WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable relationships researchers

  1. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  2. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  3. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  4. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high-abundance, naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56. All requests for the loan of samples should be submitted with a summary of the purpose of the loan to: Iotope Distribution Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Requests from non-DOE contractors and from foreign institutions require DOE approval

  5. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Emily E.; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behaviour...

  6. Stable isotopes: essential tools in biological and medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, P. D.; Hachey, D. L.; Kreek, M. J.; Schoeller, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of the stable isotopes, /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O, as tracers in research studies in the fields of biology, medicine, pharmacology, and agriculture are briefly reviewed. (CH)

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Butler

    Full Text Available Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243, the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits. Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57. Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  8. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  9. Application of stable isotopes in ecological research : it's all elemental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Stable isotopes have been used traditionally in the physical sciences, primarily in geochemistry, sedimentology, and oceanography. Increasingly, however, stable isotopes are also being used in the biological sciences. Application of stable isotopes in ecological studies can provide new and innovative ways of examining a host of topics of fundamental importance to biologists. These topics include, among others, feeding ecology and food webs, nutrient flow and assimilation, habitat use, migration patterns, and distribution and discrimination of species subpopulations. Furthermore, ecological research with isotopes can be applied at many levels (i.e. tissue and organ, whole animal, population, community, and ecosystem). (author). 38 refs., 2 figs

  10. Stable isotope utilization for research on human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjeux, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of nutritional molecule metabolism research, this paper presents the various stable isotopes used as labels for biological molecules, the reasons for their application in human nutritional study (mainly because of their non toxicity) and the various analysis methods (isotope ratio mass spectrometry, coupled gaseous chromatography and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance). Several application examples in nutrition research are then discussed: metabolic conversion measurement for a molecule into its different metabolites, energetic losses. 23 refs

  11. An Investigation into the Relationship Between Distillate Yield and Stable Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, T.; Wagner, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Recent breakthroughs in laser spectrometry have allowed for faster, more efficient analyses of stable isotopic ratios in water samples. Commercially available instruments from Los Gatos Research and Picarro allow users to quickly analyze a wide range of samples, from seawater to groundwater, with accurate isotope ratios of D/H to within ± 0.2 ‰ and 18O/16O to within ± 0.03 ‰. While these instruments have increased the efficiency of stable isotope laboratories, they come with some major limitations, such as not being able to analyze hypersaline waters. The Los Gatos Research Liquid Water Isotope Analyzer (LWIA) can accurately and consistently measure the stable isotope ratios in waters with salinities ranging from 0 to 4 grams per liter (0 to 40 parts per thousand). In order to analyze water samples with salinities greater than 4 grams per liter, however, it was necessary to develop a consistent method through which to reduce salinity while causing as little fractionation as possible. Using a consistent distillation method, predictable fractionation of δ 18O and δ 2 H values was found to occur. This fractionation occurs according to a linear relationship with respect to the percent yield of the water in the sample. Using this method, samples with high salinity can be analyzed using laser spectrometry instruments, thereby enabling laboratories with Los Gatos or Picarro instruments to analyze those samples in house without having to dilute them using labor-intensive in-house standards or expensive premade standards.

  12. Biomedical research applications of electromagnetically separated enriched stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The current and projected annual requirements through 1985 for stable isotopes enriched by electromagnetic separation methods were reviewed for applications in various types of biomedical research: (1) medical radiosotope production, labeled compounds, and potential radiopharmaceuticals; (2) nutrition, food science, and pharmacology; (3) metallobiochemistry and environmental toxicology; (4) nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Moessbauer spectroscopy in biochemical, biophysical, and biomedical research; and (5) miscellaneous advances in radioactive and non-radioactive tracer technology. Radioisotopes available from commercial sources or routinely used in clinical nuclear medicine were excluded. Priorities and summaries are based on statements in the references and from answers to a survey conducted in the fall of 1981. Current requirements for enriched stable isotopes in biomedical research are not being satisfied. Severe shortages exist for 26 Mg, 43 Ca, 70 Zn, 76 Se, 78 Se, 102 Pd, 111 Cd, 113 Cd, and 190 Os. Many interesting and potentially important investigations in biomedical research require small quantities of specific elements at high isotopic enrichments

  13. Stable isotopes. Enriched wheat: a new chance for nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagvardieff, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Plant Eco-physiology (DEV) from the CEA/Life Sciences Department of Cadarache (France) has artificially produced two kg of carbon 13 labelled wheat for nutrition research. It is the first successful stable isotope labelling of complex nutriments with a 10% enrichment in carbon 13. This wheat has been used for the manufacturing of pastas to follow the assimilation of nutrients by the organism. This short paper gives some details about the experimental procedure of labelled wheat cultivation. (J.S.)

  14. The relationship between psychological variables with job satisfaction among couples in stable relationships / Tselane Rose Kgantsi

    OpenAIRE

    Kgantsi, Tselane Rose

    2006-01-01

    There is scant evidence of the links between job satisfaction and variables such as gender, age and occupational status among black people, especially in relation to work-family balance. Therefore this study will focus on the relationship between job satisfaction and its predictors namely; gender, job status, age, marital satisfaction, overall satisfaction with life and psychological well-being. A survey research design was employed in this study with a cross-sectional ap...

  15. Research and clinical practice relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashammakhi N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: I highly value and greet the authors for their editorial. Many important issues related to medical education and its future in Libya have been discussed in this paper [1]. One important point that has been addressed and I feel deserves attention is the “abnormal” relationship between clinical practice and research in Libya. From discussions with colleagues, this problem somehow has evolved from a misconception about educational and training systems that may have occurred in the past. It may also be related to the lack of attention to research that has long existed in Libya [2,3]. The other aspect, shared with many other developing countries, is the misconception of research as unimportant or a luxury aspect of medicine. When it comes to understanding how a system (including healthcare can be updated and developed, the answer is vague! One important reason is a lack of understanding of the impact that research has on developing methods. In developed countries, research is the main academic distinction that leads to appointments for coveted positions in the system and is an important factor for academic promotion. In Libya, there remain arguments about who will be awarded Chair of university clinical departments. Such a post should no doubt be given to those with established academic achievements. When highly qualified persons are at the top of the pyramid this leads to further progress and enhanced research and advancement. The authors have discussed the point of having proper search committees for leadership and faculty positions. I believe that it will help eliminate the current stagnation and help to create innovative solutions. This should lead to improved medical education, health services, and ultimately impact the quality of life of all Libyan citizens.

  16. Co-ordinated research programme on applications of stable isotope tracers in human nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a very brief report on the final Research Co-ordination Meeting of this Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP): the final report on the CRP will be published by the IAEA in the IAEA-TECDOC series. The present document contains a detailed proposal for a new Co-ordinated Research Programme on ''Stable Isotope Tracer Techniques for Studies on Protein-Energy Interactions'', and a brief series of notes on stable isotopic methods for investigating protein and amino-acid metabolism in man. Refs

  17. Co-ordinated research programme applications of stable isotope tracers in human nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this Co-ordinated Research Programme is to help establish competence in the use of stable isotope techniques, particularly in developing countries. This report summarizes the discussions that took, place during the Second Research Co-ordination Meeting, held in Bangalore in November 1990. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Stable social relationships between unrelated females increase individual fitness in a cooperative bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina; Strong, Meghan J

    2018-04-11

    Social animals often form long-lasting relationships with fellow group members, usually with close kin. In primates, strong social bonds have been associated with increased longevity, offspring survival and reproductive success. However, little is known about the fitness effects of social bonds between non-kin, especially outside of mammals. In this study, we use long-term field research on a cooperatively breeding bird, the greater ani ( Crotophaga major ), to ask whether adult females benefit by remaining in long-term associations with unrelated, co-breeding females. We find that females that have previously nested together synchronize their reproduction more rapidly than those nesting with unfamiliar partners, which leads to lower competition and higher fledging success. Importantly, although previous experience with a co-breeding female influenced reproductive synchrony, the degree of reproductive synchrony did not influence whether co-breeding females remained together in subsequent years, ruling out the alternate hypothesis that highly synchronized females are simply more likely to remain together. These results indicate that switching groups is costly to females, and that social familiarity improves reproductive coordination. Stable social relationships therefore have significant fitness consequences for cooperatively nesting female birds, suggesting that direct benefits alone may favour the evolution of associations between non-relatives and contribute to long-term group stability. © 2018 The Author(s).

  19. Sociolinguistic Minorities, Research, and Social Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Mark; Raschka, Christine; Sercombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests elements of an agenda for future sociolinguistics among minority groups, by seeing it as a mutual relationship that involves benefits to researcher and researched. We focus on two aspects of the relationship. One is the political, economic and social benefits that can accrue to a minority group as a result of the research.…

  20. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  1. Fear of predation drives stable and differentiated social relationships in guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Robert J P; Darden, Safi K; Franks, Daniel W; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2017-02-02

    Social relationships can have important consequences for fitness in animals. Whilst numerous studies have shown that individuals often join larger groups in response to perceived predation risk (i.e. fear of predation), the importance of predation risk in driving the formation and stability of social relationships within groups has been relatively ignored. We experimentally tested how predation threat influenced fine-scale social network structure using Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). When perceived predation risk was high, individuals developed stable and more differentiated social ties compared to when perceived risk was low. Intriguingly, social differentiation coincided with shoals being somewhat smaller under high-perceived risk, suggesting a possible conflict between forming stable social relationships and larger social groups. Individuals most at risk of predation (large and bold individuals) showed the most exaggerated responses in several social measures. Taken together, we provide the first experimental evidence that proximate risk of predation can increase the intensity of social relationships and fine-scale social structure in animal populations.

  2. Researcher-researched relationship in qualitative research: Shifts in positions and researcher vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råheim, Målfrid; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Lunde, Åshild; Jacobsen, Torild; Blystad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The researcher role is highly debated in qualitative research. This article concerns the researcher-researched relationship. A group of health science researchers anchored in various qualitative research traditions gathered in reflective group discussions over a period of two years. Efforts to establish an anti-authoritarian relationship between researcher and researched, negotiation of who actually "rules" the research agenda, and experiences of shifts in "inferior" and "superior" knowledge positions emerged as central and intertwined themes throughout the discussions. The dual role as both insider and outsider, characteristic of qualitative approaches, seemed to lead to power relations and researcher vulnerability which manifested in tangible ways. Shifting positions and vulnerability surfaced in various ways in the projects. They nonetheless indicated a number of similar experiences which can shed light on the researcher-researched relationship. These issues could benefit from further discussion in the qualitative health research literature.

  3. Co-ordinated research programme on applications of stable isotope tracers in human nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) was formally established by the Agency in October 1988, and has since then expanded to encompass 13 participants in 13 countries. Its general objective is to help establish competence in the use of stable isotope techniques, particularly in developing countries, and particularly with reference to applications of 2 H, 13 C, 15 N, and 18 O. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM). Working papers (progress reports) presented by the participants are included as annexes together with a preliminary report on the results of a series of intercomparison exercises involving enriched stable isotope reference materials containing 2 H, 13 C, 15 N and 18 O. For the future it was agreed that more work needs to be done to harmonize the analytical techniques being used, and to obtain support for new CRPs relating to human energy expenditure studies in pregnancy, lactation, growth and other conditions, and to studies of nitrogen turnover in relation to malnutrition and liver function. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. [Relationship between Fe, Al oxides and stable organic carbon, nitrogen in the yellow-brown soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Li-Sha; Wang, Dai-Zhang; Jiang, Xin; Rao, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Guo, Chun-Yan; Li, Teng

    2010-11-01

    The stable organic carbon and nitrogen of the different particles were gained by oxidation of 6% NaOCl in the yellow-brown soils. The relationships between the contents of selective extractable Fe/Al and the stable organic carbon/nitrogen were investigated. It shown that amounts of dithionite-citrate-(Fe(d)) and oxalate-(Fe(o)) and pyrophosphate extractable (Fe(p)) were 6-60.8 g x kg(-1) and 0.13-4.8 g x kg(-1) and 0.03-0.47 g x kg(-1) in 2-250 microm particles, respectively; 43.1-170 g x kg(-1) and 5.9-14.0 g x kg(-1) and 0.28-0.78 g x kg(-1) in soils than in arid yellow-brown soils, and that of selective extractable Al are lower in the former than in the latter. Amounts of the stable organic carbon and nitrogen, higher in paddy yellow-brown soils than in arid yellow-brown soils, were 0.93-6.0 g x kg(-1) and 0.05-0.36 g x kg(-1) in 2-250 microm particles, respectively; 6.05-19.3 g x kg(-1) and 0.61-2.1 g x kg(-1) in stabilization index (SI(C) and SI(N)) of the organic carbon and nitrogen were 14.3-50.0 and 11.9-55.6 in 2-250 microm particles, respectively; 53.72-88.80 and 40.64-70.0 in soils than in paddy yellow-brown soils. The organic carbon and nitrogen are advantageously conserved in paddy yellow-brown soil. An extremely significant positive correlation of the stable organic carbon and nitrogen with selective extractable Fe/Al is observed. The most amounts between the stable organic carbon and nitrogen and selective extractable Fe/Al appear in clay particles, namely the clay particles could protect the soil organic carbon and nitrogen.

  5. Research advance on stable mechanism of endophytic fungi to red wine colour during the aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Lijun; Li, Yashan; Cui, Changwei; Ning, Na; Huang, Jing; Xu, Chengdong; Tao, Fang; Zhang, Jinyong

    2018-04-01

    Based on the fact that persistent mutation of vinous color was not conducive to the stabilization of vinous quality during the aging, research advance on the stable mechanism of endophytic fungi to colour of red wine during the aging, including investigative status and developmental dynamic at home and abroad, endophytes and pigment of materials in wine, including effect of endophyte on vinaceous color, and even the application of tracer method in wine was summarized, respectively. The relationship between diversity of community the endophytic fungi and the main pigment material in wine was existent objectively, also included the response mechanism on colony dynamic of endophytic fungi to the various pigment as well as substance related to color, which laid the foundation for exploring the relationships between endophytic fungi and wine color, and the variational mechanism of the color under endophytic fungi during the aging period of wine. Color as an important reference index of wine quality influenced not only the sensory evaluation of consumer, but also the quality of wine because of the self-aggregation or combination of phenolic composition with other substances under the endophytic fungi during the storage. Only steady wine in the color could guarantee the security of quality.

  6. Relationship Marketing Researches in Logistics' Organizations: Foreign Countries Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Juščius, Vytautas; Grigaitė, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of foreign researchers' works which scrutinize relationship marketing, its principles' adjustment in logistics organizations. Relationship marketing elements identified by different researchers, their influence and importance in relationship with clients in logistics organizations, relationship marketing implementation in business-to-business level are analyzed and compared. It leads to the conclusion that in logistics organizations relationship marketing elem...

  7. The use of stable isotopes as minerals tracers in human nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The idea of using stable isotopes as tracers in metabolic studies of vital systems started when it was noted that stable isotopes have the ability to unite with biomolecules.The article aims to review the methods used to measure quantities of tracer in doses given to donors orally or via intravenous injection, determinants of detection and their estimation as well as the use of mass spectrometer and other devices to measure different stable isotopes. In fact, the use of stable isotopes in nutrition research is an essential technique in order to understand many of the processes related to minerals absorption and the human body composition of water, fat and bones, transportation of food components within the body and estimation of the ages of red blood cells. It is possible to use the secretion of stable isotopes taken by injection to determine the paths of excretion or estimate self-retaining material by the intestine. The stable isotope technology helps to know the mechanics of minerals absorption and excretion in the body. It was possible to find out metabolic reactions of metals using mathematical models based on the measurement of tracers amount in biological fluids in order to know the absorbance situation of metals in the body.

  8. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushita, Kouhei

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, 35 Cl and 37 Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, 36 Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  9. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, Kouhei [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 37}Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, {sup 36}Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  10. Interpersonal relationships in education : an overview of contemporary research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubbels, Th.; Brok, den P.J.; Tartwijk, van J.W.F.; Levy, J.

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together recent research on interpersonal relationships in education. Clearly, positive teacher-student relationships strongly contribute to student learning. Problematic relationships on the other hand can be detrimental to student outcomes and development. Productive learning

  11. Stable isotopes in human nutrition research. Final report on an IAEA co-ordinated research programme, Vienna, Austria, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Applications of Stable Isotope Tracers in Human Nutrition Research was established by the Agency in October 1988 and was completed in 1992. At various times during this period the CRP encompassed 16 participants in 16 countries. Its general objective was to help establish competence in the use of stable isotope techniques, particularly in developing countries, and particularly with reference to applications of 2 H, 13 C, 15 N, and 18 O in human nutrition research. Thereby it was hoped that it would be possible (i) to identify centres and scientists throughout the developing world who could use stable isotopes in human nutrition research, (ii) to assess the need for methodological adaptations for isotope-based methods in developing countries, and (iii) to advance the competence of the participants in using stable isotopes as tracers of human metabolism. In addition it was expected that the CRP would make a study of some major questions which have been identified by international groups of nutrition experts, particularly in areas relating to energy and protein metabolism. This document comprises copies of the working papers submitted by all CRP participants who contributed a final report on their project. These reports include details of the rationale, methods, results and interpretations from each of the respective studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Family context, victimization, and child trauma symptoms: variations in safe, stable, and nurturing relationships during early and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Hamby, Sherry; Leeb, Rebecca T; Mercy, James A; Holt, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Based on a nationally representative sample of 2,017 children age 2-9 years, this study examines variations in "safe, stable, and nurturing" relationships (SSNRs), including several forms of family perpetrated victimization, and documents associations between these factors and child trauma symptoms. Findings show that many children were exposed to multiple forms of victimization within the family (such as physical or sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment, child neglect, sibling victimization, and witnessing family violence), as evidenced by substantial intercorrelations among the different forms of victimization. Moreover, victimization exposure was significantly associated with several indices of parental dysfunction, family adversity, residential instability, and problematic parenting practices. Of all SSNR variables considered, emotional abuse and inconsistent or hostile parenting emerged as having the most powerful independent effects on child trauma symptoms. Also, findings supported a cumulative risk model, whereby trauma symptom levels increased with each additional SSNR risk factor to which children were exposed. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  13. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry in forensic science and food adulteration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B.

    2009-01-01

    Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (SIRMS) is an established technique for the determination of origin of geological, biological, chemical and physio-chemical samples/materials. With the development of highly precise mass spectrometers, the stable isotope ratio determination of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have gained considerable interest in the fields of forensic science and food authentication. Natural variations in the isotopic composition of lighter elements occur due to fractionation effects, resulting in the finger printing of specific isotope ratio values that are characteristic of the origin, purity, and manufacturing processes of the products and their constituents. Forensic science uses scientific and technical methods to investigate traceable evidence of criminal acts. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has been applied to numerous aspects of the forensic science. The analysis of explosives such as ammonium nitrate, gun powder and tri-nitro-toluene (TNT), cases of murder, armed robbery, drug smuggling, terrorism, arson and hit and run traffic accidents are a few of them. The main types of geological evidences in such cases are mud, soil, rocks, sand, gravel, dust particles, biological materials, organic particles and anthropogenic components. Stable isotopes are used as tools to corroborate and confirm the evidential leads in the investigation of such crimes. The variation in natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen and their isotopic ratios δ 13 C and δ 15 N can identify links between items found at crime scene with those of suspect. The paper discusses the applications of SIRMS in the field of forensic science and food adulteration research

  14. [Research progress on food sources and food web structure of wetlands based on stable isotopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhan Yan; Wu, Hai Tao; Wang, Yun Biao; Lyu, Xian Guo

    2017-07-18

    The trophic dynamics of wetland organisms is the basis of assessing wetland structure and function. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen have been widely applied to identify trophic relationships in food source, food composition and food web transport in wetland ecosystem studies. This paper provided an overall review about the current methodology of isotope mixing model and trophic level in wetland ecosystems, and discussed the standards of trophic fractionation and baseline. Moreover, we characterized the typical food sources and isotopic compositions of wetland ecosystems, summarized the food sources in different trophic levels of herbivores, omnivores and carnivores based on stable isotopic analyses. We also discussed the limitations of stable isotopes in tra-cing food sources and in constructing food webs. Based on the current results, development trends and upcoming requirements, future studies should focus on sample treatment, conservation and trophic enrichment measurement in the wetland food web, as well as on combing a variety of methodologies including traditional stomach stuffing, molecular markers, and multiple isotopes.

  15. Disengaging from Workplace Relationships. A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Patricia M.; Perry, Tara

    2004-01-01

    A randomly-selected sample of 306 adults employed full-time rated how likely individuals would be to use various communication strategies (cost escalation, depersonalization, and state-of-the-relationship talk) to disengage from a workplace relationship (with the target of the deteriorations being a supervisor, a peer coworker, or a subordinate…

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Sibling Relationships: Research and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Julia F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…

  17. Challenges and Opportunities for Research on Same-Sex Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.; Lodge, Amy Caroline; Xu, Minle

    2014-01-01

    Research on same-sex relationships has informed policy debates and legal decisions that greatly affect American families, yet the data and methods available to scholars studying same-sex relationships have been limited. In this article the authors review current approaches to studying same-sex relationships and significant challenges for this research. After exploring how researchers have dealt with these challenges in prior studies, the authors discuss promising strategies and methods to advance future research on same-sex relationships, with particular attention given to gendered contexts and dyadic research designs, quasi-experimental designs, and a relationship biography approach. Innovation and advances in the study of same-sex relationships will further theoretical and empirical knowledge in family studies more broadly and increase understanding of different-sex as well as same-sex relationships. PMID:25598552

  18. Trophic relationships in a tropical stream food web assessed by stable isotope analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coat, Sophie; Monti, Dominique; Bouchon, Claude; Lepoint, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    1. Stable isotope analysis, coupled with dietary data from the literature, was used to investigate trophic patterns of freshwater fauna in a tropical stream food web (Guadeloupe, French West Indies). 2. Primary producers (biofilm, algae and plant detritus of terrestrial origin) showed distinct delta C-13 signatures, which allowed for a powerful discrimination of carbon sources. Both autochthonous (C-13-enriched signatures) and allochthonous (C-13-depleted signatures) resources enter the food ...

