Sample records for stable tectonic regions

  1. Tectonic studies in the Lansjaerv region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, H.


    This report contains the results and the analysis of ground geophysical measurements and the tectonic interpretation in the 150x200 km Lansjaerv study area. It describes the data and methods used. The significance of strike slip fault patterns in relation to the surface morphology is discussed. The obtained results are used to suggest a tentative model for the present tectonic deformation. The report is part of the bedrock stability programme of SKB. The major conclusions regarding the tectonic structure are: Three regional fault systems are identified, two steep NW and N trending and a third NNE trending with gentle ESE dips, the steep fault systems have strike slip generated deformation patterns both in the Precambrian structures and in the surface morphology, the post-glacial faults of the area are part of this fault pattern and represent movements mainly on reactivated, gently dipping zones, several suspected late or post-glacial, fault related features are found along the steep NW and N faults. Sites for drilling and geodetic networks for deformation measurements are suggested. Detailed background data are documented in additional 4 reports. The basic geophysical and geological datasets are documented in color plotted 1:250 000 maps. A tectonic interpretation map in the same scale has been produced by combined interpretation of magnetic, elevation, elevation relief and gravity data. (orig./HP) With 6 maps

  2. Stable Continental Region Earthquakes in South China (United States)

    Liu, L.

    This paper reviews some remarkable characteristics of earthquakes in a Stable Continental Region (SCR) of the South China Block (SCB). The kernel of the SCB is the Yangtze platform solidified in late Proterozoic time, with continental growth to the southeast by a series of fold belts in Paleozoic time. The facts that the deviatoric stress is low, the orientations of the major tectonic features in the SCB are substantially normal to the maximum horizontal principal stress, and a relatively uniform crust, seem to be the major reasons for lack of significant seismicity in most regions of the SCB. Earthquakes in this region are mainly associated with three seismic zones: (1) the Southeast China Coast seismic zone related to Guangdong-Fujian coastal folding belt (associated with Eurasia-Philippine Sea plate collision); (2) the Southern Yellow Sea seismic zone associated with continental shelf rifts and basins; and (3) the Downstream Yangtze River seismic zone spatially coinciding with Tertiary rifts and basin development. All three seismic zones are close to one or two major economic and population centers in the SCB so that they pose significant seismic hazards. Earthquake focal mechanisms in the SCB are consistent with strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes. Because of the global and national economic significance of the SCB and its dense population, the seismic hazard of the region is of outstanding importance. Comparing the SCB with another less developed region, a pending earthquake with the same size and tectonic setting would cause substantially more severe social and economic losses in the SCB. This paper also compiles an inventory of historic moderate to great earthquakes in the SCB; most of the data are not widely available in English literature.

  3. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region


    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than


    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subd...

  4. Scheme of fault tectonic and tectonic activity manifestation in the region of the Crimea nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasynkov, A.L.


    Characteristic of fault tectonics and tectonic activity manifestation in the region of the Crimea nuclear power plant construction is presented. Mosaic-block structure of the area, predetermined by the development of diagonal systems of activated tectonic dislocations with different displacement amplitudes and different stratigraphic ranges of manifestation, was established. Strained-stressed state of the region is determined by the presence of the South-Azov zone of deep fault and Krasnogorsk-Samarlinks fault system. The presented scheme can be used as tectonic basis of seismogenic activity of the region

  5. Late Vendian-Early Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Baltic Basin: regional tectonic implications from subsidence analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poprawa, P.; Sliaupa, S.; Stephenson, R.A.; Lazauskiene, J.


    Subsidence analysis was performed on 43 boreholes penetrating the Upper Vendian-Lower Palaeozoic sedimentary succession of the Baltic Basin. The results were related to lithofacial and structural data to elucidate subsidence mechanisms and the regional tectonic setting of basin development. Tectonic

  6. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than


    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subduction and collision associated with the Sunda megathrust beneath and within the Indoburman range and Naga Hills accommodate most of the shortening across the transpressional plate boundary. The Sagaing fault system is the predominant locus of dextral motion associated with the northward translation of India. Left-lateral faults of the northern Shan Plateau, northern Laos, Thailand, and southern China facilitate extrusion of rocks around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. All of these systems have produced major earthquakes within recorded history and continue to present major seismic hazards in the region.

  7. Seismicity, structure and tectonics in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao


    Full Text Available The “Arctic” region, where the North Pole occupies the center of the Arctic Ocean, has been affecting the environmental variation of the Earth from geological time to the present. However, the seismic activities in the area are not adequately monitored. Therefore, by conducting long term monitoring of seismic phenomenon as sustainable parameters, our understanding of both the tectonic evolution of the Earth and the dynamic interaction between the cryosphere and geosphere in surface layers of the Earth will increase. In this paper, the association of the seismicity and structure of the Arctic region, particularly focused on Eurasian continent and surrounding oceans, and its relationship with regional evolution during the Earth's history is studied. The target areas cover representative tectonic provinces in the Eurasian Arctic, such as the wide area of Siberia, Baikal Rift Zone, Far East Russia, Arctic Ocean together with Greenland and Northern Canada. Based on discussion including characteristics of seismicity, heterogeneous structure of the crust and upper mantle, tectonic history and recent dynamic features of the Earth's surface in the Arctic are summarized.

  8. Tectonics (United States)

    John Dewey will complete his term as editor-in-chief of Tectonics at the end of 1984. Clark Burchfiel's term as North American Editor will also end. Tectonics is published jointly with the European Geophysical Society. This newest of AGU's journals has already established itself as an important journal bridging the concerns of geophysics and geology.James A. Van Allen, president of AGU, has appointed a committee to recommend candidates for both editor-in-chief and North American editor for the 1985-1987 term.

  9. Cenozoic sediment flux in the Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau, and implications with regional tectonics and climate (United States)

    Bao, Jing; Wang, Yadong; Song, Chunhui; Feng, Ying; Hu, Chunhua; Zhong, Sirui; Yang, Jiwei


    As the largest Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial intermountain basin in the northern Tibetan Plateau, the Qaidam Basin is an ideal basin to examine the influences of regional tectonics and climate on sediment flux. Research conducted over the last two decades has provided abundant information about paleoclimatology and tectonic histories. In this study, we used the restoration of seven balanced cross-sections and compiled thickness data of ten outcrop sections and four boreholes to reconstruct the basin boundaries, develop isopach maps, and calculate the sediment flux in the Qaidam Basin. Our results show that the sediment flux in the Qaidam Basin increased gradually between 53.5 and 35.5 Ma, decreased to its lowest value from 35.5 to 22 Ma, increased between 22 and 2.5 Ma, and then increased dramatically after 2.5 Ma. By comparing the changes in the sediment flux with our reconstructed shortening rate in the Qaidam Basin, and the records of regional tectonic events and regional and global climate changes, we suggest that the gradual increase in the sediment flux from 53.5 to 40.5 Ma was controlled by both the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the relatively warm and humid climate, and that the high sediment flux from 40.5 to 35.5 Ma was mainly controlled by tectonics. The low sediment flux from 35.5 to 22 Ma was a response to the relatively cold and arid climate in a stable tectonic setting. The relatively high sediment flux between 22 and 15.3 Ma was related to tectonic activity and the warm and humid climate. The intense tectonic uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau and the frequent climate oscillations after 15.3 Ma, particularly the glacial-interglacial cycles after 2.5 Ma, caused the high sediment flux after 15.3 Ma and the dramatic increase after 2.5 Ma, respectively.

  10. Tectonic evolution of the South Fiji Basin: UNCLOS helps tackle regional tectonics (United States)

    Herzer, R.; Roest, W.; Barker, D.; Mortimer, N.; Mauffret, A.; Lafoy, Y.


    Marine surveys to study the evolution of remnant arcs and backarc basins north of New Zealand have been complemented by UNCLOS surveys by three countries - France, New Zealand and Australia - with potential extended continental shelf claims in the region. The UNCLOS factor allowed 9 cruises to focus on the region in the past 9 years, collecting approximately 30,000 km of seismic reflection (5,000 deep crustal), 263,700 sq km of swath bathymetry, and 70 dredge samples. Feedback through sharing or publishing data and joint participation allowed efficient planning and deployment of academic and UNCLOS cruises. Two models for South Fiji (SFB) and Norfolk (NB) basin evolution arise from current studies: at the level of the Three Kings Ridge - NB - southern SFB both involve Pacific trench roll-back and southward propagating spreading, but one also uses two subduction systems and arc-continent collision. Linked spreading of the NB and SFB is invoked in both models, but the veracity and geodynamics of the link are not investigated. A growing body of petrological and radiometric evidence and the tectonics of the New Zealand continental margin point to tandem Early Miocene spreading of the SFB and NB despite published magnetic interpretations that would confine SFB spreading to the Oligocene. The Franco-NZ NOUCAPLAC-1 cruise, the last cruise relevant to UNCLOS in this region, included a scientific objective to investigate the SFB-NB link in the critical area bounded by the Loyalty Ridge (LR), the Cook Fracture Zone (CFZ), the Bounty spreading centre (BSC) and the Julia Lineament (JL) with swath mapping, magnetics and seismic reflection. Initial results show a complex bathymetry where a possible link between the BSC and the CFZ involves ridge propagation, overlapping spreading centres, rift blocks and overprinting volcanoes. The link to the JL was not adequately tested due to sparse coverage. Closer to the LR, a thick, faulted sedimentary basin was found.

  11. Geology, tectonism and composition of the northwest Imbrium region (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Li, Lin; Luo, Xiaoxing; Lu, Yu; Chen, Yuan; Pieters, Carle M.; Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W.


    The objective of this study is to explore the regional geology of the northwest Imbrium region in which the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) landing site is located. CE-3 successfully landed on December 14, 2013 on the unsampled Eratosthenian basalts whose study is important for understanding the evolution of the Moon. New geologic and structural maps of the research area were produced through the integrated analysis of diverse datasets. The highlands surrounding Imbrium differ from typical Farside Highlands Terrain (FHT). The Iridum highland region (as well as the surrounding Imbrium region) exhibits elevated concentrations of Fe, and abundant local exposures of low-Ca pyroxene and olivine bearing lithologies. In this study these highlands are named as mafic highlands (MH). Our dating results using crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) show that the Iridum basin (hosting Sinus Iridum) was formed ∼3.8 Ga, shortly following the Imbrium basin formation and before the last large multiringed basin, Orientale. The Eratosthenian period of lunar basalt eruptions, which lasted longer than other stratigraphic units, is suggested to divide into the Lower Eratosthenian mare (LEm) and Upper Eratosthenian mare (UEm) units. This subdivision is based on whether lava fronts can be clearly seen or not and the age separating the units is 2.35 Ga. The mafic mineralogy of the mare basalts in Imbrium is characterized by abundant olivine in the Eratosthenian-aged basalts and average pyroxene compositions near pigeonite to sub-calcic augite in the Imbrian and Em1 units. The thickness of individual lava for UEm units is 8-11 m, indicative of high effusion rates. The thickness of the Em3 unit ranges from ∼17 m to ∼45 m with lesser thickness to the west and greater thickness in the interior and to the east. The estimated volume and average flux of the Eratosthenian-aged basalts are greater than previously thought. The presence of these youngest basalts in the Procellarum-KREEP terrain (PKT) is

  12. Cretaceous sedimentation and tectonism in the southeastern Kaiparowits region, Utah (United States)

    Peterson, Fred


    waters during the final incursion of the seaway into the Kaiparowits region. The overlying Wahweap Formation was deposited in nonmarine environments. Slight but continued tectonism during Late Cretaceous time is indicated by lateral changes of facies and thickness variations that coincide at least partly with present structures. These criteria indicate that Laramide tectonism consisted of two phases. An early phase that lasted from about late Albian to late Campanian time included regional subsidence, basin downwarping, and movement on local folds and faults. A later phase that lasted from late Campanian to about late Paleocene time included regional uplift, monoclinal flexing, and probable new faulting, as well as continued basin downwarping and movement on local folds and probably on the older faults. The principal economic resource in the Kaiparowits region is bituminous or subbituminous coal in the john Henry Member. Because basin downwarping and movement on local folds occurred during deposition, the thicker and more continuous coal beds are in the ancestral synclines and tile deeper part of the structural basin. Presently indicated resources total 7.3 billion tons, but considerably larger quantities are probably present in the unexplored parts of the region. Several potential resources include ground water, titaniferous sandstone, and possibly oil and gas.

  13. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry of the Mount Everest region (United States)

    Gebelin, A.; Mulch, A.; Teyssier, C.; Jessup, M. J.; Law, R. D.; Brunel, M.


    Long-term climatic evolution and atmospheric circulation patterns are influenced to a first order by the topography of the largest mountain ranges. Reconstructing the Neogene elevation history of the Mount Everest region is of particular interest for understanding the tectonic history of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen as well as global scale atmospheric circulation and biotic changes through time. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry uses the isotopic lapse rate of precipitations preserved in the near-surface record. In the absence of surface deposits such as paleosols, volcanic ashes, or lacustrine limestone that record the stable isotopic composition of early to mid-Miocene water preserved in the highly erosive Himalayan range, we conduct stable-isotope paleoaltimetry based on the hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of hydrous minerals that crystallized in the South Tibetan detachment (STD) shear zone at ~17 Ma. For paleoaltimetry reconstruction we compare stable isotope records from the STD mylonitic footwall to age-equivalent oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) measured within pedogenic carbonate from Siwalik foreland paleosols that developed near Miocene sea level. The relative differences between meteoric water compositions in the foreland basin and the δ18Owater calculated from the hydrogen isotope composition of syntectonic minerals suggest that by ~17 Ma the central Himalaya was at an elevation similar to what it is today, and that a rain shadow likely existed at that time. Our results demonstrate the power of shear-zone based paleoaltimetry in eroded mountain belts, call for caution in interpreting basin-based stable isotope paleoaltimetry in the rain shadow of the mid-Miocene Himalayan range and suggest that strengthening of the South Asian monsoon may have occurred in early to mid-Miocene, earlier than previously thought.

  14. Teleseismic P and S Delay Times within Tectonically Active and Stable North America (United States)

    Lou, X.; van der Lee, S.


    We have measured teleseismic P and S relative delay times within 1) Stable North America (SNA) using waveforms from IRIS PASSCAL seismic arrays MOMA (Fischer et al., 1995), ABBA (Roecker and Beavan, 1995), Abitibi (Hearn and Mareschal, 1996), and FLED (Wysession and Fischer, 2001), and 2) Tectonically-active North America (TNA) using Earthscope's Transportable Array (TA). To study the contribution of mantle structure to these delays we subtracted delays predicted for topography and crustal structure, using CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000). Preliminary analyses of delay times from earthquakes with Mw>=6.5 show surprising differences between the heterogeneity of the mantle beneath SNA and TNA. While the range of delay times is expectedly small for an intra-shield array such as Abitibi, the range of delay times from Proterozoic basement in the midwest to Paleozoic margin in New England is much larger and slightly exceeds that for the TA in TNA. This suggests that that the mantle of SNA is slightly more heterogeneous than TNA, despite there being relatively little surface expression of this heterogeneity. Patterns of P and S relative delay times measured in TNA correlate better with surface tectonics, suggesting that the mantle in TNA has a greater effect on the surface geology than in SNA. The central and southern Basin and Range are characterized by positive delays. As shown in previous studies, the Snake River Plain is also well delineated by positive delays. These delays exhibit a significant peak at station H17A in Yellowstone National Park. Teleseismic P and S waves arriving at stations in the Rocky Mountains are much faster, including in northern Idaho and western Washington, but not in western Oregon. For both SNA and TNA, the measured S and P delay times have a significant linear correlation, with S delays at approximately 3 times the P delays, which confirms the dominant effect of mantle temperature on mantle velocity structure. However, the slope of this

  15. Regional tectonic trends on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Satellite imagery and offshore magnetic data were analysed to correlate regional tectonic elements on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and the adjacent Deccan plateau. Three statistically important lineament trends N-S, WNW-ESE and ENE...

  16. Regional geology, tectonic, geomorphology and seismology studies to interest to nuclear power plants at Itaorna beach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Y.; Almeida, F.F.M. de; Mioto, J.A.; Melo, M.S. de.


    The study prepared for the nuclear power plants to be located at Itaorna comprised, the analysis and integration of Geologic, tectonic, geomorphologic and seismologic information and satisfactory results of regional stability were obtained. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  17. Active tectonics around the Mediterranean region: site studies and application of new methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cucci


    Full Text Available More than 25 years have passed since the definition of Active Tectonics as "tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society", formulated in a milestone book by the National Research Council on this topic (Studies in Geophysics, Active Tectonics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1986, and those words have still to be considered the most suitable and exhaustive way to explain this branch of the Earth Sciences. Indeed only bridging together basic studies ("tectonic movements", rates of occurrence ("time span" and hazard assessment ("society" can we fully evaluate ongoing tectonic activity and its associated hazards. The broad Mediterranean Sea region is a paradigmatic area from this point of view, as on one hand this region displays in a relatively limited geographic extent a great variety of tectonic processes such as plate collision, subduction, volcanic activity, large-magnitude earthquakes, active folding and faulting, vertical uplift and/or subsidence. On the other hand, all the above mentioned tectonic processes can potentially affect a total population of about 450 million, mostly concentrated in fast-growing urban areas and/or close to industrial compounds and critical facilities often located nearby hazard sources. […

  18. Plate tectonic reconstruction of the Carpathian-Pannonian region (United States)

    Csontos, L.; Vörös, A.


    Plate tectonics of the Carpathian area is controlled by microcontinents between the European and African margins and the relative movements of these margins. Beside the generally accepted Apulian (Austroalpine, West Carpathian, Dinaric) microcontinents two others: the Bihor-Getic (Tisza) and Drina-Ivanjica are introduced. The first was attached to the European margin, the second to the Apulian microcontinent. During Permian a major ocean was obliquely subducted south of the Apulian microcontinents. Drina-Ivanjica rifted off the Apulian microcontinent in the Late Permian-Middle Triassic, as a consequence of back-arc rifting. Short-lived oceans subducted by the end of Jurassic, causing Drina-Ivanjica to collide with the internal Dinaric-West Carpathian and Bihor-Getic margins. An external Penninic-Váhic ocean tract began opening in the Early Jurassic, separating the East Alpine-West Carpathian microcontinent (and its fauna) from the European shelf. Further south, the Severin-Ceahlau-Magura also began opening in the Early Jurassic, but final separation of the Bihor-Getic (and its fauna) from the European shelf did not take place until the Middle-Late Jurassic. Two oroclinal bends: the Alcapa on the Dinaric margin and the Tisza-Dacia on the South Carpathian-Getic margin are essential elements of these reconstructions. Their bending (Aptian and Albian-Maastrichtian, respectively) are suggested by paleomagnetic and tectonic transport data. The two oroclinal bends are finally opposed and pushed into the Carpathian embayment by the Paleogene. In Miocene a back-arc basin develops on older tectonic elements. Differential rotations affect the wealded microcontinents.

  19. Elysium region, mars: Tests of lithospheric loading models for the formation of tectonic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.L.; Solomon, S.C.; Head, J.W.


    The second largest volcanic province on Mars lies in the Elysium region. Like the larger Tharsis province, Elysium is marked by a topographic rise and a broad free air gravity anomaly and also exhibits a complex assortment of tectonic and volcanic features. We test the hypothesis that the tectonic features in the Elysium region are the product of stresses produced by loading of the Martian lithosphere. We consider loading at three different scales: local loading by individual volcanoes, regional loading of the lithosphere from above or below, and quasi-global loading by Tharsis. A comparison of flexural stresses with lithospheric strength and with the inferred maximum depth of faulting confirms that concentric graben around Elysium Mons can be explained as resulting from local flexure of an elastic lithosphere about 50 km thick in response to the volcano load. Volcanic loading on a regional scale, however, leads to predicted stresses inconsistent with all observed tectonic features, suggesting that loading by widespread emplacement of thick plains deposits was not an important factor in the tectonic evolution of the Elysium region. A number of linear extensional features oriented generally NW-SE may have been the result of flexural uplift of the lithosphere on the scale of the Elysium rise. The global stress field associated with the support of the Tharsis rise appears to have influenced the development of many of the tectonic features in the Elysium region, including Cerberus Rupes and the systems of ridges in eastern and western Elysium. The comparisons of stress models for Elysium with the preserved tectonic features support a succession of stress fields operating at different times in the region

  20. Modelling the impact of regional uplift and local tectonics on fluvial terrace preservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Balen, van R.T.


    A terrace formation model (TERRACE) combined with a longitudinal river profile model (FLUVER) was used to simulate fluvial terrace formation and preservation in the northwest Iberian lower Miño River basin under the influence of three tectonic conditions; namely regional vertical uplift, local basin

  1. Of repeat stations and tectonic regionalization of Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Doneva, Blagitsa; Delipetrov, Todor; Rasson, L. Jean


    Geomagnetic field is vector sum of causes deep in the Earth's interior and their influence can be felt in the whole Earth. There are sources of magnetic fields which are characterized for larger regions and local anomalous geomagnetic fields. When selecting the location of base station, regions where local geomagnetic anomalies are present, should be avoided, with aim to receive measured results which gives the geomagnetic field characteristic for that region. The territory of the Republic of Macedonia has complex relief, and also has complex geological structure and these features have high influence on the regional geomagnetic field. Bearing in mind the complex relief and geological structure, strict procedure of geomagnetic field observations were conducted for every selected location for repeat station. Maps from the measurements in 2004 are also presented in this paper. (Author)

  2. Regional tectonic framework of the Pranhita Godavari basin, India (United States)

    Biswas, S. K.


    -rift sedimentation. The southeastern boundary fault developed as a strike-slip fault in response to plate rotation and the rift expansion was constrained by it.The basin fill sediments were deposited during two rifting events—Early Permian to (?) Early Jurassic Lower Gondwana rifting, and Early Cretaceous Upper Gondwana rifting. The Lower Gondwana sedimentation started with a pre-rift crustal sagging over the rift site and was filled by glaciogenic Talchir sediments. This was followed by syn-rift-fluvial sedimentation in repeating cycles during the early to late rift stages. Early Cretaceous Chikiala and Gangapur sediments were deposited during the Upper Gondwana rifting. The fluvial cycles were tectonically controlled during each rift stage. The absence of igneous intrusions indicates that the PGR is a passive rift in contrast to the rifts developed in the NSG zone.

  3. Plate tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean-Middle East region (United States)

    Gealey, W. K.


    An interpretive model for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic plate tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean and adjacent areas is illustrated by a series of paleoposition maps at selected intervals between the Late Triassic and Recent. This interval witnessed an important period of tensional development during the Triassic and Jurassic that fragmented Pangea after its Late Paleozoic consolidation. A number of oceanic areas evolved through Jurassic time, all of which have since been consumed during the Alpine orogeny. During the Cretaceous and Tertiary, sea-floor spreading geometry in the North and South Atlantic resulted in convergence between Africa and Eurasia that controlled the evolution of the Mediterranean and adjacent Middle East areas from the Late Mesozoic to Recent. The interpretation departs from several previous ones in the following respects: (1) The Eastern Mediterranean and adjacent Middle East area are interpreted to have developed as two seaways with an intervening continental sliver derived from Africa that now comprises Central Turkey and West Iran. These seaways persisted from the Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous, by which time they were largely consumed by northward subduction. (2) Spreading that produced the present Eastern Mediterranean Sea developed during the Late Cretaceous, driving the Tripolitza-Eratosthenes-Iskenderun continental fragments northward from Africa to collision with Central Turkey as the preceding southern arm of the Mesozoic Tethys sea-floor was entirely consumed. Initial block faulting in this zone occurred during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous but without subsidence reaching clearly bathyal depths until the Cenomanian-Turonian. This differs from the timing of events in the "Ionian" sequence of the Pindic Nappe of Crete, which shows a change from shallow carbonate shelf in the Triassic to deep basin in the Liassic to the north of equivalent platform facies of the Tripolitza Nappe. (3) Moesia and Rhodope are concluded to have been a

  4. Regional Gravity and Magnetic Studies of Crustal Structure in Northeastern Mexico and Their Tectonic Implications (United States)

    Sanchez-Alvarez, R.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.


    Detailed modeling of regional Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies in northeastern Mexico permits documentation of the crustal structure and tectonic relationships of major structural features at the southern margin of the North American craton. This region has experienced a complex evolution with major events that include Paleozoic subduction and consumption of an ocean, subsequent collision of continental plates to form the supercontinent Pangaea, major faulting and deformation, middle Mesozoic fragmentation and rifting between North and South America, formation of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean, strike-slip lateral faulting, Laramide compression and Cenozoic extension. The Marathon-Ouachita system in northern Mexico shows the effects of strike-slip faulting and deformation, which can be traced from its potential field anomalies and oil- exploration borehole logs and data. Major tectonic elements from west to east are the foreland, frontal zone, interior zone, the Coahuila terrane, and a large elongated intrusive province. Remnants of the Permo-Triassic magmatic arc and exotic continental crust are present in the Coahuila and Gulf coast terranes. They are all affected by lateral faulting along roughly east-west regional faults, and, if the characterization of tectonic elements is correct, the proposed paleoreconstruction sets limits on the amount of lateral translation and regional crustal deformation in northern Mexico. Younger deformational episodes during the Cenozoic need to be accounted for in the tectonic reconstruction. The apparent displacement of the intrusive belt is of the order of 600-700 km. The intrusive belt and the Ouachita frontal and interior zones appear also fragmented and displaced in the Coahuila area by lateral faults such as San Marcos, China-Sierra Mojada, Barroteran, San Carlos and Sabinas. Displacement is less than that observed for the Mojave-Sonora megashear south of Monterrey area, as documented from the gravity and

  5. Seismic and Tectonic Regionalization of the State of Michoacan. (United States)

    Vazquez Rosas, R.; Aguirre, J.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.


    In Mexico it is a country with seismically active regions, mainly the zones that are next to the pacific where the zone of subduction is located, in this work we focus on the state of Michoacán, since this has not been completely studied in the last 30 years after the earthquake in Michoacán in 1985. The first most important step is to know the region which are the most seismic zones within the state and one way is to carry out the regionalization of Michoacán identifying the sources of earthquakes as well as where occur more frequently.If we could know each of the factors that influence seismicity and describe every point of the terrain, every rupture, every rock, etc., then we could describe in an analytical way the seismic process and predict the occurrence of earthquakes such as eclipses. Unfortunately the number of parameters is so enormous that we cannot arrive at an exact description; however, we can take advantage of statistical properties to evaluate probabilities, even in the case of small systems such as a particular seismic zone.In this paper, epicenter data were collected from 1970 to 2014, and with them a statistical study was carried out and the epicenter data plotted using data reported by the National Seismological Service and the IRIS catalog as well as some data from the Institute of engineering UNAM. Where earthquakes of equal and greater than M = 4 were used. Graphing these in function with the depth and with that it was graficaron and was made an overlapping the faults of the state and with that it was divided in 4 seismic zones in function of the faults and the localized seismicity.Zone A. is located within the Michoacán Block set of faults, as well as part of the subduction zone on the coast of the state. Seismicity in this area is high. Zone B-1. This is located between the limits of Jalisco and Michoacán in the set of faults called Tepalcatepec depression and limits with the Jorullo-Tacámbaro fracture. At this site seismicity is

  6. Western Black Sea region-tectonics, evolution and petroleum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, G.


    Full text: The Western Black Sea region comprises parts of:East European platform, Scythian paltform, North Dobrogea orogen, Moesian paltform, Balkan orogen, Eastern Srednogorie, Strandzha orogen, Karkinit basin, West Black Sea basin, Bourgas basin and Thrace basin. The West Black Sea basin consists of two western branches; northern one-Histria sub-basin (in Romania) and southern one-Kamchia sub-basin (in Bulgaria).The eastern Mosian platform is fringed to North by North Dobrogea rift (Seghedi,2001) and to South by Eastern Srednogorie-Balkan rift zone (ESBRZ). These two rift basins were inverted into orogenic belts. Eastwards to the Western Black Sea basin only a broad transitional zone with complex structure can be outlined. To West the Moesian platforms surrounded by south Carpathian-Balkan thrust-fold belt. Both rift basins restricted the Eastern Moesian platform to north and south, are superimposed on the Hercynian sutures.The North Dobrogea rift basin-on the suture between the south-western edge of East Europen platform and Moesian block, and the ESBRZ-on the suture between Moesian block and peri-Gondwana derived Thracian block. The South Moesian platform margin was repeatedly affected by Mesozoic rifting cycles in the Eastern Srednogorie-Balkan zone (ESBZ), interrupted and followed by compressional events,causing strong platform margin shortening and ultimately its overprinting by the alpine orogen.

  7. Influences of Holocene sea level, regional tectonics, and fluvial, gravity and slope currents induced sedimentation on the regional geomorphology of the continental slope off northwestern India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Almeida, F.

    Regional geomorphology derived from echosounding and bathymetric data (lines of a total of 12,000 km), depth to basement, regional deep seated tectonic features, surficial sediment distribution and Holocene sedimentation rates of the continental...

  8. Tectonics of the junction region between the East European craton and West Arctic platform (United States)

    Baluev, A. S.; Morozov, Y. A.; Terekhov, E. N.; Bayanova, T. B.; Tyupanov, S. N.


    The region of the junction and interaction between the East European Craton (EEC) and the West Arctic Craton (WAC) is regarded as a complexly built zone or assembly of both the volumetric and dividing linear tectonic elements: the Trollfjord-Rybachi-Kanin (TRK) Lineament, the pericratonic subsidence zone of the EEC, the Karpinskii Lineament, the Murmansk Block of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield, and the Kolmozero-Voronya Zone, which are briefly characterized in this paper. Evidences of thrusting have been established not only in the TRK Suture Zone and on the Rybachi Peninsula, which represent a fragment of the Timanides fold-thrust belt, but also to the southwest, in the Upper Riphean and Vendian terrigenous sequences making up the Sredni Peninsula and related to the pericratonic trough of the VEC. Two phases of fold-thrust deformations with elements of left-lateral strike-slip offset pertaining to the activity and evolution of the lineament suture dividing the Sredni and Rybachi peninsulas have been recorded. The variously oriented fault-fold systems within this fault zone are evidence for multistage deformation and can be explained by an at least twostage change in the kinematics that control displacement along the fault. The disintegrated granitic massifs of the Archean crystalline basement tectonically squeezed out in the upper crust as protrusions are localized within TRK Fault Zone. Plagiogranitic bodies, which underwent superposed fault-fold deformations of both kinematic stages, are an evidence of the vigorous tectonic event that predated folding and two-stage strike-slip displacement along the TRK Fault—by thrusting of Riphean sequences from north to south toward the Archean craton. The nappe-thrust regional structure was formed at this stage; elements of it have been recognized in the Sredni, Rybachi, and Kanin peninsulas. The main stages of tectonic evolution in the junction zone between the EEC and the WAP have been revealed and substantiated.

  9. Magmatism and cenozoic tectonism in the Cabo Frio region, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohriak, W.U.; Barros, A.Z.N. de; Fujita, A.


    The western portion of the Campos Basin is limited by a hinge line that bounds the deposition of pre-Aptian sediments in the offshore region. The Cabo Frio arch corresponds to a platform with smaller relative subsidence, where Tertiary sediments are deposited directly on shallow basement rocks. Towards the continental slope of the Cabo Frio region, tectonic activity is also observed in the post-Aptian sequence, particularly in the region between the Santos and Campos basins, where a very large graben trends parallel to the pre-Aptian limit of the basin, and is controlled by faults that-affect Upper Miocene rocks. Eastwards of this region, an array of antithetic faults trends in a NE direction. These faults, apparently detaching an the Aptian salt, show unique geometric patterns. The rupturing of Pangea in the Lower Cretaceous is marked by widespread outpouring of mafic magmas in Campos and Santos basins. Radiometric age determinations for this volcanism show a mean of about 139 M.a. After the rift phase, another volcanic episode is observed in the Cabo Frio region, with K/Ar radiometric dating of about 50 M.a. Volcanic mounds are observed within the Eocene sedimentary sequence. An Eocene volcanic episode is characterized by the presence of volcaniclassic rocks, including autoclastic, hydroclastic, epiclastic and pyroclastic sediments. This tectonic episode is also identified within other stratigraphic intervals in the sedimentary column. (author)

  10. Tectonic-thermal evolution from the northeast region of Minas Gerais and South of Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwinski, N.


    The northeast region of Minas Gerais and South Bahia are centered to the east of 42 0 00 ' WGr, between parallels 15 0 and 18 0 . Its tectonic-thermal evolution is presented here with the support of stratigraphy/lithology, structural analysis, petrography, petrochemistry, regional metamorphism/retro metamorphism and radio chronology. It is pointed out that the evolution occurred in a mobile belt initiating its history in the terminal Archean up to Inferior Proterozoic. The northeast of the region attained crustal stability during 1700 My up to 1800 My (Sao Francisco Craton) meanwhile the rest of the zone kept mobilized till upper proterozoic times. Radio chronological studies suggest for the post tectonic granitic rocks, ages from the brasiliano cycle as well as for those pre-existing rocks which suffered isotopic regeneration and metamorphose in that same cycle an original age from Archean to inferior proterozoic times, except for those which are situated in the northeast part of the region. Petrochemical data point to an origin from sedimentary processes for the majority of the metamorphosed rocks in this region. (author)

  11. Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis. (United States)

    Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook


    Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drainage - Structure Correlation in tectonically active Regions: Case studies in the Bolivian and Colombian Andes (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Parra, Mauricio; Kober, Florian


    It is widely accepted, that drainage patterns are often controlled by tectonics/climate and geology/rheology. Classical drainage patterns can be found 1) in fault-and-thrust belt, where rives follow the valleys parallel or cut perpendicular to strike trough the ridges, forming a trellis pattern, 2) at dome structures where the drainage form a radial pattern or 3) rectangular patterns in strongly fractured regions. In this study, we focus on fault-and-thrust belts, that undergone different phases of tectonic activity. According to classical models, the deformation is propagating into the foreland, hence being youngest at the frontal part and getting successively older towards the axis of the orogen. Drainage patterns in the more interior parts of the orogenic wedge should be then less influenced by the direction of structures, as landscape evolution is changing to a tectonic passive stage. This relationship might represent the transience and maturity of drainage pattern evolution. Here we study drainage patterns of the Bolivian and the eastern Colombian Andes by comparing the relative orientation of the drainage network with the orogen structural grain. The drainage is extracted from Digital Elevation Models (SRTM 30 m) and indexed by their Strahler Order. Order 1 channels have an upstream area of 1 km2. The direction of all segments is analyzed by linear directional mean function that results in the mean orientation of input channels with approx. 500 m average length. The orientation of structures for different structural domains is calculated using the same function on digitized faults and fold-axis. Rose diagrams show the length-weighted directional distribution of structures, of higher (>= 4) and of lower order (changes in the SA into a distinct N-S trend with a pronounced E-W orientation of lower order fluvial channels. A similar pattern is recognized in the Eastern Andes of Colombia, where the structural trend is NE-SW. The Eastern Cordillera comprise a

  13. Extensional Seismogenic Stress and Tectonic Movement on the Central Region of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiren Xu


    Full Text Available Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions and stress fields, as well as GPS and geothermal data are analyzed for the study of the crustal movements on the Tibetan plateau and their tectonic implications. The results show that a lot of the normal faulting type-event concentrated at altitudes greater than 4000 m on the central Tibetan plateau. The altitudes concentrating normal faulting type-events can be zoned two parts: the western part, the Lhasa block, and the eastern part, the Qiangtang-Changdu region. The azimuths of T-axes are in a general E-W direction in the Lhasa block and NW-SE or NNW-SSE in the Qiangtang-Changdu region at the altitudes of the Tibetan plateau. The tensional stresses in E-W direction and NW-SE direction predominate normal faulting earthquake occurrence in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The slipping displacements of the normal-faulting-type events have great components in near E-W direction and NW-SE direction in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The extensions are probably an eastward or southeastward extensional motion, being mainly tectonic activity phenomena in the plateau altitudes. The extensional motions due to normal-fault earthquakes are important tectonic activity regimes on the high altitudes of the plateau. The easterly crustal extensions on the plateau are attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the eastern boundary of the plateau. Numbers of thrust-fault and strike-slip-fault earthquakes with strong compressive stress in a general NNE-SSW direction occur on the edges of the plateau.

  14. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Ruch, Joël; Acocella, Valerio; Thordarson, Thor; Urbani, Stefano


    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja's calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  15. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele


    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja’s calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  16. Applications of aeromagnetic data to detect the Basement Tectonics of Eastern Yemen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata


    Full Text Available The present study aims to throw light on the tectonic implications concerned with the distribution of the sedimentary sequence belts and the related basement complex zones, as well as to differentiate between the causative sources (contacts, dykes and faults of Eastern Yemen region. The total intensity aeromagnetic map of the study area was first corrected by the application of the Reduction To the magnetic pole (for low latitude areas. The visual inspection of the RTP magnetic map defines a rapid change in the subsurface geologic conditions in the form of lithologic characters and tectonic inferences. On the other hand, this map showed different anomalies of varying frequencies and amplitudes that revealed various causative sources, as well as varying compositions and depths. At the interpretation stage, various techniques and software tools are available for extracting the geologic information from the data concerned. The magnetic fields of shallow sources can be separated from those of deeper causatives, using two processes known as power spectrum transformation and matched band pass filtering. Three methods for locating magnetic sources (Magnitude of Horizontal Gradients (HGM, the analytical signals (AS and the local wavenumbers (LW in three dimensions and identifying the properties of their sources indicated that, the area was affected by some intrusions at various depths in sill or dyke forms, almost oriented in the NW–SE, NE–SW, E–W and N–S trends. Tectonically, the area is highly affected by the tectonics related to the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is affecting both the basement and sedimentary rocks, dividing the study area into several faulted blocks.

  17. An ArcGIS approach to include tectonic structures in point data regionalization. (United States)

    Darsow, Andreas; Schafmeister, Maria-Theresia; Hofmann, Thilo


    Point data derived from drilling logs must often be regionalized. However, aquifers may show discontinuous surface structures, such as the offset of an aquitard caused by tectonic faults. One main challenge has been to incorporate these structures into the regionalization process of point data. We combined ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation to account for neotectonic structures in the regionalization process. The study area chosen to test this approach is the largest porous aquifer in Austria. It consists of three basins formed by neotectonic events and delimited by steep faults with a vertical offset of the aquitard up to 70 m within very short distances. First, ordinary kriging was used to incorporate the characteristic spatial variability of the aquitard location by means of a variogram. The tectonic faults could be included into the regionalization process by using breaklines with buffer zones. All data points inside the buffer were deleted. Last, IDW was performed, resulting in an aquitard map representing the discontinuous surface structures. This approach enables one to account for such surfaces using the standard software package ArcGIS; therefore, it could be adopted in many practical applications.

  18. Animated tectonic reconstruction of the Lower Colorado River region: Implications for Late Miocene to Present deformation (United States)

    Bennett, Scott E. K.; Darin, Michael H.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Skinner, Lisa A.; Umhoefer, Paul J.; Oskin, Michael E.


    Although the majority of late Miocene to present Pacific-North America plate boundary strain has been accommodated by faults of the San Andreas and Gulf of California systems, growing evidence of dextral shear east of the San Andreas Fault indicates that a component of plate boundary deformation occurred in the lower Colorado River (LoCR) region. Large-scale tectonic reconstructions across the Gulf of California and Salton Trough (GCAST) region (Fig. 1), a ~500 km-wide zone of deformation that affected the western margin of North America, provide important constraints on the location, timing, style, and magnitude of crustal deformation in the LoCR region (Fig. 2). Characterizing Miocene to present deformation in the LoCR region is important to resolve the presence and kinematics of upper crustal structures that accommodated intracontinental strain and improves our understanding of the processes that promoted localized or diffuse strain during reorganization of the Pacific-North America plate boundary.

  19. Tectonic and neotectonic framwork of the Yucca Mountain region, Task 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickert, R.A.


    Research continued on the tectonic and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. Highlights from projects include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Funeral Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; development of structural models for pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; Paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain; sampling of pegmatites in Bullfrog Hills and Funeral Mountains for U-Pb isotopic analysis; and review and analysis of Mesozoic structure between eastern sierra and Nevada test Site

  20. Tectonic modeling of Konya-Beysehir Region (Turkey using cellular neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aydogan


    Full Text Available In this paper, to separate regional-residual anomaly maps and to detect borders of buried geological bodies, we applied the Cellular Neural Network (CNN approach to gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique, based optimization of templates, which imply relationships of neighborhood pixels in 2-Dimensional (2D potential anomalies. Here, CNN performance in geophysics, tested by various synthetic examples and the results are compared to classical methods such as boundary analysis and second vertical derivatives. After we obtained satisfactory results in synthetic models, we applied CNN to Bouguer anomaly map of Konya-Beysehir Region, which has complex tectonic structure with various fault combinations. We evaluated CNN outputs and 2D/3D models, which are constructed using forward and inversion methods. Then we presented a new tectonic structure of Konya-Beysehir Region. We have denoted (F1, F2, …, F7 and (Konya1, Konya2 faults according to our evaluations of CNN outputs. Thus, we have concluded that CNN is a compromising stochastic image processing technique in geophysics.

  1. The Late Cenozoic Climatic and Tectonic Evolution of the Mount Everest Region, Central Himalaya (United States)

    Schultz, Mary Hannah

    The collision of India and Eurasia constructed the Himalayan Mountains. Questions remain regarding how subsequent exhumation by climatic and tectonic processes shaped the landscape throughout the Late Cenozoic to create the complex architecture observed today. The Mount Everest region underwent tectonic denudation by extension and bestrides one of the world's most significant rain shadows. Also, glacial and fluvial processes eroded the Everest massif over shorter timescales. In this work, I review new bedrock and detrital thermochronological and geochronological data and both one- and two-dimensional thermal-mechanical modeling that provides insights on the age range and rates of tectonic and erosional processes in this region. A strand of the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS), a series of prominent normal-sense structures that dip to the north and strike along the Himalayan spine, is exposed in the Rongbuk valley near Everest. Using thermochronometric techniques, thermal-kinematic modeling, and published (U-Th)/Pb geochronology, I show exhumation rates were high ( 3-4 mm/a) from at least 20 to 13 Ma because of slip on the STDS. Subsequently, exhumation rates dropped drastically to ≤ 0.5 mm/a and remain low today. However, thermochronometric datasets and thermal-kinematic modeling results from Nepal south of Everest reveal a sharp transition in cooling ages and exhumation rates across a major knickpoint in the river profile, corresponding to the modern-day Himalayan rainfall transition. To the north of this transition, exhumation histories are similar to those in Tibet. Conversely, Everest. Integrated laser ablation U/Pb and (U-Th)/He dating of detrital zircon from fluvial and moraine sediments reveal sourcing from distinctive areas of the catchment. In general, the glacial advances eroded material from lower elevations, while the glacial outwash system carries material from higher elevations.

  2. Continental Extensional Tectonics in the Basins and Ranges and Aegean Regions: A Review (United States)

    Cemen, I.


    The Basins and Ranges of North America and the Aegean Region of Eastern Europe and Asia Minor have been long considered as the two best developed examples of continental extension. The two regions contain well-developed normal faults which were considered almost vertical in the 1950s and 1960s. By the mid 1980s, however, overwhelming field evidence emerged to conclude that the dip angle normal faults in the two regions may range from almost vertical to almost horizontal. This led to the discovery that high-grade metamorphic rocks could be brought to surface by the exhumation of mid-crustal rocks along major low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) which were previously either mapped as thrust faults or unconformity. Within the last three decades, our understanding of continental extensional tectonics in the Basins and Ranges and the Aegean Region have improved substantially based on fieldwork, geochemical analysis, analog and computer modeling, detailed radiometric age determinations and thermokinematic modelling. It is now widely accepted that a) Basin and Range extension is controlled by the movement along the San Andreas fault zone as the North American plate moved southeastward with respect to the northwestward movement of the Pacific plate; b) Aegean extension is controlled by subduction roll-back associated with the Hellenic subduction zone; and c) the two regions contain best examples of detachment faulting, extensional folding, and extensional basins. However, there are still many important questions of continental extensional tectonics in the two regions that remain poorly understood. These include determining a) precise amount and percentage of cumulative extension; b) role of strike-slip faulting in the extensional processes; c) exhumation history along detachment surfaces using multimethod geochronology; d) geometry and nature of extensional features in the middle and lower crust; e) the nature of upper mantle and asthenospheric flow; f) evolutions

  3. Preliminary analysis on the tectonic stress level in the source region of Tangshan earthquake (United States)

    Jian-Tao, Zhao; Cui, Xiao-Feng; Xie, Fu-Ren


    The abundant data of focal mechanism solutions in Tangshan region, China, are inverted for the tectonic stress field. Combined with tectonophysical consideration, the magnitude of the three principal stresses, as well as their vertical variation under the average crustal rock property, in the source region of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake is estimated. The relationship between crustal stress and friction μ c, pore pressure P 0 and stress shape factor Φ is studied. The paper draws the conclusion that the vertical increasing rate of the maximum principal stress σ is directly proportional to friction, and inversely to pore pressure P 0 and stress shape factor Φ; while the vertical increasing rate of the minimum principal tress σ is directly proportional to pore pressure P 0, inversely to friction μ c and stress shape factor Φ. This study is a try to invert the data of focal mechanism solutions for the complete stress tensor.

  4. Tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific region, Pacific basin sheet (United States)

    Scheibner, E.; Moore, G.W.; Drummond, K.J.; Dalziel, Corvalan Q.J.; Moritani, T.; Teraoka, Y.; Sato, T.; Craddock, C.


    Circum-Pacific Map Project: The Circum-Pacific Map Project was a cooperative international effort designed to show the relationship of known energy and mineral resources to the major geologic features of the Pacific basin and surrounding continental areas. Available geologic, mineral, and energy-resource data are being complemented by new, project-developed data sets such as magnetic lineations, seafloor mineral deposits, and seafloor sediment. Earth scientists representing some 180 organizations from more than 40 Pacific-region countries are involved in this work. Six overlapping equal-area regional maps at a scale of 1:10,000,000 form the cartographic base for the project: the four Circum-Pacific Quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast), and the Antarctic and Arctic Sheets. There is also a Pacific Basin Sheet at a scale of 1:17,000,000. The Base Map Series and the Geographic Series (published from 1977 to 1990), the Plate-Tectonic Series (published in 1981 and 1982), the Geodynamic Series (published in 1984 and 1985), and the Geologic Series (published from 1984 to 1989) all include six map sheets. Other thematic map series in preparation include Mineral-Resources, Energy-Resources and Tectonic Maps. Altogether, more than 50 map sheets are planned. The maps were prepared cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey and are available from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, U.S.A. The Circum-Pacific Map Project is organized under six panels of geoscientists representing national earth-science organizations, universities, and natural-resource companies. The six panels correspond to the basic map areas. Current panel chairmen are Tomoyuki Moritani (Northwest Quadrant), R. Wally Johnson (Southwest Quadrant), Ian W.D. Dalziel (Antarctic Region), vacant. (Southeast Quadrant), Kenneth J. Drummond (Northeast Quadrant), and

  5. The Geomorphological Evolution of a Landscape in a Tectonically Active Region: the Sennwald Landslide (United States)

    Aksay, Selçuk; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Hippe, Kristina; Graemiger, Lorenz; Vockenhuber, Christof


    The Säntis nappe is a fold-and-thrust structure in eastern Switzerland consisting of numerous tectonic discontinuities that make rocks vulnerable to rock failure. The Sennwald landslide is one of those events that occurred due to the failure of Lower Cretaceous Helvetic limestones. This study reveals the surface exposure age of the event in relation to geological and tectonic setting, earthquake frequency of the Central Alps, and regional scale climate/weather influence. Our study comprises detailed mapping of landform features, thin section analysis of landslide boulder lithologies, landslide volume estimation, numerical DAN-3D run-out modelling, and the spatial and temporal relationship of the event. In the Sennwald landslide, 92 million m3 of limestones detached from the south-eastern wall of the Säntis nappe and slid with a maximum travel distance of ~4'500 m and a "fahrboeschung" angle of 15° along the SE-dipping sliding plane almost parallel to the orientation of the bedding plane. Numerical run-out modelling results match the extent and the thickness of landslide deposits as observed in the field. The original bedrock stratigraphy was preserved as geologically the top layer in the bedrock package travelled the farthest and the bottom layer came to rest closest to the release bedrock wall during the landslide. Velocities of maximum 90 m/s were obtained from the numerical run-out modelling. Total Cl and 36Cl were determined at ETH AMS facility with isotope dilution methods defined in the literature (Ivy-Ochs et al., 2004). Surface exposure ages of landslide deposits in the accumulation area are revealed from twelve boulders. The distribution of limestone boulders in the accumulation area, the exposure ages, and the numerical run-out modelling support the hypothesis that the Sennwald landslide was a single catastrophic event. The event is likely to have been triggered by at least light to moderate earthquakes (Mw=4.0-6.0). The historical and the last 40-year

  6. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E.


    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics

  7. Studies of Stable Octupole Deformations in the Radium Region

    CERN Multimedia


    The purpose of the present project is to locate and identify states in the atomic nuclei possessing stable pearshaped octupole deformation. Such states, formally related to the structures known in molecular physics, manifest themselves as families of parity doublets in odd nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ The best possibilities for observing stable octupole deformations are offered in the Ra-region. Both theoretical calculations and experimental indications support such expectations. Such indications are the non-observation of two-phonon octupole vibrational states in the ISOLDE studies of the even-even radium nuclei, and the reversed sign of the decoupling factor of the ground state band in |2|2|5Ra observed in the single-neutron transfer reactions. In order to establish the predicted strong E1 and E3-transitions between the parity doublets in odd nuclei with stable octupole deformations it is proposed to study conversion electrons in odd-mass francium radium and radon isotopes following the @b-decay of francium and astatine. \\...

  8. Tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic interaction in the eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engielle Mae Raot-raot Paguican


    Full Text Available The eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA, is an extensively faulted volcanic corridor between the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau. The east-west extending region is in the transition zone between the convergence and subduction of the Gorda Plate underneath the North American Plate; north-south shortening within the Klamath Mountain region; and transcurrent movement in the Walker Lane. We describe the geomorphological and tectonic features, their alignment and distribution, in order to understand the tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic relationships. One outcome of the work is a more refined morpho-structural description that will affect future hazard assessment in the area.A database of volcanic centers and structures was created from interpretations of topographic models generated from satellite images. Volcanic centers in the region were classified by morphological type into cones, sub-cones, shields and massifs. A second classification by height separated the bigger and smaller edifices and revealed an evolutionary trend. Poisson Nearest Neighbor analysis shows that bigger volcanoes are spatially dispersed while smaller ones are clustered. Using volcano centroid locations, about 90 lineaments consisting of at least three centers within 6km of one another were found, revealing that preferential north-northwest directed pathways control the transport of magma from the source to the surface, consistent with the strikes of the major fault systems. Most of the volcano crater openings are perpendicular to the maximum horizontal stress, expected for extensional environments with dominant normal regional faults. These results imply that the extension of the Hat Creek Graben region and impingement of the Walker Lane is accommodated mostly by extensional faults and partly by the intrusions that formed the volcanoes. Early in the history of a volcano or volcano cluster, melt produced at depth in the

  9. Evidence of recent plutonic magmatism beneath Northeast Peloponnesus (Greece) and its relationship to regional tectonics (United States)

    Tzanis, A.; Efstathiou, A.; Chailas, S.; Stamatakis, M.


    , generally collocated with and delimited by extensional tectonic structures (grabens and major faults) of analogous orientation. These are interpreted to comprise calc-alkaline plutons whose placement has been controlled by the regional tectonic activity (syn-rift magmatism); their nature and origin is demonstrated with convergent evidence from deep magnetotelluric, seismological, seismic tomography and other investigations. A large number of shallow and superficial (less than 2 km) magnetic sources have also been identified; these are generated by a complex of distributed near-surface formations consisting of subvertically developing buried or extrusive volcanics and outcropping or shallow-buried ophiolitic formations (thin nappes of tectonic mélange and dismembered ophiolitic complexes). The joint analysis of the data facilitates the formulation of a tentative geotectonic model for Argolis peninsula, according to which the strain differential caused by the disparate extensional trends of the Argolic and Saronic gulfs is accommodated by right-lateral block motion associated with igneous intrusive activity at major block boundaries.

  10. Mesozoic to Recent, regional tectonic controls on subsidence patterns in the Gulf of Mexico basin (United States)

    Almatrood, M.; Mann, P.; Bugti, M. N.


    We have produced subsidence plots for 26 deep wells into the deeper-water areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) in order to identify regional tectonic controls and propose tectonic phases. Our results show three sub-regions of the GOM basin that have distinctive and correlative subsidence patterns: 1) Northern GOM from offshore Texas to central Florida (9 wells) - this area is characterized by a deeply buried, Triassic-early Jurassic rift event that is not represented by our wells that penetrate only the post-rift Cretaceous to recent passive margin phase. The sole complexity in the passive margin phase of this sub-region is the acceleration of prograding clastic margins including the Mississippi fan in Miocene time; 2) Southeastern GOM in the Straits of Florida and Cuba area (5 wells) - this area shows that the Cretaceous passive margin overlying the rift phase is abruptly drowned in late Cretaceous as this part of the passive margin of North America that is flexed and partially subducted beneath the Caribbean arc as it encroaches from the southwest to eventually collide with the North American passive margin in the Paleogene; 3) Western GOM along the length of the eastern continental margin of Mexico (12 wells) - this is the most complex of the three areas in that shares the Mesozic rifting and passive margin phase but is unique with a slightly younger collisional event and foreland basin phase associated with the Laramide orogeny in Mexico extending from the KT boundary to the Oligocene. Following this orogenic event there is a re-emergence of the passive margin phase during the Neogene along locally affected by extensional and convergent deformation associated with passive margin fold belts. In summary, the GOM basin exhibits evidence for widespread rifting and passive margin formation associated with the breakup of Pangea in Mesozoic times that was locally superimposed and deformed during the late Cretaceous-Paleogene period by: 1) Caribbean subduction and

  11. Tectonic pattern of mare ridges of the Letronne-Montes Riphaeus region of the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitala, J.


    A structural analysis is presented of mare ridges in an area of about 360 000 km 2 in the southeastern part of Oceanus Procellarum just north of Mare Humorum. Mare ridges can be regarded as the result of large-scale natural tectonic deformation experiments coupled with and extended by volcanic phenomena. The old lunar crust has evidently retained part of the Moon's original tectonic elements throughout major exo- and endogenic events. Those structures which in places were flooded by mare lavas were also the first flaws to yield and to extend during younger tectonic and volcanic activity. Linear mare ridges may thus have formed at the activated and re-activated junctures of lunar crustal plates. Implications for the tectonics of mare ridges evidently show that one global stress field cannot account for all lunar tectonics but that global and areal variations in the lunar stress system have probably occurred. (Auth.)

  12. Tectonic Evolution of the Rift Basins in the Northeastern Brazilian Region (United States)

    Mohriak, Webster U.; Bassetto, Marcelo; Vieira, Ines S.

    The transition from onshore failed rifts to offshore sedimentary basins along divergent continental margins is discussed on the basis of a regional, multidisciplinary integration of deep seismic reflection profiling, potential fied methods, geological data, and tectonic analysis. The following themes are addressed: a) the geologic evolution of the onshore and offshore rift systems of the Brazilian northeastern margin; b) the potential field methods response to the deep crustal structures; c) the seismic expression of major structural features in the rifts and within the continental and oceanic crusts; d) a possible geodynamic model for the evolution of the rift system; and e) analogies with a number of failed rifts and passive margin systems in the North Atlantic. The sedimentary basins in northeastern Brazil include a series of asymmetric grabens, such as the onshore Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá rift system (RTJ) and the offshore Jacuípe-Sergipe-Alagoas basins (JSA). Pre-rift sediments include Paleozoic to Jurassic/Early Cretaceous sediments deposited above a basement that includes Archean rocks to Late Proterozoic metasediments. The main rift phase (Neocomian to Barremian) terminated in the onshore rifts with fluvial deposits above a major regional unconformity. No further sedimentation is observed in the Recôncavo and Tucano basins, in a marked contrast to the geodynamic evolution of the Sergipe Basin, which is characterized by renewed phases of basement-involved faulting from Aptian to Early Albian, followed by a thermal phase of subsidence. The overall picture of two branches of a rift system, with different geodynamic evolution following the inception of oceanic crust, may be associated with a regional lithospheric extension during the Neocomian, first distributed over a wide region, and subsequently, focussing along a deeper mantle weak zone, local of a later plate rupture.

  13. Pore-pressure sensitivities to dynamic strains: observations in active tectonic regions (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew J.


    Triggered seismicity arising from dynamic stresses is often explained by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, where elevated pore pressures reduce the effective strength of faults in fluid-saturated rock. The seismic response of a fluid-rock system naturally depends on its hydro-mechanical properties, but accurately assessing how pore-fluid pressure responds to applied stress over large scales in situ remains a challenging task; hence, spatial variations in response are not well understood, especially around active faults. Here I analyze previously unutilized records of dynamic strain and pore-pressure from regional and teleseismic earthquakes at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) stations from 2006 through 2012 to investigate variations in response along the Pacific/North American tectonic plate boundary. I find robust scaling-response coefficients between excess pore pressure and dynamic strain at each station that are spatially correlated: around the San Andreas and San Jacinto fault systems, the response is lowest in regions of the crust undergoing the highest rates of secular shear strain. PBO stations in the Parkfield instrument cluster are at comparable distances to the San Andreas fault (SAF), and spatial variations there follow patterns in dextral creep rates along the fault, with the highest response in the actively creeping section, which is consistent with a narrowing zone of strain accumulation seen in geodetic velocity profiles. At stations in the San Juan Bautista (SJB) and Anza instrument clusters, the response depends non-linearly on the inverse fault-perpendicular distance, with the response decreasing towards the fault; the SJB cluster is at the northern transition from creeping-to-locked behavior along the SAF, where creep rates are at moderate to low levels, and the Anza cluster is around the San Jacinto fault, where to date there have been no statistically significant creep rates observed at the surface. These results suggest that the strength

  14. Stress-drop heterogeneity within tectonically complex regions: a case study of San Gorgonio Pass, southern California


    Goebel, T. H. W.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P. M.; Ampuero, J. P.


    In general, seismic slip along faults reduces the average shear stress within earthquake source regions, but stress drops of specific earthquakes are observed to vary widely in size. To advance our understanding of variations in stress drop, we analysed source parameters of small-magnitude events in the greater San Gorgonio area, southern California. In San Gorgonio, the regional tectonics are controlled by a restraining bend of the San Andreas fault system, which results in distributed crust...

  15. Discriminating Between Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Early Hominin Paleoenvironments From the Koobi Fora Region, Northeastern Turkana Basin, Kenya: Part I (United States)

    Lepre, C. J.; Quinn, R. L.


    Understanding controls on environmental records from Plio-Pleistocene Africa is critical for interpreting human origins. Recent geological studies from East Africa have focused on the relationship between Plio-Pleistocene patterns of hominin evolution, environmental change, and climate preserved in stratigraphic records of sedimentary basins (e.g. deMenocal, 2004; Wynn, 2004). Despite the fact that tectonics is a primary control on sedimentation in East African basins (e.g. Baker, 1986; Frostick, 1997), relatively few studies have either investigated its potential influence on early hominin evolution or attempted to discriminate between tectonic and climate controls on paleoenvironmental change. Presented is a study that explores these issues. Within the Koobi Fora Formation, between 4.0 and 2.5 Ma, environmental change is related to an overall trend of linear rates of tectonic subsidence. However, smaller-scale fluctuations in subsidence rates established lakes during times of increased subsidence followed by the transition to rivers during times of decreased subsidence and basin infilling (Feibel, 1994a, 2000). In contrast, environmental change during the period between 2.5 and 1.5 Ma was forced by changes in half-graben propagation, fault movement, and subsidence. This change is recorded within a stratigraphic sequence that is defined by major (erosional) boundary surface unconformities. The sequence is internally comprised of stable-lacustrine; stable-lacustrine, delta, and ephemeral-lacustrine; and fluvial environments of deposition. This environmental progression defines lowstand, transgressive, and highstand systems tracts respectively. Transition between systems tracts and depositional environments was controlled by rates of tectonic subsidence. The formation of stable-lacustrine environments of deposition during the lowstand systems tract was due to subsidence rates out-pacing sedimentation rates that was associated with a major tectonic event

  16. Apatite fission track analysis on tectonic activities and paleotopography in southern Altai region, Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenju; Yuan Wanming; Liu Haotao; Song Gao


    This work engages apatite fission track evidences on thermotectonic history, rock uplift rate, denudation extent southeastern Altai region. Fission track ages of 14 samples range from (59.4±5.8) Ma to (109.7±8.1) Ma and the length is between (12.0±2.5) μm and (13.7±1.5) μm. Thermal modeling reveals that the samples have a three-stage of uplift-cooling history. The first stage is in an overall initial uplift before 108 Ma, the second stage from 108 Ma to 28 Ma experiences a slow cooling phase, and the last stage through a rapid-cooling process since 28 Ma with a cooling rate 1.25 1.61 ℃/Ma and denudation amount 1.17-1.50 km, the fast exhumation period in the area. The sample ages could be divided into 4 age groups, reflecting multiple tectonic events with different uplift rates. The paleotopography altitude changes from 3895 m to 821 m, 2250 m to 762 m etc., and the amplitude of changes reaches to 3300-1400 m since 90 Ma. The phenomenon of Alpine turning to valley and valley uplifting is visible in the studied area, indicating various stages of paleotopography. Based on inversion of ancient landforms and equilibrium correction, the equilibrium rebound would play an important role in the rock uplift during the Altai post-orogenic period. (authors)

  17. Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reilinger


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main tectonic features of the Eastern Mediterranean region combining the recent information obtained from GPS measurements, seismicity and neotectonic studies. GPS measurements reveal that the Arabian plate moves northward with respect to Eurasia at a rate of 23 ± 1 mm/yr, 10 mm/yr of this rate is taken up by shortening in the Caucasus. The internal deformation in Eastern Anatolia by conjugate strike-slip faulting and E-W trending thrusts, including the Bitlis frontal thrust, accommodates approximately a 15 mm/yr slip rate. The Northeast Anatolian fault, which extends from the Erzincan basin to Caucasus accommodates about 8 ± 5 mm/yr of left-lateral motion. The neotectonic fault pattern in Eastern Anatolia suggests that the NE Anatolian block moves in an E-ENE direction towards the South Caspian Sea. According to the same data, the Anatolian-Aegean block is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation. However, from the residuals it appears that this solution can only be taken as a preliminary approximation. The Eulerian rotation pole indicates that slip rate along the North Anatolian fault is about 26 ± 3 mm/yr. This value is 10 mm/yr higher than slip rates obtained from geological data and historical earthquake records and it includes westward drift of the Pontides of a few millimetres/year or more. GPS measurements reveal that the East Anatolian fault accommodates an 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative motion. GPS data suggest that Central Anatolia behaves as a rigid block, but from neotectonic studies, it clearly appears that it is sliced by a number of conjugate strike-slip faults. The Isparta Angle area might be considered a major obstacle for the westward motion of the Anatolian block (Central and Eastern Anatolia. The western flank of this geological structure, the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone appears to be a major boundary with a slip rate of 15-20 mm/yr. The Western Anatolian grabens take up a total of 15 mm/yr NE-SW extension

  18. Tectonic and Structural Controls of Geothermal Activity in the Great Basin Region, Western USA (United States)

    Faulds, J. E.; Hinz, N.; Kreemer, C. W.


