigated using natural abundance 13C NMR and molecular dynamics. Measurement of the 13C longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates employed ACCORDION techniques together with coherence selection by pulsed field gradients and sensitivity enhancement through the use of preservation of equivalent pathway, thus allowing a considerable reduction of the required spectrometer time. 13C R1, R2, 1H → 13C NOE were obtained, as well as the variations of R1ρ(90 deg.) as a function of the rf field strength. These data were compared to those recorded by 1H and 15N NMR on a labelled sample of the toxin [Guenneugues et al. (1997) Biochemistry, 36, 16097-16108]. Both sets of data showed that picosecond to nanosecond time scale motions are well correlated to the secondary structure of the protein. This was further reinforced by the analysis of a 1 ns molecular dynamics simulation in water. Several CαHα and threonine CβHβ experimentally exhibit fast motions with a correlation time longer than 500 ps, that cannot be sampled along the simulation. In addition, the backbone exhibits motions on the microsecond to millisecond time scale on more than half of its length. Thus, toxin α, a highly stable protein (Tm=75 deg. C at acidic pH) containing 61 amino acids and 4 disulfides, shows important internal motions on time scales ranging from 0.1-0.5 ps, to 10-100 ps, 1 ns, and about 30 μs to 10 ms

  8. Evolving effective incremental SAT solvers with GP

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Mohamed; Poli, R.

    2008-01-01

    Hyper-Heuristics could simply be defined as heuristics to choose other heuristics, and it is a way of combining existing heuristics to generate new ones. In a Hyper-Heuristic framework, the framework is used for evolving effective incremental (Inc*) solvers for SAT. We test the evolved heuristics (IncHH) against other known local search heuristics on a variety of benchmark SAT problems.

  9. Teraflop-scale Incremental Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Özkural, Eray

    2011-01-01

    We propose a long-term memory design for artificial general intelligence based on Solomonoff's incremental machine learning methods. We use R5RS Scheme and its standard library with a few omissions as the reference machine. We introduce a Levin Search variant based on Stochastic Context Free Grammar together with four synergistic update algorithms that use the same grammar as a guiding probability distribution of programs. The update algorithms include adjusting production probabilities, re-u...

  10. The time lapse experiment in Al Wasse water pumping field in Saudi Arabia by an ultra-stable seismic source (ACROSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAnezi, Ghunaim; Kasahara, Junzo; AlDamegh, Khaled S.; Lafouza, Omar; AlYousef, Khaled; Almalki, Fahad; Nishiyama, Eichiro

    2015-04-01

    We have developed the time lapse technology for EOR (enhanced oil recovery) and CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) using a very stable and continuous seismic source called ACROSS (Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal System) with multi-geophones. Since 2011, we have tested this technology in the context of carbonate rocks in Saudi Arabia. The Al Wasee water pumping site approximately 120 km east of Riyadh city has been selected as a trail-site. The intention is to observe the changes in aquifers induced by pumping operations. One ACROSS source unit was installed at the Al Wasee site in December 2011 and we are continuing the field test. The instrument has been operated from 10 to 50 Hz with 40 tons-f at 50 Hz. Using alternatively clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations we can synthesize vertical and horizontal forces, respectively. 31 3C-geophones in 2 km x 3 km area and four nearby 3Cgeophones have been used to monitor the seismic changes from pumping the water. The one and half month data between December 2012 and February 2013 show continuous and clear change of observed waveforms for all 31 stations while the source signature did not change. The change is closest and fastest at the station #42. The cause of continuous change with time is interpreted as pumping of water by 64 wells located in this field.

  11. Application of Tempered-Stable Time Fractional-Derivative Model to Upscale Subdiffusion for Pollutant Transport in Field-Scale Discrete Fracture Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingqing Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus provides efficient physical models to quantify non-Fickian dynamics broadly observed within the Earth system. The potential advantages of using fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs for real-world problems are often limited by the current lack of understanding of how earth system properties influence observed non-Fickian dynamics. This study explores non-Fickian dynamics for pollutant transport in field-scale discrete fracture networks (DFNs, by investigating how fracture and rock matrix properties influence the leading and tailing edges of pollutant breakthrough curves (BTCs. Fractured reservoirs exhibit erratic internal structures and multi-scale heterogeneity, resulting in complex non-Fickian dynamics. A Monte Carlo approach is used to simulate pollutant transport through DFNs with a systematic variation of system properties, and the resultant non-Fickian transport is upscaled using a tempered-stable fractional in time advection–dispersion equation. Numerical results serve as a basis for determining both qualitative and quantitative relationships between BTC characteristics and model parameters, in addition to the impacts of fracture density, orientation, and rock matrix permeability on non-Fickian dynamics. The observed impacts of medium heterogeneity on tracer transport at late times tend to enhance the applicability of fPDEs that may be parameterized using measurable fracture–matrix characteristics.

  12. The effect of time-of-day and chest physiotherapy on multiple breath washout measures in children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldby, Christian; Green, Kent; Rosthøj, Susanne; Kongstad, Thomas; Philipsen, Lue; Buchvald, Frederik; Skov, Marianne; Pressler, Tania; Gustafsson, Per; Nielsen, Kim G

    2018-01-01

    In this pilot study we investigated daytime variation of multiple breath nitrogen washout (N2MBW) measures in children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis. To our knowledge the effect of time-of-day on multiple breath washout measures in patients with cystic fibrosis has not previously been reported. Furthermore, we assessed the influence of chest physiotherapy on N2MBW measures. Ten school children with cystic fibrosis performed N2MBW followed by spirometry and plethysmography in the morning and afternoon at three visits that were one month apart. Chest physiotherapy was performed immediately before the afternoon measurements at visit 2 and immediately before morning and afternoon measurements at visit 3. The influence of time-of-day and chest physiotherapy on the measures was evaluated using linear mixed models. There were adequate quality data from 8 children with median age (range) 9.6 (6.0; 15.1) years. Baseline lung clearance index (LCI) (range) was 9.0 (7.1; 13.0) and baseline FEV1% predicted was 97.5 (78.5; 117.9). No N2MBW measures were significantly influenced by time-of-day or chest physiotherapy. LCI (95% confidence interval) decreased non-significantly 0.05 (-0.32; 0.22) during the day and increased non-significantly 0.08 (-0.26; 0.42) after chest physiotherapy. All spirometric measures were unaffected by time-of-day and chest physiotherapy. For plethysmographic measures FRCpleth decreased significantly (pphysiotherapy performed immediately prior to N2MBW had no consistent or significant influence on N2MBW measures. However, we emphasize that further studies of the effect of both daytime variation and the effect of chest physiotherapy on multiple breath washout measures are warranted.

  13. Incremental support vector machines for fast reliable image recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makili, L.; Vega, J.; Dormido-Canto, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A conformal predictor using SVM as the underlying algorithm was implemented. ► It was applied to image recognition in the TJ–II's Thomson Scattering Diagnostic. ► To improve time efficiency an approach to incremental SVM training has been used. ► Accuracy is similar to the one reached when standard SVM is used. ► Computational time saving is significant for large training sets. -- Abstract: This paper addresses the reliable classification of images in a 5-class problem. To this end, an automatic recognition system, based on conformal predictors and using Support Vector Machines (SVM) as the underlying algorithm has been developed and applied to the recognition of images in the Thomson Scattering Diagnostic of the TJ–II fusion device. Using such conformal predictor based classifier is a computationally intensive task since it implies to train several SVM models to classify a single example and to perform this training from scratch takes a significant amount of time. In order to improve the classification time efficiency, an approach to the incremental training of SVM has been used as the underlying algorithm. Experimental results show that the overall performance of the new classifier is high, comparable to the one corresponding to the use of standard SVM as the underlying algorithm and there is a significant improvement in time efficiency

  14. Incremental support vector machines for fast reliable image recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makili, L., E-mail: makili_le@yahoo.com [Instituto Superior Politécnico da Universidade Katyavala Bwila, Benguela (Angola); Vega, J. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S. [Dpto. Informática y Automática – UNED, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A conformal predictor using SVM as the underlying algorithm was implemented. ► It was applied to image recognition in the TJ–II's Thomson Scattering Diagnostic. ► To improve time efficiency an approach to incremental SVM training has been used. ► Accuracy is similar to the one reached when standard SVM is used. ► Computational time saving is significant for large training sets. -- Abstract: This paper addresses the reliable classification of images in a 5-class problem. To this end, an automatic recognition system, based on conformal predictors and using Support Vector Machines (SVM) as the underlying algorithm has been developed and applied to the recognition of images in the Thomson Scattering Diagnostic of the TJ–II fusion device. Using such conformal predictor based classifier is a computationally intensive task since it implies to train several SVM models to classify a single example and to perform this training from scratch takes a significant amount of time. In order to improve the classification time efficiency, an approach to the incremental training of SVM has been used as the underlying algorithm. Experimental results show that the overall performance of the new classifier is high, comparable to the one corresponding to the use of standard SVM as the underlying algorithm and there is a significant improvement in time efficiency.

  15. Do otolith increments allow correct inferences about age and growth of coral reef fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Otolith increment structure is widely used to estimate age and growth of marine fishes. Here, I test the accuracy of the long-term otolith increment analysis of the lemon damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis to describe age and growth characteristics. I compare the number of putative annual otolith increments (as a proxy for actual age) and widths of these increments (as proxies for somatic growth) with actual tagged fish-length data, based on a 6-year dataset, the longest time course for a coral reef fish. Estimated age from otoliths corresponded closely with actual age in all cases, confirming annual increment formation. However, otolith increment widths were poor proxies for actual growth in length [linear regression r 2 = 0.44-0.90, n = 6 fish] and were clearly of limited value in estimating annual growth. Up to 60 % of the annual growth variation was missed using otolith increments, suggesting the long-term back calculations of otolith growth characteristics of reef fish populations should be interpreted with caution.

  16. A Highly Stable Marching-on-in-Time Volume Integral Equation Solver for Analyzing Transient Wave Interactions on High-Contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-06

    Time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers represent an attractive alternative to finite difference (FDTD) and finite element (FEM) schemes for analyzing transient electromagnetic interactions on composite scatterers. Current induced on a scatterer, in response to a transient incident field, generates a scattered field. First, the scattered field is expressed as a spatio-temporal convolution of the current and the Green function of the background medium. Then, a TDIE is obtained by enforcing boundary conditions and/or fundamental field relations. TDIEs are often solved for the unknown current using marching on-in-time (MOT) schemes. MOT-TDIE solvers expand the current using local spatio-temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDIE and testing the resulting equation in space and time yields a lower triangular system of equations (termed MOT system), which can be solved by marching in time for the coefficients of the current expansion. Stability of the MOT scheme often depends on how accurately the spatio-temporal convolution of the current and the Green function is discretized. In this work, band-limited prolate-based interpolation functions are used as temporal bases in expanding the current and discretizing the spatio-temporal convolution. Unfortunately, these functions are two sided, i.e., they require ”future” current samples for interpolation, resulting in a non-causal MOT system. To alleviate the effect of non-causality and restore the ability to march in time, an extrapolation scheme can be used to estimate the future values of the currents from their past values. Here, an accurate, stable and band-limited extrapolation scheme is developed for this purpose. This extrapolation scheme uses complex exponents, rather than commonly used harmonics, so that propagating and decaying mode fields inside the dielectric scatterers are accurately modeled. The resulting MOT scheme is applied to solving the time domain volume integral equation (VIE

  17. Stable Isotope Analysis of Extant Lamnoid Shark Centra: A New Tool in Age Determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labs, J.

    2003-12-01

    The oxygen isotopes of fourteen vertebral centra from ten extant lamnoid sharks (including Carcharodon carcharias [great white], Isurus paucus [longfin mako], and Isurus oxyrinchus [shortfin mako]) were sampled and measured along the growth axis to determine the periodicity of incremental growth represented in the centra. As part of the internal (endochondral) skeleton, shark centra are composed initially of hyaline cartilage, which then secondarily ossifies during ontogeny forming calcified hydroxyapatite bone. The incremental growth of shark centra forms definite growth rings, with darker denser portions being deposited during slower growth times (i.e., winter) and lighter portions being deposited during more rapid growth (i.e., summer). Thus, shark centra, whether they are extant or extinct, are characterized by clearly delineated incremental growth couplets. The problem with this general rule is that there are several factors in which the growth of these couplets can vary depending upon physical environment (including temperature and water depth), food availability, and stress. The challenge for paleobiological interpretations is how to interpret the periodicity of this growth. It can generally be assumed that these bands are annual, but it is uncertain the extent to which exceptions to the rule occur. Stable isotopic analysis provides the potential to independently determine the periodicity of the growth increments and ultimately the ontogenetic age of an individual.

  18. Automating the Incremental Evolution of Controllers for Physical Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    the evolution of digital objects.…” The work presented here investigates how fully autonomous evolution of robot controllers can be realized in hardware, using an industrial robot and a marker-based computer vision system. In particular, this article presents an approach to automate the reconfiguration...... of the test environment and shows that it is possible, for the first time, to incrementally evolve a neural robot controller for different obstacle avoidance tasks with no human intervention. Importantly, the system offers a high level of robustness and precision that could potentially open up the range...

  19. The Time Profile of Pentraxin 3 in Patients with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Stable Angina Pectoris Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Helseth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High levels of Pentraxin 3 (PTX3 are reported in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Aim. To investigate circulating levels and gene expression of PTX3 in patients with AMI and stable angina pectoris (AP undergoing PCI. Methods. Ten patients with AP and 20 patients with AMI were included. Blood samples were drawn before PCI in the AP group and after 3 and 12 hours and days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 in both groups. Results. Circulating PTX3 levels were higher in AMI compared to AP at 3 and 12 hours (P<0.001 and P=0.003. Within the AMI group, reduction from 3 hours to all later time points was observed (all P≤0.001. Within the AP group, increase from baseline to 3 hours (P=0.022, followed by reductions thereafter (all P<0.05, was observed. PTX3 mRNA increased in the AMI group from 3 hours to days 7 and 14 in a relative manner of 62% and 73%, while a relative reduction from baseline to 3 and 12 hours of 29% and 37% was seen in the AP group. Conclusion. High circulating PTX3 levels shortly after PCI in AMI indicate that AMI itself influences PTX3 levels. PTX3 mRNA might be in response to fluctuations in circulating levels.

  20. Reducing turnaround time for laboratory test results does not improve retention of stable HIV-infected adults on POV program: experience from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselle, Edna; Muhanguzi, Asaph; Muhumuza, Simon; Nansubuga, Jeniffer; Nawavvu, Cecilia; Namusobya, Jeniffer; Kamya, Moses R; Semitala, Fred C

    2014-01-01

    HIV/ AIDS clinics in resource limited settings (RLS) face increasing numbers of patients and workforce shortage [1, 2]. To address these challenges, efficient models of care like pharmacy only visits (POV) and nurse only visits (NOV) are recommended [3]. The Makerere University Joint AIDS Program (MJAP), a PEPFAR funded program providing care to over 42,000 HIV infected adults has implemented the POV model since 2009. In this model, stable patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with adherence to ART >95% and Karnofsky score >90% are reviewed by a doctor every four months but visit pharmacy for ART re-fills every two months. A study conducted in August 2011 showed low retention on the POV program with symptomatic diseases, pending CD4 count, complete blood count results, and poor adherence to ART as the major reasons for the non-retention in the POV program. To improve retention on POV, the TAT (Turnaround Time) for laboratory results (the main reason for non-retention in the previous study) was reduced from one month to one week. In August 2012, the study was repeated to assess the effect of reducing TAT on improving retention one year after patients were placed on POV. A cohort analysis of data from patients in August 2011 and in August 2012 on POV was done. We compared retention of POV before and after reducing the TAT for laboratory results. Retention on POV was 12.0% (95% CI 9.50-14.7) among 619 patients in 2011, (70% Females), mean age was 33 years, Standard Deviation (SD) 8.5 compared to 11.1% (95% CI 9.15-13.4) among 888 patients (70% Females), mean age 38.3 years, SD 8.9 in 2012 (p=0.59). The main reasons for non-retention on the POV program in 2012 were poor adherence to ART (23%) and missed clinic appointments (14%). Reducing TAT for laboratory test results did not improve retention of stable HIV-infected adults on POV in our clinic. Strategies for improving adherence to ART and keeping clinic appointments need to be employed to balance workload and

  1. Simulation and comparison of perturb and observe and incremental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perturb and Observe (P & O) algorithm and Incremental conductance algorithm. ... Keywords. Solar array; insolation; MPPT; modelling, P & O; incremental conductance. 1. .... voltage level. It is also ..... Int. J. Advances in Eng. Technol. 133–148.

  2. Incremental Volumetric Remapping Method: Analysis and Error Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, A. J.; Oliveira, M. C.; Rodrigues, D. M.; Menezes, L. F.; Alves, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the error associated with the remapping problem is analyzed. A range of numerical results that assess the performance of three different remapping strategies, applied to FE meshes that typically are used in sheet metal forming simulation, are evaluated. One of the selected strategies is the previously presented Incremental Volumetric Remapping method (IVR), which was implemented in the in-house code DD3TRIM. The IVR method fundaments consists on the premise that state variables in all points associated to a Gauss volume of a given element are equal to the state variable quantities placed in the correspondent Gauss point. Hence, given a typical remapping procedure between a donor and a target mesh, the variables to be associated to a target Gauss volume (and point) are determined by a weighted average. The weight function is the Gauss volume percentage of each donor element that is located inside the target Gauss volume. The calculus of the intersecting volumes between the donor and target Gauss volumes is attained incrementally, for each target Gauss volume, by means of a discrete approach. The other two remapping strategies selected are based in the interpolation/extrapolation of variables by using the finite element shape functions or moving least square interpolants. The performance of the three different remapping strategies is address with two tests. The first remapping test was taken from a literature work. The test consists in remapping successively a rotating symmetrical mesh, throughout N increments, in an angular span of 90 deg. The second remapping error evaluation test consists of remapping an irregular element shape target mesh from a given regular element shape donor mesh and proceed with the inverse operation. In this second test the computation effort is also measured. The results showed that the error level associated to IVR can be very low and with a stable evolution along the number of remapping procedures when compared with the

  3. 48 CFR 3432.771 - Provision for incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for incremental funding. 3432.771 Section 3432.771 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION..., Incremental Funding, in a solicitation if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is...

  4. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G; Loo, Boon Thau

    2016-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs , and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries ; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations.

  5. Two models of minimalist, incremental syntactic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, Edward P

    2013-07-01

    Minimalist grammars (MGs) and multiple context-free grammars (MCFGs) are weakly equivalent in the sense that they define the same languages, a large mildly context-sensitive class that properly includes context-free languages. But in addition, for each MG, there is an MCFG which is strongly equivalent in the sense that it defines the same language with isomorphic derivations. However, the structure-building rules of MGs but not MCFGs are defined in a way that generalizes across categories. Consequently, MGs can be exponentially more succinct than their MCFG equivalents, and this difference shows in parsing models too. An incremental, top-down beam parser for MGs is defined here, sound and complete for all MGs, and hence also capable of parsing all MCFG languages. But since the parser represents its grammar transparently, the relative succinctness of MGs is again evident. Although the determinants of MG structure are narrowly and discretely defined, probabilistic influences from a much broader domain can influence even the earliest analytic steps, allowing frequency and context effects to come early and from almost anywhere, as expected in incremental models. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Incremental Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Sheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is a promising approach for local feature extraction in face recognition tasks. However, there are two major drawbacks in almost all existing NMF-based methods. One shortcoming is that the computational cost is expensive for large matrix decomposition. The other is that it must conduct repetitive learning, when the training samples or classes are updated. To overcome these two limitations, this paper proposes a novel incremental nonnegative matrix factorization (INMF for face representation and recognition. The proposed INMF approach is based on a novel constraint criterion and our previous block strategy. It thus has some good properties, such as low computational complexity, sparse coefficient matrix. Also, the coefficient column vectors between different classes are orthogonal. In particular, it can be applied to incremental learning. Two face databases, namely FERET and CMU PIE face databases, are selected for evaluation. Compared with PCA and some state-of-the-art NMF-based methods, our INMF approach gives the best performance.

  7. [Incremental cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, N; Dick, H B; Krummenauer, F

    2007-02-01

    Supplementation of cataract patients with multifocal intraocular lenses involves an additional financial investment when compared to the corresponding monofocal supplementation, which usually is not funded by German health care insurers. In the context of recent resource allocation discussions, however, the cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery could become an important rationale. Therefore an evidence-based estimation of its cost effectiveness was carried out. Three independent meta-analyses were implemented to estimate the gain in uncorrected near visual acuity and best corrected visual acuity (vision lines) as well as the predictability (fraction of patients without need for reading aids) of multifocal supplementation. Study reports published between 1995 and 2004 (English or German language) were screened for appropriate key words. Meta effects in visual gain and predictability were estimated by means and standard deviations of the reported effect measures. Cost data were estimated by German DRG rates and individual lens costs; the cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery was then computed in terms of its marginal cost effectiveness ratio (MCER) for each clinical benefit endpoint; the incremental costs of multifocal versus monofocal cataract surgery were further estimated by means of their respective incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). An independent meta-analysis estimated the complication profiles to be expected after monofocal and multifocal cataract surgery in order to evaluate expectable complication-associated additional costs of both procedures; the marginal and incremental cost effectiveness estimates were adjusted accordingly. A sensitivity analysis comprised cost variations of +/- 10 % and utility variations alongside the meta effect estimate's 95 % confidence intervals. Total direct costs from the health care insurer's perspective were estimated 3363 euro, associated with a visual meta benefit in best corrected visual

  8. Phase retrieval via incremental truncated amplitude flow algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanbing; Wang, Zhifa; Wang, Linjie; Cheng, Shichao

    2017-10-01

    This paper considers the phase retrieval problem of recovering the unknown signal from the given quadratic measurements. A phase retrieval algorithm based on Incremental Truncated Amplitude Flow (ITAF) which combines the ITWF algorithm and the TAF algorithm is proposed. The proposed ITAF algorithm enhances the initialization by performing both of the truncation methods used in ITWF and TAF respectively, and improves the performance in the gradient stage by applying the incremental method proposed in ITWF to the loop stage of TAF. Moreover, the original sampling vector and measurements are preprocessed before initialization according to the variance of the sensing matrix. Simulation experiments verified the feasibility and validity of the proposed ITAF algorithm. The experimental results show that it can obtain higher success rate and faster convergence speed compared with other algorithms. Especially, for the noiseless random Gaussian signals, ITAF can recover any real-valued signal accurately from the magnitude measurements whose number is about 2.5 times of the signal length, which is close to the theoretic limit (about 2 times of the signal length). And it usually converges to the optimal solution within 20 iterations which is much less than the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  9. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi

    2011-10-01

    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper. © 2011 IEEE

  10. Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion and Multihole Pressure Probes for Disturbance Rejection Control of Fixed-wing Micro Air Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeur, E.J.J.; Remes, B.D.W.; de Wagter, C.; Chu, Q.; J.-M. Moschetta G. Hattenberger, H. de Plinval

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining stable flight during high turbulence intensities is challenging for fixed-wing micro air vehicles (MAV). Two methods are proposed
    to improve the disturbance rejection performance of the MAV: incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion (INDI) control and phaseadvanced pitch probes. INDI

  11. Incremental change or initial differences? Testing two models of marital deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2012-08-01

    Most couples begin marriage intent on maintaining a fulfilling relationship, but some newlyweds soon struggle, and others continue to experience high levels of satisfaction. Do these diverse outcomes result from an incremental process that unfolds over time, as prevailing models suggest, or are they a manifestation of initial differences that are largely evident at the start of the marriage? Using 8 waves of data collected over the first 4 years of marriage (N = 502 spouses, or 251 newlywed marriages), we tested these competing perspectives first by identifying 3 qualitatively distinct relationship satisfaction trajectory groups and then by determining the extent to which spouses in these groups were differentiated on the basis of (a) initial scores and (b) 4-year changes in a set of established predictor variables, including relationship problems, aggression, attributions, stress, and self-esteem. The majority of spouses exhibited high, stable satisfaction over the first 4 years of marriage, whereas declining satisfaction was isolated among couples with relatively low initial satisfaction. Across all predictor variables, initial values afforded stronger discrimination of outcome groups than did rates of change in these variables. Thus, readily measured initial differences are potent antecedents of relationship deterioration, and studies are now needed to clarify the specific ways in which initial indices of risk come to influence changes in spouses' judgments of relationship satisfaction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Broad Learning System: An Effective and Efficient Incremental Learning System Without the Need for Deep Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L Philip; Liu, Zhulin

    2018-01-01

    Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes." The incremental learning algorithms are developed for fast remodeling in broad expansion without a retraining process if the network deems to be expanded. Two incremental learning algorithms are given for both the increment of the feature nodes (or filters in deep structure) and the increment of the enhancement nodes. The designed model and algorithms are very versatile for selecting a model rapidly. In addition, another incremental learning is developed for a system that has been modeled encounters a new incoming input. Specifically, the system can be remodeled in an incremental way without the entire retraining from the beginning. Satisfactory result for model reduction using singular value decomposition is conducted to simplify the final structure. Compared with existing deep neural networks, experimental results on the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database and NYU NORB object recognition dataset benchmark data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed BLS.

  13. Incremental Learning of Skill Collections based on Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hendrik Metzen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite forembodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced withdifferent tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agentcan learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period,i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided.Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental andself-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discoveryapproach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learnsspecific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms thatdetermine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. Weevaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuousdomains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skilllearning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch.Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and howefficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  14. Adaptive Incremental Genetic Algorithm for Task Scheduling in Cloud Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairong Duan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new commercial model that enables customers to acquire large amounts of virtual resources on demand. Resources including hardware and software can be delivered as services and measured by specific usage of storage, processing, bandwidth, etc. In Cloud computing, task scheduling is a process of mapping cloud tasks to Virtual Machines (VMs. When binding the tasks to VMs, the scheduling strategy has an important influence on the efficiency of datacenter and related energy consumption. Although many traditional scheduling algorithms have been applied in various platforms, they may not work efficiently due to the large number of user requests, the variety of computation resources and complexity of Cloud environment. In this paper, we tackle the task scheduling problem which aims to minimize makespan by Genetic Algorithm (GA. We propose an incremental GA which has adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation. The mutation and crossover rates change according to generations and also vary between individuals. Large numbers of tasks are randomly generated to simulate various scales of task scheduling problem in Cloud environment. Based on the instance types of Amazon EC2, we implemented virtual machines with different computing capacity on CloudSim. We compared the performance of the adaptive incremental GA with that of Standard GA, Min-Min, Max-Min , Simulated Annealing and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm in finding the optimal scheme. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve feasible solutions which have acceptable makespan with less computation time.

  15. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265

  16. Characterisation of stable isotopes to identify residence times and runoff components in two meso-scale catchments in the Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleab, S.; Wenninger, J.W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the stable isotopes oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (2H) were carried out in two meso-scale catchments, Chemoga (358 km2) and Jedeb (296 km2) south of Lake Tana, Abay/Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The region is of paramount importance for the water resources in the Nile basin, as

  17. Stable isotope estimates of evaporation: inflow and water residence time for lakes across the United States as a tool for national lake water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope ratios of water (delta18O and delta2H) can be very useful in large-scale monitoring programs because water samples are easy to collect and isotope ratios integrate information about basic hydrologic processes such as evaporation as a percentage of inflow (E/I) and ...