  19. Relationship of Serum Klotho Level With ACE Gene Polymorphism in Stable Kidney Allograft Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaare Nahandi, Maryam; Ardalan, Mohamad Reza; Banagozar Mohamadi, Ali; Ghorbani Haghjo, Amir; Jabbarpor Bonyadi, Morteza; Mohamadian, Tahere

    2017-03-01

    The kidney is the main source of serum Klotho production. Immunosuppressive agents could affect the kidney in this regard. The effect of the ACE gene polymorphism on Klotho production is a less studied area. This study aimed to assess serum Klotho and ACE gene in a group of stable kidney transplant recipients. In a cross-sectional study, 30 kidney transplant recipients with stable allograft function and 27 healthy young individuals were assessed for their serum Klotho levels. The ACE gene polymorphisms were studied in both groups. Klotho level was higher in kidney transplant recipients than the controls, but the difference was not significant (2.76 ± 2.41 ng/mL versus 2.01 ± 1.41 ng/mL, respectively). In both groups, serum Klotho level was higher in those with the I>I polymorphism, the men, those with higher glomerular filtration rate, and younger individuals, but the differences did not reach a significant level. Higher body mass index was significantly associated with lower serum Klotho level in both groups. Klotho level after kidney transplantation meets the range in healthy individuals, and it is not affected by the ACE gene polymorphism.

  20. Research of relationship between uncertainty and investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Li; WANG Ding-wei

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on revealing the relationship between uncertainty and investment probability through real option model involving investment critical trigger and project earning. Use of Matlab software on the experimental results showing that project earning volatility influences investment probability, led the authors to conclude that this notion is not always correct, as increasing uncertainty should have an inhibiting effect on investment, and that in certain situation, increasing uncertainty actually increases the investment probability and so, should have positive impact on investment.

  1. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes

  2. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  3. [The relationship between qualitative research and positivism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-I; Lee, Li-Hung; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2008-10-01

    Historically, positivism has been the dominant approach in the philosophy of science. In nursing, most quantitative researchers tend to employ positivism as their epistemological underpinning, which could be why positivism has long been identified as the epistemology of quantitative research. It can be argued, however, that some of the procedures of qualitative research reflect the perspectives on which positivists insist. This article takes grounded theory and phenomenology as examples, in order to observe how positivism influences their methodologies, evidence obtained is then used to support the aruthors' arguments. The article, furthermore encourages beginning researchers to familiarize themselves with background knowledge of philosophy of social sciences, especially epistemologies and methodologies, in order to make clear the philosophical context in which their research is conducted.

  4. Relationship between serum heat-stable alkaline phosphatase level and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Guoxian; Xiao Weihong; Yu Huixin; Li Weiyi; Huang Xuquan

    1998-01-01

    Serum heat-stable alkaline phosphatase (HSAP) level in 649 cases of normal pregnancy and 164 cases of high-risk pregnancy is measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results indicate that the HSAP level in normal pregnancy increased proportionally with gestation weeks (r = 0.9843). In 33 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension and 21 cases of intrauterine fetal growth retardation, the HSAP level is significantly low. In 7 cases of neonatal asphyxia and 26 cases of fetal distress, the HSAP level in the mother's serum is also low. In 53 cases of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, the HSAP level is similar to those of normal pregnancy. This study illustrates that HSAP RIA can play an important role in the evaluation of placental function and fetal prognosis for cases of high-risk pregnancy

  5. Relationship between climate and vegetation and the stable carbon isotope chemistry of soils in the eastern Mojave Desert, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundson, R.G.; Chadwick, O.A.; Sowers, J.M.; Doner, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the stable C-isotope composition of the soil environment and modern climate and vegetation was determined empirically along a present-day climatic transect in the eastern Mojave Desert. The δ 13 C of the soil CO 2 and carbonates decreased with increasing elevation and plant density, even though plant assemblages at all elevations were isotopically similar. Several factors, including differences in the ratios of pedogenic of limestone calcite and differences in past vegetation, were considered as explanations of this trend, However, it appears that in the sparsely vegetated Mojave Desert, the δ 13 C of pedogenic carbonate is controlled by differences in plant density and biological activity. This relationship may provide a tool for assessing past vegetational densities, as long as the vegetation is isotopically homogeneous. (author)

  6. Stable isotopes and their relationship to temperature and precipitation as recorded in low latitude ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.G.; Davis, M.E.; Pin-Nan, Lin

    2002-01-01

    The potential of stable isotopic ratios ( 18 O/ 16 O and 2 H/ 1 H) in mid to low latitude glaciers as modern tools for paleoclimate reconstruction is reviewed. The isotopic composition of precipitation should be viewed not only as a powerful proxy indicator of climate, but also as an additional parameter for understanding climate-induced changes in the water cycle, on both regional and global scales. To interpret quantitatively the ice core isotopic records, the response of the isotopic composition of precipitation to long-term fluctuations of key climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity) over a given area should be known. Furthermore, it is important to establish the transfer functions that relate the climate-induced changes of the isotopic composition of precipitation to the isotope record preserved in the glacier. The factors that govern the values of stable isotopes in snowfall are enigmatic and as yet no satisfactory model has been developed to link them directly with any one meteorological or oceanographic factor. This is particularly problematic in the high altitude glaciers in the tropics, where complications are present due not only to continental effects, but also to altitude effects and convective air mass instability, particularly in the monsoon climates of the tropics. This paper presents long and short-term perspectives of isotopic composition variations in ice cores spanning the last 25,000 years from the mid- to low-latitude glaciers. The isotopic records will also be examined as a function of the altitude of the individual coring sites which ranges from 5325 meters to 7200 meters. On the short, term isotopic records from ice cores from the Andes of South America, the Tibetan Plateau and Kilimanjaro in Africa through the year 2000 will be presented. All the tropical glaciers for which data exist are disappearing, and these sites show isotopic enrichment in the 20th century that suggests that large scale low latitude

  7. Stable photosymbiotic relationship under CO₂-induced acidification in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Dupont

    Full Text Available As a consequence of anthropogenic CO₂ emissions, oceans are becoming more acidic, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification. Many marine species predicted to be sensitive to this stressor are photosymbiotic, including corals and foraminifera. However, the direct impact of ocean acidification on the relationship between the photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organism remains unclear and is complicated by other physiological processes known to be sensitive to ocean acidification (e.g. calcification and feeding. We have studied the impact of extreme pH decrease/pCO₂ increase on the complete life cycle of the photosymbiotic, non-calcifying and pure autotrophic acoel worm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. Our results show that this species is resistant to high pCO₂ with no negative or even positive effects on fitness (survival, growth, fertility and/or photosymbiotic relationship till pCO₂ up to 54 K µatm. Some sub-lethal bleaching is only observed at pCO₂ up to 270 K µatm when seawater is saturated by CO₂. This indicates that photosymbiosis can be resistant to high pCO₂. If such a finding would be confirmed in other photosymbiotic species, we could then hypothesize that negative impact of high pCO₂ observed on other photosymbiotic species such as corals and foraminifera could occur through indirect impacts at other levels (calcification, feeding.

  8. Fe and Cu stable isotopes in archeological human bones and their relationship to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Balter, Vincent; Herrscher, Estelle; Lamboux, Aline; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2012-07-01

    Accurate sex assignment of ancient human remains usually relies on the availability of coxal bones or well-preserved DNA. Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) stable isotope compositions ((56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu, respectively) were recently measured in modern human blood, and an unexpected result was the discovery of a (56)Fe-depletion and a (65)Cu-enrichment in men's blood compared to women's blood. Bones, being pervasively irrigated by blood, are expected to retain the (56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu signature of blood, which in turn is useful for determining the sex of ancient bones. Here, we report the (56)Fe/(54)Fe, (65)Cu/(63)Cu, and (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios from a suite of well-preserved phalanxes (n = 43) belonging to individuals buried in the 17th and 18th centuries at the necropolis of Saint-Laurent de Grenoble, France, and for which the sex was independently estimated from pelvic bone morphology. The metals were purified from the bone matrix by liquid chromatography on ion exchange resin and the isotope compositions were measured by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that, as expected from literature data on blood, male bone iron is depleted in (56)Fe and enriched in (65)Cu relative to female. No sex difference is found in the (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios of bone. The concentration and isotopic data show no evidence of soil contamination. Four samples of five (77%) can be assigned their correct sex, a result comparable to sex assignment using Fe and Cu isotopes in blood (81%). Isotopic analysis of metals may therefore represent a valid method of sex assignment applicable to incomplete human remains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  10. The relationship between stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of water in astomatal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lee W.; DeNiro, Michael J.; Keeley, Jon E.; Taylor, H. P.; O'Neil, J. R.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    Isotropic fractination of leaf water during transpiration is influenced by both equilibrium and kinetic factors. Previous workers have predicted that the influence of each factor varies depending upon the path of water loss,m whether centralized through stomata, or diffuse through the cuticle. We studied the relationship between the δD and δ18O values of lead and stem waters of laurel sumac, Rhus laurina (Nutt.) T. & G., and its parasite, dodder, Cuscuta subinclusa D. & H., growing in the field. Stomatal transpiration, associated with more stagnant boundary layers, predominates in R. laurina; cuticular transpiration, associated with more turbulent boundary layers, is most important in the largely astomatal C. subinclusa. We also studied the diurnal variation in the δD and δ18O values of lead waters of two astomatal plants, Chiloschista lunifera (Rchb. F.) J.J.S. and Stylites andicola Amstutz, and two stomatal plants, Tillandsia balbisiana Schult. and Lilaeopsis schaffneriana (Schlecht.) C. & R., growing with them under the same conditions in the laboratory. Slopes, m, for the relation δD = mδ18O + b were significantly higher for stem waters in C. subinclusa that for leaf waters in R. laurina (1.77), consistent with the difference in the boundary layers through which water was lost in the two species. The magnitude of diurnal heavy isotope enrichment of tissue water was smaller in C. subinclusa than in R. laurina, which is also consistent with predictions concerning evapotranspiration through difference types of boundary layers. The slopes, m, in plant waters in the laboratory experiments, conducted at high humidity, were not different than those observed during evaporation of water from pans, regardless of plant anatomy. The observation suggests that cuticular transpiration is important in influencing isotopic fractionation of water only at low humidity. Our results indicate that the isotopic composition of water vapor released by plants in arid regions may

  11. Institutional and Departmental Cultures: The Relationship Between Teaching and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ann E.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of institutional and departmental cultures on the relationship between college teaching and research is discussed, and suggestions for assessing these factors and nurturing a positive relationship between them are made. Approaches include making reward systems more equitable, strengthening administrative leadership, encouraging…

  12. Sibling relationships of anxiety disordered children--a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E.; Boer, Frits; Markus, Monica T.; Hoogendijk, Thea H. G.; Maingay, Ragna; Borst, Sophie R.

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the role of sibling relationships in internalizing disorders. Research in nonclinical populations suggests an association between internalizing problems in children and negative sibling interactions. Further, an association is reported between internalizing

  13. Factors that determine the in vivo dose-response relationship for stable chromosome aberrations in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Nakano, Mimako; Ohtaki, Kazuo; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Lucas, J.; Gray, J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given of the dose-response relationship for stable chromosome aberrations (i.e., translocations and inversions) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima. Special emphasis is placed on (i) the overdispersion of survivor cases with either unexpectedly high or low aberration frequencies relative to the estimated DS86 kerma values assigned to individual survivors, termed 'cytogenetic outliers', and (ii) the correlation of chromosome aberration frequencies with other biological endpoints, such as acute radiation symptoms (severe epilation). A new molecular biological technique, known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with composite, whole-chromosome probes to paint differentially the target chromosomes, has facilitated rapid, efficient, and extensive scoring of translocation-type chromosome aberrations in which the target chromosomes are involved. Using this methodology, the observed findings on translocation frequencies in A-bomb survivors have shown that the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations, which have persisted for years without change in frequency in irradiated persons, is indeed useful as an indicator for biological dosimetry. (author)

  14. Relationship between tolerance factor and temperature coefficient of permittivity of temperature-stable high permittivity BaTiO3–Bi(MeO3 compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaphon Raengthon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The temperature coefficient of permittivity (TCε of BaTiO3–Bi(MeO3 solid solutions were investigated. It was determined that as the tolerance factor was decreased with the addition of Bi(MeO3, the TCε shifted from large negative values to TCε values approaching zero. It is proposed that the different bonding nature of the dopant cation affects the magnitude and temperature stability of the permittivity. This study suggests that the relationship between tolerance factor and TCε can be used as a guide to design new dielectric compounds exhibiting temperature-stable high permittivity characteristics, which is similar to past research on perovskite and pyrochlore-based microwave dielectrics.

  15. Relationships Between Components of Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ford, Ian; Ferrari, Roberto; Fox, Kim M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Bhatt, Deepak L; Steg, P Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies have shown a J-shaped relationship between diastolic blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. We investigated whether the increased risk associated with low diastolic BP reflects elevated pulse pressure (PP). In 22 672 hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease from the CLARIFY registry (Prospective Observational Longitudinal Registry of Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease), followed for a median of 5.0 years, BP was measured annually and averaged. The relationships between PP and diastolic BP, alone or combined, and the primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction) were analyzed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Adjusted hazard ratios for the primary outcome were 1.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-1.87), 1.00 (ref), 1.07 (95% CI, 0.94-1.21), 1.54 (95% CI, 1.32-1.79), and 2.34 (95% CI, 1.95-2.81) for PPhypertensive patients with coronary artery disease persists in patients within the lowest-risk PP range and is therefore unlikely to be solely the consequence of an increased PP reflecting advanced vascular disease. URL: http://www.clarify-registry.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN43070564. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. [Research advances in identifying nitrate pollution sources of water environment by using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Liang, Zhi-wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yao; Yanng, Mu-yi; Jia, Chao-jie

    2013-04-01

    Water body' s nitrate pollution has become a common and severe environmental problem. In order to ensure human health and water environment benign evolution, it is of great importance to effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources of water body. Because of the discrepant composition of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in different sources of nitrate in water body, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes can be used to identify the nitrate pollution sources of water environment. This paper introduced the fractionation factors of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the main processes of nitrogen cycling and the composition of these stable isotopes in main nitrate sources, compared the advantages and disadvantages of five pre-treatment methods for analyzing the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate, and summarized the research advances in this aspect into three stages, i. e. , using nitrogen stable isotope alone, using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes simultaneously, and combining with mathematical models. The future research directions regarding the nitrate pollution sources identification of water environment were also discussed.

  17. An Evolution in Research Practice for Investigating International Business Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Anne HAMPTON; James ROWELL

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development and rationale of research methodology for a specific topic of research. The topic in question is an investigation into international business relationships, a complex subject and one that is very topical in the growing world of international business. It is intended to examine the logical development of research practice in our study and to show the changing thought processes and justifications we have made over a period of time. It is h...

  18. The relationship between fractional flow reserve, platelet reactivity and platelet leukocyte complexes in stable coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sels, J.W.E.M.; Rutten, B.; Holten, van T.C.; Hillaert, M.A.K.; Waltenberger, J.; Pijls, N.H.J.; Pasterkamp, G.; Groot, de P.G.; Roest, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of stenoses that significantly impair blood flow and cause myocardial ischemia negatively affects prognosis of patients with stable coronary artery disease. Altered platelet reactivity has been associated with impaired prognosis of stable coronary artery disease. Platelets

  19. Appreciation of the research supervisory relationship by postgraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, N C; Coetzee, I M; Havenga, Y; Heyns, T

    2016-03-01

    The quality of the relationship between postgraduate students and their supervisors often determines the progress of the students. Successful supervision according to students is associated with the expertise of the supervisors and their willingness to share their knowledge with their students. On the other hand, supervisors expect their students to be able to work independently to a large extent. Contradictory expectations of supervisors and postgraduate students can cause delays in the progress of students. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the aspects of the supervisory relationship that postgraduate students in nursing science at a selected university in South Africa appreciate. A qualitative research design with an appreciative inquiry approach was used and 18 students under the guidance of an independent facilitator provided the data during group interviews. Specific personal and professional qualities of the supervisors contribute to a valued supervisory relationship. Regarding personal qualities, the supervisors should show their understanding of the unique circumstances of the students in challenging times. Supervisors should also be expert researchers. The valued relationship refers to an open and trusting relationship between the students and the supervisors. The students' appreciation of the research supervisory relationship contributes to the understanding of the expectations of postgraduate students regarding the support that they need to become scholars in an academic discipline. There is a need for continuing professional development of supervisors to sensitize them about the expectations of the students. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Carbon-13 conundrums: limitations and cautions in the use of stable isotope analysis in stream ecotonal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A secondary analysis of literature was compiled and performed on the δ 13 C values for allochthonous litter, attached algae and consumers in stream ecosystems, finding that 'existing data conflict as to the capability of stable isotope analysis (SIA) for distinguishing carbon pathways'. The paper is in defence of the work previously performed and suggests caution when using stream SIA research. 48 refs

  1. Conceptualising the policy practice and behavioural research relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeatman Heather

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy is frequently identified in the behavioural nutrition and physical activity research literature as a necessary component of effective research and practice. The purpose of this commentary is to promote a dialogue to contribute towards the further development of conceptual understandings and theories of the relationship between policy practice and behavioural research and how these two activities might work synergistically to improve public health outcomes. Methods Drawing on policy and public health literature, this commentary presents a a conceptual model of the interaction and mediation between nutrition and physical activity-relevant policy and behavioural nutrition and physical activity research, environments, behaviours and public health implications. The selling of food in school canteens in several Australian states is discussed to illustrate components of the relationship and the interactions among its components. Results The model depicts a relationship that is interdependent and cyclic. Policy contributes to the relationship through its role in shaping environmental and personal-cognitive determinants of behaviours and through these determinants it can induce behaviour change. Behavioural research describes behaviours, identifies determinants of behaviour change and therefore helps inform policy development and monitor and evaluate its impact. Conclusion The model has implications for guiding behavioural research and policy practice priorities to promote public health outcomes. In particular, we propose that policy practice and behavioural research activities can be strengthened by applying to each other the theories from the scientific disciplines informing these respective activities. Behavioural science theories can be applied to help understand policy-making and assist with disseminating research into policy and practice. In turn, policy science theories can be applied to support the 'institutionalisation

  2. Ethical issues in the qualitative researcher--participant relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Phyllis; Kahn, David

    2008-03-01

    Qualitative research poses ethical issues and challenges unique to the study of human beings. In developing the interpersonal relationship that is critical to qualitative research, investigator and participant engage in a dialogic process that often evokes stories and memories that are remembered and reconstituted in ways that otherwise would not occur. Ethical issues are raised when this relationship not only provides qualitative research data, but also leads to some degree of therapeutic interaction for the participant. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the controversies inherent in the researcher's dilemma when this occurs, set within the context of a nursing caring theory (Swanson), and the International Council of Nurses Code of ethics for nurses, which provides guidance on global nursing practice.

  3. The Family-School Relationships in Europe: A Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusi, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The literature on research carried out in the field and parents' and teachers' declarations all point in the same direction: good collaboration between home and school is useful to the child-student for his education and learning. Despite this, parent-teacher relationships in Europe (and elsewhere), from Spain to Sweden, from Ireland to Greece,…

  4. Research on the relationship between humans and wilderness in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson

    2005-01-01

    At the 2005 Biennial George Wright Society Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites in Philadelphia, March 14 to 18, there were many sessions relevant to wilderness. One session provided focus on a priority research area of the Leopold Institute: understanding the effects of management actions on relationships between people and wilderness. A great...

  5. Interrupting Life History: The Evolution of Relationship within Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the author explores how relationships are defined within the context of constructing a life history. The life history of Benjamin, a homeless young man transitioning to adulthood, is used to illustrate how difficult it is to define the parameters of the research environment. During an "ethically important moment" in the…

  6. Supporting relationships in reflexive movements in leadership and organisational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ann Rubens

    , and the actions in these relationships have profound and long-lasting effects above and beyond the immediate context, i.e., the organisation. I am offering a systemic social constructionist perspective on reflexivity in leadership and organisational research, bringing forth a way of creating connections...

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANKLE-BRACHIAL INDEX AND NUM-BER OF INVOLVED CORONARIES IN PATIENTS WITH STABLE ANGINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of vascular disease which can involve peripheral and/or cardiac vessels. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible link between Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI and coronary vessel involvement in patients with stable angina.    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 on 120 individuals who were hospitalized in Chamran Heart Center and underwent coronary angiography. A questionnaire was completed to obtain demographic information, history of previous heart disease and smoking. Body height and weight, as blood pressure on hand and foot were measured. The patients underwent angiography and the extent of coronary involvement (> 75% was determined. After12-14-hour of fasting, blood sugar was obtained to measure total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABI was calculated as the ratio of the blood pressure in the ankles to the blood pressure in the arms. The data were analyzed by SPSS-15 using ANOVA, T-Student test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and discriminant analysis.    RESULTS: Samples were 46 women (38.33% and 74 men (61.67% with a mean age of 55.50 ± 10.49. Mean and SD of ABI in men and women was 0.72 ± 0.20 and 0.80 ± 0.19 with no significant difference (p = 0.012. The correlation between ABI and extent of coronary involvement was 0.47 (p < 0.0001. The group with lower ABI had the highest levels of coronary involvement (triple vessel, p < 0.05.     CONCLUSION: ABI had a significant relationship with the degree of coronary involvement and a significant predictive value. Therefore ABI seems to be a reliable indicator of high coronary risk.      Keywords: Ankle to brachial index, Coronary involvement, Stable angina.  