    We are conducting a thorough inventory of structural settings of geothermal systems (>400 total) in the extensional to transtensional Great Basin region of the western USA. Most of the geothermal systems in this region are not related to upper crustal magmatism and thus regional tectonic and local structural controls are the most critical factors controlling the locations of the geothermal activity. A system of NW-striking dextral faults known as the Walker Lane accommodates ~20% of the North American-Pacific plate motion in the western Great Basin and is intimately linked to N- to NNE-striking normal fault systems throughout the region. Overall, geothermal systems are concentrated in areas with the highest strain rates within or proximal to the eastern and western margins of the Great Basin, with the high temperature systems clustering in transtensional areas of highest strain rate in the northwestern Great Basin. Enhanced extension in the northwestern Great Basin probably results from the northwestward termination of the Walker Lane and the concomitant transfer of dextral shear into west-northwest directed extension, thus producing a broad transtensional region. The capacity of geothermal power plants also correlates with strain rates, with the largest (hundreds of megawatts) along the Walker Lane or San Andreas fault system, where strain rates range from 10-100 nanostrain/yr to 1,000 nanostrain/yr, respectively. Lesser systems (tens of megawatts) reside in the Basin and Range (outside the Walker Lane), where local strain rates are typically fracture density, and thus enhanced permeability. Other common settings include a) intersections between normal faults and strike-slip or oblique-slip faults (27%), where multiple minor faults connect major structures and fluids can flow readily through highly fractured, dilational quadrants, and b) normal fault terminations or tip-lines (22%), where horse-tailing generates closely-spaced faults and increased permeability

  19. Spectral damping scaling factors for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Campbell, Kenneth; Abrahamson, Norman; Silva, Walter


    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra, including the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models, are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and non-structural systems can have damping ratios other than 5%, depending on various factors such as structural types, construction materials, level of ground motion excitations, among others. This report provides the findings of a comprehensive study to develop a new model for a Damping Scaling Factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE to spectral ordinates with damping ratios between 0.5 to 30%. Using the updated, 2011 version of the NGA database of ground motions recorded in worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions (i.e., the NGA-West2 database), dependencies of the DSF on variables including damping ratio, spectral period, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, duration, and local site conditions are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions are found to have less significant influence on DSF and are not included in the model. The proposed model for DSF provides functional forms for the median value and the logarithmic standard deviation of DSF. This model is heteroscedastic, where the variance is a function of the damping ratio. Damping Scaling Factor models are developed for the “average” horizontal ground motion components, i.e., RotD50 and GMRotI50, as well as the vertical component of ground motion.

  20. Segmentation of the eastern North Greenland oblique-shear margin – regional plate tectonic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Stemmerik, Lars; Dahl-Jensen, T.


    a highly complex, Paleozoic–early Cenozoic pre-opening setting. However, due to extreme ice conditions, very little is known about the offshore areas seawards of – and between – the peninsulas. Consequently, prevailing structural-tectonic models of the margin tend to be significantly oversimplified...... anticipated. In particular, we interpret strong margin segmentation along N/NE-striking fault structures. The structures are likely to have formed by Late Mesozoic–early Cenozoic strike-slip tectonics and have continued to be active during the late Cenozoic. A more than 8 km deep sedimentary basin...

  1. Heat Flow in the Salton Trough Revisited and Implications for Regional Tectonics (United States)

    Williams, C.; DeAngelo, J.; Galanis, P.


    As part of research into the geothermal energy resources of the Salton Trough, we have assembled a database of 1060 temperature-gradient and heat-flow measurements acquired by the geothermal industry, universities, national labs, and the US Geological Survey (USGS) throughout the region from the early 1970s to the present. In addition to using the data to examine the nature and occurrence of hydrothermal systems, we have estimated the total heat flux through the Trough and investigated relationships between subsurface thermal conditions and the character of faulting and seismicity. Our analysis for the Imperial Valley and other portions of the Salton Trough physiographic province gives an average heat flow of ~160 mW/m2 compared to the 140 mW/m2 average determined by Lachenbruch and others in the last regional study (JGR, v.90, n. B8, 1986). The higher average reflects a larger contribution to the total heat flux from hydrothermal systems that was not recognized in earlier studies due to incomplete spatial coverage. Most of these hydrothermal systems are associated with step-overs and other structural complexities in the fault zones that pass through the region, and the dense coverage of the new heat flow database allows for a detailed examination of the degree to which variations of convective and conductive heat transfer in this region influence, and are influenced by, active tectonic processes. We compared estimated subsurface temperatures from a conductive heat transfer model with the observed depth variation of the upper and lower boundaries of the seismogenic zone along active faults both within and along the margins of the Imperial Valley, and for those areas characterized by average heat flow less than or equal to 150 mW/m2, the base of the seismogenic zone is near the estimated depth of the 400 °C isotherm, a result that is consistent with observations in other seismically active regions. The base of seismicity continues to shallow where heat flow

  2. Strike-slip and extrusion tectonics of the Greater Caucasus-Kopetdagh region (United States)

    Kopp, M. L.


    In the Paleogene-Early Miocene, the areas of the modern Greater Caucasus and Kopetdagh were occupied by marginal seas (parts of the Paratethys intracontinental sea) inheriting the Cretaceous back-arc basins. In the Early Miocene, a collisional compression of the seas began at the time when the Arabian plate detached from Africa to move northward. The compression proceeded in a good accordance with the Arabia movement that was manifested in a general synchroneity of the Late Alpine orogenies in the Caucasus and Kopetdagh with the rifting and spreading phases in the Aden Gulf and the Red Sea. The earliest orogeny was the Styrian one of the terminal Early Miocene. It corresponds to the initial stage of the rift opening and was mostly pronounced in the east, in Kopetdagh and East Iran, where a recent structure has been formed by the initial Middle Miocene. In the Greater Caucasus, the Styrian deformations occurred in its central part only (i.e., in front of the Arabian plate northern tip) where the main Caucasian thrusts and conjugate asymmetrical megaanticline of the Central Caucasus were formed. An essential feature of the earliest, Styrian, structure of the whole Caucasus-Kopetdagh region was a series of regional right-lateral strike-slip faults. In the Kopetdagh, the strike-slips have no submeridional but northwestern direction although they occurred in the northern continuation of the submeridional right-lateral strike-slip faults framing the Lut block. In the Caucasus, they became even sublatitudinal, in parallel with the North Anatolian fault, thus constituting a single domain with the latter. So, the right-lateral strike-slip faults of East Iran, Kopetdagh, and the Caucasus compose an extensive arc convex to the north and appeared probably as a result of the right-lateral shear caused by the known counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian lithospheric plate. The Middle Miocene was characterized by a tectonic pause both in the Red Sea-Aden rift system and in the

  3. Modeling the Response of Climate and Precipitation Oxygen Stable Isotopes to the Tectonic Development of the Indian Collision Zone during the Cenozoic (United States)

    Botsyun, S.; Sepulchre, P.; Donnadieu, Y.; Risi, C.; Licht, A.; Caves, J. K.


    Tectonics-climate interaction as well as the impact of greenhouse forcing on climate has become a major focus of paleoclimate studies since the quarter of the century. The Himalayas and the Tibetan plateau owes its current height to the Cenozoic collision between Indian and Asian plates, since 55 Ma. However, the timing and rate of surface elevations remain controversial and its impact on Asian climate and the onset of monsoon systems is highly debated. Stable oxygen paleoaltimetry is considered to be a very efficient and widely applied technique, but has limitations from two sides: 1) the link between stable oxygen composition of precipitation and climate is not well established, 2) Cenozoic climate over Asia is poorly reconstructed. With a purpose of filling the gap in our knowledge of climate variability over Asia during the Cenozoic climate we use the atmospheric general circulation model LMDZ. Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene boundary conditions have been applied together with various scenarios of TP growth. The results of our numerical modeling show a significant influence of paleogeography on the Asian climate. Moreover, we use isotope-equipped atmospheric model LMDZ-iso for understanding the controlling factors of δ18O in precipitation. Experiments with reduced height over the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas have been designed. We develop a theoretical expression for the precipitation composition. In addition, realist Cenozoic boundary conditions together with isotope-equipped atmospheric model allowed reconstructing δ18O in paleoprecipitation for several periods during the Cenozoic, while comparison of simulated δ18O patterns with data from carbonate archives allowed revealing possible limitations of paleoelevation techniques based on stable oxygen isotopes.

  4. Decreasing the stable trapping region during geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, Yu.P.; Feshchenko, E.Yu.


    Within the frameworks of the magnetic field model, depending on the solar wind pressure, the B = B s (B s is the magnetic field in the undersolar point) contour behaviour in the equatorial plane is calculated. The boundary of stable trapping in the quiet time is at the distance of 10-11 R E by day and ∼ 7 R E by night. During strong storms this distance may be decreased up 4-5 R E . The calculation results coincide satisfactorily with satellite measurements

  5. Structural highs on the western continental slope of India: Implications for regional tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Rajesh, M.; De, Suritha; Chakraborty, B.; Jauhari, P.

    and Scotese, 1999). Continental rifting coupled with a magma-assisted thermal anomaly from beneath is accepted as the fundamental component of the plate tectonic process (e.g., Northern Ethiopian Rift, Kendall et al., 2005). Similarly it is possible that mafic... 279, 312–315. Kendall, J-M., Stuart, G.W., Ebinger, C.J., Bastow, I.D., Keir, D., 2005. Magma assisted rifting in Ethiopia. Nature 433, 146–148. Krishna, K.S., Murty, G.P.S., Srinivas, K., Rao, D.G., 1992. Magnetic studies over the northern extension...

  6. Regional Comparisons of Oceanic Food Web Structure Using Stable Isotopes (United States)

    Choy, A.; Drazen, J.; Popp, B. N.; Robison, B. H.


    Food chain length, or the number of trophic steps between primary producers and apex predators within an ecosystem, is a key determinant of ecosystem structure, including overall efficiency, stability, and productivity. Here, we quantitatively estimate food chain length for three pelagic ecosystems characterized by distinct biogeochemical and oceanographic regimes: the Northern California Current (NCC), the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), and the Gulf of California (GoC). From each region, ecologically equivalent organisms were selected from each of four successive trophic steps, including zooplankton (primary consumers), zooplanktivores (secondary consumers), piscivores (tertiary consumers), and higher order predators. Bulk tissue δ15N values of the organisms from all four trophic steps spanned ranges of approximately 9.8‰ (NCC), 1.4‰ (NPSG), and 2.1‰ (GoC). Regional variations in nitrogen biogeochemistry, however, can alter isotopic baselines and food web dynamics, ultimately complicating bulk isotope measurements across regions. Thus, we apply amino acid nitrogen isotope measurements to quantitatively measure and compare food chain length across consumers from the three regions, accounting for biogeochemical disparities in isotopic baseline. Implications for ecosystem production and efficiency are discussed, including the potential for these different ecosystems to withstand environmental change, including shifting oxygen levels and surface productivity.

  7. Stress-drop heterogeneity within tectonically complex regions: a case study of San Gorgonio Pass, southern California (United States)

    Goebel, T. H. W.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P. M.; Ampuero, J. P.


    In general, seismic slip along faults reduces the average shear stress within earthquake source regions, but stress drops of specific earthquakes are observed to vary widely in size. To advance our understanding of variations in stress drop, we analysed source parameters of small-magnitude events in the greater San Gorgonio area, southern California. In San Gorgonio, the regional tectonics are controlled by a restraining bend of the San Andreas fault system, which results in distributed crustal deformation, and heterogeneous slip along numerous strike-slip and thrust faults. Stress drops were estimated by fitting a Brune-type spectral model to source spectra obtained by iteratively stacking the observed amplitude spectra. The estimates have large scatter among individual events but the median of event populations shows systematic, statistically significant variations. We identified several crustal and faulting parameters that may contribute to local variations in stress drop including the style of faulting, changes in average tectonic slip rates, mineralogical composition of the host rocks, as well as the hypocentral depths of seismic events. We observed anomalously high stress drops (>20 MPa) in a small region between the traces of the San Gorgonio and Mission Creek segments of the San Andreas fault. Furthermore, the estimated stress drops are higher below depths of ˜10 km and along the San Gorgonio fault segment, but are lower both to the north and south away from San Gorgonio Pass, showing an approximate negative correlation with geologic slip rates. Documenting controlling parameters of stress-drop heterogeneity is important to advance regional hazard assessment and our understanding of earthquake rupture processes.

  8. Volcanic and Tectonic Activity in the Red Sea Region (2004-2013): Insights from Satellite Radar Interferometry and Optical Imagery

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin


    Studying recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region is important for improving our knowledge of the Red Sea plate boundary and for regional geohazard assessments. However, limited information has been available about the past activity due to insufficient in-situ data and remoteness of some of the activity. In this dissertation, I have used satellite remote sensing to derive new information about several recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region. I first report on three volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea, the 2007-8 Jebel at Tair eruption and the 2011-12 & 2013 Zubair eruptions, which resulted in formation of two new islands. Series of high- resolution optical images were used to map the extent of lava flows and to observe and analyze the growth and destructive processes of the new islands. I used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to study the evolution of lava flows, to estimate their volumes, as well as to generate ground displacements maps, which were used to model the dikes that fed the eruptions. I then report on my work of the 2009 Harrat Lunayyir dike intrusion and the 2004 Tabuk earthquake sequence in western Saudi Arabia. I used InSAR observations and stress calculations to study the intruding dike at Harrat Lunayyir, while I combined InSAR data and Bayesian estimation to study the Tabuk earthquake activity. The key findings of the thesis are: 1) The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea indicate that the area is magmatically more active than previously acknowledged and that a rifting episode has been taken place in the southern Red Sea; 2) Stress interactions between an ascending dike intrusion and normal faulting on graben-bounding faults above the dike can inhibit vertical propagation of magma towards the surface; 3) InSAR observations can improve locations of shallow earthquakes and fault model uncertainties are useful to associate earthquake activity with mapped faults; 4). The

  9. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H.; Wernicke, B.P.


    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections through and These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses' ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain

  10. Geophysical Data (Gravity and Magnetic) from the Area Between Adana, Kahramanmaras and Hatay in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Tectonic Implications (United States)

    Over, Semir; Akin, Ugur; Sen, Rahime


    The gravity and magnetic maps of the area between Adana-Kahramanmaras-Hatay provinces were produced from a compilation of data gathered during the period between 1973 and 1989. Reduced to the pole (RTP) and pseudo-gravity transformation (PGT) methods were applied to the magnetic data, while derivative ratio (DR) processing was applied to both gravity and magnetic data, respectively. Bouguer, RTP and PGT maps show the image of a buried structure corresponding to ophiolites under undifferentiated Quaternary deposits in the Adana depression and Iskenderun Gulf. DR maps show two important faults which reflect the tectonic framework in the study area: (1) the Karatas-Osmaniye Fault extending from Osmaniye to Karatas in the south between Adana and Iskenderun depressions and (2) Amanos Fault (southern part of East Anatolian Fault) in the Hatay region running southward from Turkoglu to Amik Basin along Amanos Mountain forming the actual plate boundary between the Anatolian block (part of Eurasian plate) and Arabian plate.

  11. Performative Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mullins, Michael


    This paper studies two digital generative tools in terms of Performative Tectonics. Performative Tectonics is a term developed in the paper, which links the contemporary development of digital tools to the tectonic tradition of architecture. Within the theoretical framework of this definition......, the paper presents case studies of the structural optimisation software eifForm, and the parametric modelling software Generative-Components....

  12. How sea level change mediates genetic divergence in coastal species across regions with varying tectonic and sediment processes. (United States)

    Dolby, Greer A; Ellingson, Ryan A; Findley, Lloyd T; Jacobs, David K


    Plate tectonics and sediment processes control regional continental shelf topography. We examine the genetic consequences of how glacial-associated sea level change interacted with variable nearshore topography since the last glaciation. We reconstructed the size and distribution of areas suitable for tidal estuary formation from the last glacial maximum, ~20 thousand years ago, to present from San Francisco, California, USA (~38°N) to Reforma, Sinaloa, Mexico (~25°N). We assessed range-wide genetic structure and diversity of three codistributed tidal estuarine fishes (California Killifish, Shadow Goby, Longjaw Mudsucker) along ~4,600 km using mitochondrial control region and cytB sequence, and 16-20 microsatellite loci from a total of 524 individuals. Results show that glacial-associated sea level change limited estuarine habitat to few, widely separated refugia at glacial lowstand, and present-day genetic clades were sourced from specific refugia. Habitat increased during postglacial sea level rise and refugial populations admixed in newly formed habitats. Continental shelves with active tectonics and/or low sediment supply were steep and hosted fewer, smaller refugia with more genetically differentiated populations than on broader shelves. Approximate Bayesian computation favoured the refuge-recolonization scenarios from habitat models over isolation by distance and seaway alternatives, indicating isolation at lowstand is a major diversification mechanism among these estuarine (and perhaps other) coastal species. Because sea level change is a global phenomenon, we suggest this top-down physical control of extirpation-isolation-recolonization may be an important driver of genetic diversification in coastal taxa inhabiting other topographically complex coasts globally during the Mid- to Late Pleistocene and deeper timescales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Three Ingredients for Improved Global Aftershock Forecasts: Tectonic Region, Time-Dependent Catalog Incompleteness, and Inter-Sequence Variability (United States)

    Page, M. T.; Hardebeck, J.; Felzer, K. R.; Michael, A. J.; van der Elst, N.


    Following a large earthquake, seismic hazard can be orders of magnitude higher than the long-term average as a result of aftershock triggering. Due to this heightened hazard, there is a demand from emergency managers and the public for rapid, authoritative, and reliable aftershock forecasts. In the past, USGS aftershock forecasts following large, global earthquakes have been released on an ad-hoc basis with inconsistent methods, and in some cases, aftershock parameters adapted from California. To remedy this, we are currently developing an automated aftershock product that will generate more accurate forecasts based on the Reasenberg and Jones (Science, 1989) method. To better capture spatial variations in aftershock productivity and decay, we estimate regional aftershock parameters for sequences within the Garcia et al. (BSSA, 2012) tectonic regions. We find that regional variations for mean aftershock productivity exceed a factor of 10. The Reasenberg and Jones method combines modified-Omori aftershock decay, Utsu productivity scaling, and the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We additionally account for a time-dependent magnitude of completeness following large events in the catalog. We generalize the Helmstetter et al. (2005) equation for short-term aftershock incompleteness and solve for incompleteness levels in the global NEIC catalog following large mainshocks. In addition to estimating average sequence parameters within regions, we quantify the inter-sequence parameter variability. This allows for a more complete quantification of the forecast uncertainties and Bayesian updating of the forecast as sequence-specific information becomes available.

  14. Stratigraphy, geochronology and regional tectonic setting of the Late Cretaceous (ca. 82-70 Ma) Cabullona basin, Sonora, Mexico (United States)

    González-León, Carlos M.; Solari, Luigi A.; Madhavaraju, Jayagopal


    The Cabullona basin in northeastern Sonora is a continental depocenter whose origin is related to the adjacent Sierra Anibacachi uplift that bounds its tectonic eastern flank. Its exposed, mostly fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary fill, the Cabullona Group, was deposited between 81.9 ± 0.7 and 69.8 ± 0.7 Ma and its outcrops extends for 70 km from north to south. The oldest measured stratigraphic column of the Cabullona Group is the Los Atolillos column of the southern part of the basin, but its base is not exposed. A basal conglomerate in the younger El Malacate (ca. 80 Ma), Cuauhtémoc (ca. 75 Ma) and San Joaquín (ca. 70 Ma) columns onlaps deformed basement rocks. The type section in which the Cabullona Group was previously named is herein referred as the Naco section and is dated ∼73-72 Ma. The younger strata of the Cabullona Group correspond to the fluvial San Joaquín column that onlaps the eastern tectonic boundary of the basin and to the lacustrine Esqueda column. These columns are dated at ca. 70 Ma and may represent the late evolution of the Cabullona basin. Sandstone petrography and detrital zircon geochronology are used to infer provenance of sediments of the Cabullona Group. Sandstones consist of lithic arkose to feldespathic litharenite, indicating provenance from dissected to transitional volcanic arc, but samples of the El Malacate column classify as arkose and lithic arkose with possible provenance from basement uplift of Sierra Los Ajos; litharenite from the Esqueda column indicate arc provenance. Detrital zircons yielded mostly Proterozoic and Mesozoic ages with age peaks at ca. 1568, 167, 100, 80 and 73 Ma indicating possible provenance from the Precambrian basement rocks and the Jurassic continental magmatic arc that underlie the region, the Alisitos arc and La Posta plutons in Baja California, and from the Laramide magmatic arc of Sonora. The Cabullona basin developed nearly contemporaneous to the early, eastwards migrating Laramide

  15. Bathymetry, controlled source seismic and gravity observations of the Mendeleev ridge; implications for ridge structure, origin, and regional tectonics (United States)

    Dove, Dayton; Coakley, Bernard; Hopper, John; Kristoffersen, Yngve


    Multichannel seismic (MCS), seismic refraction, and gravity data collected down the flank of the Chukchi Plateau, but predominantly over the Mendeleev Ridge have been processed and interpreted to describe the crustal style of the ridge, as well as the structural history. These results provide constraints on the origin of the ridge, and the tectonic evolution of the Amerasian Basin. MCS images reveal two primary sediment sequences separated by an unconformity that persists across the entire Mendeleev Ridge. The basement and lower sediment sequence exhibit pervasive normal faulting. The upper sequence is laterally conformable and not effected by faulting, thus the regional unconformity dividing the two sequences is interpreted to mark the end of extensional deformation. Modeling of sonobuoy seismic refraction data reveals upper crustal P-wave velocities ranging from 3.5 to 6.4kms-1 approximately 5km into the basement. The velocity structure of the Mendeleev Ridge is consistent with either a volcanic rifted continental margin, or an oceanic plateau origin. Observed gravity anomalies over the ridge are reproduced by a model consisting of bathymetry, sediment and basement horizons from the MCS data and a single crustal layer of 2.86gcm-3. This result is consistent with homogeneous, mafic crust. The similar velocity and density structures of the Mendeleev and Alpha ridges is consistent with a model where the two ridges are contiguous and share a common geological origin. Gravity modelling over the transition between the Chukchi Plateau and the Mendeleev Ridge suggests the two features have differing compositions and distinct emplacement histories. Three tectonic models are presented for the origin of the Alpha Mendeleev Ridge (AMR) that satisfy constraints set by this and previous studies: (1) a rifted volcanic continental margin, (2) an oceanic plateau formed at a spreading centre-perpendicular to the AMR and (3) an oceanic plateau formed at a spreading centre

  16. The Proterozoic Ladoga rift (SE Baltic shield): Linking mantle dynamics to supercontinent cycle and regional tectonics (United States)

    Artemieva, Irina; Shulgin, Alexey


    Mesoproterozoic mafic magmatism at the southern part of the Baltic Shield (the Lake Ladoga region) is conventionally ascribed to epicratonic rifting. The region hosts a series of mafic dykes and sills of Mesoproterozoic ages, including a ca. 1.53-1.46 Ga sheet-like gabbro-dolerite sills and the Salmi plateau-basalts from the Lake Ladoga region. Based on chiefly geochemical data, the region is conventionally interpreted as an intracratonic Ladoga rift (graben). We question the validity of this geodynamic interpretation by analyzing regional geophysical data (crustal structure, heat flow, Bouguer gravity anomalies, magnetic anomalies, and mantle Vs velocities). Our analysis of characteristics of continental rifts demonstrates that: 1. the topography of the region lacks a linear horst-graben structure typical of modern rifts, however this feature might have been lost by surface erosion; 2. the crust has neither shallow Moho, nor magmatic high-velocity underplated material, and thus is not typical of continental rifts; 3. weakly negative Bouguer gravity anomalies, especially by comparison with adjacent "background" anomalies suggest the presence of high-density material at shallow, near-Moho depths; however, the shape of the anomaly is rounded rather than linear, and may not attest to the paleorifting event; 4. seismic velocities in the upper mantle show a possible weak low-Pn anomaly near Lake Ladoga, and strong positive (+5+7%) Vs anomaly at 75-125 km depth to the NE of the lake, but not in the region of Mesoproterozoic mafic magmatism; 5. no thermal anomaly or lithosphere thickness anomaly is currently present in the lithosphere of the region, which instead is marked by extremely low heat flow; however, given the age of magmatism any thermal anomaly may have long ceased and thus its absence does not disprove rifting origin of magmatism; 6. the absence of linear magnetic anomalies which are preserved in other paleorifts provides strong evidence that this region has

  17. Earthquake clustering in the tectonic pattern and volcanism of the Andaman Sea region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří


    Roč. 608, November (2013), s. 728-736 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09011 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : earthquake swarm * Andaman Sea region * global seismological data * submarine volcanism * magma intrusion Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.866, year: 2013

  18. The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole


    Tian, Guihua


    The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...

  19. The Structural Control and Tectonic Evolution of the Campbellton Region, northern New Brunswick, Canada (United States)

    Craggs, Simon D.

    The Campbellton region is transected by a network of ENE-trending dextral transcurrent faults and NNE-trending high-angle reverse faults. A fieldwork-based study was conducted to determine the region's kinematic response to Middle Paleozoic deformation in order to assess the potential for the occurrence of a structural hydrocarbon trap. Detailed study of five major faults (the Black Lake, Squaw Cap, Sugar Loaf, Sellarsville and Sellarsville East faults) and their associated damage zones indicate that during the Middle Paleozoic the region was part of a larger dextral transpressive system that extended north into the Gaspe Peninsula. The timing and style of fault development suggest that boundary conditions present during deformation restricted lateral extension of the region, which indicates that the Middle Silurian Salinic Orogeny had only a minor effect on rocks of the study area. The Sellarsville and Sellarsville East faults are thought to have moved first, during the Acadian Orogeny, as back thrusts within a NW-propagating foreland thrust belt. This was followed by dextral transcurrent movement along the ENE-trending faults and counter-clockwise rotation of the Sellarsville block. Damage-zone assessment suggests that, in general, all the faults acted as a partial barrier to flow during deformation. Many of the essential elements for hydrocarbon-trap development are in place within the study area. While sporadic distribution of reservoir rocks of the Upper Silurian West Point Formation limits our ability to locate hydrocarbon target sites, two areas have been identified where major lineaments interact with anticlinal hinges, and potential reservoir rocks are overlain by volcanic rocks of the Lower Devonian Val d'Amour Formation.

  20. Active tectonics in Southern Portugal (SW Iberia) inferred from GPS data. Implications on the regional geodynamics (United States)

    Cabral, João; Mendes, Virgílio Brito; Figueiredo, Paula; Silveira, António Brum da; Pagarete, Joaquim; Ribeiro, António; Dias, Ruben; Ressurreição, Ricardo


    A GPS-based crustal velocity field for the SW Portuguese territory (Algarve region, SW Iberia) was estimated from the analysis of data from a network of campaign-style GPS stations set up in the region since 1998, complemented with permanent stations, covering an overall period of 16.5 years. The GPS monitoring sites were chosen attending to the display of the regional active faults, in an attempt to detect and monitor any related crustal straining. The residual horizontal velocities relative to Eurasia unveil a relatively consistent pattern towards WNW, with magnitudes that noticeably increase from NNE to SSW. Although the obtained velocity field does not evidence a sharp velocity gradient it suggests the presence of a NW-SE trending crustal shear zone separating two domains, which may be slowly accumulating a slightly transtensional right-lateral shear strain. Based on the WNW velocity differential between the northeastern block and the southwestern block, a shear strain rate accumulation across the shear zone is estimated. This ongoing crustal deformation is taken as evidence that a nearby major active structure, the São Marcos - Quarteira fault, may be presently accumulating strain, therefore being potentially loaded for seismic rupture and the generation of a large magnitude earthquake. Further inferences are made concerning the interseismic dynamic loading of other major onshore and offshore active structures located to the west.

  1. Mathematical removal of regional ductile strains in Central Brittany: Evidence for wrench tectonics (United States)

    Percevault, M. N.; Cobbold, P. R.


    Hercynian deformation in Central Brittany is responsible for folding of Paleozoic and earlier sediments, with concurrent development of cleavage (essentially E-W and vertical) and stretching lineation (essentially horizontal). In the past, the regional motion was inferred to be a N-S shortening; more recent studies emphasize E-W transcurrent motions associated with major crustal faults. Values and orientations of ductile strain at 29 localities in Central Brittany show that the regional deformation is basically a horizontal plane strain, with local three-dimensional perturbations. We first remove the perturbations, rendering the problem two-dimensional. Then a selected domain is divided into an array of finite elements parallel to strain trajectories. Using strain values extant at element centroids, each element is unstrained independently of its neighbours. Resulting gaps and overlaps are minimized using a least-squares technique which allows elements to translate and rotate rigidly. Thus we obtain the configuration of the domain in the undeformed state. To within an unknown but constant rigid rotation, the domain has undergone a heterogeneous dextral simple shear, with vertical shearing plane striking N125° and horizontal shear direction. A band of low strain, running through Guer, is flanked by two zones of more intense strain. The banding is approximately parallel to a major transcurrent fault in the area, the South Armorican Shear Zone.

  2. Damping scaling factors for elastic response spectra for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions: "average" horizontal component (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Abrahamson, Norman; Campbell, Kenneth; Silva, Walter


    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and nonstructural systems can have other damping ratios. This paper develops a new model for a damping scaling factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE for damping ratios between 0.5% to 30%. The model is developed based on empirical data from worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. Dependencies of the DSF on potential predictor variables, such as the damping ratio, spectral period, ground motion duration, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site conditions, are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by the inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions show weak influence on the DSF. The proposed damping scaling model provides functional forms for the median and logarithmic standard deviation of DSF, and is developed for both RotD50 and GMRotI50 horizontal components. A follow-up paper develops a DSF model for vertical ground motion.

  3. Current deformation of Okavango rift: a coupling between regional tectonics and groundwater accumulation (United States)

    Dauteuil, Olivier; Murray-Hudson, Mike; Moreau, frederique; Wolski, piotr; Portier, Nolwenn; Crave, Alain


    Located in northern Botswana, the Okavango Delta is the second largest inland delta in the world of which global dynamics is controlled by a graben, climate and sediment transport. Currently the Okavango delta is an endoreic system in which each year about 11,000 km3 of water irrigates 15,000 km2 of desert. The delta is located in graben controlled by two sets of faults trending N070. The origin of the graben is commonly interpreted as related to a migration of East African Rift. However the seismicity is low and the topography associated to the graben activity is slightly pronounced. Therefore, we determined the current deformation of the delta to better constrain the processes acting. The current deformation is recorded thanks a geodetic network of GPS receivers. This network includes 9 sites located both inside and around the delta. Two sites are permanent, allowing monthly the ground deformation to survey, and 7 sites were investigated twice, in 2010 and in 2012. The data were processed in a regional setup relative to permanent station assumed fix, using double difference method. The accuracy ranges from 2 to 6 mm. The displacement field between 2010 and 2012 displays value up to 4 cm that is an unexpected rate. The horizontal component is roughly consistent with NW-SE opening of the graben, except on the northern border, which displays an eastward motion. The vertical component corresponds to a subsidence larger at east and at north of the delta than inside the southwest part of the delta. The high deformation rate and the displacement field are partially inconsistent with a simple open dynamics of the graben. The high subsidence both inside and outside the graben reveals that another process controls the ground deformation of the delta. GRACE data (Ramillien et al, 2008) indicate a significant ground water accumulation in this region, which could influence the deformation pattern of the delta in addition to the geodynamic input.

  4. Tectonic controls on the Yamanlar volcano and Yuntdağı volcanic region, western Turkey: Implications for an incremental deformation (United States)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür


    Over the past ten years, it has been proposed that the western part of the Menderes Massif was strongly structurally-controlled by the İzmir-Balıkesir transfer zone (İBTZ). Yamanlar volcano is a key area for understanding the deformation of Miocene volcanoes in western Turkey because of its progressive extensional tectonics. Structural analysis provides that this volcano has undergone the incremental tectonic controls in western Turkey since Early Miocene. The volcano experienced deformation and erosional processes associated with activity of intense tectonic regime that resulted in the dissection of the southern flank of the volcano mostly by NE-SW-striking oblique and strike-slip faults together with cross-cutting faults during and after Miocene period. The orientation of volcanic domes, dykes and intrusive bodies indicates successive and reactive tectonic phases that caused incremental complex movements of numerous fault blocks during the destruction area of the Yamanlar volcano.

  5. Modelling of the flow of stable air over a complex region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, MT


    Full Text Available The flow of stable air over a general region of complex topography and non-uniform surface temperature has been investigated. In order to gain further understanding of the motion of surface air, it was necessary to study the vertical structure...

  6. A transitional volume beneath the Sannio-Irpinia border region (southern Apennines): Different tectonic styles at different depths (United States)

    De Matteo, Ada; Massa, Bruno; Milano, Girolamo; D'Auria, Luca


    In this paper we investigate the border between the Sannio and Irpinia seismogenic regions, a sector of the southern Apennine chain considered among the most active seismic areas of the Italian peninsula, to shed further light on its complex seismotectonic setting. We integrated recent seismicity with literature data. A detailed analysis of the seismicity that occurred in the 2013-2016 time interval was performed. The events were relocated, after manual re-picking, using different approaches. To retrieve information about the stress field active in the area, inversion of Fault Plane Solutions was also carried out. Hypocentral distribution of the relocated events (ML ≤ 3.5), whose depth is included between 5 and 25 km with the deepest ones located in the NW sector of the study area, shows a different pattern between the northern sector and the southern one. The computed Fault Plane Solutions can be grouped in three depth ranges: 18 km, dominated by strike-slip kinematics. Stress field inversion across the whole area shows that we are dealing with an heterogeneous set of data, apparently governed by distinct stress fields. We built an upper crustal model profile through integration of geological data, well logs and seismic tomographic profiles. Our results suggest the co-existence of different tectonic styles at distinct crustal depths: the upper crust seems to be affected mostly by normal faulting, whereas strike-slip faulting prevails in the intermediate and lower crust. We infer about the existence of a transitional volume, located between 12 and 18 km depth, between the Sannio and Irpinia regions, acting as a vertical transfer zone.

  7. New insights on regional tectonics and crustal composition of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas in the Andean back arc region, Argentina (31-32ºS) (United States)

    Ammirati, J. B.; Venerdini, A. L.; Alvarado, P. M.; Gilbert, H. J.


    Within the flat slab region of the south central Andes, the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (ESP) are the easternmost expression of a series of foreland uplifts affecting the Argentine back arc region ( 31-32ºS). This important crustal deformation has been related to the subduction of the Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) under the South American plate. Geological observations suggest that the regional crustal structure is inherited from the accretion of different terranes during the Ordovician and later reactivated since the Miocene during the Andean compression. Geophysical experiments allowed to image how the structure observed at the surface behave in depth as décollement levels that accommodate regional crustal shortening. In order to get new insights on the mechanisms that control crustal regional tectonics, we computed teleseismic receiver functions (RF) and jointly invert them with Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion curves. RFs allow resolving crustal thickness and intra crustal velocity variations with a good vertical resolution whereas surface wave information helps to constrain absolute seismic wave velocities. Our results show how the crustal thickness is increasing to the west with an important step in Moho depth. We observe that this step presents a NW-SE orientation, parallel to the trace at the surface of the Valle Fértil - La Huerta (SVF-LH) fault which suggest that this Moho step marks the transition in depth between the Pampia terrane (east) and the Cuyania terrane (west). Our images also reveal the presence of a high wave velocity lower crust west of this Moho step, beneath the eastern Sierras Pampeanas. This observation suggests that the SVF-LH fault is underthrusting the Cuyania lower crust under the Pampia terrane. Finally, our seismic images show very localized low velocity zones located at 10 km beneath late Cenozoic volcanic fields. We believe that these low velocity zones correspond to old magma chambers associated to the recent flat slab

  8. A contribution to better understanding of structural characteristics and tectonic phases of the Boč region, Periadriatic Fault Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Žibret


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine properties of the tectonic contact between Permian/Mesozoic limestones and less competent Miocene clastites on the northeastern foothill of the Boč Mt. Because fault planes signifiantly mark the relief, this contact was studied by a detailed structural mapping, which showed that the Boč Mt. is limited by subvertical faults in its northeastern part. To ensure that mapped subvertical contact is compatible with regional geodynamics of the area, additionally paleostress analysis of fault-slip data was performed. Four individual paleostress tensor groups were documented in a wider Boč area and compared by published structural data from the border zone between Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian Basin. The oldest paleostress tensor group (Phase 1 is likely of Lower and Middle Miocene age and indicates SW-NE extension accommodated by W-E to WNW-ESE striking normal faults. Phase 2 can be correlated with Middle to Late Miocene NW-SE to WNWESE directed extension accommodated by NNE-SSW striking normal faults. Phase 3 is correlated with Late Miocene W-E directed contraction accommodated by N-S striking sinistral faults and NNE-SSW to NE-SW striking dextral faults. The youngest paleostress tensor group (Phase 4 fis well with Pliocene to Quaternary NNW-SSE to N-S directed contraction accommodated by NW-SE to W-E striking dextral faults and NE-SW striking reverse faults. Since the documented paleostress phases fis well with the geodynamic processes of the Alps-Dinarides-Carpathians territory the subvertical border in the northeastern part of Boč Mt. seems to be an acceptable structural solution. The study is important because the study area is located at interaction zone between two major Alpine fault systems: the Periadriatic and the Lavanttal faults.

  9. Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn


    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  10. Seismic structure of the western U.S. mantle and its relation to regional tectonic and magmatic activity (United States)

    Schmandt, Brandon

    Vigorous convective activity in the western U.S. mantle has long been inferred from the region's widespread intra-plate crustal deformation, volcanism, and high elevations, but the specific form of convective activity and the degree and nature of lithospheric involvement have been strongly debated. I design a seismic travel-time tomography method and implement it with seismic data from the EarthScope Transportable Array and complementary arrays to constrain three-dimensional seismic structure beneath the western U.S. Tomographic images of variations in compressional velocity, shear velocity, and the ratio of shear to compressional velocity in the western U.S. mantle to a depth of 1000 km are produced. Using these results I investigate mantle physical properties, Cenozoic subduction history, and the influence of small-scale lithospheric convection on regional tectonic and magmatic activity, with particular focus on southern California and the Pacific Northwest. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material. Chapter II presents a travel-time tomography method I designed and first implemented with data from southern California and the surrounding southwestern U.S. The resulting images provide a new level of constraint on upper mantle seismic anomalies beneath the Transverse Ranges, southern Great Valley, Salton Trough, and southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Chapter III presents tomographic images of the western U.S. mantle, identifies upper mantle volumes where partial melt is probable, and discusses implications of the apparently widespread occurrence of gravitational instabilities of continental lithsophere and the complex geometry and buoyancy of subducted ocean lithosphere imaged beneath the western U.S. In Chapter IV, tomography images are used in conjunction with geologic constraints on major transitions in crustal deformation and magmatism to construct a model for Pacific Northwest evolution since the Cretaceous. Accretion in the Pacific

  11. Use of systematics in the interpretation of nuclear structure far from the beta-stable region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.L.


    The use of systematics in the interpretation of nuclear structure far from the beta-stable region is discussed. In particular, a set of rules for the use of systematics is presented together with some experimental criteria that need to be fulfilled for radioactive decay scheme studies in order that all states up to a given spin-parity and energy are located. Illustrative examples are taken from the region 180 < A < 210, with particular emphasis on the odd-mass Au and Hg nuclei. 6 figures

  12. Geologic investigations of Australian earthquakes: Paleoseismicity and the recurrence of surface faulting in the stable regions of continents (United States)

    Machette, Michael; Crone, Anthony


    Earthquakes that occur in the stable regions of continents are very rare compared to those that occur along plate margins, such as the San Andreas fault system of western California. Worldwide, only 11 historic earthquakes in stable continental regions are known to have produced surface ruptures. Five of these have occurred in Australia since 1968 (see map, next page).

  13. New Insights on Mt. Etna's Crust and Relationship with the Regional Tectonic Framework from Joint Active and Passive P-Wave Seismic Tomography (United States)

    Díaz-Moreno, A.; Barberi, G.; Cocina, O.; Koulakov, I.; Scarfì, L.; Zuccarello, L.; Prudencio, J.; García-Yeguas, A.; Álvarez, I.; García, L.; Ibáñez, J. M.


    In the Central Mediterranean region, the production of chemically diverse volcanic products (e.g., those from Mt. Etna and the Aeolian Islands archipelago) testifies to the complexity of the tectonic and geodynamic setting. Despite the large number of studies that have focused on this area, the relationships among volcanism, tectonics, magma ascent, and geodynamic processes remain poorly understood. We present a tomographic inversion of P-wave velocity using active and passive sources. Seismic signals were recorded using both temporary on-land and ocean bottom seismometers and data from a permanent local seismic network consisting of 267 seismic stations. Active seismic signals were generated using air gun shots mounted on the Spanish Oceanographic Vessel `Sarmiento de Gamboa'. Passive seismic sources were obtained from 452 local earthquakes recorded over a 4-month period. In total, 184,797 active P-phase and 11,802 passive P-phase first arrivals were inverted to provide three different velocity models. Our results include the first crustal seismic active tomography for the northern Sicily area, including the Peloritan-southern Calabria region and both the Mt. Etna and Aeolian volcanic environments. The tomographic images provide a detailed and complete regional seismotectonic framework and highlight a spatially heterogeneous tectonic regime, which is consistent with and extends the findings of previous models. One of our most significant results was a tomographic map extending to 14 km depth showing a discontinuity striking roughly NW-SE, extending from the Gulf of Patti to the Ionian Sea, south-east of Capo Taormina, corresponding to the Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni fault system, a regional deformation belt. Moreover, for the first time, we observed a high-velocity anomaly located in the south-eastern sector of the Mt. Etna region, offshore of the Timpe area, which is compatible with the plumbing system of an ancient shield volcano located offshore of Mt. Etna.

  14. Dinosaur tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole; Milàn, Jesper; B. Loope, David


    to crustal scale tectonics associated with plate tectonics and foreland fold-thrust belts. A structural analysis of the dinosaur tracks shows the timing and direction of the forces exercised on the substrate by the animal's foot during the stride. Based on the structural analysis, we establish a scenario......A dinosaur trackway in the Middle Jurassic eolian Entrada Sandstone of southern Utah, USA, exposes three undertracks that we have modeled as isolated tectonic regimes showing the development of fold-thrust ramp systems induced by the dinosaur's feet. The faulted and folded sequence is comparable...... for foot movements and weight distribution in the feet. During the end of the weight-bearing phase of the stride, the weight of the animal was transferred to the front of the digits, creating a rotated disc below the foot that was bounded by an extensional fault at the front and a thrust ramp toward...

  15. Collision tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, M.P.; Ries, A.C.


    The motions of lithospheric plates have produced most existing mountain ranges, but structures produced as a result of, and following the collision of continental plates need to be distinguished from those produced before by subduction. If subduction is normally only stopped when collision occurs, then most geologically ancient fold belts must be collisional, so it is essential to recognize and understand the effects of the collision process. This book consists of papers that review collision tectonics, covering tectonics, structure, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, metamorphism, and magmatism.

  16. [Characteristics of soil water movement using stable isotopes in red soil hilly region of northwest Hunan]. (United States)

    Tian, Ri-Chang; Chen, Hong-Song; Song, Xian-Fang; Wang, Ke-Lin; Yang, Qing-Qing; Meng, Wei


    Stable isotope techniques provide a new approach to study soil water movement. The process of water movement in soils under two kinds of plant types (oil tea and corn) were studied based on the observed values of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of precipitation and soil water at different depths in red-soil sloping land. The results showed that stable isotopes of precipitation in this area had obvious seasonal effect and rainfall effect. The stable isotopes at 0-50 cm depth in oil tea forestland and at 0-40 cm depth in corn cropland increased with the increase in depth, respectively, but they had the opposite tendency after rainfall in arid time. The stable isotopes decreased with the increase in depth below 50 cm depth in oil tea forestland and below 40 cm depth in corn cropland where evaporation influence was weak. The infiltrate rate of soil in oil tea land was affected by precipitation obviously, and it was about 50-100 mm/d after 2-3 days in heavy rain, slowed sharply later, and soil water at 50 cm depth often became a barrier layer. The permeability of soil in corn land was poor and the infiltration rate was lower. The change of stable isotopes in soil water in red soil hilly region was mainly affected by the mixing water which was formed by the antecedent precipitation, and evaporation effect took the second place. The evaporation intensity in oil tea land was lower than that in corn land, but the evaporation depth was higher.

  17. On the distinction of tectonic and nontectonic faulting in palaeoseismological research: a case study from the southern Marmara region of Turkey (United States)

    Özaksoy, Volkan


    This study reports on spectacular deformation structures, including arrays of striated thrusts, discovered by excavation work in Holocene deposits in vicinity of a major neotectonic strike-slip fault in one of the tectonically most active regions of Turkey. The deformation structures were initially considered an evidence of sub-recent tectonic activity, but their detailed multidisciplinary study surprisingly revealed that the deformation of the clay-rich soil and its strongly weathered Jurassic substrate was of nontectonic origin, caused by argilliturbation. This phenomenon of vertisol self-deformation is well-known to pedologists, but may easily be mistaken for tectonic deformation by geologists less familiar with pedogenic processes. The possibility of argilliturbation thus needs to be taken into consideration in palaeoseismological field research wherever the deformed substrate consists of clay-rich muddy deposits. The paper reviews a range of specific diagnostic features that can serve as field criteria for the recognition of nontectonic deformation structures induced by argilliturbation in mud-dominated geological settings.

  18. Stiffness characteristics of compliant three segment leg with the self-stable region in slow and fast running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Oh Seok; Ha, Sung Mok; Lee, Dong Ha [Convergence Research Center for WellnessDaegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and TechnologyDaegu (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, we propose the stiffness characteristics of compliant three segment leg that can have a self-stable region in slow and fast running. This proposition can contribute to reducing the control effort and enhancing the locomotion energy efficiency for the compliant three segment legged robot in slow and fast running. Previous research indicated that the running self-stable region of the spring-mass system is located in a relatively fast running region and that of the two segment leg is located in a relatively slow running region. In this paper, we analyze the stiffness characteristics of the spring-mass system and the two segment leg to explain the previous research results. From this analysis, we propose the stiffness characteristics of the compliant three segment leg with a self-stable region in slow and fast running. We further design the compliant three segment leg based on this proposition and check its structural stability. We examine the running self-stable region of this compliant three segment leg to determine whether it has a self-stable region in slow and fast running. We also examine the walking self-stable region of this compliant three segment leg.

  19. Necessary Conditions For Establishing Quasi-Stable Double Layers in Earth's Auroral Upward Current Region (United States)

    Main, D. S.; Newman, D.; Ergun, R. E.


    Observations from the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) spacecraft indicate that a strong localized electric field often exists at the boundary between the ionosphere and auroral cavity in the upward current region. The observed electric field structures are found to have widths that are on the order of tens of electron Debye lengths and have components both parallel and perpendicular to Earth’s magnetic field and are therefore said to be an “oblique” electric field. These oblique electric fields have previously been modeled by static BGK double layer solutions. Dynamic Vlasov simulations have shown that a non-oblique double layer models the parallel component of the observed electric field structures well, is quasi-stable and persists long enough to account for the often observed ion phase space holes in the auroral cavity. However, to date, it has not been clear how an oblique double layer can form and remain quasi-stable. Using an open boundary 1D3V particle-in-cell simulation, we present a parameter study of over 20 simulations in which we vary cold electron density and temperature and show the necessary conditions for maintaining both oblique and non-oblique double layers at the lower boundary of the upward current region. The simulation includes an assumed density cavity, hot auroral cavity electrons, cold ionospheric electrons, a hot H+ component and anti-earthward traveling H+ and O+ ion beams. We do not assume that any localized potential drop initially exists. Rather, if a DL forms, it does so self-consistently at the interface of the dense ionosphere and tenuous auroral cavity. Based on the PIC results, we find that the oblique double layer requires a cold (< 5 eV) ionospheric electron population to remain quasi-stable. We also compare the shape of the simulated double layer with observed double layers and show that the observed asymmetric shape can also be explained by the temperature and density of the cold ionospheric electrons. We will also present


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murabito, M.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia—Sezione Astrofisica, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, P., E-mail: [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)


    We studied the formation of the first penumbral sector around a pore in the following polarity of the NOAA Active Region (AR) 11490. We used a high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution data set acquired by the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer operating at the NSO/Dunn Solar Telescope, as well as data taken by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite. On the side toward the leading polarity, elongated granules in the photosphere and an arch filament system (AFS) in the chromosphere are present, while the magnetic field shows a sea-serpent configuration, indicating a region of magnetic flux emergence. We found that the formation of a stable penumbra in the following polarity of the AR begins in the area facing the opposite polarity located below the AFS in the flux emergence region, different from what was found by Schlichenmaier and colleagues. Moreover, during the formation of the first penumbral sector, the area characterized by magnetic flux density larger than 900 G and the area of the umbra increase.

  1. Molecular markers detect stable genomic regions underlying tomato fruit shelf life and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Raúl Pratta


    Full Text Available Incorporating wild germplasm such as S. pimpinellifolium is an alternative strategy to prolong tomato fruit shelf life(SL without reducing fruit quality. A set of recombinant inbred lines with discrepant values of SL and weight (FW were derived byantagonistic-divergent selection from an interspecific cross. The general objective of this research was to evaluate Genotype x Year(GY and Marker x Year (MY interaction in these new genetic materials for both traits. Genotype and year principal effects and GYinteraction were statistically significant for SL. Genotype and year principal effects were significant for FW but GY interaction wasnot. The marker principal effect was significant for SL and FW but both year principal effect and MY interaction were not significant.Though SL was highly influenced by year conditions, some genome regions appeared to maintain a stable effect across years ofevaluation. Fruit weight, instead, was more independent of year effect.

  2. Spiral tectonics (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad


    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  3. Dinosaur tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole; Milàn, Jesper; B. Loope, David


    for foot movements and weight distribution in the feet. During the end of the weight-bearing phase of the stride, the weight of the animal was transferred to the front of the digits, creating a rotated disc below the foot that was bounded by an extensional fault at the front and a thrust ramp toward...... of the undertrack. The total length of the tectonic disturbance created by the dinosaur is up to three times that of the original footprint. Early, near-surface cementation gave the substrate the rheological properties necessary for development of the observed structures....

  4. Changes in Eocene-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along the tropical SE Circum-Caribbean responded to major regional and global environmental and tectonic events (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos


    Changes in the factory of Cenozoic tropical marine carbonates have been for long attributed to major variations on climatic and environmental conditions. Although important changes on the factories of Cenozoic Caribbean carbonates seem to have followed global climatic and environmental changes, the regional impact of such changes on the factories of shallow marine carbonate along the Caribbean is not well established. Moreover, the influence of transpressional tectonics on the occurrence, distribution and stratigraphy of shallow marine carbonate factories along this area is far from being well understood. Here we report detailed stratigraphic, petrographic and Sr-isotope chemostratigraphic information of several Eocene-Miocene carbonate successions deposited along the equatorial/tropical SE Circum-Caribbean (Colombia and Panama) from which we further assess the influence of changing environmental conditions, transtentional tectonics and sea level change on the development of the shallow marine carbonate factories. Our results suggest that during the Eocene-early Oligocene interval, a period of predominant high atmospheric pCO2, coralline algae constitute the principal carbonate builders of shallow marine carbonate successions along the SE Circum-Caribbean. Detailed stratigraphic and paragenetic analyses suggest the developed of laterally continuous red algae calcareous build-ups along outer-rimmed carbonate platforms. The predominance of coralline red algae over corals on the shallow marine carbonate factories was likely related to high sea surface temperatures and high turbidity. The occurrence of such build-ups was likely controlled by pronounce changes in the basin paleotopography, i.e. the occurrence of basement highs and lows, resulting from local transpressional tectonics. The occurrence of these calcareous red algae dominated factories was also controlled by diachronic opening of different sedimentary basins along the SE Circum Caribbean resulting from

  5. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  6. Possible evidence for contemporary doming of the Adirondack Mountains, New York, and suggested implications for regional tectonics and seismicity (United States)

    Isachsen, Y.W.


    The Adirondack Mountain massif is a dissected elongate dome having a north-northeast axis about 190 km long, and an east-west dimension of about 140 km. The dome exposes a core of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks from which the Paleozoic cover rocks have been eroded, except in several north-northeast-trending graben. The minimum amplitude of the dome, based on a 'reconstruction' of the Proterozoic-Paleozoic unconformity is 1600 m. The Adirondack dome is an anomalous feature of the eastern edge of the North American craton. It differs from other uplifts in the Interior Lowlands of the craton not only in terms of the greater combined amplitude and area of its uplift, but in the present high elevation of its Mountains (up to 1600 m) which are unequalled on the craton except along the Rocky Mountain front and in the Torngat Mountains of northernmost Labrador. This prompted an interest in the possibility that the Adirondack dome has undergone neotectonic regeneration and may be undergoing domical uplift at the present time. Accordingly, leveling records were consulted at the National Geodetic Survey data base in Rockville, Maryland, and used to construct leveling profiles. The most informative of these extends north-south along the block-faulted eastern flank of the Adirondack dome, extending from Saratoga Springs to Rouses Point, a distance of 245 km. A comparison of the level lines for 1955 and 1973 demonstrates that arching has occurred. An uplift of 40 mm along the central portion of the line, and a corresponding subsidence of 50 mm at the northern end, has produced a net increase in the amplitude of arching of 90 mm in the 18-year interval. This differential uplift, particularly with subsidence at the northern end, argues for a tectonic rather than glacio-isostatic mechanism. Pending releveling across the center of the Adirondack dome, it is tempting to extrapolate the releveling profile and suggest that the Adirondacks as a whole may be undergoing contemporary doming

  7. Consequences of Chixculub Impact for the Tectonic and Geodynamic Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico North Carribean Region (United States)

    Rangin, C.; Crespy, A.; Martinez-Reyes, J.


    The debate for Pacific exotic origin versus in situ inter American plate Atlantic origin of the Caribbean plate is active in the scientific community since decades. Independently of the origin of this plate, its fast motion towards the east at a present rate of 2cm/yr is accepted to have been initiated during the early-most Cenozoic. The Paleocene is a key period in the global evolution of Central America mainly marked also by the Chicxulub multiring meteor impact in Yucatan. We question here the genetic relationship between this impact event and the incipient tectonic escape of the Caribbean plate. The mostly recent published models suggest this impact has affected the whole crust down to the Moho, the upper mantle being rapidly and considerably uplifted. The crust was then fragmented 600km at least from the point of impact, and large circular depressions were rapidly filled by clastic sediments from Cantarell to Western Cuba via Chiapas and Belize. North of the impact, the whole Gulf of Mexico was affected by mass gravity sliding, initiated also during the Paleocene in Texas, remaining active in this basin up to present time. South of the impact, in the Caribbean plate, the Yucatan basin was rapidly opened, indicating a fast escape of the crustal material towards the unique free boundary, the paleo-Antilles subduction zone. Shear waves velocity data below the Caribbean plate suggest this crustal tectonic escape was enhanced by the fast eastward flowing mantle supporting a fragmented and stretched crust. The proposed model suggests Chicxulub impact (but also the hypothetic Beata impact) have fragmented brittle crust, then easily drifted towards the east. This could explain the Paleogene evolution of the Caribbean plate largely stretched during its early evolution. Geologically, this evolution could explain the absence of evident Paleogene oblique subduction along the Caribbean plate northern and southern margins, marked only by Mid Cretaceous dragged volcanic

  8. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.


    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased....../age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which...... between stable isotope ratios and metal and OC concentrations....

  9. Stable isotopic characteristic of Taiwan's precipitation: A case study of western Pacific monsoon region (United States)

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Wang, Chung-Ho; Huang, Chi-Chao; Fei, Li-Yuan; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Hwong, Jeen-Lian


    The stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic features of precipitation in Taiwan, an island located at the western Pacific monsoon area, are presented from nearly 3,500 samples collected during the past decade for 20 stations. Results demonstrate that moisture sources from diverse air masses with different isotopic signals are the main parameter in controlling the precipitation's isotope characteristics. The air mass from polar continental (Pc) region contributes the precipitation with high deuterium excess values (up to 23‰) and relatively enriched isotope compositions (e.g., - 3.2‰ for δ 18O) during the winter with prevailing northeasterly monsoon. By contrast, air masses from equatorial maritime (Em) and tropical maritime (Tm) supply the precipitation with low deuterium excess values (as low as about 7‰) and more depleted isotope values (e.g., - 8.9‰ and - 6.0‰ for δ 18O of Tm and Em, respectively) during the summer with prevailing southwesterly monsoon. Thus seasonal differences in terms of δ 18O, δD, and deuterium excess values are primarily influenced by the interactions among various precipitation sources. While these various air masses travel through Taiwan, secondary evaporation effects further modify the isotope characteristics of the inland precipitation, such as raindrop evaporation (reduces the deuterium excess of winter precipitation) and moisture recycling (increases the deuterium excess of summer precipitation). The semi-quantitative estimations in terms of evaluation for changes in the deuterium excess suggest that the raindrop evaporation fractions for winter precipitation range 7% to 15% and the proportions of recycling moisture in summer precipitation are less than 5%. Additionally, the isotopic altitude gradient in terms of δ 18O for summer precipitation is - 0.22‰/100 m, greater than - 0.17‰/100 m of winter precipitation. The greater isotopic gradient in summer can be attributed to a higher temperature vs. altitude gradient

  10. Petrography and detrital zircon study of late Carboniferous sequences in the southwestern North China Craton: Implications for the regional tectonic evolution and bauxite genesis (United States)

    Cai, Shuhui; Wang, Qingfei; Liu, Xuefei; Feng, Yuewen; Zhang, Ying


    derive from the northern marginal region of the E-NCC, an area characterized by contemporaneous volcanism. The co-existence of the 450 and 300 Ma groups of detrital zircons also suggests that the northern and southern marginal regions of the E-NCC underwent almost simultaneous late Carboniferous tectonic uplift and denudation, a tectonic change that led to the formation of the sedimentary basins within the E-NCC. Late Carboniferous phyllosilicate layers within the profile are likely to be the equivalent of economically important diaspore and clay dominated bauxites within the E-NCC, suggesting that the diaspore in these bauxites was derived from mica group minerals by resolution-precipitation processes.

  11. Use of Spacecraft Data to Drive Regions on Mars where Liquid Water would be Stable (United States)

    Lobitz, Brad; Wood, Byron L.; Averner, Maurice M.; McKay, Christopher P.; MacElroy, Robert D.


    Combining Viking pressure and temperature data with Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography data we have computed the fraction of the martian year during which pressure and temperature allow for liquid water to be stable on the martian surface. We find that liquid water would be stable within the Hellas and Argyre basin and over the northern lowlands equatorward of about 40 degrees. The location with the maximum period of stable conditions for liquid water is in the southeastern portion of Utopia Planitia where 34% of the year liquid water would be stable if it was present. Locations of stability appear to correlate with the distribution of valley networks.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenardic, A.; Crowley, J. W.


    A model of coupled mantle convection and planetary tectonics is used to demonstrate that history dependence can outweigh the effects of a planet's energy content and material parameters in determining its tectonic state. The mantle convection-surface tectonics system allows multiple tectonic modes to exist for equivalent planetary parameter values. The tectonic mode of the system is then determined by its specific geologic and climatic history. This implies that models of tectonics and mantle convection will not be able to uniquely determine the tectonic mode of a terrestrial planet without the addition of historical data. Historical data exists, to variable degrees, for all four terrestrial planets within our solar system. For the Earth, the planet with the largest amount of observational data, debate does still remain regarding the geologic and climatic history of Earth's deep past but constraints are available. For planets in other solar systems, no such constraints exist at present. The existence of multiple tectonic modes, for equivalent parameter values, points to a reason why different groups have reached different conclusions regarding the tectonic state of extrasolar terrestrial planets larger than Earth ( s uper-Earths ) . The region of multiple stable solutions is predicted to widen in parameter space for more energetic mantle convection (as would be expected for larger planets). This means that different groups can find different solutions, all potentially viable and stable, using identical models and identical system parameter values. At a more practical level, the results argue that the question of whether extrasolar terrestrial planets will have plate tectonics is unanswerable and will remain so until the temporal evolution of extrasolar planets can be constrained.