  18. Oxygen consumption remains stable while ammonia excretion is reduced upon short time exposure to high salinity in Macrobrachium acanthurus (Caridae: Palaemonidae, a recent freshwater colonizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina A. Freire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Palaemonid shrimps occur in the tropical and temperate regions of South America and the Indo-Pacific, in brackish/freshwater habitats, and marine coastal areas. They form a clade that recently (i.e., ~30 mya invaded freshwater, and one included genus, Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, is especially successful in limnic habitats. Adult Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 dwell in coastal freshwaters, have diadromous habit, and need brackish water to develop. Thus, they are widely recognized as euryhaline. Here we test how this species responds to a short-term exposure to increased salinity. We hypothesized that abrupt exposure to high salinity would result in reduced gill ventilation/perfusion and decreased oxygen consumption. Shrimps were subjected to control (0 psu and experimental salinities (10, 20, 30 psu, for four and eight hours (n = 8 in each group. The water in the experimental containers was saturated with oxygen before the beginning of the experiment; aeration was interrupted before placing the shrimp in the experimental container. Dissolved oxygen (DO, ammonia concentration, and pH were measured from the aquaria water, at the start and end of each experiment. After exposure, the shrimp’s hemolymph was sampled for lactate and osmolality assays. Muscle tissue was sampled for hydration content (Muscle Water Content, MWC. Oxygen consumption was not reduced and hemolymph lactate did not increase with increased salinity. The pH of the water decreased with time, under all conditions. Ammonia excretion decreased with increased salinity. Hemolymph osmolality and MWC remained stable at 10 and 20 psu, but osmolality increased (~50% and MWC decreased (~4% at 30 psu. The expected reduction in oxygen consumption was not observed. This shrimp is able to tolerate significant changes in water salt concentrations for a few hours by keeping its metabolism in aerobic mode, and putatively shutting down branchial salt uptake to avoid massive salt

  19. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  20. Incremental passivity and output regulation for switched nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongbo; Zhao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies incremental passivity and global output regulation for switched nonlinear systems, whose subsystems are not required to be incrementally passive. A concept of incremental passivity for switched systems is put forward. First, a switched system is rendered incrementally passive by the design of a state-dependent switching law. Second, the feedback incremental passification is achieved by the design of a state-dependent switching law and a set of state feedback controllers. Finally, we show that once the incremental passivity for switched nonlinear systems is assured, the output regulation problem is solved by the design of global nonlinear regulator controllers comprising two components: the steady-state control and the linear output feedback stabilising controllers, even though the problem for none of subsystems is solvable. Two examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Incremental K-means Clustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Sanjay; Nagwani, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    The incremental K-means clustering algorithm has already been proposed and analysed in paper [Chakraborty and Nagwani, 2011]. It is a very innovative approach which is applicable in periodically incremental environment and dealing with a bulk of updates. In this paper the performance evaluation is done for this incremental K-means clustering algorithm using air pollution database. This paper also describes the comparison on the performance evaluations between existing K-means clustering and i...

  2. Towards a multiconfigurational method of increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertitta, E.; Koch, D.; Paulus, B.; Barcza, G.; Legeza, Ö.

    2018-06-01

    The method of increments (MoI) allows one to successfully calculate cohesive energies of bulk materials with high accuracy, but it encounters difficulties when calculating dissociation curves. The reason is that its standard formalism is based on a single Hartree-Fock (HF) configuration whose orbitals are localised and used for the many-body expansion. In situations where HF does not allow a size-consistent description of the dissociation, the MoI cannot be guaranteed to yield proper results either. Herein, we address the problem by employing a size-consistent multiconfigurational reference for the MoI formalism. This leads to a matrix equation where a coupling derived by the reference itself is employed. In principle, such an approach allows one to evaluate approximate values for the ground as well as excited states energies. While the latter are accurate close to the avoided crossing only, the ground state results are very promising for the whole dissociation curve, as shown by the comparison with density matrix renormalisation group benchmarks. We tested this two-state constant-coupling MoI on beryllium rings of different sizes and studied the error introduced by the constant coupling.

  3. Power variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, J.M.; Podolskij, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We develop the asymptotic theory for the realised power variation of the processes X=•G, where G is a Gaussian process with stationary increments. More specifically, under some mild assumptions on the variance function of the increments of G and certain regularity conditions on the path of the pr......We develop the asymptotic theory for the realised power variation of the processes X=•G, where G is a Gaussian process with stationary increments. More specifically, under some mild assumptions on the variance function of the increments of G and certain regularity conditions on the path...... a chaos representation....

  4. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2014-10-31

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

  5. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Lee, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

  6. Potential stocks and increments of woody biomass in the European Union under different management and climate scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Georg E; Schörghuber, Stefan; Linkosalo, Tapio; Sanchez, Anabel; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert; Lexer, Manfred J

    2013-02-01

    Forests play an important role in the global carbon flow. They can store carbon and can also provide wood which can substitute other materials. In EU27 the standing biomass is steadily increasing. Increments and harvests seem to have reached a plateau between 2005 and 2010. One reason for reaching this plateau will be the circumstance that the forests are getting older. High ages have the advantage that they typical show high carbon concentration and the disadvantage that the increment rates are decreasing. It should be investigated how biomass stock, harvests and increments will develop under different climate scenarios and two management scenarios where one is forcing to store high biomass amounts in forests and the other tries to have high increment rates and much harvested wood. A management which is maximising standing biomass will raise the stem wood carbon stocks from 30 tC/ha to 50 tC/ha until 2100. A management which is maximising increments will lower the stock to 20 tC/ha until 2100. The estimates for the climate scenarios A1b, B1 and E1 are different but there is much more effect by the management target than by the climate scenario. By maximising increments the harvests are 0.4 tC/ha/year higher than in the management which maximises the standing biomass. The increments until 2040 are close together but around 2100 the increments when maximising standing biomass are approximately 50 % lower than those when maximising increments. Cold regions will benefit from the climate changes in the climate scenarios by showing higher increments. The results of this study suggest that forest management should maximise increments, not stocks to be more efficient in sense of climate change mitigation. This is true especially for regions which have already high carbon stocks in forests, what is the case in many regions in Europe. During the time span 2010-2100 the forests of EU27 will absorb additional 1750 million tC if they are managed to maximise increments compared

  7. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  8. Stem analysis program (GOAP for evaluating of increment and growth data at individual tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafura Aylak Özdemir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem analysis is a method evaluating in a detailed way data of increment and growth of individual tree at the past periods and widely used in various forestry disciplines. Untreated data of stem analysis consist of annual ring count and measurement procedures performed on cross sections taken from individual tree by section method. The evaluation of obtained this untreated data takes quite some time. Thus, a computer software was developed in this study to quickly and efficiently perform stem analysis. This computer software developed to evaluate untreated data of stem analysis as numerical and graphical was programmed as macro by utilizing Visual Basic for Application feature of MS Excel 2013 program currently the most widely used. In developed this computer software, growth height model is formed from two different approaches, individual tree volume depending on section method, cross-sectional area, increments of diameter, height and volume, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height are calculated depending on desired period lengths. This calculated values are given as table. Development of diameter, height, volume, increments of these variables, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height according to periodic age are given as chart. Stem model showing development of diameter, height and shape of individual tree in the past periods also can be taken from computer software as chart.

  9. Defense Agencies Initiative Increment 2 (DAI Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    module. In an ADM dated September 23, 2013, the MDA established Increment 2 as a MAIS program to include budget formulation; grants financial...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Defense Agencies Initiative Increment 2 (DAI Inc 2) Defense Acquisition Management...President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then

  10. Incrementality in naming and reading complex numerals: Evidence from eyetracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korvorst, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals speak incrementally when they interleave planning and articulation. Eyetracking, along with the measurement of speech onset latencies, can be used to gain more insight into the degree of incrementality adopted by speakers. In the current article, two eyetracking experiments are reported

  11. Lifetime costs of lung transplantation : Estimation of incremental costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanEnckevort, PJ; Koopmanschap, MA; Tenvergert, EM; VanderBij, W; Rutten, FFH

    1997-01-01

    Despite an expanding number of centres which provide lung transplantation, information about the incremental costs of lung transplantation is scarce. From 1991 until 1995, in The Netherlands a technology assessment was performed which provided information about the incremental costs of lung

  12. Finance for incremental housing: current status and prospects for expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, B.; Smets, P.G.S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate finance can greatly increase the speed and lower the cost of incremental housing - the process used by much of the low/moderate-income majority of most developing countries to acquire shelter. Informal finance continues to dominate the funding of incremental housing. However, new sources

  13. Validation of the periodicity of growth increment deposition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validation of the periodicity of growth increment deposition in otoliths from the larval and early juvenile stages of two cyprinids from the Orange–Vaal river ... Linear regression models were fitted to the known age post-fertilisation and the age estimated using increment counts to test the correspondence between the two for ...

  14. 76 FR 73475 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I, 76 FR 53764 (Aug. 29, 2011). The final rule removed form... [CIS No. 2481-09; Docket No. USCIS-2009-0022] RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, DHS. ACTION: Final...

  15. 76 FR 53763 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ..., 100, et al. Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, DHS... USCIS is engaged in an enterprise-wide transformation effort to implement new business processes and to...

  16. Creating Helical Tool Paths for Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Hancock, Michael H.; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a relatively new sheet forming process. A sheet is clamped in a rig and formed incrementally using a rotating single point tool in the form of a rod with a spherical end. The process is often performed on a CNC milling machine and the tool movement...

  17. On conditional scalar increment and joint velocity-scalar increment statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hengbin; Wang Danhong; Tong Chenning

    2004-01-01

    Conditional velocity and scalar increment statistics are usually studied in the context of Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses and are considered universal (quasi-Gaussian) for inertial-range separations. In such analyses the locally averaged energy and scalar dissipation rates are used as conditioning variables. Recent studies have shown that certain local turbulence structures can be captured when the local scalar variance (φ 2 ) r and the local kinetic energy k r are used as the conditioning variables. We study the conditional increments using these conditioning variables, which also provide the local turbulence scales. Experimental data obtained in the fully developed region of an axisymmetric turbulent jet are used to compute the statistics. The conditional scalar increment probability density function (PDF) conditional on (φ 2 ) r is found to be close to Gaussian for (φ 2 ) r small compared with its mean and is sub-Gaussian and bimodal for large (φ 2 ) r , and therefore is not universal. We find that the different shapes of the conditional PDFs are related to the instantaneous degree of non-equilibrium (production larger than dissipation) of the local scalar. There is further evidence of this from the conditional PDF conditional on both (φ 2 ) r and χ r , which is largely a function of (φ 2 ) r /χ r , a measure of the degree of non-equilibrium. The velocity-scalar increment joint PDF is close to joint Gaussian and quad-modal for equilibrium and non-equilibrium local velocity and scalar, respectively. The latter shape is associated with a combination of the ramp-cliff and plane strain structures. Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses also predict a dependence of the conditional PDF on the degree of non-equilibrium. Therefore, the quasi-Gaussian (joint) PDF, previously observed in the context of Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses, is only one of the conditional PDF shapes of inertial range turbulence. The present study suggests that

  18. One-Year stable perovskite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancini, G.; Roldán-Carmona, C.; Zimmermann, I.; Mosconi, E.; Lee, X.; Martineau, D.; Narbey, S.; Oswald, F.; de Angelis, F.; Graetzel, M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2017-06-01

    Despite the impressive photovoltaic performances with power conversion efficiency beyond 22%, perovskite solar cells are poorly stable under operation, failing by far the market requirements. Various technological approaches have been proposed to overcome the instability problem, which, while delivering appreciable incremental improvements, are still far from a market-proof solution. Here we show one-year stable perovskite devices by engineering an ultra-stable 2D/3D (HOOC(CH2)4NH3)2PbI4/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite junction. The 2D/3D forms an exceptional gradually-organized multi-dimensional interface that yields up to 12.9% efficiency in a carbon-based architecture, and 14.6% in standard mesoporous solar cells. To demonstrate the up-scale potential of our technology, we fabricate 10 × 10 cm2 solar modules by a fully printable industrial-scale process, delivering 11.2% efficiency stable for >10,000 h with zero loss in performances measured under controlled standard conditions. This innovative stable and low-cost architecture will enable the timely commercialization of perovskite solar cells.

  19. Effectiveness and risks of stable iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The factors upon which the efficacy of stable iodine prophylaxis depends are reviewed, with particular reference to the dose of stable iodine, the timing of the dose, the influence of dietary iodine and the impact of the other prospective actions. The risks of stable iodine ingestion are estimated, and their application to the principle of Justification in outlined. (Author)

  20. TCAM-based High Speed Longest Prefix Matching with Fast Incremental Table Updates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Kragelund, A.; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    and consequently a higher throughput of the network search engine, since the TCAM down time caused by incremental updates is eliminated. The LPM scheme is described in HDL for FPGA implementation and compared to an existing scheme for customized CAM circuits. The paper shows that the proposed scheme can process...

  1. Substructuring in the implicit simulation of single point incremental sheet forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadoush, A.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a direct substructuring method to reduce the computing time of implicit simulations of single point incremental forming (SPIF). Substructuring is used to divide the finite element (FE) mesh into several non-overlapping parts. Based on the hypothesis that plastic deformation is

  2. Methods of determining incremental energy costs for economic dispatch and inter-utility interchange in Canadian utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, M.E.; El-Hawary, F.; Mbamalu, G.A.N.

    1991-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to ten Canadian utilities to determine the methods the utilities use in determining the incremental cost of delivering energy at any time. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: generation, transmission and general. The generation section dealt with heat rates, fuel, operation and maintenance, startup and shutdown, and method of prioritizing and economic evaluation of interchange transactions. Transmission dealt with inclusion of transmission system incremental maintenance costs, and transmission losses determination. The general section dealt with incremental costs aspects, and various other economic considerations. A summary is presented of responses to the questionnaire

  3. PCA/INCREMENT MEMORY interface for analog processors on-line with PC-XT/AT IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biri, S.; Buttsev, V.S.; Molnar, J.; Samojlov, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    The functional and operational descriptions on PCA/INCREMENT MEMORY interface are discussed. The following is solved with this unit: connection between the analogue signal processor and PC, nuclear spectrum acquisition up to 2 24 -1 counts/channel using increment or decrement method, data read/write from or to memory via data bus PC during the spectrum acquisition. Dual ported memory organization is 4096x24 bit, increment cycle time at 4.77 MHz system clock frequency is 1.05 μs. 6 refs.; 2 figs

  4. Efficiency of Oral Incremental Rehearsal versus Written Incremental Rehearsal on Students' Rate, Retention, and Generalization of Spelling Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dru; Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Konrad, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of an incremental rehearsal oral versus an incremental rehearsal written procedure on a sample of primary grade children's weekly spelling performance. Participants included five second and one first grader who were in need of help with their spelling according to their teachers. An…

  5. Incremental cost of PACS in a medical intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Cleff, Bridget; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Bozzo, Mary T.; Redfern, Regina O.; Brikman, Inna; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Horii, Steven C.; Kundel, Harold L.

    1995-05-01

    Our purpose is to determine the incremental costs (or savings) due to the introduction of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and computed radiology (CR) in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Our economic analysis consists of three measurement methods. The first method is an assessment of the direct costs to the radiology department, implemented in a spreadsheet model. The second method consists of a series of brief observational studies to measure potential changes in personnel costs that might not be reflected in administrative claims. The third method (results not reported here) is a multivariate modeling technique which estimates the independent effect of PACS/CR on the cost of care (estimated from administrative claims data), while controlling for clinical case- mix variables. Our direct cost model shows no cost savings to the radiology department after the introduction of PACS in the medical intensive care unit. Savings in film supplies and film library personnel are offset by increases in capital equipment costs and PACS operation personnel. The results of observational studies to date demonstrate significant savings in clinician film-search time, but no significant change in technologist time or lost films. Our model suggests that direct radiology costs will increase after the limited introduction of PACS/CR in the MICU. Our observational studies show a small but significant effect on clinician film search time by the introduction of PACS/CR in the MICU, but no significant effect on other variables. The projected costs of a hospital-wide PACS are currently under study.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Incremental Sheet Forming by Simplified Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamézière, A.; Yu, Y.; Robert, C.; Ayed, L. Ben; Nouari, M.; Batoz, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a process, which can transform a flat metal sheet in a 3D complex part using a hemispherical tool. The final geometry of the product is obtained by the relative movement between this tool and the blank. The main advantage of that process is that the cost of the tool is very low compared to deep drawing with rigid tools. The main disadvantage is the very low velocity of the tool and thus the large amount of time to form the part. Classical contact algorithms give good agreement with experimental results, but are time consuming. A Simplified Approach for the contact management between the tool and the blank in ISF is presented here. The general principle of this approach is to imposed displacement of the nodes in contact with the tool at a given position. On a benchmark part, the CPU time of the present Simplified Approach is significantly reduced compared with a classical simulation performed with Abaqus implicit.

  7. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  8. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  9. Western Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability on different time scales. A study based on stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, benthic foraminiferal assemblages and Mg/Ca paleothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romahn, Sarah

    2014-08-19

    In order to understand the Earth's climate evolution it is crucial to evaluate the role of low-latitude oceans in the global climate system, as they are connected to both hemispheres via atmospheric and oceanic circulation and thus hold the potential to disentangle the asynchronicity of short-term Pleistocene climate variability. However, the potential of low latitude oceans to respond to and force large-scale changes of the climate system is still debated. The aim of this thesis is to examine and to understand the causal relationship of both atmospheric and oceanic changes in the tropical western Indian Ocean on centennial-, millennial and glacial-interglacial timescales. For this purpose I investigated stable oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of both planktic and benthic foraminiferal tests, Mg/Ca ratios of planktic foraminiferal tests as well as benthic foraminiferal assemblages and sedimentary geochemical parameters on two sediment cores (GeoB12615-4, 446 m and GeoB12616-4, 1449 m) from the continental slope off Tanzania, East Africa.

  10. A Mid-scala Cochlear Implant Electrode Design Achieves a Stable Post-surgical Position in the Cochlea of Patients Over Time-A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Guido; Smits, Jeroen Jules; Janssen, A Miranda L; Hof, Janny R; Gazibegovic, Dzemal; Hoof, Marc van; Stokroos, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) electrode design impacts the clinical performance of patients. Stability and the occurrence of electrode array migration, which is the postoperative movement of the electrode array, were investigated using a mid-scalar electrode array and postoperative image analysis. A prospective observational study was conducted. A mid-scalar electrode was surgically placed using a mastoidectomy, followed by a posterior tympanotomy and an extended round-window or cochleostomy insertion. A few days after surgery and 3 months later Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) was performed. The two different CBCT's were fused, and the differences between the electrode positions in three dimensions were calculated (the migration). A migration greater than 0.5 mm was deemed clinically relevant. Fourteen subjects participated. The mid-scalar electrode migrated in one patient (7%). This did not lead to the extrusion of an electrode contact. The mean migration of every individual electrode contact in all patients was 0.36 mm (95% confidence interval 0.22-0.50 mm), which approximates to the estimated measurement error of the CBCT technique. A mid-scalar electrode array achieves a stable position in the cochlea in a small but representative group of patients. The methods applied in this work can be used for providing postoperative feedback for surgeons and for benchmarking electrode designs.

  11. Western Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability on different time scales. A study based on stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, benthic foraminiferal assemblages and Mg/Ca paleothermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romahn, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the Earth's climate evolution it is crucial to evaluate the role of low-latitude oceans in the global climate system, as they are connected to both hemispheres via atmospheric and oceanic circulation and thus hold the potential to disentangle the asynchronicity of short-term Pleistocene climate variability. However, the potential of low latitude oceans to respond to and force large-scale changes of the climate system is still debated. The aim of this thesis is to examine and to understand the causal relationship of both atmospheric and oceanic changes in the tropical western Indian Ocean on centennial-, millennial and glacial-interglacial timescales. For this purpose I investigated stable oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of both planktic and benthic foraminiferal tests, Mg/Ca ratios of planktic foraminiferal tests as well as benthic foraminiferal assemblages and sedimentary geochemical parameters on two sediment cores (GeoB12615-4, 446 m and GeoB12616-4, 1449 m) from the continental slope off Tanzania, East Africa.

  12. An incremental anomaly detection model for virtual machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hancui; Chen, Shuyu; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Zhen; Wu, Tianshu

    2017-01-01

    Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm as an unsupervised learning method has been applied in anomaly detection due to its capabilities of self-organizing and automatic anomaly prediction. However, because of the algorithm is initialized in random, it takes a long time to train a detection model. Besides, the Cloud platforms with large scale virtual machines are prone to performance anomalies due to their high dynamic and resource sharing characters, which makes the algorithm present a low accuracy and a low scalability. To address these problems, an Improved Incremental Self-Organizing Map (IISOM) model is proposed for anomaly detection of virtual machines. In this model, a heuristic-based initialization algorithm and a Weighted Euclidean Distance (WED) algorithm are introduced into SOM to speed up the training process and improve model quality. Meanwhile, a neighborhood-based searching algorithm is presented to accelerate the detection time by taking into account the large scale and high dynamic features of virtual machines on cloud platform. To demonstrate the effectiveness, experiments on a common benchmark KDD Cup dataset and a real dataset have been performed. Results suggest that IISOM has advantages in accuracy and convergence velocity of anomaly detection for virtual machines on cloud platform. PMID:29117245

  13. An incremental anomaly detection model for virtual machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancui Zhang

    Full Text Available Self-Organizing Map (SOM algorithm as an unsupervised learning method has been applied in anomaly detection due to its capabilities of self-organizing and automatic anomaly prediction. However, because of the algorithm is initialized in random, it takes a long time to train a detection model. Besides, the Cloud platforms with large scale virtual machines are prone to performance anomalies due to their high dynamic and resource sharing characters, which makes the algorithm present a low accuracy and a low scalability. To address these problems, an Improved Incremental Self-Organizing Map (IISOM model is proposed for anomaly detection of virtual machines. In this model, a heuristic-based initialization algorithm and a Weighted Euclidean Distance (WED algorithm are introduced into SOM to speed up the training process and improve model quality. Meanwhile, a neighborhood-based searching algorithm is presented to accelerate the detection time by taking into account the large scale and high dynamic features of virtual machines on cloud platform. To demonstrate the effectiveness, experiments on a common benchmark KDD Cup dataset and a real dataset have been performed. Results suggest that IISOM has advantages in accuracy and convergence velocity of anomaly detection for virtual machines on cloud platform.

  14. Self-consistent predictor/corrector algorithms for stable and efficient integration of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Herbert, John M.

    2018-01-01

    The "real time" formulation of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) involves integration of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham (TDKS) equation in order to describe the time evolution of the electron density following a perturbation. This approach, which is complementary to the more traditional linear-response formulation of TDDFT, is more efficient for computation of broad-band spectra (including core-excited states) and for systems where the density of states is large. Integration of the TDKS equation is complicated by the time-dependent nature of the effective Hamiltonian, and we introduce several predictor/corrector algorithms to propagate the density matrix, one of which can be viewed as a self-consistent extension of the widely used modified-midpoint algorithm. The predictor/corrector algorithms facilitate larger time steps and are shown to be more efficient despite requiring more than one Fock build per time step, and furthermore can be used to detect a divergent simulation on-the-fly, which can then be halted or else the time step modified.

  15. Successive 1-Month Weight Increments in Infancy Can Be Used to Screen for Faltering Linear Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Adelheid W; Borghi, Elaine; de Onis, Mercedes; Frongillo, Edward A; Victora, Cesar G; Dewey, Kathryn G; Lartey, Anna; Bhandari, Nita; Baerug, Anne; Garza, Cutberto

    2015-12-01

    Linear growth faltering in the first 2 y contributes greatly to a high stunting burden, and prevention is hampered by the limited capacity in primary health care for timely screening and intervention. This study aimed to determine an approach to predicting long-term stunting from consecutive 1-mo weight increments in the first year of life. By using the reference sample of the WHO velocity standards, the analysis explored patterns of consecutive monthly weight increments among healthy infants. Four candidate screening thresholds of successive increments that could predict stunting were considered, and one was selected for further testing. The selected threshold was applied in a cohort of Bangladeshi infants to assess its predictive value for stunting at ages 12 and 24 mo. Between birth and age 12 mo, 72.6% of infants in the WHO sample tracked within 1 SD of their weight and length. The selected screening criterion ("event") was 2 consecutive monthly increments below the 15th percentile. Bangladeshi infants were born relatively small and, on average, tracked downward from approximately age 6 to strategy is effective, the estimated preventable proportion in the group who experienced the event would be 34% at 12 mo and 24% at 24 mo. This analysis offers an approach for frontline workers to identify children at risk of stunting, allowing for timely initiation of preventive measures. It opens avenues for further investigation into evidence-informed application of the WHO growth velocity standards. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Stable measures of number sense accuracy in math learning disability: Is it time to proceed from basic science to clinical application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Starling-Alves, Isabella; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Wood, Guilherme; Haase, Vitor Geraldi

    2015-12-01

    Math learning disability (MLD) or developmental dyscalculia is a highly prevalent and persistent difficulty in learning arithmetic that may be explained by different cognitive mechanisms. The accuracy of the number sense has been implicated by some evidence as a core deficit in MLD. However, research on this topic has been mainly conducted in demographically selected samples, using arbitrary cut-off scores to characterize MLD. The clinical relevance of the association between number sense and MLD remains to be investigated. In this study, we aimed at assessing the stability of a number sense accuracy measure (w) across five experimental sessions, in two clinically defined cases of MLD. Stable measures of number sense accuracy estimate are required to clinically characterize subtypes of MLD and to make theoretical inferences regarding the underlying cognitive mechanisms. G. A. was a 10-year-old boy with MLD in the context of dyslexia and phonological processing impairment and his performance remained steadily in the typical scores range. The performance of H. V., a 9-year-old girl with MLD associated with number sense inaccuracy, remained consistently impaired across measurements, with a nonsignificant tendency to worsen. Qualitatively, H. V.'s performance was also characterized by greater variability across sessions. Concomitant clinical observations suggested that H. V.'s difficulties could be aggravated by developing symptoms of mathematics anxiety. Results in these two cases are in line with the hypotheses that at least two reliable patterns of cognitive impairment may underlie math learning difficulties in MLD, one related to number sense inaccuracy and the other to phonological processing impairment. Additionally, it indicates the need for more translational research in order to examine the usefulness and validity of theoretical advances in numerical cognition to the clinical neuropsychological practice with MLD. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese

  17. Parallel Algorithm for Incremental Betweenness Centrality on Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Jamour, Fuad Tarek; Skiadopoulos, Spiros; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    : they either require excessive memory (i.e., quadratic to the size of the input graph) or perform unnecessary computations rendering them prohibitively slow. We propose iCentral; a novel incremental algorithm for computing betweenness centrality in evolving

  18. Incremental Frequent Subgraph Mining on Large Evolving Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab; Canim, Mustafa; Sadoghi, Mohammad; Bhatta, Bishwaranjan; Chang, Yuan-Chi; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    , such as social networks, utilize large evolving graphs. Mining these graphs using existing techniques is infeasible, due to the high computational cost. In this paper, we propose IncGM+, a fast incremental approach for continuous frequent subgraph mining problem

  19. Increment and mortality in a virgin Douglas-fir forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Steele; Norman P. Worthington

    1955-01-01

    Is there any basis to the forester's rule of thumb that virgin forests eventually reach an equilibrium where increment and mortality approximately balance? Are we wasting potential timber volume by failing to salvage mortality in old-growth stands?

  20. Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5) Defense Acquisition Management Information...President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year...Phone: 845-9625 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: May 19, 2014 Program Information Program Name Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5) DoD

  1. Shredder: GPU-Accelerated Incremental Storage and Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatotia, Pramod; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Verma, Akshat

    2012-01-01

    Redundancy elimination using data deduplication and incremental data processing has emerged as an important technique to minimize storage and computation requirements in data center computing. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and evaluation of Shredder, a high performance content-based chunking framework for supporting incremental storage and computation systems. Shredder exploits the massively parallel processing power of GPUs to overcome the CPU bottlenecks of content-ba...

  2. On the instability increments of a stationary pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    The stability of stationary pinch to helical modes is numerically studied. It is shown that in the case of a rather fast plasma pressure decrease to the pinch boundary, for example, for an isothermal diffusion pinch with Gauss density distribution instabilities with m=0 modes are the most quickly growing. Instability increments are calculated. A simple analytical expression of a maximum increment of growth of sausage instability for automodel Gauss profiles is obtained

  3. Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    modal biometrics submissions to include iris, face, palm and finger prints from biometrics collection devices, which will support the Warfighter in...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) Defense Acquisition Management...Phone: 227-3119 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 15, 2015 Program Information Program Name Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) DoD

  4. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual’s processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution err...