  8. The relationship between carbon stable isotope ratios of hatchling down and egg yolk in Black-headed Gulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Baarspul, T.; Dekkers, T.; Van Tienen, P.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstructed the nutrient source for egg synthesis by sampling Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) eggs for yolk, analyzing their carbon stable isotope ratio, and comparing that to hatchling down. Most of the variation in carbon stable isotope ratio was explained by differences between nests,

  9. Underdeveloped Themes in Qualitative Research: Relationship With Interviews and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Lynne M; Peltzer, Jill N

    2016-01-01

    In this methodological article, the authors address the problem of underdeveloped themes in qualitative studies they have reviewed. Various possible reasons for underdeveloped themes are examined, and suggestions offered. Each problem area is explored, and literature support is provided. The suggestions that are offered are supported by the literature as well. The problem with underdeveloped themes in certain articles is related to 3 interconnected issues: (a) lack of clear relationship to the underlying research method, (b) an apparent lack of depth in interviewing techniques, and (c) lack of depth in the analysis. Underdeveloped themes in a qualitative study can lead to a lack of substantive findings that have meaningful implications for practice, research, and the nursing profession, as well as the rejection of articles for publication. Fully developed themes require knowledge about the paradigm of qualitative research, the methodology that is proposed, the effective techniques of interviewing that can produce rich data with examples and experiences, and analysis that goes beyond superficial reporting of what the participants have said. Analytic problem areas include premature closure, anxiety about how to analyze, and confusion about categories and themes. Effective qualitative research takes time and effort and is not as easy as is sometimes presumed. The usefulness of findings depends on researchers improving their research skills and practices. Increasingly researchers are using qualitative research to explore clinically important issues. As consumers of research or members of a research team, clinical nurse specialists need to understand the nature of this research that can provide in-depth insight and meaning.

  10. Joint accurate time and stable frequency distribution infrastructure sharing fiber footprint with research network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtěch, J.; Šlapák, M.; Škoda, P.; Radil, J.; Havliš, O.; Altmann, M.; Münster, P.; Velč, R.; Kundrát, J.; Altmannová, L.; Vohnout, R.; Horváth, T.; Hůla, M.; Smotlacha, V.; Čížek, Martin; Pravdová, Lenka; Řeřucha, Šimon; Hrabina, Jan; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 027101. ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : accurate time * stable frequency * wavelength division multiplexing * bidirectional reciprocal path * Sagnac effect Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  11. An Evolution in Research Practice for Investigating International Business Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne HAMPTON

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development and rationale of research methodology for a specific topic of research. The topic in question is an investigation into international business relationships, a complex subject and one that is very topical in the growing world of international business. It is intended to examine the logical development of research practice in our study and to show the changing thought processes and justifications we have made over a period of time. It is hoped that this discussion paper will be helpful to academics and students alike, as so often research methodology is only discussed in terms of the final method/techniques chosen with an emphasis on the technical aspects of the methods rather than relating them to the subject to be researched.

  12. Relationship between innovativeness and strategic planning: Empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamula Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between innovativeness and strategic planning in SMEs. In introduction part, the authors attempt to consider relevant findings about this specific relationship in the literature. The paper presents how the EU policy approaches the innovation management system within SMEs and where Serbia stands in catching up the process towards the EU in terms of innovativeness and competitiveness. The main research approach is to examine the relationship between innovativeness and strategic orientation, beginning with the existence of the four key strategic business documents: strategic, marketing, business plan and procedures, and innovation strategy documents. The last part is a discussion on the findings and considerations of the intensity of the relations among strategic orientations of the company expressed through the key strategic documents and innovativeness, and the relations among the three most practiced types of innovation in representative sample of 150 Serbian small and medium enterprises (SMEs.The research has shown that there is positive correlation between strategic planning approach in marketing and firm's innovativeness but the intensity of the relationship depends on the type of the innovativeness considered.

  13. The Family-School Relationships in Europe: A Research Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Dusi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on research carried out in the field and parents’ and teachers’ declarations all point in the same direction: good collaboration between home and school is useful to the child-student for his education and learning. Despite this, parent-teacher relationships in Europe (and elsewhere, from Spain to Sweden, from Ireland to Greece, and from Italy to the Czech Republic, represent an unresolved issue. This is a complex relationship that calls into play various social spheres: macro (social, intermediary (institutional and micro (relational; in fact, there are as many diverse realities as there are schools. In Europe, the relationship between individual behaviours (parents vs. teachers, social orientations (neoliberalism and institutional frameworks (school marketsappears significant: scarce parental participation, lack of adequate forms of home-school communications, and the need to make investments in parent and teacher training. Nevertheless, family and school are called on to create a dialogue in order to contribute to the processes of training new generations. They both need each other in order to carry out that task in the best way. This paper presents and discusses the results of a theoretical analysis conducted on the basis of the international literature concerning research on the school-family relationship, with particular attention on the situation of different European countries, and concludes with suggestions for some practical improvements.

  14. Researches on relationship between consumers? attachments and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Yu-fan

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims for studying the relationship between consumers? attachment styles and consumers? behaviors, especially ethical consumption and conformity consumption. Based on combing the previous researches, studies conclude that: “secure attachment” people and their ethical behaviors are most positively related, and “ambivalent attachment” people and their moral behaviors take second. Meanwhile, “avoidant attachment” people and their moral behaviors are most negatively related, and “fearful...

  15. Stable isotope sup 15 N-urea and clinical research in nephrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Nobuhiro; Arai, Junko; Akimoto, Mitsuko; Miwa, Toichiro; Takuma, Takehide (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    Stable isotope {sup 15}N-compound, {sup 15}N-urea, is useful marker to investigate nitrogen metabolism in clinical nephrology, particularly in chronic renal failure or dialysis. {sup 15}N-urea incorporation into plasma albumin in addition to plasma {sup 15}N disappearance was studied in 6 patients with endstage chronic renal failure. As a result, only minor fraction of administered {sup 15}N-urea was incorporated into albumin in this study. In addition, it was also confirmed that high energy diet may promote protein synthesis through {sup 15}N incorporation to plasma amino acids, such as alanine, in these patients with low protein meal. Therefore, administration of {sup 15}N-compound to human subjects may contribute to provide us the important informations on nitrogen metabolism. For instance, urea kinetics are described in the endstage chronic renal failure in this review. However, less expensive {sup 15}N-compounds should be provided and more simple but accurate measurement of {sup 15}N activity should be developed for the further clinical application of the stable isotope. (author).

  16. Stable isotope 15N-urea and clinical research in nephrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Nobuhiro; Arai, Junko; Akimoto, Mitsuko; Miwa, Toichiro; Takuma, Takehide

    1990-01-01

    Stable isotope 15 N-compound, 15 N-urea, is useful marker to investigate nitrogen metabolism in clinical nephrology, particularly in chronic renal failure or dialysis. 15 N-urea incorporation into plasma albumin in addition to plasma 15 N disappearance was studied in 6 patients with endstage chronic renal failure. As a result, only minor fraction of administered 15 N-urea was incorporated into albumin in this study. In addition, it was also confirmed that high energy diet may promote protein synthesis through 15 N incorporation to plasma amino acids, such as alanine, in these patients with low protein meal. Therefore, administration of 15 N-compound to human subjects may contribute to provide us the important informations on nitrogen metabolism. For instance, urea kinetics are described in the endstage chronic renal failure in this review. However, less expensive 15 N-compounds should be provided and more simple but accurate measurement of 15 N activity should be developed for the further clinical application of the stable isotope. (author)

  17. [Difference of water relationships of poplar trees in Zhangbei County, Hebei, China based on stable isotope and thermal dissipation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Bo; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin Song; He, Fang Jie; Sun, Shou Jia

    2017-07-18

    The water sources and transpiration of poplar trees in Zhangbei County were measured using stable hydrogen isotope and thermal dissipation method. The differences in water relationships between dieback and non-dieback poplar trees were analyzed. The results showed that the dieback trees mainly used shallow water from 0-30 cm soil layer during growing season while the non-dieback trees mainly used water from 30-80 cm soil layer. There was a significant difference in water source between them. The non-dieback trees used more water from middle and deep soil layers than that of the dieback trees during the dry season. The percentage of poplar trees using water from 0-30 cm soil layer increased in wet season, and the increase of dieback trees was higher than that of non-dieback trees. The contributions of water from 30-180 cm soil layer of dieback and non-dieback trees both decreased in wet season. The sap flow rate of non-dieback trees was higher than that of dieback trees. There was a similar variation tend of sap flow rate between dieback and non-dieback trees in different weather conditions, but the start time of sap flow of non-dieback trees was earlier than that of dieback trees. Correlation analysis showed that the sap flow rate of either dieback or non-dieback poplar trees strongly related to soil temperature, wind speed, photosynthetically active radiation, relative humidity and air temperature. The sap flow rate of die-back poplar trees strongly negatively related to soil temperature and relative humidity, and strongly positively related to the other factors. The sap flow rate of non-dieback poplar trees only strongly negatively related to relative humidity but positively related to the other factors. The results revealed transpiration of both poplar trees was easily affected by environmental factors. The water consumption of dieback trees was less than non-dieback trees because the cumulative sap flow amount of dieback trees was lower. Reduced transpiration

  18. Research of high power and stable laser in portable Raman spectrometer based on SHINERS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yongsheng; Yin, Yu; Wu, Yulin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin

    2013-08-01

    The intensity of Raman light is very weak, which is only from 10-12 to 10-6 of the incident light. In order to obtain the required sensitivity, the traditional Raman spectrometer tends to be heavy weight and large volume, so it is often used as indoor test device. Based on the Shell-Isolated Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) method, Raman optical spectrum signal can be enhanced significantly and the portable Raman spectrometer combined with SHINERS method will be widely used in various fields. The laser source must be stable enough and able to output monochromatic narrow band laser with stable power in the portable Raman spectrometer based on the SHINERS method. When the laser is working, the change of temperature can induce wavelength drift, thus the power stability of excitation light will be affected, so we need to strictly control the working temperature of the laser, In order to ensure the stability of laser power and output current, this paper adopts the WLD3343 laser constant current driver chip of Wavelength Electronics company and MCU P89LPC935 to drive LML - 785.0 BF - XX laser diode(LD). Using this scheme, the Raman spectrometer can be small in size and the drive current can be constant. At the same time, we can achieve functions such as slow start, over-current protection, over-voltage protection, etc. Continuous adjustable output can be realized under control, and the requirement of high power output can be satisfied. Max1968 chip is adopted to realize the accurate control of the laser's temperature. In this way, it can meet the demand of miniaturization. In term of temperature control, integral truncation effect of traditional PID algorithm is big, which is easy to cause static difference. Each output of incremental PID algorithm has nothing to do with the current position, and we can control the output coefficients to avoid full dose output and immoderate adjustment, then the speed of balance will be improved observably. Variable

  19. Is audit research? The relationships between clinical audit and social-research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rhidian

    2005-01-01

    Quality has an established history in health care. Audit, as a means of quality assessment, is well understood and the existing literature has identified links between audit and research processes. This paper reviews the relationships between audit and research processes, highlighting how audit can be improved through the principles and practice of social research. The review begins by defining the audit process. It goes on to explore salient relationships between clinical audit and research, grouped into the following broad themes: ethical considerations, highlighting responsibilities towards others and the need for ethical review for audit; asking questions and using appropriate methods, emphasising transparency in audit methods; conceptual issues, including identifying problematic concepts, such as "satisfaction", and the importance of reflexivity within audit; emphasising research in context, highlighting the benefits of vignettes and action research; complementary methods, demonstrating improvements for the quality of findings; and training and multidisciplinary working, suggesting the need for closer relationships between researchers and clinical practitioners. Audit processes cannot be considered research. Both audit and research processes serve distinct purposes. Attention to the principles of research when conducting audit are necessary to improve the quality of audit and, in turn, the quality of health care.

  20. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Angood

    Full Text Available Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments.We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72% experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: "Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?"; "What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?"; and "What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?" There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions.Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences.

  1. Customer Relationship Management in scientific and research institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Matulewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the example of a scientific institute, this article shows: – potential areas in which CRM philosophy, procedures and tools could be applied – purpose of applying CRM – outcomes to expect from CRM application The article shows the Customer Relationship Management idea exclusively, along with areas of its use in scientific and research institutions and also a proposal to determine a group of clients for these institutions. The summary of the article consists of information regarding sources of knowledge about CRM philosophy and procedures (mainly bibliographical and also about IT systems which support CRM.

  2. Fundamental Research on the Relationship between Fashion and Media

    OpenAIRE

    古賀, 令子; 濱田, 勝宏; 謝, 黎; 田中, 里尚; 北方, 晴子

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to clarify the state of the relationship between fashion and media to grasp the present state of the fashion environment and fashion media. For this, we brought up the following five issues, and held a symposium titled “Think about Fashion and Media”on September 26, 2009.The five issues are:(1) How has the fashion system changed since 21st century?(2) How has the role of fashion media changed in the fashion system?(3) The globalization of the web network and the subject and...

  3. Culturally Diverse Undergraduate Researchers' Academic Outcomes and Perceptions of Their Research Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Branchaw, Janet; Pfund, Christine; Leverett, Patrice; Newton, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have empirically investigated the specific factors in mentoring relationships between undergraduate researchers (mentees) and their mentors in the biological and life sciences that account for mentees' positive academic and career outcomes. Using archival evaluation data from more than 400 mentees gathered over a multi-year period (2005-2011) from several undergraduate biology research programs at a large, Midwestern research university, we validated existing evaluation measures of the mentored research experience and the mentor-mentee relationship. We used a subset of data from mentees (77% underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities) to test a hypothesized social cognitive career theory model of associations between mentees' academic outcomes and perceptions of their research mentoring relationships. Results from path analysis indicate that perceived mentor effectiveness indirectly predicted post-baccalaureate outcomes via research self-efficacy beliefs. Findings are discussed with implications for developing new and refining existing tools to measure this impact, programmatic interventions to increase the success of culturally diverse research mentees and future directions for research.

  4. Transmutation of technetium into stable ruthenium in high flux conceptual research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrani, N.; Boucenna, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of transmutation for the long lived fission product technetium-99 in high flux research reactor, considering its large capture cross section in thermal and epithermal region is evaluated. The calculation of Ruthenium concentration evolution under irradiation was performed using Chain Solver 2.20 code. The approximation used for the transmutation calculation is the assumption that the influence of change in irradiated materials structures on the reactor operator mode characteristics is insignificant. The results on Technetium transmutation in high flux research reactor suggested an effective use of this kind of research reactors. The evaluation brings a new concept of multi-recycle Technetium transmutation using HFR T RAN (High Flux Research Reactor for Transmutation)

  5. Stable isotope ratio determination of the origin of vanillin in vanilla extracts and its relationship to vanillin/potassium ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.E.; Alfonso, F.C.; Figert, D.M.; Burggraff, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for isolating vanillin from vanilla extract, followed by stable isotope ratio analysis to determine the amount of natural vanillin contained in adulterated vanilla extracts. After the potassium content is determined, the percent Madagascar and/or Java vanilla beans incorporated into the extract may then be approximated from the vanillin/potassium ratio

  6. Research on Utilizing a Multivariate Feedback Algorithm to Maintain Stable Operation of Variable Energy Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ausdeln, L.A.; Cordes, G.A.; Haskell, K.J.; Jones, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements performed utilizing particle accelerators rely on the stability and reproducibility of the accelerator operation, most notably for beam flux (beam current) and beam energy. This can be vital when the measurements rely on previous calibrations performed to establish a standard on which to base the end result of the measurement. The authors have designed a monitoring and control virtual instrument (VI) based on National Instruments LabVIEW TM which calls external modeling code that is written in a standard programming language. The LabVIEWTM virtual instrument allows the user to monitor multiple accelerator parameters while permitting user control of the most important four of these parameters which determine machine operation. The external modeling code, the Advanced Data Validation and Verification System (ADVVS), incorporates as a kernel the Universal Process Model (UPM) software from Triant Technologies, Inc. The kernel executes the accelerator modeling function based on previously acquired history data of the relevant parameters for accelerator operation for conditions of interest. This history data is stored as a reference set prior to subsequent operation. During accelerator operation, 11 accelerator parameters are input to ADVVS from the LabVIEW TM virtual instrument. The ADVVS uses the reference files to predict the eleven parameter values that would normally be expected for optimal accelerator operation. The set of 11 model values is the nearest model state. This multivariate modeling approach presented two principal advantages: 1. The ADVVS allowed rapid detection of anomalous accelerator behavior variant from normal accelerator behavior recorded in the reference set of the kernel. 2. The ADVVS presented a methodology to incrementally tune the accelerator back to optimal operation, thus maintaining highly stable and reproducible operation. In the future, this methodology may also be utilized to tune the accelerator initially or move

  7. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pinfield

    Full Text Available The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their

  8. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against the

  9. Applications of stable isotope analysis in foodstuffs surveillance and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.; Blochberger, F.

    1991-12-01

    The instrumental coupling of Elemental Analysis and Mass Spectrometry, constituting a convenient tool for isotope ratio measurements of the bioelements in solid or liquid samples is now well established. Advantages of this technique compared with the so far usual wet chemistry sample preparation are: speed of analysis, easy operation and minor sample consumption. The performance of the system is described and some applications are given. Detection of foodstuffs adulterations is mainly based on the natural carbon isotope differences between C 3 - and C 4 -plants. In the field of environmental research the existing small isotopic variations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in nature, which depend on substance origin and history, are used as intrinsic signature of the considered sample. Examples of source appointment or exclusion by help of this natural isotopic tracer method are dealt with. (authors)

  10. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric High-energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Mnatsakanyan, E.

    2016-01-01

    The observation of the numerous Thunderstorm ground Enhancements (TGEs), i.e. enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth’s surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it helped to establish a new scientific topic - high-energy physics in the atmosphere. The Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiated high-energy processes in the thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Aragats Mt. in Armenia during strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma ray energy spectra proved that RREA is a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the “beams” of “electron accelerators” operated in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking at May-June and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. The key method employed is that all the relevant information is being gathered, including the data on the particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mt. Aragats on the 28th of August 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes. (author)

  11. The Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR): Integration of Stable Water Isotopes in Riverine Research and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, J.; Terzer, S.; Wassenaar, L.; Araguas, L.; Aggarwal, P.

    2015-01-01

    Rivers play a crucial role in the global water cycle as watershed-integrating hydrological conduits for returning terrestrial precipitation, runoff, surface and groundwater, as well as melting snow and ice back to the world’s oceans. The IAEA Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) is the coherent extension of the IAEA Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) and aims to fill the informational data gaps between rainfall and river discharge. Whereas the GNIP has been surveying the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, and tritium composition in precipitation, the objective of GNIR is to accumulate and disseminate riverine isotope data. We introduce the new global database of riverine water isotopes and evaluate its current long-term data holdings with the objective to improve the application of water isotopes and to inform water managers and researchers. An evaluation of current GNIR database holdings confirmed that seasonal variations of the stable water isotope composition in rivers are closely coupled to precipitation and snow-melt water run-off on a global scale. Rivers could be clustered on the basis of seasonal variations in their isotope composition and latitude. Results showed furthermore, that there were periodic phases within each of these groupings and additional modelling exercises allowed a priori prediction of the seasonal variability as well as the isotopic composition of stable water isotopes in rivers. This predictive capacity will help to improve existing and new sampling strategies, help to validate and interpret riverine isotope data, and identify important catchment processes. Hence, the IAEA promulgates and supports longterm hydrological isotope observation networks and the application of isotope studies complementary with conventional hydrological, water quality, and ecological studies. (author)

  12. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lemos Bisi

    Full Text Available To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13C and δ(15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13C values. The highest δ(15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13C values, but similar δ(15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area.

  13. ultra-Stable Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (5STAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Redemann, J.; Holben, B. N.; Schmid, B.; Flynn, C. J.; Fahey, L.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Liss, J.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; Dahlgren, R. P.; Pistone, K.; Karol, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) combines airborne sun tracking and sky scanning with diffraction spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air pollution and climate. Direct beam hyperspectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. Hyperspectral cloud-transmitted radiance measurements enable the retrieval of cloud properties from below clouds. These measurements tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/ sky-scanning optical head with optical fiber signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical tracking head, and future detector evolution. 4STAR has supported a broad range of flight experiments since it was first flown in 2010. This experience provides the basis for a series of improvements directed toward reducing measurement uncertainty and calibration complexity, and expanding future measurement capabilities, to be incorporated into a new 5STAR instrument. A 9-channel photodiode radiometer with AERONET-matched bandpass filters will be incorporated to improve calibration stability. A wide dynamic range tracking camera will provide a high precision solar position tracking signal as well as an image of sky conditions around the solar axis. An ultrasonic window cleaning system design will be tested. A UV spectrometer tailored for formaldehyde and SO2 gas retrievals will be added to the spectrometer enclosure. Finally, expansion capability for a 4 channel polarized radiometer to measure the Stokes polarization vector of sky light will be incorporated. This paper presents initial progress on this next-generation 5STAR instrument. Keywords: atmosphere; climate; pollution; radiometry; technology; hyperspectral; fiber optic

  14. Recent developments and future directions for stable isotope applications in nutrition research. Report of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Headquarters in Vienna convened a consultants meeting to provide the Agency with an overview of the current status of isotopic techniques in nutritional science with respect to both methodology and applications. The main objectives were: To assess the practice of stable isotope methodologies in human nutrition research; To explore high quality stable isotope spikes for use in humans; To standardise the mathematical approaches to evaluate mass spectrometric data when using stable isotope labels within metabolic studies; To identify new strategies for improving sensitivity of nutrition monitoring techniques for use in projects in nutrition. This exercise was conducted to also identify strengths and weaknesses of methodologies currently used in IAEA funded research (CRPs and Technical Cooperation Projects) and to see how they can be improved for the general user, and to provide a basis for the assessment of outcomes delivered by collaborating laboratories in IAEA funded studies. The consultants reviewed the methods relating to the measurement of energy expenditure and noted that the analytical methodologies had changed substantially and that there was further refinement to data fitting and the calculation of uncertainties. They also felt that a repeat of a comparison of laboratory performances with a dilution series similar to the one carried out earlier should be performed for quality control. Other methods using labelled isotopes 13 C and 2 H were also discussed. The meeting noted that it was IAEA's intention to support the development of compound specific reference materials for 2 H, 13 C, 15 N and 18 O. Contrary to light isotope techniques where attempts have been made in the past towards standardization, in particular by IAEA and Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) harmonization of techniques between laboratories is unsatisfactory for the minerals and trace elements. It was decided that

  15. Recent developments and future directions for stable isotope applications in nutrition research. Report of a consultants meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Headquarters in Vienna convened a consultants meeting to provide the Agency with an overview of the current status of isotopic techniques in nutritional science with respect to both methodology and applications. The main objectives were: To assess the practice of stable isotope methodologies in human nutrition research; To explore high quality stable isotope spikes for use in humans; To standardise the mathematical approaches to evaluate mass spectrometric data when using stable isotope labels within metabolic studies; To identify new strategies for improving sensitivity of nutrition monitoring techniques for use in projects in nutrition. This exercise was conducted to also identify strengths and weaknesses of methodologies currently used in IAEA funded research (CRPs and Technical Cooperation Projects) and to see how they can be improved for the general user, and to provide a basis for the assessment of outcomes delivered by collaborating laboratories in IAEA funded studies. The consultants reviewed the methods relating to the measurement of energy expenditure and noted that the analytical methodologies had changed substantially and that there was further refinement to data fitting and the calculation of uncertainties. They also felt that a repeat of a comparison of laboratory performances with a dilution series similar to the one carried out earlier should be performed for quality control. Other methods using labelled isotopes {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H were also discussed. The meeting noted that it was IAEA's intention to support the development of compound specific reference materials for {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N and {sup 18}O. Contrary to light isotope techniques where attempts have been made in the past towards standardization, in particular by IAEA and Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) harmonization of techniques between laboratories is unsatisfactory for the minerals and trace

  16. Distribution of trace elements in organs of six species of cetaceans from the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean), and the relationship with stable carbon and nitrogen ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelli, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Das, K. [MARE center, Laboratory for Oceanology, University of Liege, B6 Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Pellegrini, R. De; Drava, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Lepoint, G. [MARE center, Laboratory for Oceanology, University of Liege, B6 Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Miglio, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Minganti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: minganti@dictfa.unige.it; Poggi, R. [Museo Civico di Storia Naturale ' Giacomo Doria' - Via Brigata Liguria, 9 I-16121 Genova (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Mercury (total and organic), cadmium, lead, copper, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc concentrations were measured in different organs of 6 different cetacean species stranded in an area of extraordinary ecological interest (Cetaceans' Sanctuary of the Mediterranean Sea) along the coast of the Ligurian Sea (North-West Mediterranean). Stable-isotopes ratios of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and nitrogen ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) were also measured in the muscle. A significant relationship exists between {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N, mercury concentration and the trophic level. The distribution of essential and non-essential trace elements was studied on several organs, and a significant relationship between selenium and mercury, with a molar ratio close to 1, was found in the cetaceans' kidney, liver and spleen, regardless of their species. High selenium concentrations are generally associated with a low organic to total mercury ratio. While narrow ranges of concentrations were observed for essential elements in most organs, mercury and selenium concentrations are characterised by a wide range of variation. Bio-accumulation and bio-amplification processes in cetaceans can be better understood by comparing trace element concentrations with the stable-isotopes data.