  13. Relative roles of rifting tectonics and magma ascent processes: Inferences from geophysical, structural, volcanological, and geochemical data for the Neapolitan volcanic region (southern Italy) (United States)

    Piochi, Monica; Bruno, Pier Paolo; de Astis, Gianfilippo


    The Neapolitan volcanic region is located within the graben structure of the Campanian Plain (CP), which developed between the western sector of the Appenine Chain and the eastern margin of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Two volcanic areas, spaced less than 10 km apart, are situated within the CP: the Somma-Vesuvius Volcano (SVV) and the Phlegraean Volcanic District (PVD). SVV is a typical stratovolcano, whereas PVD, including Campi Flegrei, Procida, and Ischia, is composed mostly of monogenetic centers. This contrast is due to different magma supply systems: a widespread fissure-type system beneath the PVD and a central-type magma supply system for the SVV. Volcanological, geophysical, and geochemical data show that magma viscosity, magma supply rate, and depth of magma storage are comparable at PVD and SVV, whereas different structural arrangements characterize the two areas. On the basis of geophysical data and magma geochemistry, an oblique-extensional tectonic regime is proposed within the PVD, whereas in the SVV area a compressive stress regime dominates over extension. Geophysical data suggest that the area with the maximum deformation rate extends between the EW-running 41st parallel and the NE-running Magnaghi-Sebeto fault systems. The PVD extensional area is a consequence of the Tyrrhenian Sea opening and is decoupled from the surrounding areas (Roccamonfina and Somma-Vesuvius) which are still dominated by Adriatic slab dynamics. Spatially, we argue that the contribution of the asthenospheric wedge become much less important from W-NW to E-SE in the CP. The development of the two styles of volcanism in the CP reflects the different tectonic regimes acting in the area.

  14. Computational intelligence-based optimization of maximally stable extremal region segmentation for object detection (United States)

    Davis, Jeremy E.; Bednar, Amy E.; Goodin, Christopher T.; Durst, Phillip J.; Anderson, Derek T.; Bethel, Cindy L.


    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithms (GAs) are two optimization techniques from the field of computational intelligence (CI) for search problems where a direct solution can not easily be obtained. One such problem is finding an optimal set of parameters for the maximally stable extremal region (MSER) algorithm to detect areas of interest in imagery. Specifically, this paper describes the design of a GA and PSO for optimizing MSER parameters to detect stop signs in imagery produced via simulation for use in an autonomous vehicle navigation system. Several additions to the GA and PSO are required to successfully detect stop signs in simulated images. These additions are a primary focus of this paper and include: the identification of an appropriate fitness function, the creation of a variable mutation operator for the GA, an anytime algorithm modification to allow the GA to compute a solution quickly, the addition of an exponential velocity decay function to the PSO, the addition of an "execution best" omnipresent particle to the PSO, and the addition of an attractive force component to the PSO velocity update equation. Experimentation was performed with the GA using various combinations of selection, crossover, and mutation operators and experimentation was also performed with the PSO using various combinations of neighborhood topologies, swarm sizes, cognitive influence scalars, and social influence scalars. The results of both the GA and PSO optimized parameter sets are presented. This paper details the benefits and drawbacks of each algorithm in terms of detection accuracy, execution speed, and additions required to generate successful problem specific parameter sets.

  15. Process Model for Studying Regional 13C Stable Isotope Exchange between Vegetation and Atmosphere (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, B.; Huang, L.; Tans, P.; Worthy, D.; Ishizawa, M.; Chan, D.


    The variation of the stable isotope 13CO2 in the air in exchange with land ecosystems results from fractionation processes in both plants and soil during photosynthesis and respiration. Its diurnal and seasonal variations therefore contain information on the carbon cycle. We developed a model (BEPS-iso) to simulate its exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere. To be useful for regional carbon cycle studies, the model has the following characteristics: (i) it considers the turbulent mixing in the vertical profile from the soil surface to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL); (ii) it scales individual leaf photosynthetic discrimination to the whole canopy through the separation of sunlit and shaded leaf groups; (iii) through simulating leaf-level photosynthetic processes, it has the capacity to mechanistically examine isotope discrimination resulting from meteorological forcings, such as radiation, precipitation and humidity; and (iv) through complete modeling of radiation, energy and water fluxes, it also simulates soil moisture and temperature needed for estimating ecosystem respiration and the 13C signal from the soil. After validation using flask data acquired at 20 m level on a tower near Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada, during intensive campaigns (1998-2000), the model has been used for several purposes: (i) to investigate the diurnal and seasonal variations in the disequilibrium in 13C fractionation between ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis, which is an important step in using 13C measurements to separate these carbon cycle components; (ii) to quantify the 13C rectification in the PBL, which differs significantly from CO2 rectification because of the diurnal and seasonal disequilibriums; and (iii) to model the 13C spatial and temporal variations over the global land surface for the purpose of CO2 inversion using 13C as an additional constraint.

  16. Aspects of sismo-tectonic stability in the South-Eastern region of Brazil of interest to geology of engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.; Hasui, Y.


    The occurence of earthquakes in Brazil, mainly in the South-eastern region, and its relationship with the geologic features has been discussed by many Authors since the beginning of this Century. It is difficult to define intraplate seismicity and to understand the actual epirogenic displacent, but the definition of the regional stability is important for enginnering purposes and have been considered through seismologic, morphotectonic and geologic criteria. (Author) [pt

  17. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.; Heide-Jorgensen, M.P.; Moller, P.; Cleemann, M.; Boer, de J.; Glasius, M.


    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the

  18. Tectonics of the Kola collision suture and adjacent Archaean and Early Proterozoic terrains in the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield (United States)

    Berthelsen, Asger; Marker, Mogens


    As preparation for the deep-seismic and other geophysical experiments along the Polar Profile, which transects the Granulite belt and the Kola collision suture, structural field work has been performed in northernmost Finland and Norway, and published geological information including data from the neighbouring Soviet territory of the Kola Peninsula, have been compiled and reinterpreted. Based on these studies and a classification according to crustal and structural ages, the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield is divided into six major tectonic units. These units are separated and outlined by important low-angle, ductile shear or thrust zones of Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic age. The lateral extension of these units into Soviet territory and their involvement in large-scale crustal deformation structures, are described. Using the "view down the plunge" method, a generalised tectonic cross-section that predicts the crustal structures along the Polar Profile is compiled, and the structures around the Kola deep drill-hole are reinterpreted. The Kola suture belt, through parts of which the Kola deep bore-hole has been drilled, is considered to represent a ca. 1900 Ma old arc-continent and continent-continent collision suture. It divides the northeastern Shield region into two major crustal compartments: a Northern compartment (comprising the Murmansk and Sörvaranger units) and a Southern compartment (including the Inari unit, the Granulite belt and the Tanaelv belt, as well as the more southernly situated South Lapland-Karelia "craton" of the Karelian province of the Svecokarelian fold belt). The Kola suture belt is outlined by a 2-40 km wide and ca. 500 km long crustal belt composed of (1) Early Proterozoic (ca. 2400-2000 Ma old) metavolcanic and metasedimentary sequences which originally formed part of the attenuated margin of the Northern Archaean compartment, and (2) the remains of a ca. 2000-1900 Ma old, predominantly andesitic island-arc terrain. This

  19. Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Chinese western Tianshan Orogen: Integrating detrital zircon provenance analysis with regional magmatic, stratigraphic, and tectonothermal evidence (United States)

    Han, Yigui; Zhao, Guochun


    The convergence between the Tarim Craton and the southwestern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the late Paleozoic resulted in the closure of the South Tianshan (STS) Ocean and a continent-continent collision that formed the western Tianshan Orogen in NW China. Recent intensive studies in this region have produced a great deal of new data, and also many competing tectonic interpretations, especially regarding the subduction polarity and closure time of the STS Ocean and the initial uplift of the western Tianshan Orogen. To address the controversy, this study presents a systematic provenance analysis of detrital zircons from Carboniferous to Mesozoic sedimentary strata distributed in the northern Tarim and STS regions. In combination with recent data of regional magmatism, sedimentation, and tectonothermal activity, we propose a tectonic model that can reconcile most of important geological events during late Paleozoic to Mesozoic time in the western Tianshan region. U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from Carboniferous and Permian strata in the northern Tarim and STS regions yielded consistent age patterns, i.e. two prominent populations at 270-305 Ma and 400-500 Ma, and some peaks clustering at 600-1200 Ma, 1.9 Ga, and 2.5 Ga. The scarcity of 310-380 Ma zircons in the two regions and contemporaneous passive margin sedimentation support a northward subduction of the STS oceanic crust. The closure of the ocean and continental collision probably occurred in the late Carboniferous, as indicated by a significant decrease of zircon ɛHf(t) values at 310 Ma and coeval (ultra-)high pressure metamorphic events. Detrital zircon age data also indicate that the foreland region (i.e. the northern Tarim and STS) had not received sediments from the upper plate throughout the late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic, implying insignificant surface uplift and erosion during and after collision. To interpret this, a plume-modified orogenic model is introduced, partially

  20. Stratigraphy, tectonic and ore potential of pre-cambrian unities from Serro region-MG (Mato Grosso quadrangle)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, L.C. de.


    Geological and stratigraphic elements of the Proterozoic units of the Serro region, Mato Grosso Quadrangle, show the absence of the faciological transition between the Espinhaco Group and the Minas Supergroup. Occurs in this region is a lithostratigraphical sequence of four distinct units: the Crystalline Basement; the Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence of Serro; the Minas Supergroup. The ore potential of the region includes: quartz veins, within the Galho do Miguel Formation; diamond, within the Sopa conglomerates; gold, in alluvial deposits and remobilized in quartz veins of the Sopa-Brumadinho Formation; bauxite, in the metabasics; uranium in the metaconglomerates of Moeda Formation; iron, in Caue Formation; chromium, gold and base metals in the Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence of Serro. Emphasis is given to the characterization of the Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence of Serro and its mineralization that is characterized as a stratiform massif with important volcano-sedimentary contribution, possible, a greenstone belt, with high gold-bearing potential. (author)

  1. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy (United States)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe


    How can be univocally inferred the genesis of a linear surface scarp as the result of an active and capable fault (FAC) in tectonically active regions? Or, conversely, how it is possible to exclude that a scarp is the result of a capable fault activation? Trying to unravel this open questions, we show two ambiguous case studies about the problem of the identification of active and capable faults in a tectonically active area just based on the presence of supposed fault scarps at surface. The selected cases are located in the area comprised between the Middle Aterno Valley Fault (MAVF) and the Campo Imperatore Plain (Abruzzi Region, central Apennines), nearby the epicentral area of the April 6th, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. In particular, the two case studies analysed are located in a region characterized by a widespread Quaternary faults and by several linear scarps: the case studies of (i) Prata D'Ansidonia area and (ii) Santo Stefano di Sessanio area. To assess the origin and the state of activity of the investigated geomorphic features, we applied a classical geological and geomorphological approach, based on the analysis of the available literature, the interpretation of the aerial photographs, field surveying and classical paleoseismological approach, the latter consisting in digging excavations across the analysed scarps. These analysis were then integrated by morphometrical analyses. As for case (i), we focused on determining the geomorphic "meaning" of linear scarps carved onto fluvial-deltaic conglomerates (dated to the Early Pleistocene; Bertini and Bosi, 1993), up to 3 meters high and up to 1,5 km long, that border a narrow, elongated and flat-bottom depressions, filled by colluvial deposits. These features groove the paleo-landsurface of Valle Daria (Bosi and Bertini, 1970), wide landsurface located between Barisciano and Prata D'Ansidonia. Entwining paleoseismological trenching with geophysical analyses (GPR, ERT and microgravimetrical prospections), it

  2. Discriminating Between Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Early Hominin Paleoenvironments From the Koobi Fora Region, Northeastern Turkana Basin, Kenya: Part II (United States)

    Quinn, R. L.; Lepre, C. J.


    Global climate is often elected as a catalyst for environmental change and used to characterize selective pressures acting on Plio-Pleistocene African hominins. Vrba's Habitat Theory (1992) and Pott's Variability Selection (1998) credit mammalian evolutionary pattern and process to global climate regulated by orbital forcing. Feibel (1999: 276) argues the need for a middle ground, tethering the "global-scale climatic phenomena" to "environmental change, habitat shift, and biotic evolution" and offers the basin as a scale for analysis. Feibel suggests that all basins are not created equal, and will respond to climate change with different sensitivities and thresholds. As such, interpretations of climate proxies must account for differences in basin size, climatic regime(s), topography, geology, and water availability when drawing relationships to global phenomena. Here we examine pedogenic carbonate isotopes (d13C, d18O) from the Plio-Pleistocene Koobi Fora Region to elucidate the differential influences of climate, tectonics, and deposition on ecological factors of early hominin evolution in the northeastern Turkana Basin of Kenya. One of the richest Plio-Pleistocene fossil localities in Africa, Koobi Fora has served as a setting for hominin evolution between 4.0 and 1.0 Ma. Numerous paleosols, stratigraphically controlled by tuffaceous marker beds, are preserved in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the Koobi Fora Formation. Cerling and others (1988) and Wynn (2000) conducted isotopic studies of pedogenic carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Omo Group deposits of the Turkana Basin. With these data Wynn (2004) demonstrates stepwise d13C shifts over the last 4.0 Ma, with marked events at 2.5 and 1.8 Ma, and interprets increased aridity on a basin scale due to comparable records on the east and west side of present Lake Turkana. In this study, we increased the sample size of the current database and conducted widespread sampling of synchronous lateral horizons in the

  3. Tectonic significance of changes in post-subduction Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism in the south east part of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Maţenco, Liviu; Downes, Hilary; Mason, Paul R. D.; Szakács, Alexandru; Pécskay, Zoltán


    The south-eastern part of the Carpathian-Pannonian region records the cessation of convergence between the European platform/Moesia and the Tisza-Dacia microplate. Plio-Quaternary magmatic activity in this area, in close proximity to the 'Vrancea zone', shows a shift from normal calc-alkaline to much more diverse compositions (adakite-like calc-alkaline, K-alkalic, mafic Na-alkalic and ultrapotassic), suggesting a significant change in geodynamic processes at approximately 3 Ma. We review the tectonic setting, timing, petrology and geochemistry of the post-collisional volcanism to constrain the role of orogenic building processes such as subduction or collision on melt production and migration. The calc-alkaline volcanism (5.3-3.9 Ma) marks the end of normal subduction-related magmatism along the post-collisional Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita volcanic chain in front of the European convergent plate margin. At ca. 3 Ma in South Harghita magma compositions changed to adakite-like calc-alkaline and continued until recent times (< 0.03 Ma) interrupted at 1.6-1.2 Ma by generation of Na and K-alkalic magmas, signifying changes in the source and melting mechanism. We attribute the changes in magma composition in front of the Moesian platform to two main geodynamic events: (1) slab-pull and steepening with opening of a tear window (adakite-like calc-alkaline magmas) and (2) renewed contraction associated with deep mantle processes such as slab steepening during post-collisional times (Na and K-alkalic magmas). Contemporaneous post-collisional volcanism at the eastern edge of the Pannonian Basin at 2.6-1.3 Ma was dominated by Na-alkalic and ultrapotassic magmas, suggesting a close relationship with thermal asthenospheric doming and strain partitioning related to the Adriatic indentation. Similar timing, magma chamber processes and volume for K-alkalic (shoshonitic) magmas in the South Apuseni Mountains (1.6 Ma) and South Harghita area at a distance of ca. 200 km imply a

  4. Stable isotopes in juvenile marine fishes and their invertebrate prey from the Thames Estuary, UK, and adjacent coastal regions (United States)

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.


    Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marine fishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Stable isotope analysis may be used to assess relative resource use from isotopically distinct sources. This study comprised two major components: (1) development of a spatial map and discriminant function model of stable isotope variation in selected invertebrate groups inhabiting the Thames Estuary and adjacent coastal regions; and (2) analysis of stable isotope signatures of juvenile bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax), sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) for assessment of resource use and feeding strategies. The data were also used to consider anthropogenic enrichment of the estuary and potential energetic benefits of feeding in estuarine nursery habitat. Analysis of carbon (δ 13C), nitrogen (δ 15N) and sulphur (δ 34S) isotope data identified significant differences in the 'baseline' isotopic signatures between estuarine and coastal invertebrates, and discriminant function analysis allowed samples to be re-classified to estuarine and coastal regions with 98.8% accuracy. Using invertebrate signatures as source indicators, stable isotope data classified juvenile fishes to the region in which they fed. Feeding signals appear to reflect physiological (freshwater tolerance) and functional (mobility) differences between species. Juvenile sole were found to exist as two isotopically-discrete sub-populations, with no evidence of mixing between the two. An apparent energetic benefit of estuarine feeding was only found for sole.

  5. A modelling approach to find stable and reliable soil organic carbon values for further regionalization. (United States)

    Bönecke, Eric; Franko, Uwe


    Soil organic matter (SOM) and carbon (SOC) might be the most important components to describe soil fertility of agricultural used soils. It is sensitive to temporal and spatial changes due to varying weather conditions, uneven crops and soil management practices and still struggles with providing reliable delineation of spatial variability. Soil organic carbon, furthermore, is an essential initial parameter for dynamic modelling, understanding e.g. carbon and nitrogen processes. Alas it requires cost and time intensive field and laboratory work to attain and using this information. The objective of this study is to assess an approach that reduces efforts of laboratory and field analyses by using method to find stable initial soil organic carbon values for further soil process modelling and regionalization on field scale. The demand of strategies, technics and tools to improve reliable soil organic carbon high resolution maps and additionally reducing cost constraints is hence still facing an increasing attention of scientific research. Although, it is nowadays a widely used practice, combining effective sampling schemes with geophysical sensing techniques, to describe within-field variability of soil organic carbon, it is still challenging large uncertainties, even at field scale in both, science and agriculture. Therefore, an analytical and modelling approach might facilitate and improve this strategy on small and large field scale. This study will show a method, how to find reliable steady state values of soil organic carbon at particular points, using the approved soil process model CANDY (Franko et al. 1995). It is focusing on an iterative algorithm of adjusting the key driving components: soil physical properties, meteorological data and management information, for which we quantified the input and the losses of soil carbon (manure, crop residues, other organic inputs, decomposition, leaching). Furthermore, this approach can be combined with geophysical

  6. Regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and tectonic significance of Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks, northern Baja California, Mexico (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Burns, Beverly


    Upper Oligocene (?) to middle Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in northern Baja California were deposited along the western margin of North America during subduction of the Guadalupe plate and southward migration of the Rivera Triple Junction. Regional mapping and compilation of stratigraphic data reveal a sequence of three regionally traceable stratigraphic units. (1) Oligocene (?) to lower Miocene Mesa Formation: basal quartz-rich fluvial sandstone, grus, conglomerate, and accessory facies, whose detrital compositions reflect the composition of local pre-Tertiary basement rock. (2) Lower to middle Miocene Comondú Formation: laterally variable sequence of volcaniclastic conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, tuff and minor volcanic flow units. (3) Widespread mesa-capping rhyolite tuff, typically welded and crystal-rich, probably upper Miocene in age. The Mesa Formation overlies a highly irregular and deeply dissected erosional surface developed on pre-Tertiary basement rock. The shift from pre-Mesa erosion to widespread (though localized) deposition and valley-filling records the final phase of late Cretaceous to middle Tertiary regional subsidence and eastward transgression that resulted from slow cooling and thermal contraction of Cretaceous arc crust during a temporal gap in magmatic activity along the western Cordilleran margin. Nonmarine sediments of the Mesa Formation were deposited in small, steep-walled paleovalleys and basins that gradually filled and evolved to form through-going, low-energy ephemeral stream systems. The gradational upward transition from the Mesa to Comondú Formation records the early to middle Miocene onset of subduction-related arc magmatism in eastern Baja California and related westward progradation of alluvial volcaniclastic aprons shed from high-standing eruptive volcanic centers. Pre-existing streams were choked with the new influx of volcanic detritus, causing the onset of rapid sediment deposition by stream flows and dilute

  7. Mineral parageneses, regional architecture, and tectonic evolution of Franciscan metagraywackes, Cape Mendocino-Garberville-Covelo 30' x 60' quadrangles, northwest California (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.


    The Franciscan Complex is a classic subduction-zone assemblage. In northwest California, it comprises a stack of west vergent thrust sheets: westernmost Eastern Belt outliers; Central Belt mélange; Coastal Belt Yager terrane; Coastal Belt Coastal terrane; Coastal Belt King Range/False Cape terranes. We collected samples and determined P-T conditions of recrystallization for 88 medium-fine-grained metasandstones to assess their subduction-exhumation histories and assembly of the host allochthons. Feebly recrystallized Yager, Coastal, and King Range strata retain clear detrital features. Scattered neoblastic prehnite occurs in several Coastal terrane metasandstones; traces of possible pumpellyite are present in three Yager metaclastic rocks. Pumpellyite ± lawsonite ± aragonite-bearing Central Belt metasandstones are moderately deformed and reconstituted. Intensely contorted, thoroughly recrystallized Eastern Belt affinity quartzose metagraywackes contain lawsonite + jadeitic pyroxene ± aragonite ± glaucophane. We microprobed neoblastic phases in 23 rocks, documenting mineral parageneses that constrain the tectonic accretion and metamorphic P-T evolution of these sheets. Quasi-stable mineral assemblages typify Eastern Belt metasandstones, but mm-sized domains in the Central and Coastal belt rocks failed to achieve chemical equilibrium. Eastern Belt slabs rose from subduction depths approaching 25–30 km, whereas structurally lower Central Belt mélanges returned from ∼15–18 km. Coastal Belt assemblages suggest burial depths less than 5–8 km. Eastern and Central belt allochthons sequentially decoupled from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and ascended into the accretionary margin; K-feldspar-rich Coastal Belt rocks were stranded along the continental edge without undergoing appreciable subduction, probably during Paleogene unroofing of the older, deeply subducted units of the Franciscan Complex in east-vergent crustal wedges.

  8. Geomorphological features of active tectonics and ongoing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 6. Geomorphological features of active tectonics and ... concluded that the region is still tectonically active. The information would be very important in identifying the areas of hazard prone and also planning and designing of the socio-economic projects.

  9. Precambrian accretionary history and phanerozoic structures-A unified explanation for the tectonic architecture of the nebraska region, USA (United States)

    Carlson, M.P.


    The Phanerozoic history in Nebraska and adjacent regions contains many patterns of structure and stratigraphy that can be directly related to the history of the Precambrian basement rocks of the area. A process is proposed that explains the southward growth of North America during the period 1.8-1.6 Ga. A series of families of accretionary events during the Proterozoic emplaced sutures that remained as fundamental basement weak zones. These zones were rejuvenated in response to a variety of continental stress events that occurred during the Phanerozoic. By combining the knowledge of basement history with the history of rejuvenation during the Phanerozoic, both the details of Proterozoic accretionary growth and an explanation for the patterns of Phanerozoic structure and stratigraphy is provided. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Cluster features of stable and unstable nuclei in the p-shell region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanada-En’yo Y.


    Full Text Available Cluster aspects in light unstable nuclei as well as light stable nuclei are discussed. We focus on cluster structures of excited states in 12C, 9Li, and 10Be. The rotation of 3α cluster gas states in 12C and the 6He+t cluster resonances in 9Li are theoretically studied.

  11. Tectono-Thermal History Modeling and Reservoir Simulation Study of the Nenana Basin, Central Alaska: Implications for Regional Tectonics and Geologic Carbon Sequestration (United States)

    Dixit, Nilesh C.

    Central Interior Alaska is an active tectonic deformation zone highlighted by the complex interactions of active strike-slip fault systems with thrust faults and folds of the Alaska Range fold-and-thrust belt. This region includes the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin, both of which have significant Tertiary coal-bearing formations and are also promising areas (particularly the Nenana basin) with respect to hydrocarbon exploration and geologic carbon sequestration. I investigate the modern-day crustal architecture of the Nenana and Tanana basins using seismic reflection, aeromagnetic and gravity anomaly data and demonstrate that the basement of both basins shows strong crustal heterogeneity. The Nenana basin is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Flats fault zone. The Tanana basin has a fundamentally different geometry and is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. NE-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. Seismic refection data, well data, fracture data and apatite fission track data further constrain the tectonic evolution and thermal history of the Nenana basin. The Nenana basin experienced four distinct tectonic phases since Late Paleocene time. The basin initiated as a narrow half-graben structure in Late Paleocene with accumulation of greater than 6000 feet of sediments. The basin was then uplifted, resulting in the removal of up to 5000 feet of Late Paleocene sediments in Eocene to Oligocene time. During Middle to Late Miocene time, left lateral strike-slip faulting was superimposed on the existing half-graben system. Transtensional deformation of the basin began in the Pliocene. At present, Miocene and older strata are exposed to temperatures > 60°C in the deeper parts of the Nenana

  12. Amphibolite to granulite progressive metamorphism in the Niquelândia Complex, Central Brazil: regional tectonic implications (United States)

    Filho, C. F. Ferreira; De Moraes, R.; Fawcett, J. J.; Naldrett, A. J.


    is well constrained in the 770-795 Ma interval, indicating the importance of the Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano tectono-magmatic geodynamic Cycle) continent-continent collision event in the region. The large scale gradational metamorphic zonation is interpreted as an oblique cross-section through the continental crust. This interpretation is also supported by a regional linear paired gravity anomaly and a large mylonitic zone at the base of the section, and by the juxtaposition of high-grade against low-grade rocks at the basal fault zone.

  13. Ice Surface Morphology and Flow on Malaspina Glacier, Alaska: Implications for Regional Tectonics in the Saint Elias Orogen (United States)

    Cotton, Michelle M.; Bruhn, Ronald L.; Sauber, Jeanne; Burgess, Evan; Forster, Richard R.


    The Saint Elias Mountains in southern Alaska are located at a structural syntaxis where the coastal thrust and fold belt of the Fairweather plate boundary intersects thrust faults and folds generated by collision of the Yakutat Terrane. The axial trace of this syntaxis extends southeastward out of the Saint Elias Mountains and beneath Malaspina Glacier where it is hidden from view and cannot be mapped using conventional methods. Here we examine the surface morphology and flow patterns of Malaspina Glacier to infer characteristics of the bedrock topography and organization of the syntaxis. Faults and folds beneath the eastern part of the glacier trend northwest and reflect dextral transpression near the terminus of the Fairweather fault system. Those beneath the western part of the glacier trend northeast and accommodate folding and thrust faulting during collision and accretion of the Yakutat Terrane. Mapping the location and geometry of the structural syntaxis provides important constraints on spatial variations in seismicity, fault kinematics, and crustal shortening beneath Malaspina Glacier, as well as the position of the collisional deformation front within the Yakutat Terrane. We also speculate that the geometrical complexity of intersecting faults within the syntaxis formed a barrier to rupture propagation during two regional Mw 8.1earthquakes in September 1899.

  14. Physico-chemical evolution of groundwater in tectonically active areas. Application to the Leana hot spring (Murcia Region, SE Spain) (United States)

    Martínez, M.; Hornero, J.; Trujillo, C.


    Seismic events can affect the physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater. These anomalies are of a pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic nature and correspond to pulse variations, sudden increases and decreases without return to initial values and upward or downward changes in trend. Continuous and in situ conductivity and temperature monitoring and periodic water sampling at a hot spring associated with neotectonic activity are of great interest for establishing predictive methods. This method is limited to the seismic activity affecting the fracturing system with which the hot spring is associated. The Region of Murcia and surroundings (southeast Spain) was selected as the study area for exploring the nature of these influences on groundwater. A hot spring in the Leana spa (Murcia) was equipped and monitored during the period 2006-2008, allowing for the in situ determination of conductivity and temperature as well as of major and minor constituents at the laboratory. Due to its proximity and related with fault network, we suggest that 86 % of earthquakes located between 0 and 10 km may affect in situ parameters of groundwater, and 75 % may affect laboratory determinations. This percentage drops in more distant zones. Of all earthquakes that seem to influence groundwater, 55 % of the in situ parameter anomalies and 53 % of laboratory were of a pre-seismic nature.

  15. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values for Plants and Mammals in a Semi-Desert Region of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Davie


    Full Text Available Little information exists on the isotopic signatures of plants and animals in Mongolia, limiting the application of stable isotope analysis to wildlife biology studies. Here we present plant and mammal carbon (δ 13 C and nitrogen (δ 15 N isotope values from a desert-steppe region of southeastern Mongolia. We analyzed 11 samples from 11 plant species and 93 samples from 24 mammal species across Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, and compared these numbers to isotope values reported from other areas of Mongolia. Our plant and mammal 13 C and 15 N values were similar to those from a similar arid steppe region and more enriched than those from less arid habitats. Habitat variation within and between study sites has an important infl uence on δ 13 C and δ 15 N variation. Our results supplement current knowledge of isotopic variation in Mongolia and provide a reference for future stable isotope research in Mongolia and similar Asian steppe ecosystems.

  16. Geochronology and geochemistry of Early Cretaceous igneous units from the central Sulu orogenic belt: Evidence for crustal delamination during a shift in the regional tectonic regime (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chang, Su-Chin; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Lu, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Chun


    Widespread Late Mesozoic igneous events in northern China have been intensively investigated over the past decades and provide evidence for regional lithospheric thinning. The underlying mechanism causing lithospheric thinning remains unclear however. This study reports U-Pb zircon ages, geochemical data and isotopic ratios for Cretaceous igneous units from the central Sulu orogenic belt as it occurs in the Shandong Peninsula. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses of magmatic zircons identified a relatively restricted population of ages ranging from 123 ± 2 Ma to 120 ± 2 Ma from four representative samples of igneous units in the study area. Geochemical analysis of the samples revealed LREE and LILE enrichment, HREE depletion, high initial 87Sr/86Sr values ranging from 0.7040 to 0.7096, and low negative εNd(t) values from -22.0 to -12.2. The data suggest lamprophyres derived separately from heterogeneous mantle inputs, which experienced crust-mantle interaction, andesitic porphyrites and syenogranites derived from enriched lithospheric mantle and rhyolites derived from partial melting of an ancient crustal component. Assimilation and fractionation processes did not contribute to lamprophyre formation, but did play an important role in generating andesitic porphyrites, syenogranites and rhyolites. The petrogenetic history of these rocks indicates intensive lithospheric thinning of the upper mantle and lower crust beneath the Sulu orogenic belt at 123-120 Ma. Given the timing and regional tectonic framework in which these units formed, thinning was likely caused by an abrupt change in the direction of the subducting Pacific plate.

  17. Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene climate variability in the Eifel region evaluated with stable isotopes (United States)

    Kühl, Norbert; Moschen, Robert; Wagner, Stefanie


    Pollen as well as stable isotopes have great potential as climate proxy data. While variability in these proxy data is frequently assumed to reflect climate variability, other factors than climate, including human impact and statistical noise, can often not be excluded as primary cause for the observed variability. Multiproxy studies offer the opportunity to test different drivers by providing different lines of evidence for environmental change such as climate variability and human impact. In this multiproxy study we use pollen and peat humification to evaluate to which extent stable oxygen and carbon isotope series from the peat bog "Dürres Maar" reflect human impact rather than climate variability. For times before strong anthropogenic vegetation change, isotope series from Dürres Maar were used to validate quantitative reconstructions based on pollen. Our study site is the kettle hole peat bog "Dürres Maar" in the Eifel low mountain range, Germany (450m asl), which grew 12m during the last 10,000 years. Pollen was analysed with a sum of at least 1000 terrestrial pollen grains throughout the profile to minimize statistical effects on the reconstructions. A recently developed probabilistic indicator taxa method ("pdf-method") was used for the quantitative climate estimates (January and July temperature) based on pollen. For isotope analysis, attention was given to use monospecific Sphagnum leaves whenever possible, reducing the potential of a species effect and any potential artefact that can originate from selective degradation of different morphological parts of Sphagnum plants (Moschen et al., 2009). Pollen at "Dürres Maar" reflect the variable and partly strong human impact on vegetation during the last 4000 years. Stable isotope time series were apparently not influenced by human impact at this site. This highlights the potential of stable isotope investigations from peat for climatic interpretation, because stable isotope series from lacustrine

  18. Tectonics of montage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte


    We build in accordance with specific contemporary conditions, defined by production methods, construction and materials as well as ethics, meaning and values. Exactly this relationship between the work as such and the conditions behind its coming into being is a crucial point. The simultaneity of...... and the creation of meaning forms the core of tectonics. So tectonic thinking is not only about portraying a constructional logic. Tectonics is to create material realities that reveal narrative meaning. Tectonics is to construct with cultural references....

  19. The Santa Izabel Complex, Gavião Block, Brazil: Components, geocronology, regional correlations and tectonic implications (United States)

    Medeiros, Eder Luis Mathias; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; Barbosa, Johildo Salomão Figueiredo; Paquette, Jean Louis; Peucat, Jean Jacques; Jesus, Silvandira dos Santos Góes Pereira de; Barbosa, Rafael Gordilho; Brito, Reinaldo Santana Correia de; Carneiro, Mauricio Antônio


    Cratons, as well as the basement of their marginal orogens, may represent important sites of research regarding the formation and evolution of Archean continental crusts. The Gavião Block is one of the oldest terranes in South America with rocks aged up to 3.6 Ga. Among the Archean units that outcrop in the southern sector of this block is the Santa Izabel Complex, which for the most part is located in the São Francisco Craton, close to its limit with the Araçuaí-West Congo Orogen. This complex has generally been described as comprising ortho- and paraderived rocks that were metamorphosed in high amphibolite facies. Studies in the southern region of this complex have shown the main components: (i) orthogneisses, whose protoliths are the Mesoarchean rocks of the Santa Izabel Magmatic Suite; and (iii) migmatites. and (iv) amphibolitic and metaultramafic enclaves. U-Pb studies (LA-ICPMS and SHRIMP) performed on zircons of the paleosome in metatexites and inherited zircons in migmatites indicate crystallization ages between 3091 ± 24 and 3136 ± 8 Ma for the rocks of the Santa Izabel Magmatic Suite. Inherited zircons aged ca. 3.4 Ga in paleosomes demonstrate the influence of older continental crust in the formation of these rocks. For the Caraguatai Magmatic Suite, the alignment of zircons and monazites suggests a crystallization age around 2.6 Ga. The Rhyacian migmatites were divided into metatexites and diatexites. Diatexites were divided into: (i) discontinuous boudinated early diatexites, which are parallel to stromatic metatexites, composing the gneissic banding. These rocks have diffuse metamorphic banding and features that suggest the action of mylonitization processes; and (ii) late diatexites, forming more continuous bodies, which truncate the gneissic banding. The migmatization occurred in two stages, with time interval between ca. 2.1 Ga and 2.07 Ga. The structural framework reveal the existence of four progressive Rhyacian deformation phases (Dn to Dn

  20. Uplifted ophiolitic rocks on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile: implications for the closure history of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and the tectonic evolution of the Beagle Channel region (United States)

    Cunningham, W. D.


    A succession of mafic rocks that includes gabbro, sheeted dikes and deformed pillow basalts has been mapped in detail on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile and is identified as an upper ophiolitic complex representing the uplifted floor of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes marginal basin. The complex was uplifted, deformed, and regionally metamorphosed prior to the intrusion of an undeformed 90 Ma granodiorite that cuts the complex. The complex appears para-autochthonous, is gently tilted to the northeast and is internally sheared by near-vertical foliation zones. No evidence for obduction was observed although the base of the complex is not exposed. The ophiolitic rocks have been regionally metamorphosed to mid-upper greenschist levels. Isla Gordon is bounded by the northwest and southwest arms of the Beagle Channel, two important structural boundaries in the southernmost Andes that are interpreted to have accommodated north-side-up and left-lateral displacements. Directly north of Isla Gordon is the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex that exposes the highest grade metamorphic rocks in the Andes south of Peru. On the north coast of Isla Gordon a volcaniclastic turbidite sequence that is interpreted to have been deposited above the mafic floor is metamorphosed to lower greenschist levels in strong metamorphic contrast to amphibolite-grade othogneisses exposed in Cordillera Darwin only 2 km away across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel. The profound metamorphic break across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel and the regional northeast tilt of the ophiolitic complex are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that Isla Gordon represents the upper plate to an extensional fault that accommodated tectonic unroofing of Cordillera Darwin. However, limited structural evidence for extension was identified in this study to support the model and further work is needed to determine the relative importance of contractional, extensional and

  1. Some structural-tectonic pecularities of the Okumya uplift and adjacent regions of Abkhazia and Megrelia, in connection with prospecting for petroleum and gas. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakyaniya, D.E.


    The unusual tectonic relation of the Okumya uplift, its southern submergence or the Okumya structural cusp with the southern Megrelia uplift on the one hand and with the central Megrelia and Ochamchiri depressions on the other is noted. These basic structural elements of Abkhazia and Megrelia and their local folds have different orientations and configurations. The different degrees of folding of the indicated large structural elements and their local folds are indicated. Lower Jurassic marine and terrigenous, Middle Jurassic volcanogenic-sedimentary, Upper Jurassic sandy-clayey lagunal, Cretaceous and Paleocene-Eocene carbonate, and Oligocene-Postpliocene molasse formations accumulated in the examined territory of Abkhazia and Megrelia. The overall thickness of these deposits in Ochamchiri and Megrelia depressions reaches 8-10 km. The Okumya and southern Megrelia uplifts and the central megrelia and Ochamchiri depressions have a discontinuous-inherited character of geologic development. Within the confines of the Okumya uplift and adjacent regions of Abkhazia and Megrelia, sandy horizons of salt-bearing variegated suites of the Upper Jurassic and Tkvarcheli and Bziaursk suites of the Middle Jurassic in Satandzhoi, Zugdidi, Tskhelikari, and other anticlinals, and also within the boundaries of the Okumya cusp within reach for current large-scale drilling of wells at depths (to 5000 m) are regarded as promising objects in prospecting for petroleum and gas. The drilling of formation-evaluation wells in the dome of the Satandzhoi anticlinal in the village of Otsartse and also the drilling of prospecting test wells on the Okumya structural crusp southwest of the village of Okumya are recommended. The outlook in searches for petroleum and gas in the Sorsk suite is limited in connection with the depth (more than 6 km) of bedding of the given suite.

  2. Analysis of Basin-Range Coupling Mechanisms during Epeirogenetic Uplift - A Case Study of Tectonic Coupling in the Songpan-Ganzi Plateau-Longmen Mountain-Sichuan Basin Region (United States)

    Ying, Danlin; Li, Ying


    The tectonodynamic evolution of the Songpan-Ganzi Plateau-Longmen Mountain-Sichuan basin region has been analyzed in this paper. The result suggested that the region had experienced principal four stages of evolution. The evolution was beginning with crystalline basement and folded basement formation in the pre-Sinian, then the cartonmarine sedimentary basin from the Sinian to the Middle Triassic was followed by uplift and stretching of the land from the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic, and finally compressive orogenesis since the Late Jurassic was happened. To understand the uplift and stretching of the land from the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic, a physical modeling experiment was conducted. It was confirmed that a tectonic plateau-ramp-basin geomorphology pattern developed during this period, caused by the wide difference in uplift between the Songpan-Ganzi Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. In the plateau region, the tectonic dynamic environment of uplift and stretching of the land (trailing edge extension) had appeared, which was accompany with the extensional structure styles such as normal faults and graben-horst structures. On the slope between the plateau and the basin, a bedding shear geodynamic environment was formed, and compressive slumped overthrust structure was found for the sliddown of decollement layers under the force of gravity. In the basin, compressive tectonic dynamic environment had emerged, which leaded to a compressive structure, such as thrust faults, overturned folds, and fault-related folds.

  3. Stable evaluation of Green's functions in cylindrically stratified regions with uniaxial anisotropic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H., E-mail: [ElectroScience Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Donderici, B., E-mail: [Sensor Physics & Technology, Halliburton Energy Services, Houston, TX 77032 (United States); Teixeira, F.L., E-mail: [ElectroScience Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States)


    We present a robust algorithm for the computation of electromagnetic fields radiated by point sources (Hertzian dipoles) in cylindrically stratified media where each layer may exhibit material properties (permittivity, permeability, and conductivity) with uniaxial anisotropy. Analytical expressions are obtained based on the spectral representation of the tensor Green's function based on cylindrical Bessel and Hankel eigenfunctions, and extended for layered uniaxial media. Due to the poor scaling of these eigenfunctions for extreme arguments and/or orders, direct numerical evaluation of such expressions can produce numerical instability, i.e., underflow, overflow, and/or round-off errors under finite precision arithmetic. To circumvent these problems, we develop a numerically stable formulation through suitable rescaling of various expressions involved in the computational chain, to yield a robust algorithm for all parameter ranges. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the robustness of the formulation including cases of practical interest.

  4. Stable evaluation of Green's functions in cylindrically stratified regions with uniaxial anisotropic layers (United States)

    Moon, H.; Donderici, B.; Teixeira, F. L.


    We present a robust algorithm for the computation of electromagnetic fields radiated by point sources (Hertzian dipoles) in cylindrically stratified media where each layer may exhibit material properties (permittivity, permeability, and conductivity) with uniaxial anisotropy. Analytical expressions are obtained based on the spectral representation of the tensor Green's function based on cylindrical Bessel and Hankel eigenfunctions, and extended for layered uniaxial media. Due to the poor scaling of these eigenfunctions for extreme arguments and/or orders, direct numerical evaluation of such expressions can produce numerical instability, i.e., underflow, overflow, and/or round-off errors under finite precision arithmetic. To circumvent these problems, we develop a numerically stable formulation through suitable rescaling of various expressions involved in the computational chain, to yield a robust algorithm for all parameter ranges. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the robustness of the formulation including cases of practical interest.

  5. Tectonic erosion and consequent collapse of the Pacific margin of Costa Rica: Combined implications from ODP leg 170, seismic offshore data, and regional geology of the Nicoya Peninsula (United States)

    Vannucchi, P.; Scholl, D. W.; Meschede, M.; McDougall-Reid, K.


    The convergent margin off the Pacific coast of the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica exhibits evidence for subduction erosion caused by the underthrusting Cocos plate. Critical evidence for efficacy of this process was recovered at the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drilling Site 1042 (Leg 170), positioned ???7 km landward of the Middle America trench axis off the Nicoya Peninsula. The primary drilling objective at this site was to identify the age and origin of a regionally extensive and prominent seismic discontinuity, the so-called base-of-slope sediment (BOSS) horizon or surface. The BOSS horizon, which can be traced landward from near the trench to the Nicoya coastal area and parallel to it for hundreds of kilometers, separates a low-velocity (??? 2.0-2.5 km s-1) sequence of slope sediment, from an underlying sequence of much higher-velocity (> 4-4.5 km s-1) rock. Site 1042 reached the acoustically defined BOSS horizon at a below sea level depth of ??? 3900 m and yielded a carbonate-cemented calcarenitic breccia of early-middle Miocene age. Sedimentological, geochemical, paleontological, and cement paragenesis data document that the breccia accumulated in a shallow water depositional environment. On the basis of coastal exposures, the BOSS horizon, as a margin-wide geologic interface, can be temporally and lithostratigraphically correlated to a regional angular unconformity. This unconformity, known as the Mal Pais unconformity, separates Neogene and younger shelf-to-littoral beds from the underlying mafic units of the Mesozoic Nicoya Complex and Cretaceous and early Tertiary sedimentary sequences. At Site 1042 it is inferred that tectonism caused the vertical subsidence of the early Neogene breccia from a shallow to a deep water setting. The Mal Pais unconformity of the BOSS horizon thus connects the rock fabric of the outermost part of margin to that of coastal Nicoya and implies that in the early Neogene the Nicoya shelf extended seaward to near the present

  6. Geomorphic evidence of active tectonics in the San Gorgonio Pass region of the San Andreas Fault system: an example of discovery-based research in undergraduate teaching (United States)

    Reinen, L. A.; Yule, J. D.


    Student-conducted research in courses during the first two undergraduate years can increase learning and improve student self-confidence in scientific study, and is recommended for engaging and retaining students in STEM fields (PCAST, 2012). At Pomona College, incorporating student research throughout the geology curriculum tripled the number of students conducting research prior to their senior year that culminated in a professional conference presentation (Reinen et al., 2006). Here we present an example of discovery-based research in Neotectonics, a second-tier course predominantly enrolling first-and second-year students; describe the steps involved in the four week project; and discuss early outcomes of student confidence, engagement and retention. In the San Gorgonio Pass region (SGPR) in southern California, the San Andreas fault undergoes a transition from predominantly strike-slip to a complex system of faults with significant dip-slip, resulting in diffuse deformation and raising the question of whether a large earthquake on the San Andreas could propagate through the region (Yule, 2009). In spring 2014, seven students in the Neotectonics course conducted original research investigating quantifiable geomorphic evidence of tectonic activity in the SGPR. Students addressed questions of [1] unequal uplift in the San Bernardino Mountains, [2] fault activity indicated by stream knick points, [3] the role of fault style on mountain front sinuosity, and [4] characteristic earthquake slip determined via fault scarp degradation models. Students developed and revised individual projects, collaborated with each other on methods, and presented results in a public forum. A final class day was spent reviewing the projects and planning future research directions. Pre- and post-course surveys show increases in students' self-confidence in the design, implementation, and presentation of original scientific inquiries. 5 of 6 eligible students participated in research the

  7. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Woodborne

    Full Text Available Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L. trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  8. Numerical and experimental investigation on static electric charge model at stable cone-jet region (United States)

    Hashemi, Ali Reza; Pishevar, Ahmad Reza; Valipouri, Afsaneh; Pǎrǎu, Emilian I.


    In a typical electro-spinning process, the steady stretching process of the jet beyond the Taylor cone has a significant effect on the dimensions of resulting nanofibers. Also, it sets up the conditions for the onset of the bending instability. The focus of this work is the modeling and simulation of the initial stable jet phase seen during the electro-spinning process. The perturbation method was applied to solve hydrodynamic equations, and the electrostatic equation was solved by a boundary integral method. These equations were coupled with the stress boundary conditions derived appropriate at the fluid-fluid interface. Perturbation equations were discretized by the second-order finite difference method, and the Newton method was implemented to solve the discretized nonlinear system. Also, the boundary element method was utilized to solve the electrostatic equation. In the theoretical study, the fluid is described as a leaky dielectric with charges only on the jet surface in dielectric air. In this study, electric charges were modeled as static. Comparison of numerical and experimental results shows that at low flow rates and high electric field, good agreement was achieved because of the superior importance of the charge transport by conduction rather than convection and charge concentration. In addition, the effect of unevenness of the electric field around the nozzle tip was experimentally studied through plate-plate geometry as well as point-plate geometry.

  9. Can deep seated gravitational slope deformations be activated by regional tectonic strain: First insights from displacement measurements in caves from the Eastern Alps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, I.; Plan, L.; Grasemann, B.; Mitrovic, I.; Lenhardt, W.; Hausmann, H.; Stemberk, Josef


    Roč. 259, APR 15 (2016), 81-89 ISSN 0169-555X Grant - others:Austrian Science Fund(AT) P25884-N29 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : tectonic strain * slope failure * earthquake Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  10. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.


    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  11. Inshore ship detection using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar images based on maximally stable extremal region (United States)

    Wang, Qingping; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongyu; Yuan, Naichang


    We present a method for detecting inshore ships using high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The method first applies preprocessing steps to obtain the solving region of an SAR image, suitable for the berthing rules. Then the ship candidates are extracted based on a maximally stable extremal region detector, while ship detection is applied using an improved constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detector. Finally, based on discrimination processing, false alarms are removed according to compactness, therefore the ultimate detection result is obtained without interference from strong terrestrial clutter or man-made objects. Experimental results show that this method could achieve effective detection of ships in harbors using high-resolution SAR images. This method can reduce the required computation time by 99.7%, compared with the traditional CFAR method.

  12. The Tectonic Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    has the consequence that it is difficult to create architecture where the technical concerns are an inherent part of the architectural expression. The aim of the thesis is to discuss the role of digital tools in overcoming the distance between the professional specializations and thereby support...... a tectonic practice. The project develops a framework to understand the role of digital tools in the tectonic practice from and discusses how and in which areas the tectonic practice could become supported by digital tools....

  13. Provenance and fate of arsenic and other solutes in the Chaco-Pampean Plain of the Andean foreland, Argentina: From perspectives of hydrogeochemical modeling and regional tectonic setting (United States)

    Raychowdhury, Nilasree; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Johannesson, Karen; Bundschuh, Jochen; Sifuentes, Gabriela Bejarano; Nordberg, Erika; Martin, Raúl A.; Storniolo, Angel del Rosario


    Extensive arsenic (As) enriched groundwater is known to occur in the aquifers of the Chaco-Pampean Plain of Argentina. Previous studies speculated that the As mobilization in these groundwaters was a direct result of their elevated pH and oxidative conditions. The volcanic glass layers present in the aquifer matrix were hypothesized as one of the possible sources of As to the groundwaters. Here, we examine the groundwater chemistry of the Santiago del Estero province of Chaco-Pampean Plains of Argentina, and test these hypotheses by using hydrogeochemical modeling within the framework of the regional geologic-tectonic setting. The study area is located in the active foreland of the Andean orogenic belt, which forms a continental arc setting, and is dotted with several hot springs. Rhyolitic volcanic glass fragments derived from arc volcanism are abundant within the aeolian-fluvial aquifer sediments, and are related to the paleo-igneous extrusion in the vicinity. Hydrogeochemical analyses show that the groundwater is in predominantly oxidative condition. In addition, some of the groundwaters exhibit very high Na, Cl- and SO42- concentrations. It is hypothesized in this study that the groundwater chemistry has largely evolved by dissolution of rhyolitic volcanic glass fragments contained within the aquifer sediments along with mixing with saline surface waters from, adjoining salinas, which are thought to be partially evaporated remnants of a paleo inland sea. Flow path modeling, stability diagrams, and thermodynamic analyses undertaken in this study indicate that the dominant evolutionary processes include ion exchange reactions, chemical weathering of silicate and evaporites, in monosialitization-dominated weathering. Geochemical modeling predicts that plagioclase feldspar and volcanic glass are the major solids phases that contribute metal cations and dissolved silica to the local groundwaters. Co-influxed oxyanions, with similar ionic radii and structure (e.g. Mo

  14. Study of stable atmospheric boundary layer characterization over highveld region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luhunga, P


    Full Text Available : Earth and Environmental Science 13 (2010) 012012 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/13/1/012012 Businger JA, Wyngaard JC, Uzumi Y and EF Bradley, 1971, Flux-profile relationship in the atmospheric surface layer, J Atm Sci, 28, 181-189. Kolmogorov AN, 1941... ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER CHARACTERIZATION OVER HIGHVELD REGION OF SOUTH AFRICA Philbert Luhunga1, 2, 3, George Djolov1, Venkataraman Sivakumar1,4,5 1 University of Pretoria, Department of Geography Geoinformatics and Meterology, Lynnwood road, 0001...

  15. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan


    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources. PMID:27265198

  16. Investigating the landscape of Arroyo Seco—Decoding the past—A teaching guide to climate-controlled landscape evolution in a tectonically active region (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Havens, Jeremy C.


    IntroductionArroyo Seco is a river that flows eastward out of the Santa Lucia Range in Monterey County, California. The Santa Lucia Range is considered part of the central California Coast Range. Arroyo Seco flows out of the Santa Lucia Range into the Salinas River valley, near the town of Greenfield, where it joins the Salinas River. The Salinas River flows north into Monterey Bay about 40 miles from where it merges with Arroyo Seco. In the mountain range, Arroyo Seco has cut or eroded a broad and deep valley. This valley preserves a geologic story in the landscape that is influenced by both fault-controlled mountain building (tectonics) and sea level fluctuations (regional climate).Broad flat surfaces called river terraces, once eroded by Arroyo Seco, can be observed along the modern drainage. In the valley, terraces are also preserved like climbing stairs up to 1,800 feet above Arroyo Seco today. These terraces mark where Arroyo Seco once flowed.The terraces were formed by the river because no matter how high they are, the terraces are covered by gravel deposits exactly like those that can be observed in the river today. The Santa Lucia Range, Arroyo Seco, and the Salinas River valley must have looked very different when the highest and oldest terraces were forming. The Santa Lucia Range may have been lower, the Arroyo Seco may have been steeper and wider, and the Salinas River valley may have been much smaller.Arroyo Seco, like all rivers, is always changing. Some-times rivers flow very straight, and sometimes they are curvy. Sometimes rivers are cutting down or eroding the landscape, and sometimes they are not eroding but depositing material. Sometimes rivers are neither eroding nor transporting material. The influences that change the behavior of Arroyo Seco are mountain uplift caused by fault moment and sea level changes driven by regional climate change. When a stream is affected by one or both of these influences, the stream accommodates the change by

  17. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces (United States)

    Guild, P.W.


    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  18. Comprehensive assessment of conditions of human activity in stable risk regions of Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajbolov, S.M.


    It is noted that dozens of hectares of Kazakhstan's land are removed from national use due to high level of ecologically permissible effect. In some regions there is treat of complete loss of lands due to technogene pollution. There are areales of toxic and radioactive industrial wastes and environmental radiation contamination zones forming in result of: activity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and nuclear explosions of period 1949-1961; activity of military-industrial, atomic-industrial and military-space enterprises; mining and processing of mineral resources with high content of radioactive elements; wind transfer of radionuclides and radioactive particles of both the natural and the technogene origin; radiation background of natural (In average by Republic 11-18 μR/h) landscapes. Most dangerous are consequences of tests on nuclear and space sites. Kazakhstan is single place on the Earth where nuclear strategic programs were carried out in full volume, beginning from mining and processing of uranium containing raw by producing and testing of nuclear warheads, missiles destroying and disposal of uranium and other radioactive and toxic wastes of military-industrial complex. So, there were 500 atmosphere and underground explosions in former Semipalatinsk, Kostanaj, Akmola, Aktyube, South-Kazakhstan, West-Kazakhstan, Mangistau and Atyrau oblasts. In West Kazakhstan on known nuclear sites (Azgir, Tojsogan, Central) and on Kapustin Yar fly-test complex more than 30 nuclear explosions were carried out in both the atmosphere and the underground. More than hundred military units were tested and exposed and 20 thousand of missiles were destroyed. Powerful sources of pollution are Bojkonyr spaceport and Saryshgan and Elba test sites. Authors noted, that it is necessary develop criteria of definition of payments for resources use, indexes to base taxes, pay for damages. Some problems of regional management could be solved with help this assessment mechanism

  19. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.; Heide-Joergensen, M.P.; Moeller, P.; Cleemann, M.; Boer, J. de; Glasius, M


    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the first 3-4 years of the animal's life, after which no dependence on age was observed. Females had significantly higher concentrations of Cd in all tissues and of Hg and Se in liver than males. No consistent difference in metal levels between narwhals from Avanersuaq and Uummannaq was found. Year-to-year variation in metal levels at one location was larger than the geographical variation. Metal levels were within the range of previous published results for narwhals from Arctic Canada. Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in blubber of narwhals were dependent on age and sex. Females showed decreasing OC concentration in the first 8-10 years, while for males increases were detected in the first few years of life, after which the concentrations became stable. Few statistical differences in mean OC concentrations among individuals were observed. However, narwhals from Avanersuaq in 1993 had the lowest levels, indicating a temporal decrease of {sigma}PCBs. {sigma}PCBs, DDTs, HCHs and toxaphenes seem to be at similar levels in West Greenland and Arctic Canada, which can be explained by the close winter distributions of populations as well as large ranges in concentrations, time span, number of analyses and the size/age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which they became relatively stable. {delta}{sup 15} N values were significantly higher in samples from Uummannaq in 1993 compared to samples from Avanersuaq in

  20. Carbon-14, tritium, stable isotope and chemical measurements on thermal waters from the Tauranga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; McGill, R.C.; Taylor, C.B.; Whitehead, N.E.; Downes, C.J.


    The chemical compositions of groundwater from the Tauranga region are affected to varying degrees by reducing conditions due to buried organic matter. The levels of some dissolved constituents are also affected by mixing with sea water contained within the rocks and by rock-water interaction. Dissolved gas compositions range from oxygen-bearing to methane-bearing reflecting the varying redox conditions. Excess air may be present but further experiments are necessary to confirm this. Apparent ages deduced from carbon-14 measurements (corrected using 12C dilution and 13C fractionation methods) range from 2-25,000 years, suggesting that some of the waters were recharged during late Pleistocene or early Holocene time. ΔD and Δ18 O values of the oldest waters are slightly more negative than those of younger samples; this may indicate recharge during a cooler climate, in agreement with the 14C ages. Very low but significantly non-zero tritium contents (TR=(0.007-0.059)+-0.007) were measured using the high tritium-enrichment facilities at INS and the very low-background counters at the University of Bern. The tritium is thought to derive from contamination or nuclear reactions in the aquifer rocks rather than from recharge water

  1. Integrating geology and geomorphology; the key to unlocking Quaternary tectonic framework of the San Andreas Fault zone in the San Gorgonio Pass region, southern California (United States)

    Kendrick, K. J.; Matti, J. C.


    The San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) region of southern California is a locus of long-continued Quaternary deformation and landscape evolution within a structural complexity, colloquially referred to as a knot in the San Andreas Fault (SAF) zone. The geomorphology of the SGP region reflects the complex history of geologic events involved in the formation and resolution of this structural knot. We recognize five morphologically distinct terrains in and around SGP; the San Gorgonio Block (SGB), Yucaipa Ridge (YRB), Pisgah Peak (PPB), Kitching Peak (KPB), and Devil's Garden blocks (DGB). Morphometric analyses, including drainage density, hypsometry, topographic profiles, and stream-power measurements and discontinuities, consistently demonstrate distinctions between the blocks. Our focus in this study is on the KPB and PPB terrains, both developed in crystalline rocks of San Gabriel Mountains type. KPB is bounded on the north by the Mission Creek strand of the SAF and on the east by the Whitewater Fault; PPB is bounded on the north by the San Bernardino strand of the SAF, which continues southeastward into the core of SGP and there separates PPB from KPB. KPB has significantly greater topographic relief than PPB, and the two blocks have internal morphometric and geologic characteristics that differ significantly. Canyons in KPB lack thick Quaternary alluvial fills, and hillslopes have shed numerous bedrock landslides. Canyons in PPB contain large volumes of Middle-Pleistocene through Holocene alluvium, associated with areally extensive relict geomorphic surfaces. We use the geomorphic differences, along with geologic factors, to reconstruct tectonically driven landscape evolution over the last 100-200 Ka years. The KPB and PPB both are bounded southward by contractional structures of the San Gorgonio Pass Fault zone (SGPFZ), but geologic complexity within this zone differs markedly south of each block. South of KPB, the SGPFZ consists of multiple thrust-fault strands, some

  2. The influence of microclimates and fog on stable isotope signatures used in interpretation of regional hydrology: East Maui, Hawaii (United States)

    Scholl, M.A.; Gingerich, S.B.; Tribble, G.W.


    Stable isotopes of precipitation, ground water and surface water measured on the windward side of East Maui from 0 to 3055 m altitude were used to determine recharge sources for stream flow and ground water. Correct interpretation of the hydrology using rainfall ??18O gradients with altitude required consideration of the influence of fog, as fog samples had isotopic signatures enriched by as much as 3??? in ??18O and 21??? in ??D compared to volume-weighted average precipitation at the same altitude. The isotopic analyses suggested that fog drip was a major component of stream flow and shallow ground water at higher altitudes in the watershed. 18O/altitude gradients in rainfall were comparable for similar microclimates on Maui (this study) and Hawaii Island (1990-1995 study), however, East Maui ??18O values for rain in trade-wind and high-altitude microclimates were enriched compared to those from Hawaii Island. Isotopes were used to interpret regional hydrology in this volcanic island aquifer system. In part of the study area, stable isotopes indicate discharge of ground water recharged at least 1000 m above the sample site. This deep-flowpath ground water was found in springs from sea level up to 240 m altitude, indicating saturation to altitudes much higher than a typical freshwater lens. These findings help in predicting the effects of ground water development on stream flow in the area. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Stable water isotopes of precipitation and firn cores from the northern Antarctic Peninsula region as a proxy for climate reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fernandoy


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the climate variability in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region, this paper focuses on the relationship between stable isotope content of precipitation and firn, and main meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, sea surface temperature, and sea ice extent. Between 2008 and 2010, we collected precipitation samples and retrieved firn cores from several key sites in this region. We conclude that the deuterium excess oscillation represents a robust indicator of the meteorological variability on a seasonal to sub-seasonal scale. Low absolute deuterium excess values and the synchronous variation of both deuterium excess and air temperature imply that the evaporation of moisture occurs in the adjacent Southern Ocean. The δ18O-air temperature relationship is complicated and significant only at a (multiseasonal scale. Backward trajectory calculations show that air-parcels arriving at the region during precipitation events predominantly originate at the South Pacific Ocean and Bellingshausen Sea. These investigations will be used as a calibration for ongoing and future research in the area, suggesting that appropriate locations for future ice core research are located above 600 m a.s.l. We selected the Plateau Laclavere, Antarctic Peninsula as the most promising site for a deeper drilling campaign.

  4. Biological modulation of tectonics (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.; Bird, D. K.


    Photosynthesis has had geologic consequences over the Earth's history. In addition to modifying Earth's atmosphere and ocean chemistry, it has also modulated tectonic processes through enhanced weathering and modification of the nature and composition of sedimentary rocks within fold mountain belts and convergent margins. Molecular biological studies indicate that bacterial photosynthesis evolved just once and that most bacterial clades descend from this photosynthetic common ancestor. Iron-based photosynthesis (ideally 4FeO + CO2 + H2O = 2Fe2O3 + CH2O) was the most bountiful anoxygenic niche on land. The back reaction provided energy to heterotrophic microbes and returned FeO to the photosynthetic microbes. Bacterial land colonists evolved into ecosystems that effectively weathered FeO-bearing minerals and volcanic glass. Clays, sands, and dissolved cations from the weathering process entered the ocean and formed our familiar classes sedimentary rocks: shales, sandstones, and carbonates. Marine photosynthesis caused organic carbon to accumulate in black shales. In contrast, non-photosynthetic ecosystems do not cause organic carbon to accumulate in shale. These evolutionary events occurred before 3.8 Ga as black shales are among the oldest rock types (Rosing and Frei, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217, 237-244, 2004). Thick sedimentary sequences deformed into fold mountain belts. They remelted at depth to form granitic rocks (Rosing et al., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 99-11, 2006). Regions of outcropping low-FeO rocks including granites, quartzites, and some shales were a direct result. This dearth of FeO favored the evolution of oxic photosynthesis of cyanobacteria from photosynthetic soil bacteria. Black shales have an additional modulation effect on tectonics as they concentrate radioactive elements, particularly uranium (e.g. so that the surface heat flow varies by a factor of ca. 2). Thick sequences of black shales at continental rises of passive margins are

  5. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte


    By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... architectural practice. In this matter the paper focuses on the need to juxtapose theoretical studies, to bring the present vocabulary of the tectonic further, as well as to spur further practical experiments enabling theory to materialize in the everyday of the current practice....