  5. Logistics Modernization Program Increment 2 (LMP Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Sections 3 and 4 of the LMP Increment 2 Business Case, ADM), key functional requirements, Critical Design Review (CDR) Reports, and Economic ...from the 2013 version of the LMP Increment 2 Economic Analysis and replace it with references to the Economic Analysis that will be completed...of ( inbound /outbound) IDOCs into the system. LMP must be able to successfully process 95% of ( inbound /outbound) IDOCs into the system. Will meet

  6. Organization Strategy and Structural Differences for Radical Versus Incremental Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Ettlie; William P. Bridges; Robert D. O'Keefe

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of the organizational innovation process that suggests that the strategy-structure causal sequence is differentiated by radical versus incremental innovation. That is, unique strategy and structure will be required for radical innovation, especially process adoption, while more traditional strategy and structure arrangements tend to support new product introduction and incremental process adoption. This differentiated theory is strongly supported ...

  7. Incremental Learning for Place Recognition in Dynamic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jie; Pronobis, Andrzej; Caputo, Barbara; Jensfelt, Patric

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a discriminative approach to template-based Vision-based place recognition is a desirable feature for an autonomous mobile system. In order to work in realistic scenarios, visual recognition algorithms should be adaptive, i.e. should be able to learn from experience and adapt continuously to changes in the environment. This paper presents a discriminative incremental learning approach to place recognition. We use a recently introduced version of the incremental SVM, which ...

  8. MRI: Modular reasoning about interference in incremental programming

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Bruno C. D. S; Schrijvers, Tom; Cook, William R

    2012-01-01

    Incremental Programming (IP) is a programming style in which new program components are defined as increments of other components. Examples of IP mechanisms include: Object-oriented programming (OOP) inheritance, aspect-oriented programming (AOP) advice and feature-oriented programming (FOP). A characteristic of IP mechanisms is that, while individual components can be independently defined, the composition of components makes those components become tightly coupled, sh...

  9. Incremental short daily home hemodialysis: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M.; Mullangi, Surekha; Hwang, Seungyoung; Shafi, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients? residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. Case presentation From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an ...

  10. Atmospheric response to Saharan dust deduced from ECMWF reanalysis increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, P.; Alpert, P.; Barkan, J.; Kirchner, I.; Machenhauer, B.

    2003-04-01

    This study focuses on the atmospheric temperature response to dust deduced from a new source of data - the European Reanalysis (ERA) increments. These increments are the systematic errors of global climate models, generated in reanalysis procedure. The model errors result not only from the lack of desert dust but also from a complex combination of many kinds of model errors. Over the Sahara desert the dust radiative effect is believed to be a predominant model defect which should significantly affect the increments. This dust effect was examined by considering correlation between the increments and remotely-sensed dust. Comparisons were made between April temporal variations of the ERA analysis increments and the variations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer aerosol index (AI) between 1979 and 1993. The distinctive structure was identified in the distribution of correlation composed of three nested areas with high positive correlation (> 0.5), low correlation, and high negative correlation (Forecast(ECMWF) suggests that the PCA (NCA) corresponds mainly to anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow, negative (positive) vorticity, and downward (upward) airflow. These facts indicate an interaction between dust-forced heating /cooling and atmospheric circulation. The April correlation results are supported by the analysis of vertical distribution of dust concentration, derived from the 24-hour dust prediction system at Tel Aviv University (website: http://earth.nasa.proj.ac.il/dust/current/). For other months the analysis is more complicated because of the essential increasing of humidity along with the northward progress of the ITCZ and the significant impact on the increments.

  11. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Is 30 years enough time to niche segregation between a non-native and a native congeneric fish species? Evidences from stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Zaia Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasion of non-native species that are phylogenetically similar to native species was observed in the Upper Paraná River following the construction of the Itaipu hydroelectric plant and subsequent removal of a natural geographic barrier (Sete Quedas Falls. Endemic fish species from the Lower Paraná River, such as the piranha Serrasalmus marginatus, successfully colonized the new environment. A few years later, S. marginatus had become the dominant species, while the prevalence of the congeneric species, Serrasalmus maculatus, had declined. Considering that the two piranha species naturally coexist in the Pantanal and that S. marginatus is a non-native species in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, we hypothesized that trophic niche overlap between Serrasalmus species only occurred in the Upper Paraná River floodplain due to short-term co-existence. The study area in which the isotopic niche overlap between S. maculatus and S. marginatus was evaluated consisted of two ponds located in different floodplains, the Pantanal and the Upper Paraná River. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis to elucidate the differences in the energy intake by the native and non-native species. We used mixing models and calculated the isotopic niche area and niche overlap to infer the nature of the trophic interactions between the species in both habitats. According to the mixing model, the predominant source of carbon for both species was terrestrial. Nevertheless, in Upper Paraná River, the δ13C signature of the two species differed significantly and the non-native species had a greater niche width than the native species. In the Pantanal, there were no differences in δ13C, but the species differed with respect to δ 15N, and the niche widths were narrow for both species.Based on these results, it can be inferred that the species depend on different food sources. Piranhas obtain energy from distinct prey species, which probably consume

  13. Incremental System Modelling in Event-B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    demonstrate how this can be applied to cope with the complexity of specifications. On the one hand we benefit from the reduced number of detail to consider at different times. On the other hand we are encouraged to reason about the formal model since the beginning and to rethink it occasionally to capture...

  14. Validation of daily increments periodicity in otoliths of spotted gar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.; Frenette, Bryan D.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate age and growth information is essential in successful management of fish populations and for understanding early life history. We validated daily increment deposition, including the timing of first ring formation, for spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) through 127 days post hatch. Fry were produced from hatchery-spawned specimens, and up to 10 individuals per week were sacrificed and their otoliths (sagitta, lapillus, and asteriscus) removed for daily age estimation. Daily age estimates for all three otolith pairs were significantly related to known age. The strongest relationships existed for measurements from the sagitta (r2 = 0.98) and the lapillus (r2 = 0.99) with asteriscus (r2 = 0.95) the lowest. All age prediction models resulted in a slope near unity, indicating that ring deposition occurred approximately daily. Initiation of ring formation varied among otolith types, with deposition beginning 3, 7, and 9 days for the sagitta, lapillus, and asteriscus, respectively. Results of this study suggested that otoliths are useful to estimate daily age of spotted gar juveniles; these data may be used to back calculate hatch dates, estimate early growth rates, and correlate with environmental factor that influence spawning in wild populations. is early life history information will be valuable in better understanding the ecology of this species. 

  15. VOLATILITAS RELEVANSI NILAI INCREMENTAL DARI LABA DAN NILAI BUKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Linggar Yekti Nugraheni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini dikaji relevansi nilai pola volatilitas pendapatan dan equitas nilai buku. Diprediksi bahwa relevansi nilai volatilitas adalah dikaitkan dengan horizon waktu. Menggunakan model Ohslon, hipotesis yang dikembangkan adalah (1 laba dan nilai buku ekuitas berhubungan positif dengan harga saham, dan (2 ada penurunan atau peningkatan patern relevansi nilai tambahan. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI (Bursa Efek Indonesia selama periode 1998-2007. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa earnings dan nilai buku ekuitas terkait secara positif dengan harga saham dan relevansi nilai laba menurun sementara ekuitas nilai buku ekuitas selama periode pengamatan. This research investigates the value of relevance volatility patern of earnings and book value equity. It is predicted that the volatility of value relevance is associated with the time horizon. Using the Ohslon model, the hypothesis developed are: (1 earnings and book value equity are associated positively with the stock price (2 There is decrease or increase patern of incremental value relevance. The sample used in this research is manufacturing companies listed in ISE (Indonesia Stock Exchange during 1998-2007 periods. The result shows that earnings and book value equity are related positively with stock price and value relevance of earnings is decreasing while book value equity is increasing during the observation periods.

  16. Automated Dimension Determination for NMF-based Incremental Collaborative Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF based collaborative filtering t e chniques h a ve a c hieved great success in product recommendations. It is well known that in NMF, the dimensions of the factor matrices have to be determined in advance. Moreover, data is growing fast; thus in some cases, the dimensions need to be changed to reduce the approximation error. The recommender systems should be capable of updating new data in a timely manner without sacrificing the prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose an NMF based data update approach with automated dimension determination for collaborative filtering purposes. The approach can determine the dimensions of the factor matrices and update them automatically. It exploits the nearest neighborhood based clustering algorithm to cluster users and items according to their auxiliary information, and uses the clusters as the constraints in NMF. The dimensions of the factor matrices are associated with the cluster quantities. When new data becomes available, the incremental clustering algorithm determines whether to increase the number of clusters or merge the existing clusters. Experiments on three different datasets (MovieLens, Sushi, and LibimSeTi were conducted to examine the proposed approach. The results show that our approach can update the data quickly and provide encouraging prediction accuracy.

  17. Automating the Incremental Evolution of Controllers for Physical Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faíña, Andrés; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary robotics is challenged with some key problems that must be solved, or at least mitigated extensively, before it can fulfill some of its promises to deliver highly autonomous and adaptive robots. The reality gap and the ability to transfer phenotypes from simulation to reality constitute one such problem. Another lies in the embodiment of the evolutionary processes, which links to the first, but focuses on how evolution can act on real agents and occur independently from simulation, that is, going from being, as Eiben, Kernbach, & Haasdijk [2012, p. 261] put it, "the evolution of things, rather than just the evolution of digital objects.…" The work presented here investigates how fully autonomous evolution of robot controllers can be realized in hardware, using an industrial robot and a marker-based computer vision system. In particular, this article presents an approach to automate the reconfiguration of the test environment and shows that it is possible, for the first time, to incrementally evolve a neural robot controller for different obstacle avoidance tasks with no human intervention. Importantly, the system offers a high level of robustness and precision that could potentially open up the range of problems amenable to embodied evolution.

  18. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-wight women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The

  19. Volatilities, traded volumes, and the hypothesis of price increments in derivative securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Scalas, Enrico; Kim, Kyungsik

    2007-08-01

    A detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is applied to the statistics of Korean treasury bond (KTB) futures from which the logarithmic increments, volatilities, and traded volumes are estimated over a specific time lag. In this study, the logarithmic increment of futures prices has no long-memory property, while the volatility and the traded volume exhibit the existence of the long-memory property. To analyze and calculate whether the volatility clustering is due to a inherent higher-order correlation not detected by with the direct application of the DFA to logarithmic increments of KTB futures, it is of importance to shuffle the original tick data of future prices and to generate a geometric Brownian random walk with the same mean and standard deviation. It was found from a comparison of the three tick data that the higher-order correlation inherent in logarithmic increments leads to volatility clustering. Particularly, the result of the DFA on volatilities and traded volumes can be supported by the hypothesis of price changes.

  20. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  1. Reliability and validity of the test of incremental respiratory endurance measures of inspiratory muscle performance in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Magno F; Roach, Kathryn E; Vital, Isabel; Urdaneta, Gisel; Balestrini, Kira; Calderon-Candelario, Rafael A; Campos, Michael A; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2018-01-01

    The Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance (TIRE) provides a comprehensive assessment of inspiratory muscle performance by measuring maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) over time. The integration of MIP over inspiratory duration (ID) provides the sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SMIP). Evidence on the reliability and validity of these measurements in COPD is not currently available. Therefore, we assessed the reliability, responsiveness and construct validity of the TIRE measures of inspiratory muscle performance in subjects with COPD. Test-retest reliability, known-groups and convergent validity assessments were implemented simultaneously in 81 male subjects with mild to very severe COPD. TIRE measures were obtained using the portable PrO2 device, following standard guidelines. All TIRE measures were found to be highly reliable, with SMIP demonstrating the strongest test-retest reliability with a nearly perfect intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.99, while MIP and ID clustered closely together behind SMIP with ICC values of about 0.97. Our findings also demonstrated known-groups validity of all TIRE measures, with SMIP and ID yielding larger effect sizes when compared to MIP in distinguishing between subjects of different COPD status. Finally, our analyses confirmed convergent validity for both SMIP and ID, but not MIP. The TIRE measures of MIP, SMIP and ID have excellent test-retest reliability and demonstrated known-groups validity in subjects with COPD. SMIP and ID also demonstrated evidence of moderate convergent validity and appear to be more stable measures in this patient population than the traditional MIP.

  2. Adaptive scallop height tool path generation for robot-based incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Patrick; Möllensiep, Dennis; Störkle, Denis Daniel; Thyssen, Lars; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Incremental sheet metal forming is an emerging process for the production of individualized products or prototypes in low batch sizes and with short times to market. In these processes, the desired shape is produced by the incremental inward motion of the workpiece-independent forming tool in depth direction and its movement along the contour in lateral direction. Based on this shape production, the tool path generation is a key factor on e.g. the resulting geometric accuracy, the resulting surface quality, and the working time. This paper presents an innovative tool path generation based on a commercial milling CAM package considering the surface quality and working time. This approach offers the ability to define a specific scallop height as an indicator of the surface quality for specific faces of a component. Moreover, it decreases the required working time for the production of the entire component compared to the use of a commercial software package without this adaptive approach. Different forming experiments have been performed to verify the newly developed tool path generation. Mainly, this approach serves to solve the existing conflict of combining the working time and the surface quality within the process of incremental sheet metal forming.

  3. The effect of time-of-day and chest physiotherapy on multiple breath washout measures in children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldby, Christian; Green, Kent; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    not previously been reported. Furthermore, we assessed the influence of chest physiotherapy on N2MBW measures. METHODS: Ten school children with cystic fibrosis performed N2MBW followed by spirometry and plethysmography in the morning and afternoon at three visits that were one month apart. Chest physiotherapy...... was performed immediately before the afternoon measurements at visit 2 and immediately before morning and afternoon measurements at visit 3. The influence of time-of-day and chest physiotherapy on the measures was evaluated using linear mixed models. RESULTS: There were adequate quality data from 8 children...... with median age (range) 9.6 (6.0; 15.1) years. Baseline lung clearance index (LCI) (range) was 9.0 (7.1; 13.0) and baseline FEV1% predicted was 97.5 (78.5; 117.9). No N2MBW measures were significantly influenced by time-of-day or chest physiotherapy. LCI (95% confidence interval) decreased non-significantly 0...

  4. Acupuncture Induces Time-Dependent Remodelling Brain Network on the Stable Somatosensory First-Ever Stroke Patients: Combining Diffusion Tensor and Functional MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different treatment interventions induce distinct remodelling of network architecture of entire motor system. Acupuncture has been proved to be of a promising efficacy in motor recovery. However, it is still unclear whether the reorganization of motor-related brain network underlying acupuncture is related with time since stroke and severity of deficit at baseline. The aim of study was to characterize the relation between motor-related brain organization following acupuncture and white matter microstructural changes at an interval of two weeks. We demonstrated that acupuncture induced differential reorganization of motor-related network for stroke patients as time-lapse since stroke. At the baseline, acupuncture can induce the increased functional connectivity between the left primary motor cortex (M1 and the right M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area (SMA, thalamus, and cerebellum. After two-week recovery, the increased functional connectivity of the left M1 was more widely distributed and primarily located in the insula, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and SMA. Furthermore, a significant negative relation existed between the FA value in the left M1 at the baseline scanning and node centrality of this region following acupuncture for both baseline and two-week recovery. Our findings may shed a new insight on understanding the reorganization of motor-related theory underlying motor impairments after brain lesions in stroke patients.

  5. Three routes forward for biofuels: Incremental, leapfrog, and transitional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Geoff M.; Witcover, Julie; Parker, Nathan C.; Fulton, Lew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines three technology routes for lowering the carbon intensity of biofuels: (1) a leapfrog route that focuses on major technological breakthroughs in lignocellulosic pathways at new, stand-alone biorefineries; (2) an incremental route in which improvements are made to existing U.S. corn ethanol and soybean biodiesel biorefineries; and (3) a transitional route in which biotechnology firms gain experience growing, handling, or chemically converting lignocellulosic biomass in a lower-risk fashion than leapfrog biorefineries by leveraging existing capital stock. We find the incremental route is likely to involve the largest production volumes and greenhouse gas benefits until at least the mid-2020s, but transitional and leapfrog biofuels together have far greater long-term potential. We estimate that the Renewable Fuel Standard, California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard, and federal tax credits provided an incentive of roughly $1.5–2.5 per gallon of leapfrog biofuel between 2012 and 2015, but that regulatory elements in these policies mostly incentivize lower-risk incremental investments. Adjustments in policy may be necessary to bring a greater focus on transitional technologies that provide targeted learning and cost reduction opportunities for leapfrog biofuels. - Highlights: • Three technological pathways are compared that lower carbon intensity of biofuels. • Incremental changes lead to faster greenhouse gas reductions. • Leapfrog changes lead to greatest long-term potential. • Two main biofuel policies (RFS and LCFS) are largely incremental in nature. • Transitional biofuels offer medium-risk, medium reward pathway.

  6. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  7. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  8. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  9. A design of LED adaptive dimming lighting system based on incremental PID controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangyan; Xiao, Zexin; He, Shaojia

    2010-11-01

    As a new generation energy-saving lighting source, LED is applied widely in various technology and industry fields. The requirement of its adaptive lighting technology is more and more rigorous, especially in the automatic on-line detecting system. In this paper, a closed loop feedback LED adaptive dimming lighting system based on incremental PID controller is designed, which consists of MEGA16 chip as a Micro-controller Unit (MCU), the ambient light sensor BH1750 chip with Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C), and constant-current driving circuit. A given value of light intensity required for the on-line detecting environment need to be saved to the register of MCU. The optical intensity, detected by BH1750 chip in real time, is converted to digital signal by AD converter of the BH1750 chip, and then transmitted to MEGA16 chip through I2C serial bus. Since the variation law of light intensity in the on-line detecting environment is usually not easy to be established, incremental Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) algorithm is applied in this system. Control variable obtained by the incremental PID determines duty cycle of Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM). Consequently, LED's forward current is adjusted by PWM, and the luminous intensity of the detection environment is stabilized by self-adaptation. The coefficients of incremental PID are obtained respectively after experiments. Compared with the traditional LED dimming system, it has advantages of anti-interference, simple construction, fast response, and high stability by the use of incremental PID algorithm and BH1750 chip with I2C serial bus. Therefore, it is suitable for the adaptive on-line detecting applications.

  10. Endogenous-cue prospective memory involving incremental updating of working memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halahalli, Harsha N; John, John P; Lukose, Ammu; Jain, Sanjeev; Kutty, Bindu M

    2015-11-01

    Prospective memory paradigms are conventionally classified on the basis of event-, time-, or activity-based intention retrieval. In the vast majority of such paradigms, intention retrieval is provoked by some kind of external event. However, prospective memory retrieval cues that prompt intention retrieval in everyday life are commonly endogenous, i.e., linked to a specific imagined retrieval context. We describe herein a novel prospective memory paradigm wherein the endogenous cue is generated by incremental updating of working memory, and investigated the hemodynamic correlates of this task. Eighteen healthy adult volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a prospective memory task where the delayed intention was triggered by an endogenous cue generated by incremental updating of working memory. Working memory and ongoing task control conditions were also administered. The 'endogenous-cue prospective memory condition' with incremental working memory updating was associated with maximum activations in the right rostral prefrontal cortex, and additional activations in the brain regions that constitute the bilateral fronto-parietal network, central and dorsal salience networks as well as cerebellum. In the working memory control condition, maximal activations were noted in the left dorsal anterior insula. Activation of the bilateral dorsal anterior insula, a component of the central salience network, was found to be unique to this 'endogenous-cue prospective memory task' in comparison to previously reported exogenous- and endogenous-cue prospective memory tasks without incremental working memory updating. Thus, the findings of the present study highlight the important role played by the dorsal anterior insula in incremental working memory updating that is integral to our endogenous-cue prospective memory task.

  11. Influence of increment thickness on dentin bond strength and light transmission of composite base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Tarek A; Garoushi, Sufyan; Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Lassila, Lippo V; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2017-06-01

    Bulk-fill resin composites (BFCs) are gaining popularity in restorative dentistry due to the reduced chair time and ease of application. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of increment thickness on dentin bond strength and light transmission of different BFCs and a new discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite. One hundred eighty extracted sound human molars were prepared for a shear bond strength (SBS) test. The teeth were divided into four groups (n = 45) according to the resin composite used: regular particulate filler resin composite: (1) G-ænial Anterior [GA] (control); bulk-fill resin composites: (2) Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill [TEBF] and (3) SDR; and discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite: (4) everX Posterior [EXP]. Each group was subdivided according to increment thickness (2, 4, and 6 mm). The irradiance power through the material of all groups/subgroups was quantified (MARC® Resin Calibrator; BlueLight Analytics Inc.). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. SBS and light irradiance decreased as the increment's height increased (p composite used. EXP presented the highest SBS in 2- and 4-mm-thick increments when compared to other composites, although the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Light irradiance mean values arranged in descending order were (p composites. Discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite showed the highest value of curing light transmission, which was also seen in improved bonding strength to the underlying dentin surface. Discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite can be applied safely in bulks of 4-mm increments same as other bulk-fill composites, although, in 2-mm thickness, the investigated composites showed better performance.

  12. A fast implementation of the incremental backprojection algorithms for parallel beam geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.M.; Wang, C.Y.; Cho, Z.H.

    1996-01-01

    Filtered-backprojection algorithms are the most widely used approaches for reconstruction of computed tomographic (CT) images, such as X-ray CT and positron emission tomographic (PET) images. The Incremental backprojection algorithm is a fast backprojection approach based on restructuring the Shepp and Logan algorithm. By exploiting interdependency (position and values) of adjacent pixels, the Incremental algorithm requires only O(N) and O(N 2 ) multiplications in contrast to O(N 2 ) and O(N 3 ) multiplications for the Shepp and Logan algorithm in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) backprojections, respectively, for each view, where N is the size of the image in each dimension. In addition, it may reduce the number of additions for each pixel computation. The improvement achieved by the Incremental algorithm in practice was not, however, as significant as expected. One of the main reasons is due to inevitably visiting pixels outside the beam in the searching flow scheme originally developed for the Incremental algorithm. To optimize implementation of the Incremental algorithm, an efficient scheme, namely, coded searching flow scheme, is proposed in this paper to minimize the overhead caused by searching for all pixels in a beam. The key idea of this scheme is to encode the searching flow for all pixels inside each beam. While backprojecting, all pixels may be visited without any overhead due to using the coded searching flow as the a priori information. The proposed coded searching flow scheme has been implemented on a Sun Sparc 10 and a Sun Sparc 20 workstations. The implementation results show that the proposed scheme is 1.45--2.0 times faster than the original searching flow scheme for most cases tested

  13. Baleen as a biomonitor of mercury content and dietary history of North Atlantic Minke Whales (Balaenopetra acutorostrata): combining elemental and stable isotope approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, K.A.; Riget, F.F.; Outridge, P.M.; Dietz, R.; Born, E

    2004-09-20

    Baleen is an incrementally-growing tissue of balaenopteran whales which preserves relatively well over time in museums and some archeological sites, and, therefore might be useful for studies examining long-term changes of metal levels in whales. This study examined Hg and stable C and N isotopic composition of baleen plates of the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), which continues to be a food source for people in Greenland and elsewhere. We compared the Hg levels and stable isotopes of major tissues (kidney, liver and muscle) with those of baleen plates to see whether baleen could be used as a biomonitor of variations of Hg intake and diet both between individuals and within individuals over time. Mercury was significantly correlated with concentrations in all tissues (kidney, liver and muscle). Stable C and N isotopes in baleen were generally similar to those of muscle, which reflects the recent (approximately one month) feeding of the whale, but in some individuals there were significant differences between baleen and muscle. Sectioning of baleen into 1 cm longitudinal increments showed that these differences were due to marked dietary shifts by some individuals over time that had been recorded in the baleen but were lost from the muscle record. Whole baleen C and N isotopes were better correlated with tissue Hg levels, suggesting that baleen may provide a more reliable indicator of long-term average diet, which in turn may be better related to Hg accumulation in tissues than the shorter-term diet record contained in muscle.

  14. Baleen as a biomonitor of mercury content and dietary history of North Atlantic Minke Whales (Balaenopetra acutorostrata): combining elemental and stable isotope approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, K.A.; Riget, F.F.; Outridge, P.M.; Dietz, R.; Born, E.

    2004-01-01

    Baleen is an incrementally-growing tissue of balaenopteran whales which preserves relatively well over time in museums and some archeological sites, and, therefore might be useful for studies examining long-term changes of metal levels in whales. This study examined Hg and stable C and N isotopic composition of baleen plates of the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), which continues to be a food source for people in Greenland and elsewhere. We compared the Hg levels and stable isotopes of major tissues (kidney, liver and muscle) with those of baleen plates to see whether baleen could be used as a biomonitor of variations of Hg intake and diet both between individuals and within individuals over time. Mercury was significantly correlated with concentrations in all tissues (kidney, liver and muscle). Stable C and N isotopes in baleen were generally similar to those of muscle, which reflects the recent (approximately one month) feeding of the whale, but in some individuals there were significant differences between baleen and muscle. Sectioning of baleen into 1 cm longitudinal increments showed that these differences were due to marked dietary shifts by some individuals over time that had been recorded in the baleen but were lost from the muscle record. Whole baleen C and N isotopes were better correlated with tissue Hg levels, suggesting that baleen may provide a more reliable indicator of long-term average diet, which in turn may be better related to Hg accumulation in tissues than the shorter-term diet record contained in muscle

  15. Incremental ALARA cost/benefit computer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamby, P.

    1987-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Company has developed and is testing an enhanced Fortran Computer Program to be used for cost/benefit analysis of Radiation Reduction Projects at its six nuclear power facilities and Corporate Technical Support Groups. This paper describes a Macro-Diven IBM Mainframe Program comprised of two different types of analyses-an Abbreviated Program with fixed costs and base values, and an extended Engineering Version for a detailed, more through and time-consuming approach. The extended engineering version breaks radiation exposure costs down into two components-Health-Related Costs and Replacement Labor Costs. According to user input, the program automatically adjust these two cost components and applies the derivation to company economic analyses such as replacement power costs, carrying charges, debt interest, and capital investment cost. The results from one of more program runs using different parameters may be compared in order to determine the most appropriate ALARA dose reduction technique. Benefits of this particular cost / benefit analysis technique includes flexibility to accommodate a wide range of user data and pre-job preparation, as well as the use of proven and standardized company economic equations

  16. Assessment of CO2 discharge in a spring using time-variant stable carbon isotope data as a natural analogue study of CO2 leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Chae, Gitak; Jo, Minki; Kim, Jeong-Chan; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2015-04-01

    CO2-rich springs have been studied as a natural analogue of CO2 leakage through shallow subsurface environment, as they provide information on the behaviors of CO2 during the leakage from geologic CO2 storage sites. For this study, we monitored the δ13C values as well as temperature, pH, EC, DO, and alkalinity for a CO2-rich spring for 48 hours. The water samples (N=47) were collected every hour in stopper bottles without headspace to avoid the interaction with air and the CO2 degassing. The δ13C values of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) in the water samples were analyzed using a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system (Picarro). The values of δ13CTDIC, temperature, pH, EC, DO, and alkalinity were in the range of -9.43 ~ -8.91 o 12.3 ~ 13.2oC, 4.86 ~ 5.02, 186 ~ 189 μS/cm, 1.8 ~ 3.4 mg/L, and 0.74 ~ 0.95 meq/L, respectively. The concentrations of TDIC calculated using pH and alkalinity values were between 22.5 and 34.8 mmol/L. The δ13CTDIC data imply that dissolved carbon in the spring was derived from a deep-seated source (i.e., magmatic) that was slightly intermixed with soil CO2. Careful examination of the time-series variation of measured parameters shows the following characteristics: 1) the δ13CTDIC values are negatively correlated with pH (r = -0.59) and positively correlated with TDIC (r = 0.58), and 2) delay times of the change of pH and alkalinity following the change of δ13CTDIC values are 0 and -3 hours, respectively; the pH change occurs simultaneously with the change of δ13CTDIC, while the alkalinity change happens before 3 hours. Our results indicate that the studied CO2-rich spring is influenced by the intermittent supply of deep-seated CO2. [Acknowledgment] This work was financially supported by the fundamental research project of KIGAM and partially by the "Geo-Advanced Innovative Action (GAIA) Project (2014000530003)" from Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE).