  17. Relationships of stable isotopes, water-rock interaction and salinization in fractured aquifers, Petrolina region, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Sousa, E-mail: priscila.silva@cprm.gov.br [Serviço Geológico do Brasil (CPRM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Campos, José Eloi Guimarães; Cunha, Luciano Soares; Mancini, Luís Henrique, E-mail: eloi@unb.br, E-mail: lucianosc@unb.br, E-mail: lmancini@unb.br [Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    The Petrolina County, Pernambuco State, Brazil, presents specificities that make it unique from a hydrogeological point of view. Water resource scarcity is both a quantitative and qualitative issue. The climate is classified as semiarid, having low precipitation, along with high temperatures and evapotranspiration rates. Aquifer zones are related to low connected fractures resulting in a restricted water flow in the aquifer. The recharge is limited and the groundwater salinity is high. Stable isotope analyses of H and O were developed in groundwater samples (with different electrical conductivity) and surface water collected in a bypass channel flowing from the São Francisco River. The results were plotted in a δD ‰ versus δ{sup 18}O ‰ graph along with the curves of the global and local meteoric water line. Groundwater samples showed unexpected results showing a lighter sign pattern when compared to the meteoric waters. More negative δD and δ{sup 18}O values indicate an enrichment in light isotopes, which show that this process is not influenced by surface processes, where the enrichment occurs in heavy isotopes due to evaporation. The isotopic signature observed is interpreted either as resulting from the water-rock interaction, or as resulting from recharge from paleo rains. The waters are old and show restricted flow. So the water-rock contact time is extended. In the rock weathering processes, through the hydration of feldspars, there is preferential assimilation of heavy isotopes at the expense of the lighter ones that remain in the water. Analyses of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio and isotopic groundwater dating assist in the interpretations. (author)

  18. Encouraging innovation in business relationships - A research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, E.A.; Frambach, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    How do buyer-supplier relationships affect innovation? This study suggests that the relational exchange norms of flexibility, information sharing, and solidarity (the bright side) encourage buyer innovation. However, negative (dark side) aspects of relationships with suppliers-loss of supplier

  19. Course Level and the Relationship between Research Productivity and Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The author examines the relationship between research productivity and teaching effectiveness using data from the Erasmus School of Economics. The initial findings indicate a positive overall relationship between the variables. A more detailed analysis reveals a sharp reversal in the nature of the relationship. Although the relationship is…

  20. [Relationship between disease burden and research funding through the Health Research Foundation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, Teresa; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa; González-María, Esther; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between burden of disease during 2007-2009 and public funding of research in health in Spain during 2008-2010. Descriptive cross-sectional study of burden of disease and funding allocated for research in diseases in the Spanish National Health System. A review was made of a total of 6,573 project titles funded for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. During this period, a total of 472.7 million Euros were assigned as grants for research projects. Malignant tumors and neuropsychiatric diseases were the illnesses with greatest funding support. During the study period, it was estimated that there was a total of 15,253,331.3 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Spain, with neuropsychiatric diseases being the category representing most DALYs with 4,396,900 (28.8%). The relationship between funding and DALYs was obtained with a Pearson r equal to 0.759 (p<0.001). The study of congenital diseases had higher funding per DALY than any other disease with an investment of 290.4€/DALY. Among these, the study of cleft palate and esophageal atresia, with ratios of 3,432.7€/DALY and 3,387.6€/DALY respectively, obtained the greatest funding. The study shows that the relative distribution of economic resources in the study period is consistent with the burden suffered by the Spanish population. This relationship is altered by the funding of the study of congenital anomalies, because of the low number of projects in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum Anti-Hbs-Ag in Stable Hemodialysis Patients and its Relationship with Various Demographic and Biochemical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar BARADARAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the relationship between various biochemical, nutritional and demographic factors with immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in maintenance hemodialysis (HD patients. Material and Methods: A retro-prospective study was carried out on 68 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis .Patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus with an intramuscular hepatitis B vaccination schedule, 40 micrograms at 0, 1, and 6 months. We also selected 32 age matched normal healthy persons who had vaccinated against hepatitis B previously to compare the antibody production with HD patients. Results: The value of serum antibody level against hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBs in hemodialisis patients and healthy persons were 35±55(median=5.5 and 135±71 (median=175 mIU/ml respectively. There was a significant deference between mean serum antibody level against HBs antigen of hemodialysis patients and normal subjects (p<0.001, there were not any significant differences of antibody production against HBs antigen between males and females or diabetic and non diabetics. There were no correlation between serum antibody level against HBs-Ag and serum albumin and also with body mass index. There were not significant correlation between anti-HBs antibody level and age, amounts of hemodialysis, duration of dialysis, dialysis adequacy, serum ferritin level and serum lipids. There were not also significant correlation between anti-HBs antibody level and serum parathormone, calcium, phosphorus, serum hemoglobin and hematocrit level. Conclusion: In this study, there was not significant correlation between serum antibody level against hepatitis B surface antigen and various nutritional and demographic factors of patients under regular hemodialysis.

  2. Epicardial fat thickness in stable coronary artery disease: its relationship with high-sensitive cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börekçi, Abdurrezzak; Gür, Mustafa; Özaltun, Betül; Baykan, Ahmet Oytun; Harbalioğlu, Hazar; Seker, Taner; Sen, Ömer; Acele, Armağan; Gözükara, Mehmet Yavuz; Kuloğlu, Osman; Koç, Mevlüt; Çayli, Murat

    2014-12-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is related to coronary atherosclerosis, left ventricle hypertrophy, myocardial dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, and inflammation, which produces a variety of cytokines that influence key pathogenic mechanisms of atherogenesis. The main goal of this study is to examine the relationship between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and cardiovascular risk markers as well as the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with stable CAD. We prospectively included 439 stable CAD patients undergoing coronary angiography in the present study (mean age: 62.2±10.7 years). Patients were divided into two groups (EFTlow and EFThigh groups) according to their median EFT values. EFT was evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography before angiography. The SYNTAX score was calculated in all patients. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), uric acid, and other biochemical markers were also measured. Age, SYNTAX score, frequencies of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, NT-proBNP, hs-CRP, hs-cTnT, and uric acid levels were higher in EFThigh group compared with the EFTlow group (P<0.05 for all). EFT was associated independently with age (β=-0.102, P=0.001), diabetes (β=-0.083, P=0.011), SYNTAX score (β=0.352, P<0.001), hs-CRP level (β=0.217, P<0.001), hs-cTnT level (β=0.197, P<0.001), and NT-proBNP level (β=0.300, P<0.001) in multivariate analysis. EFT obtained by echocardiograpy may not only be an easy tool but also an important tool for early detection of increased cardiac risk as well as the extent and complexity of CAD in patients with stable CAD.

  3. Research Support in Australian Academic Libraries: Services, Resources, and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Mamtora, Jayshree

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade Australian academic libraries have increasingly aligned their research support services with assessment criteria used in the national research evaluation exercise (Excellence for Research in Australia). The same period has seen growing interest in research impact outside of traditional measures, such as bibliometrics. Social…

  4. The Relationship between Basic and Applied Research in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Peter James; Gulbrandsen, Magnus; Kyvik, Svein

    2015-01-01

    What is the central research activity in modern universities? This paper uses a comprehensive survey among individuals from 15 countries to map differences in orientation towards basic/fundamental research, applied/practical research and a combination of the two. Despite some claims in the literature that basic research is no longer a…

  5. The relationship of ethics to quality: the particular case of research in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Waltz, Mitzi

    2007-01-01

    What is the relationship between ethics and quality in education research? This paper explores factors that bind the two too tightly together for extrication, including representation of subjects and researcher mindsets, the setting of research agendas, research design, and funding. It argues that ethical concerns go beyond informed consent and prevention of harm, and that unethical research fails when examined for research quality.

  6. High-intensity physical activity, stable relationship, and high education level associate with decreasing risk of erectile dysfunction in 1,000 apparently healthy cardiovascular risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettala, Otto O; Syvänen, Kari T; Korhonen, Päivi E; Kaipia, Antti J; Vahlberg, Tero J; Boström, Peter J; Aarnio, Pertti T

    2014-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is especially common in men with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the data are scarce concerning populations without manifested CVD. The aim of this study was to describe factors associated with ED, especially those associated with decreasing risk of ED, in men with cardiovascular risk factors but without CVD, diabetes, or chronic renal disease. In 2004 to 2007, a cross-sectional population-based sample of men 45 to 70 years old in two rural towns in Finland was collected. Men with previously diagnosed CVD, diabetes, or kidney disease were not invited to the study. In total 1,000 eligible men with cardiovascular risk factors, i.e., central obesity, high scores in the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, high blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, or family history of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, or stroke, were included in the analysis. Questionnaires, clinical measurements, and laboratory tests were obtained. The prevalence of ED was studied comparing the means, and risk factors were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The rate of ED was defined by the International Index of Erectile Function short form (IIEF-5) and by two questions (2Q) about the ability to achieve and to maintain an erection. The prevalence of ED was 57% or 68% using IIEF-5 or 2Q, respectively. Age (odds ratio [OR]: up to 9.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.00-16.79; P physical activity (OR: 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.86; P = 0.045), high education (OR: 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33-0.83; P = 0.013), and stable relationship (OR: 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21-0.88; P = 0.046) were associated with ED. In apparently healthy men with cardiovascular risk factors, decreasing risk of ED is associated with high-intensity physical activity, stable relationship, and high education level. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing information system

    OpenAIRE

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    Real and complete understanding relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing information system requires recognizing essentials of the both concept. The international marketing research constitutes a process with coherent phases, whereas the international marketing information system is a part of integrated company's information system. Approach to learning relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing in...

  8. An agenda for research on the relationships between industrial design and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candi, M.; Gemser, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a research agenda for studying the relationships between industrial design and performance in the context of new product/service development. A review of existing research on relationships between industrial design and performance is used as a basis for identifying research

  9. Teacher–student relationship at university: an important yet under-researched field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenauer, Gerda; Volet, Simone E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the extant research on the relationship between students and teachers in higher education across three main areas: the quality of this relationship, its consequences and its antecedents. The weaknesses and gaps in prior research are highlighted and the importance of addressing the multi-dimensional and context-bound nature of teacher–student relationships is proposed. A possible agenda for future research is outlined. PMID:27226693

  10. Investigation of Relationship between Organizational Climate and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Research on Health Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Öge; Pınar Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to describe the relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior. In order to examine this relationship, a research is intended to be carried out in relevant institutions and organizations operating in the health sector in Turkey. It will be researched that whether there is a statistically significant relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior through elated ...

  11. Study of the CASAS Relationship to GED 2002. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2003

    2003-01-01

    CASAS, in cooperation with the CASAS National Consortium Policy Council, conducted a study to provide guidance to program and instructional staff regarding student readiness to take the GED Tests. The study looked at the relationship of CASAS reading and math scores to official 2002 GED test results from five states--California, Hawaii, Iowa,…

  12. Parental Divorce and Sibling Relationships: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of parental divorce on sibling contact and relationship…

  13. Parental divorce and sibling relationships : a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of

  14. Relationship marketing: schools of thought and future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, R.; Lindgreen, A.; Vanhamme, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to challenge the applicability of the traditional micro-economic framework for analysing marketing situations and actions in the contemporary marketing environment. To assess the validity and value of relationship marketing as an alternative paradigm. To

  15. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  16. Reflections on researcher departure: Closure of prison relationships in ethnographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Laura; Scott, Tricia

    2018-01-01

    Offender Management Services through the Health Research Authority Integrated Research Application System and permission to proceed was granted by the University of Hertfordshire, UK. Thematic analysis enabled the identification of themes associated with the experience of prison pregnancy illuminating how prison life continues with little consideration for their unique physical needs, coping tactics adopted and the way women negotiate entitlements. On researcher departure from the field, the complex feelings of loss and sadness were experienced by both participants and researcher. To leave the participant with a sense of abandonment following closure of fieldwork, due to the very nature of the closed environment, risks re-enactment of previous emotional pain of separation. Although not an ethical requirement, the researcher sought out psychotherapeutic supervision during the fieldwork phase with 'Janet', a forensic psychotherapist, which helped to highlight the need for careful closure of research/participant relationships with a vulnerable population. This article brings to the consciousness of prison researchers the need to minimise potential harm by carefully negotiating how to exit the field. Reflections of the researcher are interlinked with utterances from some participants to illustrate the types of departure behaviours. Closure of fieldwork and subsequent researcher departure involving pregnant women in prison requires careful handling to uphold the ethical research principle 'do no harm'.

  17. Research on the Relationship Between Conflict Management and Organizational Support

    OpenAIRE

    Fuat Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between Turkish Technic Inc. employees’ conflict management styles and perceived organizational support. The sample of the study which was conducted with correlational and descriptive survey models consisted of 1443 Turkish Airlines employees. A 28-item Conflict Management Style Scale, which was developed by Aflazur (1992) and adapted to Turkish by Boz (2012) and an 8-item Perceived Organizational Support S...

  18. The Relationship of Ethics to Quality: A Particular Case of Research in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Mitzi

    2007-01-01

    To look for the answers of "What is the relationship between "ethics" and "quality" in education research?," this article explores factors that bind the two too tightly together for extrication, including representation of subject and researcher mindsets, the setting of research agendas, research design and funding. Using research in autism as a…

  19. Customer-Supplier Roles and Relationships in the Management of Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ian M.

    2007-01-01

    Recognising the existence of customer-supplier roles and relationships in the performance of research can lead to an improvement in the management, and hence delivery, of research. Research, especially university-based research, is often managed with a light touch, with the researchers operating independently, and neither their institution nor…

  20. Relationships to place in wildland resources management: Developing an effective research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal Christensen; Alan Watson; James Burchfield

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to understanding human relationships with public lands and considering those relationships in the decision making process. This understanding is based on segmentation analysis to identify groups of local residents that have similar relationships to place (RTP) with a public wildland. The research described in this paper uses a mix of...

  1. Relationships of Research and Teaching: Implications for Faculty Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Lawrence R.

    1976-01-01

    Research involving 23 hard science disciplines at a midwestern university indicates that research and teaching are complementary but that time allocation tradeoffs are necessary between the two functions. Administratively, evaluations tend to influence the direction faculty choose to follow. (Author/LBH)

  2. Research and Its Relationship to Nurse Education: Focus and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Examination of two British mental health journals and a government document on the future of nursing found a lack of focus on clinical research and little reference to the role of research and development in practice. The increasing importance of evidence-based practice demands a strategy for developing nurses' capacity to understand, undertake,…

  3. Relationships between economic and technical research in nuclear power complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahny, M.; Martinek, J.

    1984-01-01

    The period from projecting and construction to operation and decommissioning of a nuclear power plant spans approximately 5a years. During this period it is necessary to resolve a range of technical, economic and social research problems. Even more complicated is the nuclear power complex as a whole. The respective technical and economic aspects are interactive and cannot be solved separately. It is therefore suggested that the respective national research and development program be linked with the national program of economic research, this both at the preparatory stage, in the course of work and during the evaluation of achieved results. (Ha)

  4. Too Much Emphasis on Research? An Empirical Examination of the Relationship between Research and Teaching in Multitasking Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Hee-Je; Kim, Do Han

    2015-01-01

    While the public is concerned that emphasizing research performance among university faculty results in inadequate attention to undergraduate teaching, research on the relationship between research and teaching in higher education has failed to confirm or deny the validity of this concern. To empirically test this popular concern, we examined how…

  5. Trust in health research relationships: accounts of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael; Townsend, Anne; Cox, Susan M; Paterson, Natasha Damiano; Lafrenière, Darquise

    2008-12-01

    TRUST IS FUNDAMENTAL in health research, yet there is little empirical evidence that explores the meaning of trust from the perspective of human subjects. The analysis presented here focuses on how human subjects talked about trust in the in-depth interviews. It emerged from the accounts that trust could not be assumed in the research setting, rather it was portrayed as a dynamic concept, built and easily broken, characterized by reciprocity and negotiation. Human subjects were ambivalent about who, when, what, and how much to trust in the research endeavor. This paper adds a fresh perspective to the literature on trust, and so offers a currently neglected, and little understood dimension to the discourse around health research ethics.

  6. The third party in the media–research relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Green

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available If Europe is to become a knowledge–based economy1 knowledge must be freely available in Europe. The results of research across Europe can not be left inside laboratories and libraries. It has to available to the citizens, young people and commerce of Europe. And the main source of information for all these groups is the mass media, yet large parts of European research do not allocate sufficient importance to media relations.

  7. Teacher-Student Relationship at University: An Important yet Under-Researched Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenauer, Gerda; Volet, Simone E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the extant research on the relationship between students and teachers in higher education across three main areas: the quality of this relationship, its consequences and its antecedents. The weaknesses and gaps in prior research are highlighted and the importance of addressing the multi-dimensional and context-bound nature of…

  8. Relationship Structure, Relationship Texture: Case Studies in Non/Monogamies Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Joan Kean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article develops case studies from qualitative interviews with people in negotiated non-monogamous relationships to ask what discursive or practical factors besides non/monogamy might play a role in assessments of a relationship’s structure or worth. Beginning with an auto-ethnographic reflection on the way the ‘significance’ was recognised and misrecognised in one polyamorous ‘thrupple’, I introduce three case studies of people in negotiated non-monogamous relationships in order to bring a cultural studies method of the particular to the study of intimacy. For the individuals in these case studies, the practice and experience of non/monogamy is inextricably linked to the ideas and practices surrounding gender, sexuality, sex work, friendship, HIV status and ability. Sketching a middle path between the romantic’s dream of love as a state of exception or exemption from the social and the theorist’s map of the patterned effects of hetero- and mono-normativities, this article attends to the contingency, flexibility and incoherence which so often underpins the sense we make of relationships, even as that sense is shaped by the practices, ideals and institutions of intimacy, love and friendship.

  9. Misconceived Relationships between Logical Positivism and Quantitative Research: An Analysis in the Framework of Ian Hacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chong Ho

    Although quantitative research methodology is widely applied by psychological researchers, there is a common misconception that quantitative research is based on logical positivism. This paper examines the relationship between quantitative research and eight major notions of logical positivism: (1) verification; (2) pro-observation; (3)…

  10. Relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Real and complete understanding relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing information system requires recognizing essentials of the both concept. The international marketing research constitutes a process with coherent phases, whereas the international marketing information system is a part of integrated company's information system. Approach to learning relationship between the international marketing research and the international marketing information system is distinguish in domestic than in the foreign expert literature.

  11. Research Progress on the Relationship Between Oral Microbial Community and Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shujun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress was observed in studies of the relationship between oral Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer and tumors. Based on three distinct and close relationships, namely, the relationship between oral H. pylori and gastric cancer, between oral microbial communities and oral squamous cell carcinoma, and between oral microbial communities of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and tumors, this work reviews the relationship between oral microbial communities and tumors. This research also provides reference for further analysis of the relationship between oral microorganisms and tumors to realize early diagnosis of tumor patients through detecting oral microorganisms under adjuvant therapy.

  12. Examining the Relationship between the Research Training Environment, Course Experiences, and Graduate Students’ Research Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Chesnut

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between graduate students’ research training environment, course experience, and research self-efficacy beliefs. The findings of the descriptive and regression analyses suggest that graduate students’ (n = 161 general research, quantitative, and qualitative research self-efficacy beliefs varied and that these beliefs were related to different aspects of the research training environment and course experiences, including their own personal research experiences. While course experience variables were significant predictors of quantitative and qualitative research self-efficacy, they were not predictive of general research methods self-efficacy. Also, while mentorship was a significant predictor of general research methods self-efficacy, it was not a significant predictor of quantitative and qualitative research self-efficacy. The implications of this study for research and graduate education are discussed.