  6. Applying coda envelope measurements to local and regional waveforms for stable estimates of magnitude, source spectra and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, R.; Mayeda, K.; Rodgers, A.; Walter, W.


    Magnitude estimation forms an integral part in any seismic monitoring endeavor. For monitoring compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, regional seismic discriminants are often functions of magnitude such as m(sub b):M(sub 0) high-to-low spectral ratios, and nuclear yield estimation. For small-to-moderate magnitude events that cannot be studied by a large regional or global network of stations, there is a need for stable magnitudes that can be obtained from as few as one station. To date, magnitudes based on coda envelopes are by far the most stable because of the coda's averaging properties. Unlike conventional magnitudes which utilize the direct phases such as P (P(sub n), P(sub g)) or S (S(sub n), L(sub g)), or M(sub g), a coda envelope magnitude is not as sensitive to the undesirable effects of source radiation pattern, 3-D path heterogeneity, and constructive/destructive interference near the recording site. The stability of the coda comes from a time-domain measurement made over a large portion of the seismogram thereby averaging over the scattered wavefield. This approach has been applied to earthquakes in the western United States where it was found that a single-station coda magnitude was approximately equivalent to an average over a 64 station network which used only the direct waves such as L(sub g) (Mayeda and Walter, JGR, 1996). In this paper we describe in detail our calibration procedure starting with a broadband recording, correlation with independent moment estimates, formation of narrowband envelopes, coda envelope fitting with synthetics, and finally the resultant moment-rate spectra. Our procedure accounts for all propagation, site, and S-to-coda transfer function effects. The resultant coda-derived moment-rate spectra are then used to estimate seismic moment (M(sub o)), narrowband magnitudes such as m(sub b) or M(sub L), and total seismic energy. For the eastern Mediterranean region a preliminary study was completed for

  7. The revised tectonic history of Tharsis (United States)

    Bouley, Sylvain; Baratoux, David; Paulien, Nicolas; Missenard, Yves; Saint-Bézar, Bertrand


    Constraining the timing of the emplacement of the volcano-tectonic province of Tharsis is critical to understanding the evolution of mantle, surface environment and climate of Mars. The growth of Tharsis had exerted stresses on the lithosphere, which were responsible for tectonic deformation, previously mapped as radial or concentric faults. Insights into the emplacement history of Tharsis may be gained from an analysis of the characteristics and ages of these tectonic features. The number, total length, linear density of extensional or compressional faults in the Tharsis region and deformation rates are reported for each of the following 6 stages: Early and Middle Noachian (stage 1); Late Noachian (stage 2); Early Hesperian (stage 3); Late Hesperian (stage 4), Early Amazonian (stage 5) and Middle Amazonian to Late Amazonian (stage 6). 8571 Tharsis-related tectonic features (radial or concentric to the center of Tharsis) were assigned to one of these periods of time based on their relationship with stratigraphic units defined in the most recent geological map. Intense faulting at Tempe Terra, Claritas and Coracis Fossae and Thaumasia Planum confirms that tectonic deformation started during the Noachian. However, we report a peak in both compressive and extensive rates of deformation during the Early Hesperian whereas the quantitative indicators for compressional and extensional tectonics vary within less than one order of magnitude from the Late Noachian to the Late Hesperian. These observations indicate a protracted growth of Tharsis during the first quarter of Mars evolution and declining from 3 Gyrs ago.

  8. Stable isotopic compositions of elemental carbon in PM1.1 in north suburb of Nanjing Region, China (United States)

    Guo, Zhaobing; Jiang, Wenjuan; Chen, Shanli; Sun, Deling; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Gang; Rui, Maoling


    Stable isotopic compositions (δ13C) of elemental carbon (EC) in PM1.1 in north suburb of Nanjing region were determined in order to quantitatively evaluate the carbon sources of atmospheric fine particles during different seasons. Besides, δ13C values from potential sources such as coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, and dust were synchronously measured. The results showed that the average δ13C values of EC in PM1.1 in winter and summer were - 23.89 ± 1.6‰ and - 24.76 ± 0.9‰, respectively. Comparing with δ13C values from potential sources, we concluded that the main sources of EC in PM1.1 were from the emission of coal combustion and vehicle exhaust. The higher δ13C values in winter than those in summer were chiefly attributed to the more coal consumption. Combining with the concentrations of SO42 - and K+ in PM1.1, the high δ13C values of EC on 24 December and 27 December 2013 were ascribed to extra input of corn straw burning in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust.

  9. Arabidopsis thaliana cold-regulated 47 gene 5'-untranslated region enables stable high-level expression of transgenes. (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Sanada, Yuji; Imase, Ryoji; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Ueno, Daishin; Demura, Taku; Kato, Ko


    Transgene expression is regulated through several steps, this study focuses on the mRNA translation step. The expression level of transgenes can be increased by 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) sequences in certain genes which act as translational enhancers. On the other hand, translation in most mRNA species is repressed by growth, development, and stress events. There is a possibility that transgene mRNA is also repressed in these conditions, despite the use of a translational enhancer. Therefore, a consistently efficient translational enhancer is needed to develop a reliable transgene expression system. Herein we searched for mRNAs translated stably under different growth, development and environmental conditions using data sets of polysome fraction assays and microarray analysis. Correct 5'UTR sequences of candidate genes were determined by cap analysis of gene expression and we tested translational ability of the candidate 5'UTRs by reporter assays. We found the 5'UTR of cold-regulated 47 gene to be an effective translational enhancer, contributing to stable high-level expression under various conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Contemporary block tectonics: California and Nevada. (United States)

    Hill, D.P.


    Well-determined fault plane solution and the gross pattern of late-Cenozoic faulting in California and Nevada show a systematic relation between the orientation of fault planes and slip directions. In general, normal faults have N strikes, reverse faults have E strikes, and dextral and sinstral strike slip faults have NW and NE strikes, respectively. Kinematically, this relation is consistent with the response of clusters of fault-bounded crustal blocks to a regional stress field generated by the relative motion between the Pacific and N American plates. In this stress field, the greatest and least principal (compressive) stresses are restricted to N and E striking vertical planes, respectively. Simple arrangements of block clusters mimic the gross kinematic pattern of Quaternary faulting in California and Nevada. Some implications for contemporary tectonics emphasized by this model involve the W displacement of the Sierra Nevada block with respect to the stable interior of the N American plates, oblique thrusting of the Salinian block over the Pacific plate, and a progressive increase in the offset of the San Andreas fault represented by the 'big bend' through the Transverse Ranges. -from Author

  11. Archaean tectonic systems: A view from igneous rocks (United States)

    Moyen, Jean-François; Laurent, Oscar


    This work examines the global distribution of Archaean and modern igneous rock's compositions, without relying on preconceptions about the link between rock compositions and tectonic sites (in contrast with "geotectonic" diagrams). Rather, Archaean and modern geochemical patterns are interpreted and compared in terms of source and melting conditions. Mafic rocks on the modern Earth show a clear chemical separation between arc and non-arc rocks. This points to the first order difference between wet (arc) and dry (mid-ocean ridges and hotspots) mantle melting. Dry melts are further separated in depleted (MORB) and enriched (OIB) sources. This three-fold pattern is a clear image of the ridge/subduction/plume system that dominates modern tectonics. In contrast, Archaean mafic and ultramafic rocks are clustered in an intermediate position, between the three main modern types. This suggests that the Archaean mantle had lesser amounts of clearly depleted or enriched portions; that true subductions were rare; and that the distinction between oceanic plateaus and ridges may have been less significant. Modern granitic rocks dominantly belong to two groups: arc-related granitoids, petrologically connected to arc basalts; and collision granitoids, related to felsic sources. In contrast, the Archaean record is dominated by the TTG suite that derives from an alkali-rich mafic source (i.e. altered basalt). The geochemical diversity of the TTG suite points to a great range of melting depths, from ca. 5 to > 20 kbar. This reveals the absence of large sedimentary accumulations, again the paucity of modern-like arc situations, and the importance played by reworking of an earlier basaltic shell, in a range of settings (including some proto-subduction mechanisms). Nonetheless, granitoids in each individual region show a progressive transition towards more modern-looking associations of arc-like and peraluminous granites. Collectively, the geochemical evidence suggests an Archaean Earth

  12. Characterisation of tectonic lineaments in the Central Equatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterisation of tectonic lineaments in the Central Equatorial Atlantic region of Africa using Bouguer anomaly gravity data. ... Ife Journal of Science ... 3-D standard Euler deconvolution analysis was carried out on Bouguer anomaly gravity data for configuration definition and approximate depth estimate of tectonic ...

  13. Tectonic Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    defined by Semper as a constructive precondition, a theory for developing a novel tectonic relation between home and system opens up. As a research result the paper suggests a practical spatial exploitation of the actual prefab construction, defining interiority not solely as a visual occupation......’ is an example of this sensuous interior transformation of a house into a home, a level of detailing which is, however, seldom represented in the prefabricated house. Consequently, this paper investigates whether interiority can be developed as a tectonic theory and design principle for uniting home and system......Since the first optimistic originally Modernist prefab visions were formulated there has been, and are still, challenges to be overcome in order to fulfill the increasing need for fast, precise and economically produced homes. The tectonic need to transform a home, into a system of joints...

  14. Transcultural Tectonic Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian


    This paper presents an understanding of Jørn Utzon, as one of the most profound exponents of a transcultural and tectonic approach to modern architecture in the late twentieth century. The paper will examine the sources of inspiration, intersections and connections in Utzon’s architecture; which...... of cloud formations over a Hawaiian beach, when Utzon was teaching at the University of Hawai’i at Manoa. It is this ability to make connections and translate ideas from one context to another with poetic architectural vision and tectonic integrity, that is at the heart of Utzon’s architecture Together...... with such original unrealised projects as the subterranean Silkeborg Art Museum, Utzon’s work embodies a visionary approach to architecture that is site specific and poetic, tectonic and humane; informed by a profound appreciation of nature and diversity of human cultures, as sources of inspiration and analogy...

  15. Stable isotopes (C, N, O, H) of feathers collected in an Italian alpine region, during postbreeding migration (United States)

    Bontempo, Luana; Ceppa, Florencia; Pedrini, Paolo; Tenan, Simone; Camin, Federica


    Over the last 20 years the analysis of stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and sulphur have gradually become a formidable tool for the animal ecologists (Hobson and Wassenaar, 1997; Marra et al., 1998; Inger and Bearhop, 2008). In particular many studies have been developed on tracking the movement and the diet of birds in time and space, fundamental to understanding their ecology, but also inherently difficult to determine. The aim of this study was to deepen the origin and behaviour of migratory bird species crossing the Trentino area, an Italian alpine region, during the post-nuptial migration period, and monitored by a long term study by ringing activities (Progetto Alpi, Pedrini et al. 2008). About 800 samples of feathers from 48 local bird species were collected during 2010 - 2012 years. Analysis of d13C, d15N, d18O and dD were performed on these samples using an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) interfaced with an Elemental Analyser or a pyrolyser after a pre-treatment of the feathers (cleaning with diethyl ether:methanol 2:1, equilibration to ambient humitity for 4 days and, for d18O and dD a final drying step wth P2O5 for another 4 days). A first survey of the obtained data is presented in this work. As expected, the first statistical elaboration/'look' of them confirmed that 13C can be used to trace the importance of different carbon pools to a consumer (e.g. C3, C4 or CAM plants, marine algae) whereas d15N vary as a function of a variety of biological, geochemical and anthropogenic processes and is a very effective tracer of trophic level. In particular, it was interesting to note that the specie Loxia curvirostra showed particularly high d13C and low d15N values probably due to the eating of conifer seeds and whereas the specie Motacilla flava, that bases its diet primarily on worms and insects, presented high d15N values. On the other hand d18O values mainly depends by geographical/diet factors whereas dD values are

  16. Constraining the Late Mesozoic and Early Tertiary Tectonic Evolution of Southern Mexico: Structure and Deformation History of the Tierra Caliente Region. (United States)

    Cabral-Cano; Draper; Lang; Harrison


    We analyze the structure and assess the deformation history of the Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex (TCMC) of southern Mexico, where Laramide accretion of exotic terranes is in debate. The TCMC consists of a south-plunging antiform fault that is bounded on both its eastern and western flanks. Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex rocks show at least two phases of compressional deformation. The first and most prominent records a mean tectonic transport direction of 068 degrees. This phase is responsible for east-verging asymmetrical folding and thrusting of both metamorphic and superjacent sedimentary rocks. The second phase has an average transport direction of 232 degrees and is restricted to the western portion of the TCMC. A third phase is responsible for normal faulting. Lack of discernible deformation before Late Cretaceous time indicates that the main deformation phase is coincident with Laramide orogenesis elsewhere in the North American Cordillera. The stratigraphy, structure, and deformational history of the TCMC do not require accretion of exotic terranes. We explain the Mesozoic tectonostratigraphic evolution of the TCMC in terms of deposition and deformation of Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary strata over the attenuated continental crust of the North American plate.

  17. Geomorphological features of active tectonics and ongoing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    floods, cloud-bursts and earthquakes. Slopes in the region were formed by combining the effect of geomorphic, tectonic and climatic process and the landslides frequently occurring during the monsoon. The highly deformed, fractured and shattered rocks of Great Himalaya and the prox- imity of active thrusts and fault zones ...

  18. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne


    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...

  19. The Plate Tectonics Project (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.


    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  20. Cretacic tectonics in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.


    This work is about Cretacic tectonics in Uruguay, this formation is characterized by high level cortex because the basament is cratonized since Middle Devonian. There were formed two main grabens such as Santa Lucia and Mirim-Pelotas which are filled with basalt and sediments.

  1. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne


    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kah...

  2. Tectonic design strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne


    The tectonic realm of architecture concerns elements such as intentions and meaning - the process of translating visions into physical constructions - as well as the actual realization of building structures. This field of architectural making has been characterized by Kenneth Frampton as the poe...

  3. Tectonics of montage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte


    in architecture. The Italian architectural theorist, Marco Frascari describes the concepts 'construction' and 'construing' as inherent dimensions of tectonics, and according to him both dimensions have to be present in meaningful architecture. This close link between the creation of concrete solutions...

  4. Tectonic Setting of the Gravity Fault and Implications for Ground-Water Resources in the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California (United States)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C. C.; Jansen, J. R.; McPhee, D. K.; Morin, R. L.


    The Amargosa trough, extending south from Crater Flat basin to the California-Nevada state line, is believed to be a transtensional basin accommodated in part by strike-slip displacement on the northwest-striking State Line fault and normal displacement on the north-striking Gravity fault. The Gravity fault, lying along the eastern margin of the Amargosa trough, was first recognized in the 1970s on the basis of correlations between gravity anomalies and a prominent spring line in Amargosa Valley. The Gravity fault causes an inflection in water-table levels, similar to other (but not all) normal faults in the area. Pools along the spring line, some of which lie within Death Valley National Park and Ash Meadows Wildlife Refuge, include endemic species potentially threatened by increasing agricultural activities in Amargosa Valley immediately to the west, where water tables are declining. Most of the springs and pools lie east of the Gravity fault, however, and it is important to understand the role that the Gravity fault plays in controlling ground-water flow. We have conducted a variety of geophysical investigations at various scales to better understand the tectonic framework of the Amargosa Desert and support new ground-water-flow models. Much of our focus has been on the tectonic interplay of the State Line, Gravity, and other faults in the area using gravity, ground-magnetic, audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), and time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) surveys. With 1250 new gravity measurements from Ash Meadows and Stewart Valley, we have developed a revised three-dimensional crustal model of the Amargosa trough constrained by well information and geologic mapping. The model predicts approximately 2 km of vertical offset on the Gravity fault but also suggests a complex structural framework. The fault is conventionally seen as a simple, down-to-the-west normal fault juxtaposing permeable pre-Tertiary carbonate rocks to the east against less permeable Tertiary sediments to

  5. Meso-cenozoic extensional tectonics and uranium metallogenesis in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuehui; Chen Zuyi; Cai Yuqi; Fu Jin; Feng Quanhong; Shi Zuhai


    Through a systematic study on Meso-Cenozoic extensional tectonics in Southeast China, the authors point out that there are three major types of extensional tectonics such as taphrogenic thermo-upwelling, and gravitational extensional tectonics. The characteristics of structural forms, combination patterns, movement style and syn-tectonic magmatism of different extensional tectonics are studied. Then according to the known isotope age data of uranium mineralizations in the area, the relations between the process of extensional tectonics and regional uranium metallogenesis, as well as the corresponding relations in space and time between extensional tectonics and uranium deposits of different types are analyzed. In conclusion, the authors suggest that the uranium mineralizations of different types in Southeast China are characterized by an united ore-forming mechanism due to the apparent control of extensional tectonics to the regional uranium metallogenesis

  6. Detrital zircon ages in Korean mid-Paleozoic meta-sandstones (Imjingang Belt and Taean Formation): Constraints on tectonic and depositional setting, source regions and possible affinity with Chinese terranes (United States)

    Han, Seokyoung; de Jong, Koen; Yi, Keewook


    Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Th-Pb isotopic data of detrital zircons from mature, quartz-rich meta-sandstones are used to constrain possible tectonic affinities and source regions of the rhythmically layered and graded-bedded series in the Yeoncheon Complex (Imjingang Belt) and the correlative Taean Formation. These metamorphic marine turbidite sequences presently occur along the Paleoproterozoic (1.93-1.83 Ga) Gyeonggi Massif, central Korea's main high-grade metamorphic gneiss terrane. Yet, detrital zircons yielded highly similar multimodal age spectra with peaks that do not match the age repartition in these basement rocks, as late (1.9-1.8 Ga) and earliest (∼ 2.5 Ga) Paleoproterozoic detrital modes are subordinate but, in contrast, Paleozoic (440-425 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (980-920 Ma) spikes are prominent, yet the basement essentially lacks lithologies with such ages. The youngest concordant zircon ages in each sample are: 378, 394 and 423 Ma. The maturity of the meta-sandstones and the general roundness of zircons of magmatic signature, irrespective of their age, suggest that sediments underwent considerable transport from source to sink, and possibly important weathering and recycling, which may have filtered out irradiation-weakened metamorphic zircon grains. In combination with these isotopic data, presence of a low-angle ductile fault contact between the Yeoncheon Complex and the Taean Formation and the underlying mylonitized Precambrian basement implies that they are in tectonic contact and do not have a stratigraphic relationship, as often assumed. Consequently, in all likelihood, both meta-sedimentary formations: (1) are at least of early Late Devonian age, (2) received much of their detritus from distant (reworked) Silurian-Devonian and Early Neoproterozoic magmatic sources, not present in the Gyeonggi Massif, (3) and not from Paleoproterozoic crystalline rocks of this massif, or other Korean Precambrian basement terranes, and

  7. Effects of a regional décollement level for gravity tectonics on late Neogene-Quaternary deep-sea clastic sedimentation in the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Cruz, A. M.; Gorini, C.


    Sets of 2D multi-channel seismic and chronostratigraphic data allowed us to undertake analyses of source to sink processes and triggering mechanisms of the gigantic megaslides previously documented off the NW and SE steep slope settings of the Foz do Amazonas basin. These megaslides comprise two sets of stacked allochthonous masses within the Upper Miocene-Quaternary sedimentary record, now described as Mass-Transport Complexes (MTCs): the Amapá Megaslide Complex (AMC) and the Pará-Maranhão Megaslide Complex (PMMC). Individual megaslides of both MTCs can mobilize to deep waters up to kilometer thick sedimentary series as allochthonous masses with different flow directions, degrees of sediment disruption and internal coherence. Megaslides spread downslope over areas as large as thousands of km2, attaining dimensions comparable to the world's largest mass-transport deposits. The basal and largest megaslide of the AMC (AM1 megaslide) is a quite unique example of mass-transport deposit, since it is interpreted as a dominant carbonate allochthonous mass sourced from a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform. According to stratigraphic correlations with global sea-level positions, platform instability would have been triggered between the late Miocene and the end of the Early Pliocene by gravitational collapse of the mixed platform under its own weight, after successive subaerial exposures which were able to generate karstification processes. Siliciclastic-type megaslides, on the other hand, are all sourced from large upslope slide and/or rotated blocks (up to 60 km large in the case of the PMMC).Stratigraphic correlations evidenced that horizon equally acts as the upper décollement level for the gravity tectonic system that operates in the regional scale of the Foz do Amazonas basin. In such a context, results of this work evidence complex links between variable modes of gravity deformation (gravity tectonics and mass wasting), all induced by instability created from

  8. Towards a Tectonic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mortensen, Sophie Bondgaard


    with these demands. As the largest potential for energy savings lies in re-insulation of the building envelope, specifically by adding an additional insulation layer, this transformation will dramatically affect the everyday experience of the built environment. Articulating the architectural consequences...... and potentials of this transformation is an urgent matter if it is not to be realized solely as a monotonous technical cladding. In this matter, that of conceiving such extra insulation layer simultaneously as a technical ‘principle’ and as a spatial ‘gesture’ revealing an aesthetic architectural potential...... through this transformation is inevitably a tectonic question. By analyzing three historical examples, Adolf Loos’ Villa Moller, Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation, and Frank Lloyd Wright’s Johnson Wax Administration Building, chosen for their tectonic ability to exploit the technical ‘principle’ defining...

  9. Tectonics wins AAP Award (United States)

    AGU's newest journal, Tectonics, won the 1983 award for excellence in journal design and production given by the Association of American Publishers, Inc. (AAP), in the eighth annual professional and scholarly publishing awards competition. Edited by John F. Dewey, the bimonthly journal is a joint publication of AGU and the European Geophysical Society. Paul E. Tapponnier is the European editor and B.C. Burchfiel is the North American editor. The journal is now in its third year of publication.

  10. Tectonic significance of changes in post-subduction Pliocene–Quaternary magmatism in the south east part of the Carpathian–Pannonian Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghedi, I.; Maţenco, L.; Downes, H.; Mason, P.R.D.; Szakács, A.; Pécskay, Z.


    The south-eastern part of the Carpathian–Pannonian region records the cessation of convergence between the European platform/Moesia and the Tisza–Dacia microplate. Plio-Quaternary magmatic activity in this area, in close proximity to the ‘Vrancea zone’, shows a shift from normal calc-alkaline to

  11. Palaeomagnetic and geochronological evidence for a major middle miocene unconformity in Söke Basin (western Anatolia) and its tectonic implications for the Aegean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzel, Bora; Sümer, Ökmen; Özkaptan, Murat; Özkaymak, Çağlar; Kuiper, Klaudia; Sözbilir, Hasan; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; İnci, Uğur; Langereis, Cornelis G.


    Cenozoic convergence between the Eurasian and African plates and concurrent slab roll-back processes have produced a progressive extension in back-arc areas, such as the Aegean region andwestern Anatolia. There is still a long-standing controversy as to whether this was a continuous or stepwise

  12. Mantle constraints on the plate tectonic evolution of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone and the South Fiji Basin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W.P.; Spakman, W.


    The Tonga–Kermadec–Hikurangi subduction zone is a major plate boundary in the Southwest Pacific region, where the Pacific plate subducts westward underneath the Australian plate. Considerable controversy exists regarding the Cenozoic evolution of this subduction zone, its connection with

  13. Mantle constraints on the plate tectonic evolution of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone and the South Fiji Basin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Spakman, W.

    The Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone is a major plate boundary in the Southwest Pacific region, where the Pacific plate subducts westward underneath the Australian plate. Considerable controversy exists regarding the Cenozoic evolution of this subduction zone, its connection with the

  14. Correction of two Upper Paleozoic stratigraphic units in the Tianshan Mountains region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and implications on the Late Paleozoic evolution of Tianshan tectonic complex, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Qiang Chen


    Full Text Available The present paper addresses two tectonostratigraphic concerns on the Late Paleozoic Tianshan tectonic complex (TTC, Xinjiang, Northwest (NW China: (1 stratigraphic succession and age constraint of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange, eastern Tianshan Mountains and (2 timing of closure of the southern Tianshan ocean and accretion of the Siberian craton recorded in the Aiweiergou (AWEG area, eastern Tianshan Mountains by integrating stratigraphy, palaeontology, tectonopalaeogeography and palaeobiogeography. In the Bayingou area, the detailed palaeontological survey denies the presence of brachiopod Gigantoproductus fauna, typical of the Early Carboniferous faunas in central–south Tianshan complex, in the Anjihai Formation. In contrast, the Anjihai brachiopod assemblage, as a whole, appears to have a high affinity with the Late Devonian faunas of the eastern Junggar Basin, northern Xinjiang, suggesting a Late Devonian age for the Anjihai Formation. The overlying Shadawang Formation yields the Early Carboniferous radiolarians. These two units form the main part of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange, which therefore is likely Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous in age. The Bayingou area has been likely part of the northern Tianshan-Junggar block since the Late Devonian, although it may have been part of the Central Tianshan tectonostratigraphic province prior to the Late Devonian. The topmost strata of the Bayingou ophiolite mélange are characterized by alternation of volcanics, conglomerate and mudstone, and are better re-assigned to the Taoxigou Group rather than the Keguqingshan Formation. The Bayingou ophiolite mélange comprises the Late Devonian Anjihai Formation, the Carboniferous Bayingou and Shadawang Formations, and the Early Permian Taoxigou Group. In the AWEG area, the Permian and Triassic rocks were previously misinterpreted as the Late Permian turbidites and Late Triassic red beds, respectively. In fact, the Permian successions in AWEG

  15. Tectonic survey of deposits related to discordance of the precambrian era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ey, F.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.


    Uranium deposits of Alligator River in Australia and of North Saskatchewan are compared. Common points are stratigraphic position, regional metamorphism, associated tectonic structure and importance of hydrothermalism [fr

  16. Volcano-tectonic deformation in the Kivu Region, Central Africa: Results from six years of continuous GNSS observations of the Kivu Geodetic Network (KivuGNet) (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Mashagiro, Niche; Syauswa, Muhindo; Celli, Gilles; Kadufu, Benjamin; Smets, Benoît; Kervyn, François


    We present an overview of the installation, operation, and initial results of the 15-station KivuGNet (Kivu Geodetic Network) in the Kivu Region, Central Africa. The network serves primarily as a research and monitoring tool for active volcanic, earthquake, and plate boundary processes in the region. Continuous operation of in-situ measurement networks in naturally and politically harsh environments is challenging, but has proven fruitful in this case. During the operation of the network since 2009, KivuGNet has captured: co-eruptive deformation from two eruptions of Nyamulagira (in 2010 and 2011-2012); inter-eruptive deformation, which we interpret as a combination of plate motion across the Western - East Africa Rift, and decreasing deep-seated magma accumulation under the Nyiragongo-Nyamulagira region; co-seismic deformation from the Mw5.8 August 7, 2015 Lwiro earthquake at the western border of Lake Kivu. We hope that this study will serve as a motivation for further implementation of in-situ geodetic networks in under-monitored and under-studied sections of the East African Rift.

  17. Stable isotope records for the last 10 000 years from Okshola cave (Fauske, northern Norway and regional comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Linge


    Full Text Available The sensitivity of terrestrial environments to past changes in heat transport is expected to be manifested in Holocene climate proxy records on millennial to seasonal timescales. Stalagmite formation in the Okshola cave near Fauske (northern Norway began at about 10.4 ka, soon after the valley was deglaciated. Past monitoring of the cave and surface has revealed stable modern conditions with uniform drip rates, relative humidity and temperature. Stable isotope records from two stalagmites provide time-series spanning from c. 10 380 yr to AD 1997; a banded, multi-coloured stalagmite (Oks82 was formed between 10 380 yr and 5050 yr, whereas a pristine, white stalagmite (FM3 covers the period from ~7500 yr to the present. The stable oxygen isotope (δ18Oc, stable carbon isotope (δ13Cc, and growth rate records are interpreted as showing i a negative correlation between cave/surface temperature and δ18Oc, ii a positive correlation between wetness and δ13Cc, and iii a positive correlation between temperature and growth rate. Following this, the data from Okshola show that the Holocene was characterised by high-variability climate in the early part, low-variability climate in the middle part, and high-variability climate and shifts between two distinct modes in the late part.

    A total of nine Scandinavian stalagmite δ18Oc records of comparable dating precision are now available for parts or most of the Holocene. None of them show a clear Holocene thermal optimum, suggesting that they are influenced by annual mean temperature (cave temperature rather than seasonal temperature. For the last 1000 years, δ18Oc values display a depletion-enrichment-depletion pattern commonly interpreted as reflecting the conventional view on climate development for the last millennium. Although the δ18

  18. Tectonic evolution of Lavinia Planitia, Venus (United States)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Frank, Sharon L.; Mcgill, George E.; Solomon, Sean C.


    High resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have revealed the first details of the morphology of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus. Lavinia is a broad lowland over 2000 km across, centered at about 45 deg S latitude, 345 deg E longitude. Herein, the tectonic evolution of Lavinia is discussed, and its possible relationship to processes operating in the planet's interior. The discussion is restricted to the region from 37.3 to 52.6 deg S latitude and from about 340 to 0 deg E longitude. One of the most interesting characteristics of Lavinia is that the entire region possesses a regional tectonic framework of striking regularity. Lavinia is also transected by a complex pattern of belts of intense tectonic deformation known as ridge belts. Despite the gross topographic similarity of all of the ridge belts in Lavinia, they exhibit two rather distinct styles of near surface deformation. One is composed of sets of broad, arch-like ridges rising above the surrounding plains. In the other type, obvious fold-like ridges are rare to absent in the radar images. Both type show evidence for small amounts of shear distributed across the belts.

  19. New evidence of cenozoic tectonism in the southeastern region of Brazil: the Barra de Sao Joao graben in Cabo Frio platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohriak, W.U.


    The western portion of the Campos Basin is limited by a hinge line that limits the deposition of pre-Aptian sediments in the offshore region. The Cabo Frio arch corresponds to a platform with smaller relative subsidence, where Tertiary sediments are deposited directly on shallow basement rocks. A conspicuous asymmetric graben occurs in the offshore region between Buzios and Macae. This rhomb-graben measures 20 km by 40 km, with the longer axis trending NE. The geological and geophysical characteristics of the Barra de Sao Joao graben supports a genetic affiliation with the onshore Taubate, Resende and Volta Redonda basins, rather than with the Campos Basin. The latter basin was formed in the Neocomian by rupturing of the Pangea, while the radiometric age determination of ankaramitic lavas near Volta Redonda suggests that the onshore basins were formed during the Eocene or Early Oligocene. A better understanding of the crustal geometry and the postulation of geodynamic models for these sedimentary basins will result from the integration of the onshore geology with the subsurface data presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Tectonic Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    and assembly processes, seems a paradoxical challenge which has left prefabricated houses raw constructions rather than inhabitable homes. Based on the hypothesis that home is determined spatially via sensuous impressions of interiority at the threshold of furniture: The bath in Le Corbusier’s ‘Villa Savoye......’ is an example of this sensuous interior transformation of a house into a home, a level of detailing which is, however, seldom represented in the prefabricated house. Consequently, this paper investigates whether interiority can be developed as a tectonic theory and design principle for uniting home and system...

  1. Simulated variations of eolian dust from inner Asian deserts at the mid-Pliocene, last glacial maximum, and present day: contributions from the regional tectonic uplift and global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhengguo; Liu, Xiaodong; An, Zhisheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Loess Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Xi' an (China); Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Northern Tibetan Plateau uplift and global climate change are regarded as two important factors responsible for a remarkable increase in dust concentration originating from inner Asian deserts during the Pliocene-Pleistocene period. Dust cycles during the mid-Pliocene, last glacial maximum (LGM), and present day are simulated with a global climate model, based on reconstructed dust source scenarios, to evaluate the relative contributions of the two factors to the increment of dust sedimentation fluxes. In the focused downwind regions of the Chinese Loess Plateau/North Pacific, the model generally produces a light eolian dust mass accumulation rate (MAR) of 7.1/0.28 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr during the mid-Pliocene, a heavier MAR of 11.6/0.87 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr at present, and the heaviest MAR of 24.5/1.15 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr during the LGM. Our results are in good agreement with marine and terrestrial observations. These MAR increases can be attributed to both regional tectonic uplift and global climate change. Comparatively, the climatic factors, including the ice sheet and sea surface temperature changes, have modulated the regional surface wind field and controlled the intensity of sedimentation flux over the Loess Plateau. The impact of the Tibetan Plateau uplift, which increased the areas of inland deserts, is more important over the North Pacific. The dust MAR has been widely used in previous studies as an indicator of inland Asian aridity; however, based on the present results, the interpretation needs to be considered with greater caution that the MAR is actually not only controlled by the source areas but the surface wind velocity. (orig.)

  2. Jurassic ash-flow sheets, calderas, and related intrusions of the Cordilleran volcanic arc in southeastern Arizona: implications for regional tectonics and ore deposits (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.


    Volcanologic, petrologic, and paleomagnetic studies of widespread Jurassic ash-flow sheets in the Huachuca-southern Dragoon Mountains area have led to identification of four large source calderas and associated comagnetic intracaldera intrusions. Stratigraphic, facies, and contact features of the caldera-related tuffs also provide constraints on the locations, lateral displacements, and very existence for some major northwest-trending faults and inferred regional thrusts in southeastern Arizona. Silicic alkalic compositions of the Jurassic caldera-related, ash-flow tuffs; bimodal associated mafic magmatism; and interstratified coarse sedimentary deposits provide evidence for synvolcanic extension and rifting within the Cordilleran magmatic arc. Gold-copper mineralization is associated with subvolcanic intrusions at several of the Jurassic calderas. -from Authors

  3. Stable isotopes in modern ostrich eggshell: a calibration for paleoenvironmental applications in semi-arid regions of southern Africa (United States)

    Johnson, Beverly J.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Miller, Gifford H.


    An isotopic study of modern ostrich eggshell (OES) is presented as a calibration for terrestrial paleoenvironmental applications. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionations of OES were determined for various organic fractions of eggshell by measuring the isotopic ratios of modern OES samples collected from controlled settings (i.e., zoos and farms) and corresponding ostrich diet. These fractionations were used to evaluate the relationship between the isotope composition of OES laid by free-range birds living in South Africa and their environment. The carbon isotope composition of the total organic and inorganic fractions of OES were enriched by 2 and 16‰, respectively, relative to the diet. In natural settings, the δ 13C values of both the organic and inorganic fractions of OES reflected that of ambient vegetation, with a noted dietary preference for C 3 plants. The nitrogen isotope composition of the total organic fraction of OES was 3‰ enriched relative to the diet, and varied inversely with mean annual precipitation (MAP) in natural settings. A decrease in MAP of 100 mm was accompanied by an increase in δ 15N values of approximately 1‰. The oxygen isotope composition of the inorganic fraction of the OES varied linearly with that of the drinking water in controlled settings. However, in natural settings, the δ 18O of OES values were highly variable and are thought to be controlled primarily by the δ 18O of ingested plant leaf-water. The stability of the isotopic signal in the organic fraction of OES through geologic time was evaluated through a series of heating experiments. The δ 13C and δ 15N values of the total organic fraction of heated OES increased by less than 0.6 and 0.2‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, in spite of extensive diagenetic alteration and changes in the amino acid composition of the samples. The results of this study indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of OES is relatively stable

  4. The tectonic setting of the Caribbean region and the K/T turnover of the South American land-mammal fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E.; Pascual, R.


    According to the fossil record, a biotic interchange of land vertebrates (e.g. booid snakes, dinosaurs and mammals) occurred between the Americas during the Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeocene. The arrival of North American immigrants (particularly marsupials and placental) during the latest Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene had a profound influence on the composition of the South American mammal communities. During the Late Cretaceous these communities were dominated by native groups of Pangeic lineages, which represented more than 95% of the known genera, but during the Early Palaeocene 70% of South American mammals were derived from North American immigrants that had arrived during the Late Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene, and by the Late Palaeocene all the South American mammals (with the possible exception of the xenarthrans) were descendants of these North American immigrants. In spite of the fact that no geological evidence is currently available to support the existence of a continuous land connection between the Americas during the Late Cretaceousearly Palaeocene, the fossil record is substantial enough to point to a temporary inter-American connection that permitted the beginning of a land-mammal exchange by the end of the Cretaceous. This interpretation is supported by recent geographic reconstructions of the Caribbean region. (Author)

  5. Eocene and Oligocene basins and ridges of the Coral Sea-New Caledonia region: Tectonic link between Melanesia, Fiji, and Zealandia (United States)

    Mortimer, Nick; Gans, Phillip B.; Palin, J. Michael; Herzer, Richard H.; Pelletier, Bernard; Monzier, Michel


    This paper presents 34 geochemical analyses, 24 Ar-Ar ages, and two U-Pb ages of igneous rocks from the back-arc basins and submarine ridges in the Coral Sea-New Caledonia region. The D'Entrecasteaux Ridge is a composite structural feature. Primitive arc tholeiites of Eocene age (34-56 Ma) are present along a 200 km length of the ridge and arguably were part of the initial line of subduction inception between Fiji and the Marianas; substantial Eocene arc edifices are only evident at the eastern end where Bougainville Guyot andesite breccias are dated at 40 ± 2 Ma. The South Rennell Trough is confidently identified as a 28-29 Ma (early Oligocene) fossil spreading ridge, and hence, the flanking Santa Cruz and D'Entrecasteaux basins belong in the group of SW Pacific Eocene-Early Miocene back-arc basins that include the Solomon Sea, North Loyalty, and South Fiji basins. The rate and duration of spreading in the North Loyalty Basin is revised to 43 mm/yr between 28 and 44 Ma, longer and faster than previously recognized. The direction of its opening was to the southeast, that is, parallel to the continent-ocean boundary and perpendicular to the direction of coeval New Caledonia ophiolite emplacement. Medium- and high-K alkaline lavas of 23-25 Ma (late Oligocene) age on the northern Norfolk Ridge are an additional magmatic response to Pacific trench rollback.

  6. Three-phase tectonic evolution of the Andaman backarc basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.

    to explore possible hydrothermal activity in the region, provided new i n- sights into the tectonic evoluti on of the backarc basin. Rao et al. 3 documented the absence of recognizable magnetic anomalies and presence of a thick pile of sediments, over..., very smooth t o- po graphic plane on either side characterizes segment C. Si n- gle - channel seismic reflection data over this segment depict a thick pile of sediments, with expressions of e x- tensional tectonics. Seismic eviden ce indicates...


    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.


    The last years of astronomical observation have opened the doors to a universe filled with extrasolar planets. Detection techniques still only offer the possibility to detect mainly Super-Earths above five Earth masses. But detection techniques do steadily improve and are offering the possibility to detect even smaller planets. The observations show that planets seem to exist in many possible sizes just as the planets and moons of our own solar system do. It is only a natural question to ask if planetary mass has an influence on some key habitability factors such as on plate tectonics, allowing us to test which exoplanets might be more likely habitable than others, and allowing us to understand if plate tectonics on Earth is a stable or a critical, instable process that could easily be perturbed. Here we present results derived from 1D parameterized thermal evolution and 2D/3D computer models, showing how planetary mass influences the propensity of plate tectonics for planets with masses ranging from 0.1 to 10 Earth masses. Lately [2, 3] studied the effect of planetary mass on the ability to break plates and hence initiate plate tectonics - but both derived results contradictory to the other. We think that one of the reasons why both studies [2, 3] are not acceptable in their current form is partly due to an oversimplification. Both treated viscosity only temperature-dependent but neglected the effect pressure has on enlarging the viscosity in the deep mantle. More massive planets have therefore a stronger pressure-viscosity-coupling making convection at high pressures sluggish or even impossible. For planets larger than two Earth masses we observe that a conductive lid (termed low-lid) forms above the core-mantle boundary and thus reduces the effective convective part of the mantle when including a pressure-dependent term into the viscosity laws as shown in [1]. Moreover [2, 3] use time independent steady state models neglecting the fact that plate tectonics is a

  8. Salt Tectonics of the Abenaki Graben and Central Sable Subbasin: Insights from Regional Seismic Interpretation and Four-Dimensional Scaled Physical Experiments (United States)

    Campbell, Clarke

    The tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Abenaki graben and central Sable Subbasin of the north-central Scotian margin has been highly influenced by salt deformation. Shimeld (2004) has identified five salt subprovinces defined by varying salt structural styles across the margin. Although it has been hypothesized these varying structural styles are the result of complex salt basin morphologies and variable Mesozoic post-rift sedimentation patterns, there is still a lack of understanding of how these first order controlling factors specifically controlled the tectono-stratigraphic evolution across the margin. Disappointing petroleum exploration results from the last round of deepwater drilling supports the further need to investigate how variable salt basin morphologies, and depositional rates and patterns controlled salt deformation as well as the evolution of the margin. The purpose of this project is to integrate regional 2D seismic reflection data including the ION-GXT NovaSPAN dataset, with 4D scaled physical experiments to better understand the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Abenaki Graben and central Sable Subbasin. The study area is located in Shimeld's salt Subprovince III that comprises an extensive salt tongue-canopy system that has spread upwards of 80 km on the secondary detachment level. Seismic interpretation indicates an original salt basin characterized by a landward tapering wedge representing the Abenaki Graben, an intermediate high referred to as the North Sable High (NSH), and a symmetric graben with basin step representing the Sable Subbasin. The geometry of the salt basin floor is composed of rifted basement blocks and syn-rift fill that was originally been infilled with upwards of 2 km of Argo salt. Scaled 4D physical experiments simulating the study area indicate the presence of 4 kinematic domains from the shelf to slope including a: (1) Salt Weld and Pillow, (2) Normal Fault and Reactive Diapir, (3) Passive Diapir and Expulsion

  9. Whole rock and spinel compositions of serpentinized peridotites from the Divriği-Sivas region, eastern Turkey: Implications for their tectonic setting (United States)

    Ünlü, Taner; Akıska, Sinan; Varol, Ece; Öztürk, Ceyda; Mutlu, Halim


    In this study we investigate the spinel and whole rock chemistry of ultramafic rocks in the Divriği-Sivas region hosting one of the largest ophiolite suites in Turkey, which were emplaced following the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates in the Late Cretaceous. The ophiolitic mélange (Güneş Ophiolite) in Divriği is composed of ultramafic rocks, amphibolites, sub-ophiolitic metamorphic rocks and calc-silicates. The ultramafic rock section is made up of serpentinized wehrlites overlain by irregular segregations of pyroxenite levels. Whole rock chemistry of Divriği wehrlites resembles serpentinized peridotites in Himalayas. They have high MgO (average 31.27 wt%) and low Al2O3 (average 0.56 wt%) concentrations and Mg/Si and Al/Si ratios imply that peridotites formed in a supra-subduction zone environment. The U-shaped REE patterns of serpentinized wehrlites are formed by partial melting, coupled with interaction between peridotite and hydrous melts in the mantle wedge. The spinels collected from serpentinized wehrlites show compositions ranging from chromite in the core to ferritchromite and Cr-magnetite at the rims and have high Cr2O3 (46.5-56.2 wt%) and very low TiO2 contents (peridotites but their Mg# values (0.26-0.46) are significantly lower. Cr# values of Divriği spinels correspond to SSZ peridotites and indicate high-degree partial melting (>%35). Parental melt compositions computed (8.69-11.71 wt% for Al2O3 and 0.1 to 0.37 wt% for TiO2) from chromite-melt equilibrium conditions yield a boninitic affinity. Our data suggest that spinels from serpentinized wehrlites in the Divriği area are similar to peridotite xenoliths from the Kamchatka arc and West Bismarck.

  10. Crustal seismicity and the earthquake catalog maximum moment magnitudes (Mcmax) in stable continental regions (SCRs): correlation with the seismic velocity of the lithosphere (United States)

    Mooney, Walter D.; Ritsema, Jeroen; Hwang, Yong Keun


    A joint analysis of global seismicity and seismic tomography indicates that the seismic potential of continental intraplate regions is correlated with the seismic properties of the lithosphere. Archean and Early Proterozoic cratons with cold, stable continental lithospheric roots have fewer crustal earthquakes and a lower maximum earthquake catalog moment magnitude (Mcmax). The geographic distribution of thick lithospheric roots is inferred from the global seismic model S40RTS that displays shear-velocity perturbations (δVS) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We compare δVS at a depth of 175 km with the locations and moment magnitudes (Mw) of intraplate earthquakes in the crust (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). Many intraplate earthquakes concentrate around the pronounced lateral gradients in lithospheric thickness that surround the cratons and few earthquakes occur within cratonic interiors. Globally, 27% of stable continental lithosphere is underlain by δVS≥3.0%, yet only 6.5% of crustal earthquakes with Mw>4.5 occur above these regions with thick lithosphere. No earthquakes in our catalog with Mw>6 have occurred above mantle lithosphere with δVS>3.5%, although such lithosphere comprises 19% of stable continental regions. Thus, for cratonic interiors with seismically determined thick lithosphere (1) there is a significant decrease in the number of crustal earthquakes, and (2) the maximum moment magnitude found in the earthquake catalog is Mcmax=6.0. We attribute these observations to higher lithospheric strength beneath cratonic interiors due to lower temperatures and dehydration in both the lower crust and the highly depleted lithospheric root.

  11. Crustal seismicity and the earthquake catalog maximum moment magnitude (Mcmax) in stable continental regions (SCRs): Correlation with the seismic velocity of the lithosphere (United States)

    Mooney, Walter D.; Ritsema, Jeroen; Hwang, Yong Keun


    A joint analysis of global seismicity and seismic tomography indicates that the seismic potential of continental intraplate regions is correlated with the seismic properties of the lithosphere. Archean and Early Proterozoic cratons with cold, stable continental lithospheric roots have fewer crustal earthquakes and a lower maximum earthquake catalog moment magnitude (Mcmax). The geographic distribution of thick lithospheric roots is inferred from the global seismic model S40RTS that displays shear-velocity perturbations (δVS) relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). We compare δVS at a depth of 175 km with the locations and moment magnitudes (Mw) of intraplate earthquakes in the crust (Schulte and Mooney, 2005). Many intraplate earthquakes concentrate around the pronounced lateral gradients in lithospheric thickness that surround the cratons and few earthquakes occur within cratonic interiors. Globally, 27% of stable continental lithosphere is underlain by δVS≥3.0%, yet only 6.5% of crustal earthquakes with Mw>4.5 occur above these regions with thick lithosphere. No earthquakes in our catalog with Mw>6 have occurred above mantle lithosphere with δVS>3.5%, although such lithosphere comprises 19% of stable continental regions. Thus, for cratonic interiors with seismically determined thick lithosphere (1) there is a significant decrease in the number of crustal earthquakes, and (2) the maximum moment magnitude found in the earthquake catalog is Mcmax=6.0. We attribute these observations to higher lithospheric strength beneath cratonic interiors due to lower temperatures and dehydration in both the lower crust and the highly depleted lithospheric root.

  12. Thermal springs, fumaroles and gas vents of continental Yemen: Their relation with active tectonics, regional hydrology and the country's geothermal potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minissale, Angelo; Mattash, Mohamed A.; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Al-Ganad, Ismail N.; Selmo, Enrico; Shawki, Nasr M.; Tedesco, Dario; Poreda, Robert; Ad-Dukhain, Abdassalam M.; Hazzae, Mohammad K.


    Most thermal springs of continental Yemen (about 65 emergences at 48 sampling sites) and a couple of fumaroles and boiling water pools have been sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition in the liquid phase and the associated free-gas phase. Whatever the emergence, all the water discharges have an isotopic signature of meteoric origin. Springs seeping out from high altitudes in the central volcanic plateau show a prevalent Na-HCO 3 -composition, clearly affected by an anomalous flux of deep CO 2 deriving from active hydrothermal systems located in the Jurassic Amran Group limestone sequence and/or the Cretaceous Tawilah Group, likely underlying the 2000-3000 m thick volcanic suite. At lower elevations, CO 2 also affects the composition of some springs emerging at the borders of the central volcanic plateau. Although mixing to a limited extent with organic CO 2 infiltrating together with the meteoric recharge waters cannot be ruled out, all the CO 2 -rich gas samples have a δ 13 C-CO 2 signature that falls in the range of mantle CO 2 (-3 13 C 3 He/ 4 He (1 a 2 -rich springs and also some mixed N 2 -CO 2 gas vents in the far east Hadramaut region support the presence of mantle magmas and related hydrothermal systems residing at the crust level in several areas of Yemen. This well agrees with the presence of Quaternary basaltic magmatic activity along the Gulf of Aden, as well as inside the central Yemen volcanic plateau. Presently, the thermal springs of Yemen are prevalently used for spas and/or bathing. Nevertheless, liquid- and gas-geothermometry and geological considerations suggest that there are at least three areas (Al Lisi, Al Makhaya and Damt) inside the Yemen volcanic plateau (around Dhamar) that may be promising prospects for the future development of geothermal energy in Yemen. Alternatively, they could be used as a source of energy for small-to-medium scale agriculture and/or industrial purposes. Moreover, most of the thermal water

  13. JaMBES: A "New" Way of Calculating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction (United States)

    Chambord, A. I.; Smith, E. G. C.; Sutherland, R.


    Calculating the paleoposition of tectonic plates using marine geophysical data has been usually done by using the Hellinger criterion [Hellinger, 1981]. However, for the Hellinger software [Kirkwood et al., 1999] to produce stable results, we find that the input data must be abundant and spatially well distributed. Although magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data have been increasingly abundant since the 1960s, some parts of the globe remain too sparsely explored to provide enough data for the Hellinger code to provide satisfactory rotations. In this poster, we present new software to calculate the paleopositions of tectonic plates using magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data. Our method is based on the theory of plate tectonics as introduced by [Bullard et al., 1965] and [Morgan, 1968], which states that ridge segments (ie. magnetic lineations) and fracture zones are at right angles to each other. In order to test our software, we apply it to a region of the world where climatic conditions hinder the acquisition of magnetic data: the Southwest Pacific, between New Zealand and Antarctica from breakup time to chron 20 (c43Ma). Bullard, E., J. E. Everett, and A. G. Smith (1965), The fit of continents around the atlantic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B10), 9312-9318. Kirkwood, B. H., J. Y. Royer, T. C. Chang, and R. G. Gordon (1999), Statistical tools for estimating and combining finite rotations and their uncertainties, Geophysical Journal International, 137(2), 408-428. Morgan, W. J. (1968), Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(6), 1959-1982.

  14. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassa, Fausto; Favara, Rocco; Valenza, Mariano


    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line (δD = 6.50 δ 18 O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average 2 H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the δ 18 O vs δD relationship for Hyblean groundwater is δD = 4.85 δ 18 O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes

  15. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassa, Fausto [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail:; Favara, Rocco [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Valenza, Mariano [Dipartimento CFTA, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, 90123, Palermo (Italy)


    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line ({delta}D = 6.50 {delta} {sup 18}O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average {sup 2}H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the {delta} {sup 18}O vs {delta}D relationship for Hyblean groundwater is {delta}D = 4.85 {delta} {sup 18}O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes.

  16. Relationships of stable isotopes, water-rock interaction and salinization in fractured aquifers, Petrolina region, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Sousa, E-mail: [Serviço Geológico do Brasil (CPRM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Campos, José Eloi Guimarães; Cunha, Luciano Soares; Mancini, Luís Henrique, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil)


    The Petrolina County, Pernambuco State, Brazil, presents specificities that make it unique from a hydrogeological point of view. Water resource scarcity is both a quantitative and qualitative issue. The climate is classified as semiarid, having low precipitation, along with high temperatures and evapotranspiration rates. Aquifer zones are related to low connected fractures resulting in a restricted water flow in the aquifer. The recharge is limited and the groundwater salinity is high. Stable isotope analyses of H and O were developed in groundwater samples (with different electrical conductivity) and surface water collected in a bypass channel flowing from the São Francisco River. The results were plotted in a δD ‰ versus δ{sup 18}O ‰ graph along with the curves of the global and local meteoric water line. Groundwater samples showed unexpected results showing a lighter sign pattern when compared to the meteoric waters. More negative δD and δ{sup 18}O values indicate an enrichment in light isotopes, which show that this process is not influenced by surface processes, where the enrichment occurs in heavy isotopes due to evaporation. The isotopic signature observed is interpreted either as resulting from the water-rock interaction, or as resulting from recharge from paleo rains. The waters are old and show restricted flow. So the water-rock contact time is extended. In the rock weathering processes, through the hydration of feldspars, there is preferential assimilation of heavy isotopes at the expense of the lighter ones that remain in the water. Analyses of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio and isotopic groundwater dating assist in the interpretations. (author)

  17. The alternative concept of global tectonics (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmyansky, Mikhael


    of lenses partially molten mantle material - asthenolithes previously mistaken for ubiquitous asthenosphere. Interaction between a plumes and their impact on the crust gives rise to all of the observed tectonic processes, including geosynclinal. This scheme is well complemented by some of the elements of plate tectonics, such as the separation of the crust for large plates across the present seismic belts, regional tension along the "divergence" borders, regional compression and collisions along the "convergence" borders. It is necessary to reject the dogmatic, contrary to the facts and unnecessary assumptions about the far moving plates, terraines, "hidden" boundaries, etc. The proposed scheme is contained not so much a new idea as a synthesis of already known ideas. The authors believe that in this way it is possible to construct a general geotectonic concept that would match the best of our knowledge in the earth sciences. Reference: David Pratt, Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm Under Threat - Journal of Scientific Exploration, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 307-352, 2000.

  18. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns (United States)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.


    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  19. MEVTV Workshop on Early Tectonic and Volcanic Evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.


    Although not ignored, the problems of the early tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mars have generally received less attention than those later in the evolution of the planet. Specifically, much attention was devoted to the evolution of the Tharsis region of Mars and to the planet itself at the time following the establishment of this major tectonic and volcanic province. By contrast, little attention was directed at fundamental questions, such as the conditions that led to the development of Tharsis and the cause of the basic fundamental dichotomy of the Martian crust. It was to address these and related questions of the earliest evolution of Mars that a workshop was organized under the auspices of the Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonism, and Volatiles (MEVTV) Program. Four sessions were held: crustal dichotomy; crustal differentiation/volcanism; Tharsis, Elysium, and Valles Marineris; and ridges and fault tectonics


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Khymynets


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of the formation of ecological and economic competences at modern school. The paper shows that ecological and economic education is continuous and uninterrupted psychological process which is directed towards the formation of knowledge, culture and consciousness of a person. Attention is paid to the problems of environmental and economic situation in the Carpathian region of Ukraine. Ecological and economic model of education can develop effectively only on the basis of humanistic orientation and innovation potential of the educational institution. The humanization provides increased attention to the individual as a whole, the promotion of its abilities, physical and moral qualities. Modern education aims to form environmentally and economically responsible person, that is ready for the conscious activity on the basis of the gained knowledge and formes behavioral norms and rules concerning the environment. Humanity has the ability to choose either the path of environmental and economic education, or the path of the global catastrophe and self-destruction. Civilized, cultured people are called to protect and multiply the good, by laws and authority to establish the highest spiritual values of the life in the society and public opinion. Only intelligence and environmental and economic culture, that is continuous educational training and educational activity, may generate culture of society, relevant to the permanent development, and transfer its relationships with the environment on the way of intelligent coexistence.

  1. Seismicity and tectonics of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, K.M.


    Northern and eastern Bangladesh and surrounding areas belong to a seismically active zone and are associated with the subduction of the Indian plate. The seismicity and tectonics have been studied in detail and the observations have been correlated to understand the earthquake phenomenon in the region. The morphotectonic behaviour of northern Bangladesh shows that it is deeply related to the movement of the Dauki fault system and relative upliftment of the Shillong plateau. Contemporary seismicity in the Dauki fault system is relatively quiet comparing to that in the Naga-Disang-Haflong thrust belt giving rise to the probability of sudden release of energy being accumulated in the vicinity of the Dauki fault system. This observation corresponds with the predicted average return period of a large earthquake (1897 type) and the possibility of M > 8 earthquake in the vicinity of the Dauki fault within this century should not be ruled out. The seismicity in the folded belt in the east follows the general trend of Arakan-Yoma anticlinorium and represents shallow and low-angled thrust movements in conformity with the field observation. Seismotectonic behaviour in the deep basin part of Bangladesh demonstrates that an intraplate movement in the basement rock has been taking place along the deep-seated faults causing relative upliftment and subsidence in the basin. Bangladesh has been divided into three seismic zones on the basis of morphotectonic and seismic behaviour. Zone-I has been identified as the zone of high seismic risk. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Tectonic evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.U.; Golombek, M.P.; McGill, G.E.


    Any model for the tectonic evolution of Mars must account for two major crustal elements: the Tharsis bulge and the topographically low and lightly crated northern third of the planet. Ages determined by crater density indicate that both of these elements came into existence very early in Martian history, a conclusion that holds no matter which of the current crater density versus age curves is used. The size of these two major crustal elements and their sequential development suggest that both may be related to a global-scale internal process. It is proposed that the resurfacing of the northern third of Mars is related to subcrustal erosion and isostatic foundering during the life of a first-order convection cell. With the demise of the cell, denser segregations of metallic materials began to coalesce as a gravitatively unstable layer which finally overturned to form the core. In the overturn, lighter crustal materials was shifted laterally and underplated beneath Tharsis to cause rapid and permanent isostatic rise. This was followed by a long-lived thermal phase produced by the hot underplate and by the gravitative energy of core formation slowly making its way to the surface to produce the Tharsis volcanics

  3. Role of local to regional-scale collisions in the closure history of the Southern Neotethys, exemplified by tectonic development of the Kyrenia Range active margin/collisional lineament, N Cyprus (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair; Kinnaird, Tim; McCay, Gillian; Palamakumbura, Romesh; Chen, Guohui


    Active margin processes including subduction, accretion, arc magmatism and back-arc extension play a key role in the diachronous, and still incomplete closure of the S Neotethys. The S Neotethys rifted along the present-day Africa-Eurasia continental margin during the Late Triassic and, after sea-floor spreading, began to close related to northward subduction during the Late Cretaceous. The northern, active continental margin of the S Neotethys was bordered by several of the originally rifted continental fragments (e.g. Taurides). The present-day convergent lineament ranges from subaqueous (e.g. Mediterranean Ridge), to subaerial (e.g. SE Turkey). The active margin development is partially obscured by microcontinent-continent collision and post-collisional strike-slip deformation (e.g. Tauride-Arabian suture). However, the Kyrenia Range, N Cyprus provides an outstanding record of convergent margin to early stage collisional processes. It owes its existence to strong localised uplift during the Pleistocene, which probably resulted from the collision of a continental promontory of N Africa (Eratosthenes Seamount) with the long-lived S Neotethyan active margin to the north. A multi-stage convergence history is revealed, mainly from a combination of field structural, sedimentological and igneous geochemical studies. Initial Late Cretaceous convergence resulted in greenschist facies burial metamorphism that is likely to have been related to the collision, then rapid exhumation, of a continental fragment (stage 1). During the latest Cretaceous-Palaeogene, the Kyrenia lineament was characterised by subduction-influenced magmatism and syn-tectonic sediment deposition. Early to Mid-Eocene, S-directed thrusting and folding (stage 2) is likely to have been influenced by the suturing of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean to the north ('N Neotethys'). Convergence continued during the Neogene, dominated by deep-water terrigenous gravity-flow accumulation in a foredeep setting

  4. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.


    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  5. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics (United States)

    Zuber, Maria


    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  6. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.


    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks

  7. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.


    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  8. Tectonics and magmatism of ultraslow spreading ridges (United States)

    Dubinin, E. P.; Kokhan, A. V.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.


    The tectonics, structure-forming processes, and magmatism in rift zones of ultraslow spreading ridges are exemplified in the Reykjanes, Kolbeinsey, Mohns, Knipovich, Gakkel, and Southwest Indian ridges. The thermal state of the mantle, the thickness of the brittle lithospheric layer, and spreading obliquety are the most important factors that control the structural pattern of rift zones. For the Reykjanes and Kolbeinsey ridges, the following are crucial factors: variations in the crust thickness; relationships between the thicknesses of its brittle and ductile layers; width of the rift zone; increase in intensity of magma supply approaching the Iceland thermal anomaly; and spreading obliquety. For the Knipovich Ridge, these are its localization in the transitional zone between the Gakkel and Mohns ridges under conditions of shear and tensile stresses and multiple rearrangements of spreading; nonorthogonal spreading; and structural and compositional barrier of thick continental lithosphere at the Barents Sea shelf and Spitsbergen. The Mohns Ridge is characterized by oblique spreading under conditions of a thick cold lithosphere and narrow stable rift zone. The Gakkel and the Southwest Indian ridges are distinguished by the lowest spreading rate under the settings of the along-strike variations in heating of the mantle and of a variable spreading geometry. The intensity of endogenic structure-forming varies along the strike of the ridges. In addition to the prevalence of tectonic factors in the formation of the topography, magmatism and metamorphism locally play an important role.