  17. Making context explicit for explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezillon, P. [Univ. Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Intelligent systems may be improved by making context explicit in problem solving. This is a lesson drawn from a study of the reasons why a number of knowledge-based systems (KBSs) failed. We discuss the interest to make context explicit in explanation generation and incremental knowledge acquisition, two important aspects of intelligent systems that aim to cooperate with users. We show how context can be used to better explain and incrementally acquire knowledge. The advantages of using context in explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition are discussed through SEPIT, an expert system for supporting diagnosis and explanation through simulation of power plants. We point out how the limitations of such systems may be overcome by making context explicit.

  18. Martingales, nonstationary increments, and the efficient market hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Joseph L.; Bassler, Kevin E.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the deep connection between nonstationary increments, martingales, and the efficient market hypothesis for stochastic processes x(t) with arbitrary diffusion coefficients D(x,t). We explain why a test for a martingale is generally a test for uncorrelated increments. We explain why martingales look Markovian at the level of both simple averages and 2-point correlations. But while a Markovian market has no memory to exploit and cannot be beaten systematically, a martingale admits memory that might be exploitable in higher order correlations. We also use the analysis of this paper to correct a misstatement of the ‘fair game’ condition in terms of serial correlations in Fama’s paper on the EMH. We emphasize that the use of the log increment as a variable in data analysis generates spurious fat tails and spurious Hurst exponents.

  19. Single point incremental forming: Formability of PC sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, A.; Boccarusso, L.; Carrino, L.; Lambiase, F.; Minutolo, F. Memola Capece

    2018-05-01

    Recent research on Single Point Incremental Forming of polymers has slightly covered the possibility of expanding the materials capability window of this flexible forming process beyond metals, by demonstrating the workability of thermoplastic polymers at room temperature. Given the different behaviour of polymers compared to metals, different aspects need to be deepened to better understand the behaviour of these materials when incrementally formed. Thus, the aim of the work is to investigate the formability of incrementally formed polycarbonate thin sheets. To this end, an experimental investigation at room temperature was conducted involving formability tests; varying wall angle cone and pyramid frusta were manufactured by processing polycarbonate sheets with different thicknesses and using tools with different diameters, in order to draw conclusions on the formability of polymer sheets through the evaluation of the forming angles and the observation of the failure mechanisms.

  20. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD) based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Jordán, Régulo Franco; Vásquez Sánchez, Segundo

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13)C col and δ(15)N col) and bone structural carbonate (δ(13)C bone and δ(18)O bone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13)C enamel and δ(18)O enamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18)O bone and δ(18)O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life

  1. Pastoralism in Northern Peru during Pre-Hispanic Times: Insights from the Mochica Period (100–800 AD) Based on Stable Isotopic Analysis of Domestic Camelids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Franco Jordán, Régulo; Sánchez, Segundo Vásquez

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol) and bone structural carbonate (δ13Cbone and δ18Obone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ13Cenamel and δ18Oenamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ18Obone and δ18Oenamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life of the Mochicas is also

  2. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual's processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE), rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction) with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2-4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory) showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  3. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwen Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Implicit theories drastically affect an individual’s processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is fixed (entity theorists and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is malleable (incremental theorists make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE, rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2–4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  4. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Dufour

    Full Text Available Llama (Lama glama and alpaca (Vicugna pacos are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl, while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13C col and δ(15N col and bone structural carbonate (δ(13C bone and δ(18O bone and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13C enamel and δ(18O enamel. Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18O bone and δ(18O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic

  5. Average-case analysis of incremental topological ordering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajwani, Deepak; Friedrich, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Many applications like pointer analysis and incremental compilation require maintaining a topological ordering of the nodes of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) under dynamic updates. All known algorithms for this problem are either only analyzed for worst-case insertion sequences or only evaluated...... experimentally on random DAGs. We present the first average-case analysis of incremental topological ordering algorithms. We prove an expected runtime of under insertion of the edges of a complete DAG in a random order for the algorithms of Alpern et al. (1990) [4], Katriel and Bodlaender (2006) [18], and Pearce...

  6. Apparatus for electrical-assisted incremental forming and process thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2018-04-24

    A process and apparatus for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component. The process can include providing an incremental forming machine, the machine having at least one arcuate tipped tool and at least electrode spaced a predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is operable to perform a plurality of incremental deformations on the sheet metal component using the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is also operable to apply an electric direct current through the electrode into the sheet metal component at the predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool while the machine is forming the sheet metal component.

  7. Single-point incremental forming and formability-failure diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.B.; Skjødt, Martin; Atkins, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent work [1], the authors constructed a closed-form analytical model that is capable of dealing with the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results published in the literature over the past couple of years. The model is based...... of deformation that are commonly found in general single point incremental forming processes; and (ii) to investigate the formability limits of SPIF in terms of ductile damage mechanics and the question of whether necking does, or does not, precede fracture. Experimentation by the authors together with data...

  8. Short-term load forecasting with increment regression tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jingfei; Stenzel, Juergen [Darmstadt University of Techonology, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    This paper presents a new regression tree method for short-term load forecasting. Both increment and non-increment tree are built according to the historical data to provide the data space partition and input variable selection. Support vector machine is employed to the samples of regression tree nodes for further fine regression. Results of different tree nodes are integrated through weighted average method to obtain the comprehensive forecasting result. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through its application to an actual system. (author)

  9. How stable are quantitative sensory testing measurements over time? Report on 10-week reliability and agreement of results in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen Nothnagel,1,2,* Christian Puta,1,3,* Thomas Lehmann,4 Philipp Baumbach,5 Martha B Menard,6,7 Brunhild Gabriel,1 Holger H W Gabriel,1 Thomas Weiss,8 Frauke Musial2 1Department of Sports Medicine and Health Promotion, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany; 2Department of Community Medicine, National Research Center in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Center for Interdisciplinary Prevention of Diseases Related to Professional Activities, 4Department of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Friedrich Schiller University, 5Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Jena, Germany; 6Crocker Institute, Kiawah Island, SC, 7School of Integrative Medicine and Health Sciences, Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA; 8Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Quantitative sensory testing (QST is a diagnostic tool for the assessment of the somatosensory system. To establish QST as an outcome measure for clinical trials, the question of how similar the measurements are over time is crucial. Therefore, long-term reliability and limits of agreement of the standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain were tested. Methods: QST on the lower back and hand dorsum (dominant hand were assessed twice in 22 healthy volunteers (10 males and 12 females; mean age: 46.6±13.0 years, with sessions separated by 10.0±2.9 weeks. All measurements were performed by one investigator. To investigate long-term reliability and agreement of QST, differences between the two measurements, correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, Bland–Altman plots (limits of agreement, and standard error of measurement were used. Results: Most parameters of the QST were reliable over 10 weeks in

  10. Development of the Nonstationary Incremental Analysis Update Algorithm for Sequential Data Assimilation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Geun Ham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a modified version of the incremental analysis updates (IAU, called the nonstationary IAU (NIAU method, to improve the assimilation accuracy of the IAU while keeping the continuity of the analysis. Similar to the IAU, the NIAU is designed to add analysis increments at every model time step to improve the continuity in the intermittent data assimilation. However, unlike the IAU, the NIAU procedure uses time-evolved forcing using the forward operator as corrections to the model. The solution of the NIAU is superior to that of the forward IAU, of which analysis is performed at the beginning of the time window for adding the IAU forcing, in terms of the accuracy of the analysis field. It is because, in the linear systems, the NIAU solution equals that in an intermittent data assimilation method at the end of the assimilation interval. To have the filtering property in the NIAU, a forward operator to propagate the increment is reconstructed with only dominant singular vectors. An illustration of those advantages of the NIAU is given using the simple 40-variable Lorenz model.

  11. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  12. Effects of Atorvastatin Dose and Concomitant Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Renal Function Changes over Time in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek-Surdacka, Ewa; Świerszcz, Jolanta; Surdacki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and statins are widely used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Our aim was to compare changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) over time in subjects with stable CAD according to atorvastatin dose and concomitant use of ACEI. We studied 78 men with stable CAD referred for an elective coronary angiography who attained the then-current guideline-recommended target level of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol below 2.5 mmol/L in a routine fasting lipid panel on admission and were receiving atorvastatin at a daily dose of 10–40 mg for ≥3 months preceding the index hospitalization. Due to an observational study design, atorvastatin dosage was not intentionally modified for other reasons. GFR was estimated during index hospitalization and at about one year after discharge from our center. Irrespective of ACEI use, a prevention of kidney function loss was observed only in those treated with the highest atorvastatin dose. In 38 subjects on ACEI, both of the higher atorvastatin doses were associated with increasing beneficial effects on GFR changes (mean ± SEM: −4.2 ± 2.4, 1.1 ± 1.6, 5.2 ± 2.4 mL/min per 1.73 m2 for the 10-mg, 20-mg and 40-mg atorvastatin group, respectively, p = 0.02 by ANOVA; Spearman’s rho = 0.50, p = 0.001 for trend). In sharp contrast, in 40 patients without ACEI, no significant trend effect was observed across increasing atorvastatin dosage (respective GFR changes: −1.3 ± 1.0, −4.7 ± 2.1, 4.8 ± 3.6 mL/min per 1.73 m2, p = 0.02 by ANOVA; rho = 0.08, p = 0.6 for trend). The results were substantially unchanged after adjustment for baseline GFR or time-dependent variations of LDL cholesterol. Thus, concomitant ACEI use appears to facilitate the ability of increasing atorvastatin doses to beneficially modulate time-dependent changes in GFR in men with stable CAD. PMID:26848655

  13. Playing by the rules? Analysing incremental urban developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karnenbeek, van Lilian; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie

    2018-01-01

    Current urban developments are often considered outdated and static, and the argument follows that they should become more adaptive. In this paper, we argue that existing urban development are already adaptive and incremental. Given this flexibility in urban development, understanding changes in the

  14. Size, Stability and Incremental Budgeting Outcomes in Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Allen G.; Hills, Frederick S.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the influence of relative size in the analysis of total dollar and workforce budgets, and changes in total dollar and workforce budgets when correlational/regression methods are used. Data suggested that size dominates the analysis of total budgets, and is not a factor when discretionary dollar increments are analyzed. (JAC)

  15. The National Institute of Education and Incremental Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Anne H.

    1979-01-01

    The National Institute of Education's (NIE) history demonstrates that the relevant criteria for characterizing budgeting as incremental are not the predictability and stability of appropriations but the conditions of complexity, limited information, multiple factors, and imperfect agreement on ends; NIE's appropriations were dominated by political…

  16. Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of "one-shot" referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We…

  17. Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colesnicov

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.

  18. Bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, José Manuel; Podolskij, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Convergence in probability and central limit laws of bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments and for integrals with respect to such processes are derived. The main tools of the proofs are some recent powerful techniques of Wiener/Itô/Malliavin calculus for establishing...

  19. Identifying the Academic Rising Stars via Pairwise Citation Increment Ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu; Liu, Chuang; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2017-01-01

    success academic careers. In this work, given a set of young researchers who have published the first first-author paper recently, we solve the problem of how to effectively predict the top k% researchers who achieve the highest citation increment in Δt

  20. Revisiting the fundamentals of single point incremental forming by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Beatriz; Skjødt, Martin; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the physics behind the fracture of material at the transition between the inclined wall and the corner radius of the sheet is of great importance for understanding the fundamentals of single point incremental forming (SPIF). How the material fractures, what is the state of strain...

  1. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  2. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schutte, K.; Azzopardi, G.; Burghouts, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible

  3. Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine,…

  4. Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory gas collection system. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Industrial- type mask wear is thought to impair exercise performance through increased respiratory dead space, flow ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. 78 FR 22770 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ...-2009-0022] RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction AGENCY...: Background On August 29, 2011, DHS issued a final rule titled, Immigration Benefits Business Transformation... business processes. In this notice, we are correcting three technical errors. DATES: The effective date of...

  6. Incremental cryptography and security of public hash functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of incremental algorithms for crytographic functions was initiated. The problem, for collision-free hashing, is to design a scheme for which there exists an efficient “update” algorithm: this algorithm is given the hash function H, the hash h = H(M) of message M and the “replacement request” (j, m), and outputs ...

  7. Evidence combination for incremental decision-making processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrada, Ghita; van Keulen, Maurice; de Keijzer, Ander

    The establishment of a medical diagnosis is an incremental process highly fraught with uncertainty. At each step of this painstaking process, it may be beneficial to be able to quantify the uncertainty linked to the diagnosis and steadily update the uncertainty estimation using available sources of

  8. Otolith development in larval and juvenile Schizothorax davidi: ontogeny and growth increment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Taiming; Hu, Jiaxiang; Cai, Yueping; Xiong, Sen; Yang, Shiyong; Wang, Xiongyan; He, Zhi

    2017-09-01

    Laboratory-reared Schizothorax davidi larvae and juveniles were examined to assess the formation and characteristics of David's schizothoracin otoliths. Otolith development was observed and their formation period was verified by monitoring larvae and juveniles of known age. The results revealed that lapilli and sagittae developed before hatching, and the first otolith increment was identified at 2 days post hatching in both. The shape of lapilli was relatively stable during development compared with that of sagittae; however, growth of four sagittae and lapilli areas was consistent, but the posterior area grew faster than the anterior area and the ventral surface grew faster than the dorsal surface. Similarly, the sum length of the radius of the anterior and posterior areas on sagittae and lapilli were linearly and binomially related to total fish length, respectively. Moreover, daily deposition rates were validated by monitoring knownage larvae and juveniles. The increase in lapilli width was 1.88±0.080 0 μm at the ninth increment, which reached a maximum and the decreased gradually toward the otolith edge, whereas that of sagittae increased more slowly. These results illustrate the developmental biology of S. davidi, which will aid in population conservation and fish stock management.

  9. The scope of application of incremental rapid prototyping methods in foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stankiewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the scope of application of selected incremental Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of manufacturing casting models, casting moulds and casts. The Rapid Prototyping methods (SL, SLA, FDM, 3DP, JS are predominantly used for the production of models and model sets for casting moulds. The Rapid Tooling methods, such as: ZCast-3DP, ProMetalRCT and VoxelJet, enable the fabrication of casting moulds in the incremental process. The application of the RP methods in cast production makes it possible to speed up the prototype preparation process. This is particularly vital to elements of complex shapes. The time required for the manufacture of the model, the mould and the cast proper may vary from a few to several dozen hours.

  10. Performance and delay analysis of hybrid ARQ with incremental redundancy over double rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy over double Rayleigh channels, a common model for the fading amplitude of vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems. We investigate the performance of HARQ from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical expressions are derived for the \\\\epsilon-outage capacity, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate of HARQ with incremental redundancy assuming a maximum number of HARQ rounds. Moreover, we evaluate the delay experienced by Poisson arriving packets for HARQ with incremental redundancy. We provide analytical expressions for the expected waiting time, the packet\\'s sojourn time in the queue, the average consumed power, and the energy efficiency. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is adjusted to the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) such that a target outage probability is not exceeded. This setting conforms with communication systems in which a quality of service is expected regardless of the channel conditions. Our analysis underscores the importance of HARQ in improving the spectral efficiency and reliability of communication systems. We demonstrate as well that the explored HARQ scheme achieves full diversity. Additionally, we investigate the tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency.

  11. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  12. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  13. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  14. Pornographic image recognition and filtering using incremental learning in compressed domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Chao; Zhuo, Li; Geng, Wenhao

    2015-11-01

    With the rapid development and popularity of the network, the openness, anonymity, and interactivity of networks have led to the spread and proliferation of pornographic images on the Internet, which have done great harm to adolescents' physical and mental health. With the establishment of image compression standards, pornographic images are mainly stored with compressed formats. Therefore, how to efficiently filter pornographic images is one of the challenging issues for information security. A pornographic image recognition and filtering method in the compressed domain is proposed by using incremental learning, which includes the following steps: (1) low-resolution (LR) images are first reconstructed from the compressed stream of pornographic images, (2) visual words are created from the LR image to represent the pornographic image, and (3) incremental learning is adopted to continuously adjust the classification rules to recognize the new pornographic image samples after the covering algorithm is utilized to train and recognize the visual words in order to build the initial classification model of pornographic images. The experimental results show that the proposed pornographic image recognition method using incremental learning has a higher recognition rate as well as costing less recognition time in the compressed domain.

  15. Optimization of Surface Roughness and Wall Thickness in Dieless Incremental Forming Of Aluminum Sheet Using Taguchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedon, Zamzuri; Kuang, Shea Cheng; Jaafar, Hasnulhadi; Azhari, Azmir

    2018-03-01

    Incremental sheet forming is a versatile sheet metal forming process where a sheet metal is formed into its final shape by a series of localized deformation without a specialised die. However, it still has many shortcomings that need to be overcome such as geometric accuracy, surface roughness, formability, forming speed, and so on. This project focus on minimising the surface roughness of aluminium sheet and improving its thickness uniformity in incremental sheet forming via optimisation of wall angle, feed rate, and step size. Besides, the effect of wall angle, feed rate, and step size to the surface roughness and thickness uniformity of aluminium sheet was investigated in this project. From the results, it was observed that surface roughness and thickness uniformity were inversely varied due to the formation of surface waviness. Increase in feed rate and decrease in step size will produce a lower surface roughness, while uniform thickness reduction was obtained by reducing the wall angle and step size. By using Taguchi analysis, the optimum parameters for minimum surface roughness and uniform thickness reduction of aluminium sheet were determined. The finding of this project helps to reduce the time in optimising the surface roughness and thickness uniformity in incremental sheet forming.

  16. A numerical analysis on forming limits during spiral and concentric single point incremental forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipiela, M. L.; Amauri, V.; Nikhare, C.; Marcondes, P. V. P.

    2017-01-01

    Sheet metal forming is one of the major manufacturing industries, which are building numerous parts for aerospace, automotive and medical industry. Due to the high demand in vehicle industry and environmental regulations on less fuel consumption on other hand, researchers are innovating new methods to build these parts with energy efficient sheet metal forming process instead of conventionally used punch and die to form the parts to achieve the lightweight parts. One of the most recognized manufacturing process in this category is Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF). SPIF is the die-less sheet metal forming process in which the single point tool incrementally forces any single point of sheet metal at any process time to plastic deformation zone. In the present work, finite element method (FEM) is applied to analyze the forming limits of high strength low alloy steel formed by single point incremental forming (SPIF) by spiral and concentric tool path. SPIF numerical simulations were model with 24 and 29 mm cup depth, and the results were compare with Nakajima results obtained by experiments and FEM. It was found that the cup formed with Nakajima tool failed at 24 mm while cups formed by SPIF surpassed the limit for both depths with both profiles. It was also notice that the strain achieved in concentric profile are lower than that in spiral profile.

  17. Performance Analysis of Selective Decode-and-Forward Multinode Incremental Relaying with Maximal Ratio Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2013-09-12

    In this paper, we propose an incremental multinode relaying protocol with arbitrary N-relay nodes that allows an efficient use of the channel spectrum. The destination combines the received signals from the source and the relays using maximal ratio Combining (MRC). The transmission ends successfully once the accumulated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) exceeds a predefined threshold. The number of relays participating in the transmission is adapted to the channel conditions based on the feedback from the destination. The use of incremental relaying allows obtaining a higher spectral efficiency. Moreover, the symbol error probability (SEP) performance is enhanced by using MRC at the relays. The use of MRC at the relays implies that each relay overhears the signals from the source and all previous relays and combines them using MRC. The proposed protocol differs from most of existing relaying protocol by the fact that it combines both incremental relaying and MRC at the relays for a multinode topology. Our analyses for a decode-and-forward mode show that: (i) compared to existing multinode relaying schemes, the proposed scheme can essentially achieve the same SEP performance but with less average number of time slots, (ii) compared to schemes without MRC at the relays, the proposed scheme can approximately achieve a 3 dB gain.

  18. Lines of Evidence–Incremental Markings in Molar Enamel of Soay Sheep as Revealed by a Fluorochrome Labeling and Backscattered Electron Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Horst; Kierdorf, Uwe; Frölich, Kai; Witzel, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    We studied the structural characteristics and periodicities of regular incremental markings in sheep enamel using fluorochrome injections for vital labeling of forming enamel and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. Microscopic analysis of mandibular first molars revealed the presence of incremental markings with a daily periodicity (laminations) that indicated successive positions of the forming front of interprismatic enamel. In addition to the laminations, incremental markings with a sub-daily periodicity were discernible both in interprismatic enamel and in enamel prisms. Five sub-daily increments were present between two consecutive laminations. Backscattered electron imaging revealed that each sub-daily growth increment consisted of a broader and more highly mineralized band and a narrower and less mineralized band (line). The sub-daily markings in the prisms of sheep enamel morphologically resembled the (daily) prisms cross striations seen in primate enamel. Incremental markings with a supra-daily periodicity were not observed in sheep enamel. Based on the periodicity of the incremental markings, maximum mean daily apposition rates of 17.0 µm in buccal enamel and of 13.4 µm in lingual enamel were recorded. Enamel extension rates were also high, with maximum means of 180 µm/day and 217 µm/day in upper crown areas of buccal and lingual enamel, respectively. Values in more cervical crown portions were markedly lower. Our results are in accordance with previous findings in other ungulate species. Using the incremental markings present in primate enamel as a reference could result in a misinterpretation of the incremental markings in ungulate enamel. Thus, the sub-daily growth increments in the prisms of ungulate enamel might be mistaken as prism cross striations with a daily periodicity, and the laminations misidentified as striae of Retzius with a supra-daily periodicity. This would lead to a considerable overestimation of

  19. Will Incremental Hemodialysis Preserve Residual Function and Improve Patient Survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The progressive loss of residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients is associated with increased mortality. It has been suggested that incremental dialysis may help preserve residual renal function and improve patient survival. Residual renal function depends upon both patient related and dialysis associated factors. Maintaining patients in an over-hydrated state may be associated with better preservation of residual renal function but any benefit comes with a significant risk of cardiovascular consequences. Notably, it is only observational studies that have reported an association between dialysis patient survival and residual renal function; causality has not been established for dialysis patient survival. The tenuous connections between residual renal function and outcomes and between incremental hemodialysis and residual renal function should temper our enthusiasm for interventions in this area. PMID:25385441

  20. Power calculation of linear and angular incremental encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofev, Aleksandr V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Mednikov, Sergey V.; Sycheva, Elena A.

    2016-04-01

    Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and transmit the measured values back to the control unit. The capabilities of these systems are undergoing continual development in terms of their resolution, accuracy and reliability, their measuring ranges, and maximum speeds. This article discusses the method of power calculation of linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders, to find the optimum parameters for its components, such as light emitters, photo-detectors, linear and angular scales, optical components etc. It analyzes methods and devices that permit high resolutions in the order of 0.001 mm or 0.001°, as well as large measuring lengths of over 100 mm. In linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders optical beam is usually formulated by a condenser lens passes through the measuring unit changes its value depending on the movement of a scanning head or measuring raster. Past light beam is converting into an electrical signal by the photo-detecter's block for processing in the electrical block. Therefore, for calculating the energy source is a value of the desired value of the optical signal at the input of the photo-detecter's block, which reliably recorded and processed in the electronic unit of linear and angular incremental optoelectronic encoders. Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and

  1. Table incremental slow injection CE-CT in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shoji; Maeda, Tomoho; Morita, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate tumor enhancement in lung cancer under the table incremental study with slow injection of contrast media. The early serial 8 sliced images during the slow injection (1.5 ml/sec) of contrant media were obtained. Following the early images, delayed 8 same sliced images were taken in 2 minutes later. Chacteristic enhanced patterns of the primary cancer and metastatic mediastinal lymphnode were recognized in this study. Enhancement of the primary lesion was classified in 4 patterns, irregular geographic pattern, heterogeneous pattern, homogeneous pattern and rim-enhanced pattern. In mediastinal metastatic lymphadenopathy, three enhanced patterns were obtained, heterogeneous, homogeneous and ring enhanced pattern. Some characteristic enhancement patterns according to the histopathological finding of the lung cancer were obtained. With using this incremental slow injection CE-CT, precise information about the relationship between lung cancer and adjacent mediastinal structure, and obvious staining patterns of the tumor and mediastinal lymphnode were recognized. (author)

  2. Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for Building 332, Increment III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B. N.; Toy, Jr., A. J.

    1977-08-31

    This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) supplements the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), dated January 18, 1974, for Building 332, Increment III of the Plutonium Materials Engineering Facility located at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). The FSAR, in conjunction with the PSAR, shows that the completed increment provides facilities for safely conducting the operations as described. These documents satisfy the requirements of ERDA Manual Appendix 6101, Annex C, dated April 8, 1971. The format and content of this FSAR complies with the basic requirements of the letter of request from ERDA San to LLL, dated March 10, 1972. Included as appendices in support of th FSAR are the Building 332 Operational Safety Procedure and the LLL Disaster Control Plan.

  3. Incremental exposure facilitates adaptation to sensory rearrangement. [vestibular stimulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J. R.; Lobovits, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    Visual-target pointing experiments were performed on 24 adult volunteers in order to compare the relative effectiveness of incremental (stepwise) and single-step exposure conditions on adaptation to visual rearrangement. The differences between the preexposure and postexposure scores served as an index of the adaptation elicited during the exposure period. It is found that both single-step and stepwise exposure to visual rearrangement elicit compensatory changes in sensorimotor coordination. However, stepwise exposure, when compared to single-step exposur in terms of the average magnitude of visual displacement over the exposure period, clearly enhances the rate of adaptation. It seems possible that the enhancement of adaptation to unusual patterns of sensory stimulation produced by incremental exposure reflects a general principle of sensorimotor function.

  4. Thermomechanical simulations and experimental validation for high speed incremental forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogio, Giuseppina; Gagliardi, Francesco; Filice, Luigino; Romero, Natalia

    2016-10-01

    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) consists in deforming only a small region of the workspace through a punch driven by a NC machine. The drawback of this process is its slowness. In this study, a high speed variant has been investigated from both numerical and experimental points of view. The aim has been the design of a FEM model able to perform the material behavior during the high speed process by defining a thermomechanical model. An experimental campaign has been performed by a CNC lathe with high speed to test process feasibility. The first results have shown how the material presents the same performance than in conventional speed ISF and, in some cases, better material behavior due to the temperature increment. An accurate numerical simulation has been performed to investigate the material behavior during the high speed process confirming substantially experimental evidence.

  5. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  6. On kinematical minimum principles for rates and increments in plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization approach for elastoplastic analysis is discussed showing that some minimum principles related to numerical methods can be derived by means of duality and penalization procedures. Three minimum principles for velocity and plastic multiplier rate fields are presented in the framework of perfect plasticity. The first one is the classical Greenberg formulation. The second one, due to Capurso, is developed here with different motivation, and modified by penalization of constraints so as to arrive at a third principle for rates. The counterparts of these optimization formulations in terms of discrete increments of displacements of displacements and plastic multipliers are discussed. The third one of these minimum principles for finite increments is recognized to be closely related to Maier's formulation of holonomic plasticity. (Author) [pt

  7. Sonochemical synthesis of a multi-responsive regenerable water-stable zinc(II) fluorescent probe for highly selective, sensitive and real-time sensing of benzaldehyde, ferric ion and PH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Rui; Wang, Xing Ze; Li, Yong; Liu, Kun; Liu, Shi Xin; Du, Jing; Huang, Zhuo; Luo, Yan; Huo, Jian Zhong; Wu, Xiang Xia; Liu, Yuan Yuan; Ding, Bin

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a novel water-stable coordination polymer with {4 4 } network topology {[Zn(L) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ]} n (1) (L = 4,4'-Bis(triazol-1-ylmethyl)biphenyl) has been synthesized through the hydrothermal and sonochemical approaches. 1 has been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectrum and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PXRD patterns of the as-synthesized samples 1 have confirmed the purity of the bulky samples. In the sonochemical preparation approaches, different ultrasound irradiation power and ultrasound time were also used in order to investigate the impact factor for morphology and size of nano-structured 1. Photo-luminescence studies have revealed that 1 can efficiently distinguish Fe 3+ from Fe 2+ and other metal ions. On the other hand, 1 also can exhibit a highly sensitive, excellently selective and real-time detection of benzaldehyde and pH through photo-luminescence quenching process. As for 1, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) theory has been applied to calculate these spectroscopic data, the result agree with the experimental results for detection of benzaldehyde. Photo-luminescent recyclability results indicated 1 can be reused at least five times in the detection process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a multi-responsive regenerable luminescent sensor for highly selective, sensitive and real-time sensing of Fe 3+ over Fe 2+ , benzaldehyde and pH values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fault-tolerant incremental diagnosis with limited historical data

    OpenAIRE

    Gillblad, Daniel; Holst, Anders; Steinert, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    In many diagnosis situations it is desirable to perform a classification in an iterative and interactive manner. All relevant information may not be available initially and must be acquired manually or at a cost. The matter is often complicated by very limited amounts of knowledge and examples when a new system to be diagnosed is initially brought into use. Here, we will describe how to create an incremental classification system based on a statistical model that is trained from empirical dat...