  13. Using community-based participatory research and organizational diagnosis to characterize relationships between community leaders and academic researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Karen H; Ray, Natasha J; Berg, David N; Greene, Ann T; Lucas, Georgina; Harris, Kenn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Tinney, Barbara; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

    2017-09-01

    Sustaining collaborations between community-based organization leaders and academic researchers in community-engaged research (CEnR) in the service of decreasing health inequities necessitates understanding the collaborations from an inter-organizational perspective. We assessed the perspectives of community leaders and university-based researchers conducting community-engaged research in a medium-sized city with a history of community-university tension. Our research team, included experts in CEnR and organizational theory, used qualitative methods and purposeful, snowball sampling to recruit local participants and performed key informant interviews from July 2011-May 2012. A community-based researcher interviewed 11 community leaders, a university-based researcher interviewed 12 university-based researchers. We interviewed participants until we reached thematic saturation and performed analyses using the constant comparative method. Unifying themes characterizing community leaders and university-based researchers' relationships on the inter-organizational level include: 1) Both groups described that community-engaged university-based researchers are exceptions to typical university culture; 2) Both groups described that the interpersonal skills university-based researchers need for CEnR require a change in organizational culture and training; 3) Both groups described skepticism about the sustainability of a meaningful institutional commitment to community-engaged research 4) Both groups described the historical impact on research relationships of race, power, and privilege, but only community leaders described its persistent role and relevance in research relationships. Challenges to community-academic research partnerships include researcher interpersonal skills and different perceptions of the importance of organizational history. Solutions to improve research partnerships may include transforming university culture and community-university discussions on race

  14. Using community-based participatory research and organizational diagnosis to characterize relationships between community leaders and academic researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H. Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining collaborations between community-based organization leaders and academic researchers in community-engaged research (CEnR in the service of decreasing health inequities necessitates understanding the collaborations from an inter-organizational perspective. We assessed the perspectives of community leaders and university-based researchers conducting community-engaged research in a medium-sized city with a history of community-university tension. Our research team, included experts in CEnR and organizational theory, used qualitative methods and purposeful, snowball sampling to recruit local participants and performed key informant interviews from July 2011–May 2012. A community-based researcher interviewed 11 community leaders, a university-based researcher interviewed 12 university-based researchers. We interviewed participants until we reached thematic saturation and performed analyses using the constant comparative method. Unifying themes characterizing community leaders and university-based researchers' relationships on the inter-organizational level include: 1 Both groups described that community-engaged university-based researchers are exceptions to typical university culture; 2 Both groups described that the interpersonal skills university-based researchers need for CEnR require a change in organizational culture and training; 3 Both groups described skepticism about the sustainability of a meaningful institutional commitment to community-engaged research 4 Both groups described the historical impact on research relationships of race, power, and privilege, but only community leaders described its persistent role and relevance in research relationships. Challenges to community-academic research partnerships include researcher interpersonal skills and different perceptions of the importance of organizational history. Solutions to improve research partnerships may include transforming university culture and community

  15. Anabolic resistance assessed by oral stable isotope ingestion following bed rest in young and older adult volunteers: Relationships with changes in muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolo, Gianni; Pišot, Rado; Mazzucco, Sara; Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio; Situlin, Roberta; Lazzer, Stefano; Grassi, Bruno; Reggiani, Carlo; Passaro, Angelina; Rittweger, Joern; Gasparini, Mladen; Šimunič, Boštjan; Narici, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Aging and experimental bed rest are associated with muscle atrophy and resistance to post-prandial stimulation of protein synthesis or anabolic resistance (AR). We have used in young and older adult volunteers, during short-term bed rest, a quick and non-invasive method, based on a single oral bolus of the stable isotope L[ring- 2 H 5 ]phenylalanine (D 5 Phe), to determine post-prandial AR, defined as ratio between irreversible hydroxylation and incorporation into body protein of ingested phenylalanine. We compared in older (O, 59 ± 1 y) and young (Y, 23 ± 1 y) healthy male volunteers the effects of two-week bed rest on post-prandial protein kinetics, assessed during absorption of a standard ready-to-use oral nutritional supplement, through stable-labeled isotope amino acid D 5 Phe, diluted in water, given as single oral load. The metabolic fate of D 5 Phe is either utilization for protein synthesis or irreversible hydroxylation to L[ring- 2 H 4 ]tyrosine (D 4 Tyr). AR was defined as ratio between the areas under the curves of D 4 Tyr-to-D 5 Phe plasma concentrations over 6 h meal absorption. To determine the relationships between AR and muscle changes following bed rest, quadriceps muscle volume (QMV) was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At baseline, in pooled Y and O subjects, values of AR were inversely correlated with QMV (R = -0.75; p < 0.03). Following 2-weeks of inactivity, there were significant bed rest effects on AR (p < 0.01) and QMV (p < 0.03), as well as significant bed rest × group interaction for AR (p < 0.03; +9.2% in Y; +21.9% in O) and QMV (p < 0.05; -5.7% in Y; -%7.3 in O). In pooled subjects, the percentage delta changes in AR and QMV, induced by bed rest, were inversely correlated (R = -0.57; p < 0.05). Bed rest-induced AR is much greater in the older than in younger adults. We have developed a new, simple, non-invasive method for the assessment of AR. The results indicate that this metabolic

  16. Integrating relationship- and research-based approaches in Australian health promotion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinner, Christiane; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie; Li, Vincy; Daley, Michelle; Zask, Avigdor; Lloyd, Beverly

    2015-12-01

    We examine the perspectives of health promotion practitioners on their approaches to determining health promotion practice, in particular on the role of research and relationships in this process. Using Grounded Theory methods, we analysed 58 semi-structured interviews with 54 health promotion practitioners in New South Wales, Australia. Practitioners differentiated between relationship-based and research-based approaches as two sources of knowledge to guide health promotion practice. We identify several tensions in seeking to combine these approaches in practice and describe the strategies that participants adopted to manage these tensions. The strategies included working in an evidence-informed rather than evidence-based way, creating new evidence about relationship-based processes and outcomes, adopting 'relationship-based' research and evaluation methods, making research and evaluation useful for communities, building research and evaluation skills and improving collaboration between research and evaluation and programme implementation staff. We conclude by highlighting three systemic factors which could further support the integration of research-based and relationship-based health promotion practices: (i) expanding conceptions of health promotion evidence, (ii) developing 'relationship-based' research methods that enable practitioners to measure complex social processes and outcomes and to facilitate community participation and benefit, and (iii) developing organizational capacity. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  18. Relationship between Students' Scores on Research Methods and Statistics, and Undergraduate Project Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossai, Peter Agbadobi Uloku

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' scores on Research Methods and statistics, and undergraduate project at the final year. The purpose was to find out whether students matched knowledge of research with project-writing skill. The study adopted an expost facto correlational design. Scores on Research Methods and Statistics for…

  19. Thinking about U : Theorizing and testing U - and inverted U-shaped relationships in strategy research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, Richard; Pieters, Constant; He, Zilin

    U- and inverted U-shaped relationships are increasingly explored in strategy research, with 11 percent of all articles published in Strategic Management Journal (SMJ) in 2008–2012 investigating such quadratic relationships. Moreover, a movement towards introducing moderation to quadratic

  20. Research trend survey on the stable isotope utilization technology; Antei doitai no riyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report reviews the activities and the trends in the area of the stable isotope use attracting attention recently. In the medicine and clinical treatment sector, the remarkable trends are the extension of {sup 13}C use. The breath test and the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) diagnosis have been developed as inspection methods. It is noted that investigation has been initiated on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using {sup 3}He and {sup 129}Xe for the lung imaging. In the organic chemistry and biochemistry sector, the stable isotopes are used for analyzing the structures of complicated natural compounds and materials relating to life science and for analyzing the chemical reaction mechanism of organic compounds. In the nuclear energy sector, {sup 10}B and {sup 7}Li have been used as neutron absorption materials and pH neutralizing reagent, respectively. In the analysis and measurement sector, the process of isotopic dilution is used for the environmental analysis of trace elements including harmful substances. Among various separation methods of isotopes, well studied uranium enrichment processes and deuterium separation processes are described. Separation of {sup 15}N by ion exchange resin method and plasma ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) isotope separation have been studied, recently. 133 refs., 53 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  2. Proposal for a coordination research programme (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on stable isotope tracer techniques for studies on protein-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.; James, W.P.T.

    1993-01-01

    This Report provides a rationale and justification for the initiation of a Coordinated Research programme to support studies using stable isotopic tracer techniques to address priority areas of human protein-energy interactions with special emphasis on the problems of human nutrition in developing countries. The Report suggests a modus for establishing such a practically oriented Coordinated Research Programme under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency with concrete suggestions for its organization and the identification of probable participants in such a programme. The likely sources of additional funding to sustain such an activity viable for a period of 4 to 5 years are also indicated. 8 refs

  3. Research on stable, high-efficiency, amorphous silicon multijunction modules. Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, A.; Bennett, M.; Chen, L.; D`Aiello, R.; Fieselmann, B.; Li, Y.; Newton, J.; Podlesny, R.; Yang, L. [Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin Film Div.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes work to demonstrate a multijunction module with a ``stabilized`` efficiency (600 h, 50{degrees}C, AM1.5) of 10.5%. Triple-junction devices and modules using a-Si:H alloys with carbon and germanium were developed to meet program goals. ZnO was used to provide a high optical transmission front contact. Proof of concept was obtained for several important advances deemed to be important for obtaining high (12.5%) stabilized efficiency. They were (1) stable, high-quality a-SiC:H devices and (2) high-transmission, textured ZnO. Although these developments were not scaled up and included in modules, triple-junction module efficiencies as high as 10.85% were demonstrated. NREL measured 9.62% and 9.00% indoors and outdoors, respectively. The modules are expected to lose no more than 20% of their initial performance. 28 refs.

  4. Advisory Relationship as a Moderator between Research Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Productivity among Counselor Education Doctoral Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Patty Beyrong; Woo, Hongryun; Bang, Na Mi

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between research self-efficacy, motivation, and productivity, as well as advisory relationship as a moderator, among 190 counselor education doctoral students. Research self-efficacy and motivation predicted productivity. Advisory relationship moderated the relationship between intrinsic and failure avoidance…

  5. Ties that bind: multiple relationships between clinical researchers and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Doran, Evan; Kerridge, Ian; Hill, Suzanne; McNeill, Paul M; Day, Richard

    2005-11-28

    It is believed that pharmaceutical industry sponsorship of clinical research leads to the development of multiple ties between clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry. To quantify this relationship we conducted a survey of medical specialists listed in the Medical Directory of Australia in 2002 and 2003. A questionnaire was mailed that elicited information about all aspects of research relationships between clinicians and pharmaceutical companies. The odds of reporting multiple additional ties (financial and professional) with pharmaceutical companies by clinicians who had an active research relationship were compared with those who did not. All clinicians who returned a completed questionnaire about their research activities were included in the study. A questionnaire was mailed to 2120 medical specialists; 823 (39%) responded. Of these, 338 (41%) reported involvement in industry-sponsored research in the previous year. They were more likely than others to have been offered industry-sponsored items or activities valued at more than 500 AU dollars (>382 US dollars; odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-4.7) and support for attending international conferences (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 3.9-7.4). The strongest associations were seen for acting as a paid consultant to industry (OR, 9.0; 95% CI, 3.9-20.4) and for membership on advisory boards (OR, 6.9; 95% CI, 5.1-9.6). There was a strong relationship between research collaboration and accumulation of industry ties. For 1 additional tie the OR was 2.2 (95% CI, 1.2-3.8) and rose to 6.3 (95% CI, 3.5-11.1) with 3 ties and 41.8 (95% CI, 14.5-143.4) with 6 or more ties. Medical specialists who have research relationships with the pharmaceutical industry are much more likely to have multiple additional ties than those who do not have research relationships. Institutional review should discourage clinical researchers from developing multiple ties.

  6. The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Cynicism of Research Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasalak, Gamze; Bilgin Aksu, Mualla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain to what extent organizational cynicism may be predicted based on the level of perceived organizational support by determining the relationship between research assistants' perceived organizational support and organizational cynicism. The population of the study consists of 214 research assistants working…

  7. The Effects of University-Industry Relationships and Academic Research on Scientific Performance: Synergy or Substitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarres-Henriquez, Liney; Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Vega-Jurado, Jaider

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether university-industry relationships (UIR) and academic research activities have complementary effects on the scientific production of university lecturers. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that the effects of R&D contracts with industry, and academic research activity on…

  8. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  9. Research on the Combustion Characteristics of a Free-Piston Gasoline Engine Linear Generator during the Stable Generating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Miao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The free-piston gasoline engine linear generator (FPGLG is a new kind of power plant consisting of free-piston gasoline engines and a linear generator. Due to the elimination of the crankshaft mechanism, the piston motion process and the combustion heat release process affect each other significantly. In this paper, the combustion characteristics during the stable generating process of a FPGLG were presented using a numerical iteration method, which coupled a zero-dimensional piston dynamic model and a three-dimensional scavenging model with the combustion process simulation. The results indicated that, compared to the conventional engine (CE, the heat release process of the FPGLG lasted longer with a lower peak heat release rate. The indicated thermal efficiency of the engine was lower because less heat was released around the piston top dead centre (TDC. Very minimal difference was observed on the ignition delay duration between the FPGLG and the CE, while the post-combustion period of the FPGLG was significantly longer than that of the CE. Meanwhile, the FPGLG was found to operate more moderately due to lower peak in-cylinder gas pressure and a lower pressure rising rate. The potential advantage of the FPGLG in lower NOx emission was also proven with the simulation results presented in this paper.

  10. Airway bacteria measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culture in patients with stable COPD: relationship with neutrophilic airway inflammation, exacerbation frequency, and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bafadhel M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mona Bafadhel,1 Koirobi Haldar,2 Bethan Barker,2,3 Hemu Patel,4 Vijay Mistry,2,3 Michael R Barer,2–4 Ian D Pavord,1 Christopher E Brightling2,3 1Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, 3Institute for Lung Health, National Institute for Health Research Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, University of Leicester, 4Department of Clinical Microbiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK Background: Potentially pathogenic microorganisms can be detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in sputum from patients with COPD, although how this technique relates to culture and clinical measures of disease is unclear. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal data to test the hypotheses that qPCR is a more sensitive measure of bacterial presence and is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation and adverse clinical outcomes.Methods: Sputum was collected from 174 stable COPD subjects longitudinally over 12 months. Microbial sampling using culture and qPCR was performed. Spirometry and sputum measures of airway inflammation were assessed.Findings: Sputum was qPCR-positive (>106 copies/mL in 77/152 samples (Haemophilus influenzae [n=52], Moraxella catarrhalis [n=24], Streptococcus pneumoniae [n=19], and Staphylococcus aureus [n=7]. Sputum was culture-positive in 50/174 samples, with 49 out of 50 culture-positive samples having pathogen-specific qPCR bacterial loads >106 copies/mL. Samples that had qPCR copy numbers >106/mL, whether culture-positive or not, had increased sputum neutrophil counts. H. influenzae qPCR copy numbers correlated with sputum neutrophil counts (r=0.37, P<0.001, were repeatable within subjects, and were >106/mL three or more times in 19 patients, eight of whom were repeatedly sputum culture-positive. Persistence, whether

  11. A family of a Child with Down Syndrome in Terms of Interpersonal Relationships Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazgun T.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of interpersonal relationships of families with disabled children. The birth of a baby with a disability can be a traumatic event for parents and can have profound effects on the entire family. In this regard, it is especially important to provide the specialist with the opportunity to identify the characteristics of intra-family relations in order to create an effective program for correcting disharmonious patterns of behavior in the family. The authors present the program of studies of the interpersonal relationships and the case of relationships research of the family who is parenting a child with Down syndrome.

  12. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  13. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  14. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  15. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  16. Building new roles and relationships in research: a model of patient engagement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlett, Nancy; Shklarov, Svetlana; Marshall, Deborah; Santana, Maria Jose; Wasylak, Tracy

    2015-05-01

    Patient engagement is influenced by institutional ideologies, professional attitudes and patient readiness to accept new, engaged roles. This article provides an opportunity to consider a new role for patients who are trained to conduct patient experience research using qualitative methods. The emergence of the role of patient engagement researcher was studied using a grounded theory with 21 patients over one-year internship and 125 research participants. Data were collected using tape recordings, field notes and student assignments. These were analyzed using open and selective coding, memoing, categorizing themes. Patients' education level (from high school to PhD), cultural background (immigrant experience, seniors), employment (employed full or part time, receiving disability benefits or retired), age (late 30 s-75) and gender (17 women and four men) were diverse. Main categories (emancipating patient experience; qualifying for research; leading sitting down; working data together; seeding change) are organized by the dialectic of co-creation as the roles of patient and researcher merge. A theoretical model is proposed. The theoretical model provides a glimpse into the process of merging two distinct roles of patient and researcher and in the process unleashes a force for change. The emergence of a dialectic from polar opposite roles is difficult to locate in health or other institutions where power differentials exist but there are indications that this new role might become a template for other merged roles in patient-led medical teams.

  17. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  18. Changes in host-mycorrhiza relationships revealed by stable isotopes after naturally-induced thinning of the stand: case study on Tuber aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Lauteri, Marco; Ciolfi, Marco; Chiocchini, Francesca; Paris, Pierluigi; Pisanelli, Andrea; Portarena, Silvia; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial plants overcome nutrients and water limitations by forming mutualistic associations with mycorrhizal fungi. Fungi, in return, take advantage from the carbohydrates supplied by the host. Some mycorrhizal fruit bodies, like that of Tuber spp., have a peculiar gastronomic value with many efforts being undertaken to predict and enhance their productivity. However, many issues of truffle-producing mycorrhizal ecology are still poorly understood, in particular optimal conditions favoring fruit formation, potential host plants and host-mycorrhiza relationships. In this study, we tested the applicability of stable isotope measurements under natural abundance to identify the plants which likely host the mycorrhiza of Tuber aestivum and to characterize host-mycorrhizal nutrient, water and carbohydrate exchange under plant natural growing conditions and with the change of the forest cover after naturally occurred thinning. For these purposes, sampling of the fruit bodies of T. aestivum was performed during the growing season 2011 in a mixed broadleaved-coniferous forest in central Italy (initially the site was a manmade pine plantation). Nine truffle-producing parcels were identified with five being composed of the original Pinus pinaster -dominated vegetation and four in which pine was replaced by broadleaf species after both wind-induced thinning and natural dieback of pine trees. Seasonal variation of δ13C, δ15N and δ18O were analyzed in the fungal material, in the surrounding soil and in the plant material of the potential host species (xylem water in the trunk, branches and leaves, recently assimilated carbohydrates in phloem and leaves). The results showed a possibility of the identification of the mycorrhizal host species applying isotope analyses, with mycorrhiza receiving most part of the carbohydrates from the pine in pine-dominated parcels. Interestingly, in thinned parcels, the truffle bodies maintained isotope composition similar to bodies gathered

  19. Controversial hypotheses on the relationship between researcher and informant in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, V

    1992-02-01

    This paper addresses methodological issues that emerged unexpectedly during a qualitative study set up to explore nurses' descriptions of difficult, challenging and satisfying experiences at work. The purpose of the study had been to look for critical factors influencing nurses' perceptions of their performance in specific situations, and their labelling of each event. Ten nurses were asked to describe in detail three events; a difficult situation in which they had coped well, a difficult situation in which they would like to have coped better, and a satisfying or rewarding situation. The critical incident technique was used. Rich descriptions were obtained, tape recorded, transcribed verbatum, and analysed by constant comparative analysis, following the principles of grounded theory. Some suprising hypotheses emerged regarding the methodology of the informal interview in qualitative research. This paper addresses these hypotheses, which focus on the interaction between the researcher and informant, the role conflict facing the nurse researcher, the effect of the researcher's past experience on the interaction, the use of counselling strategies and the principle of self-disclosure. These hypotheses were incidental to the original area of study and were more exciting in their emergence because of this.

  20. [Application of chemometrics in composition-activity relationship research of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sheng-Nan

    2014-07-01

    Chemometrics is a new branch of chemistry which is widely applied to various fields of analytical chemistry. Chemometrics can use theories and methods of mathematics, statistics, computer science and other related disciplines to optimize the chemical measurement process and maximize access to acquire chemical information and other information on material systems by analyzing chemical measurement data. In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine has attracted widespread attention. In the research of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been a key problem that how to interpret the relationship between various chemical components and its efficacy, which seriously restricts the modernization of Chinese medicine. As chemometrics brings the multivariate analysis methods into the chemical research, it has been applied as an effective research tool in the composition-activity relationship research of Chinese medicine. This article reviews the applications of chemometrics methods in the composition-activity relationship research in recent years. The applications of multivariate statistical analysis methods (such as regression analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, etc. ) and artificial neural network (such as back propagation artificial neural network, radical basis function neural network, support vector machine, etc. ) are summarized, including the brief fundamental principles, the research contents and the advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the existing main problems and prospects of its future researches are proposed.

  1. Serial thallium-201 imaging at rest in patients with unstable and stable angina pectoris: relationship of myocardial perfusion at rest to presenting clinical syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Phillips, H.R.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether there are differences in myocardial perfusion at rest among patients with various unstable and stable angina syndromes, serial thallium-201 imaging was performed at rest in 19 patients presenting with rapidly worsening exertional angina (unstable angina, group A), 12 patients with rest angina alone without exertional symptoms (unstable angina, group B), and 34 patients with chronic stable angina. No patient had an episode of angina within 4 hours of study. Nineteen of 19 (100%) patients in group A demonstrated transient defects compared to only 3 of 12 (25%) patients in group B (p less than 0.0001) and 4 of 34 (12%) stable angina patients (p less than 0.0001). The majority of zones demonstrating transient defects in group A were associated with hypokinesis of the corresponding left ventriculogram segment without associated ECG evidence of previous infarction. There were no significant differences in the frequency of persistent thallium defects, severity of angiographic coronary artery disease, or frequency of regional wall motion abnormalities of myocardial segments supplied by stenotic coronary arteries among the three groups of patients. Transient defects have been shown to reflect reduction in regional coronary blood flow to viable myocardium. Therefore, we conclude that regional resting hypoperfusion of viable myocardium is far more common in patients with exertional unstable angina symptoms than in patients with rest angina alone or chronic stable angina

  2. The Relationship Between Graduate Students' Education in Research Ethics and Their Attitudes Toward Research Misconduct

    OpenAIRE

    Sailor, Perry

    1997-01-01

    A mail survey of a nationwide sample of department heads in university departments of mechanical engineering, physiology, and psychology was conducted, in order to determine what these departments were doing to educate their Ph.D. students in research ethics. Department heads were also asked to supply names of the Ph.D. students in their departments. Based on the survey responses, departments within each discipline were then divided into those placing a relatively high versus low emphasis on ...