  9. Assessment of local and regional climate signals in water stable isotopes and chemistry records from new high resolution shallow ice cores in Adélie Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Goursaud, Sentia; Masson Delmotte, Valerie; Preunkert, Susanne; Legrand, Michel; Werner, Martin


    Documenting climatic variations in Antarctica is important to characterize natural climate variability and to provide a long-term context for recent changes. For this purpose, ice cores are unique archives providing a variety of proxy records. While water stable isotopes are commonly used to reconstruct past temperatures, their variability may also reflect changes in moisture origin and evaporation conditions. Further information on the origin of air masses can be obtained from aerosols, through the chemical analyses of ice cores. In high accumulation regions, such as the coastal Adélie Land area, the combination of water stable isotope and chemical records is crucial to date ice cores by annual layer counting and assess the associated uncertainty on annual accumulation rates, but may also help to unveil past changes in regional atmospheric circulation. In order to document accumulation in the area from Dumont d'Urville station to the central Antarctic plateau, towards Dome C, the Agence Nationale de la Recherche ASUMA project (Improving the Accuracy of the Surface Mass Balance of Antarctica, 2014-2018) initiated new field campaigns and was successful in obtaining a network of new shallow ice cores in a previously undocumented region. Here, we will present new results from two shallow ice cores drilled in Adélie Land, the S1C1 ice core (67.71 °S, 139.83 °E ,279 m a.s.l.) drilled in January 2007 and the TA192A ice core (66.78 °S, 139.56 °E, 602 m a.s.l.). We have dated the ice cores by combining multi-parameter annual layer counting using major ions and δ18O, as well as reference horizons. This allowed us to estimate very contrasted accumulation rates (respectively 21.8 ± 6.9 cm w.e. y-1 and 73.38±21.9 cm w.e. y-1), averaged respectively over the period from 1946 to 2006 and from 1998 to 2014 . As a result, we have reconstructed annual accumulation rates, isotopic and ion time series, and investigated their characteristics (mean values, trends and

  10. Developing of a VS30 map for addressing site effects for Portugal: evaluation of the effectiveness of using VS30-proxies for stable continental regions. (United States)

    Vilanova, Susana; Narciso, Joao; Carvalho, Joao; Pinto, Carlos; Lopes, Isabel; Nemser, Eliza; Borges, Jose; Oliveira, Carlos


    - Sand deposits and clays, terrace deposits of Pleistocene age; and S6 - Alluvium, mud, sands, clay, silt and sand dune of Holocene age. The time-average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30m (Vs30) from the database sites range from 123m/s to 1870m/s. The variance of the distribution of Vs30 values varies significantly with the generalized geological unit, being larger S1 and S2 units. The use of proxies based either on the geological-geographical units developed for California by Wills and Clahan (2006) or on correlations with the topographic slope for stable continental regions (Wald and Allen, 2007) shows relatively unbiased total residual distributions of the logarithm of Vs30, although with a large variance. However, the performance of both methods varies significantly with the generalized geological unit analyzed. Both methods are highly biased towards lower values of Vs30 for unit S1 (hard rock). The topographic-slope method shows inconsistent bias for each generalized unit. These results are not in agreement with those of Lemoine et al. (2012) who concluded that, for stable continental regions, the topographic-slope method performance was best for rock sites (A/B NERPH class). This discrepancy points to the limitations of the database on near-surface site-conditions used in project SHARE in what concerns stable continental regions.

  11. Tectonic, stratigraphy and sedimentation during the Aptian along the Brazilian eastern margin; Tectonica, estratigrafia e sedimentacao no Andar Aptiano da margem leste brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Jeferson Luiz [PETROBRAS, Santos, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Interpretacao do Norte da Bacia de Santos]. E-mail:


    The main tectonic, stratigraphic and sedimentary aspects of the Aptian Stage along the Brazilian Eastern Basins were analyzed based on data from 28 wells drilled by PETROBRAS, including the description of 750 meters of cores. The Aptian along the Eastern Margin (from Santos to Camamu-Almada basins) can be subdivided into 2 main packages with specific tectonic and sedimentary characteristics. The Lower Aptian (upper part of Jiquia to lower part of Alagoas local stages) is characterized by continental sedimentation under rift tectonics. Scarce marine incursions were recognized in this package. Sedimentation occurred mainly in grabens located in the central portions of the rift and in scattered grabens located in proximal areas. This caused sub aerial exposure of large proximal areas generating a regional unconformity called 'pre-Upper Aptian Unconformity'. The Upper Aptian (Upper Alagoas local stage) package was deposited under stable tectonic conditions in a sag basin. The lower portion of this unit is characterized by a fluvial-alluvial sedimentation with a widespread occurrence throughout the proximal areas of all marginal basins. Distal sediments however were deposited under shallow marine conditions. At the end of the Aptian a strong period of aridity and the presence of a volcanic barrier, the Sao Paulo High, allowed the deposition of a very thick evaporitic package ('Ibura Event'). These evaporites are estimated to be deposited in about 600,000 years. (author)

  12. Mass loss as a driving mechanism of tectonics of Enceladus (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek


    ~0.05 mm-yr-1 is possible if we assume Newtonian rheology of the ice. For non-Newtonian rheology more probable value is ~0.01 mm-yr-1. In this case the velocity of motion of the 'mantle' material is higher. 4. Experimental model The map of the STP shows the low polygonal region surrounded by the characteristic 'arcs'. In the laboratory model we observed the regular pentagonal plate (model of STP) sinking in viscoelastic material. Its rheology corresponds to assumption that icy plates are warm enough to creep like glaciers. In the laboratory model we have found 'kinks' formed above vertices of the plate. Contrary to expectations (the viscoelastic material behaves like the fluid for the considered time scale) these 'kinks' appear to be stable features. The 'kinks' are similar to the 'arcs' in the STP. This fact suggests that 'plates' adjacent to the SPT could behave like glaciers. 5. Conclusions Our hypothesis is a natural consequence of observed mass loss. In our opinion this mass loss is a main factor driving tectonic motions. Of course, it does not exclude some form of solid state convection in the icy mantle, but in fact this convection is not needed. The time of operation of this form of tectonics is not known. There are some observations suggesting that the activity in the STP is now decreasing. The periodic changes of activity are possible. Other observations suggest that in the past there were other centers of activity similar to the present STP [1]. The indication of the future activity centers is less certain. However, the ovoid-shaped depression up to 2 km deep, of size 200×140 km with the center at 200E, 15S is a good candidate - [7, 8]. Acknowledgements The research is partly supported by National Science Centre (grant 2011/ 01/ B/ ST10/06653). References [1] Spencer, J. R., et al. Enceladus: An Active Cryovolcanic Satellite, in: M.K. Dougherty et al. (eds.), Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, Springer Science, (2009), p. 683. [2] Kargel, J.S. Enceladus: Cosmic

  13. Tectonic evolution of Tarim basin in Cambrian–Ordovician and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 2 ... In order to find the impact of regional tectonic evolution of Tarim basin on the inside distribution of sedimentary facies and reservoir development, this paper, based on the research of plate-tectonic evolution of Tarim basin, conducts an in-depth ...

  14. Dietary Patterns Derived Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis are Stable and Generalizable Across Race, Region, and Gender Subgroups in the REGARDS Study (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Shikany, James M.; Roth, David L.; Newby, P. K.


    Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups. Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, and sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the “Convenience” pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the “Plant-based” pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the “Sweets/Fats” pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the “Southern” pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the “Alcohol/Salads” pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusion: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex, and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25988129


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaiying


    Full Text Available The Shanxi tectonic belt is a historically earthquakeabundant area. For the majority of strong earthquakes in this area, the distribution of earthquake foci was controlled by the N–S oriented local structures on the tectonic belt. Studies of the present stress state of the Shanxi tectonic belt can contribute to the understanding of the relationship between strong earthquakes’ occurrence and their structural distribution and also facilitate assessments of regional seismic danger and determination of the regions wherein strong earthquakes may occur in future. Using the Cataclastic Analysis Method (CAM, we performed stress inversion based on the focal mechanism data of earthquakes which took place in the Shanxi tectonic belt from 1967 to 2010. Our results show that orientations of the maximum principal compressive stress axis of the Shanxi tectonic belt might have been variable before and after the 2001 Kunlun MS=8.1 strong earthquake, with two different superior trends of the NW–SE and NE–SW orientation in different periods. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is oriented in the NE–SW direction, the pattern of the space distribution of the seismic events in the Shanxi tectonic belt shows a trend of their concentration in the N–S oriented tectonic segments. At the same time, the stress state is registered as horizontal shearing and horizontal extension in the N–S and NE–SW oriented local segments in turn. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is NW–SE oriented, the stress state of the N–S and NE–SW oriented tectonic segments is primarily registered as horizontal shearing. Estimations of plunges of stress axes show that seismicity in the Shanxi belt  corresponds primarily to the activity of lowangle faults, and highangle stress sites are located in the NE–SW oriented extensional tectonic segments of the Shanxi belt. This indicates that the stress change of the Shanxi belt is



    Hässig, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Topuz, G.; Çelik, Ö.; Sosson, Marc


    International audience; In order to better understand the tectonic evolution of the Sevan-Akera suture zone, particularly its connection westward into the Ankara-Erzincan suture, field observations and sampling were carried out on the Erzincan suture zone (near Erzincan). The goal of this study is to solve the problem of linking both odbucted ophiolitic domains. As in Armenia, the structures in Turkey are complex and have been reworked and reactivated because of post-obduction collision stage...

  17. Tectonic setting of the Ohře/Eger Graben between the central part of the České středohoří Mts. and the Most Basin, a regional study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cajz, Vladimír; Valečka, J.


    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 201-215 ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : surface-detected faults * timing of tectonic activity * Ohře/Eger Graber/Rift * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin * České středohoří Volcanic Complex * Most Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2010

  18. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi......Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  19. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole


    Contemporary techniques for concrete casting in an architectural context are challenged by demands of increased individualization in our built environment, reductions in the use of resources and waste generation. In recent years, new production technologies and strategies that break...... of geometric forms in concrete. The former was referred to as mould tectonics, the latter concrete tectonics. A study of the concepts of ‘New Production Philosophy’, ‘Mass-customization’, and Digital Tectonics is presented as a basis for investigating their use in concrete casting. Digital modelling...... plastic in which precision is maintained. The ability to reuse the PETG moulds makes the technique a zero waste production. In general it was concluded that problems with existing techniques relate to production time, surface quality and precision and are caused by the use of mould fabrication technique...

  20. Realization of EEC OON strategy for education in the interest of stable development on the regional level (on the example of elaboration of the system of ecological education at non-core educational institution of higher education


    Melnikova, O.


    The paper deals with the historical prerequisites of forming EEC OON strategy for education in the interest of stable development. Ecological education in the light of the conception of stable development as an integrating factor of education in general is described. The example of the realization of the strategy on the regional level is given. The topicality of making the system of ecological education at non-core educational institution of higher education is shown.

  1. Tectonics control over instability of volcanic edifices in transtensional tectonic regimes (United States)

    Norini, G.; Capra, L.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Manea, M.; Groppelli, G.


    We present the results of analogue modeling designed to investigate the interactions between volcanic edifices and transtensional basement faulting. Three sets of experiments were run to account for three examples of stratovolcanoes in active transtensive tectonics regimes, the Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes in Mexico, and the Mayon volcano in the Philippines. All these volcanoes show different behavior and relationship among volcanism, instability of the volcanic edifice, and basement tectonics. Field geological and structural data gave the necessary constrains to the models. The modeling apparatus consisted of a sand cone on a sheared basal layer. Injections of vegetable oil were used to model the rising of magma inside the deformed analogue cones. Set 1: In the case of a volcano directly on top of a basal transtensive shear producing a narrow graben, as observed on the Nevado de Toluca volcano, the analogue models reveal a strong control of the basement faulting on the magma migration path and the volcano instability. Small lateral collapses are directed parallel to the basal shear and affect a limited sector of the cone. Set 2: If the graben generated by transtensive tectonics is bigger in respect to the volcanic edifice and the volcano sits on one boundary fault, as in the case of Mayon volcano, the combined normal and transcurrent movements of the analogue basement fault generate a sigmoidal structure in the sand cone, inducing major sector collapses directed at approx 45° relative to the basement shear toward the downthrown block. Set 3: For volcanoes located near major transtensive faults, as the Jocotitlan volcano, analogue modelling shows an important control of the regional tectonics on the geometry of the fractures and migration paths of magma inside the cone. These structures render unstable the flanks of the volcano and promote sector collapses perpendicular to the basement shear and directed toward the graben formed by the transtensive

  2. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of ambient aerosols collected from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian dusts and pollutants (United States)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Zhu, Chunmao


    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were measured for total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN), respectively, in aerosol (TSP) samples collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, an outflow region of Asian pollutants, during 2009-2010. The averaged δ13C and δ15N ratios are -22.2‰ and +12.5‰, respectively. The δ13C values are similar in both spring (-22.5‰) and winter (-22.5‰), suggesting the similar sources and/or source regions. We found that δ13C from Okinawa aerosols are ca. 2‰ higher than those reported from Chinese megacities probably due to photochemical aging of organic aerosols. A strong correlation (r = 0.81) was found between nss-Ca and TSP, suggesting that springtime aerosols are influenced from Asian dusts. However, carbonates in the Asian dusts were titrated with acidic species such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid during atmospheric transport although two samples suggested the presence of remaining carbonate. No correlations were found between δ13C and tracer compounds (levoglucosan, elemental carbon, oxalic acid, and Na+). During winter and spring, coal burning is significant source in China. Based on isotopic mass balance, contribution of coal burning origin particles to total aerosol carbon was estimated as ca. 97% in winter, which is probably associated with the high emissions in China. Contribution of NO3- to TN was on average 45% whereas that of NH4+ was 18%. These results suggest that vehicular exhaust is an important source of TN in Okinawa aerosols. Concentration of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is higher in summer, suggesting that WSON is more emitted from the ocean in warmer season whereas inorganic nitrogen is more emitted in winter and spring from pollution sources in the Asian continent.

  3. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.


    Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between...... or cover tectonism took place. Our objectives are thus 1) to analyze the interaction between basement and cover structures, and if possible 2) to relate the structures to the regional tectonic evolution. The Zechstein evaporites pinch out onto the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, which in the eastern North Sea...... including decompaction in the Central Graben along the Arne-Elin trend shows that two phases of basement related inversion took place duringthe Paleocene-Eocene and the Oligocene. Halokinetics and differential compaction across the Paleogene inversion structure explain later tectonic signals...

  4. Regional Distribution of Metals and C and N Stable Isotopes in the Epiphytic Ball Moss (Tillandsia Recurvata) at the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State (United States)

    Zambrano-Garcia, A.; López-Veneroni, D.; Rojas, A.; Torres, A.; Sosa, G.


    As a part of the MILAGRO Field Campaign 2006, the influence of anthropogenic sources to metal air pollution in the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State, was explored by biomonitoring techniques. This valley is a major industrial- agriculture area located in central Mexico. An oil refinery, an electrical power plant, several cement plants with open-pit mines, as well as intensive wastewater-based agricultural areas, all within a 50 km radius, are some of the most important local sources of particulate air pollution. The concentrations of 25 metals and elements were determined by ICP-AES (EPA 610C method) for triplicate composite samples of the "ball moss" (T. recurvata ) collected at 50 sites. In addition, the ratios of two stable isotopes ((13C/12C and 15N/14N) were determined by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in order to assess their potential as tracers for industrial emissions. Preliminary results showed high to very high average contents of several metals in the biomonitor compared to values from similar studies in other world regions, indicating a high degree of local air pollution. In contrast, most samples had Ag, As, Be, Se and Tl contents below detection levels (DL = 0.05 mg/kg of sample dry weight) indicating low levels of pollution by these metals. Metals such as Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Li, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrated the most at the South portion of the valley, where the Tepeji-Tula-Apaxco industrial corridor is located. A transect parallel to the along-wind direction (N-S) showed a higher concentration of metals farther away from the sources relative to a cross-wind transect, which is consistent with the eolian transport of metal-enriched particles. Regional distribution maps of metals in the biomonitor showed that Al, Ba, Fe, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti and V had higher levels at the industrial sampling sites; whereas K, Na and P were more abundant near to agriculture areas. Vanadium, a common element of crude oil, reflected better the influence from

  5. Aspects of collision tectonics and intraplate deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, M.P.


    Alpine collisional tectonics occurred episodically over the past 100 m.y., closing various small Tethyan basins and causing ripples of basin contraction and tectonic inversion across western Europe. Both at the Tethyan margin and in the smaller basins, deformation styles were controlled by existing fault geometries, in particular, (1) the position, dip, and detachment levels of the important bounding normal faults, (2) the locations of northwest-southwest trending lateral ramps/tear faults, which compartmentalize and tram-line the deformation, and (3) the distribution and thickness of Mesozoic postrift sediments. Collision began in the middle Cretaceous, with the closure of Ligurian and Valais basins and the associated reactivation of northwest-southeast strike-slip faults and small basins as far away as the Atlantic margin. This movement was associated with the earliest orogenic flysch deposits, the subduction of Tethyan ophiolites, and local A-type subduction and high-pressure metamorphism close to the Tethyan continental margins. Major crustal shortening occurred in southern Europe (Spain and southern France) in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene associated with closure of Pyrenean basins, but in the Alps, the major shortening continued throughout the Neogene. Section restorations based on regional studies, linked to commercial and deep seismic data, indicate well over 100 km of crustal shortening in the western and central Alps, with subduction of lower European crust and lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Alps and the Po plain.

  6. Vertical tectonics at an active continental margin (United States)

    Houlié, N.; Stern, T. A.


    Direct observations of vertical movements of the earth's surface are now possible with space-based GPS networks, and have applications to resources, hazards and tectonics. Here we present data on vertical movements of the Earth's surface in New Zealand, computed from the processing of GPS data collected between 2000 and 2015 by 189 permanent GPS stations. We map the geographical variation in vertical rates and show how these variations are explicable within a tectonic framework of subduction, volcanic activity and slow slip earthquakes. Subsidence of >3 mm/yr is observed along southeastern North Island and is interpreted to be due to the locked segment of the Hikurangi subduction zone. Uplift of 1-3 mm/yr further north along the margin of the eastern North Island is interpreted as being due to the plate interface being unlocked and underplating of sediment on the subduction thrust. The Volcanic Plateau of the central North Island is being uplifted at about 1 mm/yr, which can be explained by basaltic melts being injected in the active mantle-wedge at a rate of ∼6 mm/yr. Within the Central Volcanic Region there is a 250 km2 area that subsided between 2005 and 2012 at a rate of up to 14 mm/yr. Time series from the stations located within and near the zone of subsidence show a strong link between subsidence, adjacent uplift and local earthquake swarms.

  7. Tectonized Terrains of Enceladus: The Same but Different (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Crow-Willard, E.


    The Cassini spacecraft has now imaged Enceladus sufficiently well to recognize details of the satellite’s three distinct large-scale quasi-circular regions of tectonic deformation. In addition to the well-known “south polar terrain” (SPT), Enceladus also displays tectonically deformed terrains that we refer to as “trailing hemisphere terrain” (THT) and “leading hemisphere terrain” (LHT). Global geological mapping shows that each of the three terrains has a central region of tectonic deformation that is framed by units of curvilinear ridges and troughs, and all have comparable areal extent (the SPT being the smallest). Initial mapping by Porco et al. (Science 311, 1393, 2006) shows that the SPT has a central region which contains the distinctive subparallel “tiger stripes” and is wrapped by curvilinear terrain displaying outward-pointed Y-shaped zones of deformation that transition into radiating fracture zones. In its central region, the THT contains relatively old striated plains (Diyar and Sarandib Planitiae). These striated units are transected by ridged terrain, characterized by large ridges (the unusual “dorsa”), which are inferred to have formed by contraction and thrust faulting. The THT contains a unit consisting of smooth materials and long shallow troughs that is nearly identical to materials of the central SPT and with similar orientation. The LHT also contains a disorganized network of troughs similar to the central terrain of the SPT. The LHT contains polygons of sub-parallel troughs, suggestive of shearing. Neither the THT nor the LHT displays long individual and subparallel tectonic fractures that resemble the tiger stripes, and neither displays radiating fracture zones like those of the SPT. The gross similarities in shape and dimension of the tectonized terrains of Enceladus suggest similar formational processes, plausibly representing deformation above large-scale regions of warm ice. However, differences in morphological

  8. Pargo Chasma and its relationship to global tectonics (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.


    Pargo Chasma was first identified on Pioneer Venus data as a 10,000 km long lineation extending from Atla Regio in the north terminating in the plains south of Phoebe Regio. More recent Magellan data have revealed this feature to be one of the longest chains of coronae so far identified on the planet. Stofan et al have identified 60 coronae and 2 related features associated with this chain; other estimates differ according to the classification scheme adopted, for example Head et al. identify only 29 coronae but 43 arachnoids in the same region. This highlights one of the major problems associated with the preliminary mapping of the Magellan data: there has been an emphasis on identifying particular features on Venus without a universally accepted scheme to classify those features. Nevertheless, Pargo Chasma is clearly identified as a major tectonic belt of global significance. Together with the Artemis-Atla-Beta tectonic zone and the Beta-Phoebe rift belt, Pargo Chasma defines a region on Venus with an unusually high concentration of tectonic and volcanic features. Thus, an understanding of the processes involved in the formation of Pargo Chasma may lend significant insight into the evolution of the region and the planet as a whole. I have produced a detailed 1 to 10 million scale map of Pargo Chasma and the surrounding area from preliminary USGS controlled mosaiced image maps of Venus constructed from Magellan data. In view of the problems highlighted above in relation the efforts already made at identifying a particular set of features I have mapped the region purely on the basis of the geomorphology visible in the magellan data without any attempt at identifying a particular set or class of features. Thus, the map produced distinguishes between areas of different brightness and texture. This has the advantage of highlighting the tectonic fabric of Pargo Chasma and clearly illustrates the close inter-relationship between individual coronae and the surrounding

  9. Tectonic and volcanic implications of a cratered seamount off Nicobar Island, Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.; Ray, D.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Murty, G.P.S.; Gahalaut, V.K.; Samudrala, K.; Paropkari, A.L.; Ramachandran, R.; SuryaPrakash, L.

    The region of the Nicobar earthquake swarm of January 2005 has been explored during a recent cruise using multibeam swath bathymetry, seafloor imaging and TV-guided sampling to decipher the seafloor morphology, nature and tectonic frame work. A...

  10. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.


    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  11. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.


    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  12. The Aegean: A natural laboratory for tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchfiel, B C


    The Aegean, a young and active tectonic region, is a natural laboratory for analyzing many tectonic processes that occur in backarc extensional regimes, and the correlation of these processes from landscape development to deeper mantle dynamics. Cenozoic development of the Aegean region was dominated by subduction beneath Europe and coeval upper plate extension modified by westward extrusion of Anatolia. Intraorogenic and backarc extension began during early Cenozoic time within the Balkans and NW Turkey during closure of the Vardar ocean. Extension was manifested by core complex formation and a change in volcanism caused by the evolution of the lithosphere and mantle wedge. Following a short period of local (?) shortening in ∼ early Miocene time, regional extension began and continued to the present. Within the Hellenides, E-W extension and the subduction zone migrated westward as thick and thin crustal units were progressively accreted and were complexly rotated up to 40 0 CW. Within the eastern Balkans and NW Turkey, N-S extension migrated westward and southward, and in the Aegean the volcanic arc and subduction zone migrated southward. Turkish crustal elements rotated complexly CCW, which in concert with the CW rotation in the Hellenides increased the curvature of the subduction zone and lengthened the orogen causing greater subsidence and extension in the Aegean Sea. Westward extrusion of Anatolia from the Arabian collision zone was enhanced by slab roll back in west moving Aegean crust more rapidly westward. Abundant evidence supports slab rollback at different velocities along the subduction zone. In Pliocene time, the North Anatolian fault crossed the Hellenides in a complex transtensional zone and a diffuse zone of left-lateral shear crossed western Turkey at present isolating a relatively undeforming Aegean plate. Major tectonic questions include: What is the geometry and fate of subducted slabs?, How much crust is accreted during subduction of thick

  13. Global tectonics and space geodesy. (United States)

    Gordon, R G; Stein, S


    Much of the success of plate tectonics can be attributed to the near rigidity of tectonic plates and the availability of data that describe the rates and directions of motion across narrow plate boundaries \\m=~\\1 to 60 kilometers wide. Nonetheless, many plate boundaries in both continental and oceanic lithosphere are not narrow but are hundreds to thousands of kilometers wide. Wide plate boundary zones cover \\m=~\\15 percent of Earth's surface area. Space geodesy, which includes very long baseline radio interferometry, satellite laser ranging, and the global positioning system, is providing the accurate long-distance measurements needed to estimate the present motion across and within wide plate boundary zones. Space geodetic data show that plate velocities averaged over years are remarkably similar to velocities averaged over millions of years.

  14. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75


    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  15. Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic transition process in Zhanhua Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China (United States)

    Cheng, Yanjun; Wu, Zhiping; Lu, Shunan; Li, Xu; Lin, Chengyan; Huang, Zheng; Su, Wen; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Shouye


    The Zhanhua sag is part of the Bohai Bay intracontinental basin system that has developed since the Mesozoic in East China. The timing of this basin system coincides with the final assembly of East Asia and the development of Western Pacific-type plate margin. Here we use 3-D seismic and core log data to investigate the evolution of this basin and discuss its broad tectonic settings. Our new structural study of Zhanhua sag suggests that there are four major tectonic transitions occurred in the Bohai Bay Basin during Mesozoic and Cenozoic: (1) The first tectonic transition was from stable Craton to thrusting during the Triassic, mainly caused by the South China Block's subduction northward beneath the North China Block, which induced the formation of the NW-striking thrust faults. (2) The second tectonic transition was mainly characterized by a change from compression to extension, which can be further divided into two-stages. At the first stage, two episodes of NW-SE shortening occurred in East Asia during Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, respectively. At the second stage, the extension and left-lateral shearing took place during Early Cretaceous while compression occurred during Late Cretaceous. The NW-striking thrust faults changed to normal faults and the NNE-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults started to influence the eastern part of the basin. (3) The third transition occurred when the NW-SE extension and NNE-striking right-lateral shearing started to form during Paleogene, and the peak deformation happen around 40 Ma due to the change of the subduction direction of Pacific Plate relative to Eurasia Plate. The NE-striking normal faults are the main structure, and the pre-existing NNE-striking strike-slip faults changed from left-lateral to right-lateral. (4) The fourth transition saw the regional subsidence during Neogene, which was probably caused by the India-Asia "Hard collision" between 25 and 20 Ma.

  16. Relative tectonic activity classification in the Kermanshah area, western Iran (United States)

    Arian, M.; Aram, Z.


    Due to the closing of the subduction zone and the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates, the High Zagros region has always been affected by a wide range of tectonic variations. In this research, the Gharasu River basin, which is located in the Kermanshah area, was selected as the study area, six geomorphic indices were calculated, and the results of each one were divided into three classes. Then, using the indices, relative tectonic activity was calculated, and their values were classified and analysed in four groups. Regions were identified as very high, high, moderate and low. In analysing the results and combining them with field observations and regional geology, the results were often associated and justified with field evidence. The highest value is located on the Dokeral anticline in the crush zone in Zagros. Most of the areas with high and moderate values of Index of Active Tectonics (IAT) are also located in the crush zone in Zagros. Crushing in this zone is because of the main fault mechanism of the Zagros region. The result in this paper confirms previous research in this region. At the eastern end of the study area, the value of Iat is high, which could be the result of the Sarab and Koh-e Sefid fault mechanisms.

  17. Emplacement of sandstone intrusions during contractional tectonics (United States)

    Palladino, Giuseppe; Grippa, Antonio; Bureau, Denis; Alsop, G. Ian; Hurst, Andrew


    Sandstone injections are created by the forceful emplacement of remobilized sand in response to increases in overpressure. However, the contribution provided by horizontal compressive stress to the build-up in overpressure, and the resulting emplacement of sand injection complexes, is still to be substantiated by robust field observations. An opportunity to address this issue occurs in Central California where a large volume of sandstone intrusions record regionally-persistent supra-lithostatic pore-pressure. Detailed fieldwork allows sandstone-filled thrusts to be recognized and, for the first time, permits us to demonstrate that some sandstone intrusions are linked to contractional deformation affecting the western border of the Great Valley Basin. Fluidized sand was extensively injected along thrust surfaces, and also fills local dilatant cavities linked to thrusting. The main aims of this paper are to provide detailed descriptions of the newly recognized syn-tectonic injections, and describe detailed cross-cutting relationships with earlier sandstone injection complexes in the study area. Finally, an evolutionary model consisting of three phases of sand injection is provided. In this model, sand injection is linked to contractional tectonic episodes affecting the western side of the Great Valley Basin during the Early-Middle Cenozoic. This study demonstrates that sand injections, driven by fluid overpressure, may inject along thrusts and folds and thereby overcome stresses associated with regional contractional deformation. It is shown that different generations of sand injection can develop in the same area under the control of different stress regimes, linked to the evolving mountain chain.

  18. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia


    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  19. Mantle structure and tectonic history of SE Asia (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Spakman, Wim


    Seismic travel-time tomography of the mantle under SE Asia reveals patterns of subduction-related seismic P-wave velocity anomalies that are of great value in helping to understand the region's tectonic development. We discuss tomography and tectonic interpretations of an area centred on Indonesia and including Malaysia, parts of the Philippines, New Guinea and northern Australia. We begin with an explanation of seismic tomography and causes of velocity anomalies in the mantle, and discuss assessment of model quality for tomographic models created from P-wave travel times. We then introduce the global P-wave velocity anomaly model UU-P07 and the tectonic model used in this paper and give an overview of previous interpretations of mantle structure. The slab-related velocity anomalies we identify in the upper and lower mantle based on the UU-P07 model are interpreted in terms of the tectonic model and illustrated with figures and movies. Finally, we discuss where tomographic and tectonic models for SE Asia converge or diverge, and identify the most important conclusions concerning the history of the region. The tomographic images of the mantle record subduction beneath the SE Asian region to depths of approximately 1600 km. In the upper mantle anomalies mainly record subduction during the last 10 to 25 Ma, depending on the region considered. We interpret a vertical slab tear crossing the entire upper mantle north of west Sumatra where there is a strong lateral kink in slab morphology, slab holes between c.200-400 km below East Java and Sumbawa, and offer a new three-slab explanation for subduction in the North Sulawesi region. There is a different structure in the lower mantle compared to the upper mantle and the deep structure changes from west to east. What was imaged in earlier models as a broad and deep anomaly below SE Asia has a clear internal structure and we argue that many features can be identified as older subduction zones. We identify remnants of slabs

  20. Framework for Tectonic Thinking, a Conceptual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garritzmann, Udo


    This research paper is a contribution to the field of architectural design theory in the area of tectonics. From the designer’s point of view, it will develop an overarching conceptual framework for tectonic thinking (FTT), which will serve as a tool for the comparative analysis and interpretation...... of a wide range of tectonic motifs and design positions. The understanding of tectonics will be broadened and differentiated. The conceptual framework will be developed in writing and in hand-drawn mappings. This comparative method assumes not one single, supposedly right, meaning of tectonics, but several...... a value judgement beforehand about any of these positions. Also a-tectonic design positions will be regarded as valid positions within this framework....

  1. Geomorphic Indices in the Assessment of Tectonic Activity in Forearc of the Active Mexican Subduction Zone (United States)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.


    Rapid development of GIS techniques and constant advancement of digital elevation models significantly improved the accuracy of extraction of information on active tectonics from landscape features. Numerous attempts were made to quantitatively evaluate recent tectonic activity using GIS and DEMs, and a set of geomorphic indices (GI), however these studies focused mainly on sub-basins or small-scale areal units. In forearc regions where crustal deformation is usually large-scale and do not concentrate only along one specific fault, an assessment of the complete basin is more accurate. We present here the first attempt to implement thirteen GI in the assessment of active tectonics of a forearc region of an active convergent margin using the entire river basins. The GIs were divided into groups: BTAI - basin geomorphic indices (reflecting areal erosion vs. tectonics) and STAI - stream geomorphic indices (reflecting vertical erosion vs. tectonics). We calculated selected indices for 9 large (> 450 km2) drainage basins. Then we categorized the obtained results of each index into three classes of relative tectonic activity: 1 - high, 2 - moderate, and 3 - low. Finally we averaged these classes for each basin to determine the tectonic activity level (TAI). The analysis for the case study area, the Guerrero sector at the Mexican subduction zone, revealed high tectonic activity in this area, particularly in its central and, to a lesser degree, eastern part. This pattern agrees with and is supported by interpretation of satellite images and DEM, and field observations. The results proved that the proposed approach indeed allows identification and recognition of areas witnessing recent tectonic deformation. Moreover, our results indicated that, even though no large earthquake has been recorded in this sector for more than 100 years, the area is highly active and may represent a seismic hazard for the region.

  2. Provenance and tectonic setting of the Triassic Yidun Group, the Yidun Terrane, Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Qiu Wang


    Prominently high Zr/Sc ratio or Hf concentration and Paleoproterozoic Nd modal ages (1.94–2.21 Ga point to input of recycling components derived from old sedimentary source in a relatively stable tectonic setting.

  3. Tectonics and volcanism on Mars: a compared remote sensing analysis with earthly geostructures (United States)

    Baggio, Paolo; Ancona, M. A.; Callegari, I.; Pinori, S.; Vercellone, S.


    The recent knowledge on Mars' lithosphere evolution does not find yet sufficient analogies with the Earth's tectonic models. The Viking image analysis seems to be even now frequently, rather fragmentary, and do not permits to express any coherent relationships among the different detected phenomena. Therefore, today it is impossible to support any reliable kinematic hypothesis. The Remote-Sensing interpretation is addressed to a Viking image mosaic of the known Tharsis Montes region and particularly focused on the Arsia Mons volcano. Several previously unknown lineaments, not directly linked to volcano-tectonics, were detected. Their mutual relationships recall transcurrent kinematics that could be related to similar geostructural models known in the Earth plate tectonic dynamics. Several concordant relationships between the Arsia Mons volcano and the brittle extensive tectonic features of earthly Etnean district (Sicily, South Italy), interpreted on Landsat TM images, were pointed out. These analogies coupled with the recently confirmed strato- volcano topology of Tharsis Montes (Head and Wilson), the layout distribution of the effusive centers (Arsia, Pavonis and Ascraeus Montes), the new tectonic lineaments and the morphological features, suggest the hypothesis of a plate tectonic volcanic region. The frame could be an example in agreement with the most recent interpretation of Mars (Sleep). A buried circular body, previously incorrectly interpreted as a great landslide event from the western slope of Arsia Mons volcano, seems really to be a more ancient volcanic structure (Arsia Mons Senilis), which location is in evident relation with the interpreted new transcurrent tectonic system.

  4. Tectonic and climatic controls on provenance changes of fine-grained dust on the Chinese Loess Plateau since the late Oligocene (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Ma, Long; Sun, Youbin


    Provenance variations of Late Cenozoic aeolian deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) were closely associated with regional tectonic activity and climatic change. Previous studies, however, have not reached a consensus regarding the nature and origin of past variations in source. This study presents the results of oxygen isotope (δ18O) analyses of fine-grained quartz (dust sources and previous provenance studies of the same aeolian sequences, we identify three significant composition changes of the dust source system at around 20, 12, and 2.6 Ma. The dust source system was also rather unstable at 25-20, 12-7 and 1.2-0 Ma, while three stable stages occurred at 20-12, 7-2.6, and 2.6-1.2 Ma. The correlation between the provenance changes and paleoclimatic and tectonic evidence suggests that both tectonic and climatic factors were important in driving the observed stepwise provenance changes. However, the changes were mainly constrained by Tibetan Plateau uplift prior to the Quaternary, and by global climate change thereafter.

  5. Contemporary tectonic stress: Advances in research and industry (United States)

    Müller, Birgit; Sperner, Blanka

    The need for knowledge about the in situ tectonic stress field in research and economic applications was the topic of a series of two World Stress Map (WSM) Euroconferences. WSM is a global database containing information on contemporary tectonic stress in the Earth's crust, which is derived from six types of stress indicators: earthquake focal mechanisms, well bore breakouts, hydraulic fracturing, overcoring measurements, and young (Quaternary) geological indicators such as faultslip data and volcanic alignments.The database as well as stress maps from different regions of the world are available via the Internet ( The first WSM Euroconference addressed the commercial application of in situ stress measurements. Improved knowledge of tectonic stress and effective rock strength is important in the design and construction of underground openings. For oil companies in charge of exploration and production, in situ stresses are basic input data for the calculation of actual production rates, petrophysical properties, borehole stability, compaction, subsidence, seismicity, solid control, sand production, geomechanical parameters, hydrocarbon migration, and hydraulic fracturing.The loss of drilling mud or hydrocarbons due to incomplete sealing of the drill holes or unexpected fracturing caused by tectonic stress leads to severe environmental problems and economic losses. In civil engineering and mining, the stability aspect is of equal economic importance, but in addition, the stability of road tunnels and mines is essential to save human life.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova


    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  7. Navigating Towards Digital Tectonic Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    The computer holds a great potential to break down the barriers between architecture and the technical aspects relating to architecture, thus supporting innovative architecture with an inner correspondence between form and technique. While the differing values in architecture and technique can seem...... a tectonic tool should encompass. Secondly the ability and validity of the model are shown by applying it to a case study of Jørn Utzon’s work on Minor Hall in Sydney Opera House - for the sake of exemplification the technical field focused on in this paper is room acoustics. Thirdly the relationship between...

  8. Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river (United States)

    Costa, João Batista Sena; Léa Bemerguy, Ruth; Hasui, Yociteru; da Silva Borges, Maurício


    The main structural and geomorphological features along the Amazon River are closely associated with Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events. The Mesozoic tectonic setting is characterised by the Amazonas and Marajó Basins, two distinct extensional segments. The Amazonas Basin is formed by NNE-SSW normal faults, which control the emplacement of dolerite dykes and deposition of the sedimentary pile. In the more intense tectonic phase (mid-Late Cretaceous), the depocentres were filled with fluvial sequences associated with axial drainage systems, which diverge from the Lower Tapajós Arch. During the next subsidence phase, probably in the Early Tertiary, and under low rate extension, much of the drainage systems reversed, directing the paleo-Amazon River to flow eastwards. The Marajó Basin encompasses NW-SE normal faults and NE-SW strike-slip faults, with the latter running almost parallel to the extensional axes. The normal faults controlled the deposition of thick rift and post-rift sequences and the emplacement of dolerite dykes. During the evolution of the basin, the shoulder (Gurupá Arch) became distinct, having been modelled by drainage systems strongly controlled by the trend of the strike-slip faults. The Arari Lineament, which marks the northwest boundary of the Marajó Basin, has been working as a linkage corridor between the paleo and modern Amazon River with the Atlantic Ocean. The neotectonic evolution since the Miocene comprises two sets of structural and geomorphological features. The older set (Miocene-Pliocene) encompasses two NE-trending transpressive domains and one NW-trending transtensive domain, which are linked to E-W and NE-SW right-lateral strike-slip systems. The transpressive domains display aligned hills controlled by reverse faults and folds, and are separated by large plains associated with pull-apart basins along clockwise strike-slip systems (e.g. Tupinambarana Lineament). Many changes were introduced in the landscape by the

  9. Tectonic DSAEK for the Management of Impending Corneal Perforation (United States)

    Graue-Hernandez, Enrique O.; Zuñiga-Gonzalez, Isaac; Hernandez-Camarena, Julio C.; Jaimes, Martha; Chirinos-Saldaña, Patricia; Navas, Alejandro; Ramirez-Miranda, Arturo


    Purpose. To report a case of severe corneal thinning secondary to dry eye treated with a tectonic Descemet stripping automated lamellar keratoplasty (DSAEK) and amniotic membrane graft. Methods. A 72-year-old man with a history of long standing diabetes mellitus type 2 and dry eye presented with 80% corneal thinning and edema on the right eye and no signs of infectious disease, initially managed with topical unpreserved lubrication and 20% autologous serum drops. Eight weeks after, the defect advanced in size and depth until Descemetocele was formed. Thereafter, he underwent DSAEK for tectonic purposes. One month after the procedure, the posterior lamellar graft was well adhered but a 4 mm epithelial defect was still present. A multilayered amniotic membrane graft was then performed. Results. Ocular surface healed quickly and reepithelization occurred over a 2-week period. Eight months after, the ocular surface remained stable and structurally adequate. Conclusion. Tectonic DSAEK in conjunction with multilayered amniotic graft may not only provide structural support and avoid corneal perforation, but may also promote reepithelization and ocular surface healing and decrease concomitant inflammation. PMID:23259100

  10. Tectonic DSAEK for the Management of Impending Corneal Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique O. Graue-Hernandez


    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of severe corneal thinning secondary to dry eye treated with a tectonic Descemet stripping automated lamellar keratoplasty (DSAEK and amniotic membrane graft. Methods. A 72-year-old man with a history of long standing diabetes mellitus type 2 and dry eye presented with 80% corneal thinning and edema on the right eye and no signs of infectious disease, initially managed with topical unpreserved lubrication and 20% autologous serum drops. Eight weeks after, the defect advanced in size and depth until Descemetocele was formed. Thereafter, he underwent DSAEK for tectonic purposes. One month after the procedure, the posterior lamellar graft was well adhered but a 4 mm epithelial defect was still present. A multilayered amniotic membrane graft was then performed. Results. Ocular surface healed quickly and reepithelization occurred over a 2-week period. Eight months after, the ocular surface remained stable and structurally adequate. Conclusion. Tectonic DSAEK in conjunction with multilayered amniotic graft may not only provide structural support and avoid corneal perforation, but may also promote reepithelization and ocular surface healing and decrease concomitant inflammation.

  11. Upright folding during extensional and transtensional tectonics (United States)

    Teyssier, Christian; Fossen, Haakon; Rey, Patrice F.; Whitney, Donna L.


    Upright folds are common structures that develop in response to horizontal shortening in layered material, for example in foreland basins that surround orogens. While the contractional nature of these folds is not in doubt, interpretation of their tectonic setting needs careful consideration. Here we focus on two examples: (1) folds developed in transtension; and (2) folds developed during the flow of deep crust in response to lithospheric extension. In both cases we consider folding of nearly horizontal layers that are either primary (bedding) or secondary (foliation). Strain theory inspired by John Ramsay's work makes predictions for the behavior of material lines and planes as well as strain axes (instantaneous, finite) during transtensional deformation. Results show: folds can form in transtension; fold hinges rotate toward the direction of divergence (and not the shear zone boundary as they do in transpression), providing unique insight into ancient plate motions; fold tightness is controlled by the obliquity of divergence and not finite strain; hinge parallel stretching is always greater than hinge-perpendicular shortening, resulting in constriction strain and boudinage of fold hinges. Taken together these results provide a rigorous framework for interpreting field observations where structures are complex and boundary conditions unclear. These principles are applied to various tectonic settings ranging from active tectonic regions of oblique divergence in western North America to ancient folding that developed during oblique extension of the Western Gneiss Region, deposition of Devonian basins, and exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure rocks in the Norwegian Caledonides. The other class of upright folds that form during extension may require revision of the tectonic interpretation of structural overprints in orogenic cores, for example in gneiss/migmatite domes. Dynamic modeling of extension of thick/hot crust predicts a positive feedback between extension of

  12. Interplay between tectonics and topography: Topographic stress controls on bedrock fractures and surface processes (United States)

    Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Martel, S. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; St Clair, J. T.; Singha, K.


    The interaction of tectonics, topography, and surface processes influences the evolution of landscapes in tectonically active regions. Though tectonic controls on topography have been extensively studied, the influence of topography on tectonics has been examined less. Theoretical studies have suggested that topography can perturb the tectonic and gravitational stress fields in landscapes, which can influence bedrock fracture patterns and in turn influence erosion. This hypothesis implies that there could be a feedback between topographic stress and landscape evolution such that topographically induced bedrock fractures influence and are influenced by surface processes in evolving topography. In this work, we explore the predictions of a three-dimensional topographic stress model and illustrate how different topographic forms and tectonic settings could influence bedrock fracture patterns. We show that the stress field is most sensitive to topographic perturbations if the most compressive horizontal tectonic stress is oriented perpendicular to the long axis of elongated landforms such as ridges and valleys, and that topographic stress perturbations are most pronounced beneath landforms with higher mean curvatures, such as channel junctions and ridge crests. The shape of a predicted fracture-rich zone in the subsurface depends mainly on the orientation of landforms relative to the most compressive horizontal tectonic stress direction and a dimensionless ratio that expresses the relative magnitudes of topographic stresses associated with tectonics and topographic relief. Variations in this dimensionless ratio can also change the predicted orientations of potential opening-mode fracture planes beneath ridges and valleys. We use these model results to illustrate how topographic perturbations of three-dimensional tectonic and gravitational stresses could influence landscape evolution by altering the rates and spatial heterogeneity of surface processes such as

  13. Raft tectonics in northern Campos Basin; Tectonica de jangada (raft tectonics) na area norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Marilia R. de [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil)]|[PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio da Bacia de Campos; Fugita, Adhemar M. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP


    In the northern area of Campos Basin salt gliding/spreading processes promoted the break-up and transport of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks overlying the evaporites. This process is known as raft tectonics, and it represents the most extreme form of thin-skinned extension above the salt decollement surface. Three distinct geotectonic domains were recognized that formed in response to the raft tectonics. The first one, confined to the shallower shelf portion of the basin, is characterized by minor extension (pre-raft domain), probably because of small salt thickness and low gradient. In the second domain (or disorganized rafts domain), located in distal platformal and slope areas, seismic sections show the occurrence of blocks or rafts with angular shapes, sometimes imbricated and frequently discontinuous. In the third domain, or domain of organized rafts, located in bacinal region, seismic sections show a more continuous raft pattern, often folded because of salt compression in the distal portions of the basin. The main purposes of this work is to characterize these three tectonic domains distinguished by raft tectonics, as well as their importance in hydrocarbon accumulations in calcarenites. (author)

  14. Tectonic obliteration of magmatic fabrics in an Ordovician ophiolite (United States)

    Di Chiara, A.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M. W.; Menegon, L. M.


    The Thetford Mines Ophiolite (TMO) is part of the Canadian Appalachians (Quebec region) which experienced syn-emplacement and two post-emplacement deformations, the Taconian (Ordovician) and the (Devonian) Acadian orogenies. New results from an integrated rock magnetic, petrological and microstructural study on 12 paleomagnetic sites show a complete tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results show that on the southern layered gabbros the magnetic fabric is locally preserved, being parallel to observed magmatic foliations. The nine sites from the northwestern sector of the TMO share a remarkably similar magnetic fabric, despite formed by fundamentally different magmatic processes. They are all characterized by a minimum anisotropy axis (kmin) oriented NW-SE and the maximum axis (kmax) steeply plunging to the NE. Additional microstructural analyses show that the kmax of the magnetic fabric is subparallel to the crystal preferred orientation of the iron rich particles. We think that at low strain regime the AMS fabric reflect the magmatic foliation; whereas at higher strain regime the AMS fabric has a tectonic overprint consistent with a shortening direction perpendicular to the regional trend of fold axes, thus recording the last regional tectonic event during the Acadian orogeny.

  15. Earth's glacial record and its tectonic setting (United States)

    Eyles, N.


    clearly established glacial parentage. The same remarks apply to many successions of laminated and thin-bedded facies interpreted as "varvites". Despite suggestions of much lower values of solar luminosity (the weak young sun hypothesis), the stratigraphic record of Archean glaciations is not extensive and may be the result of non-preservation. However, the effects of very different Archean global tectonic regimes and much higher geothermal heat flows, combined with a Venus-like atmosphere warmed by elevated levels of CO 2, cannot be ruled out. The oldest unambiguous glacial succession in Earth history appears to be the Early Proterozoic Gowganda Formation of the Huronian Supergroup in Ontario; the age of this event is not well-constrained but glaciation coincided with regional rifting, and may be causally related to, oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere just after 2300 Ma. New evidence that oxygenation is tectonically, not biologically driven, stresses the intimate relationship between plate tectonics, evolution of the atmosphere and glaciation. Global geochemical controls, such as elevated atmospheric CO 2 levels, may be responsible for a long mid-Proterozoic non-glacial interval after 2000 Ma that was terminated by the Late Proterozoic glaciations just after 800 Ma. A persistent theme in both Late Proterozoic and Phanerozoic glaciations is the adiabatic effect of tectonic uplift, either along collisional margins or as a result of passive margin uplifts in areas of extended crust, as the trigger for glaciation; the process is reinforced by global geochemical feedback, principally the drawdown of atmospheric CO 2 and Milankovitch "astronomical" forcing but these are unlikely, by themselves, to inititiate glaciation. The same remarks apply to late Cenozoic glaciations. Late Proterozoic glacially-influenced strata occur on all seven continents and fall into two tectonostratigraphic types. In the first category are thick sucessions of turbidites and mass flows deposited along

  16. Evolution and dynamics of the Cenozoic tectonics of the South Balkan extensional system


    Burchfiel, Clark B.; Nakov, R.; Dumurdzanov, Nikola; Papanikolaou, D.; Tzankov, Tzanko; Serafimovski, Todor; King, Robert W.; Kotzev, Valentin; Todosov, Angel; Nurce, Bilbil


    The South Balkan extensional system consists of normal faults and associated sedimentary basins within southern Bulgaria, Macedonia, eastern Albania, northern Greece, and northwestern Turkey. Extensional tectonism began during the final convergence across the Vardar, Intra-Pontide, and Izmir-Ankara suture zones, where oceanic regions closed between continental Europe and continental fragments that make up the Pelagonian, Sakar, and western Anatolian tectonic units. Earliest extension of lates...

  17. Earthquakes as Expressions of Tectonic Activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With an introduction to the ideas of plate tectonics and earthquake terminology, this article introduces ... timum thickness, to generate a fragmented architecture. A hard and fragmented outer shell, floating on the ... The basic idea of the plate tectonic model is that the outer shell of the Earth is divided into several plates, both ...

  18. Plate Tectonic Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum. (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Plate Tectonics Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) volcanoes (covering formation, distribution, and major volcanic groups); (2) earthquakes (with investigations on wave movements, seismograms and sub-suface earth currents); (3) plate tectonics (providing maps…

  19. Tectonic characteristics and distribution of Putaohua oil Reservoir in Changchang area of Songliao basin (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Liu, Dameng


    Since the Late Jurassic in the Songliao Basin, the tectonic movement of Yanshan and Heshan has experienced a lot of tectonic movement. The tectonic activity has a clearer display on the seismic profile. The tectonic deformation is generally weak in the east, Features. The regional structure of the Chaochang area is located on the Chaoyangou terrace and Changchunling anticline belt in the central depression of the northern part of the Songliao Basin, and across the two tectonic units of the Chaoyanggou terrace and Changchunling anticline. The study area is characterized by a low tectonic pattern in the southwest and northwest. The highest point is located near the Chang72 well in the Changchunling anticline. The elevation is about -100 m, and the lowest point is the Zhou50 Well near the depth of about - 1750 m. Based on the technical means such as splicing, closed difference correction, horizon calibration, seismic interpretation and attribute extraction of 9 seismic blocks in the study area, the seismic interpretation of the top of the Putaohua reservoir is completed, and the next step Style, tectonic evolution characteristics, oil and gas accumulation law and other research work to lay the foundation.

  20. Fracture network and distribution of elementary tectonic fracturing bodies. Investigation of tectonic control of uranium mineralization in the Peny Sector (La Crouzille, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraipont, P. de; Horrenberg, J.Cl.; Ruhland, M.; Marquaire, Ch.; Sierak, J.P.


    The effect of fracturing tectonics on the various granite materials in the Limousin region can be seen in the arrangement and spatial distribution of the fracture networks. However, a detailed analysis of the shape and arrangement of the various elementary tectonic bodies intersected by the fracture network is necessary in order to deduce the spatial, geometric and kinematic relations and to find the key tectonic elements which led to the formation and evolution of the mineralized vein system. After a brief summary of the elementary tectonic fracturing bodies identified at Peny, the existing relations between fracturing and mineralization are discussed. From the position in the deposit of the tectonic bodies (slices or scales, shearing lozenges, rolls and rotation-curve structures), it is possible to divide the deposit up into rough sections measuring 100-150m across and to highlight the areas of tectonic mobility where various types of fracturing are superimposed, corresponding to the sectors of uranium mineralization. Lastly, from the way in which the fracturing occurs and then evolves in successive stages, hypotheses concerning the location and distribution of the radiometric indications are drawn up with a view to searching for new deposits. (author)

  1. Variation of δ2H, δ18O & δ13C in crude palm oil from different regions in Malaysia: Potential of stable isotope signatures as a key traceability parameter. (United States)

    Muhammad, Syahidah Akmal; Seow, Eng-Keng; Mohd Omar, A K; Rodhi, Ainolsyakira Mohd; Mat Hassan, Hasnuri; Lalung, Japareng; Lee, Sze-Chi; Ibrahim, Baharudin


    A total of 33 crude palm oil samples were randomly collected from different regions in Malaysia. Stable carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C) was determined using Flash 2000 elemental analyzer while hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) were analyzed by Thermo Finnigan TC/EA, wherein both instruments were coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The bulk δ 2 H, δ 18 O and δ 13 C of the samples were analyzed by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). Unsupervised HCA and PCA methods have demonstrated that crude palm oil samples were grouped into clusters according to respective state. A predictive model was constructed by supervised OPLS-DA with good predictive power of 52.60%. Robustness of the predictive model was validated with overall accuracy of 71.43%. Blind test samples were correctly assigned to their respective cluster except for samples from southern region. δ 18 O was proposed as the promising discriminatory marker for discerning crude palm oil samples obtained from different regions. Stable isotopes profile was proven to be useful for origin traceability of crude palm oil samples at a narrower geographical area, i.e. based on regions in Malaysia. Predictive power and accuracy of the predictive model was expected to improve with the increase in sample size. Conclusively, the results in this study has fulfilled the main objective of this work where the simple approach of combining stable isotope analysis with chemometrics can be used to discriminate crude palm oil samples obtained from different regions in Malaysia. Overall, this study shows the feasibility of this approach to be used as a traceability assessment of crude palm oils. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tectonic evolution of Caledonian Palaeohigh in the Sichuan Basin and its relationship with hydrocarbon accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei


    Full Text Available The Caledonian Palaeohigh is an important gas exploration domain of Sinian and Lower Paleozoic in western Central Sichuan Basin where gas discoveries have been made successively in recent years. In order to sort out the relationship between the tectonic evolution of this Palaeohigh and hydrocarbon accumulation there, we carried out a new round of research based on previous study results. The evolution history of this Palaeohigh can be divided into seven episodes: the Late Sinian overall tilting and the youth form development of this Palaeohigh, the Cambrian-Ordovician syndepositional uplifting, the Silurian joint uplifting, the Devonian-Carboniferous uplifting and erosion, the Permian overall subsidence and deposition of regional caprock, the Triassic-Jurassic migration of structural high of the eastern segment of this Palaeohigh, and Cretaceous-Neogene strong deformation of the western segment of this Palaeohigh. The hydrocarbon accumulation in the Sinian-Lower Paleozoic experienced three evolution stages, namely the formation of ancient oil reservoirs in the Silurian-Triassic period, the development of the paleo-gas reservoirs in the Jurassic-Oligocene period, and differential evolution of gas reservoirs since the Miocene era. The Sinian-Lower Paleozoic paleo-reservoirs mainly occur in the Leshan-Ziyang-Gaoshiti-Longnǚsi zone and in the area to its north. The tectonic movement of the western segment of the Palaeohigh was strong, while its eastern segment was relatively stable since the later Himalayan epoch, which is favorable for gas accumulation and preservation. It is believed that the Gaoshiti-Moxi-Longnǚsi structural belt and its northern flank are not only favorable for the development of structural gas reservoirs in the Lower Paleozoic but also for gas reservoirs of karstic-lithologic type on the top of the Cambrian and Ordovician. The later type will be the major exploration target of this area in the future.

  3. Growth of a tectonic ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.W.; Messerich, J.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Johnson, A.M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences


    The 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake of M 7.6 created an impressive record of surface rupture and ground deformation. Fractures extend over a length of more than 80 km including zones of right-lateral shift, steps in the fault zones, fault intersections and vertical changes. Among the vertical changes was the growth of a tectonic ridge described here. In this paper the authors describe the Emerson fault zone and the Tortoise Hill ridge including the relations between the fault zone and the ridge. They present data on the horizontal deformation at several scales associated with activity within the ridge and belt of shear zones and show the differential vertical uplifts. And, they conclude with a discussion of potential models for the observed deformation.

  4. The Ecology of Urban Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier


    unfairly neglected when accounting for the great modern heroes of Danish architecture. Just recently, examples of his work have been thoroughly presented in the Danish architectural magazine; ‘Arkitekten’. (Keiding 2013) This paper analyses two works of Hansen: Bremerholm Transformer Station and Bellahøj......’. In this way Hansen’s work sets an example in itself as built heritage, but in addition, they set a methodological example when valued in relation to Frampton’s notion of the arrière-garde. Hansen’s work witnesses a critical and reflective ability on his behalf that enables him to act in everyday practice....... In concluding, it is our finding, that it is exactly here that research into the field of tectonics holds it potential. NOT as “optimization of advanced technology” and visual occupation with structural elements as such and NOT as “the ever-present tendency to regress into nostalgic historicism or the glibly...

  5. Puzzling features of western Mediterranean tectonics explained by slab dragging (United States)

    Spakman, Wim; Chertova, Maria V.; van den Berg, Arie.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.


    The recent tectonic evolution of the western Mediterranean region is enigmatic. The causes for the closure of the Moroccan marine gateway prior to the Messinian salinity crisis, for the ongoing shortening of the Moroccan Rif and for the origin of the seismogenic Trans-Alboran shear zone and eastern Betics extension are unclear. These puzzling tectonic features cannot be fully explained by subduction of the east-dipping Gibraltar slab in the context of the regional relative plate motion frame. Here we use a combination of geological and geodetic data, as well as three-dimensional numerical modelling of subduction, to show that these unusual tectonic features could be the consequence of slab dragging—the north to north-eastward dragging of the Gibraltar slab by the absolute motion of the African Plate. Comparison of our model results to patterns of deformation in the western Mediterranean constrained by geological and geodetic data confirm that slab dragging provides a plausible mechanism for the observed deformation. Our results imply that the impact of absolute plate motion on subduction is identifiable from crustal observations. Identifying such signatures elsewhere may improve the mantle reference frame and provide insights on subduction evolution and associated crustal deformation.

  6. Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Norton, Ian O.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Stone, David B.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Scholl, David W.; Fujita, Kazuya


    The Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific is recorded mainly in the orogenic collages of the Circum-North Pacific mountain belts that separate the North Pacific from the eastern part of the North Asian Craton and the western part of the North American Craton. These collages consist of tectonostratigraphic terranes that are composed of fragments of igneous arcs, accretionary-wedge and subduction-zone complexes, passive continental margins, and cratons; they are overlapped by continental-margin-arc and sedimentary-basin assemblages. The geologic history of the terranes and overlap assemblages is highly complex because of postaccretionary dismemberment and translation during strike-slip faulting that occurred subparallel to continental margins.We analyze the complex tectonics of this region by the following steps. (1) We assign tectonic environments for the orogenic collages from regional compilation and synthesis of stratigraphic and faunal data. The types of tectonic environments include cratonal, passive continental margin, metamorphosed continental margin, continental-margin arc, island arc, oceanic crust, seamount, ophiolite, accretionary wedge, subduction zone, turbidite basin, and metamorphic. (2) We make correlations between terranes. (3) We group coeval terranes into a single tectonic origin, for example, a single island arc or subduction zone. (4) We group igneous-arc and subduction- zone terranes, which are interpreted as being tectonically linked, into coeval, curvilinear arc/subduction-zone complexes. (5) We interpret the original positions of terranes, using geologic, faunal, and paleomagnetic data. (6) We construct the paths of tectonic migration. Six processes overlapping in time were responsible for most of the complexities of the collage of terranes and overlap assemblages around the Circum-North Pacific, as follows. (1) During the Late Proterozoic, Late Devonian, and Early Carboniferous, major periods of rifting occurred along

  7. How the continents deform: The evidence from tectonic geodesy (United States)

    Thatcher, Wayne R.


    Space geodesy now provides quantitative maps of the surface velocity field within tectonically active regions, supplying constraints on the spatial distribution of deformation, the forces that drive it, and the brittle and ductile properties of continental lithosphere. Deformation is usefully described as relative motions among elastic blocks and is block-like because major faults are weaker than adjacent intact crust. Despite similarities, continental block kinematics differs from global plate tectonics: blocks are much smaller, typically ∼100–1000 km in size; departures from block rigidity are sometimes measurable; and blocks evolve over ∼1–10 Ma timescales, particularly near their often geometrically irregular boundaries. Quantitatively relating deformation to the forces that drive it requires simplifying assumptions about the strength distribution in the lithosphere. If brittle/elastic crust is strongest, interactions among blocks control the deformation. If ductile lithosphere is the stronger, its flow properties determine the surface deformation, and a continuum approach is preferable.

  8. Identification of tectonic deformations on the south polar surface of the moon (United States)

    Mukherjee, Saumitra; Singh, Priyadarshini


    Recent extensional and contractional tectonic features present globally over the lunar surface have been studied to infer lunar crustal tectonism. Investigation of indicators of recent crustal tectonics, such as fault lines, thrust fault scarps, and dislocation of debris along the identified fault planes, primarily using data from the miniature-synthetic aperture radar (mini-SAR) aboard CHANDRAYAAN-1 mission and Narrow angle camera (NAC) images, are the focus of this study. Spatial orientation of these tectonic features helps to elucidate the change in the interior geological dynamics of any planetary body with time. The ability of microwave sensors to penetrate the lunar regolith, along with application of m-χ decomposition method on Mini-SAR data has been used to reveal unique features indicative of hidden tectonics. The m-χ decomposition derived radar images expose hidden lineaments and lobate scarps present within shadowed crater floors as well as over the illuminated regions of the lunar surface. The area around and within Cabeus B crater in the South Polar Region contains lobate scarps, hidden lineaments and debris avalanches (associated with the identified lineaments) indicative of relatively recent crustal tectonism.

  9. The Pleistocene evolution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Prydz bay region: Stable isotopic evidence from ODP Site 1167 (United States)

    Theissen, K.M.; Dunbar, R.B.; Cooper, A. K.; Mucciarone, D.A.; Hoffmann, D.