  9. Diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma by incremental dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masafumi; Kumabe, Tsutomu; Edamitsu, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    Thirty cases of pathologically confirmed small hepatocellular carcinoma were examined by Incremental Dynamic CT (ICT). ICT scanned the whole liver with single-breath-hold technique; therefore, effective early contrast enhancement could be obtained for diagnosis. Among the 30 tumors, 26 were detected. The detection rate was 87%. A high detection rate was obtained in tumors more than 20 mm in diameter. Twenty-two of 26 tumors could be diagnosed correctly. ICT examination was useful for detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  10. A parallel ILP algorithm that incorporates incremental batch learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Fonseca; Rui Camacho; Fernado Silva

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we tackle the problems of eciency and scala-bility faced by Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) systems. We proposethe use of parallelism to improve eciency and the use of an incrementalbatch learning to address the scalability problem. We describe a novelparallel algorithm that incorporates into ILP the method of incremen-tal batch learning. The theoretical complexity of the algorithm indicatesthat a linear speedup can be achieved.

  11. Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    across the Global Information Grid (GIG) and at rest. Using authoritative data, obtained via face-to-face identity proofing, PKI creates a credential ...operating on a network by provision of assured PKI-based credentials for any device on that network. ​​​​PKI Increment One made significant...provide assured/secure validation of revocation of an electronic/ digital credential . 2.DoD PKI shall support assured revocation status requests of

  12. The intermetallic ThRh5: microstructure and enthalpy increments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aparna; Joshi, A.R.; Kaity, Santu; Mishra, R.; Roy, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Actinide intermetallics are one of the most interesting and important series of compounds. Thermochemistry of these compounds play significant role in understand the nature of bonding in alloys and nuclear fuel performance. In the present paper we report synthesis and characterization of thorium based intermetallic compound ThRh 5 (s) by SEM/EDX technique. The mechanical properties and enthalpy increment as a function of temperature of the alloy has been measured. (author)

  13. Systematic Luby Transform codes as incremental redundancy scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, TL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transform Codes as Incremental Redundancy Scheme T. L. Grobler y, E. R. Ackermann y, J. C. Olivier y and A. J. van Zylz Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Email: trienkog...@gmail.com, etienne.ackermann@ieee.org yDefence, Peace, Safety and Security (DPSS) Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria 0001, South Africa zDepartment of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South...

  14. Efficient Incremental Garbage Collection for Workstation/Server Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amsaleg , Laurent; Gruber , Olivier; Franklin , Michael

    1994-01-01

    Projet RODIN; We describe an efficient server-based algorithm for garbage collecting object-oriented databases in a workstation/server environment. The algorithm is incremental and runs concurrently with client transactions, however, it does not hold any locks on data and does not require callbacks to clients. It is fault tolerant, but performs very little logging. The algorithm has been designed to be integrated into existing OODB systems, and therefore it works with standard implementation ...

  15. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  16. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  17. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  18. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  19. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  20. Health level seven interoperability strategy: big data, incrementally structured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, R H; Rogers, B; Jaffe, C

    2015-01-01

    Describe how the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), a foundational standard in US Meaningful Use, contributes to a "big data, incrementally structured" interoperability strategy, whereby data structured incrementally gets large amounts of data flowing faster. We present cases showing how this approach is leveraged for big data analysis. To support the assertion that semi-structured narrative in CDA format can be a useful adjunct in an overall big data analytic approach, we present two case studies. The first assesses an organization's ability to generate clinical quality reports using coded data alone vs. coded data supplemented by CDA narrative. The second leverages CDA to construct a network model for referral management, from which additional observations can be gleaned. The first case shows that coded data supplemented by CDA narrative resulted in significant variances in calculated performance scores. In the second case, we found that the constructed network model enables the identification of differences in patient characteristics among different referral work flows. The CDA approach goes after data indirectly, by focusing first on the flow of narrative, which is then incrementally structured. A quantitative assessment of whether this approach will lead to a greater flow of data and ultimately a greater flow of structured data vs. other approaches is planned as a future exercise. Along with growing adoption of CDA, we are now seeing the big data community explore the standard, particularly given its potential to supply analytic en- gines with volumes of data previously not possible.

  1. Spatial distance effects on incremental semantic interpretation of abstract sentences: evidence from eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ernesto; Knoeferle, Pia

    2014-12-01

    A large body of evidence has shown that visual context information can rapidly modulate language comprehension for concrete sentences and when it is mediated by a referential or a lexical-semantic link. What has not yet been examined is whether visual context can also modulate comprehension of abstract sentences incrementally when it is neither referenced by, nor lexically associated with, the sentence. Three eye-tracking reading experiments examined the effects of spatial distance between words (Experiment 1) and objects (Experiment 2 and 3) on participants' reading times for sentences that convey similarity or difference between two abstract nouns (e.g., 'Peace and war are certainly different...'). Before reading the sentence, participants inspected a visual context with two playing cards that moved either far apart or close together. In Experiment 1, the cards turned and showed the first two nouns of the sentence (e.g., 'peace', 'war'). In Experiments 2 and 3, they turned but remained blank. Participants' reading times at the adjective (Experiment 1: first-pass reading time; Experiment 2: total times) and at the second noun phrase (Experiment 3: first-pass times) were faster for sentences that expressed similarity when the preceding words/objects were close together (vs. far apart) and for sentences that expressed dissimilarity when the preceding words/objects were far apart (vs. close together). Thus, spatial distance between words or entirely unrelated objects can rapidly and incrementally modulate the semantic interpretation of abstract sentences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Demonstration/Validation of Incremental Sampling at Two Diverse Military Ranges and Development of an Incremental Sampling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Sampling (MIS)? • Technique of combining many increments of soil from a number of points within exposure area • Developed by Enviro Stat (Trademarked...Demonstrating a reliable soil sampling strategy to accurately characterize contaminant concentrations in spatially extreme and heterogeneous...into a set of decision (exposure) units • One or several discrete or small- scale composite soil samples collected to represent each decision unit

  3. Economic evaluation of trimetazidine in the management of chronic stable angina in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourlaba, Georgia; Gourzoulidis, George; Andrikopoulos, George; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Beletsi, Alexandra; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2016-09-27

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of trimetazidine (TMZ) as add-on therapy to standard-of-care (SoC) compared to SoC alone in patients with chronic stable angina who did not respond adequately to first line therapy with b-blockers, nitrates or calcium channel antagonists in Greece. A Markov model with 3-month cycles and 1-year time horizon was developed to assess the comparators. The analysis was conducted from a third-party payer perspective. The clinical inputs and utility values were extracted from the published literature. Resource consumption data were obtained from local experts, using a questionnaire developed for the purpose of the study and were combined with unit cost data (in €2016) obtained from official sources. Cost effectiveness was assessed by calculating the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was performed to account for uncertainty and variation in the input parameters of the model. The analysis showed that the cost of TMZ plus SoC was €1755.57 versus €1751.76 of SoC alone. In terms of health outcomes, TMZ plus SoC was associated with 0.6650 QALYs versus 0.6562 QALYs for SoC alone. The incremental analysis resulted in an ICER of €430.67 per QALY gained. PSA revealed that the probability of TMZ plus SoC being cost-effective over SoC was 89 %, at a threshold of €34,000 per QALY gained. The results indicate that TMZ as add -on treatment may be a highly cost-effective option for the symptomatic treatment of patients with chronic stable angina in Greece relative to SoC alone.

  4. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  5. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  6. Cyclic and seasonal features in the behaviour of linear growth increment of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in equatorial F-region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkullin, M.N.; Nikitin, M.A.; Kashchenko, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations of linear increment of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for various geophysical conditions are presented. It is shwn that space-time characteristics of increment depend strongly on conditions of solar activity and seasons. The calculation results are in a good agreement with statistical regularities of F-scattering observation in equatorial F-area, which points to the Rayleigh-Taylor natur of the penomena

  7. PCIU: Hardware Implementations of an Efficient Packet Classification Algorithm with an Incremental Update Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet classification plays a crucial role for a number of network services such as policy-based routing, firewalls, and traffic billing, to name a few. However, classification can be a bottleneck in the above-mentioned applications if not implemented properly and efficiently. In this paper, we propose PCIU, a novel classification algorithm, which improves upon previously published work. PCIU provides lower preprocessing time, lower memory consumption, ease of incremental rule update, and reasonable classification time compared to state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed algorithm was evaluated and compared to RFC and HiCut using several benchmarks. Results obtained indicate that PCIU outperforms these algorithms in terms of speed, memory usage, incremental update capability, and preprocessing time. The algorithm, furthermore, was improved and made more accessible for a variety of applications through implementation in hardware. Two such implementations are detailed and discussed in this paper. The results indicate that a hardware/software codesign approach results in a slower, but easier to optimize and improve within time constraints, PCIU solution. A hardware accelerator based on an ESL approach using Handel-C, on the other hand, resulted in a 31x speed-up over a pure software implementation running on a state of the art Xeon processor.

  8. Indexing Density Models for Incremental Learning and Anytime Classification on Data Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidl, Thomas; Assent, Ira; Kranen, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Classification of streaming data faces three basic challenges: it has to deal with huge amounts of data, the varying time between two stream data items must be used best possible (anytime classification) and additional training data must be incrementally learned (anytime learning) for applying...... to the individual object to be classified) a hierarchy of mixture densities that represent kernel density estimators at successively coarser levels. Our probability density queries together with novel classification improvement strategies provide the necessary information for very effective classification at any...... point of interruption. Moreover, we propose a novel evaluation method for anytime classification using Poisson streams and demonstrate the anytime learning performance of the Bayes tree....

  9. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution – Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition (13C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ13C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ13C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  10. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution - Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition ((13)C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ(13)C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ(13)C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  11. Evaluation of incremental reactivity and its uncertainty in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, Philip T; Harley, Robert A; Milford, Jana B; Russell, Armistead G

    2003-04-15

    The incremental reactivity (IR) and relative incremental reactivity (RIR) of carbon monoxide and 30 individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were estimated for the South Coast Air Basin using two photochemical air quality models: a 3-D, grid-based model and a vertically resolved trajectory model. Both models include an extended version of the SAPRC99 chemical mechanism. For the 3-D modeling, the decoupled direct method (DDM-3D) was used to assess reactivities. The trajectory model was applied to estimate uncertainties in reactivities due to uncertainties in chemical rate parameters, deposition parameters, and emission rates using Monte Carlo analysis with Latin hypercube sampling. For most VOC, RIRs were found to be consistent in rankings with those produced by Carter using a box model. However, 3-D simulations show that coastal regions, upwind of most of the emissions, have comparatively low IR but higher RIR than predicted by box models for C4-C5 alkenes and carbonyls that initiate the production of HOx radicals. Biogenic VOC emissions were found to have a lower RIR than predicted by box model estimates, because emissions of these VOC were mostly downwind of the areas of primary ozone production. Uncertainties in RIR of individual VOC were found to be dominated by uncertainties in the rate parameters of their primary oxidation reactions. The coefficient of variation (COV) of most RIR values ranged from 20% to 30%, whereas the COV of absolute incremental reactivity ranged from about 30% to 40%. In general, uncertainty and variability both decreased when relative rather than absolute reactivity metrics were used.

  12. Product Quality Modelling Based on Incremental Support Vector Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Zhang, W; Qin, B; Shi, W

    2012-01-01

    Incremental Support vector machine (ISVM) is a new learning method developed in recent years based on the foundations of statistical learning theory. It is suitable for the problem of sequentially arriving field data and has been widely used for product quality prediction and production process optimization. However, the traditional ISVM learning does not consider the quality of the incremental data which may contain noise and redundant data; it will affect the learning speed and accuracy to a great extent. In order to improve SVM training speed and accuracy, a modified incremental support vector machine (MISVM) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the margin vectors are extracted according to the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition; then the distance from the margin vectors to the final decision hyperplane is calculated to evaluate the importance of margin vectors, where the margin vectors are removed while their distance exceed the specified value; finally, the original SVs and remaining margin vectors are used to update the SVM. The proposed MISVM can not only eliminate the unimportant samples such as noise samples, but also can preserve the important samples. The MISVM has been experimented on two public data and one field data of zinc coating weight in strip hot-dip galvanizing, and the results shows that the proposed method can improve the prediction accuracy and the training speed effectively. Furthermore, it can provide the necessary decision supports and analysis tools for auto control of product quality, and also can extend to other process industries, such as chemical process and manufacturing process.

  13. Incremental Innovation and Competitive Pressure in the Presence of Discrete Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Arghya; Kato, Takao; Morita, Hodaka

    2017-01-01

    Technical progress consists of improvements made upon the existing technology (incremental innovation) and innovative activities aiming at entirely new technology (discrete innovation). Incremental innovation is often of limited relevance to the new technology invented by successful discrete...

  14. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Vermeulen (Patrick); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation.

  15. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Vermeulen (Patrick); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation.

  16. From incremental to fundamental substitution in chemical alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Weber, Roland; Scheringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    to similarity in chemical structures and, hence, similar hazard profiles between phase-out and substitute chemicals, leading to a rather incremental than fundamental substitution. A hampered phase-out process, the lack of implementing Green Chemistry principles in chemicals design, and lack of Sustainable...... an integrated approach of all stakeholders involved toward more fundamental and function-based substitution by greener and more sustainable alternatives. Our recommendations finally constitute a starting point for identifying further research needs and for improving current alternatives assessment practice....

  17. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many...... aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profiles are often non-monotonic, resulting in more complex IC curves. The ICA is at first applied to charge...

  18. Failure mechanisms in single-point incremental forming of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Maria B.; Nielsen, Peter Søe; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The last years saw the development of two different views on how failure develops in single-point incremental forming (SPIF). Today, researchers are split between those claiming that fracture is always preceded by necking and those considering that fracture occurs with suppression of necking. Each...... on formability limits and development of fracture. The unified view conciliates the aforementioned different explanations on the role of necking in fracture and is consistent with the experimental observations that have been reported in the past years. The work is performed on aluminium AA1050-H111 sheets...

  19. Single Point Incremental Forming using a Dummy Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, Beatriz; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A new version of single point incremental forming (SPIF) is presented. This version includes a dummy sheet on top of the work piece, thus forming two sheets instead of one. The dummy sheet, which is in contact with the rotating tool pin, is discarded after forming. The new set-up influences....... The possible influence of friction between the two sheets is furthermore investigated. The results show that the use of a dummy sheet reduces wear of the work piece to almost zero, but also causes a decrease in formability. Bulging of the planar sides of the pyramid is reduced and surface roughness...

  20. Increment of specific heat capacity of solar salt with SiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable. 65.: Thermal properties of condensed matter; 65.20.-w: Thermal properties of liquids; 65.20.Jk: Studies of thermodynamic properties of specific liquids.

  1. Why and how Mastering an Incremental and Iterative Software Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, François; Guichoux, Bernard; Cormery, Patrick; Mescam, Jean Christophe

    2004-06-01

    One of the key issues regularly mentioned in the current software crisis of the space domain is related to the software development process that must be performed while the system definition is not yet frozen. This is especially true for complex systems like launchers or space vehicles.Several more or less mature solutions are under study by EADS SPACE Transportation and are going to be presented in this paper. The basic principle is to develop the software through an iterative and incremental process instead of the classical waterfall approach, with the following advantages:- It permits systematic management and incorporation of requirements changes over the development cycle with a minimal cost. As far as possible the most dimensioning requirements are analyzed and developed in priority for validating very early the architecture concept without the details.- A software prototype is very quickly available. It improves the communication between system and software teams, as it enables to check very early and efficiently the common understanding of the system requirements.- It allows the software team to complete a whole development cycle very early, and thus to become quickly familiar with the software development environment (methodology, technology, tools...). This is particularly important when the team is new, or when the environment has changed since the previous development. Anyhow, it improves a lot the learning curve of the software team.These advantages seem very attractive, but mastering efficiently an iterative development process is not so easy and induces a lot of difficulties such as:- How to freeze one configuration of the system definition as a development baseline, while most of thesystem requirements are completely and naturally unstable?- How to distinguish stable/unstable and dimensioning/standard requirements?- How to plan the development of each increment?- How to link classical waterfall development milestones with an iterative approach: when

  2. A 1-h time interval between a meal containing iron and consumption of tea attenuates the inhibitory effects on iron absorption: a controlled trial in a cohort of healthy UK women using a stable iron isotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Fuzi, Salma F; Koller, Dagmar; Bruggraber, Sylvaine; Pereira, Dora Ia; Dainty, Jack R; Mushtaq, Sohail

    2017-12-01

    Background: Tea has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of nonheme iron absorption, but it remains unclear whether the timing of tea consumption relative to a meal influences iron bioavailability. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a 1-h time interval of tea consumption on nonheme iron absorption in an iron-containing meal in a cohort of iron-replete, nonanemic female subjects with the use of a stable isotope ( 57 Fe). Design: Twelve women (mean ± SD age: 24.8 ± 6.9 y) were administered a standardized porridge meal extrinsically labeled with 4 mg 57 Fe as FeSO 4 on 3 separate occasions, with a 14-d time interval between each test meal (TM). The TM was administered with water (TM-1), with tea administered simultaneously (TM-2), and with tea administered 1 h postmeal (TM-3). Fasted venous blood samples were collected for iron isotopic analysis and measurement of iron status biomarkers. Fractional iron absorption was estimated by the erythrocyte iron incorporation method. Results: Iron absorption was 5.7% ± 8.5% (TM-1), 3.6% ± 4.2% (TM-2), and 5.7% ± 5.4% (TM-3). Mean fractional iron absorption was found to be significantly higher (2.2%) when tea was administered 1 h postmeal (TM-3) than when tea was administered simultaneously with the meal (TM-2) ( P = 0.046). An ∼50% reduction in the inhibitory effect of tea (relative to water) was observed, from 37.2% (TM-2) to 18.1% (TM-3). Conclusions: This study shows that tea consumed simultaneously with an iron-containing porridge meal leads to decreased nonheme iron absorption and that a 1-h time interval between a meal and tea consumption attenuates the inhibitory effect, resulting in increased nonheme iron absorption. These findings are not only important in relation to the management of iron deficiency but should also inform dietary advice, especially that given to those at risk of deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02365103. © 2017 American Society for

  3. Switch-mode High Voltage Drivers for Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) Incremental Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth

    voltage DC-DC converters for driving the DEAP based incremental actuators. The DEAP incremental actuator technology has the potential to be used in various industries, e.g., automotive, space and medicine. The DEAP incremental actuator consists of three electrically isolated and mechanically connected...

  4. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index (SISI...

  5. Stable isotope ratios in freshwater mussel shells as high resolution recorders of riverine environmental variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukolich, S.; Kendall, C.; Dettman, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical record stored in growth increments of freshwater mussel shells reveals annual to sub-annual changes in environmental conditions during the lifetime of the organism. The carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen stable isotope composition of aragonite shells responds to changes in water chemistry, temperature, streamflow, turbidity, growth rate, size, age, and reproduction. The goals of this study are to determine how stable isotopes can be used to reconstruct the conditions in which the mussels lived and to illuminate any vital effects that might obscure the isotopic record of those conditions. Previous research has suggested that annual δ13C values decrease in older freshwater mussel shells due to lower growth rates and greater incorporation of dietary carbon into the shell with increasing age. However, a high-resolution, seasonal investigation of δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O as they relate to organism age has not yet been attempted in freshwater mussels. A total of 28 Unionid mussels of three different species were collected live in 2011 in the Tennessee River near Paducah, Kentucky, USA. In this study, we analyzed the shell nacre and external organic layers for stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios, focusing on growth bands formed between 2006 and 2011. We present a time series of shell δ13C, δ18O, and δ15N values with monthly resolution. We also compare the shell-derived geochemical time series to a time series of the δ13C and δ15N of particulate organic matter, δ13C of DIC, δ18OWater, and water temperature in which the mussels lived. Results show that environmental factors such as water temperature and primary productivity dominate shell chemistry while animal age has little or no effect.

  6. Optimal Output of Distributed Generation Based On Complex Power Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Bao, H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for electricity and improve the cleanliness of power generation, new energy generation, represented by wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, etc has been widely used. The new energy power generation access to distribution network in the form of distributed generation, consumed by local load. However, with the increase of the scale of distribution generation access to the network, the optimization of its power output is becoming more and more prominent, which needs further study. Classical optimization methods often use extended sensitivity method to obtain the relationship between different power generators, but ignore the coupling parameter between nodes makes the results are not accurate; heuristic algorithm also has defects such as slow calculation speed, uncertain outcomes. This article proposes a method called complex power increment, the essence of this method is the analysis of the power grid under steady power flow. After analyzing the results we can obtain the complex scaling function equation between the power supplies, the coefficient of the equation is based on the impedance parameter of the network, so the description of the relation of variables to the coefficients is more precise Thus, the method can accurately describe the power increment relationship, and can obtain the power optimization scheme more accurately and quickly than the extended sensitivity method and heuristic method.

  7. An Incremental Weighted Least Squares Approach to Surface Lights Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Greg; Lastra, Anselmo

    An Image-Based Rendering (IBR) approach to appearance modelling enables the capture of a wide variety of real physical surfaces with complex reflectance behaviour. The challenges with this approach are handling the large amount of data, rendering the data efficiently, and previewing the model as it is being constructed. In this paper, we introduce the Incremental Weighted Least Squares approach to the representation and rendering of spatially and directionally varying illumination. Each surface patch consists of a set of Weighted Least Squares (WLS) node centers, which are low-degree polynomial representations of the anisotropic exitant radiance. During rendering, the representations are combined in a non-linear fashion to generate a full reconstruction of the exitant radiance. The rendering algorithm is fast, efficient, and implemented entirely on the GPU. The construction algorithm is incremental, which means that images are processed as they arrive instead of in the traditional batch fashion. This human-in-the-loop process enables the user to preview the model as it is being constructed and to adapt to over-sampling and under-sampling of the surface appearance.

  8. STS-102 Expedition 2 Increment and Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Merri Sanchez, Expedition 2 Increment Manager, John Uri, Increment Scientist, and Lybrease Woodard, Lead Payload Operations Director, give an overview of the upcoming activities and objectives of the Expedition 2's (E2's) mission in this prelaunch press conference. Ms. Sanchez describes the crew rotation of Expedition 1 to E2, the timeline E2 will follow during their stay on the International Space Station (ISS), and the various flights going to the ISS and what each will bring to ISS. Mr. Uri gives details on the on-board experiments that will take place on the ISS in the fields of microgravity research, commercial, earth, life, and space sciences (such as radiation characterization, H-reflex, colloids formation and interaction, protein crystal growth, plant growth, fermentation in microgravity, etc.). He also gives details on the scientific facilities to be used (laboratory racks and equipment such as the human torso facsimile or 'phantom torso'). Ms. Woodard gives an overview of Marshall Flight Center's role in the mission. Computerized simulations show the installation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) onto the ISS and the installation of the airlock using SSRMS. Live footage shows the interior of the ISS, including crew living quarters, the Progress Module, and the Destiny Laboratory. The three then answer questions from the press.

  9. Efficient incremental relaying for packet transmission over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel relaying scheme for packet transmission over fading channels, which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from the destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying (EIR) scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. We compare the performance of the EIR scheme with the threshold-based incremental relaying (TIR) scheme. It is shown that the efficiency of the TIR scheme is better for lower values of the threshold. However, the efficiency of the TIR scheme for higher values of threshold is outperformed by the EIR. In addition, three new threshold-based adaptive EIR are devised to further improve the efficiency of the EIR scheme. We calculate the packet error rate and the efficiency of these new schemes to provide the analytical insight. © 2014 IEEE.

  10. Incremental first pass technique to measure left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak, R.; Gulliford, P.; Hoggard, C.; Critchley, M.

    1980-01-01

    An incremental first pass technique was devised to assess the acute effects of any drug on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with or without a physiological stress. In particular, the effects of the vasodilater isosorbide dinitrate on LVEF before and after exercise were studied in 11 patients who had suffered cardiac failure. This was achieved by recording the passage of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate through the heart at each stage of the study using a gamma camera computer system. Consistent values for four consecutive first pass values without exercise or drug in normal subjects illustrated the reproducibility of the technique. There was no significant difference between LVEF values obtained at rest and exercise before or after oral isosorbide dinitrate with the exception of one patient with gross mitral regurgitation. The advantages of the incremental first pass technique are that the patient need not be in sinus rhythm, the effects of physiological intervention may be studied and tests may also be repeated at various intervals during long term follow-up of patients. A disadvantage of the method is the limitation in the number of sequential measurements which can be carried out due to the amount of radioactivity injected. (U.K.)

  11. Identifying the Academic Rising Stars via Pairwise Citation Increment Ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu

    2017-08-02

    Predicting the fast-rising young researchers (the Academic Rising Stars) in the future provides useful guidance to the research community, e.g., offering competitive candidates to university for young faculty hiring as they are expected to have success academic careers. In this work, given a set of young researchers who have published the first first-author paper recently, we solve the problem of how to effectively predict the top k% researchers who achieve the highest citation increment in Δt years. We explore a series of factors that can drive an author to be fast-rising and design a novel pairwise citation increment ranking (PCIR) method that leverages those factors to predict the academic rising stars. Experimental results on the large ArnetMiner dataset with over 1.7 million authors demonstrate the effectiveness of PCIR. Specifically, it outperforms all given benchmark methods, with over 8% average improvement. Further analysis demonstrates that temporal features are the best indicators for rising stars prediction, while venue features are less relevant.

  12. Maximum photovoltaic power tracking for the PV array using the fractional-order incremental conductance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Huang, Cong-Hui; Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Jian-Liung

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The FOICM can shorten the tracking time less than traditional methods. → The proposed method can work under lower solar radiation including thin and heavy clouds. → The FOICM algorithm can achieve MPPT for radiation and temperature changes. → It is easy to implement in a single-chip microcontroller or embedded system. -- Abstract: This paper proposes maximum photovoltaic power tracking (MPPT) for the photovoltaic (PV) array using the fractional-order incremental conductance method (FOICM). Since the PV array has low conversion efficiency, and the output power of PV array depends on the operation environments, such as various solar radiation, environment temperature, and weather conditions. Maximum charging power can be increased to a battery using a MPPT algorithm. The energy conversion of the absorbed solar light and cell temperature is directly transferred to the semiconductor, but electricity conduction has anomalous diffusion phenomena in inhomogeneous material. FOICM can provide a dynamic mathematical model to describe non-linear characteristics. The fractional-order incremental change as dynamic variable is used to adjust the PV array voltage toward the maximum power point. For a small-scale PV conversion system, the proposed method is validated by simulation with different operation environments. Compared with traditional methods, experimental results demonstrate the short tracking time and the practicality in MPPT of PV array.