  3. Human-centredness in customer relationship management implementation research: Towards a holistic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wikström, Carl-Erik; Isomäki, Hannakaisa

    2008-01-01

    The application of information technology (IT) to marketing through customer relationship management (CRM) software is growing rapidly, but the risk of failure remains high. We argue that research in CRM implementation success should focus more on human-centred issues. In this study we introduce a conceptual framework for a holistic view of humans in CRM and apply the framework to earlier research on CRM implementation. The results indicate that in most CRM approaches the prevailing conceptio...

  4. The Relationship Between Organizational Democracy and Organizational Dissent: A Research on White Collar Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Oral Ataç, Lale; Köse, Sevinç

    2017-01-01

    Researchers of organisational democracy emphasize the importance of freedom of speech, while researchers of organizational dissent underline the necessity of dissent for democracy in the workplace. However, due to the difficulty of measuring organizational democracy, the number of empirical studies which contextualise these two concepts and reveal the relationship between them has been observed to be insufficient. Insufficiency of such empirical studies in the field results from difficulty of...

  5. The Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Research on Employees of Service Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Altin Gulova, Asena; Demirsoy, Ozge

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment. Two different scales (Organizational Culture Scales and Organizational Commitment Scales) were used as data gathering instrument. The research was conducted on employees of service sector working in call center in the city of Kayseri and working in insurance company in İzmir (n=181). In this research correlation analysis was made to describe the link between subscales of organizational cultu...

  6. New trends in innovation and customer relationship management: a challenge for market researchers.

    OpenAIRE

    Maklan, Stan; Knox, Simon; Ryals, Lynette

    2008-01-01

    For decades, one of the key roles of market research has been to help companies forecast customer acceptance of innovation and of changes to the marketing mix (the 4Ps). However, traditional market research is in danger of being left behind by new practices in sales, marketing and R&D. Reflecting an increasingly participative approach to customer relationships, these disciplines are moving towards customer involvement and co-creation of value rather than innovation mainly ge...

  7. Relationships between Unemployment and Economic Growth - the Review (Results of the Theoretical and Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Nagel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to discuss the relationship between economic growth and unemployment as well as related determinant factors based on literature review. The traditional approach presents this relationship through the prism of the effects of creation, capitalization, pool of savings and creative destruction. Nowadays, an increasing number of researchers attach more importance to the impact of institutional factors, such as minimum and efficiency wages or the flexibility of the labor market. Both theoretical and empirical research reveal both the evolution of the relevant views and the lack of consistency between the concepts explaining the relationship between economic growth and unemployment in different regions of the world and in different groups of countries.

  8. The Relationship between Academics' Conceptions of Knowledge, Research and Teaching--A Metaphor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Van Driel, Jan H.; Van Der Rijst, Roeland M.; Verloop, Nico; Visser, Anthonya

    2009-01-01

    Universities are supposed to be institutes where research and teaching are closely related. To understand this relationship fully, it is necessary to learn how academics perceive these key components. Different conceptions among academics may stem from varying conceptions of knowledge. Thirty academics were interviewed by means of metaphors about…

  9. Research on Five Stakeholders & Five Relationships of Higher Engineering Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guangshe Jia; Chengbin Xiao

    2009-01-01

    With the development of globalization, higher engineering education has been on the rise which includes five Stakeholders and five relationships. This paper will discuss five relations of higher engineering education: teaching, research and social services, professional education and humanity education, ability education and knowledge education, theoretical teaching and practical teaching, development of education and development of national and regional economy. Among them, teaching, researc...

  10. Drugs and Crime: The Relationship of Drug Use and Concomitant Criminal Behavior. Research Issues 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts of major research and theoretical studies dealing with the relationship between drug use, criminal behavior and the law is concerned with criminal acts other than the possession of, or trafficking in, illicit drugs. Included are 107 selected studies categorized into seven major topic areas: Reviews and Theories, Drug Use…

  11. Art and Migraine: Researching the Relationship between Artmaking and Pain Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This research project extends a previous study (Vick & Sexton-Radek, 1999) in examining the relationship between artmaking and pain among 127 migraine sufferers. A basic overview of migraine symptoms and treatment is presented along with a discussion of concepts relating to "migraine art" in order to provide a context for this project. Surveys…

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND TEACHING: THE CHART OF POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS IN PORTUGUESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lennertz Marcotulio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between research and teaching, concerning the rearrangements operated in the chart of possessive pronouns,  observing in which way sociolinguistic studies have been applied to the teaching of Portuguese through the didactic material prepared for High School and the courses of Portuguese as a Foreign Language.

  13. Research on Role Sets and Emotional Relationships in Military Personnel Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazina, Elmira I.; Minullina, Aida F.

    2016-01-01

    An urgent demand of society to conduct effective work with the family substantiates the relevance of the research. The article provides the investigation of role sets and emotional relationships in marriage through the study of military personnel and nonmilitary personnel families. Practical implementation of psychological ideas represents one of…

  14. Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

  15. A Qualitative Study into Dependent Relationships and Voluntary Informed Consent for Research in Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; van der Graaf, Rieke; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Kars, Marijke C; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-04-01

    In pediatric oncology, many oncologists invite their own patients to participate in research. Inclusion within a dependent relationship is considered to potentially compromise voluntariness of consent. Currently, it is unknown to what extent those involved in pediatric oncology experience the dependent relationship as a threat to voluntary informed consent, and what they see as safeguards to protect voluntary informed consent within a dependent relationship. We performed a qualitative study among key actors in pediatric oncology to explore their experiences with the dependent relationship and voluntary informed consent. We conducted three focus groups and 25 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with pediatric oncologists, research coordinators, Research Ethics Committee members, parents of children with cancer, and adolescents with cancer. Professionals regarded the dependent relationship both as a potential threat to and as a positive influence on voluntary decision making. Parents and adolescents did not feel as though dependency upon the oncologist influenced their decisions. They valued the involvement of their own physician in the informed consent process. The professionals suggested three strategies to protect voluntariness: emphasizing voluntariness; empowering families; involvement of an independent person. Although the dependent relationship between pediatric oncologists, patients and parents may be problematic for voluntary informed consent, this is not necessarily the case. Moreover, the involvement of treating physicians may even have a positive impact on the informed consent process. Although we studied pediatric oncology, our results may also apply to many other fields of pediatric medicine where research and care are combined, for example, pediatric rheumatology, neurology and nephrology. Clinical trials in these fields are inevitably often designed, initiated and conducted by medical specialists closely involved in patient care.

  16. Organisational capacity and its relationship to research use in six Australian health policy agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Steve R.; Haynes, Abby; Williamson, Anna; Redman, Sally

    2018-01-01

    There are calls for policymakers to make greater use of research when formulating policies. Therefore, it is important that policy organisations have a range of tools and systems to support their staff in using research in their work. The aim of the present study was to measure the extent to which a range of tools and systems to support research use were available within six Australian agencies with a role in health policy, and examine whether this was related to the extent of engagement with, and use of research in policymaking by their staff. The presence of relevant systems and tools was assessed via a structured interview called ORACLe which is conducted with a senior executive from the agency. To measure research use, four policymakers from each agency undertook a structured interview called SAGE, which assesses and scores the extent to which policymakers engaged with (i.e., searched for, appraised, and generated) research, and used research in the development of a specific policy document. The results showed that all agencies had at least a moderate range of tools and systems in place, in particular policy development processes; resources to access and use research (such as journals, databases, libraries, and access to research experts); processes to generate new research; and mechanisms to establish relationships with researchers. Agencies were less likely, however, to provide research training for staff and leaders, or to have evidence-based processes for evaluating existing policies. For the majority of agencies, the availability of tools and systems was related to the extent to which policymakers engaged with, and used research when developing policy documents. However, some agencies did not display this relationship, suggesting that other factors, namely the organisation’s culture towards research use, must also be considered. PMID:29513669

  17. Organisational capacity and its relationship to research use in six Australian health policy agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Steve R; Haynes, Abby; Williamson, Anna; Redman, Sally

    2018-01-01

    There are calls for policymakers to make greater use of research when formulating policies. Therefore, it is important that policy organisations have a range of tools and systems to support their staff in using research in their work. The aim of the present study was to measure the extent to which a range of tools and systems to support research use were available within six Australian agencies with a role in health policy, and examine whether this was related to the extent of engagement with, and use of research in policymaking by their staff. The presence of relevant systems and tools was assessed via a structured interview called ORACLe which is conducted with a senior executive from the agency. To measure research use, four policymakers from each agency undertook a structured interview called SAGE, which assesses and scores the extent to which policymakers engaged with (i.e., searched for, appraised, and generated) research, and used research in the development of a specific policy document. The results showed that all agencies had at least a moderate range of tools and systems in place, in particular policy development processes; resources to access and use research (such as journals, databases, libraries, and access to research experts); processes to generate new research; and mechanisms to establish relationships with researchers. Agencies were less likely, however, to provide research training for staff and leaders, or to have evidence-based processes for evaluating existing policies. For the majority of agencies, the availability of tools and systems was related to the extent to which policymakers engaged with, and used research when developing policy documents. However, some agencies did not display this relationship, suggesting that other factors, namely the organisation's culture towards research use, must also be considered.

  18. Ethograms indicate stable well-being during prolonged training phases in rhesus monkeys used in neurophysiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Ott, Torben; Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Jacob, Simon N; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Awake, behaving rhesus monkeys are widely used in neurophysiological research. Neural signals are typically measured from monkeys trained with operant conditioning techniques to perform a variety of behavioral tasks in exchange for rewards. Over the past years, monkeys' psychological well-being during experimentation has become an increasingly important concern. We suggest objective criteria to explore whether training sessions during which the monkeys work under controlled water intake over many days might affect their behavior. With that aim, we analyzed a broad range of species-specific behaviors over several months ('ethogram') and used these ethograms as a proxy for the monkeys' well-being. Our results show that monkeys' behavior during training sessions is unaffected by the duration of training-free days in-between. Independently of the number of training-free days (two or nine days) with ad libitum food and water supply, the monkeys were equally active and alert in their home group cages during training phases. This indicates that the monkeys were well habituated to prolonged working schedules and that their well-being was stably ensured during the training sessions.

  19. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  20. Relationship between vitamin A deficiency and the thyroid axis in clinically stable patients with liver cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eshmawy, Mervat M; Arafa, Mona M; Elzehery, Rasha R; Elhelaly, Rania M; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M; El-Baiomy, Azza A

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and altered thyroid function are commonly encountered in patients with liver cirrhosis. The link between vitamin A metabolism and thyroid function has been previously identified. The aim of this study was to explore the association between VAD and the thyroid axis in clinically stable patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). One hundred and twelve patients with clinically stable HCV-related cirrhosis and 56 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status were recruited for this study. Vitamin A status, liver function, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), and thyroid volume were evaluated. The prevalence of VAD among patients with HCV-related cirrhosis was 62.5% compared with 5.4% among controls (P vitamin A status: VAD and normal vitamin A. Patients with VAD had significantly lower vitamin A intake and serum albumin and higher serum bilirubin, FT4, FT3, and TSH than patients with normal vitamin A status. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that VAD was associated with Child-Pugh score (β = 0.11, P = 0.05) and TSH (β = -1.63, P = 0.02) independently of confounding variables. We conclude that VAD may be linked to central hyperthyroidism in patients with clinically stable HCV-related liver cirrhosis.

  1. The impacts and "best practices" of undergraduate - graduate student mentoring relationships in undergraduate research experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanile, Megan Faurot

    With the growth of undergraduate research in the U.S., over the past two decades, faculty are more often assigning graduate students to mentor undergraduate students than providing the one-on-one mentoring themselves. A critical gap that exists in the literature is how undergraduate -- graduate student mentoring relationships in undergraduate research influences both students' academic and career paths. The research questions that framed this study were: (1) What, if any, changes occur in the academic and career paths of undergraduate and graduate students who participate in undergraduate research experiences? and (2) Are there variables that constitute "best practices" in the mentoring relationships in undergraduate research experiences and, if so, what are they? The study context was the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates program at Illinois Institute of Technology and the 113 undergraduate researchers and 31 graduate student mentors who participated from 2006 -- 2014. Surveys and interviews were administered to collect pre- and post-program data and follow-up data during the 2014 -- 2015 academic year. Descriptive statistics, content analysis method, and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Key findings on the undergraduate researchers were their actual earned graduate degree types (Ph.D. 20%, M.D. 20%, M.S. 48%, other 12%) and fields (STEM 57%, medical 35%, other 8%) and the careers they were pursuing or working in. All the graduate student mentors were pursuing or working in the STEM fields (academia 50%, industry 40%, government 10%). More than 75% of both the undergraduate and graduate students reported that their mentoring relationships had a somewhat to extremely influential impact on their academic and career paths. A set of "best practices" of mentoring were developed for both the undergraduate and graduate students and focused on the mentoring experiences related to learning and teaching about

  2. Radiation processing for safe, shelf-stable and ready-to-eat food. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The increasingly busy lifestyles of populations in many countries have driven the demand for safe, convenient and ready-to-eat food. Traditional food processes such as drying, canning or refrigeration offer a partial solution to this demand as the sensory quality of such food may be significantly affected or the products may be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria during preparation. For developing countries, safe shelf-stable food without the need for refrigeration would offer advantages. In addition, the increasing number of immuno-compromised populations in many countries requires a new approach to food safety to meet their needs. Irradiation offers a potential to enhance microbiological safety and quality of food through shelf-life extension. The benefits of irradiation as a sanitary treatment of many types of food are well known, some of which are applied commercially in several countries. Little data were available, however, on the effect of irradiation on minimally processed food and composite food including prepared meals. A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Development of Safe, Shelf-Stable and Ready-to-Eat Food through Radiation Processing therefore was implemented by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in 1996 to evaluate the role of irradiation for such food. The results were encouraging as irradiation offers promise as a sanitary treatment to ensure microbiological safety and shelf-life extension of several types of food products including pre-cut vegetables and some sous-vide meals, chilled ready-prepared meals, chilled ready-to-eat meat products, food for immuno-compromised patients/populations, sterile meals, ready-to-eat-food of intermediate moisture content. This publication presents the research results reported at the final Research Co-ordination meeting on this CRP held in Saint Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada, 10-14 July 2000

  3. Radiation processing for safe, shelf-stable and ready-to-eat food. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    The increasingly busy lifestyles of populations in many countries have driven the demand for safe, convenient and ready-to-eat food. Traditional food processes such as drying, canning or refrigeration offer a partial solution to this demand as the sensory quality of such food may be significantly affected or the products may be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria during preparation. For developing countries, safe shelf-stable food without the need for refrigeration would offer advantages. In addition, the increasing number of immuno-compromised populations in many countries requires a new approach to food safety to meet their needs. Irradiation offers a potential to enhance microbiological safety and quality of food through shelf-life extension. The benefits of irradiation as a sanitary treatment of many types of food are well known, some of which are applied commercially in several countries. Little data were available, however, on the effect of irradiation on minimally processed food and composite food including prepared meals. A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Development of Safe, Shelf-Stable and Ready-to-Eat Food through Radiation Processing therefore was implemented by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in 1996 to evaluate the role of irradiation for such food. The results were encouraging as irradiation offers promise as a sanitary treatment to ensure microbiological safety and shelf-life extension of several types of food products including pre-cut vegetables and some sous-vide meals, chilled ready-prepared meals, chilled ready-to-eat meat products, food for immuno-compromised patients/populations, sterile meals, ready-to-eat-food of intermediate moisture content. This publication presents the research results reported at the final Research Co-ordination meeting on this CRP held in Saint Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada, 10-14 July 2000.

  4. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T

    2011-05-01

    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  5. Where the wild things are: A research agenda for studying wildlife-wilderness relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael K.; Hahn, Beth; Hossack, Blake R.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the connection between US designated wilderness areas and wildlife with the goal of establishing a research agenda for better understanding this complex relationship. Our research agenda has two components. The first, “wildlife for wilderness,” considers the impact of wildlife on wilderness character. Whereas studies show that wildlife is important in both the perception and actual enhancement of wilderness character, the context and particulars of this relationship have not been evaluated. For instance, is knowing that a rare, native species is present in a wilderness area enough to increase perceptions of naturalness (an important wilderness quality)? Or does the public need to observe the species or its sign (e.g., tracks) for this benefit? The second part of our research agenda, “wilderness for wildlife,” considers the types of research needed to understand the impact of wilderness areas on wildlife and biodiversity conservation. Several studies show the effect of one area being designated wilderness on one wildlife species. Yet, there has been no research that examines how the networks of wilderness areas in the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) are used by a species or a community of species. Furthermore, we found no studies that focused on how the NWPS affects ecological or trophic interactions among species. We hope that by providing a research agenda, we can spur multiple lines of research on the topic of wildlife and wilderness.

  6. Trends in gluten research and its relationship to autoimmune and allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Ciaccio

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gluten is a protein found in certain grains, and causes an autoimmune response in celiac disease patients. Although the subject of considerable research, gluten research foci and future directions are largely unknown. Methods: The MEDLINE search tool was used to evaluate research trends. For perspective, yearly publications on gluten and other celiac disease reactive proteins were compared to food allergy proteins research. Then the relationship of gluten publications to affiliated keywords was determined. The affiliated keywords belonged to one of several groups: grains, vitamins and minerals, interaction, autoimmunity, genetics, or enzymes. The yearly number of publications in the peer-reviewed medical literature was determined for each relationship from years 1960–2013. The relationships were graphed, and linear regression analysis was used to determine the rate of change in publications per year, and the coefficient of determination. Results: Among celiac disease reactive proteins (gluten, gliadin, and glutenin and selected food allergy proteins (ovalbumin, lysozyme, ovomucoid, and Ara h, gluten showed the greatest rate of increase in published medical research (+20.01 studies/year since 1996, r2=0.97. Additionally, there were sharp increases in the rate of gluten research publications per year in association with keywords ‘autoimmunity’ (+7.69 studies/year since 1997, ‘wheat’ (+6.08 studies/year since 1999, and ‘transglutaminase’ enzyme (+5.05 studies/year since 1995. The longest running moderate trend was research on ‘gluten’ and ‘antibodies’ (+2.50 studies/year, r2=0.92 since 1971. Conclusions: Research on gluten as a reactive protein is of rapidly growing interest in the medical literature. MEDLINE is helpful to determine foci and future directions. Keywords: Celiac disease, Gluten, Gliadin, Medline, Transglutaminase

  7. What can alcohol researchers learn from research about the relationship between macro-level gender equality and violence against women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review focuses on research about macro-level gender equality and violence against women (VAW) and identifies conceptually and theoretically driven hypotheses as well as lessons relevant for alcohol research. Hypotheses include: amelioration--increased equality decreases VAW; backlash--increased equality increases VAW; and convergence--increased equality reduces the gender gap; and hypotheses that distinguish between relative and absolute status, with relative status comparing men's and women's status and absolute status measuring women's status without regard to men. Systematic review of studies published through June 2009 identified through PubMed and Web of Science, as well as citing and cited articles. A total of 30 studies are included. Of 85 findings examining amelioration/backlash, 25% support amelioration, 22% backlash; and 53% are null. Of 13 findings examining convergence, 31% support and 23% are inconsistent with convergence; 46% are null. Neither the existence nor the direction of the equality and VAW relationship can be assumed. This suggests that the relationship between macro-level gender equality and alcohol should also not be assumed, but rather investigated through research.

  8. A Research on the Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Cynicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem GÜLLÜOĞLU IŞIK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the process of transformation of an industrial production society into information and consumer society, organizational commitment has become among the most emphasized concepts in recent years. The organizational commitment is a psychological situation determining the relationship of the employee with his company and providing him the determination to continue to work. Its causes and outcomes have become the major research topic in recent years and many studies conducted in several segments such as nursing, police dept. tearchers..etc. One other aspect of the research is “organizational cynicism” defined as one’s negative attitude towards the company for which he/she works. It consists of telling that the organization lacks sincerity and honesty. The sources of organizational cynicism are mainly personality, violation of psychological contract and flaws in leadership behaviors. However, there is a little research on the possible relationship between organizational commitment and organizational cynicism. With the aim of contributing to the process of discussion concerning the topic, the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational cynicism is analyzed by means of this research. Organizational commitment and organizational cynicism scale was implemented to the employees of three and four star hotels carrying on business in Kayseri and results tried to be discussed according to organizational dynamics.

  9. Croatian banking sector research: relationship between ownership structure, concentration, owners’ type and bank performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomičić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important financial intermediaries of any national economy, and corporate governance has an important role in banking sector; especially due to processes of the globalization and the internationalization, and also because of the sensitivity of the activities between the interest groups. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between ownership structure, concentration, owners’ type and bank performance. The authors made a research of banks' ownership structure using publicly available data. Using statistical tools authors discovered relationships between bank ownership structure and bank performance indicators (average asset, total asset, average equity, profit (loss before taxes, profit (loss after taxes, ROAA, ROAE. Further they discuss the relationships between ownership structure and a number of consequences for the bank performance. The authors discovered significant correlation between bank ownership structure and performance indicators variables that are described in the paper.