    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 188, Prydz Bay, East Antarctica is part of a larger initiative to explore the Cenozoic history of the Antarctic Ice Sheet through direct drilling and sampling of the continental margins. In this paper, we present stable isotopic results from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1167 located on the Prydz Channel Trough Mouth Fan (TMF), the first Antarctic TMF to be drilled. The foraminifer-based ??18O record is interpreted along with sedimentary and downhole logging evidence to reconstruct the Quaternary glacial history of Prydz Bay and the adjacent Lambert Glacier Amery Ice Shelf System (LGAISS). We report an electron spin resonance age date of 36. 9 ?? 3.3 ka at 0.45 m below sea floor and correlate suspected glacial-interglacial cycles with the global isotopic stratigraphy to improve the chronology for Site 1167. The ??18O record based on planktonic (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s.)) and limited benthic results (Globocassidulina crassa), indicates a trend of ice sheet expansion that was interrupted by a period of reduced ice volume and possibly warmer conditions during the early-mid-Pleistocene (0.9-1.38 Ma). An increase in ?? 18O values after ??? 900 ka appears to coincide with the mid-Pleistocene climate transition and the expansion of the northern hemisphere ice sheet. The ??18O record in the upper 50 m of the stratigraphic section indicates as few as three glacial-interglacial cycles, tentatively assigned as marine isotopic stages (MIS) 16-21, are preserved since the Brunhes/Matuyama paleomagnetic reversal (780 ka). This suggests that there is a large unconformity near the top of the section and/or that there may have been few extreme advances of the ice sheet since the mid-Pleistocene climate transition resulting in lowered sedimentation rates on the Prydz Channel TMF. The stable isotopic record from Site 1167 is one of the few available from the area south of the Antarctic Polar Front that has been linked with the global isotopic

  10. Can stable isotope analysis reveal dietary differences among groups with distinct income levels in the city of Piracicaba (southeast region, Brazil)? (United States)

    Gragnani, J G; Garavello, M E P E; Silva, R J; Nardoto, G B; Martinelli, L A


    The present study aimed to determine whether the δ(13)C and δ(15)N of fingernails (δ(13)CF and δ(15)NF, respectively) would exhibit differences between groups from different income levels in the city of Piracicaba, Brazil. In 2010, the fingernails of 273 participants belonging to six income groups were analysed to determine isotopic composition. δ(13)CF and δ(15)NF were compared with the stable isotope of a putative diet (δ(13)CD and δ(15)ND , respectively), which was estimated via an isotopic mass balance using, as a weighting factor, macronutrient intake by the main food items, as obtained by the 2008-2009 household food purchases conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. δ(13)CF values showed a decreasing trend towards the lower income level groups, in accordance with the δ(13)CD values that showed the same trend. This isotopic change was mainly a result of the higher consumption of beef, bread, soft drinks and dairy by the highest income group; and also as a result of the higher consumption of soybean oil, rice and sugar by the lowest income group. The δ(15)NF values failed to capture differences in groups between income levels. This outcome was not expected because individuals in a higher income group tend to consume more animal protein and, as a result of the trophic fractionation, have higher δ(15)N values. The combination of household purchase surveys and stable isotopic composition in modern humans is found to be a valuable tool, especially with respect to determining the role of C3 and C4 plants through the complex modern food chain. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C values) of the halogenated monoterpene MHC-1 as found in fish and seaweed from different marine regions. (United States)

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter


    Six samples of the red seaweed Plocamium cartilagineum (two both from Helgoland/Germany, Ireland, and the Antarctic) were analyzed by stable isotope analysis. The bulk δ(13)C values (-31 to -38‰) confirmed that this seaweed was exceptionally highly depleted in (13)C. The δ(15)N values were in the reported range for algae, and a moderate correlation between (13)C and (15)N content was observed. These measurements indicated that the season had a higher impact on the δ(13)C values than the location. Compound specific carbon isotope analysis by gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) was used to verify an even stronger depletion in (13)C in the halogenated natural product (HNP) MHC-1 isolated from the seaweed samples. The δ(13)C values of MHC-1 in the range -42 to -45‰ are the lightest determined to date for polyhalogenated compounds in the molecular mass range between 250 and 800 Da. MHC-1 was also isolated from two fish samples. The much higher (13)C content in MHC-1 from the fish samples (-35.6 to -39.2‰) indicated carbon isotope enrichment due to partial transformation. In processes such as the reductive debromination, the partial transformation is associated with an increase in the (13)C content in the remaining non-metabolized share of a compound. Stable isotope analysis may thus provide insights into the degree of transformation of HNPs in environmental samples. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  12. Towards a tectonic sustainable building practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne


    and environmental problems? The objective of the project is to analyse and develop the tectonic practice based on case studies, in relation to: • Cultural anchoring and identity creation • Building culture and creative processes • Sustainability, lifecycle and resource management The research project is divided...... into a main project and various subprojects, respectively, two levels that mutually feed each other.The main project, which constitutes the general level, seeks to identify a coherent strategy towards a new tectonically sustainable building culture.The subprojects look at partial issues and go into specific...... questions dealing with central aspects of the overall project: tectonics, identity creation, cultural heritage/recycling and sustainability....

  13. Relative tectonic activity classification in Kermanshah area, west Iran (United States)

    Arian, M.; Aram, Z.


    The High Zagros region because of closing to subduction zone and the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates is imposed under the most tectonic variations. In this research, Gharasu river basin that it has located in Kermanshah area was selected as the study area and 6 geomorphic indices were calculated and the results of each ones were divided in 3 classes. Then, using the indices, relative tectonic activity was calculated and the values were classified and analyzed in 4 groups. Regions were identified as very high, high, moderate and low. In analyzing the results and combining them with field observation and regional geology the results are often associated and justified with field evidences. The highest value is located on Dokeral anticline in crush zone in Zagros Most of the areas with high and moderate values of lat are located on crush zone in Zagros too. Crushing of this zone is because of main faults mechanism of Zagros region. The result of this paper confirms previous researches in this region. At the end of the eastern part of the study area, the value of Iat is high that could be the result of Sarab and Koh-e Sefid faults mechanism.

  14. Volcano-tectonic control of Merapi's lava dome splitting observed from high resolution TerraSAR-X data

    KAUST Repository

    Luehr, Birger-G.


    Volcanism at active andesite-dacite volcanoes is often associated with the formation and collapse of circular shaped protrusions of extruded, highly viscous lava, the so-called domes, which are emplaced in the near summit region. Growing domes may experience stable and instable structural phases, with a gradual transition in between. Dome collapse and the break-off of instable blocks of viscous lava may lead to pyroclastic flows, one of the most lethal hazards at stratovolcanoes. At Merapi volcano, Indonesia, nearly 50 % of all eruptions are accompanied by these phenomena. After the climactic eruption in 2010 which left an amphitheater in the summit region, a new dome started growing. Three years later, the dome reached a height of approximately 100 m and diameters of 220 and 190 m with a plateau-like surface area of 40,000m2 approximately. On 18/11/2013, an explosion occurred without identified precursors, leaving a major fracture cutting the complete dome structure. Based on high resolution TerraSAR-X satellite radar imagery, we could identify this linear fracture, traceable over ~200m in the long axis, and up to 40m width. After geocoding of the radar amplitude imagery, the fractures azimuthal trend could be compared to other structural lineaments, indicative of a significant NNW-SSE structural direction that has formed on Merapi volcano in the past. This alignment is also visible in a seismic velocity tomographic imagery for the upper crust, down to 15 km depth. The Merapi dome fractured in a NW-SE direction, and is consistent with the alignment of regional tectonic structures and of anticipated directions of pyroclastic flows. The fracture may be part of a larger volcano-tectonic system and may affect the dynamics and the stability of the Merapi dome.

  15. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole


    Contemporary techniques for concrete casting in an architectural context are challenged by demands of increased individualization in our built environment, reductions in the use of resources and waste generation. In recent years, new production technologies and strategies that break with the indu......Contemporary techniques for concrete casting in an architectural context are challenged by demands of increased individualization in our built environment, reductions in the use of resources and waste generation. In recent years, new production technologies and strategies that break...... with the industrial paradigm of standardization, have been put forward. This development is carried forward by computers and digital fabrication, but has yet to find its way into the production of building components. With regards to concrete casting, however, existing research do offer advancement towards...... an increased customisation of casting moulds. The hypothesis of this research is that the techniques used in this research do not fully address the tectonic potentials of concrete which gives rise to the primary research question: Is it possible to enhance existing or develop new concrete casting techniques...

  16. Ore-lead isotopes and Grenville plate tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, R.M.; Fletcher, I.R.


    Recent advances in the 'whole earth' modelling of evolutionary processes of Pb isotopes shed light upon the origin of the metals found in various types of ore deposits. On the bases of these models and several recently published data sets, we believe that the ore deposits formed in various plate tectonic environments may carry 'isotopic fingerprints' which, when used with other characteristics such as mineral assemblages, may identify the depositional environments of many ore bodies. In the present study Pb-isotopic measurements have been made of a number of Precambrain mineralization types and localities throughout the Central Metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Province. The data for individual deposits are at best ambiguous, but fall into two groups sufficiently distinctive to allow some degree of 'fingerprint' identification. Comparisons with data from other areas suggest that the major periods of sedimentation within the Central Metasedimentary Belt accompanied plate rifting and/or island arc tectonic activity, with most of the mineralized lead being derived from mantle sources. Detailed comparisons between the Grenville and other regions are uncertain, mainly because there are few detailed high-accuracy data sets from younger, tectonically unambiguous mineral occurrences. We suggest that once these data sets are availble, isotopic fingerprinting may become diagnostic for deposits ranging well back into the Precambrain

  17. Time-domain study of tectonic strain-release effects on seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.K.; Sherman, N.W.


    Tectonic strain release affects both the amplitude and phase of seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions. Surface wave magnitudes are strongly affected by the component of tectonic strain release in the explosion. Amplitudes and radiation patterns of surface waves from explosions with even small tectonic components change magnitudes significantly and show a strong dependence on receiver locations. A thrust-slip source superimposed on an isotropic explosion can explain observed reversals in waveform at different azimuths and phase delays between normal and reversed Rayleigh waves. The mechanism of this reversal is due to the phase relationship between reasonable explosion and tectonic release sources. Spallation or an unusual source time function are not required. The observations of Shagan River events imply thrust-slip motion along faults in a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent with regional tectonics

  18. Tectonic vocabulary and materialization: Discourse on the future of tectonic architectural research in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte; Hvejsel, Marie Frier


    By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... to establish a Nordic Network for Research and Teaching in Tectonics is currently forming. This paper seeks to jointly reflect upon these initiatives in order to bring them further, with the intention to clad a discourse on the future of tectonic architectural research that addresses the conditions of everyday...

  19. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.


    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  20. Radon emanation in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.Y.


    Subsurface radon emanation has been continuously monitored for up to three years by the Track Etch method in shallow dry holes at more than 60 sites along several tectonic faults in central California and at 9 sites near the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. The measured emanation in these tectonically active areas shows large long-term variations that may be related mainly to crustal strain changes

  1. Tectonic inheritance, reactivation and long term fault weakening processes (United States)

    Holdsworth, Bob


    This talk gives a geological review of weakening processes in faults and their long-term effect on reactivation and tectonic inheritance during crustal deformation. Examples will be drawn from the Atlantic margins, N America, Japan and the Alps. Tectonic inheritance and reactivation are fundamentally controlled by the processes of stress concentration and shear localisation manifested at all scales in the continental lithosphere. Lithosphere-scale controls include crustal thickness, thermal age and the boundary conditions imposed by the causative plate tectonic processes during extension. At the other end of the scale range, grain-scale controls include local environmental controls (depth, stress, strain rate), rock composition, grainsize, fabric intensity and the presence of fluids or melt. Intermediate-scale geometric controls are largely related to the size, orientation and interconnectivity of pre-existing anisotropies. If reactivation of pre-existing structures occurs, it likely requires a combination of processes across all three scale ranges to be favourable. This can make the unequivocal recognition of inheritance and reactivation difficult. Large (e.g. crustal-scale) pre-existing structures are especially important due to their ability to efficiently concentrate stress and localise strain. For big faults (San Andreas, Great Glen, Median Tectonic Line), detailed studies of the associated exposed fault rocks indicate that reactivation is linked to the development of strongly anisotropic phyllosilicate-rich fault rocks that are weak (e.g. friction coefficients as low as 0.2 or less) under a broad range of deformation conditions. In the case of pre-existing regional dyke swarms (S Atlantic, NW Scotland) - which may themselves track deep mantle fabrics at depth - multiple reactivation of dyke margins is widespread and may preclude reactivation of favourably oriented local basement fabrics. In a majority of cases, pre-existing structures in the crust are

  2. New insights into the use of stable water isotopes at the northern Antarctic Peninsula as a tool for regional climate studies (United States)

    Fernandoy, Francisco; Tetzner, Dieter; Meyer, Hanno; Gacitúa, Guisella; Hoffmann, Kirstin; Falk, Ulrike; Lambert, Fabrice; MacDonell, Shelley


    Due to recent atmospheric and oceanic warming, the Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most challenging regions of Antarctica to understand in terms of both local- and regional-scale climate signals. Steep topography and a lack of long-term and in situ meteorological observations complicate the extrapolation of existing climate models to the sub-regional scale. Therefore, new techniques must be developed to better understand processes operating in the region. Isotope signals are traditionally related mainly to atmospheric conditions, but a detailed analysis of individual components can give new insight into oceanic and atmospheric processes. This paper aims to use new isotopic records collected from snow and firn cores in conjunction with existing meteorological and oceanic datasets to determine changes at the climatic scale in the northern extent of the Antarctic Peninsula. In particular, a discernible effect of sea ice cover on local temperatures and the expression of climatic modes, especially the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), is demonstrated. In years with a large sea ice extension in winter (negative SAM anomaly), an inversion layer in the lower troposphere develops at the coastal zone. Therefore, an isotope-temperature relationship (δ-T) valid for all periods cannot be obtained, and instead the δ-T depends on the seasonal variability of oceanic conditions. Comparatively, transitional seasons (autumn and spring) have a consistent isotope-temperature gradient of +0.69 ‰ °C-1. As shown by firn core analysis, the near-surface temperature in the northern-most portion of the Antarctic Peninsula shows a decreasing trend (-0.33 °C year-1) between 2008 and 2014. In addition, the deuterium excess (dexcess) is demonstrated to be a reliable indicator of seasonal oceanic conditions, and therefore suitable to improve a firn age model based on seasonal dexcess variability. The annual accumulation rate in this region is highly variable, ranging between 1060 and 2470 kg m

  3. Calcite Twins, a Tool for Tectonic Studies in Thrust Belts and Stable Orogenic Forelands Les macles de la calcite, un outil pour les études tectoniques dans les chaînes plissées et les avant-pays peu déformés des orogènes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacombe O.


    Full Text Available Calcite twins have been used for a long time as indicators of stress/strain orientations and magnitudes. Recent developments during the last 15 years point toward significant improvements of existing techniques as well as new applications of calcite twin analysis in thrust belts and forelands. This paper summarizes the principles of the most common techniques in this tectonic field and illustrates some aspects of the use of calcite twins to constrain not only stress/strain orientations and magnitudes, but also to some extent paleotemperature or paleoburial in orogenic forelands. This review is based in a large part on the studies that I conducted in various geological settings such as the forelands of Taiwan, Pyrenees, Zagros, Rockies and Albanides orogens. The contribution of calcite twin analysis to the understanding of the intraplate stress transmission away from plate boundaries is also emphasized. Les macles de la calcite sont utilisees depuis longtemps comme indicateurs de paleocontraintes et comme marqueurs de la deformation finie, en orientations comme en grandeurs. Au cours des 15 dernieres annees, des ameliorations importantes des methodes d’analyses existantes ont ete realisees et ont donne lieu a de nouvelles applications dans les chaines plissees et les avant-pays peu deformes des orogenes. Cet article resume le principe des methodes les plus utilisees en tectonique et illustre quelques apports de l’analyse des macles de la calcite pour la caracterisation non seulement des orientations et des grandeurs des paleocontraintes et de la deformation finie, mais egalement dans une certaine mesure de la paleotemperature et du paleoenfouissement. Cette revue se fonde en grande partie sur les etudes regionales que j’ai effectuees dans des contextes geologiques varies, comme les avant-pays des chaines de Taiwan, des Pyrenees, du Zagros, des Rocheuses et des Albanides. Cet article discutera egalement la contribution de l’etude des

  4. Probabilistic estimation of long-term volcanic hazard under evolving tectonic conditions in a 1 Ma timeframe (United States)

    Jaquet, O.; Lantuéjoul, C.; Goto, J.


    Risk assessments in relation to the siting of potential deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes demand the estimation of long-term tectonic hazards such as volcanicity and rock deformation. Owing to their tectonic situation, such evaluations concern many industrial regions around the world. For sites near volcanically active regions, a prevailing source of uncertainty is related to volcanic hazard. For specific situations, in particular in relation to geological repository siting, the requirements for the assessment of volcanic and tectonic hazards have to be expanded to 1 million years. At such time scales, tectonic changes are likely to influence volcanic hazard and therefore a particular stochastic model needs to be developed for the estimation of volcanic hazard. The concepts and theoretical basis of the proposed model are given and a methodological illustration is provided using data from the Tohoku region of Japan.

  5. The use of Remote Sensing for the Study of the Relationships Between Tectonics and Volcanism (United States)

    Chorowicz, J.; Dhont, D.; Yanev, Y.; Bardintzeff, J.


    Observations of geometric relationships between tectonics and volcanism is a fruitful approach in geology. On the one hand analysis of the distribution and types of volcanic vents provides information on the geodynamics. On the other hand tectonic analysis explains the location of volcanics vents. Volcanic edifices often result from regional scale deformation, forming open structures constituting preferred pathways for the rise of magmas. Analysis of the shape and the distribution of vents can consequently provide data on the regional deformation. Remote sensing imagery gives synoptic views of the earth surface allowing the analysis of landforms of still active tectonic and volcanic features. Shape and distribution of volcanic vents, together with recent tectonic patterns are best observed by satellite data and Digital Elevation Models than in the field. The use of radar scenes for the study of the structural relationships between tectonic and volcanic features is particularly efficient because these data express sensitive changes in the morphology. In various selected areas, we show that volcanic edifices are located on tension fractures responsible for fissure eruptions, volcanic linear clusters and elongate volcanoes. Different types of volcanic emplacements can be also distinguished such as tail-crack or horse-tail features, and releasing bend basins along strike-slip faults. Caldera complexes seem to be associated to horse-tail type fault terminations. At a regional scale, the distribution of volcanic vents and their relationships with the faults is able to explain the occurrence of volcanism in collisional areas.

  6. Late Carboniferous to early Permian sedimentary–tectonic evolution of the north of Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China: Evidence from the Amushan Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiquan Yin


    Full Text Available The late Paleozoic evolution of the Wulijishanhen (WSH-Shangdan (SD area near to the Chaganchulu Ophiolite belt is reinterpreted. Analysis of the upper Carboniferous to lower Permian sedimentary sequence, biological associations, detrital materials, sandstone geochemistry and volcanic rocks indicates that the SD area was an epicontinental sea and rift during the late Paleozoic rather than a large-scale ocean undergoing spreading and closure. This study reveals that the actual evolution of the study area is from the late Carboniferous to the early Permian. The fusulinids Triticites sp. and Pseudoschwagerina sp. in the limestones demonstrate that the Amushan Formation develops during the late Carboniferous to the early Permian. The limestones at the base of the SD section indicate that it is a stable carbonate platform environment, the volcanic rocks in the middle of the sequence support a rift tectonic background, and the overlying conglomerates and sandstones are characteristic of an epicontinental sea or marine molasse setting. The rift volcanism made the differences in the fossil content of the SD and WSH sections and led to two sections expose different levels within the Amushan Formation and different process of tectonic evolution. Moreover, the geochemical characteristics and detrital materials of the sandstones show that the provenance and formation of the sandstones were related to the setting of active continental margin. The quartz-feldspar-lithic fragments distribution diagram indicates that the material source for the sandstones was a recycled orogenic belt. Thus, the source area of the sandstones may have been an active continental margin before the late Carboniferous–early Permian. The characteristics of the regional tectonic evolution of the area indicate that the region may form a small part of the Gobi–Tianshan rift of southern Mongolia.

  7. Quaternary volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.


    In this article, we discuss the regional context and describe localities for a two-day field excursion in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). We address several geologic themes: (1) Late Cenozoic, bimodal volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), (2) the regional tectonics and structural geology of the Basin and Range province to the northwest of the ESRP, (3) fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian sedimentation in the INEL area, and (4) the influence of Quaternary volcanism and tectonics on sedimentation near the INEL.

  8. Quaternary volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.


    In this article, we discuss the regional context and describe localities for a two-day field excursion in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). We address several geologic themes: (1) Late Cenozoic, bimodal volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), (2) the regional tectonics and structural geology of the Basin and Range province to the northwest of the ESRP, (3) fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian sedimentation in the INEL area, and (4) the influence of Quaternary volcanism and tectonics on sedimentation near the INEL.

  9. Relation between earthquake focal intensity and recent vertical Earth's crustal movements in the Rila-Rhodope seismic region (United States)

    Totomanov, I. N.

    The stable statistical relation is studied between the maximum magnitude Y of expected earthquakes with foci in the Earth's crust and the vertical velocity X of recent crustal movements, in the mountainous region of southwestern Bulgaria characterized by a particularly high seismic and tectonic activity. The two dimensional random variate (X,Y) is presented by its sample (Xk, Yk), k = 1, 2,..., 60 composed by appropriate smoothed estimates according to data of the most recent investigations. The sampling (joint and respective marginal) distributions of (X, Y) are determined and examined. Statistical hypotheses are tested and the respective recent geokinematic and tectonic predestination of the seismic activity in the Rila-Rhodope seismic region is argued in terms of the best fit, to the empirical data, regression polynomial of Y with respect to X. A comparison is made between results obtained on the region under examination and corresponding data of earlier studies.

  10. Stable Isotope Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  11. Unsteady Landscapes: Climatic and Tectonic Controls on Fluvial Terrace Formation (United States)

    Clubb, F. J.; Mudd, S. M.


    Fluvial terraces are common landforms throughout mountainous regions which represent abandoned remnants of active river systems and their floodplains. The formation of these landforms points to a fundamental unsteadiness in the incision rate of the fluvial network, providing important information on channel response to climatic, tectonic, and base-level forcing, sediment storage and dynamics within mountainous systems, and the relative importance of lateral and vertical incision rates. In his 1877 Report on the Geology of the Henry Mountains, G.K. Gilbert suggested that strath terraces may form due to climatically-driven increase in sediment supply, causing armouring of the channel bed and hindering vertical incision. An alternative hypothesis suggests that strath terraces may be preserved through progressive tectonic uplift or base-level fall. These different formation mechanisms should result in varying distribution of terrace elevations along channels: if terraces are formed through climate-driven variations in sediment supply, we might expect that terrace elevations would be random, whereas progressive fluvial incision should result in a series of terraces with a systematic elevation pattern. Here we test alternative hypotheses for strath terrace formation using a new method for objectively and rapidly identifying terrace surfaces from digital elevation models (DEMs) over large spatial scales. Our new method identifies fluvial terraces using their gradient and elevation compared to the modern channel, thresholds of which are statistically calculated from the DEM and do not need to be set manually by the user. We use this method to extract fluvial terraces for every major river along the coast of California, and quantify their distribution and elevation along the fluvial long profile. Our results show that there is no systematic pattern in terrace elevations despite a well-constrained spatial variation in uplift rates, suggesting that terraces in this region do

  12. Site-condition map for Portugal, Western Iberia: methodology and constraints on the performance of Vs30 proxies for stable continental regions in Europe. (United States)

    Vilanova, S. P.; Narciso, J.; Carvalho, J. P.; Cancela, C.; Lopes, I.; Nemser, E. S.; Borges, J.


    Information on the amplification characteristics of the near-surface formations in a regional sense is essential to adequately represent both seismic hazard maps and ground shaking maps. Due to the scarceness of shear-wave velocity data in most regions, several methods have been proposed in order to obtain first order representations of Vs30. These include the surface geology method and the topographic slope method. The latter method has become the standard way for incorporating site effects into regional studies worldwide given the convenience provided by the global Vs30 Internet server. In the framework of project SCENE we developed a shear wave velocity database for Portugal. The database consists of 87 shear-wave velocity depth profiles from a variety of lithological and geological formations. We used an iterative three-step procedure to develop the Vs30 based site-condition map: 1) to define a preliminary set of geologically defined units based on the literature; 2) to calculate the distribution of Vs30 for each unit; and 3) to perform statistical tests in order to estimate the significance of the difference in the Vs30 distribution characteristics between the units. The units were merged according to the results of the statistical tests and the procedure was repeated. We started by classifying the sites into six generalized geological units. The final set consists of three units only: F1 (igneous, metamorphic and old sedimentary rocks); F2 (Neogene and Pleistocene formations); and F3 (Holocene deposits). We used the database to evaluate the performance of Vs30 proxies. The use of proxies based either on geological units or on correlations with the topographic slope shows relatively unbiased total residual distributions of the logarithm of Vs30. However, the performance of the methods varies significantly with the generalized geological unit analyzed. Both methods are biased towards lower values of Vs30 for rock formations. The topographic-slope method is

  13. Tectonic setting of the Seychelles, Mascarene and Amirante Plateaus in the Western Equatorial Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mart, Y.


    A system of marine plateaus occurs in the western equatorial Indian Ocean, forming an arcuate series of wide and shallow banks with small islands in places. The oceanic basins that surround the Seychelles - Amirante region are of various ages and reflect a complex seafloor spreading pattern. The structural analysis of the Seychelle - Amirante - Mascarene region reflects the tectonic evolution of the western equatorial Indian Ocean. It is suggested that due to the seafloor spreading during a tectonic stage, the Seychelles continental block drifted southwestwards to collide with the oceanic crust of the Mascarene Basin, forming an elongated folded structure at first, and then a subduction zone. The morphological similarity, the lithological variability and the different origin of the Seychelles Bank, the Mascarene Plateau and the Amirante Arc emphasizes the significant convergent effects of various plate tectonic processes on the development of marine plateaus

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars Volcanology and Tectonics (United States)


    Reports from the session, "Mars Volcanology and Tectonics" include:Martian Shield Volcanoes; Estimating the Rheology of Basaltic Lava Flows; A Model for Variable Levee Formation Rates in an Active Lava Flow; Deflections in Lava Flow Directions Relative to Topography in the Tharsis Region: Indicators of Post-Flow Tectonic Motion; Fractal Variation with Changing Line Length: A Potential Problem for Planetary Lava Flow Identification; Burfellshraun:A Terrestrial Analogue to Recent Volcanism on Mars; Lava Domes of the Arcadia Region of Mars; Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints; Vent Geology of Low-Shield Volcanoes from the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho: Lessons for Mars and the Moon; Field and Geochemical Study of Table Legs Butte and Quaking Aspen Butte, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: An Analog to the Morphology of Small Shield Volcanoes on Mars; Variability in Morphology and Thermophysical Properties of Pitted Cones in Acidalia Planitia and Cydonia Mensae; A Volcano Composed of Light-colored Layered Deposits on the Floor of Valles Marineris; Analysis of Alba Patera Flows: A Comparison of Similarities and Differences Geomorphologic Studies of a Very Long Lava Flow in Tharsis, Mars; Radar Backscatter Characteristics of Basaltic Flow Fields: Results for Mauna Ulu, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii;and Preliminary Lava Tube-fed Flow Abundance Mapping on Olympus Mons.

  15. Late cretaceous extensional tectonics and associated igneous activity on the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico Basin (United States)

    Bowen, R. L.; Sundeen, D. A.


    Major, dominantly compressional, orogenic episodes (Taconic, Acadian, Alleghenian) affected eastern North America during the Paleozoic. During the Mesozoic, in contrast, this same region was principally affected by epeirogenic and extensional tectonism; one episode of comparatively more intense tectonic activity involving extensive faulting, uplift, sedimentation, intrusion and effusion produced the Newark Series of eposits and fault block phenomena. This event, termed the Palisades Disturbance, took place during the Late Triassic - Earliest Jurassic. The authors document a comparable extensional tectonic-igneous event occurring during the Late Cretaceous (Early Gulfian; Cenomanian-Santonian) along the southern margin of the cratonic platform from Arkansas to Georgia.

  16. HVDC Ground Electrodes and Tectonic Setting (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.


    Ground electrodes in HVDC transmission are huge grounding systems for the DC part of the converter substation, about 1 km wide, sized to inject in the ground DC currents up to 3.5 kA. This work presents an analysis of how the tectonic setting at converter substation location is determinant for the search of the best electrode location (Site Selection) and on its design and performance. It will briefly present the author experience on HVDC electrode design, summarized as follows: Itaipu - Foz do Iguaçu electrodes (transmitter side) located in the middle of Paraná Sedimentary Basin, and Ibiúna electrodes (receiving side) on the border of the basin, 6 km from the geological strike, where the crystalline basement outcrops in São Paulo state; Madeira River - North electrodes (transmitting side) located on the Northwest border of South Amazon Craton, where the crystalline basement is below a shallow sediments layer, and South electrodes (receiving side) located within Paraná Sedimentary Basin; Chile - electrodes located on the Andean forearc, where the Nazca Plate plunges under the South American Plate; Kenya - Ethiopia - electrodes located in the African Rift; Belo Monte - North electrodes (transmitter side) located within the Amazonian Sedimentary Basin, about 35 km of its South border, and South electrodes (receiving side) within Paraná Sedimentary Basin (bipole 1) and on crystalline metamorphic terrain "Brasília Belt" (bipole 2). This diversity of geological conditions results on ground electrodes of different topologies and dimensions, with quite different electrical and thermal performances. A brief study of the geology of the converter stations regions, the so-called Desktop Study, allows for the preview of several important parameters for the site selection and design of the electrodes, such as localization, type, size and estimate of the interference area, which are important predictors of the investment to be made and indications of the design to be

  17. Geologic and tectonic characteristics of rockbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V. [Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Dynamics of the Geospheres; Charlamov, V.A.; Kondratyev, S.V.; Rybnov, Y.S.; Shemyakin, V.M.; Sisov, I.A.; Syrnikov, N.M.; Turuntaev, S.B.; Vasilyeva, T.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The modern mining enterprises have attained such scales of engineering activity that their direct influence to a rock massif and in series of cases to the region seismic regime doesn`t provoke any doubts. Excavation and removal of large volumes of rock mass, industrial explosions and other technological factors during long time can lead to the accumulation of man-made changes in rock massifs capable to cause catastrophic consequences. The stress state changes in considerable domains of massif create dangerous concentration of stresses at large geological heterogeneities - faults localized in the mining works zone. External influence can lead in that case to such phenomena as tectonic rockbursts and man-made earthquakes. The rockbursts problem in world mining practice exists for more than two hundred years. So that its actuality not only doesn`t decrease but steadily mounts up as due to the mining works depth increase, enlargement of the useful minerals excavations volumes as due to the possibility of safe use of the rock massif potential energy for facilitating the mastering of the bowels of the Earth and for making that more cheap. The purpose of present work is to study the engineering activity influence to processes occurring in the upper part of Earth crust and in particular in a rock massif. The rock massif is treated in those studies as a geophysical medium - such approach takes into account the presence of block structure of medium and the continuous exchange of energy between parts of that structure. The idea ``geophysical medium`` is applied in geophysics sufficiently wide and stresses the difference of actual Earth crust and rock massifs from the continuous media models discussed in mechanics.

  18. Geological Mapping of Tectonized Terrains in the Trailing Hemisphere of Enceladus (United States)

    Crow-Willard, E. N.; Pappalardo, R. T.


    Saturn's moon Enceladus has a currently active South Polar Terrain (SPT) that is intensely tectonized. Other portions of the surface of Enceladus, specifically the trailing hemisphere, have also been intensely tectonized, inviting comparisons to the SPT. Through geological mapping, we recognize seven different geological units and their relative ages on the trailing hemisphere. From oldest to youngest, they are: (1) heavily cratered terrain, at the northern edge of the tectonized region; (2) moderately cratered terrain, to the northeast and northwest of the tectonized region; (3) finely striated ridge and trough terrain, which make up the bulk of Sarandib and Diyar Planitiae; (4) boundary curved terrain, which is similar in shape to the southern curved terrain that comprises the northern edge of the SPT, but with more subdued topography, and is composed of Samarkand, Hamah, and Harran Sulci; (5) ridged terrain, composed of the Cufa Dorsa and Ebony Dorsum, which probably formed through deformation of older finely striated ridge and trough terrain; (6) terrain with linear, widely spaced, smooth depressions, comprising the southern portion of the trailing hemisphere's tectonized region; (7) southern curved terrain of Cashmere Sulci, which forms the northern boundary of the SPT. Fractures that are younger than or contemporaneous with the SPT's southern curved terrain (including Labtayt Sulci and Khorasan Fossa) cut across the trailing hemisphere. We will present a geological map of the region, along with interpretations of the stratigraphy and geological history that our mapping implies. We will address geological and age comparisons relative to the SPT, with implications for whether similar or different processes have shaped the SPT and the tectonized trailing hemisphere.

  19. A transparent and data-driven global tectonic regionalisation model for seismic hazard assessment (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Shin; Weatherill, Graeme; Pagani, Marco; Cotton, Fabrice


    A key concept that is common to many assumptions inherent within seismic hazard assessment is that of tectonic similarity. This recognises that certain regions of the globe may display similar geophysical characteristics, such as in the attenuation of seismic waves, the magnitude scaling properties of seismogenic sources or the seismic coupling of the lithosphere. Previous attempts at tectonic regionalisation, particularly within a seismic hazard assessment context, have often been based on expert judgements; in most of these cases, the process for delineating tectonic regions is neither reproducible nor consistent from location to location. In this work, the regionalisation process is implemented in a scheme that is reproducible, comprehensible from a geophysical rationale, and revisable when new relevant data are published. A spatial classification-scheme is developed based on fuzzy logic, enabling the quantification of concepts that are approximate rather than precise. Using the proposed methodology, we obtain a transparent and data-driven global tectonic regionalisation model for seismic hazard applications as well as the subjective probabilities (e.g. degree of being active/degree of being cratonic) indicate the degree to which a site belongs in a tectonic category.

  20. Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central Turkey (United States)

    Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal


    Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western Anatolian extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North Anatolian Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic faults. The Sekli thrust fault is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan fault is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya fault is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central Turkey. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.

  1. Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.


    We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.

  2. Tectonic reconstruction models for the break-up and divergence of the Manihiki and Hikurangi plateaux (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Dahn, M. R.


    The plate tectonic history of the Mid-Cretaceous seafloor located between the Manihiki and Hikurangi plateaux is poorly constrained due to the complex pattern of fracture zones and the lack of correlatable magnetic anomalies. Conventional plate reconstruction models suggest the Manihiki, Hikurangi and Ontong Java plateau were once part of a larger igneous complex, which broke up during a major plate reorganization at about magnetic anomaly M0 time (~120 Ma). The divergence between the Manihiki and Hikurangi plateaux continued for an unspecified duration, but likely ceased during another major plate reorganization event in the Late Cretaceous (71-84 Ma). At that time, spreading near the Osbourn Trough relocated to the Pacific-Antarctic divergent plate boundary. To understand the detailed tectonic history of the region bracketed by these plate reorganization events, we have assembled all available high-resolution multibeam in the region. These data were used to quantify regional trends in abyssal hill orientations and to identify fracture zone locations and offset orientations. Our preliminary results suggest a fairly complex spreading history for the region, which requires multiple Euler Poles and ridge-axis relocation events. We present several tectonic reconstruction scenarios to account for these new observations. These tectonic reconstructions have important implications for the mantle plume-influenced history of the region and the origin/evolution of the Manihiki-Hikurangi-Ontong Java large igneous province.

  3. Trophic flexibility of the Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus in invaded coastal systems of the Apulia region (SE Italy): A stable isotope analysis (United States)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Teresa Guerra, Maria; Alujević, Karla; Raho, Davide; Zotti, Maurizio; Vizzini, Salvatrice


    The Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus is recognized as an Invasive Alien Species in the Mediterranean Sea. However, its trophic role and feeding flexibility in invaded benthic food webs have been addressed only recently. Here, field samplings were conducted in winter and summer in five coastal systems of the Apulia region (SE Italy), three located on the Ionian Sea (Mar Piccolo, Torre Colimena, and Spunderati) and two on the Adriatic Sea (Acquatina and Alimini Grande). Captured blue crabs were weighed and had their δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures measured; their trophic level (TL) was estimated using the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as isotopic baseline. C. sapidus abundances varied greatly across systems and seasons, and in Adriatic systems the species was not collected in winter. Trophic levels showed significant spatial and temporal variations, although with no general pattern. In winter, the Mar Piccolo population showed the highest TL values; the lowest estimates were in Torre Colimena and Spunderati, where crabs showed δ13C signatures significantly higher than mussels, suggesting the contribution of 13C-enriched plant material in the diet. In summer, with the exception of the Mar Piccolo, Ionian populations increased their trophic level; both Adriatic populations were characterized by the lowest TL estimates. The analysis performed at the individual scale further indicated body weight-related changes in trophic level. For the Torre Colimena population, in particular, a hump-shaped pattern was observed in both seasons. The present study highlighted a considerable spatial and temporal trophic flexibility of C. sapidus at the population scale, while at the individual scale size-related shifts in trophic level were observed. The ability of the blue crab to vary its energy sources in relation with season, local environmental conditions, and ontogenetic stage is emphasized, suggesting that it may represent a key determinant of its invasion success.

  4. Study On Aftershock Triggering In Consideration Of Tectonic Stress Field (United States)

    Hu, C.; Cai, Y.


    : The occurrence of earthquake is related to the strength of rock and tectonic stress field. The seismic risk factor (SRF),D=\\left|{τn }\\right|/(μσn ) is proposed to describe the dangerous status of aftershock triggering in this paper. Dearthquakes, velocity field from GPS as well as geological survey. As one order of approximation, the magnitudes of the regional tectonic stress field can be estimated by the Coulomb failure criterion. Finite element method (FEM) and the concept of the factor D are used to study the aftershock triggering of the 1976 Tangshan Ms=7.8 earthquake. The results show that: (1) Most of the aftershocks triggered by the Tangshan earthquake occurred in the two-leaf-shaped regions of D≥ 1 near the north-east end of the main-shock fault. The largest leaf is about 100km long and 40km wide. (2) The areas of aftershock triggering predicted by the seismic risk factorD and Δ CFS (the changes in the Coulomb failure stress) are almost the same near the fault. The difference between them is that the aftershock area predicted by Δ CFS≥ 0 is too large and the area predicted by the factor D≥ 1 is limited. The areas of aftershock triggering predicted by Δ CFS≥ 0.04 MPa are nearly the same as those of D≥ 1 obtained by the study. (3) Sometimes Δ CFS =0.01MPa is taken as a low threshold of aftershock triggering. However, Δ CFS≥ 0 only means the probability increase of the earthquake triggering, not means the earthquake will occur. The earthquake occurrence is not only related to Δ CFS, but also to the tectonic stress field before the main-shock.

  5. Summary of the stretching tectonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan


    The rise of stretching tectonics is established on the basis of recent structural geology theory, the establishment of metamorphic nucleus complex structural model on one hand plays an important promoting art to the development of stretching structure, on the other hand, it needs constant supplement and perfection in practice. Metamorphic nucleus complex is the carrier of comparatively deep geological information in vertical section of the crust and has wide distribution in the era of south China. Evidently, it can be taken as the 'key' to understanding the deep and studying the basement, Strengthening the study will play the important promoting role to the deep prospecting. The study of stretching tectonics is not only limited within the range of structure and metamorphism, but combine with the studies of sedimentation, magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization, thus form a new field of tectonic geology of self-developing system

  6. Tectonique dans la région de la mer de Beaufort (Arctique canadien (résumé Tectonism in the Beaufort Sea - Region of Arctic Canada (Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroszczak W. E.


    Full Text Available Le delta de la Mackenzie et la mer de Beaufort qui en sont encore au début de l'exploration, peuvent devenir une région pétrolière majeure dans les années 1980. Ce vaste bassin tertiaire est situé dans un environnement arctique ; il a demandé et nécessitera dans l'avenir de nouvelles technologies pour développer et produire les hydrocarbures si l'exploration est couronnée de succès. L'exploration pour l'huile et le gaz a été active dans cette région depuis 1965 bien que les facteurs climatiques et économiques aient eu tendance à freiner cette exploration, particulièrement en mer. L'auteur présente un bref historique des recherches comprenant les derniers résultats des sondage dans la mer de Beaufort forés par Dome Petroleum et ses partenaires. On discute aussi l'origine des structures en mer, en commentant les données sismiques. La structuration est considérée comme le résultat d'une sédimentation rapide de clastiques au Tertiaire dans un bassin dont le substratum serait formé d'une épaisse série d'argiles sous-compactées d'âge jurassique ou crétacé. The Mackenzie Delta and offshore Beaufort Sea Region which is at a very early stage of exploration, may become a major source of hydrocarbons in the 1980's This large Tertiary basin is situated in an Arctic environment and has required, and will require in the future, new technology to develop and produce hydrocarbons if exploration is successful. Exploration for oil and gas has been active in the area since 1965 with climatic and economic factors contributing ta a slow pace of exploration, particularly in the offshore area. A brief history of exploration with and update of the latest results of drilling in the Beaufort by Dome Petroleum and its partners is presented. Using seismic data, the genesis of structures found in the offshore area is discussed. These are believed to be the result of rapid Tertiary clastic deposition in a basin underlain by a thick section of

  7. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich


    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  8. Proceedings of the 1. Regional Symposium on Geology Bahia-Sergipe States, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Symposium present works about geochemistry, isotope dating, petrology, tectonics and mineralization from Bahia-Sergipe region, that have the biggest part of geo tectonics unity, defined as Craton of Sao Francisco. (C.G.C.)

  9. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.


    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  10. Africa's Megafans and Their Tectonic Setting (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Burke, K.


    fans lies on the western margin of the Congo Basin (Mayombe Swell), and on the coastal slopes of the Namibia Swell. Sheer size may have militated aginst the recognition of many megafans: the largest in the Sahara are the Teghahart (378 km, Hoggar Swell, Algeria), and the Wadi Albalata (340 km, Uweinat Swell, Egypt). In southern Africa the largest are the Cubango (320 km, Bié Swell, Angola/ Namibia), and the Limpopo (230 km, Mozambique). (ii) Rift zones (a) Steer's horns basins-wide depressions centered on rifts. The largest contiguous group (n=14) developed in a steer's-horns basin occupies the wide Muglad depression (200-350 km, South Sudan). Four rift-related megafans lie SE of Lake Chad (Chad). Nine megafans occupy the complex Anza Rift in Kenya/South Somalia. The Salamat megafan (Chad), is unusual because it oriented parallel with the linked Salamat, Doseo and Doba rift axes, and is consequently one of the longest in Africa (465 km). (b) Rift depressions sensu stricto. Most rifts are too narrow to provide a transverse dimension large enough to accommodate megafans. Although well-known, the Okavango Rift (NW Botswana, NE Namibia) is unique in Africa in hosting three megafans within identifiable faulted margins. The Nile megafan is Africa's largest (476 km) and comprises the vast Sudd wetland (South Sudan). An explanation for its remarkable size may be its location in a depression at the junction of two conducive tectonic zones, the East African Swell margin and the Muglad steer's-horns depression. Discharge of the River Nile, the largest in the region, has allowed the Nile megafan to outcompete neighboring megafans for space.

  11. A planetary perspective on Earth evolution: Lid Tectonics before Plate Tectonics (United States)

    Piper, John D. A.


    Plate Tectonics requires a specific range of thermal, fluid and compositional conditions before it will operate to mobilise planetary lithospheres. The response to interior heat dispersion ranges from mobile lids in constant motion able to generate zones of subduction and spreading (Plate Tectonics), through styles of Lid Tectonics expressed by stagnant lids punctured by volcanism, to lids alternating between static and mobile. The palaeomagnetic record through Earth history provides a test for tectonic style because a mobile Earth of multiple continents is recorded by diverse apparent polar wander paths, whilst Lid Tectonics is recorded by conformity to a single position. The former is difficult to isolate without extreme selection whereas the latter is a demanding requirement and easily recognised. In the event, the Precambrian palaeomagnetic database closely conforms to this latter property over very long periods of time (~ 2.7-2.2 Ga, 1.5-1.3 Ga and 0.75-0.6 Ga); intervening intervals are characterised by focussed loops compatible with episodes of true polar wander stimulated by disturbances to the planetary figure. Because of this singular property, the Precambrian palaeomagnetic record is highly effective in showing that a dominant Lid Tectonics operated throughout most of Earth history. A continental lid comprising at least 60% of the present continental area and volume had achieved quasi-integrity by 2.7 Ga. Reconfiguration of mantle and continental lid at ~ 2.2 Ga correlates with isotopic signatures and the Great Oxygenation Event and is the closest analogy in Earth history to the resurfacing of Venus. Change from Lid Tectonics to Plate Tectonics is transitional and the geological record identifies incipient development of Plate Tectonics on an orogenic scale especially after 1.1 Ga, but only following break-up of the continental lid (Palaeopangaea) in Ediacaran times beginning at ~ 0.6 Ga has it become comprehensive in the style evident during the

  12. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  13. Three-dimensional seismo-tectonics in the Po Valley basin, Northern Italy (United States)

    Turrini, Claudio; Angeloni, Pamela; Lacombe, Olivier; Ponton, Maurizio; Roure, François


    The Po Valley (Northern Italy) is a composite foreland-foredeep basin caught in between the Southern Alps and Northern Apennine mountain belts. By integrating the 3D structural model of the region with the public earthquake dataset, the seismo-tectonics of the basin is shown at different scales of observation. The three-dimensional geo-volume is used to review the seismicity around the region and validate the structure-earthquake association for such a complex tectonic framework. Despite the overall uncertainty due to the original data distribution-quality as well as the crustal scale model dimension, the direct correlation between structures and seismicity a) confirms the Po Valley region as an active tectonic system and b) allows the whole structural architecture to be revised by a unique three-dimensional perspective and approach. This study also indicates that 3D methodology is a powerful tool for better understanding of highly complex seismo-tectonic situations at both regional and local scales.

  14. Three-dimensional seismo-tectonics in the Po Valley basin, Northern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrini, Claudio; Angeloni, Pamela; Lacombe, Olivier; Ponton, Maurizio; Roure, François


    The Po Valley (Northern Italy) is a composite foreland-foredeep basin caught in between the Southern Alps and Northern Apennine mountain belts. By integrating the 3D structural model of the region with the public earthquake dataset, the seismo-tectonics of the basin is shown at different scales of

  15. Structure and tectonics of western continental margin of India: Implication for geologic hazards

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.

    , and Coastal Processes ofIndian. Coast" Structure and Tectonics ofWestern Continental Margin ofIndia: Implication for Geologic Hazards A.K. Chaubey and K.K. Ajay National Institute ojOceanography. DOM Paula, Goa-403 004 The geomorphological and geological....D., Kroon, D., Gaedicke, c., Craig, J. (Eds.), The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region, vol. 195. Geological Society, London, pp. 71"':85 (Special Publications). Chaubey, A.K., Gopala Rao, D., Srinivas, K., Ramprasad, T., Ramana, M...

  16. Tectonic reversal of the western Doruneh Fault System: Implications for Central Asian tectonics (United States)

    Javadi, Hamid Reza; Esterabi Ashtiani, Marzieh; Guest, Bernard; Yassaghi, Ali; Ghassemi, Mohammad Reza; Shahpasandzadeh, Majid; Naeimi, Amir


    The left-lateral Doruneh Fault System (DFS) bounds the north margin of the Central Iranian microplate and has played an important role in the structural evolution of the Turkish-Iranian plateau. The western termination of the DFS is a sinistral synthetic branch fault array that shows clear kinematic evidence of having undergone recent slip sense inversion from a dextral array to a sinistral array in the latest Neogene or earliest Quaternary. Similarly, kinematic evidence from the Anarak Metamorphic complex suggests that this complex initially developed at a transpressive left-stepping termination of the DFS and that it was inverted in the latest Neogene to a transtensional fault termination. The recognition that the DFS and other faults in NE Iran were inverted from dextral to sinistral strike slip in the latest Neogene and the likely connection between the DFS and the Herat Fault of Afghanistan suggests that prior to the latest Miocene, all of the north Iranian and northern Afghan ranges were part of a distributed dextral fault network that extended from the west Himalayan syntaxes to the western Alborz. Also, the recognition that regional slip sense inversion occurred across northern and northeastern Iran after the latest Miocene invalidates tectonic models that extrapolate Pleistocene to recent fault slip kinematics and rates back beyond this time.

  17. Provenance, tectonic setting and source-area weathering of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    s12040-017-0803-5. Provenance, tectonic setting and source-area weathering of the lower Cambrian ... (2010) carried out detrital zircon studies in order to correlate ...... and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt;. Chinese Sci. Bull.

  18. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry and the evolution of landscapes and life (United States)

    Mulch, Andreas


    Reconstructing topography of our planet not only advances our knowledge of the geodynamic processes that shape the Earth's surface; equally important it adds a key element towards understanding long-term continental moisture transport, atmospheric circulation and the distribution of biomes and biodiversity. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry exploits systematic decreases in the oxygen (δ18O) or hydrogen (δD) isotopic composition of precipitation along a mountain front when the interaction of topography and advected moist air masses induces orographic precipitation. These changes in δ18O or δD can be recovered from the geologic record and recent geochemical and modeling advances allow a broad range of proxy materials to be evaluated. Over the last 10 yr stable isotope paleoaltimetry has witnessed rapidly expanding research activities and has produced a broad array of fascinating tectonic and geomorphologic studies many of which have concentrated on determining the elevation history of continental plateau regions. These single-site studies have greatly expanded what used to be very sparse global paleoaltimetric data. The challenge now lies in disentangling the surface uplift component from the impact of climate change on δ18O and δD in precipitation. The robustness of stable isotope paleoaltimetry can be enhanced when high-elevation δ18O or δD data are referenced against low-elevation sites that track climate-modulated sea level δ18O or δD of precipitation through time (' δ- δ approach'). Analysis of central Andean paleosols documents that differences in δ18O of soil carbonate between the Subandean foreland and the Bolivian Altiplano are small between 11 and 7 Ma but rise rapidly to ca. 2.9‰ after 7 Ma, corroborating the magnitude of late Miocene change in δ18O on the Altiplano. Future advances in stable isotope paleoaltimetry will greatly benefit from addressing four key challenges: (1) Identifying topographically-induced changes in atmospheric

  19. Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Classroom Ideas. (United States)

    Stout, Prentice K.


    Suggests various classroom studies related to plate tectonics and continental drift, including comments on and sources of resource materials useful in teaching the topics. A complete list of magazine articles on the topics from the Sawyer Marine Resource Collection may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  20. 3D monitoring of active tectonic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stemberk, Josef; Košťák, Blahoslav; Vilímek, V.


    Roč. 36, 1-2 (2003), s. 103-112 ISSN 0264-3707 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 625.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : tectonics * monitoring * active structures Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.754, year: 2003

  1. Radial Extension, Prototypicality, and Tectonic Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaver Stephen R.


    Full Text Available In his book “Without Metaphor, No Saving God: Theology After Cognitive Linguistics”, Robert Masson describes a metaphoric process by which newly accepted truths emerge: for example, in the assertion “Jesus is the Messiah,” Christians reconfigure the field of meanings associated with an existing concept from the Hebrew scriptures (messiah by asserting its identification with Jesus. Masson dubs this process a “tectonic equivalence” or “tectonic shift.” In this paper I build on Masson‘s work by examining some of the shifts he describes as tectonic through the lens of the cognitive linguistics concepts of radial extension and polysemy. I propose that a lasting tectonic shift may be understood as a blend creating a radial extension that substantially alters the category structure of the original source frame so that the blended space comes to be understood as a central instance of that category. Such an approach allows a fruitful analysis of the similarities and differences among three example blends: god is a rock, jesus is the messiah, and jesus is god.

  2. Tectonically Induced Anomalies Without Large Earthquake Occurrences (United States)

    Shi, Zheming; Wang, Guangcai; Liu, Chenglong; Che, Yongtai


    In this study, we documented a case involving large-scale macroscopic anomalies in the Xichang area, southwestern Sichuan Province, China, from May to June of 2002, after which no major earthquake occurred. During our field survey in 2002, we found that the timing of the high-frequency occurrence of groundwater anomalies was in good agreement with those of animal anomalies. Spatially, the groundwater and animal anomalies were distributed along the Anninghe-Zemuhe fault zone. Furthermore, the groundwater level was elevated in the northwest part of the Zemuhe fault and depressed in the southeast part of the Zemuhe fault zone, with a border somewhere between Puge and Ningnan Counties. Combined with microscopic groundwater, geodetic and seismic activity data, we infer that the anomalies in the Xichang area were the result of increasing tectonic activity in the Sichuan-Yunnan block. In addition, groundwater data may be used as a good indicator of tectonic activity. This case tells us that there is no direct relationship between an earthquake and these anomalies. In most cases, the vast majority of the anomalies, including microscopic and macroscopic anomalies, are caused by tectonic activity. That is, these anomalies could occur under the effects of tectonic activity, but they do not necessarily relate to the occurrence of earthquakes.

  3. Discriminating four tectonic settings: Five new geochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 115; Issue 5. Discriminating four tectonic settings: Five new geochemical diagrams for basic and ultrabasic volcanic rocks based on log–ratio transformation of major-element data. Surendra P Verma Mirna Guevara Salil Agrawal. Volume 115 Issue 5 October 2006 ...

  4. The Phenomenology and Tectonics of Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian


    “The material, detail and structure of a building is an absolute condition. Architecture’s potential is to deliver authentic meanings in what we see, touch and smell; the tectonic is ultimately central to what we feel” Steven Holl...

  5. Provenance, tectonics and palaeoclimate of Proterozoic Chandarpur ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    climatic condition. The provenance analysis revealed that the Chandarpur clastics were derived from granites and granite–gneisses of a continental block tectonic provenance. Petrographic stud- ies further indicate that high grade metamorphic rocks did not make any perceptible contribution to the Chandarpur system.

  6. Structure and tectonics of convergent plate margins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš (ed.); Čadek, O. (ed.); Engdahl, E. R. (ed.)


    Roč. 141, č. 4 (2004), s. 241 ISSN 0031-9201 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Keywords : tectonics * subduction * convergent margins Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.370, year: 2004

  7. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf


    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  8. Topography of Venus and earth - A test for the presence of plate tectonics (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Yuter, S. E.; Solomon, S. C.


    Comparisons of earth and Venus topography by use of Pioneer/Venus radar altimetry are examined. Approximately 93% of the Venus surface has been mapped with a horizontal resolution of 200 km and a vertical resolution of 200 m. Tectonic troughs have been indicated in plains regions which cover 65% of Venus, and hypsometric comparisons between the two planets' elevation distributions revealed that while the earth has a bimodal height distribution, Venus displays a unimodal configuration, with 60% of the planet surface within 500 m of the modal planet radius. The effects of mapping the earth at the same resolution as the Venus observations were explored. Continents and oceans were apparent, and although folded mountains appeared as high spots, no indications of tectonic activity were discernible. A NASA Venus Orbiting Imaging radar is outlined, which is designed to detect volcanoes, folded mountain ranges, craters, and faults, and thereby allow definition of possible plate-tectonic activity on Venus.

  9. Late Archaean tectonics and sedimentation of the South Rand area, Witwatersrand basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.M.


    The sedimentary fill of the southern part of the northeastern Witwatersrand basin consists of four unconformity bounded mega sequences. Early sedimentation took place in a stable, epi continental basin characterized by amphidromic flow. Gradual transgression to distal shelf facies was followed by gradual emergence to intertidal facies. Unconformity Bounded Mega sequence 2 shows that the basin underwent regression, in which discrete uplifts provided a source of granite-greenstone-derived sediment to associated braid plain aprons. Thereafter the basin subsided into a system almost identical to that in which Unconformity Bounded Mega sequence 1 developed. Unconformity Bounded Mega sequence 3 was deposited in a similar marine environment, on an angular unconformity in the east. Regional uplift occurred to the northwest of the basin. Unconformity Bounded Mega sequence 4 records progradation of a perennial braid plain controlled by uplift in the east, and by the minor influence of an uplift to the northwest. Rapid transgression resulted in submarine fan facies development, after which rapid emergence was controlled by uplift in the east, and to a lesser extent, the north. The braid plain was the site of extrusion of komatiitic lavas of the lower Ventersdorp Supergroup and was subsequently smothered by the sustained outpouring of a two kilometer-thick pile of basalts. Crustal extension climaxed after extrusion of felsic volcanics. This extension is antithetic to regional down-to-the-northwest, lower Ventersdorp Supergroup rifting. The last conspicuous phase of Precambrian tectonics is the superposition of a right-lateral wrench system on the early structural framework, after deposition of the lower Transvaal Sequence. Analysis of the samples was carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. 243 refs., 119 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Litho-tectonic mapping of the North Afar region from Sentinel-2A multispectral imagery and ALOS AW3D30 digital elevation data: Controls on Danakil-Nubia plate motion between the Erta'Ale ridge and the Gulf of Zula (United States)

    Hartnady, Chris; Hartnady, Michael; Wise, Edward; Blake, Dylan; McGibbon, David; Hay, E. Rowena


    The Danakil Depression in the North Afar region of Ethiopia reaches elevations deeper than 120 m below sea level and contains a Pleistocene-Holocene evaporite sequence currently investigated for potash mineral deposits. Separated from the main Ethiopian escarpment by the Dogua horst mountains, the asymmetric half-graben is bordered on its western (Nubian) side by the active, normal Main Danakil Rift-border Fault (MDRF). Above the MDRF, a series of piedmont alluvial fans (bajadas) fringes the Dogua Horst, emanating from a series of wadi catchments between the larger perennial rivers (Ragali, Saba) that drain from the high (>2000 m) Ethiopian Plateau. On its eastern side, the Danakil block contains Proterozoic-Palaeozoic sequences correlated with similar units in the Dogua range, and forms a microplate rotating independently between the larger Nubian and Arabian plates (McClusky et al., 2010). An understanding of the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Danakil-Nubia (DA-NU) plate system is crucial to the beneficial development of fresh groundwater resources and to an assessment of seismotectonic and volcanic geohazards in the area. Between the Mt Alid caldera in the Dandeiro graben and the Erta'Ale crater in the south Danakil, the rate of present-day DA-NU motion is 10.9 - 13.5 mm/yr, with direction azimuths N106E- N096E (after Schettino et al., 2016). DA-NU relative motion is focussed along the east-dipping MDRF in the Danakil but switches to an eastern (west-dipping) rift-border normal fault in the Dandiero, a northward extension of the Renda-Maglalla-Coma graben, separating the Dogua Horst from the main part of the NU plate. This change in rifting asymmetry occurs across a WNW/ESE-striking zone of basement faulting that terminates the Dogua Horst and functions as a left-stepping proto-transform fault zone, across the NNW direction of DA-NU proto-rift propagation. From 13-channel multispectral data of the European Space Agency satellite Sentinel-2A, a false

  11. stableGP (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  12. Identifying local and regional groundwater in basins: chemical and stable isotopic attributes of multivariate classification of hydrochemical data, the Lower Virgin River Basin, Nevada, Arizona and Utah, U.S.A. (United States)

    Asante, Joseph; Kreamer, David K


    In the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern U.S.A., deep carbonate groundwater has been suggested as a significant source to many overlying basin-fill alluvial aquifer systems. Notwithstanding, testing this hypothesis is limited by obtaining data from such considerable depths and complex geology. This study uses δ 2 H and δ 18 O data from springs, rivers, and wells tapping shallow basin-fill groundwater to test the hydrochemical interpretation of deep regional carbonate groundwater flow into the basin-fill aquifers. Stable isotopic and major ion attributes of hydrochemical facies suggest basin-fill alluvial groundwater of the Lower Virgin River Basin is a mixture of precipitation recharge within the Lower Virgin River Basin or the Clover and Escalante Desert Basin northwards, and the deep carbonate flow. The data support the conclusions that in the Lower Virgin River Basin, deep carbonate groundwater is an important source to the alluvial aquifer system and likely accounts for approximately 50% of the alluvial aquifer groundwater. Na + , K + , and SO 4 2- increase in the basin-fill alluvial groundwaters outside the Virgin River floodplain appears to be related with upwelling of deep regional groundwater, and indicating that the chemical character of the basin-fill alluvial groundwaters are related to the deeper flow systems.

  13. Crustal structure and tectonic model of the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey


    with propagation into the Central Arctic Ocean along the Gakkel Ridge, (iv) deep-water ocean basins and shallow-water shelves of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, and (v) associated large igneous provinces (LIPs).We present a series of maps for the Circumpolar Arctic which include maps of the depth to Moho...

  14. Okelobondo Uranium deposit: Regional context, stratigraphy, sedimentology, tectonic and mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ango, A.M.


    This paper describes briefly the geology of Okelobondo uranium deposit (Gabon) and gives the study prospects of natural reactor phenomenon which depends of the operating progress state. Oklo phenomenon is considered as the best natural analogue for the study of radionuclide migration. 3 figs

  15. Regional tectonic effects on the composition and mode of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reconnaissance geologic mapping for barite mineralization within Akpet Central and environs had been successfully done. The results of the study show that the mineralization of barite is largely structurally controlled although minor sedimentary processes have also contributed. Barite mineralization in the area therefore ...

  16. Tectonic pattern of the Azores spreading centre and triple junction (United States)

    Searle, Roger


    The major tectonic elements of the Azores triple junction have been mapped using long-range side-scan sonar. The data enable the Mid-Atlantic Ridge axis to be located with a precision of a few kilometres. Major faults and other tectonic and volcanic elements of the ridge maintain their regional trend of 010° to 020° past the triple junction area. There is no oblique spreading, and only minor transform offsets of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge occur here. The main effect of the triple junction or Azores hot spot is to diminish the amplitude of the median valley to 200 m or less. There is no axial high: a topographic high seen on several profiles is located to the east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge spreading axis and does not appear to have any fundamental significance. The third arm of the triple junction includes the Azores srreading centre which appears to have developed as a series of en echelon rifted basins (the Terceira Rift) extending from Formigas Trough at 36.8°N, 24.5°W to a point near 39.3°N, 28.8°W. There are indications that recent activity in the spreading centre may be concentrated in a series of ridges which flank the older rifted basins. Until recently the northwest end of the Terceira Rift was connected to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge axis either directly at an RRR junction, or via a transform fault. The triple junction has probably moved south during the last 6 Ma to a positin on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 38.7°N. Initiation of the Azores spreading centre may have occurred during the 36 Ma B.P. rearrangement of poles, with an RFF triple junction north from the East Azores fracture zone to the North Azores fracture zone and transferring a wedge of European plate to the African plate. The tectonic elements revealed by this study are in good agreement with inferred earthquake mechanisms and with the RM2 plate tectonic model of Minster and Jordan, but east-west motion between North America and Africa does not seem to be compatible with the other motions at the

  17. Possible salt tectonics in Ariadnes Colles ? (United States)

    Wendt, L.; Gasselt, S. V.; Neukum, G.


    the foot of the hill. On other knobs, the basaltic material can be found on higher elevations or even at the top. Directly beneath it, the hill exhibits a bright layer that follows the topography with a constant thickness. This layer appears to be harder than the remainder of the light-toned material. Below it, the hills consist of bulk, massive, indurated material. Both the outer layer and the bulk light-toned material are heavily dissected by joints. These joints are partly oriented in a rectangular pattern, but in many cases the exposed outer side of the crust shows a polygonal pattern. Discussion The formation process of the material forming the knobs is poorly constrained. The location of the features below the high stand of a lake proposed by [1] and their light colour are consistent with a formation as an evaporite in a standing body of water, as proposed by [3], who suggested halite as a possible material. The possible detection of sulphate absorbtion features by [5] supports the interpretation of an evaporitic origin.. The development of the individual knobs appears to follow a regional tectonic framework, as suggested by the angular outer boundaries of the individual hills [3]. The observation of a highly jointed, light toned layer superimposed on the bright material in the centre of the knobs that rises from below the basaltic cover between the hills suggests that the hills were not formed by differential displacement along faults and subsequent erosion along these zones of weakness, but by local uplift caused by internal deformation of the light-toned material. Combining these observations, our leading hypothesis is the formation of the lighttoned material by evaporation, followed by uplift of the hills by salt-tectonic movement. Future work We will test this hypothesis and investigate possible alternative processes using spectral data from OMEGA and CRISM flanked by geologic mapping and age determinations based on HRSC and HiRISE imagery. Acknowledgement

  18. Tectonic setting of the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, eastern Washington (United States)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Rohay, Alan C.; Wells, Ray E.