  13. Motor unit firing frequency of lower limb muscles during an incremental slide board skating test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piucco, Tatiane; Bini, Rodrigo; Sakaguchi, Masanori; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Stefanyshyn, Darren

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated how the combination of workload and fatigue affected the frequency components of muscle activation and possible recruitment priority of motor units during skating to exhaustion. Ten male competitive speed skaters performed an incremental maximal test on a slide board. Activation of six muscles from the right leg was recorded throughout the test. A time-frequency analysis was performed to compute overall, high, and low frequency bands from the whole signal at 10, 40, 70, and 90% of total test time. Overall activation increased for all muscles throughout the test (p  0.80). There was an increase in low frequency (90 vs. 10%, p = 0.035, ES = 1.06) and a decrease in high frequency (90 vs. 10%, p = 0.009, ES = 1.38, and 90 vs. 40%, p = 0.025, ES = 1.12) components of gluteus maximus. Strong correlations were found between the maximal cadence and vastus lateralis, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius activation at the end of the test. In conclusion, the incremental skating test lead to an increase in activation of lower limb muscles, but only gluteus maximus was sensitive to changes in frequency components, probably caused by a pronounced fatigue.

  14. Zinc absorption study using an enriched stable isotope (70Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gongpan.

    1990-04-01

    A weaning food from fermented soybean was prepared for increasing the bioavailability of zinc. The zinc absorption was compared with that of a weaning food from non-fermented soybean and normal staple food. A stable isotope tracer technique ( 70 Zn) and neutron activation were used for determining the absorption of zinc. Nine children aged 7 to 18 months were tested. Zinc bioavailability of weaning food from fermented soybean is higher than that of normal weaning food. The weight increment and zinc nutrition of children having weaning food from fermented soybean are improved by this diet. 5 tabs

  15. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  16. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  17. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  18. Is incremental hemodialysis ready to return on the scene? From empiricism to kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Casino, Francesco Gaetano; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-08-01

    Most people who make the transition to maintenance dialysis therapy are treated with a fixed dose thrice-weekly hemodialysis regimen without considering their residual kidney function (RKF). The RKF provides effective and naturally continuous clearance of both small and middle molecules, plays a major role in metabolic homeostasis, nutritional status, and cardiovascular health, and aids in fluid management. The RKF is associated with better patient survival and greater health-related quality of life, although these effects may be confounded by patient comorbidities. Preservation of the RKF requires a careful approach, including regular monitoring, avoidance of nephrotoxins, gentle control of blood pressure to avoid intradialytic hypotension, and an individualized dialysis prescription including the consideration of incremental hemodialysis. There is currently no standardized method for applying incremental hemodialysis in practice. Infrequent (once- to twice-weekly) hemodialysis regimens are often used arbitrarily, without knowing which patients would benefit the most from them or how to escalate the dialysis dose as RKF declines over time. The recently heightened interest in incremental hemodialysis has been hindered by the current limitations of the urea kinetic models (UKM) which tend to overestimate the dialysis dose required in the presence of substantial RKF. This is due to an erroneous extrapolation of the equivalence between renal urea clearance (Kru) and dialyser urea clearance (Kd), correctly assumed by the UKM, to the clinical domain. In this context, each ml/min of Kd clears the urea from the blood just as 1 ml/min of Kru does. By no means should such kinetic equivalence imply that 1 ml/min of Kd is clinically equivalent to 1 ml/min of urea clearance provided by the native kidneys. A recent paper by Casino and Basile suggested a variable target model (VTM) as opposed to the fixed model, because the VTM gives more clinical weight to the RKF and allows

  19. Rapid Prototyping by Single Point Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    . The process is incremental forming since plastic deformation takes place in a small local zone underneath the forming tool, i.e. the sheet is formed as a summation of the movement of the local plastic zone. The process is slow and therefore only suited for prototypes or small batch production. On the other...... in the plastic zone. Using these it is demonstrated that the growth rate of accumulated damage in SPIF is small compared to conventional sheet forming processes. This combined with an explanation why necking is suppressed is a new theory stating that SPIF is limited by fracture and not necking. The theory...... SPIF. A multi stage strategy is presented which allows forming of a cup with vertical sides in about half of the depth. It is demonstrated that this results in strain paths which are far from straight, but strains are still limited by a straight fracture line in the principal strain space. The multi...

  20. Incremental and developmental perspectives for general-purpose learning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martínez-Plumed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The stupefying success of Articial Intelligence (AI for specic problems, from recommender systems to self-driving cars, has not yet been matched with a similar progress in general AI systems, coping with a variety of (dierent problems. This dissertation deals with the long-standing problem of creating more general AI systems, through the analysis of their development and the evaluation of their cognitive abilities. It presents a declarative general-purpose learning system and a developmental and lifelong approach for knowledge acquisition, consolidation and forgetting. It also analyses the use of the use of more ability-oriented evaluation techniques for AI evaluation and provides further insight for the understanding of the concepts of development and incremental learning in AI systems.

  1. Improving process performance in Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Manco, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a relatively new process in which a sheet clamped along the borders is progressively deformed through a hemispherical tool. The tool motion is CNC controlled and the path is designed using a CAD-CAM approach, with the aim to reproduce the final shape contour such as in the surface milling. The absence of a dedicated setup and the related high flexibility is the main point of strength and the reason why several researchers focused their attentions on the ISF process.On the other hand the process slowness is the most relevant drawback which reduces a wider industrial application. In the paper, a first attempt to overcome this process limitation is presented taking into account a relevant speed increasing respect to the values currently used.

  2. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  3. Political dynamics promoting the incremental regulation of secondhand smoke: a case study of New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Simon

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The history of governmental responses to the accumulation of scientific evidence about the harms of secondhand smoke (SHS presents an intriguing case study of incremental public health policy development. Australia has long been considered a world-leader in progressive tobacco control policies, but in the last decade has fallen behind other jurisdictions in introducing SHS legislation that protects all workers. Bars, clubs and pubs remain the only public indoor spaces where smoking is legally permitted, despite SHS exposure in the hospitality industry being higher and affecting more people than in any other setting after domestic exposure. This paper examines the political dynamics that have shaped this incremental approach to SHS. Methods In-depth interviews with 21 key stakeholders in the state of New South Wales (NSW, including politicians, their advisors, health officials and tobacco control advocates, were conducted and subjected to thematic content analysis. Interviewees' comments provided insights into the dynamics surrounding the debates and outcomes of SHS legislative attempts and the current political environment, and about how to progress SHS legislation. Results SHS restrictions have been delayed by several broad factors: the influence of industry groups successfully opposing regulation; issue wear-out; and political perceptions that there is not a salient constituency demanding that smoking be banned in bars and clubs. Interviewees also provided suggestions of strategies that advocates might utilise to best overcome the current political inertia of incremental compromises and achieve timely comprehensive smoking bans. Conclusion Advocates concerned to shorten the duration of incremental endgames must continue to insist that governments address SHS fundamentally as a health issue rather than making political concessions to industry groups, and should broaden and amplify community voices calling on governments to

  4. An Incremental Classification Algorithm for Mining Data with Feature Space Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature space heterogeneity often exists in many real world data sets so that some features are of different importance for classification over different subsets. Moreover, the pattern of feature space heterogeneity might dynamically change over time as more and more data are accumulated. In this paper, we develop an incremental classification algorithm, Supervised Clustering for Classification with Feature Space Heterogeneity (SCCFSH, to address this problem. In our approach, supervised clustering is implemented to obtain a number of clusters such that samples in each cluster are from the same class. After the removal of outliers, relevance of features in each cluster is calculated based on their variations in this cluster. The feature relevance is incorporated into distance calculation for classification. The main advantage of SCCFSH lies in the fact that it is capable of solving a classification problem with feature space heterogeneity in an incremental way, which is favorable for online classification tasks with continuously changing data. Experimental results on a series of data sets and application to a database marketing problem show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation determines performance speed during cognitive Stroop test: the effect of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kana; Liang, Nan; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Ishii, Kei; Matsukawa, Kanji

    2018-02-19

    Cognitive function declines with age. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of cognitive performance, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that an incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation during a cognitive Stroop test decreases in progress of ageing, resulting in a slowdown of cognitive performance. To test this hypothesis, we identified, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy, the characteristics of the oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) responses of the prefrontal cortex to both incongruent Stroop and congruent word-reading test. Spatial distributions of the significant changes in the three components (initial slope, peak amplitude, and area under the curve) of the Oxy-Hb response were compared between young and elderly subjects. The Stroop interference time (as a difference in total periods for executing Stroop and word-reading test, respectively) approximately doubled in elderly as compared to young subjects. The Oxy-Hb in the rostrolateral, but not caudal, prefrontal cortex increased during the Stroop test in both age groups. The initial slope of the Oxy-Hb response, rather than the peak and area under the curve, had a strong correlation with cognitive performance speed. Taken together, it is likely that the incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation may decrease in progress of ageing, resulting in a decline in cognitive performance.

  6. Incremental heating of Bishop Tuff sanidine reveals preeruptive radiogenic Ar and rapid remobilization from cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nathan L.; Jicha, Brian R.; Singer, Brad S.; Hildreth, Wes

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and precise ages of large silicic eruptions are critical to calibrating the geologic timescale and gauging the tempo of changes in climate, biologic evolution, and magmatic processes throughout Earth history. The conventional approach to dating these eruptive products using the 40Ar/39Ar method is to fuse dozens of individual feldspar crystals. However, dispersion of fusion dates is common and interpretation is complicated by increasingly precise data obtained via multicollector mass spectrometry. Incremental heating of 49 individual Bishop Tuff (BT) sanidine crystals produces 40Ar/39Ar dates with reduced dispersion, yet we find a 16-ky range of plateau dates that is not attributable to excess Ar. We interpret this dispersion to reflect cooling of the magma reservoir margins below ˜475 °C, accumulation of radiogenic Ar, and rapid preeruption remobilization. Accordingly, these data elucidate the recycling of subsolidus material into voluminous rhyolite magma reservoirs and the effect of preeruptive magmatic processes on the 40Ar/39Ar system. The youngest sanidine dates, likely the most representative of the BT eruption age, yield a weighted mean of 764.8 ± 0.3/0.6 ka (2σ analytical/full uncertainty) indicating eruption only ˜7 ky following the Matuyama‑Brunhes magnetic polarity reversal. Single-crystal incremental heating provides leverage with which to interpret complex populations of 40Ar/39Ar sanidine and U-Pb zircon dates and a substantially improved capability to resolve the timing and causal relationship of events in the geologic record.

  7. USING THE POPULATION-BASED INCREMENTAL LEARNING ALGORITHM WITH COMPUTER SIMULATION: SOME APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bekker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The integration of the population-based incremental learning (PBIL algorithm with computer simulation shows how this particular combination can be applied to find good solutions to combinatorial optimisation problems. Two illustrative examples are used: the classical inventory problem of finding a reorder point and reorder quantity that minimises costs while achieving a required service level (a stochastic problem; and the signal timing of a complex traffic intersection. Any traffic control system must be designed to minimise the duration of interruptions at intersections while maximising traffic throughput. The duration of the phases of traffic lights is of primary importance in this regard.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die integrasie van die population-based incremental learning (PBIL algoritme met rekenaarsimulasie word bespreek, en daar word getoon hoe hierdie spesifieke kombinasie aangewend kan word om goeie oplossings vir kombinatoriese optimeringsprobleme te vind. Twee voorbeelde dien as illustrasie: die klassieke voorraadprobleem waarin ’n herbestelvlak en herbestelhoeveelheid bepaal moet word om koste te minimeer maar nogtans ’n vasgestelde diensvlak te handhaaf (’n stochastiese probleem; en die bepaling van die seintye van ’n komplekse verkeerskruising. Enige verkeerbeheerstelsel moet ontwerp word om die duur van die vloeionderbrekings by verkeerskruisings te minimeer en verkeerdeurset te maksimeer. Die tydsduur van die fases van verkeersligte is dus baie belangrik.

  8. Springback effects during single point incremental forming: Optimization of the tool path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud-Moreau, Laurence; Belchior, Jérémy; Lafon, Pascal; Lotoing, Lionel; Cherouat, Abel; Courtielle, Eric; Guines, Dominique; Maurine, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    Incremental sheet forming is an emerging process to manufacture sheet metal parts. This process is more flexible than conventional one and well suited for small batch production or prototyping. During the process, the sheet metal blank is clamped by a blank-holder and a small-size smooth-end hemispherical tool moves along a user-specified path to deform the sheet incrementally. Classical three-axis CNC milling machines, dedicated structure or serial robots can be used to perform the forming operation. Whatever the considered machine, large deviations between the theoretical shape and the real shape can be observed after the part unclamping. These deviations are due to both the lack of stiffness of the machine and residual stresses in the part at the end of the forming stage. In this paper, an optimization strategy of the tool path is proposed in order to minimize the elastic springback induced by residual stresses after unclamping. A finite element model of the SPIF process allowing the shape prediction of the formed part with a good accuracy is defined. This model, based on appropriated assumptions, leads to calculation times which remain compatible with an optimization procedure. The proposed optimization method is based on an iterative correction of the tool path. The efficiency of the method is shown by an improvement of the final shape.

  9. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  10. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  11. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfman, Lena; Riihimäki, Miia; Pringle, John; Wålinder, Robert

    2009-05-25

    Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13) in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-beta-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to environmental exposure levels in equine stables. Respirable dust and 1

  12. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  13. Incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score for the prediction of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genders, Tessa S.S. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pugliese, Francesca; Mollet, Nico R.; Meijboom, W. Bob; Weustink, Annick C.; Mieghem, Carlos A.G. van; Feyter, Pim J. de [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hunink, M.G.M. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Harvard University, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States)

    2010-10-15

    To validate published prediction models for the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with new onset stable typical or atypical angina pectoris and to assess the incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score (CTCS). We searched the literature for clinical prediction rules for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD, defined as {>=}50% stenosis in at least one vessel on conventional coronary angiography. Significant variables were re-analysed in our dataset of 254 patients with logistic regression. CTCS was subsequently included in the models. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to assess diagnostic performance. Re-analysing the variables used by Diamond and Forrester yielded an AUC of 0.798, which increased to 0.890 by adding CTCS. For Pryor, Morise 1994, Morise 1997 and Shaw the AUC increased from 0.838 to 0.901, 0.831 to 0.899, 0.840 to 0.898 and 0.833 to 0.899. CTCS significantly improved model performance in each model. Validation demonstrated good diagnostic performance across all models. CTCS improves the prediction of the presence of obstructive CAD, independent of clinical predictors, and should be considered in its diagnostic work-up. (orig.)

  14. An Intrinsic Value System for Developing Multiple Invariant Representations with Incremental Slowness Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Luciw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity Driven Modular Incremental Slow Feature Analysis (CD-MISFA;~cite{cdmisfa} is a recently introduced model of intrinsically-motivated invariance learning, which shows how curiosity enables the orderly formation of multiple stable sensory representations, through which the agent can simplify its complex sensory input. Here, we first discuss the computational properties of the CD-MISFA model itself, followed by a discussion of neurophysiological analogs fulfilling similar functional roles. CD-MISFA combines 1. unsupervised representation learning through the slowness principle, 2. generation of an intrinsic reward signal through the learning progress of the developing features, and 3. balancing of exploration and exploitation in order to maximize learning progress and quickly learn multiple feature sets for perceptual simplification. Experimental results on synthetic observations and on the iCub robot show that the intrinsic value system is an essential component to representation learning, further, the model explores such that the representations are typically learned in order from least to most costly, as predicted by the theory of Artificial Curiosity.

  15. Incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score for the prediction of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, Tessa S.S.; Pugliese, Francesca; Mollet, Nico R.; Meijboom, W. Bob; Weustink, Annick C.; Mieghem, Carlos A.G. van; Feyter, Pim J. de; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    To validate published prediction models for the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with new onset stable typical or atypical angina pectoris and to assess the incremental value of the CT coronary calcium score (CTCS). We searched the literature for clinical prediction rules for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD, defined as ≥50% stenosis in at least one vessel on conventional coronary angiography. Significant variables were re-analysed in our dataset of 254 patients with logistic regression. CTCS was subsequently included in the models. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to assess diagnostic performance. Re-analysing the variables used by Diamond and Forrester yielded an AUC of 0.798, which increased to 0.890 by adding CTCS. For Pryor, Morise 1994, Morise 1997 and Shaw the AUC increased from 0.838 to 0.901, 0.831 to 0.899, 0.840 to 0.898 and 0.833 to 0.899. CTCS significantly improved model performance in each model. Validation demonstrated good diagnostic performance across all models. CTCS improves the prediction of the presence of obstructive CAD, independent of clinical predictors, and should be considered in its diagnostic work-up. (orig.)

  16. DYNAMIC AND INCREMENTAL EXPLORATION STRATEGY IN FUSION ADAPTIVE RESONANCE THEORY FOR ONLINE REINFORCEMENT LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhitama Subagdja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental challenges in reinforcement learning is to setup a proper balance between exploration and exploitation to obtain the maximum cummulative reward in the long run. Most protocols for exploration bound the overall values to a convergent level of performance. If new knowledge is inserted or the environment is suddenly changed, the issue becomes more intricate as the exploration must compromise the pre-existing knowledge. This paper presents a type of multi-channel adaptive resonance theory (ART neural network model called fusion ART which serves as a fuzzy approximator for reinforcement learning with inherent features that can regulate the exploration strategy. This intrinsic regulation is driven by the condition of the knowledge learnt so far by the agent. The model offers a stable but incremental reinforcement learning that can involve prior rules as bootstrap knowledge for guiding the agent to select the right action. Experiments in obstacle avoidance and navigation tasks demonstrate that in the configuration of learning wherein the agent learns from scratch, the inherent exploration model in fusion ART model is comparable to the basic E-greedy policy. On the other hand, the model is demonstrated to deal with prior knowledge and strike a balance between exploration and exploitation.

  17. INCREMENTAL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS BASED OUTLIER DETECTION METHODS FOR SPATIOTEMPORAL DATA STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhushan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address outliers in spatiotemporal data streams obtained from sensors placed across geographically distributed locations. Outliers may appear in such sensor data due to various reasons such as instrumental error and environmental change. Real-time detection of these outliers is essential to prevent propagation of errors in subsequent analyses and results. Incremental Principal Component Analysis (IPCA is one possible approach for detecting outliers in such type of spatiotemporal data streams. IPCA has been widely used in many real-time applications such as credit card fraud detection, pattern recognition, and image analysis. However, the suitability of applying IPCA for outlier detection in spatiotemporal data streams is unknown and needs to be investigated. To fill this research gap, this paper contributes by presenting two new IPCA-based outlier detection methods and performing a comparative analysis with the existing IPCA-based outlier detection methods to assess their suitability for spatiotemporal sensor data streams.

  18. Evidence of increment of efficiency of the Mexican Stock Market through the analysis of its variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that there exist statistical and structural differences between the stock markets of developed and emerging countries. In this work, and in order to find out if the efficiency of the Mexican Stock Market has been changing over time, we have performed and compared several analyses of the variations of the Mexican Stock Market index (IPC) and Dow Jones industrial average index (DJIA) for different periods of their historical daily data. We have analyzed the returns autocorrelation function (ACF) and used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study returns variations. We also analyze the volatility, mean value and standard deviation of both markets and compare their evolution. We conclude from the overall result of these studies, that they show compelling evidence of the increment of efficiency of the Mexican Stock Market over time. The data samples analyzed here, correspond to daily values of the IPC and DJIA for the period 10/30/1978-02/28/2006.

  19. Validade incremental do Zulliger e do Pfister no contexto da toxicomania Validez incremental del Zulliger y del Pfister en el contexto de la toxicomania Incremental validity of the Zulliger and Pfister in the contexto of drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Rocha Campos Franco

    2012-04-01

    écnicas proyectivas de Zulliger y Pfister. Los resultados demostraron coherencia entre las informaciones generadas por los instrumentos, probando que el Zulliger y el Pfister, cuando aplicados de forma asociada e interpretados por el método fenómeno-estructural, se muestran eficientes para conocer las vivencias de espacio y tiempo de los sujetos.The aim of this study was to verify the incremental validity of two projective techniques used to assess the personality traits of 20 addict patients. An assessment of the personality of ten Brazilian addict of alcohol and ten French heroin addicts who were experiencing the process of drug detoxification in specialized centers in Brazil or France was performed by the Phenomenon- structural Psychopathology perspective - a French theoretical approach that understands the mental functioning of the individual through the way it lives the space and time dimensions. The spatio-temporal relationship and the personality were understood by the verbal or pictured expression of the self and through the way images of projective techniques Zulliger and Pfister are built. The analysis showed consistency between the information generated by both instruments, demonstrating that Zulliger and Pfister, when applied in combination and interpreted by the phenomenon-structural method, are efficient to reveal the experiences of space and time of the subjects.

  20. Research of high power and stable laser in portable Raman spectrometer based on SHINERS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yongsheng; Yin, Yu; Wu, Yulin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin

    2013-08-01

    The intensity of Raman light is very weak, which is only from 10-12 to 10-6 of the incident light. In order to obtain the required sensitivity, the traditional Raman spectrometer tends to be heavy weight and large volume, so it is often used as indoor test device. Based on the Shell-Isolated Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) method, Raman optical spectrum signal can be enhanced significantly and the portable Raman spectrometer combined with SHINERS method will be widely used in various fields. The laser source must be stable enough and able to output monochromatic narrow band laser with stable power in the portable Raman spectrometer based on the SHINERS method. When the laser is working, the change of temperature can induce wavelength drift, thus the power stability of excitation light will be affected, so we need to strictly control the working temperature of the laser, In order to ensure the stability of laser power and output current, this paper adopts the WLD3343 laser constant current driver chip of Wavelength Electronics company and MCU P89LPC935 to drive LML - 785.0 BF - XX laser diode(LD). Using this scheme, the Raman spectrometer can be small in size and the drive current can be constant. At the same time, we can achieve functions such as slow start, over-current protection, over-voltage protection, etc. Continuous adjustable output can be realized under control, and the requirement of high power output can be satisfied. Max1968 chip is adopted to realize the accurate control of the laser's temperature. In this way, it can meet the demand of miniaturization. In term of temperature control, integral truncation effect of traditional PID algorithm is big, which is easy to cause static difference. Each output of incremental PID algorithm has nothing to do with the current position, and we can control the output coefficients to avoid full dose output and immoderate adjustment, then the speed of balance will be improved observably. Variable

  1. Modeling stem increment in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, S.; Bevilacqua, E.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most common and important tree characteristics used in forest management decision-making is tree diameter-at-breast height (DBH). This paper presents results on an evaluation of two growth functions developed to model stem diameter increases in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic. The first model was developed in order to predict future DBH (FDM) at different intervals of time and the other for predicting growth, that is, periodic annual diameter increment (PADIM). Each model employed two statistical techniques for fitting model parameters: stepwise ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and mixed models. The two statistical approaches varied in how they accounted for the repeated measurements on individual trees over time, affecting standard error estimates and statistical inference of model parameters. Each approach was evaluated based on six goodness of- fit statistics, using both calibration and validation data sets. The objectives were 1) to determine the best model for predicting future tree DBH; 2) to determine the best model for predicting periodic annual diameter increment, both models using tree size, age, site index and different indices of competitive status; and 3) compare which of these two modeling approaches predicts better the future DBH. OLS provided a better fit for both of the growth functions, especially in regards to bias. Both models showed advantages and disadvantages when they were used to predict growth and future diameter. For the prediction of future diameter with FDM, accuracy of predictions were within one centimeter for a five-year projection interval. The PADIM presented negligible bias in estimating future diameter, although there was a small increase in bias as time of prediction increased. As expected, each model was the best in estimating the response variable it was developed for.. However, a closer examination of the distribution of errors showed a slight advantage of the FDM

  2. A user-friendly tool for incremental haemodialysis prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano; Basile, Carlo

    2018-01-05

    There is a recently heightened interest in incremental haemodialysis (IHD), the main advantage of which could likely be a better preservation of the residual kidney function of the patients. The implementation of IHD, however, is hindered by many factors, among them, the mathematical complexity of its prescription. The aim of our study was to design a user-friendly tool for IHD prescription, consisting of only a few rows of a common spreadsheet. The keystone of our spreadsheet was the following fundamental concept: the dialysis dose to be prescribed in IHD depends only on the normalized urea clearance provided by the native kidneys (KRUn) of the patient for each frequency of treatment, according to the variable target model recently proposed by Casino and Basile (The variable target model: a paradigm shift in the incremental haemodialysis prescription. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017; 32: 182-190). The first step was to put in sequence a series of equations in order to calculate, firstly, KRUn and, then, the key parameters to be prescribed for an adequate IHD; the second step was to compare KRUn values obtained with our spreadsheet with KRUn values obtainable with the gold standard Solute-solver (Daugirdas JT et al., Solute-solver: a web-based tool for modeling urea kinetics for a broad range of hemodialysis schedules in multiple patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 54: 798-809) in a sample of 40 incident haemodialysis patients. Our spreadsheet provided excellent results. The differences with Solute-solver were clinically negligible. This was confirmed by the Bland-Altman plot built to analyse the agreement between KRUn values obtained with the two methods: the difference was 0.07 ± 0.05 mL/min/35 L. Our spreadsheet is a user-friendly tool able to provide clinically acceptable results in IHD prescription. Two immediate consequences could derive: (i) a larger dissemination of IHD might occur; and (ii) our spreadsheet could represent a useful tool for an ineludibly

  3. A practical approach to assess leg muscle oxygenation during ramp-incremental cycle ergometry in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Barroco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is characterized by the inability of the cardiovascular system to maintain oxygen (O2 delivery (i.e., muscle blood flow in non-hypoxemic patients to meet O2 demands. The resulting increase in fractional O2 extraction can be non-invasively tracked by deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (deoxi-Hb as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. We aimed to establish a simplified approach to extract deoxi-Hb-based indices of impaired muscle O2 delivery during rapidly-incrementing exercise in heart failure. We continuously probed the right vastus lateralis muscle with continuous-wave NIRS during a ramp-incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test in 10 patients (left ventricular ejection fraction <35% and 10 age-matched healthy males. Deoxi-Hb is reported as % of total response (onset to peak exercise in relation to work rate. Patients showed lower maximum exercise capacity and O2 uptake-work rate than controls (P<0.05. The deoxi-Hb response profile as a function of work rate was S-shaped in all subjects, i.e., it presented three distinct phases. Increased muscle deoxygenation in patients compared to controls was demonstrated by: i a steeper mid-exercise deoxi-Hb-work rate slope (2.2±1.3 vs 1.0±0.3% peak/W, respectively; P<0.05, and ii late-exercise increase in deoxi-Hb, which contrasted with stable or decreasing deoxi-Hb in all controls. Steeper deoxi-Hb-work rate slope was associated with lower peak work rate in patients (r=–0.73; P=0.01. This simplified approach to deoxi-Hb interpretation might prove useful in clinical settings to quantify impairments in O2 delivery by NIRS during ramp-incremental exercise in individual heart failure patients.

  4. Axisymmetric MHD stable sloshing ion distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Dominguez, N.; Roslyakov, G.V.

    1986-07-01

    The MHD stability of a sloshing ion distribution is investigated in a symmetric mirror cell. Fokker-Planck calculations show that stable configurations are possible for ion injection energies that are at least 150 times greater than the electron temperture. Special axial magnetic field profiles are suggested to optimize the favorable MHD properties

  5. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Patrick; Bosch, Frans; Volberda, Henk

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation. In this paper, we use an institutional perspective to investigate why established firms in the financial services industry struggle with their complex incremental product innovation efforts. We ar...

  6. One-dimensional stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotarev, V M

    1986-01-01

    This is the first book specifically devoted to a systematic exposition of the essential facts known about the properties of stable distributions. In addition to its main focus on the analytic properties of stable laws, the book also includes examples of the occurrence of stable distributions in applied problems and a chapter on the problem of statistical estimation of the parameters determining stable laws. A valuable feature of the book is the author's use of several formally different ways of expressing characteristic functions corresponding to these laws.