  10. The relationship between characteristics of context and research utilization in a pediatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta G; Hutchinson, Alison M; Scott, Shannon D; Norton, Peter G; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2010-06-16

    Research utilization investigators have called for more focused examination of the influence of context on research utilization behaviors. Yet, up until recently, lack of instrumentation to identify and quantify aspects of organizational context that are integral to research use has significantly hampered these efforts. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) was developed to assess the relationships between organizational factors and research utilization by a variety of healthcare professional groups. The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a pilot study using the ACT to elicit pediatric and neonatal healthcare professionals' perceptions of the organizational context in which they work and their use of research to inform practice. Specifically, we report on the relationship between dimensions of context, founded on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework, and self-reported research use behavior. A cross-sectional survey approach was employed using a version of the ACT, modified specifically for pediatric settings. The survey was administered to nurses working in three pediatric units in Alberta, Canada. Scores for three dimensions of context (culture, leadership and evaluation) were used to categorize respondent data into one of four context groups (high, moderately high, moderately low and low). We then examined the relationships between nurses' self-reported research use and their perceived context. A 69% response rate was achieved. Statistically significant differences in nurses' perceptions of culture, leadership and evaluation, and self-reported conceptual research use were found across the three units. Differences in instrumental research use across the three groups of nurses by unit were not significant. Higher self-reported instrumental and conceptual research use by all nurses in the sample was associated with more positive perceptions of their context. Overall, the results of this study lend support to

  11. The relationship between characteristics of context and research utilization in a pediatric setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Greta G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research utilization investigators have called for more focused examination of the influence of context on research utilization behaviors. Yet, up until recently, lack of instrumentation to identify and quantify aspects of organizational context that are integral to research use has significantly hampered these efforts. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT was developed to assess the relationships between organizational factors and research utilization by a variety of healthcare professional groups. The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a pilot study using the ACT to elicit pediatric and neonatal healthcare professionals' perceptions of the organizational context in which they work and their use of research to inform practice. Specifically, we report on the relationship between dimensions of context, founded on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework, and self-reported research use behavior. Methods A cross-sectional survey approach was employed using a version of the ACT, modified specifically for pediatric settings. The survey was administered to nurses working in three pediatric units in Alberta, Canada. Scores for three dimensions of context (culture, leadership and evaluation were used to categorize respondent data into one of four context groups (high, moderately high, moderately low and low. We then examined the relationships between nurses' self-reported research use and their perceived context. Results A 69% response rate was achieved. Statistically significant differences in nurses' perceptions of culture, leadership and evaluation, and self-reported conceptual research use were found across the three units. Differences in instrumental research use across the three groups of nurses by unit were not significant. Higher self-reported instrumental and conceptual research use by all nurses in the sample was associated with more positive perceptions of their context

  12. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  13. Intellectual Leadership of Researchers in Higher Education: Relationship Between the Demographic Factors and Roles (Lithuanian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žydžiūnaitė Vilma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual leadership of educators or teachers represents a topic of a great interest for educational research and practice. Variety of variables or factors have been examined to find the most complete explanations for teachers’, professors’ and educators’ roles, for example, institutional, financial, gender, organizational, spiritual, and intellectual. No literature was found on the relationship between the demographic variables and researchers’ roles in higher education regarding intellectual leadership. But a lot of studies are focused on the relationship between demographic and other factors in education: job satisfaction, organizational justice, religion, gender, culture, personal and professional roles, stress, mental health, and mobility. The research issue in this study is related to researchers’/scientists’ work in higher education schools and is focused on intellectual leadership, which consists of different roles. It is worth to think about researchers as intellectual leaders and to discover how they recognize or identify their roles in higher education. In this study, findings answer the following research question: “What are the relationships between researchers’ roles and their gender, work experience, dissertation defence date, and research field?” The object of the research study is the researchers’ roles in higher education. The aim of the study was to reveal the relationship between demographic factors and researchers’ roles in higher education. Data were collected by performing a questioning survey and using a validated questionnaire with 116 statements in total. The sample consisted of 304 researchers working in higher education institutions. For data analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, Mean and ANOVA calculations were used. The research findings reported that the female-researchers’ evaluations were higher in all cases regarding their roles in higher education schools. The results of the study

  14. Teamwork and communication in the operating room: relationship to discrete outcomes and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurok, Michael; Sundt, Thoralf M; Frankel, Allan

    2011-03-01

    The literature defining and addressing teamwork and communication is abundant; however, few studies have analyzed the relationship between measures of teamwork and communication and quantifiable outcomes. The objectives of this review are: (1) to identify studies addressing teamwork and communication in the operating room in relation to discrete measures of outcome, (2) to create a classification of studies of the relationship between teamwork and communication and outcomes, (3) to assess the implications of these studies, (4) to explore the methodological challenges of teamwork and communication studies in the perioperative setting, and (5) to suggest future research directions.studies in the perioperative setting, and (5) to suggest future research directions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Progress in research of relationship between vaginal Lactobacillus and preterm delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y N; Xiong, H Y; Zheng, Y J

    2017-03-10

    The vaginal flora in most healthy women is dominated by Lactobacillus species. The absence of Lactobacillus species in vaginal flora might lead to a series of symptoms, especially in pregnant women causing adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm delivery. This review focuses on the progress in the research of the relationship between vaginal Lactobacillus and preterm delivery, providing reference for the reduction of the incidence of preterm delivery.

  16. Intellectual Leadership of Researchers in Higher Education: Relationship Between the Demographic Factors and Roles (Lithuanian Context)

    OpenAIRE

    Žydžiūnaitė Vilma

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual leadership of educators or teachers represents a topic of a great interest for educational research and practice. Variety of variables or factors have been examined to find the most complete explanations for teachers’, professors’ and educators’ roles, for example, institutional, financial, gender, organizational, spiritual, and intellectual. No literature was found on the relationship between the demographic variables and researchers’ roles in higher education regarding inte...

  17. Cation and anion dependence of stable geometries and stabilization energies of alkali metal cation complexes with FSA(-), FTA(-), and TFSA(-) anions: relationship with physicochemical properties of molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Kubota, Keigo; Matsumoto, Hajime

    2013-12-19

    Stable geometries and stabilization energies (Eform) of the alkali metal complexes with bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide, (fluorosulfonyl)(trifluoromethylslufonyl)amide and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (FSA(-), FTA(-) and TFSA(-)) were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The FSA(-) complexes prefer the bidentate structures in which two oxygen atoms of two SO2 groups have contact with the metal cation. The FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+) and Na(+) prefer the bidentate structures, while the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Cs(+) prefer tridentate structures in which the metal cation has contact with two oxygen atoms of an SO2 group and one oxygen atom of another SO2 group. The two structures are nearly isoenergetic in the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with K(+) and Rb(+). The magnitude of Eform depends on the alkali metal cation significantly. The Eform calculated for the most stable TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) cations at the MP2/6-311G** level are -137.2, -110.5, -101.1, -89.6, and -84.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The viscosity and ionic conductivity of the alkali TFSA molten salts have strong correlation with the magnitude of the attraction. The viscosity increases and the ionic conductivity decreases with the increase of the attraction. The melting points of the alkali TFSA and alkali BETA molten salts also have correlation with the magnitude of the Eform, which strongly suggests that the magnitude of the attraction play important roles in determining the melting points of these molten salts. The anion dependence of the Eform calculated for the complexes is small (less than 2.9 kcal/mol). This shows that the magnitude of the attraction is not the cause of the low melting points of alkali FTA molten salts compared with those of corresponding alkali TFSA molten salts. The electrostatic interactions are the major source of the attraction in the complexes. The electrostatic energies for the most stable TFSA

  18. The Role of Marketing Research in Improving the Efficiency of Enterprise’s Relationships with Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Us Maryna I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the role of marketing research in the activity of enterprise and determining whether it is possible to improve relationships with partners on the basis of using the results obtained. The main trends and directions of the marketing research on the formation and development of the enterprise's relationships with partners have been defined. The advantages of organizing a comprehensive marketing study by different directions of researching market and its actors were considered. The difficulty in formation of a single overall indicator and a source of efficiency of partnerships is that each actor is aimed at achieving its own efficiency. In turn, achieving the individual efficiency that each partner receives from the interaction, depends on the efficiency of performance of the entire system of partnerships that can be controlled through marketing research. A prospective direction for further research will be defining the characteristics and methods of collecting the primary information necessary for the organization and assessment of the interaction of enterprise with competitors.

  19. Conducting qualitative research in the context of pre-existing peer and collegial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Fiona; Peters, Kath; Jackson, Debra; Daly, John

    2014-05-01

    To highlight issues and challenges faced in recruitment and interviewing during a study that sought to explore the transition of nurses into academic life and the associated ethical implications. This paper explores the challenges faced in conducting research where the potential participants are peers and workplace colleagues. There are advantages when conducting research with those among whom a pre-existing relationship is shared. However, difficulties can also arise. A methodological review was undertaken. Key database searches included CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using the keywords as search terms. Studies were included if they described in detail issues surrounding qualitative interviewing of peers and colleagues. Management of the issues involved is discussed, with emphasis on boundaries, trust and rapport, the use of self-disclosure and maintaining confidentiality. Research involving peers and colleagues has received relatively little consideration in the literature. There are difficulties associated with interviewing participants with whom the researcher has a pre-existing and ongoing relationship in the same organisation. To ensure ethical conduct, strategies can be used to mitigate negative situations such as issues surrounding dual roles, practising reflexivity, trust and rapport, self-disclosure and confidentiality. It is imperative that dual roles are declared and acknowledged. Researchers need to be mindful of the difficulties that may occur and prioritise participants' confidentiality and privacy.

  20. Can a customer relationship management program improve recruitment for primary care research studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sharon; Wong, Sabrina T; Blackman, Stephanie; Chau, Leena W; Grool, Anne M; Hogg, William

    2017-11-16

    Recruiting family physicians into primary care research studies requires researchers to continually manage information coming in, going out, and coming in again. In many research groups, Microsoft Excel and Access are the usual data management tools, but they are very basic and do not support any automation, linking, or reminder systems to manage and integrate recruitment information and processes. We explored whether a commercial customer relationship management (CRM) software program - designed for sales people in businesses to improve customer relations and communications - could be used to make the research recruitment system faster, more effective, and more efficient. We found that while there was potential for long-term studies, it simply did not adapt effectively enough for our shorter study and recruitment budget. The amount of training required to master the software and our need for ongoing flexible and timely support were greater than the benefit of using CRM software for our study.

  1. Research on the intermediate process of a free-piston linear generator from cold start-up to stable operation: Numerical model and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Huihua; Guo, Chendong; Jia, Boru; Zuo, Zhengxing; Guo, Yuyao; Roskilly, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The intermediate process of free-piston linear generator is investigated for the first time. • “Gradually switching strategy” is the best strategy in the intermediate process. • Switching at the top dead center position timing has the least influences on free-piston linear generator. • After the intermediate process, the operation parameters value is smaller than those before the intermediate process. - Abstract: The free-piston linear generator (FPLG) has more merits than the traditional reciprocating engines (TRE), and has been under extensive investigation. Researchers mainly investigated on the starting process and the stable generating process of FPLG, while there has not been any report on the intermediate process from the engine cold start-up to stable operation process. Therefore, this paper investigated the intermediate process of the FPLG in terms of switching strategy and switching position based on simulation results and test results. Results showed that when the motor force of the linear electric machine (LEM) declined gradually from 100% to 0% with an interval of 50%, and then to a resistance force in the opposite direction of piston velocity (generator mode), the operation parameters of the FPLG showed minimal changes. Meanwhile, the engine operated more smoothly when the LEM switched its working mode from a motor to a generator at the piston dead center, compared with that at the middle stroke or a random switching time. More importantly, after the intermediate process, the operation parameters of FPLG were smaller than that before the intermediate process. As a result, a gradual motor/generator switching strategy was recommended and the LEM was suggested to switch its working mode when the piston arrived its dead center in order to achieve smooth engine operation.

  2. A turtle cognition research demonstration enhances visitor engagement and keeper-animal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Andrew C; Leighty, Katherine A; Pittman Courte, Victoria L; Grand, Alison P; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2017-07-01

    Environmental enrichment techniques present animals with cognitive challenges while providing them opportunities to make choices and exert control over their environment. In this way, cognitive research and training is enriching to animals and can be used as a form of enrichment in zoos and aquariums. Cognitive research demonstrations also provide an opportunity to enhance visitor experience, as well as foster interactions between animals and keepers. We investigated how cognitive research sessions involving eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at Disney's Animal Kingdom ® impacted both the rate of visitors coming to the exhibit and the amount of time they spent engaged. Further, we used a questionnaire to assess the impact of keeper participation in these sessions on their relationships with and perceptions of the turtles. While visitation rate to the exhibit was not impacted, cognitive research sessions held visitor attention for longer than keeper interpretation or at times during which no keepers or researchers were present. We also found that keepers that had worked with the turtles for longer and keepers that regularly participated in cognitive research sessions reported stronger bonds with the turtles. Our research suggests that use of cognitive research and training demonstrations for guest viewing in zoos and aquariums may enhance visitor learning opportunities by increasing the amount of time they spend at the exhibit. Our study also provides evidence that participation in such demonstrations by zoo and aquarium professionals can be related to improved keeper-animal bonds, potentially resulting in better husbandry and enhanced animal welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program. Proceedings of the International Meeting on Stable Isotopes in Tree-Ring Research, New Paltz, New York, May 22-25, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, G [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Information about the past and present concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere and variations in climate can be obtained from measurements of stable isotopes in tree rings; specifically carbon-13, oxygen-18 and deuterium. The analysis of these stable isotopes in tree rings is a relatively new and rapidly developing field. This proceedings volume contains most of the papers presented at the meeting. The first paper gives an overview of the status of carbon-13 research. Papers relating to carbon-13 are in section I and grouped separately from the contributions on carbon-14. Although the meeting was primarily concerned with stable isotopes, all carbon isotopic analysis may be helpful in understanding the carbon-13 record in tree rings. The papers on hydrogen and oxygen isotope studies are in sections II and III respectively. The remaining sections contain papers that consider more than one isotope at a time, general topics related to isotopes, atmospheric changes and tree growth, and methods of isotopic analysis.

  4. Stable carbon isotope variability of bone collagen and hair within a modern population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) in south western Queensland: some implications for palaeoecological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Before any palaeo-reconstruction work can be attempted using stable isotope analysis of macropod remains it will be necessary to determine the nature of natural variability within contemporary populations. This research indicates that δ 13 C of bone collagen is strongly related to age. Furthermore, bone collagen δ 13 C not at equilibrium with dietary δ 13 C, as indicated by analysis of hair, until animals are several years old. These preliminary data suggest that in younger macropods most carbon in bone collagen has been derived via the mother's milk which may have undergone fractionation. These findings have significant implications for any palaeoecological research using bone or tooth. Teeth of macropods erupt from the rear of the jaw and move forward in molar progression. Since the rate of eruption is variable, and many of the forward molars are well formed while the joey is still at the pouch, teeth formed early in the life of a macropod may be isotopically distinct from those that develop later. This hypothesis is currently under investigation

  5. Combining stable isotope and carbohydrate analyses in phloem sap and fine roots to study seasonal changes of source-sink relationships in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartazza, Andrea; Moscatello, Stefano; Matteucci, Giorgio; Battistelli, Alberto; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2015-08-01

    Carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) and carbohydrate content of phloem sap and fine roots were measured in a Mediterranean beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest throughout the growing season to study seasonal changes of source-sink relationships. Seasonal variations of δ(13)C and content of phloem sap sugars, collected during the daylight period, reflected the changes in soil and plant water status. The correlation between δ(13)C and content of phloem sap sugars, collected from plants belonging to different social classes, was significantly positive only during the driest month of July. In this month, δ(13)C of phloem sap sugars was inversely related to the increment of trunk radial growth and positively related to δ(13)C of fine roots. We conclude that the relationship between δ(13)C and the amount of phloem sap sugars is affected by a combination of causes, such as sink strength, tree social class, changes in phloem anatomy and transport capacity, and phloem loading of sugars to restore sieve tube turgor following the reduced plant water potential under drought conditions. However, δ(13)C and sugar composition of fine roots suggested that phloem transport of leaf sucrose to this belowground component was not impaired by mild drought and that sucrose was in a large part allocated towards fine roots in July, depending on tree social class. Hence, fine roots could represent a functional carbon sink during the dry seasonal periods, when transport and use of assimilates in other sink tissues are reduced. These results indicate a strict link between above- and belowground processes and highlight a rapid response of this Mediterranean forest to changes in environmental drivers to regulate source-sink relationships and carbon sink capacity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Metaphorical interpretations of the educator-student relationship: An innovation in nursing educational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y; Chien, Wai Tong; Henderson, Saras

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that collecting and analysing metaphors is a useful strategy in seeking data that are difficult to collect via verbal interviews or that cannot be represented by statistics. This study explored nursing students' perceptions of the educator-student relationship using metaphorical interpretation. A qualitative study with a personal essay approach was adopted. A total of 124 students were recruited from a nursing school in Hong Kong. A personal essay form was distributed to the participants. They were asked to give a metaphor with explanations to describe the power dynamics in the educator-student relationship, within 200 words in English or Chinese. After some thought, the participants each gave their own metaphor individually, because the aim of this study was to collect their subjective experiences. The results were presented as follows: a) The overall description of the metaphors; b) The three groups of metaphors; c) The fives natures of metaphors; d) The most significant metaphors; and e) The four thematic meanings - (i) nurturing role; (ii) guiding role; (iii) insufficient connection; and (iv) promoting development. The implications for research methods and nurse education of collecting and analyzing metaphors were discussed. Discrepancies in metaphorical interpretations are to be expected, as interpretations are dependent on the researchers' socio-cultural background, personal experiences, professional training, languages spoken, and other factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Best research practices in psychology: Illustrating epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W; Reis, Harry T

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, a robust movement has emerged within psychology to increase the evidentiary value of our science. This movement, which has analogs throughout the empirical sciences, is broad and diverse, but its primary emphasis has been on the reduction of statistical false positives. The present article addresses epistemological and pragmatic issues that we, as a field, must consider as we seek to maximize the scientific value of this movement. Regarding epistemology, this article contrasts the false-positives-reduction (FPR) approach with an alternative, the error balance (EB) approach, which argues that any serious consideration of optimal scientific practice must contend simultaneously with both false-positive and false-negative errors. Regarding pragmatics, the movement has devoted a great deal of attention to issues that frequently arise in laboratory experiments and one-shot survey studies, but it has devoted less attention to issues that frequently arise in intensive and/or longitudinal studies. We illustrate these epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science, one of the many research domains that frequently employ intensive and/or longitudinal methods. Specifically, we examine 6 research prescriptions that can help to reduce false-positive rates: preregistration, prepublication sharing of materials, postpublication sharing of data, close replication, avoiding piecemeal publication, and increasing sample size. For each, we offer concrete guidance not only regarding how researchers can improve their research practices and balance the risk of false-positive and false-negative errors, but also how the movement can capitalize upon insights from research practices within relationship science to make the movement stronger and more inclusive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. On the Question of Methodological Support of Research on Relationships of Interpersonal Significance in Kindergarten Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyn V.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the importance of in-depth research (in particular, employing an algorithm developed by M.Yu. Kondratyev for defining integral status of an individual on child-child interpersonal relationship in kindergarten groups. Although relationships with significant adults are by all means essential for preschool children, interpersonal relation- ships on the child-child level to a great extent shape the content of the social situation of development in general. Still, when it comes to revealing status and role position of the child in the structure of interpersonal relationships within the kindergarten group, there’s the challenge of defining informal intragroup structure of power in contact community (due to the age specifics. The paper suggests how this challenge may be addressed and provides a version of the technique suitable for preschoolers that helps overcome age restrictions implied by the original technique. Also, the paper reports on the outcomes of approbation of this version which proved its heuristic nature. For instance, the outcomes show a high degree of correlation between the results of kindergarten group members ranking in accordance with their influence upon peers carried out by teachers working in these groups.

  9. Quick, simple measures of family relationships for use in clinical practice and research. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Rachel; Kemp, Jeremy; Wilson, Philip; Minnis, Helen; Bryce, Graham; Gillberg, Christopher

    2011-04-01

    Family functioning has been implicated in the onset of child and adult psychopathology. Various measures exist for assessing constructs in the areas of parent-child relationships, parental practices and discipline, parental beliefs, marital quality, global family functioning and situation-specific measures. To identify systematically all questionnaire measures of family functioning appropriate for use in primary care and research. A systematic literature review was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines and searching 14 bibliographic databases using pre-determined filters, to identify family functioning measures suitable for use in families with children from 0 to 3 years old. One hundred and seven measures of family functioning were reported and tabulated and the most commonly used measures were identified. There are numerous measures available demonstrating characteristics, which make them suitable for continued use. Future research is needed to examine the more holistic measurement of family functioning using integration of multi-informant data.

  10. Research on the National Culture–Intellectual Capital Inter-Relationship in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan-Franc Valeriu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available the paper aims at identifying the type and the intensity of the relationship between the national culture dimension and the intellectual capital dimension. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the correlations of the national culture dimensions, based on the Geert Hofstede approach, with the three dimensions of the intellectual capital within the EU countries. The research procedures were: content analysis of the most representative models and methodologies for evaluating the intellectual capital and the national culture dimensions, and correlation analysis. The main outcome of our research reveals the influence of the national culture on the intellectual capital performance. It also shows that some dimensions of the national culture, such as Individualism versus Collectivism and Indulgence versus Restraint, correlate positively with the intellectual capital, while other dimensions, such as Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance correlate with it negatively.