    Magnetic anomalies provide insights into the tectonic implications of a swarm of ~1500 shallow (~1 km deep) earthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford site,Washington. Epicenters were concentrated in a 2 km2 area nearWooded Island in the Columbia River. The largest earthquake (M 3.0) had first motions consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of vertical surface deformation, seen in satellite interferometry (InSAR), interpreted to be caused by ~50 mm of slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in the underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A magnetic anomaly over exposed CRBG at Yakima Ridge 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond the ridge to the Columbia River, suggesting that the Yakima Ridge anticline and its associated thrust fault extend southeastward in the subsurface. In map view, the concealed anticline passes through the earthquake swarm and lies parallel to reverse faults determined from first motions and InSAR data. A forward model of the magnetic anomaly near Wooded Island is consistent with uplift of concealed CRBG, with the top surface plane faults modeled from interferometry all fall within the northeastern limb of the faulted anticline. Although fluids may be responsible for triggering the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, the seismic and aseismic deformation are consistent with regional-scale tectonic compression across the concealed Yakima Ridge anticline.

  19. Euro-African MAGSAT anomaly-tectonic observations (United States)

    Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.


    Preliminary satellite (MAGSAT) scalar magnetic anomaly data are compiled and differentially reduced to radial polarization by equivalent point source inversion for comparison with tectonic data of Africa, Europe and adjacent marine areas. A number of associations are evident to constrain analyses of the tectonic features and history of the region. The Precambrian shields of Africa and Europe exhibit varied magnetic signatures. All shields are not magnetic highs and, in fact, the Baltic shield is a marked minimum. The reduced-to-the-pole magnetic map shows a marked tendency for northeasterly striking anomalies in the eastern Atlantic and adjacent Africa, which is coincident to the track of several hot spots for the past 100 million years. However, there is little consistency in the sign of the magnetic anomalies and the track of the hot spots. Comparison of the radially polarized anomalies of Africa and Europe with other reduced-to-the-pole magnetic satellite anomaly maps of the Western Hemisphere support the reconstruction of the continents prior to the origin of the present-day Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era.

  20. Tectonic setting of the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, eastern Washington (United States)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Rohay, Alan C.; Wells, Ray E.


    Magnetic anomalies provide insights into the tectonic implications of a swarm of ~1500 shallow (~1 km deep) earthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford site,Washington. Epicenters were concentrated in a 2 km2 area nearWooded Island in the Columbia River. The largest earthquake (M 3.0) had first motions consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of vertical surface deformation, seen in satellite interferometry (InSAR), interpreted to be caused by ~50 mm of slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in the underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A magnetic anomaly over exposed CRBG at Yakima Ridge 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond the ridge to the Columbia River, suggesting that the Yakima Ridge anticline and its associated thrust fault extend southeastward in the subsurface. In map view, the concealed anticline passes through the earthquake swarm and lies parallel to reverse faults determined from first motions and InSAR data. A forward model of the magnetic anomaly near Wooded Island is consistent with uplift of concealed CRBG, with the top surface swarm and the thrust and bedding-plane faults modeled from interferometry all fall within the northeastern limb of the faulted anticline. Although fluids may be responsible for triggering the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, the seismic and aseismic deformation are consistent with regional-scale tectonic compression across the concealed Yakima Ridge anticline.

  1. Problems of Tectonics and Tectonic Evolution of the Arctic (United States)

    Vernikovskiy, V. A.; Metelkin, D. V.; Matushkin, N. Y.; Vernikovskaya, A. E.; Chernova, A. I.; Mikhaltsov, N. E.


    The Arctic Ocean within Russia remains poorly investigated area, in particular to geological structures and the Arctic Ocean floor. Many researchers believe that the basements of the terranes, composing the Arctic shelf and continental slopes, are of the Precambrian age. It was assumed that the Arctic terranes formed the ancient paleocontinent of Arctida that broke up during rifting, whereas the separated plates and terranes accreted to the periphery of the Arctic Ocean at a later stage. However, geological, geochronological and paleomagnetic evidence to test this assumption has been insufficient. Recently, geological and geophysical studies have significantly increased, in particular to the structures of Eastern Arctic. For example, the New Siberian Islands Archipelago is one of key structures for understanding geology and evolution of the Arctic region. Additionally, several submerged structures containing fragments of continental crust, including the Lomonosov Ridge and the Mendeleev Rise, are identified within the Arctic Ocean and adjacent to the New Siberian Islands Archipelago. Here we present new geochronological and paleomagnetic data to refine the evolution of the Arctida paleocontinent. Our model implies existence of the two Arctidas during Late Precambrian - Late Paleozoic. The earlier Arctida-I was located near equator and connected with the continental margins of Laurentia, Baltica and Siberia within the supercontinent of Rodinia. The initiation of Arctida-I rifting is associated with breakup of Rodinia. As a result, small plates, including Svalbard, Kara, New Siberia Island and other terranes, were formed. We have reconstructed the main stages of further remobilization and global drift of these plates before Pangea assemblage. We assume that the later Arctida-II was located at the Pangean periphery in the temperate latitudes, and was also connected to the Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberia cratons. The breakup of the Arctida-II is suggested to have

  2. Tectonic evolution of the eastern margin of the Thaumasia Plateau (Mars) as inferred from detailed structural mapping and analysis (United States)

    Borraccini, F.; Di Achille, G.; Ori, G. G.; Wezel, F. C.


    The eastern margin of the Thaumasia Plateau (EMTP) is characterized by a diversity of tectonic features, which recorded its complex, and still controversial, tectonic history. A detailed structural survey and analyses have been carried out in order to assess the kinematics and relative age of the main deformational events. Combining results from statistics of lineament orientations and density of fault length for each geologic unit and taking into account crosscutting relationships among tectonic structures, three main deformational events have been recognized. The early stage of the tectonic evolution of EMTP is recorded by Noachian units at the southern edge of Melas Dorsa and is represented by N-S oriented grabens sutured by Early Hesperian formations. Starting from Late Noachian, the extensional stress field became NE-SW oriented and resulted in the formation of NW-SE striking sets of grabens. At the boundary between Noachian and Hesperian, the most important change in tectonic regime occurred. The Hesperian tectonics are characterized by an E-W shortening possibly related to an eastward motion of the Thaumasia Plateau. This tectonic phase likely produced a N-S-oriented wrinkle ridges as well as regional folds and thrust faults. E-W-oriented preexisting tectonic lineaments could have been reactivated forming regional transfer zones. In this scenario, Coprates Rise, Melas Dorsa, and Thaumasia Ridge could be interpreted as mountain belts resulting from buckling and thrust faulting of the eastern and southern margins of the Thaumasia plateau. The proto-Valles Marineris could have experienced a left-lateral component of displacement and played a role of a transfer shear zone.

  3. Boninites: Characteristics and tectonic constraints, northeastern Appalachians (United States)

    Kim, J.; Jacobi, R.D.


    Boninites are high Mg andesites that are thought to form in suprasubduction zone tectonic environments as primary melts from refractory mantle. Boninites provide a potential constraint on tectonic models for ancient terranes that contain boninites because the only unequivocal tectonic setting in which "modern" boninites have been recognized is a fore-arc setting. Tectonic models for "modern" boninite genesis include subduction initiation ("infant arc"), fore-arc spreading, and the forearc side of intra-arc rifting (spreading). These models can be differentiated by the relative age of the boninites and to a lesser degree, geochemistry. The distinctive geochemistry of boninites promotes their recognition in ancient terranes. As detailed in this report, several mafic terranes in the northeastern Appalachians contain boninites; these terranes were situated on both sides of Iapetus. The characteristics of these boninites can be used to constrain tectonic models of the evolution of the northeastern Appalachians. On the Laurentian side of Iapetus, "infant arc" boninites were not produced ubiquitously during the Cambrian subduction initiation, unless sampling problems or minimum age dates obscure a more widespread boninite "infant arc". The Cambrian subduction initiation on the Laurentian side was probably characterized by both "infant arc" boninitic arc construction (perhaps the >496 Ma Hawley Formation and the >488 Ma Betts Cove Ophiolite) and "normal" arc construction (Mt. Orford). This duality is consistent with the suggestion that the pre-collisional geometry of the Laurentian margin was complex. The Bay of Islands Complex and Thetford Mines ophiolite boninites are likely associated with forearc/intra-arc spreading during the protracted evolution of the Cambrian arc system. The relatively young boninites in the Bronson Hill Arc suggest that the Taconic continuous eastward subduction tectonic model is less tenable than other models. On the Gondwana side of Iapetus, the

  4. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.


    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  5. MACMA: a Virtual Lab for Plate Tectonics (United States)

    Grigne, C.; Combes, M.; Tisseau, C.


    MACMA (Multi-Agent Convective MAntle) is a tool developed to simulate evolutive plate tectonics and mantle convection in a 2-D cylindrical geometry (Combes et al., 2012). The model relies mainly on a force balance to compute the velocity of each plate, and on empirical rules to determine how plate boundaries move and evolve. It includes first-order features of plate tectonics: (a) all plates on Earth do not have the same size, (b) subduction zones are asymmetric, (c) plates driven by subducting slabs and upper plates do not exhibit the same velocities, and (d) plate boundaries are mobile, can collide, merge and disappear, and new plate boundaries can be created. The MACMA interface was designed to be user-friendly and a simple use of the simulator can be achieved without any prerequisite knowledge in fluid dynamics, mantle rheology, nor in numerical methods. As a preliminary study, the simulator was used by a few students from bachelor's degree to master's degree levels. An initial configuration for plate tectonics has to be created before starting a simulation: the number and types of plate boundaries (ridge, subduction, passive margins) has to be defined and seafloor ages must be given. A simple but interesting exercise consists in letting students build such an initial configuration: they must analyze a map of tectonic plates, choose a 2-D section and examine carefully a map of seafloor ages. Students mentioned that the exercise made them realize that the 3-D spherical structure of plate tectonics does not translate directly in a simple 2-D section, as opposed to what is usually shown in books. Physical parameters: e.g. mantle viscosity, number of layers to consider in the mantle (upper and lower mantle, possible asthenosphere), initial time and mantle temperature, have to be chosen, and students can use this virtual lab to see how different scenarios emerge when parameters are varied. Very importantly, the direct visualization of the mobility of plate

  6. Tectonic feedback and the ordering of heat producing elements within the continental lithosphere (United States)

    Sandiford, Mike; McLaren, Sandra


    The distribution of the heat producing elements within the lithosphere provides an important control on continental thermal regimes and the mechanical strength of the lithosphere. Moreover, the strong temperature dependence of lithospheric rheology suggests the possibility of an important feedback between deformation and the distribution of heat producing elements. Simple models for lithospheric rheology are used to illustrate how such feedback might serve as an important control on both the characteristic abundance of, and spatial variation in, the heat production elements in the crust. These models also imply that the organisation of heat producing elements is essential for the long-term tectonic stabilisation of the continental crust. This is particularly relevant to the evolution of cratons in early Earth history, wherein lies the most dramatic evidence for the role played by tectonic processes in achieving a stable ordering of the heat producing elements.

  7. The crustal dynamics and the tectonic trends in the Bengal Basin (United States)

    Khan, Aftab Alam; Chouhan, R. K. S.


    Seismological data of the events that took place in the Bengal Basin during 1918 to 1989 have revealed an increased frequency of earthquakes in the last 30 years. The increase in seismic activity is an indication of fresh tectonic activity or propagation of fractures from the adjacent seismic zones. The tectonic trend TT3 as determined from the tectonic flux and from the crustal model is in good coincidence with the NE-SW trending linear zone of gravity high, the zone of Moho upwarping and the location of earthquake events having fault-plane solutions of prominent strike-slip component. It is further observed that most of the earthquakes that occurred in the Bengal Basin in the 20th century follow the tectonic trend TT3. The NE-SW trending tectonic trend TT3 is inferred as one of the most remarkable features in the Bengal Basin. The extension of this trend is well marked by the "Halflong-Disang Thrust" in the NE and by the "Swatch of No-Ground" in the SW. The tectonic flux has also revealed some other striking tectonic trends distributed over broad regions and is not confined to definite geologic or physiographic provinces but instead is transverse to major structural elements of the region, thus forming conjugate sets of active zones. The focal mechanism solutions of 12 earthquake events reveal the nature of faulting which is predominantly strike-slip. The strike-slip fault solutions for most of the events are indicative of a changing pattern from convergence and subduction to strike-slip displacement in the Bengal Basin. The focal mechanism of two events having solutions of strike-slip with a normal fault component located on the tectonic trend TT3, the nature of Moho upwarping and the crustal configuration lend support to a process of crustal extension prevailing in the Bengal Basin. The crustal segment to the east of TT3 is relatively more mobile than that of the crustal segment to the west. The general trend of compression ( P-axis) is N57 °W in the Bengal

  8. Depositional Record of the Bagua Basin, Northern Peru: Implications for Climate and Tectonic Evolution of Tropical South America (United States)

    Moreno, F.; George, S. W. M.; Williams, L. A.; Horton, B. K.; Garzione, C. N.


    The Andes Mountains exert critical controls on the climate, hydrology, and biodiversity of South America. The Bagua Basin, a low elevation (400-600 m) intermontane basin in northern Peru, offers a unique opportunity to study the ecological, climatic, and structural evolution of the western topographic boundary of the Amazonian foreland. Situated between the Marañon fold-thrust belt of the Western Cordillera and basement block uplifts of the Eastern Cordillera, the Bagua region contains a protracted, semi-continuous record of Triassic through Pleistocene sedimentation. Whereas Triassic-Cretaceous marine deposits were potentially related to extension and regional thermal subsidence, a Paleocene-Eocene shift to shallow marine and fluvial systems marks the onset of foreland basin conditions. Oligocene-Miocene sedimentation corresponds to a braided-meandering fluvial system with exceptional development of paleosols. In this study, we use new detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and oxygen stable isotopic datasets to establish a chronology of pre-Andean and Andean processes within the Bagua Basin. Detrital zircon geochronology provides constraints on when the Western and Eastern cordilleras shed sediments into the basin. Syndepositional zircons within Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene strata provide key age control for a previously poorly constrained depositional chronology. Preliminary results suggest a dramatic provenance shift in which Paleocene deposits contain almost exclusively cratonic populations (500-1600 Ma) whereas Eocene deposits show a mix of syndepositional zircons from the magmatic arc, recycled Mesozoic zircons, and cratonic zircon populations. Oxygen stable isotopes (δ18O) of carbonate nodules from Neogene paleosols will help elucidate when the Eastern Cordillera became an orographic barrier intercepting moisture from the Amazon basin to the east. Together, these records will help uncover the history of tectonics and climate interaction in tropical South

  9. Morphotectonic analysis and GNSS observations for assessment of relative tectonic activity in Alaknanda basin of Garhwal Himalaya, India (United States)

    Sharma, Gopal; Champati ray, P. K.; Mohanty, S.


    Alaknanda basin in the Garhwal Himalaya, India, is a tectonically active region owing to ongoing crustal deformation, erosion, and depositional processes active in the region. Active tectonics in this region have greatly affected the drainage system and geomorphic expression of topography and provide an ideal natural set up to investigate the influence of tectonic activity resulting from the India-Eurasia collision. We evaluated active tectonics by using high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) based on eight geomorphic indices (stream length gradient index, valley floor width-to-height ratio, hypsometric integral, drainage basin asymmetry, transverse topography symmetry factor, mountain front sinousity index, bifurcation ratio, and basin shape index) and seismicity in eight subbasins of Alaknanda basin. The integrated product, relative tectonic activity index (TAI) map, was classified into three classes such as: 'highly active' with values ranging up to 2.0; 'moderately active' with values ranging from 2.0 to 2.25; and 'less active' with values > 2.25. Further, the results were compared with relatively high crustal movement rate of 41.10 mm/y computed through high precession Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based continuous operating reference station (CORS) data. Thus, we concluded that this new quantitative approach can be used for better characterization and assessment of active seismotectonic regions of the Himalaya and elsewhere.

  10. Traces of warping subsided tectonic blocks on Miranda, Enceladus, Titan (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.


    sharp difference between uplifted and subsided blocks presents Miranda having very sharp relief range. Subsided areas (coronas) are strongly folded, uplifted areas strongly degassed what was witnessed by numerous craters of various sizes (not all craters are of impact origin!). Coronas on Miranda present subsided segment and sectors. Typical is a very sharp boundary between risen (+) and fallen (-) blocks. On Enceladus the subsided (squeezed) southern pole area is characterized by "tiger stripes" - traces of contraction, young ice deposits and famous ejections of water vapor and ice. The squeezed area expels 'molten" material from interior - compare with periodically active Hawaiian volcano expelling basalts from constantly under contraction Pacific basin interior. As to the subsided Pacific basin, it is antepodean to uplifted deeply cracked and degassing Africa. On Enceladus to contracted south is opposed expanded north where past degassing is witnessed by numerous craters (not all of them are impacts!). Contraction traces are very impressive on subsided Titan's surfaces - methane filled thinly folded huge areas mainly in near equatorial regions (some scientists think that these folds are eolian dunes but they are parallel, not perpendicular to presumed winds and, besides, winds below ˜60 km in Titan's atmosphere are not detected by "Huygens") [1, 2]. This methane rich area of intensive folding is antepodean to the uplifted and mainly composed of water ice region Xanadu cut by numerous tectonically controlled dry "valleys". So, in spite of many varieties of surface features on icy satellites of the outer Solar system a common main tectonic tendency exists: opposition of subsided contracted and uplifted expanded blocks. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (2006)Titan's radar images: crosscutting ripples are dunes or warping surface waves?// Berlin, 22-26 Sept. 2006, EUROPLANET Sci. Conf. 1, EPSC2006-A-00045. [2] Kochemasov G.G. (2006)Planetary plains: subsidence and

  11. Public regulations towards a tectonic architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due


    Public regulations can support tectonic architecture by changes to the tendering system, supporting new organizational structures of the building industry in public building projects and suggesting a focus on innovation through increased research and development activity. The Danish state......'s activities has primarily been to support the optimization of the building process through ‘trimmed building’ and ‘partnering’ that only takes the immediate economic benefits of the changes to the building process into account and as such has no measures for architectural quality. The public initiatives so...... are happening very slowly which is understandable when there is no economic incitement for the industry to change. A change of these public regulations from sticks to carrots could create the economic incitement for the building industry to create tectonic architecture and thereby develop the building industry...

  12. John F. Dewey—Tectonics Editor (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    ‘I want the journal to acquire a reputation for very rapid, fair, and accurate reviewing,’ asserted John F. Dewey, editor-in-chief of AGU's newest journal, Tectonics. Dewey said that he will rule the bimonthly, which will begin publication in February, ‘with a bit of a rod of iron’ to ensure that Tectonics is ‘where only original and important papers are published.’‘I'm going to be very strict with reviewers,’ Dewey explained in his quick British clip. ‘If the review does not come back to me within 10 days to 2 weeks, I'll review the paper myself. I'm also going to have a system whereby, if a paper needs major surgery after being refereed, it will be rejected. Papers will have to be in virtually publishable condition before they are first submitted,’ he said.

  13. Plate tectonics drive tropical reef biodiversity dynamics (United States)

    Leprieur, Fabien; Descombes, Patrice; Gaboriau, Théo; Cowman, Peter F.; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Melián, Carlos J.; de Santana, Charles N.; Heine, Christian; Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R.; Pellissier, Loïc


    The Cretaceous breakup of Gondwana strongly modified the global distribution of shallow tropical seas reshaping the geographic configuration of marine basins. However, the links between tropical reef availability, plate tectonic processes and marine biodiversity distribution patterns are still unknown. Here, we show that a spatial diversification model constrained by absolute plate motions for the past 140 million years predicts the emergence and movement of diversity hotspots on tropical reefs. The spatial dynamics of tropical reefs explains marine fauna diversification in the Tethyan Ocean during the Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, and identifies an eastward movement of ancestral marine lineages towards the Indo-Australian Archipelago in the Miocene. A mechanistic model based only on habitat-driven diversification and dispersal yields realistic predictions of current biodiversity patterns for both corals and fishes. As in terrestrial systems, we demonstrate that plate tectonics played a major role in driving tropical marine shallow reef biodiversity dynamics.

  14. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P


    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  15. Pre-lithification tectonic foliation development in a clastic sedimentary rock sequence from SW Ireland (United States)

    Meere, Patrick; Mulchrone, Kieran; McCarthy, David


    The current orthodoxy regarding the development of regionally developed penetrative tectonic cleavage fabrics in sedimentary rocks is that it postdates lithification of those rocks. It is well established that fabric development under these circumstances is achieved by a combination of grain rigid body rotation, crystal-plastic deformation and pressure solution. The latter is believed to be the primary mechanism responsible for the domainal nature of cleavage development commonly observed in low grade metamorphic rocks. While there have been advocates for the development of tectonic cleavages before host rock lithification these are currently viewed as essentially local aberrations without regional significance. In this study we combine new field observations with strain analysis, element mapping and modelling to characterise Acadian (>50%) crustal shortening in a Devonian clastic sedimentary sequence from the Dingle Peninsula of south west Ireland. Fabrics in these rocks reflect significant levels of tectonic shortening are a product of grain translation, rigid body rotation and repacking of intra- and extra-formational clasts during deformation of an unconsolidated clastic sedimentary sequence. There is an absence of the expected domainal cleavage structure and intra-clast deformation expected with conventional cleavage formation. This study requires geologists to consider the possibility such a mechanism contributing to tectonic strain in a wide range of geological settings and to look again at field evidence that indicates early sediment mobility during deformation.

  16. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Domeier


    Full Text Available As the chronicle of plate motions through time, paleogeography is fundamental to our understanding of plate tectonics and its role in shaping the geology of the present-day. To properly appreciate the history of tectonics—and its influence on the deep Earth and climate—it is imperative to seek an accurate and global model of paleogeography. However, owing to the incessant loss of oceanic lithosphere through subduction, the paleogeographic reconstruction of ‘full-plates’ (including oceanic lithosphere becomes increasingly challenging with age. Prior to 150 Ma ∼60% of the lithosphere is missing and reconstructions are developed without explicit regard for oceanic lithosphere or plate tectonic principles; in effect, reflecting the earlier mobilistic paradigm of continental drift. Although these ‘continental’ reconstructions have been immensely useful, the next-generation of mantle models requires global plate kinematic descriptions with full-plate reconstructions. Moreover, in disregarding (or only loosely applying plate tectonic rules, continental reconstructions fail to take advantage of a wealth of additional information in the form of practical constraints. Following a series of new developments, both in geodynamic theory and analytical tools, it is now feasible to construct full-plate models that lend themselves to testing by the wider Earth-science community. Such a model is presented here for the late Paleozoic (410–250 Ma together with a review of the underlying data. Although we expect this model to be particularly useful for numerical mantle modeling, we hope that it will also serve as a general framework for understanding late Paleozoic tectonics, one on which future improvements can be built and further tested.

  17. Tectonic Thinking in Contemporary Industrialized Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Beim


    Full Text Available This paper argues for a new critical approach to the ways architectural design strategies are developing. Contemporary construction industry appears to evolve into highly specialized and optimized processes driven by industrialized manufacturing, therefore the role of the architect and the understanding of the architectural design process ought to be revised. The paper is based on the following underlying hypothesis: ‘Tectonic thinking – defined as a central attention towards the nature, the properties, and the application of building materials (construction and how this attention forms a creative force in building constructions, structural features and architectural design (construing – helps to identify and refine technology transfer in contemporary industrialized building construction’. (This definition of tectonic thinking forms part of a large, central research project: Towards a tectonic sustainable building practice, that is presently (2010- 2014 executed in collaboration between; The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts – School of Architecture, Aarhus School of Architecture, and The Danish Building Research Institute.Through various references from the construction industry, business theory and architectural practice the paper offers various analyses, comparisons and concrete design approaches. How architectural design processes and the tectonic design can benefit from Integrated Product Deliveries, mass-customization and Design for Disassembly is examined and discussed. The paper concludes by presenting a series of arguments that call for adaptable systems based on sufficient numbers of industrialized building products of high quality and a great variety of suppliers, and point at the need for optimizing our use of resources in order to reach sustainable solutions in architecture.

  18. Hot-spot tectonics on Io (United States)

    Mcewen, A. S.


    The thesis is that extensional tectonics and low-angle detachment faults probably occur on Io in association with the hot spots. These processes may occur on a much shorter timescale on Ion than on Earth, so that Io could be a natural laboratory for the study of thermotectonics. Furthermore, studies of heat and detachment in crustal extension on Earth and the other terresrial planets (especially Venus and Mars) may provide analogs to processes on Io. The geology of Io is dominated by volcanism and hot spots, most likely the result of tidal heating. Hot spots cover 1 to 2% of Io's surface, radiating at temperatures typically from 200 to 400 K, and occasionally up to 700K. Heat loss from the largest hot spots on Io, such as Loki Patera, is about 300 times the heat loss from Yellowstone, so a tremendous quantity of energy is available for volcanic and tectonic work. Active volcanism on Io results in a resurfacing rate as high as 10 cm per year, yet many structural features are apparent on the surface. Therefore, the tectonics must be highly active.

  19. Andean tectonics: Implications for Satellite Geodesy (United States)

    Allenby, R. J.


    Current knowledge and theories of large scale Andean tectonics as they relate to site planning for the NASA Crustal Dynamics Program's proposed high precision geodetic measurements of relative motions between the Nazca and South American plates are summarized. The Nazca Plate and its eastern margin, the Peru-Chile Trench, is considered a prototype plate marked by rapid motion, strong seismicity and well defined boundaries. Tectonic activity across the Andes results from the Nazca Plate subducting under the South American plate in a series of discrete platelets with different widths and dip angles. This in turn, is reflected in the tectonic complexity of the Andes which are a multitutde of orogenic belts superimposed on each other since the Precambrian. Sites for Crustal Dynamics Program measurements are being located to investigate both interplate and extraplate motions. Observing operations have already been initiated at Arequipa, Peru and Easter Island, Santiago and Cerro Tololo, Chile. Sites under consideration include Iquique, Chile; Oruro and Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Cuzco, Lima, Huancayo and Bayovar, Peru; and Quito and the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Based on scientific considerations, Santa Cruz, Huancayo (or Lima), Quito and the Galapagos Islands should be replaced by Isla San Felix, Chile; Brazilia or Petrolina, Brazil; and Guayaquil, Ecuador. If resources permit, additional important sites would be Buenaventura and Villavicencio or Puerto La Concordia, Colombia; and Mendoza and Cordoba, Argentina.

  20. A palaeomagnetic perspective of Precambrian tectonic styles (United States)

    Schmidt, P. W.; Embleton, B. J. J.


    The considerable success derived from palaeomagnetic studies of Phanerozoic rocks with respect to the tectonic styles of continental drift and plate tectonics, etc., have not been repeated by the many palaeomagnetic studies of Precambrian rocks. There are 30 years of research with results covering the major continents for Precambrian times that overlap considerably yet there is no concensus. There is good evidence that the usual assumptions employed by palaeomagnetism are valid for the Precambrian. The exisence of magnetic reversals during the Precambrian, for instance, is difficult to explain except in terms of a geomagnetic field that was predominantly dipolar in nature. It is a small concession to extend this notion of the Precambrian geomagnetic field to include its alignment with the Earth's spin axis and the other virtues of an axial geocentric dipole that characterize the recent geomagnetic field. In terms of greenstone terranes it is obvious that tectonic models postulated to explain these observations are paramount in understanding Precambrian geology. What relevance the current geographical relationships of continents have with their Precambrian relationships remains a paradox, but it would seem that the ensialic model for the development of greenstone terranes is favored by the Precambrian palaeomagnetic data.

  1. Seismic evidence for change of the tectonic regime in Messinian, northern Marmara Sea, Turkey (United States)

    Alp, Hakan; Vardar, Denizhan; Alpar, Bedri; Ustaömer, Timur


    New Chirp seismic data collected from the northern margin of the Marmara Sea in June 2015 and previous Sparker seismic profiles recorded in 1999 suggest a change in tectonic regime in Messinian. New tectonic lineaments and fault segments were detected at offshore the Çekmece lagoons region that is located on one of the possible water corridors with the Paratethys. The faults only affect the older seismic unit (U1), which can be best outlined on the Chirp data. The E-W trending fault offshore Avcılar (OAF) borders the northern edge of a tightly folded sedimentary zone. The NNE-SSW trending fault, namely the Büyükçekmece Fault (BF), passing through the Büyükçekmece Bay, follows a buried valley. Its evolution must be related to the development of the Early Miocene - Early Pliocene Thrace-Eskişehir fault zone (TEFZ). BF and OAF indicate old tectonic activities in the region, which continued to the North Anatolian fault becoming the most dominant tectonic element in the region. The upper surface of the stratigraphic unit U1 and its terraces define the thickness of younger deposits (U2), which is thinner in the middle of the shelf. The morphology of the tightly folded zone controls those terraces, which correspond to the Bakırköy Formation and Kıraç member on land. The topmost parts of the terraces must have been eroded during sea level low-stands and cutting of the paleo-valleys. There is no evidence of any tectonic deformation or active fault in the younger seismic unit (U2).

  2. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel


    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  3. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of Late Cretaceous structures along the Midelt-Errachidia profile (Morocco). Tectonic implications. (United States)

    Torres López, Sara; José Villalain, Juan; Casas, Antonio; El ouardi, Hmidou; Moussaid, Bennacer; Ruiz-Martínez, Vicente Carlos


    Remagnetization data are used in this work to obtain the palinspastic reconstruction at 100 (Ma) of one of the most studied profiles of the Central High Atlas: the Midelt-Errachidia cross-section (Morocco). Previous studies in the area on syn-rift sedimentary rocks of subsiding basins have revealed that the Mesozoic sediments of this region acquired a pervasive remagnetization at the end of the Early Cretaceous. Fifty-eight sites (470 samples) corresponding to black limestones, marly limestones and marls, Early to Middle Jurassic in age, have been studied. Sites are distributed along a 70 km transect cutting across the basin and perpendicular to the main structures. The magnetic properties of samples are very regular showing very high NRM. Thermal and AF demagnetization showed a single stable paleomagnetic component with unblocking temperatures and coercivities spectra of 300-475°C and 20-100 mT respectively. This characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) showed systematically normal polarity suggesting a widespread remagnetization. In spite of the good outcrops and the relatively well-constrained structure of the High Atlas, there are many tectonic problems still unsolved, as the controversial existence of intra-Mesozoic deformation episodes. The restoration of paleomagnetic vectors to the remagnetization acquisition stage (100 Ma) allows to determine the dip of the beds during this period and, thereby, to obtain a reconstruction of structures during that time. This reconstruction accounts for the relative contribution of Mesozoic transpressional/transtrenssional movements vs. Cenozoic compression to the present-day dip. The results obtained indicate that these structures have undergone different degrees of pre-late Cretaceous deformation and were re-activated during the Cenozoic compression to finally acquire their present-day geometry.

  4. Quaternary tectonics of recent basins in northwestern Armenia (United States)

    Trifonov, V. G.; Shalaeva, E. A.; Saakyan, L. Kh.; Bachmanov, D. M.; Lebedev, V. A.; Trikhunkov, Ya. I.; Simakova, A. N.; Avagyan, A. V.; Tesakov, A. S.; Frolov, P. D.; Lyubin, V. P.; Belyaeva, E. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Ozherelyev, D. V.; Kolesnichenko, A. A.


    New data on the stratigraphy, faults, and formation history of lower to middle Pleistocene rocks in Late Cenozoic basins of northwestern Armenia are presented. It has been established that the low-mountain topography created by tectonic movements and volcanic activity existed in the region by the onset of the Pleistocene. The manifestations of two geodynamic structure-forming factors became clear in Pleistocene: (i) collisional interaction of plates due to near-meridional compression and (ii) deep tectogenesis and magma formation expressed in the distribution of vertical movements and volcanism. The general uplift of the territory, which was also related to deep processes, reached 350-500 m in basins and 600-800 m in mountain ranges over the last 0.5 Ma. The early Pleistocene ( 1.8 Ma) low- and medium-mountain topography has been reconstructed by subtraction of the latest deformations and uplift of the territory. Ancient human ancestry appeared at that time.

  5. The Paranagua Batholith: proposition, age, petrogenetic considerations and tectonics implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.; Reis Neto, J.M. dos


    The Paranagua Batholith comprises the major portion of the Costeiro Domain which is one of the three internal tectonic unities of the Joinville Massif in the southern Brazil (Mantiqueira Province). U-Pb in zircon (614 ± 10 Ma) and Rb-Sr whole rock isochron (543 ± 21 Ma) data are interpreted respectively as ages of the mineral crystallization and granitoid emplacement for the main igneous phase of the Paranagua Batholith. Sr, Pb and Nd analyses carried on this coarse biotite-microcline granitoid reveals its crustal melt origin with a source in the lower crust. It is here proposed the association of this Costeiro Domain (Parana), the Costeiro Complex (Sao Paulo) and Brusque Belt (or Tijucas Belt, Santa Catarina) as parts of the same collisional structure of the southern region of South America. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov


    Full Text Available The terrain analysis concept envisages primarily a possibility of approximation of fragments / terrains of various geodynamic settings which belong to different plates. The terrain analysis can supplement the theory of plate tectonics in solving problems of geodynamics and tectonics of regions of the crust with complex structures. The Central Asian belt is among such complicated regions. Terrain structures occurred as a result of combined movements in the system of 'frontal' and/or oblique subduction – collision. In studies of geological objects, it is required first of all to prove their (vertical and horizontal autochthony in relations to each other and then proceed to paleogeodynamic, paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. Obviously, such a complex approach needs data to be obtained by a variety of research methods, including those applied to study geologic structures, stratigraphy, paleontology, paleogeography, lithothlogy, geochemistry, geochronology, paleomagnetism etc. Only by correlating such data collected from inter-disciplinary studies of the regions, it is possible to establish reliable characteristics of the geological settings and avoid mistakes and misinterpretations that may be associated with the 'stratigraphic' approach to solutions of both regional and global problems of geodynamics and tectonics of folded areas. The terrain analysis of the Central Asian folded belt suggests that its tectonic structure combines marginal continental rock complexes that were formed by the evolution of two major oceanic plates. One of them is the plate of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. As the analogue of the current Indo-Atlantic segment of Earth, it is characterised by the presence of continental blocks in the composition of the oceanic crust and the formation of oceanic basins resulting from the breakup of Rodinia and Gondvana. In the course of its evolution, super-continents disintegrated, and the blocks were reunited into the Kazakhstan

  7. The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.


    A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.

  8. A New Framework For The Evolution of Terrestrial Planets: Bi-stability, Stochastic Effects, and the Non-Uniqueness of Tectonic States (United States)

    Weller, M. B.; Lenardic, A.


    Of all the Solar System bodies, the Earth is the only one for which significant observation and constraints are accessible such that they can be used to discriminate between competing models of Earth's tectonic evolution. Therefore, it is a natural tendency to use these observations to inform more general models of planetary evolution. Yet, our understating of Earth's evolution is far from complete. Geodynamic and geochemical evidence suggests that plate tectonics may not have operated on the early Earth, with both the timing of its onset and the length of its activity far from certain. In recent years, the potential of tectonic bi-stability (multiple stable, energetically allowed solutions) has been shown to be dynamically viable, both from analytical analysis and through numeric experiments in two and three dimensions. The indication is that multiple tectonic modes may operate on a single planetary body at different times within its temporal evolution. Further, there exists the potential that feedback mechanisms between the internal dynamics and surface processes (e.g., surface temperature changes driven by long term climate evolution), acting at different thermal evolution times, can cause terrestrial worlds to alternate between multiple tectonic states over giga-year timescales. Implied here is that terrestrial planets have the potential to migrate through tectonic regimes at similar `thermal evolutionary times' - points were planets have a similar bulk mantle temperature and energies -, but at very different `temporal times' - time since planetary formation. It can then be shown that identical planets at similar stages of their evolution may exhibit different tectonic regimes due to random fluctuations. A new framework of planetary evolution that moves toward probabilistic arguments based on general physical principals, as opposed to particular rheologies, and incorporates the potential of tectonic regime transitions and multiple tectonics states being viable

  9. Magnetostratigraphy and Tectonic Rotation of the Eocene-Oligocene Makah and Hoko River Formations, Northwest Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Prothero


    Full Text Available The Eocene-Oligocene Makah Formation and subjacent middle Eocene Hoko River Formation of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, yield mollusks, crustaceans, foraminifera, and early neocete whales; their age has never been precisely established. We sampled several sections; most samples showed a stable single-component remanence held largely in magnetite and passed a Class I reversal test. The upper Refugian (late Eocene and lower Zemorrian (early Oligocene rocks at Baada Point correlate with Chron C13r (33.7–34.7 Ma and Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The Ozette Highway section of the Makah Formation spanned the early Refugian to late Refugian, with a sequence that correlates with Chrons C15r-C13r (33.7–35.3 Ma, and a long reversed early Zemorrian section that correlates with Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The type section of the Hoko River Formation correlates with Chron C18r (40.0–41.2 Ma. The area sampled shows about 45∘ of post-Oligocene counterclockwise tectonic rotation, consistent with results obtained from the Eocene-Oligocene rocks in the region.

  10. Active tectonics in the Gulf of California and seismicity (M > 3.0) for the period 2002-2014 (United States)

    Castro, R. R.; Stock, J. M.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.


    We present a catalog of accurate epicenter coordinates of earthquakes located in the Gulf of California (GoC) in the period 2002-2014 that permits us to analyze the seismotectonics and to estimate the depth of the seismogenic zone of this region. For the period April 2002 to December 2014 we use body-wave arrival times from regional stations of the Broadband Seismological Network of the GoC (RESBAN) operated by CICESE to improve hypocenter locations reported by global catalogs. For the northern region of the GoC (30°N-32°N) we added relocated events from the 2011-Hauksson-Yang-Shearer, Waveform Relocated Earthquake Catalog for Southern California (Hauksson et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2007). From October 2005 to October 2006 we incorporated hypcenters located by Sumy et al. (2013) in the southern GoC combining an array of ocean-bottom seismographs, of the SCOOBA experiment, with onshore stations of the NARS-Baja array. This well constrained catalog of seismicity highlights zones of active tectonics and seismic deformation within the North America-Pacific plate boundary. We estimate that the minimum magnitude of completeness of this catalog is Mc = 3.3 ± 0.1 and the b = 0.92 ± 0.04 value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation. We find that most earthquakes in the southern GoC are generated by transform faults and this region is more active than the central GoC region. However, the northern region, where most deformation is generated by oblique faults is as active as the southern region. We used the ISC catalog to evaluate the size distribution of seismicity of these regions, and the b value of the Gutenberg-Richter relation and found that b is slightly lower in the central GoC (b = 0.86 ± 0.02) compared to the northern (b = 1.14 ± 0.04) and the southern (b = 1.11 ± 0.04) regions. We observed seismicity that occurs in the Stable Central Peninsular Province, despite the fact that significant active deformation has not been identified in this region.

  11. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  12. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.


    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  13. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  14. Two hundred thirty years of relative sea level changes due to climate and megathrust tectonics recorded in coral microatolls of Martinique (French West Indies) (United States)

    Weil-Accardo, Jennifer; Feuillet, Nathalie; Jacques, Eric; Deschamps, Pierre; Beauducel, François; Cabioch, Guy; Tapponnier, Paul; Saurel, Jean-Marie; Galetzka, John


    We sampled six coral microatolls that recorded the relative sea level changes over the last 230 years east of Martinique, on fringing reefs in protected bays. The microatolls are cup-shaped, which is characteristic of corals that have been experiencing submergence. X-ray analysis of coral slices and reconstructions of the highest level of survival (HLS) curves show that they have submerged at rates of a few millimeters per year. Their morphology reveals changes in submergence rate around 1829 ± 11, 1895, and 1950. Tide gauges available in the region indicate a regional sea level rise at a constant mean rate of 1.1 ± 0.8 mm/yr, which contrasts with our coral record, implying additional tectonic subsidence. Comparing our coral morphology with that of synthetic corals generated with Matlab by using the Key West tide gauge record (Florida), we show that their growth was controlled by tectonics and that a sudden relative sea level increase drowned them around 1950. Simple elastic models show that this sudden submergence probably occurred during the 21 May 1946 earthquake, which ruptured the plate interface in front of Martinique, in the mantle wedge, in an area of sustained seismic activity. The 1839 M8+ earthquake probably occurred in the same area. Long-term subsidence of microatolls indicates that this deep portion of the megathrust is probably locked down to 60 km depth during the interseismic period. Our oldest coral recorded a long-lasting period (50 years) of stable relative sea level after the 1839 earthquake, indicating that transient interseismic strain rate variations may occur in the Lesser Antilles.

  15. Framework for Tectonic Thinking, a Conceptual Tool of the Architect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garritzmann, Udo


    , supposedly right, meaning of tectonics, but several different meanings; nor do we attach a value judgement to any of the tectonic positions beforehand. The FTT will be developed in parallel in writing and in hand-drawn mappings. Research goal: The Framework for Tectonic Thinking will suggest a broadened......This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the term tectonics in the field of architectural design theory. It considers tectonic thinking as a ‘tool of the architect’ to analyse and interpret buildings from the past, to be operative in design practices of the present, and to trigger......: To answer the research question, this paper will develop an overarching Framework for Tectonic Thinking (FTT) by combining three different categories loadbearing construction, type of construction and constructive expression with the following oppositional poles as distinguishing criteria: loadbearing...

  16. Geomorphic indices and relative tectonic uplift in the Guerrero sector of the Mexican forearc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gaidzik


    The results of the applied landscape analysis reveal considerable variations in relief, topography and geomorphic indices values along the Guerrero sector of the Mexican subduction zone. We argue that the reported differences are indicative of tectonic deformation and of variations in relative tectonic uplift along the studied forearc. A significant drop from central and eastern parts of the study area towards the west in values of RVA (from ∼500 to ∼300, SL (from ∼500 to ca. 400, maximum SL (from ∼1500–2500 to ∼1000 and ksn (from ∼150 to ∼100 denotes a decrease in relative tectonic uplift in the same direction. We suggest that applied geomorphic indices values and forearc topography are independent of climate and lithology. Actual mechanisms responsible for the observed variations and inferred changes in relative forearc tectonic uplift call for further studies that explain the physical processes that control the forearc along strike uplift variations and that determine the rates of uplift. The proposed methodology and results obtained through this study could prove useful to scientists who study the geomorphology of forearc regions and active subduction zones.

  17. Tectonic evolution, structural styles, and oil habitat in Campeche Sound, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles-Aquino, F.J.; Reyes-Nunez, J.; Quezada-Muneton, J.M.; Meneses-Rocha, J.J. [Pemex Exploracion-Produccion, Mexico City (Mexico)


    Campeche Sound is located in the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. This area is Mexico`s most important petroleum province. The Mesozoic section includes Callovian salt deposits; Upper Jurassic sandstones, anhydrites, limestones, and shales; and Cretaceous limestones, dolomites, shales, and carbonate breccias. The Cenozoic section is formed by bentonitic shales and minor sandstones and carbonate breccias. Campeche Sound has been affected by three episodes of deformation: first extensional tectonism, then compressional tectonism, and finally extensional tectonism again. The first period of deformation extended from the middle Jurassic to late Jurassic and is related to the opening of the Gulf of Mexico. During this regime, tilted block faults trending northwest-southwest were dominant. The subsequent compressional regime occurred during the middle Miocene, and it was related to northeast tangential stresses that induced further flow of Callovian salt and gave rise to large faulted, and commonly overturned, anticlines. The last extensional regime lasted throughout the middle and late Miocene, and it is related to salt tectonics and growth faults that have a middle Miocene shaly horizon as the main detachment surface. The main source rocks are Tithonian shales and shaly limestones. Oolite bars, slope and shelf carbonates, and regressive sandstones form the main reservoirs. Evaporites and shales are the regional seals. Recent information indicates that Oxfordian shaly limestones are also important source rocks.

  18. Caribbean plate tectonics from seismic tomography (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Villasenor, A.


    New seismic tomography in the Caribbean shows close links between the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and the geology of the overriding plate. Unlike most oceanic plates, the Caribbean plate lacks identifiable seafloor magnetic anomalies and fracture zones. The plate's history has therefore been inferred primarily from land geology along the plate boundary, which is complicated by large-scale shear deformation, and from finite rotations of surrounding plates.We used more than 14 million arrival times from 300,000 earthquakes to identify P-wave velocity anomalies. We relate the anomalies to the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and to patterns of earthquake activity, volcanism, topographic relief, and tectonic deformation. For example, we detect two separate slabs belonging to the North and South American plates, respectively, which appear to be responsible for morphologic and tectonic differences between the arcs of the Northern (from Guadeloupe northward) and Southern (from Dominica southward) Lesser Antilles. Variations in earthquake activity between Haiti and the Dominican Republic can be explained by a change in slab geometry from an underplated slab beneath Haiti to a subducting slab under the Dominican Republic. A shallow tear in the slab may explain the anomalously deep Puerto Rico Trench and the frequent earthquake swarms there. The westward shift in volcanic activity in the Northern Lesser Antilles from the Miocene Limestone Caribbees to the present arc can be attributed to the limit on convective flow imposed by the 3-D geometry of the slab at depth. A thinned South America slab under the southern Lesser Antilles may result from traction imposed on the slab by a wide forearc wedge. Variations in tectonic deformation of northern South America could be related to the location of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province north of the Maracaibo Block.

  19. Tectonic analysis of the Oklo deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Ruhland, M.; Weber, F.


    A large folded structure with a 40 0 incline and extending 500 m in the north-south direction has been uncovered at the Oklo mine. This structure has been analysed from the geometric and dynamic points of view in order to determine the possible role of tectonic activity in the creation of the uraniferous concentrations. Compression and extension zones which at certain points control the shape and arrangement of the lodes are associated with the structure. The natural reactors are situated in an extension zone where compartmentation and slippage, which explain the arrangement of the reactors, are observed

  20. Tectonic feedback and the earthquake cycle (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna


    The occurrence of cyclical instabilities along plate boundaries at regular intervals suggests that the process of earthquake causation differs in some respects from the model of elastic rebound in its simplest forms. The model of tectonic feedback modifies the concept of this original model in that it provides a physical interaction between the loading rate and the state of strain on the fault. Two examples are developed: (a) Central Chile, and (b) Mexico. The predictions of earthquake hazards for both types of models are compared.

  1. Seismology: tectonic strain in plate interiors? (United States)

    Calais, E; Mattioli, G; DeMets, C; Nocquet, J-M; Stein, S; Newman, A; Rydelek, P


    It is not fully understood how or why the inner areas of tectonic plates deform, leading to large, although infrequent, earthquakes. Smalley et al. offer a potential breakthrough by suggesting that surface deformation in the central United States accumulates at rates comparable to those across plate boundaries. However, we find no statistically significant deformation in three independent analyses of the data set used by Smalley et al., and conclude therefore that only the upper bounds of magnitude and repeat time for large earthquakes can be inferred at present.

  2. Tectonic movements monitored in the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťák, Blahoslav; Mrlina, Jan; Stemberk, Josef; Chán, Bohumil


    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2011), s. 34-44 ISSN 0264-3707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA AV ČR IBS3012353; GA AV ČR IAA300120905; GA MŠk OC 625.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : pressure pulse * tectonic displacement * earthquake micro swarm Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.007, year: 2011

  3. The Nature of Tectonic Spatial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    Since earliest times mankind has sought inspiration from nature for our built structures. However until the dawn of the modern era in architecture and design, the true structural character of a building was invariably full y or partially encased in an ornamented cladding, of often stylised motifs...... particularly of Kenneth Frampton, this paper will argue that the direct inspiration of nature and the increasing use of advanced parametric digital design tools that replicate virtually instantaneously evolutionary processes results in structures that are not only elegant tectonically and in terms of economy...

  4. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism (United States)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.


    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  5. Paleomagnetism and Tectonic Evolution of Mexico: Precambrian to Recent (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.


    It is 20yr since publication of the last synthesis of country-wide paleomagnetic data and almost 30yr of first attempt to construct an apparent polar wander path for Mexico. During this time, data has increased ten-fold and a new synthesis may appear long overdue. Mexico constitutes the southern portion of the North American plate, and tectonic models long suggested a complex evolution involving ocean-basin closure, continental collision/break-up, terrane accretion, large-scale motions, orogenic deformation, oceanic plate reorganizations and oceanic basin development. Paleoreconstructions of Atlantic-bordering continents show major overlap of northern South America onto Mexico, highlighting the geometric problem, allocthonous nature and opening room for a diversity of models. Paleomagnetism appears well-suited to tackle these problems, and data had early been used to evaluate tectonic models. Likewise, the larger database is now used to assess models and develop alternatives. This task is greatly aided by new available geochronological, geophysical and geological data. Our new synthesis still shows data gaps, with Paleozoic and Precambrian units poorly represented. Paleomagnetic data and tectonic models require complex large-scale motions of Precambrian and Paleozoic blocks, solutions for opening of Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, and post-Triassic-Jurassic amalgamation of Mexico and Central America. The southern edge of the North American craton is positioned in northern Mexico, marking the limit for accreted terranes to the south. Possible southern extension of Marathon-Ouachita Paleozoic belt, obscured or truncated when it comes into Mexico, remains unstudied paleomagnetically. Left-lateral motions along faults related to opening of Gulf of Mexico are not supported by paleomagnetism. The Western Cordilleran belt appears laterally displaced in southern US and into Mexico, where the paleomagnetic signature of northward latitudinal translations and clockwise

  6. Overview of geology and tectonic evolution of the Baikal-Tuva area. (United States)

    Gladkochub, Dmitry; Donskaya, Tatiana


    This chapter provides the results of geological investigations of the main tectonic units of the Baikal-Tuva region (southwestern part of Siberia) during the last decades: the ancient Siberian craton and adjacent areas of the Central Asian Orogenic belt. In the framework of these main units we describe small-scale blocks (terranes) with focus on details of their inner structure and evolution through time. As well as describing the geology and tectonics of the area studied, we give an overview of underwater sediments, neotectonics, and some phenomena of history and development of the Baikal, Khubsugul, Chargytai, and Tore-Chol Lakes basins of the Baikal-Tuva region. It is suggested that these lakes' evolution was controlled by neotectonic processes, modern seismic activity, and global climate changes.

  7. Morphological expression of active tectonics in the Southern Alps (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan


    rates are not well constrained for the entire domain. Despite of that, extensive karstification in some areas limits the validity of a morphometric analysis in particular of the upper reaches of the drainage system and leads to a long term persistence of landforms (e.g. plateaus). In this study we focus on the drainage pattern of the eastern Southern Alps and the adjacent southern foreland basin. We use a high-resolution digital elevation model and a novel numerical approach to extract characteristic parameters of the morphology for the entire eastern Southern Alps with a high spatial resolution. We explore deviations in the steepness of channels from an equilibrium state and knick-points in longitudinal channel profiles and interpret these features in terms of (a) active tectonics, and variable uplift rates, (b) lithological effects like erodibility contrasts and karstification, and (c) base level lowering caused by glacial erosion and Messinian preconditioning. The drainage system of the Adige shows the most significant deviations from a fluvial equilibrium. This is documented in the normalized steepness index of the main channel and all tributaries as well as in the longitudinal channel profile. The main channel shows several sections of downstream steepening and extremely low channel gradients in the lower reach. Similar deviations are also observed in the Brenta catchment situated east of the Adige drainage system. In contrast to the two large western catchments of the study region, the Piave and particularly the Tagliamento catchment show well graded channel profiles and uniform normalized steepness indices despite of the glacial history. This clear west to east trend from highly disturbed to overall well graded channels has never been documented before and may be explained in the light of increased uplift rates in the east and differences in onset and timing of topography formation between the western and eastern sector of the study region.

  8. The imprint of Late Holocene tectonic reactivation on a megafan landscape in the northern Amazonian wetlands (United States)

    Rossetti, D. F.; Valeriano, M. M.; Gribel, R.; Cohen, M. C. L.; Tatumi, S. H.; Yee, M.


    The modern Amazonian ecosystem outcomes from the complex interplay of different factors performed over the geological history, with tectonics being long speculated as perhaps a fundamental one. Nevertheless, areas where tectonic activity can be fully characterized are still scarce in view of the large dimension of this region. In this work, we investigate the signature of neotectonics in one megafan paleolandform that typifies a large sector of the Negro-Branco basin in northern Amazonia. The approach joined regional morphostructural descriptions of the Viruá megafan surface and the acquisition of topographic, sedimentological, and chronological data focusing on the central sector of the megafan. The results revealed an abundance of rivers that form dendritic, subdendritic, and trellis patterns. These rivers also have numerous straight segments, orthogonal junctions, and orthogonal shifts in courses. Structural lineaments, defined by straight channels and also straight lake margins, are aligned along the NW-SE and NE-SW directions that are coincidental with the main regional structural pattern in Amazonia. This study also led to recognize two large areas of lower topography in the south-central part of the megafan that consist of rectangular depressions parallel to the morphostructural lineaments. A sedimentological survey indicated that cores extracted external to the largest depression have only distributary channel and overbank sand sheet megafan deposits. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages ranged from 17.5 ± 2.0 to 46.9 ± 3.4 ky and radiocarbon ages ranged from 5.9-5.7 to 20.1-19.6 cal ky BP. In contrast, cores extracted within the depression consisted of fluvial deposits younger than 2.1-1.9 cal ky BP that increased in thickness toward the central part of the depression. We propose that the studied megafan was affected by tectonic reactivation until at least a couple thousand years ago. Tectonics would have produced subsiding areas more prone to

  9. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.


    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  10. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.


    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  11. Prelithification and synlithification tectonic foliation development in a clastic sedimentary sequence


    Meere, Patrick A.; Mulchrone, Kieran F.; McCarthy, Dave J.; Timmerman, Martin J.; Dewey, John F.


    The current view regarding the timing of regionally developed penetrative tectonic fabrics in sedimentary rocks is that their development postdates lithification of those rocks. In this case, fabric development is achieved by a number of deformation mechanisms, including grain rigid body rotation, crystal-plastic deformation, and pressure solution. The latter is believed to be the primary mechanism responsible for the domainal structure of cleavage in low-grade metamorphic rocks. In this stud...

  12. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert


    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  13. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler


    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  14. Active and recent strike-slip tectonics (United States)

    Nur, Amos; Boccaletti, Mario

    An international workshop cosponsored by the Department of Geology, University of Florence, Italy and the Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., was held in Florence, Italy, April 18-20, 1989,on the topic of active and recent strike-slip tectonics in the continental crust. Workshop participants from Turkey, Ethiopia, Israel, Greece, and various universities in Italy, Spain, West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, and the United States reported on a broad range of studies involving strike-slip faulting in continental crustal setting. As it turned out, much of the work reported on involved aspects of strike-slip faulting that are only poorly understood, especially crustal deformation, which is distributed over a multiplicity of faults, or even fault domains.One of the rewarding aspects of this workshop was the diversity of geographic areas and geological settings covered by the reporters. The north and east Anatolian faults, the Dead Sea transform zone, western Turkey, north and central Greece, Malta, Sicily, southern Italy, the bethic Cordillera in southern Spain, Tunisia, Tibet and southwest China, offshore Brazil, Alaska, Nevada, and California. A recurring observation reported for all those areas was mixed mode faulting, i.e., the coterminous or sequential occurrence of strike-slip and normal faulting, or strike-slip and thrust, and in many instances also strikeslip, normal and thrust faulting in a single tectonic setting.

  15. Teaching Tectonics to Undergraduates with Web GIS (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Sahagian, D. L.; Rutzmoser, S.


    Geospatial reasoning skills provide a means for manipulating, interpreting, and explaining structured information and are involved in higher-order cognitive processes that include problem solving and decision-making. Appropriately designed tools, technologies, and curriculum can support spatial learning. We present Web-based visualization and analysis tools developed with Javascript APIs to enhance tectonic curricula while promoting geospatial thinking and scientific inquiry. The Web GIS interface integrates graphics, multimedia, and animations that allow users to explore and discover geospatial patterns that are not easily recognized. Features include a swipe tool that enables users to see underneath layers, query tools useful in exploration of earthquake and volcano data sets, a subduction and elevation profile tool which facilitates visualization between map and cross-sectional views, drafting tools, a location function, and interactive image dragging functionality on the Web GIS. The Web GIS platform is independent and can be implemented on tablets or computers. The GIS tool set enables learners to view, manipulate, and analyze rich data sets from local to global scales, including such data as geology, population, heat flow, land cover, seismic hazards, fault zones, continental boundaries, and elevation using two- and three- dimensional visualization and analytical software. Coverages which allow users to explore plate boundaries and global heat flow processes aided learning in a Lehigh University Earth and environmental science Structural Geology and Tectonics class and are freely available on the Web.

  16. Assessing the recharge process and importance of montane water to adjacent tectonic valley-plain groundwater using a ternary end-member mixing analysis based on isotopic and chemical tracers (United States)

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Zhan, Wen-Jun; Tong, Lun-Tao; Chen, Chi-Tsun; Liu, Tsang-Sen; Lu, Wan-Chung


    A study in eastern Taiwan evaluated the importance of montane water contribution (MC) to adjacent valley-plain groundwater (VPG) in a tectonic suture zone. The evaluation used a ternary natural-tracer-based end-member mixing analysis (EMMA). With this purpose, VPG and three end-member water samples of plain precipitation (PP), mountain-front recharge (MFR), and mountain-block recharge (MBR) were collected and analyzed for stable isotopic compositions (δ 2H and δ 18O) and chemical concentrations (electrical conductivity (EC) and Cl-). After evaluation, Cl- is deemed unsuitable for EMMA in this study, and the contribution fractions of respective end members derived by the δ 18O-EC pair are similar to those derived by the δ 2H-EC pair. EMMA results indicate that the MC, including MFR and MBR, contributes at least 70% (679 × 106 m3 water volume) of the VPG, significantly greater than the approximately 30% of PP contribution, and greater than the 20-50% in equivalent humid regions worldwide. The large MC is attributable to highly fractured strata and the steep topography of studied catchments caused by active tectonism. Furthermore, the contribution fractions derived by EMMA reflect the unique hydrogeological conditions in the respective study sub-regions. A region with a large MBR fraction is indicative of active lateral groundwater flow as a result of highly fractured strata in montane catchments. On the other hand, a region characterized by a large MFR fraction may possess high-permeability stream beds or high stream gradients. Those hydrogeological implications are helpful for water resource management and protection authorities of the studied regions.

  17. Analysis of the seismicity of Southeastern Sicily: a proposed tectonic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Barbano


    Full Text Available Southeastern Sicily is one of the Italian regions with high seismic risk and is characterised by the occurrence in the past of large destructive events (MS = 6.4-7.3 over a territory which is densely urbanised today. The main earthquakes were analysed and some minor damaging shocks reviewed to investigate the main seismogenic features of the region. The comparison between the pattern of seismicity and evidence of Quaternary tectonics allowed us to propose a first tentative, tectonic interpretation of the earthquakes. On the whole, the seismicity of SE Sicily seems distributed along regional fault systems which have had a role in the recent geodynamic evolution of the area. The Malta escarpment, the only structure whose late Quaternary-recent activity is currently known, appears the most probable source for earthquakes with about 7 magnitude. Although no evidence of tectonics subsequent to the middle Pleistocene is available for them, the Scicli line and the NE-SW fault system delimiting the northern sector of the Hyblean plateau seem seismically active with events with maximum magnitude of 5.2 and 6.4, respectively.

  18. Is plate tectonics needed to evolve technological species on exoplanets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern


    Full Text Available As we continue searching for exoplanets, we wonder if life and technological species capable of communicating with us exists on any of them. As geoscientists, we can also wonder how important is the presence or absence of plate tectonics for the evolution of technological species. This essay considers this question, focusing on tectonically active rocky (silicate planets, like Earth, Venus, and Mars. The development of technological species on Earth provides key insights for understanding evolution on exoplanets, including the likely role that plate tectonics may play. An Earth-sized silicate planet is likely to experience several tectonic styles over its lifetime, as it cools and its lithosphere thickens, strengthens, and becomes denser. These include magma ocean, various styles of stagnant lid, and perhaps plate tectonics. Abundant liquid water favors both life and plate tectonics. Ocean is required for early evolution of diverse single-celled organisms, then colonies of cells which specialized further to form guts, appendages, and sensory organisms up to the complexity of fish (central nervous system, appendages, eyes. Large expanses of dry land also begin in the ocean, today produced above subduction zones in juvenile arcs and by their coalescence to form continents, although it is not clear that plate tectonics was required to create continental crust on Earth. Dry land of continents is required for further evolution of technological species, where modification of appendages for grasping and manipulating, and improvement of eyes and central nervous system could be perfected. These bioassets allowed intelligent creatures to examine the night sky and wonder, the beginning of abstract thinking, including religion and science. Technology arises from the exigencies of daily living such as tool-making, agriculture, clothing, and weapons, but the pace of innovation accelerates once it is allied with science. Finally, the importance of plate

  19. The Roles of Tectonics and Climate in Driving Erosion Rates in the Eastern Himalaya (United States)

    Larsen, I. J.; Montgomery, D.; Stone, J. O.