  7. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wensheng; Zhang, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns. PMID:25811038

  8. Incremental Frequent Subgraph Mining on Large Evolving Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab

    2017-08-22

    Frequent subgraph mining is a core graph operation used in many domains, such as graph data management and knowledge exploration, bioinformatics and security. Most existing techniques target static graphs. However, modern applications, such as social networks, utilize large evolving graphs. Mining these graphs using existing techniques is infeasible, due to the high computational cost. In this paper, we propose IncGM+, a fast incremental approach for continuous frequent subgraph mining problem on a single large evolving graph. We adapt the notion of “fringe” to the graph context, that is the set of subgraphs on the border between frequent and infrequent subgraphs. IncGM+ maintains fringe subgraphs and exploits them to prune the search space. To boost the efficiency, we propose an efficient index structure to maintain selected embeddings with minimal memory overhead. These embeddings are utilized to avoid redundant expensive subgraph isomorphism operations. Moreover, the proposed system supports batch updates. Using large real-world graphs, we experimentally verify that IncGM+ outperforms existing methods by up to three orders of magnitude, scales to much larger graphs and consumes less memory.

  9. A novel instrument for generating angular increments of 1 nanoradian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Bugnar, Alex; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal; Scott, Stewart; Hillman, Michael; Grindrod, Jamie; Johnson, Iain

    2015-12-01

    Accurate generation of small angles is of vital importance for calibrating angle-based metrology instruments used in a broad spectrum of industries including mechatronics, nano-positioning, and optic fabrication. We present a novel, piezo-driven, flexure device capable of reliably generating micro- and nanoradian angles. Unlike many such instruments, Diamond Light Source's nano-angle generator (Diamond-NANGO) does not rely on two separate actuators or rotation stages to provide coarse and fine motion. Instead, a single Physik Instrumente NEXLINE "PiezoWalk" actuator provides millimetres of travel with nanometre resolution. A cartwheel flexure efficiently converts displacement from the linear actuator into rotary motion with minimal parasitic errors. Rotation of the flexure is directly measured via a Magnescale "Laserscale" angle encoder. Closed-loop operation of the PiezoWalk actuator, using high-speed feedback from the angle encoder, ensures that the Diamond-NANGO's output drifts by only ˜0.3 nrad rms over ˜30 min. We show that the Diamond-NANGO can reliably move with unprecedented 1 nrad (˜57 ndeg) angular increments over a range of >7000 μrad. An autocollimator, interferometer, and capacitive displacement sensor are used to independently confirm the Diamond-NANGO's performance by simultaneously measuring the rotation of a reflective cube.

  10. Incremental Dynamic Analysis of Koyna Dam under Repeated Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab Nik Azizan, Nik; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Maity, Damodar; Abdullah, Junaidah

    2018-03-01

    This paper discovers the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of concrete gravity dam under single and repeated earthquake loadings to identify the limit state of the dam. Seven ground motions with horizontal and vertical direction as seismic input considered in the nonlinear dynamic analysis based on the real repeated earthquake in the worldwide. All the ground motions convert to respond spectrum and scaled according to the developed elastic respond spectrum in order to match the characteristic of the ground motion to the soil type. The scaled was depends on the fundamental period, T1 of the dam. The Koyna dam has been selected as a case study for the purpose of the analysis by assuming that no sliding and rigid foundation, has been estimated. IDA curves for Koyna dam developed for single and repeated ground motions and the performance level of the dam identifies. The IDA curve of repeated ground motion shown stiffer rather than single ground motion. The ultimate state displacement for a single event is 45.59mm and decreased to 39.33mm under repeated events which are decreased about 14%. This showed that the performance level of the dam based on seismic loadings depend on ground motion pattern.

  11. Robust, Causal, and Incremental Approaches to Investigating Linguistic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the maximum robustness approach for studying cases of adaptation in language. We live in an age where we have more data on more languages than ever before, and more data to link it with from other domains. This should make it easier to test hypotheses involving adaptation, and also to spot new patterns that might be explained by adaptation. However, there is not much discussion of the overall approach to research in this area. There are outstanding questions about how to formalize theories, what the criteria are for directing research and how to integrate results from different methods into a clear assessment of a hypothesis. This paper addresses some of those issues by suggesting an approach which is causal, incremental and robust. It illustrates the approach with reference to a recent claim that dry environments select against the use of precise contrasts in pitch. Study 1 replicates a previous analysis of the link between humidity and lexical tone with an alternative dataset and finds that it is not robust. Study 2 performs an analysis with a continuous measure of tone and finds no significant correlation. Study 3 addresses a more recent analysis of the link between humidity and vowel use and finds that it is robust, though the effect size is small and the robustness of the measurement of vowel use is low. Methodological robustness of the general theory is addressed by suggesting additional approaches including iterated learning, a historical case study, corpus studies, and studying individual speech. PMID:29515487

  12. Noise masking of S-cone increments and decrements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanhong; Richters, David P; Eskew, Rhea T

    2014-11-12

    S-cone increment and decrement detection thresholds were measured in the presence of bipolar, dynamic noise masks. Noise chromaticities were the L-, M-, and S-cone directions, as well as L-M, L+M, and achromatic (L+M+S) directions. Noise contrast power was varied to measure threshold Energy versus Noise (EvN) functions. S+ and S- thresholds were similarly, and weakly, raised by achromatic noise. However, S+ thresholds were much more elevated by S, L+M, L-M, L- and M-cone noises than were S- thresholds, even though the noises consisted of two symmetric chromatic polarities of equal contrast power. A linear cone combination model accounts for the overall pattern of masking of a single test polarity well. L and M cones have opposite signs in their effects upon raising S+ and S- thresholds. The results strongly indicate that the psychophysical mechanisms responsible for S+ and S- detection, presumably based on S-ON and S-OFF pathways, are distinct, unipolar mechanisms, and that they have different spatiotemporal sampling characteristics, or contrast gains, or both. © 2014 ARVO.

  13. Business Collaboration in Food Networks: Incremental Solution Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sundmaeker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present an approach for an incremental solution development that is based on the usage of the currently developed Internet based FIspace business collaboration platform. Key element is the clear segmentation of infrastructures that are either internal or external to the collaborating business entity in the food network. On the one hand, the approach enables to differentiate between specific centralised as well as decentralised ways for data storage and hosting of IT based functionalities. The selection of specific dataexchange protocols and data models is facilitated. On the other hand, the supported solution design and subsequent development is focusing on reusable “software Apps” that can be used on their own and are incorporating a clear added value for the business actors. It will be outlined on how to push the development and introduction of Apps that do not require basic changes of the existing infrastructure. The paper will present an example that is based on the development of a set of Apps for the exchange of product quality related information in food networks, specifically addressing fresh fruits and vegetables. It combines workflow support for data exchange from farm to retail as well as to provide quality feedback information to facilitate the business process improvement. Finally, the latest status of theFIspace platform development will be outlined. Key features and potential ways for real users and software developers in using the FIspace platform that is initiated by science and industry will be outlined.

  14. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Chun-Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns.

  15. Reliability and validity of the test of incremental respiratory endurance measures of inspiratory muscle performance in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formiga MF

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Magno F Formiga,1,2 Kathryn E Roach,1 Isabel Vital,3 Gisel Urdaneta,3 Kira Balestrini,3 Rafael A Calderon-Candelario,3,4 Michael A Campos,3,4,* Lawrence P Cahalin1,* 1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Coral Gables, FL, USA; 2CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasilia, Brazil; 3Pulmonary Section, Miami Veterans Administration Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA; 4Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance (TIRE provides a comprehensive assessment of inspiratory muscle performance by measuring maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP over time. The integration of MIP over inspiratory duration (ID provides the sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SMIP. Evidence on the reliability and validity of these measurements in COPD is not currently available. Therefore, we assessed the reliability, responsiveness and construct validity of the TIRE measures of inspiratory muscle performance in subjects with COPD. Patients and methods: Test–retest reliability, known-groups and convergent validity assessments were implemented simultaneously in 81 male subjects with mild to very severe COPD. TIRE measures were obtained using the portable PrO2 device, following standard guidelines. Results: All TIRE measures were found to be highly reliable, with SMIP demonstrating the strongest test–retest reliability with a nearly perfect intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.99, while MIP and ID clustered closely together behind SMIP with ICC values of about 0.97. Our findings also demonstrated known-groups validity of all TIRE measures, with SMIP and ID yielding larger effect sizes when compared to MIP in distinguishing between subjects of different COPD status. Finally, our analyses confirmed convergent validity for both SMIP

  16. Estimating increment-decrement life tables with multiple covariates from panel data: the case of active life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, K C; Guralnik, J M; Blazer, D G

    1994-05-01

    A fundamental limitation of current multistate life table methodology-evident in recent estimates of active life expectancy for the elderly-is the inability to estimate tables from data on small longitudinal panels in the presence of multiple covariates (such as sex, race, and socioeconomic status). This paper presents an approach to such an estimation based on an isomorphism between the structure of the stochastic model underlying a conventional specification of the increment-decrement life table and that of Markov panel regression models for simple state spaces. We argue that Markov panel regression procedures can be used to provide smoothed or graduated group-specific estimates of transition probabilities that are more stable across short age intervals than those computed directly from sample data. We then join these estimates with increment-decrement life table methods to compute group-specific total, active, and dependent life expectancy estimates. To illustrate the methods, we describe an empirical application to the estimation of such life expectancies specific to sex, race, and education (years of school completed) for a longitudinal panel of elderly persons. We find that education extends both total life expectancy and active life expectancy. Education thus may serve as a powerful social protective mechanism delaying the onset of health problems at older ages.

  17. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L.; Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the brittle

  18. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  19. Prediction model of ammonium uranyl carbonate calcination by microwave heating using incremental improved Back-Propagation neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yingwei [Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650093 (China); Peng Jinhui, E-mail: jhpeng@kmust.edu.c [Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650093 (China); Liu Bingguo [Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650093 (China); Li Wei [Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650093 (China); Huang Daifu [No. 272 Nuclear Industry Factory, China National Nuclear Corporation, Hengyang, Hunan Province 421002 (China); Zhang Libo [Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650093 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: The incremental improved Back-Propagation neural network prediction model using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based on optimizing theory is put forward. The prediction model of the nonlinear system is built, which can effectively predict the experiment of microwave calcining of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC). AUC can accept the microwave energy and microwave heating can quickly decompose AUC. In the experiment of microwave calcining of AUC, the contents of U and U{sup 4+} increased with increasing of microwave power and irradiation time, and decreased with increasing of the material average depth. - Abstract: The incremental improved Back-Propagation (BP) neural network prediction model was put forward, which was very useful in overcoming the problems, such as long testing cycle, high testing quantity, difficulty of optimization for process parameters, many training data probably were offered by the way of increment batch and the limitation of the system memory could make the training data infeasible, which existed in the process of calcinations for ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) by microwave heating. The prediction model of the nonlinear system was built, which could effectively predict the experiment of microwave calcining of AUC. The predicted results indicated that the contents of U and U{sup 4+} were increased with increasing of microwave power and irradiation time, and decreased with increasing of the material average depth.

  20. Prediction model of ammonium uranyl carbonate calcination by microwave heating using incremental improved Back-Propagation neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingwei; Peng Jinhui; Liu Bingguo; Li Wei; Huang Daifu; Zhang Libo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The incremental improved Back-Propagation neural network prediction model using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based on optimizing theory is put forward. → The prediction model of the nonlinear system is built, which can effectively predict the experiment of microwave calcining of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC). → AUC can accept the microwave energy and microwave heating can quickly decompose AUC. → In the experiment of microwave calcining of AUC, the contents of U and U 4+ increased with increasing of microwave power and irradiation time, and decreased with increasing of the material average depth. - Abstract: The incremental improved Back-Propagation (BP) neural network prediction model was put forward, which was very useful in overcoming the problems, such as long testing cycle, high testing quantity, difficulty of optimization for process parameters, many training data probably were offered by the way of increment batch and the limitation of the system memory could make the training data infeasible, which existed in the process of calcinations for ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) by microwave heating. The prediction model of the nonlinear system was built, which could effectively predict the experiment of microwave calcining of AUC. The predicted results indicated that the contents of U and U 4+ were increased with increasing of microwave power and irradiation time, and decreased with increasing of the material average depth.

  1. Awareness and its use in Incremental Data Driven Modelling for Plug and Play Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of incremental system identification for the purpose of automatic reconfiguration of control systems. We consider the particular case where a linear time-invariant system is augmented with either an extra sensor or an extra actuator and derive prediction error...... methods for recursively estimating the additional parameters while retaining the existing system model. Next, we propose a novel measure of the "usefulness'' of new signals that appear in an existing control loop due to the addition of a new device, e.g., a sensor. This measure, which we refer...... to as awareness, indicates if there is a relation between the signal provided by the new device and the existing process, as well as what the new device is good for in terms of control performance. Finally, a simulation example illustrates the potentials of the proposed method....

  2. iTopN: Incremental Extraction of the N Most Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Mark, Leo; Omiecinski, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree, which is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations, where an observer...... navigates in a potentially huge data space and explores selected data regions this approach is inadequate. A scalable approach is to make the database system observer-aware and exchange the data that is visible and most relevant to the observer.In this paper we present iTopN an incremental algorithm......-LRU given the same amount of memory. Our experiments also show that for LW-LRU to perform as fast as iTopN it needs three times as much memory....

  3. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hairong; Sun, Tingting; Zhang, Baiqiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Yang

    2017-01-14

    In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF) algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the "Velocity and Attitude" matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  4. El conformado incremental como nueva técnica de prototipado rápido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Peydró Rasero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Various industrial sectors (aerospace, automotive, use forming processes nowadays to produce components of complex shapes from sheet metal. Traditional processes that use arrays are suitable for the production of large volumes of parts, but are not profitable for small series (special vehicles, prototypes, .... Incremental forming is a different process, intelligent and flexible, which presents itself as an alternative to traditional forming methods. This process is based on Rapid Manufacturing methodologies, and greatly reduces tooling costs, since it only requires a simple tool support. It’s well suited to the manufacture of prototypes and small series by low production costs, but the time required to manufacture a part, typically several hours, which makes it impractical for longer runs.

  5. Incremental Structured Dictionary Learning for Video Sensor-Based Object Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ming; Yang, Hua; Zheng, Shibao; Zhou, Yi; Yu, Zhenghua

    2014-01-01

    To tackle robust object tracking for video sensor-based applications, an online discriminative algorithm based on incremental discriminative structured dictionary learning (IDSDL-VT) is presented. In our framework, a discriminative dictionary combining both positive, negative and trivial patches is designed to sparsely represent the overlapped target patches. Then, a local update (LU) strategy is proposed for sparse coefficient learning. To formulate the training and classification process, a multiple linear classifier group based on a K-combined voting (KCV) function is proposed. As the dictionary evolves, the models are also trained to timely adapt the target appearance variation. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging image sequences compared with state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm achieves a more favorable performance. We also illustrate its relay application in visual sensor networks. PMID:24549252

  6. Incremental Structured Dictionary Learning for Video Sensor-Based Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To tackle robust object tracking for video sensor-based applications, an online discriminative algorithm based on incremental discriminative structured dictionary learning (IDSDL-VT is presented. In our framework, a discriminative dictionary combining both positive, negative and trivial patches is designed to sparsely represent the overlapped target patches. Then, a local update (LU strategy is proposed for sparse coefficient learning. To formulate the training and classification process, a multiple linear classifier group based on a K-combined voting (KCV function is proposed. As the dictionary evolves, the models are also trained to timely adapt the target appearance variation. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging image sequences compared with state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm achieves a more favorable performance. We also illustrate its relay application in visual sensor networks.

  7. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the “Velocity and Attitude” matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  8. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Biologists refer to this as a 'limited war' or conventional (ritualistic) strategy (not ... Now allow us to explain a few things about cat behaviour, which will help .... getting injured, but it also helped save both energy and time, vital .... intelligent and.

  9. Comparison of stable carbon isotope ratios in the whole wood, cellulose and lignin of Oak tree-rings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loader, NJ

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The stable carbon isotope ratios (N13C) of whole wood, cellulose and acid-insoluble lignin from annual latewood increments of Quereus robur L., from modern and sub-fossil wood, were measured and their potential use as palaeo environmental indicators...

  10. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  11. An Incremental Type-2 Meta-Cognitive Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Mahardhika; Zhang, Guangquan; Er, Meng Joo; Anavatti, Sreenatha

    2017-02-01

    Existing extreme learning algorithm have not taken into account four issues: 1) complexity; 2) uncertainty; 3) concept drift; and 4) high dimensionality. A novel incremental type-2 meta-cognitive extreme learning machine (ELM) called evolving type-2 ELM (eT2ELM) is proposed to cope with the four issues in this paper. The eT2ELM presents three main pillars of human meta-cognition: 1) what-to-learn; 2) how-to-learn; and 3) when-to-learn. The what-to-learn component selects important training samples for model updates by virtue of the online certainty-based active learning method, which renders eT2ELM as a semi-supervised classifier. The how-to-learn element develops a synergy between extreme learning theory and the evolving concept, whereby the hidden nodes can be generated and pruned automatically from data streams with no tuning of hidden nodes. The when-to-learn constituent makes use of the standard sample reserved strategy. A generalized interval type-2 fuzzy neural network is also put forward as a cognitive component, in which a hidden node is built upon the interval type-2 multivariate Gaussian function while exploiting a subset of Chebyshev series in the output node. The efficacy of the proposed eT2ELM is numerically validated in 12 data streams containing various concept drifts. The numerical results are confirmed by thorough statistical tests, where the eT2ELM demonstrates the most encouraging numerical results in delivering reliable prediction, while sustaining low complexity.

  12. Dynamic Risk Assessment of Sexual Offenders: Validity and Dimensional Structure of the Stable-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzler, Sonja; Eher, Reinhard; Rettenberger, Martin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the predictive and incremental validity of the Stable-2007 beyond the Static-99 was evaluated in an updated sample of N = 638 adult male sexual offenders followed-up for an average of M = 8.2 years. Data were collected at the Federal Evaluation Center for Violent and Sexual Offenders (FECVSO) in Austria within a prospective-longitudinal research design. Scores and risk categories of the Static-99 (AUC = .721; p risk categories contributed incrementally to the prediction of sexual recidivism beyond the Static-99. Analyzing the dimensional structure of the Stable-2007 yielded three factors, named Antisociality, Sexual Deviance, and Hypersexuality. Antisociality and Sexual Deviance were significant predictors for sexual recidivism. Sexual Deviance was negatively associated with non-sexual violent recidivism. Comparisons with latent dimensions of other risk assessment instruments are made and implications for applied risk assessment are discussed.

  13. Abnormal Gait Behavior Detection for Elderly Based on Enhanced Wigner-Ville Analysis and Cloud Incremental SVM Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cloud based health care system is proposed in this paper for the elderly by providing abnormal gait behavior detection, classification, online diagnosis, and remote aid service. Intelligent mobile terminals with triaxial acceleration sensor embedded are used to capture the movement and ambulation information of elderly. The collected signals are first enhanced by a Kalman filter. And the magnitude of signal vector features is then extracted and decomposed into a linear combination of enhanced Gabor atoms. The Wigner-Ville analysis method is introduced and the problem is studied by joint time-frequency analysis. In order to solve the large-scale abnormal behavior data lacking problem in training process, a cloud based incremental SVM (CI-SVM learning method is proposed. The original abnormal behavior data are first used to get the initial SVM classifier. And the larger abnormal behavior data of elderly collected by mobile devices are then gathered in cloud platform to conduct incremental training and get the new SVM classifier. By the CI-SVM learning method, the knowledge of SVM classifier could be accumulated due to the dynamic incremental learning. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and can be applied to aged care, emergency aid, and related fields.

  14. Taurine supplementation has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects before and after incremental exercise in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Aslani, Elaheh; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of supplemental taurine prior to and following incremental exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). Patients with HF and left ventricle ejection fraction less than 50%, and placed in functional class II or III according to the New York Heart Association classification, were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) taurine supplementation; or (2) placebo. The taurine group received oral taurine (500 mg) 3 times a day for 2 weeks, and performed exercise before and after the supplementation period. The placebo group followed the same protocol, but with a starch supplement (500 mg) rather than taurine. The incremental multilevel treadmill test was done using a modified Bruce protocol. Our results indicate that inflammatory indices [C-reactive protein (CRP), platelets] decreased in the taurine group in pre-exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation in the placebo group ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p 0.05). our results suggest that 2 weeks of oral taurine supplementation increases the taurine levels and has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects prior to and following incremental exercise in HF patients.

  15. When Natural Disaster Follows Economic Downturn: The Incremental Impact of Multiple Stressor Events on Trajectories of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Amar D; Bonanno, George A

    2018-04-29

    To determine whether there were incremental mental health impacts, specifically on depression trajectories, as a result of the 2008 economic crisis (the Great Recession) and subsequent Hurricane Sandy. Using latent growth mixture modeling and the ORANJ BOWL dataset, we examined prospective trajectories of depression among older adults (mean age, 60.67; SD, 6.86) who were exposed to the 2 events. We also collected community economic and criminal justice data to examine their impact upon depression trajectories. Participants (N=1172) were assessed at 3 times for affect, successful aging, and symptoms of depression. We additionally assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology after Hurricane Sandy. We identified 3 prospective trajectories of depression. The majority (83.6%) had no significant change in depression from before to after these events (resilience), while 7.2% of the sample increased in depression incrementally after each event (incremental depression). A third group (9.2%) went from high to low depression symptomology following the 2 events (depressive-improving). Only those in the incremental depression group had significant PTSD symptoms following Hurricane Sandy. We identified a small group of individuals for whom the experience of multiple stressful events had an incremental negative effect on mental health outcomes. These results highlight the importance of understanding the perseveration of depression symptomology from one event to another. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 10).

  16. Lactate and ammonia concentration in blood and sweat during incremental cycle ergometer exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Mook, GA; Gips, CH; Verkerke, GJ

    It is known that the concentrations of ammonia and lactate in blood increase during incremental exercise. Sweat also contains lactate and ammonia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological response of lactate and ammonia in plasma and sweat during a stepwise incremental cycle

  17. A new recursive incremental algorithm for building minimal acyclic deterministic finite automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, B.W.; Martin-Vide, C.; Mitrana, V.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a new algorithm for incrementally building minimal acyclic deterministic finite automata. Such minimal automata are a compact representation of a finite set of words (e.g. in a spell checker). The incremental aspect of such algorithms (where the intermediate automaton is

  18. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math classroom…

  19. TOF for heavy stable particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Searching for heavy stable particle production in a new energy region of hadron-hadron collisions is of fundamental theoretical interest. Observation of such particles produced in high energy collisions would indicate the existence of stable heavy leptons or any massive hadronic system carrying new quantum numbers. Experimentally, evidence of its production has not been found for PP collisions either at FNAL or at the CERN ISR for √S = 23 and 62 GeV respectively. However, many theories beyond the standard model do predict its existence on a mass scale ranging from 50 to a few hundred GeV. If so, it would make a high luminosity TeV collider an extremely ideal hunting ground for searching the production of such a speculated object. To measure the mass of a heavy stable charged particle, one usually uses its time of flight (TOF) and/or dE/dX information. For heavy neutral particle, one hopes it may decay at some later time after its production. Hence a pair of jets or a jet associated with a high P/sub t/ muon originated from some places other than the interacting point (IP) of the colliding beams may be a good signal. In this note, we examine the feasibility of TOF measurement on a heavy stable particle produced in PP collisions at √S = 1 TeV and a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 with a single arm spectrometer pointing to the IP

  20. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti-Pekka E. Rissanen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O2 carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O2Hb], deoxy- (Δ[HHb] and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb], and tissue saturation index (TSI. NIRS inflection points (NIP, reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds (anaerobic threshold (AT, respiratory compensation point (RC; V-slope method was examined. Blood O2 carrying capacity (total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01, but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O2 delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O2 carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak

  1. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical applications include the galactose breath test which consists of oral administration of 13 C-labeled galactose and measurement of the 13 C content of respired CO 2 as a function of time in patients with cirrhotic livers for diagnosis of liver dysfunction. Another application was the breath test to study glucose metabolism in children. Respired 13 CO 2 from ingested glucose- 13 C was measured for normal and diabetic children. Studies on mice in which 60 percent of the body carbon was replaced with 13 C failed to show significant effects of the isotope. Studies on biochemical applications include nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 13 C-labeled amino acids from Chlorella pyrenoidosa; studies on 15 N nmr spectra of arginine-guanidino- 13 C-2,3-- 15 N 2 as a function of pH; and isolation of fatty acids from algae

  2. Stable-isotope paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuser, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    Seasonal variations of temperature and salinity in the surface waters of large parts of the oceans are well established. Available data on seasonal distributions of planktonic foraminifera show that the abundances of different species groups peak at different times of the year with an apparent succession of abundance peaks through most of the year. This evidence suggests that a measure of seasonal contrast is recorded in the isotope ratios of oxygen, and perhaps carbon, in the tests of different foraminiferal species. The evaluation of this potential paleoclimatologic tool awaits planned experiments with recent foraminifera in well-known settings, but a variety of available data is consistent with the idea that interspecies differences in 18 O content contain a seasonal component.(auth.)

  3. Rare stable isotopes in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) using accelerators has been applied with success to cosmic ray exposure ages and terrestrial residence times of meteorites by measuring cosmogenic nuclides of Be, Cl, and I. It is proposed to complement this work with experiments on rare stable isotopes, in the hope of setting constraints on the processes of solar nebula/meteoritic formation. The relevant species can be classified as: a) daughter products of extinct nuclides (halflife less than or equal to 2 x 10 8 y) -chronology of the early solar system; b) products of high temperature astrophysical processes - different components incorporated into the solar nebula; and c) products of relatively low temperature processes, stellar winds and cosmic ray reactions - early solar system radiation history. The use of micron-scale primary ion beams will allow detailed sampling of phases within meteorites. Strategies of charge-state selection, molecular disintegration and detection should bring a new set of targets within analytical range. The developing accelerator field is compared to existing (keV energy) ion microprobes

  4. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen DUMITRASCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we define the estimated measure indicators for a level. The influence of the factors of stability and the ways for increasing it are thus identified, and at the same time the costs of development stages, the costs of usage and the costs of maintenance to be keep on between limits that assure the global efficiency of application. It is presented the base aspects for distributed applications: definition, peculiarities and importance. The aspects for the development cycle of distributed application are detailed. In this article, we alongside give the mechanisms for building the defined structures and analyze the complexity of the defined structures for a distributed application of a virtual store.

  5. Relationship between work rate and oxygen uptake in mitochondrial myopathy during ramp-incremental exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Gimenes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We determined the response characteristics and functional correlates of the dynamic relationship between the rate (Δ of oxygen consumption ( O2 and the applied power output (work rate = WR during ramp-incremental exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM. Fourteen patients (7 males, age 35.4 ± 10.8 years with biopsy-proven MM and 10 sedentary controls (6 males, age 29.0 ± 7.8 years took a ramp-incremental cycle ergometer test for the determination of the O2 on-exercise mean response time (MRT and the gas exchange threshold (GET. The ΔO2/ΔWR slope was calculated up to GET (S1, above GET (S2 and over the entire linear portion of the response (S T. Knee muscle endurance was measured by isokinetic dynamometry. As expected, peak O2 and muscle performance were lower in patients than controls (P O2/ΔWR than controls, especially the S2 component (6.8 ± 1.5 vs 10.3 ± 0.6 mL·min-1·W-1, respectively; P O2/ΔWR (S T and muscle endurance, MRT-O2, GET and peak O2 in MM patients (P O2/ΔWR below 8 mL·min-1·W-1 had severely reduced peak O2 values (O2 had lower ΔO2/ΔWR (P O2/ΔWR is typically reduced in patients with MM, being related to increased functional impairment and higher cardiopulmonary stress.

  6. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  7. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  8. Daily growth increments in otoliths of juvenile black rockfish, Sebastes melanops: an evaluation of autoradiography as a new method of validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This study evaluates the commonly used oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) and an alternate chemical, the radioisotope calcium-45, in terms of their success as time-markers to validate daily growth increment formation in the otoliths of juvenile black rockfish, Sebastes melanops

  9. Determinants of time trial performance and maximal incremental exercise in highly trained endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Rasmussen, Peter; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Human endurance performance can be predicted from maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), lactate threshold, and exercise efficiency. These physiologic parameters, however, are not wholly exclusive from one another and their interplay is complex. Accordingly, we sought to identify more specific me...