    Landslide erosion governs the flux of sediment from non-glaciated mountains. Hence patterns in landslide erosion rates have the potential to reveal how such landscapes respond to spatially-varying climatic and tectonic forcing. Across strong spatial gradients in precipitation and exhumation rates in the eastern Himalaya, we mapped 27,611 landslides and measured 10Be in river sediment in a swath spanning from the Himalayan mountain front northward to the Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge. For the entire landscape, landslide erosion and 10Be-based denudation rates are not correlated with mean annual precipitation. However, erosion and denudation rates increase non-linearly as a function of mean hillslope angles, which is diagnostic of tectonic-driven landslide erosion on threshold hillslopes. Dividing the landscape into distinct geologic-tectonic terranes reveals that erosion rates scale positively with both mean hillslope angles and exhumation rates, but also that threshold topography has not developed throughout the region. Mean annual precipitation rates range from 0.5 to 3 m across the terranes, and erosion rates are highest in the relatively dry Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge, which receives 1.5 m of precipitation annually. However, for areas south of the Gorge, where moisture sources from the south first interact with the orographic barrier of the Himalaya, there is a modest linear increase in erosion rate with increasing mean annual rainfall. These results indicate that tectonics is the main control on spatial patterns of erosion in the eastern Himalaya, but that climate may play a modulating role. Hence the relative roles tectonics and climate play in driving erosion rates likely vary at the sub-orogen scale.

  20. NW Africa post-rift tectonics: fieldwork constraints from an "unfitting" anticline in west Morocco (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Gouiza, Mohamed


    The evolution of the Moroccan Atlantic rifted margin is marked by a period of abnormal and excessive early post-rift subsidence during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous affecting the proximal coastal basins, the continental shelf and the distal deep basins, which acted coevally to km-scale uplift and erosion of large domains to the east. The tectonics of the uplift event are still unclear, as it took place 30 to 50 Myr after lithospheric breakup between Morocco and Nova Scotia and prior to the Atlas/Alpine contraction, which gave rise to the Atlas and the Rif mountain belts. The Essaouira-Haha basin, located on the coastal plain of the Atlantic rifted margin of Morocco, and bounded by two uplifted Paleozoic basement highs (i.e. the Massif Ancien of Marrakech, to the east, and the Jebilet, to the northeast), is an ideal location to investigate the tectonic processes that might have triggered these vertical movements. Although most of the deformation observed in the basin is classically attributed to Upper Cretaceous halokinesis and Neogene Atlas contraction, recent works have shown the existence of contractional structures. We carry out a structural analysis of the Jbel Amsittene Anticline, located in the middle of the Essaouira-Haha basin to investigate the tectonics of its formation and its relationship with the above-mentioned exhumation. We show structural field data along several cross-sections transecting the anticline, and characterize a salt-cored fault propagation fold verging north, with a Triassic salt acting as a detachment plane. Regional kinematic indicators and structures show overall NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW shortening and active tectonics during the postrift phase, as indicated by syn-tectonic wedges seen for the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous period. These facts discard the "salt-drives-tectonics" theory to let "tectonic-drives-salt" one to rise, and point to factors other than small-cell mantle convection acting during the evolution of the Moroccan

  1. Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin (United States)

    Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming


    Late Mesozoic extrusion tectonics, the Cenozoic NW-directed crustal extension, and the regional far-field eastward flow of the western asthenosphere due to the India-Eurasia plate collision, accompanied by eastward jumping and roll-back of subduction zones of the Pacific Plate.

  2. The Latemar: A Middle Triassic polygonal fault-block platform controlled by synsedimentary tectonics (United States)

    Preto, Nereo; Franceschi, Marco; Gattolin, Giovanni; Massironi, Matteo; Riva, Alberto; Gramigna, Pierparide; Bertoldi, Luca; Nardon, Sergio


    Detailed field mapping of a Middle Triassic carbonate buildup, the Latemar in the western Dolomites, northern Italy, has been carried out. The Latemar is an isolated carbonate buildup that nucleates on a fault-bounded structural high (horst) cut into the underlying late Anisian carbonate bank of the Contrin Fm. This study demonstrates that extensional synsedimentary tectonics is the main factor controlling its geometry and provides an age for this tectonic phase. In an early phase, slopes were mostly composed of well bedded, clinostratified grainstones and rudstones. In a later stage, the deposition of grainstones was accompanied by the emplacement of clinostratified megabreccias. The upper portion of slopes is a microbial boundstone with abundant Tubiphytes and patches or lenses of grainstone. Boundstones may occasionally expand into the platform interior and downward to the base of the slope. The depositional profile was that of a mounded platform. The buildup is dissected by a dense framework of high angle fractures and faults, and by magmatic and sedimentary dikes, exhibiting two principal directions trending NNW-SSE and ENE-WSW. Faults trending WNW-ESE were also observed. Magmatic dikes are related to the emplacement of the nearby Predazzo intrusion and are thus upper Ladinian. Kinematic indicators of strike-slip activity were observed on fault planes trending NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE, that can be attributed to Cenozoic Alpine tectonics. Faults, magmatic dikes and sedimentary dikes show systematic cross-cutting relationships, with strike-slip faults cutting magmatic dikes, and magmatic dikes cutting sedimentary (neptunian) dikes. ENE-WSW and WNW-ESE faults are cut by all other structures, and record the oldest tectonic activity in the region. Structural analysis attributes this tectonic phase to an extensional stress field, with a direction of maximum extension oriented ca. N-S. Several lines of evidence, including sealed faults and growth wedge geometries allow us

  3. Interaction between active tectonics, erosion and diapirism, a case study from Habble-Rud in Southern Central Alborz (Northern Iran) (United States)

    Jaberi, Maryam; Ghassemi, Mohammad R.; Shayan, Siavosh; Yamani, Mojtaba; Zamanzadeh, Seyed Mohammad


    The Alborz mountain chain is a region of active deformation within the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone. The southern part of central Alborz Mountains, in the north of Iran, represents complex tectonics because it is located at the border of two developing continental sedimentary basins between southern central Alborz and Central Iran. An arid and semi-arid climate, a large extent of Quaternary sediments, rugged topography, salt domes and faults with historical seismicity influence the Habble-Rud River catchment. In the present research, a number of tectonic geomorphologic indices were extracted from satellite imagery and 10 m DEM (digital elevation model) data in order to identify relative tectonic activity within the basin. The indices include: stream length-gradient index (Sl), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf), hypsometric integral (Hi), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), and fault density (Fd). Due to the presence of heterogeneous indices for all sections of the catchment causing large extension of Habble-Rud (3260 km2), all of the variables such as extremely erodible formations, faults and folds and salt tectonics on the Southern part; were put into a matrix table. As a new approach, the variables were put into the SAW (simple additive model) model as one of MADM (multi-attribute decision-making models) techniques. The study area was divided into four regions according to the values of SAW. These classes include very high (%11), high (48.3%), moderate (34.7%), and low activity (3.4%). The result of the model suggests that the study area is located on a changing tectonic trend in central Alborz from NW-SE to NE-SW. The regions with high relative tectonic activity in HR catchment correspond to the active Garmsar and Sorkhe-Kalout faults and diapirs.

  4. The significance of Gosau-type basins for the Late Cretaceous tectonic history of the Alpine-Carpathian Belt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willingshofer, E.; Neubauer, F.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.


    A key feature of Late Creataceous tectonics throughout the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian (ALCAPA) region is the synchronous formation of sedimentary basins (Gosau basins) and exhumation of metamorphic domes. Initial subsidence, spatially varying in time (Cenomanian-Santonian), within Gosau-type basins

  5. Tectonic stress accumulation in Bohai–Zhangjiakou Seismotectonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bohai–Zhangjiakou Seismotectonic Zone; tectonic stress accumulation; visco-elastic modelling; Moho surface; modern tectonic stress field ... College of Resources, Shijiazhuang University of Economics, Shijiazhuang 050031, China. Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing ...

  6. Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic extension and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic. 1 extension and compression analysis: A case. 2 study of a Lower Permian commercial coal. 3 reservoir in China. 4. 5. Shuai Yina,*, Dawei Lvb, Zhonghu Wu c .... high-quality reservoirs, and tectonic action is a leading factor for oil and gas. 70 enrichment. Therefore, it is of great ...

  7. Provenance, tectonic setting and source-area weathering of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 2. Provenance, tectonic setting and ... The chondrite normalized REE pattern of the samples is equivalent to uppercontinental crust, which reflects enriched LREE and flat HREE with negative Eu anomaly. The tectonic setting discriminant diagram log[K ...

  8. Inversion tectonics of the benue trough | Mamah | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Benue Trough, an aulacogen at the entrant of the Gulf of Guinea in Nigeria, has been historically studied from the concepts of ortho-mio-eu-geosynclines at outcrops and in the subsurface. Its structural evolution reveals a tectonic scenario compatible with Plate tectonic evolution of the Atlantic Ocean. Spreading was ...

  9. Tectonic predictions with mantle convection models (United States)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Shephard, Grace E.


    Over the past 15 yr, numerical models of convection in Earth's mantle have made a leap forward: they can now produce self-consistent plate-like behaviour at the surface together with deep mantle circulation. These digital tools provide a new window into the intimate connections between plate tectonics and mantle dynamics, and can therefore be used for tectonic predictions, in principle. This contribution explores this assumption. First, initial conditions at 30, 20, 10 and 0 Ma are generated by driving a convective flow with imposed plate velocities at the surface. We then compute instantaneous mantle flows in response to the guessed temperature fields without imposing any boundary conditions. Plate boundaries self-consistently emerge at correct locations with respect to reconstructions, except for small plates close to subduction zones. As already observed for other types of instantaneous flow calculations, the structure of the top boundary layer and upper-mantle slab is the dominant character that leads to accurate predictions of surface velocities. Perturbations of the rheological parameters have little impact on the resulting surface velocities. We then compute fully dynamic model evolution from 30 and 10 to 0 Ma, without imposing plate boundaries or plate velocities. Contrary to instantaneous calculations, errors in kinematic predictions are substantial, although the plate layout and kinematics in several areas remain consistent with the expectations for the Earth. For these calculations, varying the rheological parameters makes a difference for plate boundary evolution. Also, identified errors in initial conditions contribute to first-order kinematic errors. This experiment shows that the tectonic predictions of dynamic models over 10 My are highly sensitive to uncertainties of rheological parameters and initial temperature field in comparison to instantaneous flow calculations. Indeed, the initial conditions and the rheological parameters can be good enough

  10. Tectonics and the photosynthetic habitable zone (Invited) (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.


    The traditional habitable zone lies between an inner stellar radius where the surface of the planet becomes too hot for liquid water carbon-based life and on outer radius, where the surface freezes. It is effectively the zone where photosynthesis is feasible. The concept extends to putative life on objects with liquid methane at the surface, like Titan. As a practical matter, photosynthesis leaves detectable biosignatures in the geological record; black shale on the Earth indicates that sulfide and probably FeO based photosynthesis existed by 3.8 Ga. The hard crustal rocks and the mantle sequester numerous photosynthetic biosignatures. Photosynthesis can produce detectable free oxygen with ozone in the atmosphere of extrasolar planets. In contrast, there is no outer limit for subsurface life in large silicate objects. Pre-photosynthetic niches are dependable but meager and not very detectable at great antiquity or great distance, with global productivity less than 1e-3 of the photosynthetic ones. Photosynthetic organisms have bountiful energy that modifies their surface environment and even tectonics. For example, metamorphic rocks formed at the expense of thick black shale are highly radioactive and hence self-fluxing. Active tectonics with volcanism and metamorphism prevents volatiles from being sequestered in the subsurface as on Mars. A heat-pipe object, like a larger Io, differs from the Earth in that the volatiles return to the deep interior distributed within massive volcanic deposits rather than concentrated in the shallow oceanic crust. One the Earth, the return of water to the surface by arc volcanoes controls its mantle abundance at the transition between behaving as a trace element and behaving as a major element that affects melting. The ocean accumulates the water that the mantle and crust do not take. The Earth has the “right” amount of water that erosion/deposition and tectonics both tend to maintain near sea level surfaces. The mantle contains

  11. Remembering myth and ritual in the everyday tectonics of hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen


    When discussing tectonics, the book Studies in tectonic culture by Kenneth Frampton (2001) is often mentioned for linking the ethics of architecture with a focus on structural genius. Another reference is the paper The tell-the-tale detail by Marco Frascari (1984), which in addition to Frampton put...... emphasis on both the physical construction and mental construing of architecture. With this dual perspective Frascari established a discourse in tectonic thinking which brings the tectonic expression beyond structural genius into socio-cultural realms of storytelling, myth and ritual. However, in everyday...... architecture like hospitals this perspective of construing is often neglected. In this paper, I explore if it is possible through a re-reading of Frascari’s words to inspire for a re-construction of everyday tectonics? Based on project MORE at Aalborg Hospital, I argue that the perspective of construing...

  12. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges. (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun


    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. The ultra low frequency electromagnetic radiation observed in the topside ionosphere above boundaries of tectonic plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Athanasiou


    Full Text Available In this paper we present results of a comparison between ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM radiation, recorded by an electric field instrument onboard the satellite detection of electromagnetic emissions transmitted from earthquake regions in the topside ionosphere, and the seismicity of regions with high and low seismic activity. In particular, we evaluated the energy variations of the ULF Ezelectric field component during a period of four years (2006-2009, in order to examine the possible relation of ULF EM radiation with seismogenic regions located in Central America, Indonesia, the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and Greece. As a tool for evaluating the ULF Ez energy variations we used singular spectrum analysis techniques. The results of our analysis clearly show a significant increase of the ULF EM energy emitted from regions of highest seismic activity at the boundaries tectonic plates. Furthermore, we found that higher electromagnetic radiation was detected in a region above the northern- western Greek Arc (R1 than above the adjacent region including Athens and its urban area. We interpret these results of the present study as suggesting that: i the seismogenic regions at the boundary of tectonic plates radiate ULF EM emissions observed by satellites in the topside ionosphere; and ii that this EM radiation is not only related with the occurrence time of great (M≥5 earthquakes, but it is often present in intermediate times and it appears as a quasi-permanent phenomenon.

  14. The Nature of Tectonic Spatial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    Since earliest times mankind has sought inspiration from nature for our built structures. However until the dawn of the modern era in architecture and design, the true structural character of a building was invariably full y or partially encased in an ornamented cladding, of often stylised motifs...... of nature. The modern emphasis on honest structural expression has resulted in more sincere and innovative interpretations of nature in spatial structures. With reference to the works of amongst others of Gaudi, Candela, Otto, Nervi, Utzon, Calatrava and Foreign Office Architects (FOA) and the writings...... particularly of Kenneth Frampton, this paper will argue that the direct inspiration of nature and the increasing use of advanced parametric digital design tools that replicate virtually instantaneously evolutionary processes results in structures that are not only elegant tectonically and in terms of economy...

  15. Tectonic thinking in contemporary industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne


    and the understanding of the architectural design process ought to be revised. The paper is based on the following underlying hypothesis: ‘Tectonic thinking – defined as a central attention towards the nature, the properties, and the application of building materials (construction) and how this attention forms......This paper argues for a new critical approach to the ways architectural design strategies are developing. Contemporary construction industry appears to evolve into highly specialized and optimized processes driven by industrialized manufacturing, therefore the role of the architect...... a creative force in building constructions, structural features and architectural design (construing) – helps to identify and refine technology transfer in contemporary industrialized building construction’. Through various references from the construction industry, business theory and architectural practice...

  16. Grabens on Io: Evidence for Extensional Tectonics (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.


    Io may well be the most geologically active body in the solar system. A variety of volcanic features have been identified, including a few fissure eruptions, but tectonism is generally assumed to be limited to compression driven mountain formation (Schenk et al., 2001). A wide range of structural features can also be identified including scarps, lineaments, faults, and circular depressions (pits and patera rims). Narrow curvilinear graben (elongated, relatively depressed crustal unit or block that is bounded by faults on its sides) are also scattered across Io's volcanic plains. These features are dwarfed by the more prominent neighboring volcanoes and mountains, and have been largely ignored in the literature. Although they are likely to be extensional in origin, their relationship to local or global stress fields is unknown. We have mapped the locations, length and width of graben on Io using all available Voyager and Galileo images with a resolution better than 5 km. We compare the locations of graben with existing volcanic centers, paterae and mountain data to determine the degree of correlation between these geologic features and major topographic variations (basins/swells) in our global topographic map of Io (White et al., 2011). Graben are best observed in > 1-2 km low-sun angle images. Approximately 300 images were converted from ISIS to ArcMap format to allow easy comparison with the geological map of Io (Williams et al., 2012) along with previous higher resolution structural mapping of local areas (e.g. Crown et al., 1992). We have located >45 graben to date. Typically 1-3 kilometers across, some of these features can stretch for over 500 kilometers in length. Their formation may be related to global tidal stresses or local deformation. Io's orbit is eccentric and its solid surface experiences daily tides of up to ˜0.1 km, leading to repetitive surface strains of 10-4 or greater. These tides flex and stress the lithosphere and can cause it to fracture

  17. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark


    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  18. Design of bridges against large tectonic deformation (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, I.; Gazetas, G.; Drosos, V.; Georgarakos, T.; Kourkoulis, R.


    The engineering community has devoted much effort to understanding the response of soil-structure systems to seismic ground motions, but little attention to the effects of an outcropping fault offset. The 1999 earthquakes of Turkey and Taiwan, offering a variety of case histories of structural damage due to faulting, have (re)fueled the interest on the subject. This paper presents a methodology for design of bridges against tectonic deformation. The problem is decoupled in two analysis steps: the first (at the local level) deals with the response of a single pier and its foundation to fault rupture propagating through the soil, and the superstructure is modeled in a simplified manner; and the second (at the global level) investigates detailed models of the superstructure subjected to the support (differential) displacements of Step 1. A parametric study investigates typical models of viaduct and overpass bridges, founded on piles or caissons. Fixed-head piled foundations are shown to be rather vulnerable to faulting-induced deformation. End-bearing piles in particular are unable to survive bedrock offsets exceeding 10 cm. Floating piles perform better, and if combined with hinged pile-to-cap connections, they could survive much larger offsets. Soil resilience is beneficial in reducing pile distress. Caisson foundations are almost invariably successful. Statically-indeterminate superstructures are quite vulnerable, while statically-determinate are insensitive (allowing differential displacements and rotations without suffering any distress). For large-span cantilever-construction bridges, where a statically determinate system is hardly an option, inserting resilient seismic isolation bearings is advantageous as long as ample seating can prevent the deck from falling off the supports. An actual application of the developed method is presented for a major bridge, demonstrating the feasibility of design against tectonic deformation.

  19. Tectonic thinking in contemporary industrialized architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Professor Anne Beim, Ph.D., CINARK – Centre for Industrialized Architecture, Institute of Architectural Technology, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts – School of Architecture, Phillip Langes ALlé 10, DK-1435 Copenhagen, Denmark. Tel.: +45 4170 1623; E-mail: This paper argues for a new critical approach to the ways architectural design strategies are developing. Contemporary construction industry appears to evolve into highly specialized and optimized processes driven by industrialized manufacturing, therefore the role of the architect and the understanding of the architectural design process ought to be revised. The paper is based on the following underlying hypothesis: ‘Tectonic thinking – defined as a central attention towards the nature, the properties, and the application of building materials (construction and how this attention forms a creative force in building constructions, structural features and architectural design (construing – helps to identify and refine technology transfer in contemporary industrialized building construction’. Through various references from the construction industry, business theory and architectural practice the paper offers various analyses, comparisons and concrete design approaches. How architectural design processes and the tectonic design can benefit from Integrated Product Deliveries, mass-customization and Design for Disassembly is examined and discussed. The paper concludes by presenting a series of arguments that call for adaptable systems based on sufficient numbers of industrialized building products of high quality and a great variety of suppliers, and point at the need for optimizing our use of resources in order to reach sustainable solutions in architecture.

  20. A Review of Tectonic Models and Analytical Data from Almora-Dadeldhura Klippe, Northwest India and Far Western Nepal. (United States)

    Bosu, S.; Robinson, D.; Saha, A.


    Tectonic models developed from the Himalayan thrust belt constitute three models- critical taper, channel flow and wedge extrusion. Their differences are manifested in predicted minimum shortening, deformation propagation style and tectonic architecture across the thrust belt. Recent studies from isolated synformal klippen composed of Greater and Tethyan Himalayan rock within the Himalayan thrust belt disagree over the tectonic history, especially in the Almora-Dadeldhura klippe, which is the largest klippe in the thrust belt. These recent studies are limited to one transect each, and two or fewer types of analytical data to justify their models. Due to the limited spatial coverage, these studies often reflect a narrow perspective in their tectonic models; thus, combining the data from these studies provides a holistic view of the regional tectonic history. This study compiled the available data across the 350 km wide Almora-Dadeldhura klippe, using petrology, stratigraphy, metamorphic history, microstructure, U-Pb ages of intrusive granite, monazite and muscovite ages of the shear zones, and exhumation ages from apatite fission track, along with original field observations, microstructure and microtexture data from 5 different transects in northwest India and far western Nepal. The review of the compiled data suggests that the Himalayan thrust belt in northwest India and far western Nepal is a forward propagating thrust system, and that the analytical data support the critical taper model.

  1. Plio-Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy of northern Bohai Bay and its implications for tectonic events since ca. 2.0 Ma (United States)

    Xu, Qinmian; Yuan, Guibang; Yang, Jilong; Xin, Houtian; Yi, Liang; Deng, Chenglong


    The sediments of Bohai Bay Basin in North China have recorded the processes of basin filling and structural evolution, which may have resulted from the destruction of the North China Craton during the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic. However, the absence of a reliable chronostratigraphic framework for the sedimentary sequences in the basin has prevented a comprehensive understanding of these processes. In this study, we combine paleomagnetic and sedimentary analyses of the sediments from two new boreholes (NY05 and TZ02) from northern Bohai Bay to provide new insights into the sedimentary history and regional tectonic processes since the Pliocene. The main findings are as follows: (1) Magnetite and hematite are the main carriers of the characteristic remanent magnetization. (2) The boreholes record the Brunhes and Gauss normal chrons, and the Matuyama reversed chron. (3) Subsidence-related differences in the depths of the Matuyama/Brunhes (M/B) and Gauss/Matuyama (G/M) boundaries, sediment accumulation rates, and the sedimentary environments of the different tectonic units, enable us to identify that tectonic movements started in the Olduvai normal subchron and the development of the WNW-orientated tectonic features were intensified. (4) In the Huanghua depression, comparative analysis of subsidence-related differences between western and northern Bohai Bay indicates that the subsidence of the northern Bohai Bay may have been superimposed on the WNW-orientated tectonic activity and faulting associated with the collision between the Indian and the Eurasian Plates, in the context of localized subsidence.

  2. Inferring tectonic activity using drainage network and RT model: an example from the western Himalayas, India (United States)

    Sahoo, Ramendra; Jain, Vikrant


    Morphology of the landscape and derived features are regarded to be an important tool for inferring about tectonic activity in an area, since surface exposures of these subsurface processes may not be available or may get eroded away over time. This has led to an extensive research in application of the non-planar morphological attributes like river long profile and hypsometry for tectonic studies, whereas drainage network as a proxy for tectonic activity has not been explored greatly. Though, significant work has been done on drainage network pattern which started in a qualitative manner and over the years, has evolved to incorporate more quantitative aspects, like studying the evolution of a network under the influence of external and internal controls. Random Topology (RT) model is one of these concepts, which elucidates the connection between evolution of a drainage network pattern and the entropy of the drainage system and it states that in absence of any geological controls, a natural population of channel networks will be topologically random. We have used the entropy maximization principle to provide a theoretical structure for the RT model. Furthermore, analysis was carried out on the drainage network structures around Jwalamukhi thrust in the Kangra reentrant in western Himalayas, India, to investigate the tectonic activity in the region. Around one thousand networks were extracted from the foot-wall (fw) and hanging-wall (hw) region of the thrust sheet and later categorized based on their magnitudes. We have adopted the goodness of fit test for comparing the network patterns in fw and hw drainage with those derived using the RT model. The null hypothesis for the test was, the drainage networks in the fw are statistically more similar than those on the hw, to the network patterns derived using the RT model for any given magnitude. The test results are favorable to our null hypothesis for networks with smaller magnitudes (< 9), whereas for larger

  3. Late Quaternary river channel migrations of the Kura River in Transcaucasia - tectonic versus climatic causes (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Gärtner, Andreas; Hoth, Silvan; Umlauft, Josefine; Godoladze, Tea; Faust, Dominik


    Large-scale river channel migrations either in the form of avulsions or combing, i.e. progressive lateral migrations, are global phenomena during the Late Quaternary. Such channel migrations were triggered by tectonics, climate change, human activity or a combination of those factors. River channel migrations have the potential to cause significant human and economic losses. Thus, a more thorough knowledge about underlying causes and process rates is essential. Furthermore, such studies will elucidate the sensitivity or robustness of rivers to different external and internal forcing-agents, i.e. they help to identify the dominant drivers of regional landscape evolution. The Caucasus region is part of the active collision zone between the Africa-Arabian and the Eurasian plates, and is characterized by high current tectonic activity. Furthermore, significant environmental changes took place during the Late Quaternary, i.e. the shrinking or even disappearance of glaciers in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus or fundamental changes of the vegetation cover varying between woodland and grassland-dominated vegetation. The Kura River is the main gaining stream of the Transcaucasian Depression located between the Greater Caucasus Mountains in the north and the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south, and receives several tributaries from both mountain ranges. This study focusses on the middle course of the Kura River in eastern Georgia, SE of the city of Tbilisi. Integration of fluvial geomorphology, geochronology, heavy mineral analyses and seismo-tectonic analyses demonstrates that this part of the Kura River underwent large-scale channel migrations up to >10 km during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. It is interpreted that these movements followed both tectonic and climatic triggers: Whereas SW-ward migrations were caused by tectonic uplift in and SW-directed advance of the Kura fold and thrust belt as part of the Greater Caucasus, NE-ward migrations occurred during cold

  4. Tectonic history along the South Gabon Basin: Anomalous early post-rift subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, Stephanie; Bertotti, Giovanni; Cloetingh, Sierd


    An integrated study of the South Gabon Margin (South Atlantic) based on reflection seismic and well data has been performed to quantify tectonic activity. A regional profile crossing the entire basin together with subsidence analysis, highlights important aspects of the post-rift history. The most striking event in the margin evolution appears to be the anomalous extra subsidence during the early post-rift period characterized by high sedimentation rates, equivalent to one third of the syn-rift subsidence. Although the presence of evaporite layers restricts knowledge of the underlying structures essentially composed of pre-rift and syn-rift sequences, the outcome of this post-rift tectonic study has strong implications for the rifting history. The early post-rift subsidence patterns can be related to a high thermal anomaly during the early rifting thermal state of the lithosphere. These findings are highly relevant for petroleum system studies and have implications for hydrocarbon generation. (author)

  5. Climate and tectonic variability during Late Quaternary in western fringe of Tibetan Plateau: case study from Trans-Himalayan ranges of Ladakh, NW India (United States)

    Phartiyal, B.


    The climate system plays an important role in the geomorphological dynamics of a region. The cold, arid, high altitude, tectonically active areas of Ladakh (India) in Trans Himalaya, western Tibetan Plateau is none exception. Noticeable change in the landscape with a shift from fluvial to lacustrine regime at 10000 yrs BP forming big open valley lakes occupying the present day river valleys is attributed to the early Holocene northward advancement of the mean latitudinal position of the summer ITCZ causing wetter conditions in this dry area. The glaciers of the Ladakh range are almost depleted and the northern range glaciers show andrastic retreat in the Quaternary time. Lakes were studied using multi-proxies, to record centennial and decadal scale climatic variability. Spatial and temporal setting of Spituk palaeolake (12600-240 cal yrs BP) along Indus River, was analyzed using multi proxies. The lake that extended for 40-50 km covering an area of 106 km2, was formed after Older Dryas as a result of river blockage by precipitation induced debris flow and seismicity. Two lake phases between 12600-9000 and 5500-3200 cal yrs BP show stable lake conditions and have synchronous relationship between high variation in monsoon intensity, high δ18O values in the Guliya core, rise in temperature and high solar insolation. High magnetic susceptibility and clay content along with diversified diatom and other freshwater algae and land derived organic matter are indicative of fresh water supply leading to high lake level from 4700 yr BP onwards in the present pro-glacial lakes studied. The multi-proxy data provides evidence of much higher and stable lake level during 3700 yr BP and 3000 yr BP onwards due to high water supply in these lake. It is in contrast to the records of weak ISM conditions and low lake level in rest of the part of Indian peninsula during the period. The study also suggests strong western disturbance activity during 4800-3000 yr BP leading to high lake

  6. Spatial-temporal connection peculiarities of seismicity with area relief for Altai-Sayan mountain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emanov, A.F.; Emanov, A.A.; Filina, A.G.; Leskova, E.V.; Yarygina, M.A.; Rudakov, A.D.


    Altai-Sayan mountain region seismicity was analyzed together with area relief and active faults. It was found out that most tectonic active structures showed seismicity for a year, their seismicity was stable from year to year. Largest earthquakes of this region are connected with a number of structures, which are active in relation with earthquakes of low energies. Background seismicity and activation are picked out in seismic mode. Background seismicity at first sight looks chaotic, but eventually it is normalized in accordance with block structure of Altai-Sayan mountain region and it basically concentrates in mountain framing of hollows. Activation is tightly related to largest earthquakes and for a major part it occurs as aftershock process. (author)

  7. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  8. The Stable Concordance Genus


    Kearney, M. Kate


    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  9. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří


    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.


    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  11. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig


    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  12. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue


    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  13. The Cretaceous and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia (United States)

    Zahirovic, S.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.


    Tectonic reconstructions of Southeast Asia have given rise to numerous controversies that include the accretionary history of Sundaland and the enigmatic tectonic origin of the proto-South China Sea. We assimilate a diversity of geological and geophysical observations into a new regional plate model, coupled to a global model, to address these debates. Our approach takes into account terrane suturing and accretion histories, the location of subducted slabs imaged in mantle tomography in order to constrain the evolution of regional subduction zones, as well as plausible absolute and relative plate velocities and tectonic driving mechanisms. We propose a scenario of rifting from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, driven by northward slab pull from north-dipping subduction of Tethyan crust beneath Eurasia, to detach East Java, Mangkalihat, southeast Borneo and West Sulawesi blocks that collided with a Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zone in the mid-Cretaceous and subsequently accreted to the Sunda margin (i.e., southwest Borneo core) in the Late Cretaceous. In accounting for the evolution of plate boundaries, we propose that the Philippine Sea plate originated on the periphery of Tethyan crust forming this northward conveyor. We implement a revised model for the Tethyan intra-oceanic subduction zones to reconcile convergence rates, changes in volcanism and the obduction of ophiolites. In our model the northward margin of Greater India collides with the Kohistan-Ladakh intra-oceanic arc at ∼53 Ma, followed by continent-continent collision closing the Shyok and Indus-Tsangpo suture zones between ∼42 and 34 Ma. We also account for the back-arc opening of the proto-South China Sea from ∼65 Ma, consistent with extension along east Asia and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites presently found on the island of Mindoro. The related rifting likely detached the Semitau continental fragment from South China, which accreted to northern Borneo in the mid

  14. Scientific study of 13C/12C carbon and 18O/16O oxygen stable isotopes biological fractionation in grapes in the Black Sea, Don Basin and the Western Caspian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnov Alexander


    Full Text Available The report presents the results of a study of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes in carbohydrates and intracellular water of red and white grapes of 2016 wine-growing season in the Crimean peninsula areas, South-west coast of the Greater Caucasus, the Don basin and the Western Caspian region. The mass concentration of reducing sugars in the studied grape samples has been from 17.5 to 25.0 g/100 ml, titrated acids concentration (based on tartaric acid – from 6.0 to 9.1 g/l, the buffer capacity 34.1–63.2 mg-Eq/l. Red and white wine made from respective grapes contained from 0.5 to 3.6 g/l of residual sugar; from 11.1 to 14.5% ethanol by volume; buffer capacity was 35.2–52.6 mg-Eq/l. It has been found that the δ13CVPDB values for carbohydrates of red and white grape varieties as a result of biological fractionation of carbon isotopes in the agro-climatic conditions of plant growth for the studied geographical areas are ranging from − 26.74 to − 20.74‰ (the Crimean peninsula; from − 27.31 to − 21.58‰ (South West Coast of the Greater Caucasus, from − 27.33 to − 24.73‰ (Don Basin and from − 26.64 to − 23.17‰ (West Caspian. The δ13CVPDB values for ethanol of the red and white dry wines range from − 28.52 to − 24.26‰ (the Crimean peninsula; from − 29.23 to − 24.52‰ (South West Coast of the Greater Caucasus; from − 28.97 to − 26.22‰ (Don Basin; from − 29.14 to − 25.22‰ (Western Caspian. Compared with the surface water and groundwater (averages from δ18OVSMOW− 13.90 to − 6.38‰ and with precipitation (averages from δ18OVSMOW − 10.30 to − 9.04‰ the δ18OVSMOW values in intracellular water of grapes are the following: for the Crimean peninsula grapes, from 0.40 to 4.97‰; the South West Coast of the Greater Caucasus, from -2.11 to 6.29‰; the Don Basin, from − 2.21 to 6.26‰; the Western Caspian, from − 0.24 to 1.44‰. It has been noted that in conditions of

  15. Plate Tectonics and Planetary Evolution: Implications for Understanding Exoplanets (United States)

    Elkins-Tanton, L. T.


    A primary purpose in our study of exoplanets is the search for life. In hypothesizing how we might detect life, we start by examining life on Earth; it is our only example. How do we understand the meaning of habitability when there is only one example? All clues seem significant: the common need for the existence of water, the range of temperatures over which life on Earth is found, and the chemical cycles that maintain the surface and near-surface of the Earth within that range. A common assertion is that plate tectonics is necessary for the carbon cycle that keeps the Earth at habitable temperatures by sequestering carbon in limetone in oceans, and parceling it back into the atmosphere through volcanoes. This is an unproven hypothesis. There are other tectonic processes that cycle carbon into a planetary interior and back to the atmosphere; one possibility is small-scale convection that returns lithospheric material to the mantle and produces small-scale volcanism. Whether this process is sufficient to stabilize climate on one-plate planets or planets with sluggish convection remains to be demonstrated. Before we can discuss the criticality of plate tectonics on other planets we need to understand its criticality on Earth, and its apparent lack on Venus. And before we can predict whether plate tectonics should exist on a given exoplanet, we need to understand why it exists on Earth, and apparently not on Venus, and we need to know more about that exoplanet than can currently be detected. In this talk I will compare the predictions for exoplanetary conditions conducive to plate tectonics, walk through possible pathways in planetary evolution that lead to plate tectonics, and discuss whether any aspect of plate tectonics on an exoplanet is detectable from Earth. Predicting and hoping to detect plate tectonics on exoplanets is walking out a shaky limb; making cautious incremental advances in understanding terrestrial plate tectonics is critical before extending

  16. Miocene to recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Anaximander Seamounts; eastern Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Cranshaw, Jennifer

    This thesis is focused on the Messinian to Recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Anaximander Mountains and surrounding environs in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is based on processing of high-resolution seismic reflection data and the interpretation and mapping of seismic reflection profiles collected from this area during the 2001 and 2007 research cruises. The data show that the greater Anaximander Mountains region experienced a short interval of tectonic quiescence during the Messinian when a thin evaporite unit was deposited across a major erosional surface. This phase of limited tectonic activity ended in the latest Miocene and was replaced by an erosional phase. Major unconformities in the area are interpreted to develop during the desiccation of the eastern Mediterranean associated with the so-called Messinian salinity crisis. During the early Pliocene, the region experienced an increase in tectonic activity, dominated by transpression. Small amounts of growth observed in Pliocene-Quaternary sediments suggested that the tectonic activity remained low during the early Pliocene-Quaternary. However, the extensive growth strata wedges developed in older sediments indicate a period of accelerated tectonic activity during the mid-late Pliocene-Quaternary. This study suggests that the Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto ) and the Anaximenes Mountain developed during the Pliocene-Quaternary as the result of a crustal-scale thick-skinned linked imbricate thrust fan. The development of back thrusts in both mountains heightened the seafloor morphology of these submarine mountains and brought Eocene-Oligocene sediments into the core of these mountains. The Sim Erinc Plateau represents a 30-40 km wide transpressional fault zone developed during the Pliocene-Quaternary. In this region the corrugated seafloor morphology observed in the multibeam bathymetry map is the reflection of high-angle faults. It is speculated that this transpressional fault zone

  17. Oil prospection using the tectonic plate model (United States)

    Pointu, Agnès


    Tectonic plate models are an intellectual setting to understand why oil deposits are so uncommon and unequally distributed and how models can be used in actual oil and gas prospection. In this case, we use the example of the Ghawar deposit (Saudi Arabia), one of the largest producing well in the world. In the first step, physical properties of rocks composing the oil accumulation are studied by laboratory experiments. Students estimate the porosity of limestone and clay by comparing their mass before and after water impregnation. Results are compared to microscopic observations. Thus, students come to the conclusion that oil accumulations are characterized by superposition of rocks with very different properties: a rich organic source rock (clays of the Hanifa formation), a porous reservoir rock to store the petroleum in (limestones of the Arab formation) and above an impermeable rock with very low porosity (evaporites of the Tithonien). In previous lessons, students have seen that organic matter is usually mineralized by bacteria and that this preservation requires particular conditions. The aim is to explain why biomass production has been so important during the deposit of the clays of the Hanifa formation. Tectonic plate models make it possible to estimate the location of the Arabian Peninsula during Jurassic times (age of Hanifa formation). In order to understand why the paleo-location of the Arabian Peninsula is important to preserve organic matter, students have different documents showing: - That primary production of biomass by phytoplankton is favored by climatic conditions, - That the position of continents determinate the ocean currents and the positions of upwelling zones and zones where organic matter will be able to be preserved, - That north of the peninsula there was a passive margin during Jurassic times. An actual seismic line is studied in order to highlight that this extensive area allowed thick sedimentary deposits to accumulate and that fast

  18. Coal output dependence on parameters of tectonic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, K.K. (L' vovsko-Volynskaya GREh (USSR))


    Analyzes effects of tectonic dislocations of coal seams on output of longwall faces in 5 mines of the Chervonograd area with 4 coal seams. The seams are mined by KM97 face systems with the 1K101 shearer loader and the KM87 system with the GSh68 shearer loader. Fault length and throw in relation to coal panel dimensions and coal seam thickness are analyzed. Effects of tectonic dislocations on face advance rates and coal output per face are calculated. Correlations of tectonic dislocation parameters (fault throw and range) and coal output per face are determined. 4 refs.

  19. Remembering myth and ritual in the everyday tectonics of hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen


    architecture like hospitals this perspective of construing is often neglected. In this paper, I explore if it is possible through a re-reading of Frascari’s words to inspire for a re-construction of everyday tectonics? Based on project MORE at Aalborg Hospital, I argue that the perspective of construing......When discussing tectonics, the book Studies in tectonic culture by Kenneth Frampton (2001) is often mentioned for linking the ethics of architecture with a focus on structural genius. Another reference is the paper The tell-the-tale detail by Marco Frascari (1984), which in addition to Frampton put...

  20. Barrel organ of plate tectonics - a new tool for outreach and education (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Machek, Matěj; Šorm, Zdar


    Plate tectonics is the major geological concept to explain dynamics and structure of Earth's outer shell, the lithosphere. In the plate tectonic theory processes in the Earth lithosphere and its dynamics is driven by the relative motion and interaction of lithospheric plates. Geologically most active regions on Earth often correlate with the lithospheric plate boundaries. Thus for explaining the earth surface evolution, mountain building, volcanism and earthquake origin it is important to understand processes at the plate boundaries. However these processes associated with plate tectonics usually require significant period of time to take effects, therefore, their entire cycles cannot be directly observed in the nature by humans. This makes a challenge for scientists studying these processes, but also for teachers and popularizers trying to explain them to students and to the general public. Therefore, to overcome this problem, we developed a mechanical model of plate tectonics enabling demonstration of most important processes associated with plate tectonics in real time. The mechanical model is a wooden box, more specifically a special type of barrel organ, with hand painted backdrops in the front side. These backdrops are divided into several components representing geodynamic processes associated with plate tectonics, specifically convective currents occurring in the mantle, sea-floor spreading, a subduction of the oceanic crust under the continental crust, partial melting and volcanism associated with subduction, a formation of magmatic stripes, an ascent of mantle plume throughout the mantle, a volcanic activity associated with hot spots, and a formation and degradation of volcanic islands on moving lithospheric plate. All components are set in motion by a handle controlled by a human operator, and the scene is illuminated with colored lights controlled automatically by an electric device embedded in the box. Operation of the model may be seen on www

  1. Drainage Characteristics of Tectonically Active Areas: An Example from Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    is most commonly used to define relative differences in uplift and erosion. The computed values for these parameters indicate ongoing tectonic activity in the area. Migration and/or rejuvenation of rivers, rotational/vertical/lateral move-ments of crustal blocks and several other evidences bear testimony to ongoing neotectonic activities in the region.

  2. The Contributions of Leonid M. Parfenov to the Tectonics of Eastern Russia (United States)

    Prokopiev, A. V.; Fujita, K.; Stone, D. B.


    Leonid M. Parfenov (1937-2002) was the leading force behind theinterpretation of northeast Russia in the context of plate tectonics. Originally interested in Precambrian geology, he conducted his early field work in southern Siberia in the 1960s. He was exposed to plate tectonics at Liverpool University in 1970 and published the first mobilistic reconstructions of the Precambrian in Russia in 1973. Starting in 1971, he began to systematically conduct field work and accumulate geologic data on what is now considered the accretionary collage of northeast Russia. With colleague Boris A. Natal'in, he published a series of papers on the tectonic evolution of eastern Russia starting in 1977, with a doctoral dissertation on "Comparative Tectonics and Evolution History of Mesozoides of Northeast Asia" in 1983. His work became known in the west with his publication in 1978 in the Journal of Physics of the Earth on "Geodynamics of the North-Eastern Asia in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Time and the Nature of Volcanic Belt" in which the volcanic belts of eastern Russia were interpreted in the context of subduction zones. From the mid-1980s to his death, he concentrated on understanding the evolution of the fold belts of eastern Yakutia. Parfenov immediately became a proponent of terrane analysis as it evolved in the early 1980s and was the primary mover in developing the terrane map of northeast Russia in the late 1990s. In 1990, he developed joint programs with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and Michigan State University, and later with Stanford University and the U.S. Geological Survey, opening eastern Russia to western scientists. His life's work was synthesized in a monograph entitled "Tectonics, Geodynamics, and metallogenesis of the Territory of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia)" published in Russian in 2001 and currently being prepared in English translation. As a result of his efforts we now have a basic understanding of the plate tectonic evolution of northeast Russia as

  3. Generalized statistical mechanics approaches to earthquakes and tectonics (United States)

    Papadakis, Giorgos; Michas, Georgios


    Despite the extreme complexity that characterizes the mechanism of the earthquake generation process, simple empirical scaling relations apply to the collective properties of earthquakes and faults in a variety of tectonic environments and scales. The physical characterization of those properties and the scaling relations that describe them attract a wide scientific interest and are incorporated in the probabilistic forecasting of seismicity in local, regional and planetary scales. Considerable progress has been made in the analysis of the statistical mechanics of earthquakes, which, based on the principle of entropy, can provide a physical rationale to the macroscopic properties frequently observed. The scale-invariant properties, the (multi) fractal structures and the long-range interactions that have been found to characterize fault and earthquake populations have recently led to the consideration of non-extensive statistical mechanics (NESM) as a consistent statistical mechanics framework for the description of seismicity. The consistency between NESM and observations has been demonstrated in a series of publications on seismicity, faulting, rock physics and other fields of geosciences. The aim of this review is to present in a concise manner the fundamental macroscopic properties of earthquakes and faulting and how these can be derived by using the notions of statistical mechanics and NESM, providing further insights into earthquake physics and fault growth processes. PMID:28119548

  4. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid


    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  5. Tectonic tremor activity associated with teleseismic and nearby earthquakes (United States)

    Chao, K.; Obara, K.; Peng, Z.; Pu, H. C.; Frank, W.; Prieto, G. A.; Wech, A.; Hsu, Y. J.; Yu, C.; Van der Lee, S.; Apley, D. W.


    Tectonic tremor is an extremely stress-sensitive seismic phenomenon located in the brittle-ductile transition section of a fault. To better understand the stress interaction between tremor and earthquake, we conduct the following studies: (1) search for triggered tremor globally, (2) examine ambient tremor activities associated with distant earthquakes, and (3) quantify the temporal variation of ambient tremor activity before and after nearby earthquakes. First, we developed a Matlab toolbox to enhance the searching of triggered tremor globally. We have discovered new tremor sources in the inland faults in Kyushu, Kanto, and Hokkaido in Japan, southern Chile, Ecuador, and central Colombia in South America, and in South Italy. Our findings suggest that tremor is more common than previously believed and indicate the potential existence of ambient tremor in the triggered tremor active regions. Second, we adapt the statistical analysis to examine whether the long-term ambient tremor rate may affect by the dynamic stress of teleseismic earthquakes. We analyzed the data in Nankai, Hokkaido, Cascadia, and Taiwan. Our preliminary results did not show an apparent increase of ambient tremor rate after the passing of surface waves. Third, we quantify temporal changes in ambient tremor activity before and after the occurrence of local earthquakes under the southern Central Range of Taiwan with magnitudes of >=5.5 from 2004 to 2016. For a particular case, we found a temporal variation of tremor rate before and after the 2010/03/04 Mw6.3 earthquake, located about 20 km away from the active tremor source. The long-term increase in the tremor rate after the earthquake could have been caused by an increase in static stress following the mainshock. For comparison, clear evidence from seismic and GPS observations indicate a short-term increase in the tremor rate a few weeks before the mainshock. The increase in the tremor rate before the mainshock could correlate with stress changes

  6. Parametric Design in Timber Gridshell Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismailiyah Al Athas Syarifah


    Full Text Available This paper begins with a simple proposition: rather than mimicking the geometric structures found in nature, perhaps the most effective modes of sustainable fabrication can be found throughunderstanding the nature of materials themselves. The material becomes a design parameter through the constraints of fabrication tools, limitations of material size, and most importantly the productivecapacity of material resistance a given material’s capacity and tendencies to take shape, rather than cutting shape out of material. Gridshell structures provide an intriguing case study to pursue this proposition. Not only is there clear precedent in the form finding experiments of frei Otto and the institute for lightweight structures, but also the very nurbs based tools of current design practices developed from the ability of wood to bend. Taking the bent wood spline quite literally, gridshells provide a means that is at once formally expressive, structurally optimized, materially efficient, and quite simply a delight to experience. The the larger motivation of this work anticipates a parametric system linking the intrinsic material values of the gridshell tectonic with extrinsic criteria such as programmatic needs and environmental response. Through an applied case study of gridshells, the play between form and material is tested out through the author’s own experimentation with gridshells and the pedagogical results of two gridshell studios.The goal of this research is to establish a give and take relationship between top down formal emphasis and a bottom-up material influence.

  7. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.


    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  8. Modelling continental deformation within global plate tectonic reconstructions (United States)

    Williams, S.; Whittaker, J.; Heine, C.; Müller, P.


    A limitation of regional and global plate tectonic models is the way continental deformation is represented. Continental blocks are typically represented as rigid polygons - overlaps or gaps between adjacent continental blocks represent extension or compression respectively. Full-fit reconstructions of major ocean basins result in large overlaps between the conjugate continental plates, on the basis that the continental margins are highly extended compared to their pre-rift state. A fundamental challenge in generating more robust global-scale plate reconstructions is the incorporation of a more quantitative description of the kinematics within extended passive margins, based on observations. We have used the conjugate Southern Australia and Wilkes Land, Antarctica margins as a case study, and as part of this work have generated revised sediment thickness maps for these margins. These datasets are used to test different approaches for generating full-fit reconstructions in order to create a framework of methodologies that is globally applicable. One approach is to restore two conjugate continent-ocean boundaries (COBs) to their pre-rift configuration and then use the geometric fitting method of Hellinger (1981) and Royer and Chang (1991), used to generate fits of seafloor isochrons, to generate a “full-fit” Euler pole. To quantitatively restore the COBs to their palinspastic pre-rift configuration we integrate estimates of crustal thickness along small circle paths, defined by an initial estimate of the Euler stage pole describing plate motions during continental rifting. We then use the conjugate sets of restored COB’s as inputs to the geometric fitting method, treating them as isochrons, and so generate poles of rotation for the plate configuration prior to rifting. Two potential shortcomings of this methodology are that (1) the conjugate margins are treated independently, whereas in reality they were actually one continuous continental basin during rifting

  9. Formation and evolution of yardangs activated by Late Pleistocene tectonic movement in Dunhuang, Gansu Province of China (United States)

    Wang, Yanjie; Wu, Fadong; Zhang, Xujiao; Zeng, Peng; Ma, Pengfei; Song, Yuping; Chu, Hao


    Developed in the Anxi-Dunhuang basin, the yardangs of Dunhuang (western China) are clearly affected by tectonic movement. Based on fieldwork, this study ascertained three levels of river terrace in the area for the first time. Through the analysis of river terraces formation and regional tectonic movement, the study ascertained that the river terraces were formed mainly by Late Pleistocene tectonic uplift, which had activated the evolution of yardangs in the study area. By electron spin resonance (ESR) dating and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, the starting time and periodicity of the evolution of the yardangs were determined. The river terraces designated T3, T2 and T1 began to evolve at 109.0 ˜98.5, 72.9 ˜66.84 and 53.2 ˜38.0 kaBP, respectively, which is the evidence of regional neotectonic movement. And, the formation of the yardangs was dominated by tectonic uplift during the prenatal stage and mainly by wind erosion in the following evolution, with relatively short stationary phases. This research focused on the determination of endogenic processes of yardangs formation, which would contribute to further understanding of yardangs formation from a geological perspective and promote further study of yardang landform.

  10. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.


    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to ...... by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.......Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses...... backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf...

  11. Evidences of a tangential proterozoic tectonic from Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo de Oliveira, O.A.; Teixeira, W.


    Radiometric Rb/Sr ages of 2,1 - 2,2 Ga determined for milonites of the Caete complex, combined with tectonic relationships among the sequences of the Espinhaco, Minas and Rio das Velhas Supergroups, suggest that the thrust and fold tectonic style observed around Caete results from two deformation episodes, with similar vergence and style. The parautochthonous domain in Caete Region has been affected by both deformations episodes (Early Proterozoic and Upper Proterozoic) whereas the allochthonous domain apparently was affected only by the younger episode. A preliminary analysis of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero as a whole, considering these two major deformation episodes, is compatible, at least in part, with the large scale features observed in maps. In an effort to understand the tectonic framework of Q.F. an speculation is made on av evolutive model, considering also the existence of two district extensional events (Late Archean and Middle Proterozoic), respectively related to the deposition of Minas and Espinhaco Supergroups in a rift/aulacogen systems. (author)

  12. Land and OBS recordings of tectonic tremor on New Zealand's Alpine Fault (United States)

    Wech, A.; Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Townend, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Collins, J. A.


    Tectonic tremor is characterized by persistent, low-frequency seismic energy seen at major plate boundaries. Although predominantly associated with subduction zones, tremor also occurs along the deep extension of the strike-slip San Andreas Fault. Here we present the observations of tectonic tremor along New Zealand's Alpine Fault, a major transform boundary that is late in its earthquake cycle using a combination of land and ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS). We report tectonic tremor that occurred on the central section of the Alpine Fault on 12 days between March 2009 and October 2011. Tremor hypocenters concentrate in the lower crust at the downdip projection of the Alpine Fault; coincide with a zone of high P-wave attenuation (low Qp) and bright seismic reflections; occur in the 25-45 km depth range, below the seismogenic zone; and may define the deep plate boundary structure extending through the lower crust and into the upper mantle. We infer this tremor to represent slow slip on the deep extent of the Alpine Fault in a fluid-rich region marked by high attenuation and reflectivity. These observations provide the first indication of present-day displacement on the lower crustal portion of the Australia-Pacific transform plate boundary. Furthermore, the offshore observations—ground-truthed by onshore shallow borehole seismometers—demonstrate the potential utility of OBS experiments in better characterizing plate boundary processes.

  13. Tectonic characteristics and structural styles of a continental rifted basin: Revelation from deep seismic reflection profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li


    Full Text Available The Fushan Depression is a half-graben rifted sub-basin located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. The Paleogene Liushagang sequence is the main hydrocarbon-bearing stratigraphic unit in the sub-basin. Using three-dimensional (3-D seismic data and logging data over the sub-basin, we analyzed structural styles and sedimentary characteristics of the Liushagang sequence. Five types of structural styles were defined: ancient horst, traditional slope, flexure slope-break, faulted slope-break and multiple-stage faults slope, and interpretations for positions, background and development formations of each structural style were discussed. Structural framework across the sub-basin reveals that the most remarkable tectonic setting is represented by the central transfer zone (CTZ which divides the sub-basin into two independent depressions, and two kinds of sequence architectures are summarized: (i the western multi-stage faults slope; (ii the eastern flexure slope break belt. Combined with regional stress field of the Fushan Depression, we got plane combinations of the faults, and finally built up plan distribution maps of structural system for main sequence. Also, we discussed the controlling factors mainly focused on subsidence history and background tectonic activities such as volcanic activity and earthquakes. The analysis of structural styles and tectonic evolution provides strong theoretical support for future prospecting in the Fushan sub-basin and other similar rifted basins of the Beibuwan Basin in South China Sea.

  14. Crustal history of Margarita Island (Venezuela) in detail: Constraint on the Caribbean plate-tectonic scenario (United States)

    Stöckhert, Bernhard; Maresch, Walter V.; Brix, Manfred; Kaiser, Claudia; Toetz, Andreas; Kluge, Rolf; Krückhans-Lueder, Gabriela


    The pressure-temperature-time-deformation evolution for the crust of Margarita Island (Venezuela) has been established to allow comparison with current plate-tectonic models for the Caribbean region. On Margarita, the 12 recognizable stages of development can be summarized in terms of the following evolving tectonic settings: Protolith evolution as Aptian-Albian or older oceanic crust, as well as continental crust with Paleozoic basement (stages 1 and 2); accretion and high-pressure metamorphism (500 600 °C, 10 14 kbar) as the Margarita Complex in the deep level of a fore arc at 100 90 Ma (stage 3); ascent, cooling, and emplacement into the intermediate crustal level of a volcanic arc at 90 80 Ma (stage 4); transform plate-margin setting at a comparable level at 80 50 Ma (stage 5); second episode of rapid uplift and cooling (stages 6 and 7); and shallow crustal level close to transform plate margin from 50 Ma to present (stages 8 to 12). This complex sequence is in excellent agreement with plate-tectonic scenarios that require a Pacific origin for the Caribbean plate and eastward migration of the Margarita Complex and its correlatives along northern South America since the Cretaceous.

  15. Numerical Models of Alaskan Tectonics: A Review and Looking Ahead to a New Era of Research (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; Freymueller, J. T.


    The Pacific-North American plate boundary in Alaska is in the current scientific spotlight, as a highlighted tectonic region for integrated scientific investigation. It is timely, therefore, to step back and examine the previous numerical modeling studies of Alaska. Reviewing the numerical models is valuable, as geodynamic modeling can be a predictive tool that can guide and target field studies, both geologic and geophysical. This review presents a comparison of the previous numerical modeling studies of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, including the mainland and extending into northwestern Canada. By distinguishing between the model set-up, governing equations, and underlying assumptions, non-modelers can more easily understand under what context the modeling predictions can be interpreted. Several key features in the Alaska tectonic setting appear in all the models to have a first order effect on the resulting deformation, such as the plate margin geometry and Denali fault. In addition, there are aspects of the tectonic setting that lead to very different results depending how they are implemented into the models. For example, models which fix the slab velocity to surface plate motions predict lower mantle flow rates than models that allow the slab to steepen. Despite the previous modeling studies, many unanswered questions remain, including the formation of the Wrangell volcanics, the driver for motion in western and interior Alaska, and the timing and nature of slab deformation. A synthesis of this kind will be of value to geologists, geodeticists, seismologists, volcanologists, sedimentologists, geochemists, as well as geodynamicists.

  16. Leading and trailing edges of moving plates record contrasting thermal, mechanical, tectonic and stratigraphic histories (United States)

    Bodur, O. F.; Rey, P. F.; Müller, D.


    At the transition between thick continental plates and thinner adjacent oceanic plates, the deep-seated corner of the related lithospheric mantle step is exposed to thermomechanical erosion during plate motion, and lateral variations in lithospheric thickness and temperature at these regions initiate a corner flow. Here, we present a suite of thermomechanical numerical experiments to document and characterize the mechanical and thermal evolution of the trailing and leading edge of a moving plate. We show that the geometry of the trailing and leading margins of plates evolve by a combination of thermomechanical accretion or erosion, respectively. This drives subsidence and uplift, part of which is dynamically driven by the mantle flow, and the remainder is an isostatic response to the change in structure and/or temperature of the margins. Interestingly, leading and trailing edges record contrasting tectonic histories with magnitudes of extension/contraction measurable after tens of million years of plate motion. Our numerical experiments predict different sediment supply and accommodation space, along with different tectonics and heat flow for different margins during sedimentation. These suggest that measurable differences in tectonics and stratigraphy should exist between the trailing and leading margins of moving continents. This new modelling approach will provide new insights into fundamental differences in the evolution of Australian passive margin basins regarding their subsidence, thermal evolution and stratigraphy depending on their location along the southern, trailing edge or the northern leading edge of the continent.

  17. Tectonic evolution of mercury; comparison with the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.; Masson, P.


    With regard to the Earth or to Mars, the Moon and Mercury look like tectonicless planetary bodies, and the prominent morphologies of these two planets are due to impact and volcanic processes. Despite these morphologies, several types of tectonic activities may be shown. Statistical studies of lineaments direction indicate that Mercury, as well as the Moon, have a planet wide lineament pattern, known as a ''grid''. Statistical studies of Mercury scarps and the Moon grabens indicate an interaction between planetary lithospheric evolution and large impact basins. Detailed studies of the largest basins indicate specific tectonic motions directly or indirectly related to impacts. These three tectonic types have been compared on each planet. The first tectonic type seems to be identical for Mercury and the Moon. But the two other types seem to be different, and are consistent with the planets' thermal evolution

  18. The tectonic stress field evolution of India since the Oligocene

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Müller, R.D.; Yatheesh, V.; Shuhail, M.

    strengths, enabling the modelling of stress field deflections along interfaces between relatively strong and weak tectonic elements through time. At 33 Ma a roughly NNW–SSE oriented band of relatively high maximum horizontal compressive stress (S...

  19. Tectonic stress accumulation in Bohai–Zhangjiakou Seismotectonic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BZSZ) in North Chinadeserves close attention. Tectonic stress accumulation state is an important indicator for earthquakes;therefore, this study aims to analyse the stress accumulation state in the BZSZ via three-dimensionalvisco-elastic numerical ...

  20. Petrogenesis of the NE Gondwanan uppermost Ediacaran-Lower Cretaceous siliciclastic sequence of Jordan: Provenance, tectonic, and climatic implications (United States)

    Amireh, Belal S.


    Detrital framework modes of the NE Gondwanan uppermost Ediacaran-Lower Cretaceous siliciclastic sequence of Jordan are determined employing the routine polarized light microscope. The lower part of this sequence constitutes a segment of the vast lower Paleozoic siliciclastic sheet flanking the northern Gondwana margin that was deposited over a regional unconformity truncating the outskirts of the East African orogen in the aftermath of the Neoproterozoic amalgamation of Gondwana. The research aims to evaluate the factors governing the detrital light mineral composition of this sandstone. The provenance terranes of the Arabian craton controlled by plate tectonics appear to be the primary factor in most of the formations, which could be either directly inferred employing Dickinson's compositional triangles or implied utilizing the petrographic data achieved and the available tectonic and geological data. The Arabian-Nubian Shield constitutes invariably the craton interior or the transitional provenance terrane within the NE Gondwana continental block that consistently supplied sandy detritus through northward-flowing braided rivers to all the lower Paleozoic formations. On the other hand, the Lower Cretaceous Series received siliciclastic debris, through braided-meandering rivers having same northward dispersal direction, additionally from the lower Paleozoic and lower-middle Mesozoic platform strata in the Arabian Craton. The formations making about 50% of the siliciclastic sequence represent a success for Dickinson's plate tectonics-provenance approach in attributing the detrital framework components primarily to the plate tectonic setting of the provenance terranes. However, even under this success, the varying effects of the other secondary sedimentological and paleoclimatological factors are important and could be crucial. The inapplicability of this approach to infer the appropriate provenance terranes of the remaining formations could be ascribed either to the

  1. Tectonic perspectives for urban ambiance? Towards a tectonic approach to urban design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elias Melvin; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Hvejsel, Marie Frier


    question of ambiance that seemingly signifies our sense of liveability is often suppressed. This requires us, as architects and urban designers, to refine our descriptions of ambiance as an integral part of the technical construction principles applied in the built environment, hereby considering...... domains. As a result, the potential is opened up to develop further the theory of landscape urbanism by juxtaposing it with tectonic architectural theory. The paper investigates this potential through a combined conceptual and analytical case, studying whether it is possible to define and describe urban...

  2. Basement Structure and Styles of Active Tectonic Deformation in Central Interior Alaska (United States)

    Dixit, N.; Hanks, C.


    Central Interior Alaska is one of the most seismically active regions in North America, exhibiting a high concentration of intraplate earthquakes approximately 700 km away from the southern Alaska subduction zone. Based on increasing seismological evidence, intraplate seismicity in the region does not appear to be uniformly distributed, but concentrated in several discrete seismic zones, including the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin. Recent seismological and neotectonics data further