  10. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  11. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  12. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  13. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  14. Monitoring of incremental changes in maximum interincisal opening after gap arthroplasty omits the risk of Re-ankylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ghada Amin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to prospectively measure the incremental changes in the maximum interincisal opening (MIO) after 1 cm gap arthroplasty, compare these changes between unilateral and bilateral cases, and emphasize the importance of the monitoring of the MIO for at least 24 months. This prospective study enrolled 26 patients with TMJ ankylosis either unilateral or bilateral. The fingers assessment method was used to measure the MIO preoperatively, intraoperatively, and monthly postoperatively up to 24 months. All the patients had undergone 1 cm gap arthroplasty to release the ankylosis. The changes in MIO measurements of unilateral and bilateral cases were statistically compared. The physiotherapy was performed until the measurements had normal stable values. All the cases showed a significant decrease in MIO at the first three months. At 6 months, the MIO continuously increased up to 1 year. There was no difference between the unilateral and bilateral cases. At the end of the follow-up, all measurements showed normal stable values. The monitoring of MIO is important to detect the early signs of re-ankylosis. It is the only way that can be used in which the early signs cannot be detected in radiographs. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stream Kriging: Incremental and recursive ordinary Kriging over spatiotemporal data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xu; Kealy, Allison; Duckham, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Ordinary Kriging is widely used for geospatial interpolation and estimation. Due to the O (n3) time complexity of solving the system of linear equations, ordinary Kriging for a large set of source points is computationally intensive. Conducting real-time Kriging interpolation over continuously varying spatiotemporal data streams can therefore be especially challenging. This paper develops and tests two new strategies for improving the performance of an ordinary Kriging interpolator adapted to a stream-processing environment. These strategies rely on the expectation that, over time, source data points will frequently refer to the same spatial locations (for example, where static sensor nodes are generating repeated observations of a dynamic field). First, an incremental strategy improves efficiency in cases where a relatively small proportion of previously processed spatial locations are absent from the source points at any given iteration. Second, a recursive strategy improves efficiency in cases where there is substantial set overlap between the sets of spatial locations of source points at the current and previous iterations. These two strategies are evaluated in terms of their computational efficiency in comparison to ordinary Kriging algorithm. The results show that these two strategies can reduce the time taken to perform the interpolation by up to 90%, and approach average-case time complexity of O (n2) when most but not all source points refer to the same locations over time. By combining the approaches developed in this paper with existing heuristic ordinary Kriging algorithms, the conclusions indicate how further efficiency gains could potentially be accrued. The work ultimately contributes to the development of online ordinary Kriging interpolation algorithms, capable of real-time spatial interpolation with large streaming data sets.

  16. Solution of the time-dependent inertial-frame equation of radiative transfer in moving media to O(v/c)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalas, D.; Klein, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A stable and efficient mixed-frame method has been formulated for the solution of the time-dependent equation of radiative transfer with full retention of all velocity dependent terms to O(ν/c). The method retains the simplicity of the differential operator found in the inertial frame while transforming the absorption and emission coefficients to the comoving frame keeping them isotropic. The method is ideally suited to continuum calculations. To correctly treat the time dependence of the radiation field over fluid-flow time increments, the velocity-dependent terms on the right-hand side of both the transfer and moment equations must be retained for consistency

  17. Adaptive Sniping for Volatile and Stable Continuous Double Auction Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, I. E.; Bagnall, A. J.

    This paper introduces a new adaptive sniping agent for the Continuous Double Auction. We begin by analysing the performance of the well known Kaplan sniper in two extremes of market conditions. We generate volatile and stable market conditions using the well known Zero Intelligence-Constrained agent and a new zero-intelligence agent Small Increment (SI). ZI-C agents submit random but profitable bids/offers and cause high volatility in prices and individual trader performance. Our new zero-intelligence agent, SI, makes small random adjustments to the outstanding bid/offer and hence is more cautious than ZI-C. We present results for SI in self-play and then analyse Kaplan in volatile and stable markets. We demonstrate that the non-adaptive Kaplan sniper can be configured to suit either market conditions, but no single configuration is performs well across both market types. We believe that in a dynamic auction environment where current or future market conditions cannot be predicted a viable sniping strategy should adapt its behaviour to suit prevailing market conditions. To this end, we propose the Adaptive Sniper (AS) agent for the CDA. AS traders classify sniping opportunities using a statistical model of market activity and adjust their classification thresholds using a Widrow-Hoff adapted search. Our AS agent requires little configuration, and outperforms the original Kaplan sniper in volatile and stable markets, and in a mixed trader type scenario that includes adaptive strategies from the literature.

  18. Using Analysis Increments (AI) to Estimate and Correct Systematic Errors in the Global Forecast System (GFS) Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, K.; Kalnay, E.; Carton, J.; Yang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Systematic forecast errors, arising from model deficiencies, form a significant portion of the total forecast error in weather prediction models like the Global Forecast System (GFS). While much effort has been expended to improve models, substantial model error remains. The aim here is to (i) estimate the model deficiencies in the GFS that lead to systematic forecast errors, (ii) implement an online correction (i.e., within the model) scheme to correct GFS following the methodology of Danforth et al. [2007] and Danforth and Kalnay [2008, GRL]. Analysis Increments represent the corrections that new observations make on, in this case, the 6-hr forecast in the analysis cycle. Model bias corrections are estimated from the time average of the analysis increments divided by 6-hr, assuming that initial model errors grow linearly and first ignoring the impact of observation bias. During 2012-2016, seasonal means of the 6-hr model bias are generally robust despite changes in model resolution and data assimilation systems, and their broad continental scales explain their insensitivity to model resolution. The daily bias dominates the sub-monthly analysis increments and consists primarily of diurnal and semidiurnal components, also requiring a low dimensional correction. Analysis increments in 2015 and 2016 are reduced over oceans, which is attributed to improvements in the specification of the SSTs. These results encourage application of online correction, as suggested by Danforth and Kalnay, for mean, seasonal and diurnal and semidiurnal model biases in GFS to reduce both systematic and random errors. As the error growth in the short-term is still linear, estimated model bias corrections can be added as a forcing term in the model tendency equation to correct online. Preliminary experiments with GFS, correcting temperature and specific humidity online show reduction in model bias in 6-hr forecast. This approach can then be used to guide and optimize the design of sub

  19. Significant increment in the prevalence of overweight and obesity documented between 1994 and 2008 in Mexican college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas-Ramos D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available H García-Alcala1, D Cuevas-Ramos2, Ch Genestier-Tamborero1, O Hirales-Tamez1, P Almeda-Valdés2, R Mehta2, CA Aguilar-Salinas21Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico; 2Department of Endocrinology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion “Salvador Zubiran” (INC MNSZ, Mexico City, MexicoAbstract: We describe the changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 4606 students that applied to a Mexican University during 1994 to 2008. The mean (± standard deviation [SD] age was 17.7 ± 1.2 years-old. Progressive and significant increments of bodyweight (female [F] = 2.6, P = 0.03, body mass index (BMI (F = 4.4, P = 0.001, and waist circumference (F = 30.08, P < 0.0001 in women, and bodyweight (male [M] = 8.9, P < 0.001, BMI (M = 10.4, P < 0.001, and waist circumference (M = 13.01, P < 0.001 in men were observed. A significant increment (P < 0.05 in the prevalence of overweight since 1994 (n = 87, 12.1% throughout 1997 (n = 102, 14.1%, 1998 (n = 133, 18.4%, 1999 (n = 1993, 26.8%, and 2008 (n = 206, 19.9% was documented. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity had a significant increment in all students evaluated (P < 0.0001 since 1994 (n = 29, 13.2% through 1997 (n = 11, 5.0%, 1998 (n = 45, 20.5%, 1999 (n = 53, 24.1%, and 2008 (n = 82, 37.3%. The increment was significant in both women (P = 0.02 and men (P < 0.001. In summary, we report a significant increment in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican students living in an urban setting over a time period of 14 years.Keywords: body mass index, adolescents, weight problems, obese

  20. Dental caries increments and related factors in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudikiene, J; Machiulskiene, V; Nyvad, B; Tenovuo, J; Nedzelskiene, I

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse possible associations between caries increments and selected caries determinants in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls, over 2 years. A total of 63 (10-15 years old) diabetic and non-diabetic pairs were examined for dental caries, oral hygiene and salivary factors. Salivary flow rates, buffer effect, concentrations of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, yeasts, total IgA and IgG, protein, albumin, amylase and glucose were analysed. Means of 2-year decayed/missing/filled surface (DMFS) increments were similar in diabetics and their controls. Over the study period, both unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates remained significantly lower in diabetic children compared to controls. No differences were observed in the counts of lactobacilli, mutans streptococci or yeast growth during follow-up, whereas salivary IgA, protein and glucose concentrations were higher in diabetics than in controls throughout the 2-year period. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that children with higher 2-year DMFS increments were older at baseline and had higher salivary glucose concentrations than children with lower 2-year DMFS increments. Likewise, higher 2-year DMFS increments in diabetics versus controls were associated with greater increments in salivary glucose concentrations in diabetics. Higher increments in active caries lesions in diabetics versus controls were associated with greater increments of dental plaque and greater increments of salivary albumin. Our results suggest that, in addition to dental plaque as a common caries risk factor, diabetes-induced changes in salivary glucose and albumin concentrations are indicative of caries development among diabetics. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. On the validity of the incremental approach to estimate the impact of cities on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunis, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The question of how much cities are the sources of their own air pollution is not only theoretical as it is critical to the design of effective strategies for urban air quality planning. In this work, we assess the validity of the commonly used incremental approach to estimate the likely impact of cities on their air pollution. With the incremental approach, the city impact (i.e. the concentration change generated by the city emissions) is estimated as the concentration difference between a rural background and an urban background location, also known as the urban increment. We show that the city impact is in reality made up of the urban increment and two additional components and consequently two assumptions need to be fulfilled for the urban increment to be representative of the urban impact. The first assumption is that the rural background location is not influenced by emissions from within the city whereas the second requires that background concentration levels, obtained with zero city emissions, are equal at both locations. Because the urban impact is not measurable, the SHERPA modelling approach, based on a full air quality modelling system, is used in this work to assess the validity of these assumptions for some European cities. Results indicate that for PM2.5, these two assumptions are far from being fulfilled for many large or medium city sizes. For this type of cities, urban increments are largely underestimating city impacts. Although results are in better agreement for NO2, similar issues are met. In many situations the incremental approach is therefore not an adequate estimate of the urban impact on air pollution. This poses issues in terms of interpretation when these increments are used to define strategic options in terms of air quality planning. We finally illustrate the interest of comparing modelled and measured increments to improve our confidence in the model results.

  2. Optimized Basis Sets for the Environment in the Domain-Specific Basis Set Approach of the Incremental Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Tony; Hill, J Grant; Friedrich, Joachim

    2016-04-21

    Minimal basis sets, denoted DSBSenv, based on the segmented basis sets of Ahlrichs and co-workers have been developed for use as environmental basis sets for the domain-specific basis set (DSBS) incremental scheme with the aim of decreasing the CPU requirements of the incremental scheme. The use of these minimal basis sets within explicitly correlated (F12) methods has been enabled by the optimization of matching auxiliary basis sets for use in density fitting of two-electron integrals and resolution of the identity. The accuracy of these auxiliary sets has been validated by calculations on a test set containing small- to medium-sized molecules. The errors due to density fitting are about 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than the basis set incompleteness error of the DSBSenv orbital basis sets. Additional reductions in computational cost have been tested with the reduced DSBSenv basis sets, in which the highest angular momentum functions of the DSBSenv auxiliary basis sets have been removed. The optimized and reduced basis sets are used in the framework of the domain-specific basis set of the incremental scheme to decrease the computation time without significant loss of accuracy. The computation times and accuracy of the previously used environmental basis and that optimized in this work have been validated with a test set of medium- to large-sized systems. The optimized and reduced DSBSenv basis sets decrease the CPU time by about 15.4% and 19.4% compared with the old environmental basis and retain the accuracy in the absolute energy with standard deviations of 0.99 and 1.06 kJ/mol, respectively.

  3. The height increments and BMI values of elite Central European children and youth in the second half of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlos, John

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal height measurements on children and youth are very rare prior to the 20th century, as are BMI values. Growth increments and BMI values were determined among elite (select) Habsburg children and youth in the late 19th century and compared with other extant historical and contemporary data. Archival data on height and weight were collected for approximately 3500 students attending Habsburg Military schools. The students were measured once a year for 4 years. Because of the minimum height requirement, truncated regression was used in order to estimate height trends, but standard procedures were used to determine height increments and BMI values. Heights increased at most 0.9-1.6 cm between the birth cohorts of circa 1870s and 1900. These future officers were about the same size as their counterparts in the USA and France, but smaller than those attending the Royal Military Academy in Sandhurst, England, who were taller and probably the tallest in the world at the time. Height increments were markedly smaller than those experienced by German students in the 18th century after age 15. Central European BMI values were above those obtained in the USA in the 19th century but well below modern values. Although peak height velocity was experienced as early as ages 13 and 14, the height increments were very small compared even to other historical populations. The military academy selected mainly precocious applicants (with probably larger height increments at younger ages and smaller increments at older ages). BMI values in this sample were well below modern standards, but they were unexpectedly as high as those of contemporary US West Point cadets, a well nourished group. There were significant differences in the height of elites in Central Europe in the 19th century, pointing to substantial socio-economic inequality, but at least the elites were as well nourished as the US population.

  4. Annual increments, specific gravity and energy of Eucalyptus grandis by gamma-ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, M.A.; Guerrini, I.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Specific gravity annual increments in volume, mass and energy of Eucalyptus grandis at thirteen years of age were made taking into account measurements of the calorific value for wood. It was observed that the calorific value for wood decrease slightly, while the specific gravity increase significantly with age. The so-called culmination age for the Annual Volume Increment was determined to be around fourth year of growth while for the Annual Mass and Energy Increment was around the eighty year. These results show that a tree in a particular age may not have a significant growth in volume, yet one is mass and energy. (author)

  5. Sustained change blindness to incremental scene rotation: a dissociation between explicit change detection and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Henderson, John M

    2004-07-01

    In a change detection paradigm, the global orientation of a natural scene was incrementally changed in 1 degree intervals. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants demonstrated sustained change blindness to incremental rotation, often coming to consider a significantly different scene viewpoint as an unchanged continuation of the original view. Experiment 3 showed that participants who failed to detect the incremental rotation nevertheless reliably detected a single-step rotation back to the initial view. Together, these results demonstrate an important dissociation between explicit change detection and visual memory. Following a change, visual memory is updated to reflect the changed state of the environment, even if the change was not detected.

  6. Medical therapy v. PCI in stable coronary artery disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Tomlinson, George; Ko, Dennis T; Dzavik, Vladimir; Krahn, Murray D

    2013-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with either drug-eluting stents (DES) or bare metal stents (BMS) reduces angina and repeat procedures compared with optimal medical therapy alone. It remains unclear if these benefits are sufficient to offset their increased costs and small increase in adverse events. Cost utility analysis of initial medical therapy v. PCI with either BMS or DES. . Markov cohort decision model. Data Sources. Propensity-matched observational data from Ontario, Canada, for baseline event rates. Effectiveness and utility data obtained from the published literature, with costs from the Ontario Case Costing Initiative. Patients with stable coronary artery disease, confirmed after angiography, stratified by risk of restenosis based on diabetic status, lesion size, and lesion length. Time Horizon. Lifetime. Perspective. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Interventions. Optimal medical therapy, PCI with BMS or DES. Lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). of Base Case Analysis. In the overall population, medical therapy had the lowest lifetime costs at $22,952 v. $25,081 and $25,536 for BMS and DES, respectively. Medical therapy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 10.1 v. 10.26 QALYs for BMS, producing an ICER of $13,271/QALY. The DES strategy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of only 10.20 QALYs and was dominated by the BMS strategy. This ranking was consistent in all groups stratified by restenosis risk, except diabetic patients with long lesions in small arteries, in whom DES was cost-effective compared with medical therapy (ICER of $18,826/QALY). Limitations. There is the possibility of residual unobserved confounding. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an initial BMS strategy is cost-effective.

  7. The Nature of Stable Insomnia Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Urban, community-based. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). Interventions: None. Measurements and results: At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the “neither criterion” phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. Conclusions: By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With

  8. Shape measurement system for single point incremental forming (SPIF) manufacts by using trinocular vision and random pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, Francesco; Bini, Ruggero; Lunardelli, Massimo; Bosetti, Paolo; Bruschi, Stefania; De Cecco, Mariolino

    2012-01-01

    Many contemporary works show the interest of the scientific community in measuring the shape of artefacts made by single point incremental forming. In this paper, we will present an algorithm able to detect feature points with a random pattern, check the compatibility of associations exploiting multi-stereo constraints and reject outliers and perform a 3D reconstruction by dense random patterns. The algorithm is suitable for a real-time application, in fact it needs just three images and a synchronous relatively fast processing. The proposed method has been tested on a simple geometry and results have been compared with a coordinate measurement machine acquisition. (paper)

  9. Taking PROs and patient-centered care seriously: incremental and disruptive ideas for incorporating PROs in oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Molla Sloane

    2008-12-01

    Using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical practice poses challenges for health care teams and organizations to respond to individual patient needs in a timely fashion. Well-validated tools and feasibility studies are available, but successful spread will require knowledge of effective technology dissemination in complex health delivery systems. Given what has been learned about effective implementation, it is reasonable to ask whether the broad adoption of PROs can occur incrementally using current models of care to apply PRO technology. Another approach is to start with patient needs and focus on how to meet those needs most effectively using PROs in new ways of organizing health care.

  10. Inching toward incrementalism: federalism, devolution, and health policy in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Michael S; France, George; Clinton, Chelsea

    2011-02-01

    In the United States, the recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 envisions a significant increase in federal oversight over the nation's health care system. At the same time, however, the legislation requires the states to play key roles in every aspect of the reform agenda (such as expanding Medicaid programs, creating insurance exchanges, and working with providers on delivery system reforms). The complicated intergovernmental partnerships that govern the nation's fragmented and decentralized system are likely to continue, albeit with greater federal oversight and control. But what about intergovernmental relations in the United Kingdom? What impact did the formal devolution of power in 1999 to Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have on health policy in those nations, and in the United Kingdom more generally? Has devolution begun a political process in which health policy in the United Kingdom will, over time, become increasingly decentralized and fragmented, or will this "state of unions" retain its long-standing reputation as perhaps the most centralized of the European nations? In this article, we explore the federalist and intergovernmental implications of recent reforms in the United States and the United Kingdom, and we put forward the argument that political fragmentation (long-standing in the United States and just emerging in the United Kingdom) produces new intergovernmental partnerships that, in turn, produce incremental growth in overall government involvement in the health care arena. This is the impact of what can be called catalytic federalism.

  11. Escaping Depressions in LRTS Based on Incremental Refinement of Encoded Quad-Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of robot navigation, game AI, and so on, real-time search is extensively used to undertake motion planning. Though it satisfies the requirement of quick response to users’ commands and environmental changes, learning real-time search (LRTS suffers from the heuristic depressions where agents behave irrationally. There have introduced several effective solutions, such as state abstractions. This paper combines LRTS and encoded quad-tree abstraction which represent the search space in multiresolutions. When exploring the environments, agents are enabled to locally repair the quad-tree models and incrementally refine the spatial cognition. By virtue of the idea of state aggregation and heuristic generalization, our EQ LRTS (encoded quad-tree based LRTS possesses the ability of quickly escaping from heuristic depressions with less state revisitations. Experiments and analysis show that (a our encoding principle for quad-trees is a much more memory-efficient method than other data structures expressing quad-trees, (b EQ LRTS differs a lot in several characteristics from classical PR LRTS which represent the space and refine the paths hierarchically, and (c EQ LRTS substantially reduces the planning amount and curtails heuristic updates compared with LRTS on uniform cells.

  12. Incremental retinal-defocus theory of myopia development--schematic analysis and computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, George K; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2007-07-01

    Previous theories of myopia development involved subtle and complex processes such as the sensing and analyzing of chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, spatial gradient of blur, or spatial frequency content of the retinal image, but they have not been able to explain satisfactorily the diverse experimental results reported in the literature. On the other hand, our newly proposed incremental retinal-defocus theory (IRDT) has been able to explain all of these results. This theory is based on a relatively simple and direct mechanism for the regulation of ocular growth. It states that a time-averaged decrease in retinal-image defocus area decreases the rate of release of retinal neuromodulators, which decreases the rate of retinal proteoglycan synthesis with an associated decrease in scleral structural integrity. This increases the rate of scleral growth, and in turn the eye's axial length, which leads to myopia. Our schematic analysis has provided a clear explanation for the eye's ability to grow in the appropriate direction under a wide range of experimental conditions. In addition, the theory has been able to explain how repeated cycles of nearwork-induced transient myopia leads to repeated periods of decreased retinal-image defocus, whose cumulative effect over an extended period of time results in an increase in axial growth that leads to permanent myopia. Thus, this unifying theory forms the basis for understanding the underlying retinal and scleral mechanisms of myopia development.

  13. Robot Visual Tracking via Incremental Self-Updating of Appearance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danpei Zhao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a target tracking method called Incremental Self-Updating Visual Tracking for robot platforms. Our tracker treats the tracking problem as a binary classification: the target and the background. The greyscale, HOG and LBP features are used in this work to represent the target and are integrated into a particle filter framework. To track the target over long time sequences, the tracker has to update its model to follow the most recent target. In order to deal with the problems of calculation waste and lack of model-updating strategy with the traditional methods, an intelligent and effective online self-updating strategy is devised to choose the optimal update opportunity. The strategy of updating the appearance model can be achieved based on the change in the discriminative capability between the current frame and the previous updated frame. By adjusting the update step adaptively, severe waste of calculation time for needless updates can be avoided while keeping the stability of the model. Moreover, the appearance model can be kept away from serious drift problems when the target undergoes temporary occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed tracker can achieve robust and efficient performance in several benchmark-challenging video sequences with various complex environment changes in posture, scale, illumination and occlusion.

  14. Reasoning on the Self-Organizing Incremental Associative Memory for Online Robot Path Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawewong, Aram; Honda, Yutaro; Tsuboyama, Manabu; Hasegawa, Osamu

    Robot path-planning is one of the important issues in robotic navigation. This paper presents a novel robot path-planning approach based on the associative memory using Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Networks (SOINN). By the proposed method, an environment is first autonomously divided into a set of path-fragments by junctions. Each fragment is represented by a sequence of preliminarily generated common patterns (CPs). In an online manner, a robot regards the current path as the associative path-fragments, each connected by junctions. The reasoning technique is additionally proposed for decision making at each junction to speed up the exploration time. Distinct from other methods, our method does not ignore the important information about the regions between junctions (path-fragments). The resultant number of path-fragments is also less than other method. Evaluation is done via Webots physical 3D-simulated and real robot experiments, where only distance sensors are available. Results show that our method can represent the environment effectively; it enables the robot to solve the goal-oriented navigation problem in only one episode, which is actually less than that necessary for most of the Reinforcement Learning (RL) based methods. The running time is proved finite and scales well with the environment. The resultant number of path-fragments matches well to the environment.

  15. An incremental DPMM-based method for trajectory clustering, modeling, and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Tian, Guodong; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2013-05-01

    Trajectory analysis is the basis for many applications, such as indexing of motion events in videos, activity recognition, and surveillance. In this paper, the Dirichlet process mixture model (DPMM) is applied to trajectory clustering, modeling, and retrieval. We propose an incremental version of a DPMM-based clustering algorithm and apply it to cluster trajectories. An appropriate number of trajectory clusters is determined automatically. When trajectories belonging to new clusters arrive, the new clusters can be identified online and added to the model without any retraining using the previous data. A time-sensitive Dirichlet process mixture model (tDPMM) is applied to each trajectory cluster for learning the trajectory pattern which represents the time-series characteristics of the trajectories in the cluster. Then, a parameterized index is constructed for each cluster. A novel likelihood estimation algorithm for the tDPMM is proposed, and a trajectory-based video retrieval model is developed. The tDPMM-based probabilistic matching method and the DPMM-based model growing method are combined to make the retrieval model scalable and adaptable. Experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  16. Stable “Trait” Variance of Temperament as a Predictor of the Temporal Course of Depression and Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Brown, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research has found robust associations between dimensions of temperament (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion) and the mood and anxiety disorders. However, mood-state distortion (i.e., the tendency for current mood state to bias ratings of temperament) likely confounds these associations, rendering their interpretation and validity unclear. This issue is of particular relevance to clinical populations who experience elevated levels of general distress. The current study used the “trait-state-occasion” latent variable model (Cole, Martin, & Steiger, 2005) to separate the stable components of temperament from transient, situational influences such as current mood state. We examined the predictive power of the time-invariant components of temperament on the course of depression and social phobia in a large, treatment-seeking sample with mood and/or anxiety disorders (N = 826). Participants were assessed three times over the course of one year, using interview and self-report measures; most participants received treatment during this time. Results indicated that both neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N/BI) and behavioral activation/positive affect (BA/P) consisted largely of stable, time-invariant variance (57% to 78% of total variance). Furthermore, the time-invariant components of N/BI and BA/P were uniquely and incrementally predictive of change in depression and social phobia, adjusting for initial symptom levels. These results suggest that the removal of state variance bolsters the effect of temperament on psychopathology among clinically distressed individuals. Implications for temperament-psychopathology models, psychopathology assessment, and the stability of traits are discussed. PMID:24016004

  17. Stable "trait" variance of temperament as a predictor of the temporal course of depression and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Gallagher, Matthew W; Brown, Timothy A

    2013-08-01

    A large body of research has found robust associations between dimensions of temperament (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion) and the mood and anxiety disorders. However, mood-state distortion (i.e., the tendency for current mood state to bias ratings of temperament) likely confounds these associations, rendering their interpretation and validity unclear. This issue is of particular relevance to clinical populations who experience elevated levels of general distress. The current study used the "trait-state-occasion" latent variable model (D. A. Cole, N. C. Martin, & J. H. Steiger, 2005) to separate the stable components of temperament from transient, situational influences such as current mood state. We examined the predictive power of the time-invariant components of temperament on the course of depression and social phobia in a large, treatment-seeking sample with mood and/or anxiety disorders (N = 826). Participants were assessed 3 times over the course of 1 year, using interview and self-report measures; most participants received treatment during this time. Results indicated that both neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N/BI) and behavioral activation/positive affect (BA/P) consisted largely of stable, time-invariant variance (57% to 78% of total variance). Furthermore, the time-invariant components of N/BI and BA/P were uniquely and incrementally predictive of change in depression and social phobia, adjusting for initial symptom levels. These results suggest that the removal of state variance bolsters the effect of temperament on psychopathology among clinically distressed individuals. Implications for temperament-psychopathology models, psychopathology assessment, and the stability of traits are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. [Current Treatment of Stable Angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Peiman; Cuculi, Florim

    2015-06-17

    Current therapy for stable angina includes surgical and percutaneous revascularization, which has been improved tremendously over the last decades. Smoking cessation and regular exercise are the cornerstone for prevention of further cerebrovascular events. Medical treatment includes treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and antithrombotic management, which can be a challenge in some patients. Owing to the fact the coronary revascularization is readily accessible these days in many industrialized countries, the importance of antianginal therapy has decreased over the past years. This article presents a contemporary overview of the management of patients with stable angina in the year 2015.

  19. Performance and delay analysis of hybrid ARQ with incremental redundancy over double rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali; Zedini, Emna; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Barry, John R.; Pä tzold, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    the performance of HARQ from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical expressions are derived for the \\epsilon-outage capacity, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate of HARQ with incremental redundancy assuming a maximum

  20. Incremental Learning of Perceptual Categories for Open-Domain Sketch Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lovett, Andrew; Dehghani, Morteza; Forbus, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper describes an incremental learning technique for opendomain recognition. Our system builds generalizations for categories of objects based upon previous sketches of those objects and uses those generalizations to classify new sketches...