  11. The relationship between Plasmodium infection, anaemia and nutritional status in asymptomatic children aged under five years living in stable transmission zones in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maketa, Vivi; Mavoko, Hypolite Muhindo; da Luz, Raquel Inocêncio; Zanga, Josué; Lubiba, Joachim; Kalonji, Albert; Lutumba, Pascal; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-18

    Malaria is preventable and treatable when recommended interventions are properly implemented. Thus, diagnosis and treatment focus on symptomatic individuals while asymptomatic Plasmodium infection (PI) plays a role in the sustainability of the transmission and may also have an impact on the morbidity of the disease in terms of anaemia, nutritional status and even cognitive development of children. The objective of this study was to assess PI prevalence and its relationship with known morbidity factors in a vulnerable but asymptomatic stratum of the population. A simple random sample, household survey in asymptomatic children under the age of five was conducted from April to September 2012 in two health areas of the health zone of Mont Ngafula 1, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The PI prevalence were 30.9% (95% CI: 26.5-35.9) and 14.3% (95% CI: 10.5-18.1) in Cité Pumbu and Kindele health areas, respectively, (OR: 2.7; p <0.001). All were Plasmodium falciparum infected and 4% were co-infected with Plasmodium malariae. In Cité Pumbu and Kindele, the prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <11 g/dL) was 61.6% (95% CI: 56.6-66.5) and 39.3% (95% CI: 34.0-44.6), respectively, (OR: 2.5; p <0.001). The health area of Cité Pumbu had 32% (95% CI: 27.5-37.0) of chronic malnutrition (HAZ score ≤ -2SD) compared to 5.1% (95% CI: 2.8-7.6) in Kindele. PI was predictor factor for anaemia (aOR: 3.5, p =0.01) and within infected children, there was an inverse relationship between parasite density and haemoglobin level (β = -5*10(-5), p <0.001). Age older than 12 months (aOR: 3.8, p = 0.01), presence of anaemia (aOR: 3.4, p =0.001), chronic malnutrition (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.01), having a single parent/guardian (aOR: 1.6, p =0.04), and the non-use of insecticide-treated nets (aOR: 1.7, p = 0.04) were all predictors for PI in the overall population. PI in asymptomatic children was correlated with anaemia and chronic malnutrition and was thus a harmful condition in the study

  12. A critical review of theories to explain violent relationship termination: implications for research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Deborah L; Street, Amy E; Axsom, Danny K

    2006-05-01

    The following review represents an update and extension to an influential article (see [Strube, M.J. (1988). The decision to leave an abusive relationship: Empirical evidence and theoretical issues. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 236-250.]), which evaluated empirical research and suggested potential theories to explain victimized women's decisions to terminate violent relationships. In contrast to the original review, this paper provides information on the importance of and means by which theory should be evaluated and critically determines which theoretical approach(es) might be most productive based on theoretical and atheoretical evidence. In addition, this paper discusses strengths and weaknesses of each approach, in light of certain criteria deemed to be important for the evaluation of theory (e.g., comprehensiveness, parsimony, etc.). Furthermore, this paper discusses current controversies regarding these issues, ramifications of differing theoretical approaches, and their potential impact on the field. Based on this analysis, it is determined that general approaches (e.g., reasoned action/planned behavior, investment model) may be better for understanding this complex and multifaceted decision. Suggestions for future theoretical and intervention research are discussed.

  13. RESEARCH OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS OF MANAGERS AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES USING STATISTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydoğan Durmuş

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study conducted to research the relationship between leadership behaviors of managers between organizational commitment of employees, a survey has been applied to 155 employees who work in 3 companies in Istanbul province. To measure organizational commitment of employees: "Organizational Commitment Scale" developed by Meyer, Allen ve Smith ; to measure leadership behaviors:" Leadership Behaviors Inventory" of Kent and "Multidimensional Leadership Problems" titled survey forms have been examined and leadership behavior scale which is often used in researches and has been created developing leadership behavior questions based on "Behavioral Repertoire of Leaders" of  Goleman. The data collected by the survey were evaluated by entering into SPSS 22 software. As a result of the application; it has been found that, as autocratic, visionary,  participating and leadership behaviors of managers strengthen, attendance to corporation and normative commitment of employees increase, as educational and relationship oriented behaviors of managers strengthen, attendance to corporation and normative commitment of employees strengthens. As overall satisfaction level of employees with leadership behavior of managers increases, their attendance and normative commitment to organization increased as well.

  14. Researches on Mathematical Relationship of Five Elements of Containing Notes and Fibonacci Sequence Modulo 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxue Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the five periods and six qi’s theory in TCM almost shares a common basis of stem-branch system with the five elements of containing notes, studying the principle or mathematical structure behind the five elements of containing notes can surely bring a novel view for the five periods and six qi’s researches. By analyzing typical mathematical rules included in He tu, Luo shu, and stem-branch theory in TCM as well as the Fibonacci sequence especially widely existent in the biological world, novel researches are performed on mathematical relationship between the five elements of containing notes and the Fibonacci sequence modulo 5. Enlightened by elementary Yin or Yang number grouping principle of He tu, Luo shu, the 12534 and 31542 key number series of Fibonacci sequence modulo 5 are obtained. And three new arrangements about the five elements of containing notes are then introduced, which have shown close relationship with the two obtained key subsequences of the Fibonacci sequence modulo 5. The novel discovery is quite helpful to recover the scientific secret of the five periods and six qi’s theory in TCM as well as that of whole traditional Chinese culture system, but more data is needed to elucidate the TCM theory further.

  15. The next step for stress research in primates: To identify relationships between glucocorticoid secretion and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehner, Jacinta C; Bergman, Thore J

    2017-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are hormones that mediate the energetic demands that accompany environmental challenges. It is therefore not surprising that these metabolic hormones have come to dominate endocrine research on the health and fitness of wild populations. Yet, several problems have been identified in the vertebrate research that also apply to the non-human primate research. First, glucocorticoids should not be used as a proxy for fitness (unless a link has previously been established between glucocorticoids and fitness for a particular population). Second, stress research in behavioral ecology has been overly focused on "chronic stress" despite little evidence that chronic stress hampers fitness in wild animals. Third, research effort has been disproportionately focused on the causes of glucocorticoid variation rather than the fitness consequences. With these problems in mind, we have three objectives for this review. We describe the conceptual framework behind the "stress concept", emphasizing that high glucocorticoids do not necessarily indicate a stress response, and that a stress response does not necessarily indicate an animal is in poor health. Then, we conduct a comprehensive review of all studies on "stress" in wild primates, including any study that examined environmental factors, the stress response, and/or fitness (or proxies for fitness). Remarkably, not a single primate study establishes a connection between all three. Finally, we provide several recommendations for future research in the field of primate behavioral endocrinology, primarily the need to move beyond identifying the factors that cause glucocorticoid secretion to additionally focus on the relationship between glucocorticoids and fitness. We believe that this is an important next step for research on stress physiology in primates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Stable Isotopes in Water Vapor to Diagnose Relationships Between Lower-Tropospheric Stability, Mixing, and Low-Cloud Cover Near the Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galewsky, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, are merged with soundings from Hilo to show an inverse relationship between the estimated inversion strength (EIS) and isotopically derived measures of lower-tropospheric mixing. Remote sensing estimates of cloud fraction, cloud liquid water path, and cloud top pressure were all found to be higher (lower) under low (high) EIS. Inverse modeling of the isotopic data corresponding to terciles of EIS conditions provide quantitative constraints on the last-saturation temperatures and mixing fractions that govern the humidity above the trade inversion. The mixing fraction of water vapor transported from the boundary layer to Mauna Loa decreases with respect to EIS at a rate of about 3% K-1, corresponding to a mixing ratio decrease of 0.6 g kg-1 K-1. A last-saturation temperature of 240 K can match all observations. This approach can be applied in other settings and may be used to test models of low-cloud climate feedbacks.

  17. Geographic trends in research output and citations in veterinary medicine: insight into global research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bibliographic data can be used to map the research quality and productivity of a discipline. We hypothesized that bibliographic data would identify geographic differences in research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships within the veterinary profession that corresponded with demographic and economic indices. Results Using the SCImago portal, we retrieved veterinary journal, article, and citation data in the Scopus database by year (1996–2011), region, country, and publication in species-specific journals (food animal, small animal, equine, miscellaneous), as designated by Scopus. In 2011, Scopus indexed 165 journals in the veterinary subject area, an increase from 111 in 1996. As a percentage of veterinary research output between 1996 and 2010, Western Europe and North America (US and Canada) together accounted for 60.9% of articles and 73.0% of citations. The number of veterinary articles increased from 8815 in 1996 to 19,077 in 2010 (net increase 66.6%). During this time, publications increased by 21.0% in Asia, 17.2% in Western Europe, and 17.0% in Latin America, led by Brazil, China, India, and Turkey. The United States had the highest number of articles in species-specific journals. As a percentage of regional output, the proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was highest in North America and the proportion of articles in food animal journals was highest in Africa. Based on principal component analysis, total articles were highly correlated with gross domestic product (based on World Bank data). The proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was associated with gross national income, research and development, and % urban population, as opposed to the proportion of food animal articles, agricultural output, and % rural population. Co-citations linked veterinary medicine with medicine in the United States, with basic sciences in Eastern Europe and the Far East, and with agriculture

  18. Suitability of customer relationship management systems for the management of study participants in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, J; Rienhoff, O; Schulze, T G; Nussbeck, S Y

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal biomedical research projects study patients or participants over a course of time. No IT solution is known that can manage study participants, enhance quality of data, support re-contacting of participants, plan study visits, and keep track of informed consent procedures and recruitments that may be subject to change over time. In business settings management of personal is one of the major aspects of customer relationship management systems (CRMS). To evaluate whether CRMS are suitable IT solutions for study participant management in biomedical research. Three boards of experts in the field of biomedical research were consulted to get an insight into recent IT developments regarding study participant management systems (SPMS). Subsequently, a requirements analysis was performed with stakeholders of a major biomedical research project. The successive suitability evaluation was based on the comparison of the identified requirements with the features of six CRMS. Independently of each other, the interviewed expert boards confirmed that there is no generic IT solution for the management of participants. Sixty-four requirements were identified and prioritized in a requirements analysis. The best CRMS was able to fulfill forty-two of these requirements. The non-fulfilled requirements demand an adaption of the CRMS, consuming time and resources, reducing the update compatibility, the system's suitability, and the security of the CRMS. A specific solution for the SPMS is favored instead of a generic and commercially-oriented CRMS. Therefore, the development of a small and specific SPMS solution was commenced and is currently on the way to completion.

  19. Knowledge services in science and technology - improving the university/research centre - company relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Adriana Braz Vendramini Bicca

    2009-01-01

    This research proposes a conceptual model for Knowledge Services Structure applicable to Science and Technology Parks (STP) and targeted to micro, small and medium enterprises, in order to improve the business - university - research centers relationship. The idea emerged from exploratory studies on STP and the observation of a knowledge gap on this subject: academic studies that have proposed support services structures to link companies - university - research centers in STP were not available. The study methodology is composed by: exploratory studies complemented by action research. Five aspects of analysis (knowledge services, business development, ordinary/ S and T infrastructure services, expansion of area, and image / visibility) were chosen; a questionnaire based on the these aspects were elaborated and applied by e-mail (e-survey), using as data-base the IASP associated members for the selection of potential respondents. The questionnaire was answered by STP managers from different countries (Spain, Italy, Portugal, Germany, United Kingdom, China, Brazil, Turkey and Uruguay) and, for a deeper and better answers understanding, presential interviews were conducted in certain European STP. After presentation, analysis and discussion of the results, a conceptual model of knowledge service structure for STP has been made, using as basis the Technology Park of Sao Paulo structure. During the formulation of the conceptual model stage, a brief discussion on the importance of knowing and meet the customer needs meant on the inclusion of a customer-interface in the final model. (author)

  20. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  1. "You Look Like Them": Drawing on Counselling Theory and Practice to Reflexively Negotiate Cultural Difference in Research Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Located within a context of intercultural counselling research, this paper highlights the pertinence of the researcher's reflexivity and cultural awareness in relation to research relationships. It draws on an excerpt between a white European interviewer and an Asian trainee counsellor discussing the latter's experience of intercultural…

  2. An Analysis of the Relationship between Scientific Epistemological Beliefs and Educational Philosophies: A Research on Formation Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Ali Riza; Uyangör, Nihat

    2017-01-01

    This research explores the relationship between scientific epistemological beliefs and educational philosophies of formation teacher candidates. The research was conducted in the summer pedagogical formation program at Balikesir University of Necatibey Education Faculty during the 2016-17 academic years. The research, conducted with 379 candidate…

  3. "A good personal scientific relationship": Philip Morris scientists and the Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2008-12-23

    This paper examines the efforts of consultants affiliated with Philip Morris (PM), the world's leading transnational tobacco corporation, to influence scientific research and training in Thailand via the Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI). A leading Southeast Asian institute for environmental health science, the CRI is headed by Professor Dr. Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn, the daughter of the King of Thailand, and it has assumed international significance via its designation as a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre in December 2005. This paper analyses previously confidential tobacco industry documents that were made publicly available following litigation in the United States. PM documents reveal that ostensibly independent overseas scientists, now identified as industry consultants, were able to gain access to the Thai scientific community. Most significantly, PM scientist Roger Walk has established close connections with the CRI. Documents indicate that Walk was able to use such links to influence the study and teaching of environmental toxicology in the institute and to develop relations with key officials and local scientists so as to advance the interests of PM within Thailand and across Asia. While sensitivities surrounding royal patronage of the CRI make public criticism extremely difficult, indications of ongoing involvement by tobacco industry consultants suggest the need for detailed scrutiny of such relationships. The establishment of close links with the CRI advances industry strategies to influence scientific research and debate around tobacco and health, particularly regarding secondhand smoke, to link with academic institutions, and to build relationships with national elites. Such strategies assume particular significance in the national and regional contexts presented here amid the globalisation of the tobacco pandemic. From an international perspective, particular concern is raised by the CRI's recently awarded status

  4. A Conceptual Application of Attachment Theory and Research to the Social Work Student-Field Instructor Supervisory Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Susanne; Saks, Loretta Vitale

    2006-01-01

    This article conceptualizes an attachment-based model of the student-field instructor relationship, based on empirical research concerning internal working models of attachment, which continue into adulthood and serve as templates for life-long relating. Supportive relationships within a noncritical context are salient for effective supervision;…

  5. Relationship between category size and journals' impact factor: implications for emergency medicine journals and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Òscar; Brown, Anthony F T; Graham, Colin A; Ducharme, James; Martin-Sanchez, Francisco J; Cone, David C

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the relationship between the size of the 39 Journal Citation Reports (JCR) medical categories and impact factor (IF) of journals in these categories, and the implications that it might have for emergency medicine (EM) journals. Using the 2010 JCR database, we calculated the mean IF, 5-year IF (5y-IF), Eigenfactor (EF), and Article Influence (AI) scores including all journals for each category. We also calculated a 'weighted IF' for all journals by dividing each journal IF by the mean IF of its category. We ranked EM journals according to IF and 'weighted IF' into all the journals included in the 39 categories. We assessed the relationship between category size and bibliometric scores by linear regression. Category size varied from 252 journals (Pharmacology and Pharmacy) to 14 (Primary Healthcare), EM category occupying the 36th position (23 journals). The mean IF of EM category ranked in 34th position, 5-yIF in 32nd, EF in 34th, and AI in 34th position. Category size had a direct and significant association with mean IF, 5y-IF, and AI but not with mean EF. When the EM journals were ranked among all the journals according to their IF, only two (9%) were placed into the first quartile and raised up to eight (35%) when 'weighted IF' was considered. There is a negative relationship between JCR size category and IF achieved by the journals. This places EM journals at a clear disadvantage because they represent one of the smallest clinical medical research disciplines.

  6. THE RESEARCH PROJECTS THROUGH UNIVERSITY-BUSINESS RELATIONSHIP IN THE CONTINUOUS FORMATION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Niurka Concepción Toledo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic and social development requires the establishment of strategic alliances of society to higher education. The university, based on the benefits of deep multiplier effect, has the ability and the duty to manage knowledge and transferring scientific results obtained in its substantive processes: teaching, scientific research and university extension to the productive context. In this paper the experience developed by Chemical Engineering Department of Central University “Marta Abreu” of Las Villas in which the scientific community in the industry of sugar cane is prepared to manage knowledge through university- business relationship is exposed. For this effort, an innovative process focused on the execution of research projects from scientific and technological demands set by the sugar factory "Antonio Sanchez" Aguada de Pasajeros develops. In the development of the planned actions it will be attended teacher-researchers, specialists and managers of the company and the incorporation of students in the race for the exercise of labor practice, innovative aspect of its formation, which consolidates professional preparation. The experience showed the potential offered by the connection of university science with industry through the establishment of innovative processes in knowledge management to ensure greater relevance of university substantive processes and the immediate incorporation of scientific results to the productive sector as the supreme goal of this activity.

  7. Electron thermal energy transport research based on dynamical relationship between heat flux and temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notake, Takashi; Inagaki, Shigeru; Tamura, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    In the nuclear fusion plasmas, both of thermal energy and particle transport governed by turbulent flow are anomalously enhanced more than neoclassical levels. Thus, to clarify a relationship between the turbulent flow and the anomalous transports has been the most worthwhile work. There are experimental results that the turbulent flow induces various phenomena on transport processes such as non-linearity, transition, hysteresis, multi-branches and non-locality. We are approaching these complicated problems by analyzing not conventional power balance but these phenomena directly. They are recognized as dynamical trajectories in the flux and gradient space and must be a clue to comprehend a physical mechanism of arcane anomalous transport. Especially, to elucidate the mechanism for electron thermal energy transport is critical in the fusion plasma researches because the burning plasmas will be sustained by alpha-particle heating. In large helical device, the dynamical relationships between electron thermal energy fluxes and electron temperature gradients are investigated by using modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating and modern electron cyclotron emission diagnostic systems. Some trajectories such as hysteresis loop or line segments with steep slope which represent non-linear property are observed in the experiment. (author)

  8. A RESEARCH AIMED AT DETERMINATION BETWEEN HUMAN RESOURCES PRACTICES AND PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT RELATIONSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRU AYKAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceived Organizational Support (POS which was popularized in the early 1990s, is conception that may have both positive and negative effect on the staff and organization. In many ways perceived organizational support can determine the continuity of an organization over the long term. This study look at relationship between human resources practices which is taken on five dimensions and perceived organizational support. An investigation has been conduct over bed and supplier industry in Kayseri. The research that was performed with 227 worker is concluded that there are positive relations between training and human resources politics practices and perceived organizational support as of dimensions and between human resource management practices and perceived organizational support as of general.

  9. The Relationship of Abortion and Violence Against Women: Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.

  10. A new high-quality set of singly (H-2) and doubly (H-2 and O-18) stable isotope labeled reference waters for biomedical and other isotope-labeled research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faghihi, V.; Verstappen-Dumoulin, B. M. A. A.; Jansen, H. G.; van Dijk, G.; Aerts-Bijma, A. T.; Kerstel, E. R. T.; Groening, M.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Research using water with enriched levels of the rare stable isotopes of hydrogen and/or oxygen requires well-characterized enriched reference waters. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) did have such reference waters available, but these are now exhausted. New reference waters

  11. Factors influencing the potential for strong brand relationships with consumer product brands: An overview and research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bergkvist, Lars; Francis, Julie

    Based on the premise that consumer product brands are different with respect to their potential to form strong long-term relationships with consumers, this paper aims to identify factors that influence brands' potential for strong long-term relationships and to suggest how these can be empirically...... investigated. The paper reviews brand-centric and consumer-centric research and identifies twelve brand variables that may influence the relationship potential of consumer product brands. A research agenda is suggested and a number of issues that needs to be resolved before empirical research can be carried...... out are discussed. The paper concludes by speculating on possible outcomes in future empirical studies and it is suggested that multiple brand variables will have to be employed to evaluate the relationship potential of brands....

  12. Preliminary research developing a theory of cell phone distraction and social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVoie, Noelle; Lee, Yi-Ching; Parker, James

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death and injury for people aged 5-34, accounting annually for over 3000 deaths, and 100 times as many injuries. It is well established that distracted driving, and cell phone use while driving in particular, pose significant crash risk to drivers. Research has demonstrated that drivers are well aware of this danger but over 90% of drivers report using a cell phone while driving. Given the likely role that social influence plays in how people use cell phones while driving surprisingly little research has been conducted investigating to whom drivers are talking or texting. We report the results of a national survey to determine who drivers are most likely to call or text when behind the wheel and compared these results with general cell phone calling and texting patterns as well as previous findings on the prevalence of calling and texting while driving. The results suggest that social distance is a key factor in cell phone use while driving: Teens are more likely to talk with parents, and adults are more likely to talk with spouses than general calling patterns would suggest. We discuss whether the purpose of calls made while driving, such as coordination, could help explain these patterns. We propose next steps for further examining the role social relationships play in cell phone use while driving to potentially reduce teen driver cell phone use by lowering the number of calls from parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. "A good personal scientific relationship": Philip Morris scientists and the Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Mackenzie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efforts of consultants affiliated with Philip Morris (PM, the world's leading transnational tobacco corporation, to influence scientific research and training in Thailand via the Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI. A leading Southeast Asian institute for environmental health science, the CRI is headed by Professor Dr. Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn, the daughter of the King of Thailand, and it has assumed international significance via its designation as a World Health Organization (WHO Collaborating Centre in December 2005.This paper analyses previously confidential tobacco industry documents that were made publicly available following litigation in the United States. PM documents reveal that ostensibly independent overseas scientists, now identified as industry consultants, were able to gain access to the Thai scientific community. Most significantly, PM scientist Roger Walk has established close connections with the CRI. Documents indicate that Walk was able to use such links to influence the study and teaching of environmental toxicology in the institute and to develop relations with key officials and local scientists so as to advance the interests of PM within Thailand and across Asia. While sensitivities surrounding royal patronage of the CRI make public criticism extremely difficult, indications of ongoing involvement by tobacco industry consultants suggest the need for detailed scrutiny of such relationships.The establishment of close links with the CRI advances industry strategies to influence scientific research and debate around tobacco and health, particularly regarding secondhand smoke, to link with academic institutions, and to build relationships with national elites. Such strategies assume particular significance in the national and regional contexts presented here amid the globalisation of the tobacco pandemic. From an international perspective, particular concern is raised by the CRI's recently

  14. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  15. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff’s skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices. PMID:28886088

  16. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu-Hsi; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff's skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices.

  17. Genetics of host-parasite relationships and the stability of resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eenink, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Between host and parasite there is an intimate relationship controlled by matching gene systems. Stability of resistance is determined by the genetics of this relationship and not by the genetics of resistance. Both monogenic and polygenic resistances can be stable or unstable. Research on the backgrounds of stable resistances is of great importance. (author)

  18. Research on Relationship Between Parameters Correlation of Acoustic Emission and Rock Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyzes that granite AE signal parameters under uniaxial loading by that way of Pearson linear correlation, research that correlation of characterization parameters within that separate group with various characteristics, and analyzes that relationship between each parameter and destruction. This study shows that: impact, events and ringing are mainly used to describe the damage degree of rock, amplitude characteristics, time characteristics and frequency characteristics are mainly used for acoustic emission source properties, and energy characteristics can not only be used to describe the damage degree of rock, but also be used to analyze the acoustic emission source. That ringing counts are highly interrelated with energy, intensity, duration, RMS and ASL have high correlation, a high correlation is in the three parameters of the energy characteristics, and there is a higher correlation between the two parameters of the timing characteristics. The correlation between the parameters of frequency is very low, and the acoustic emission parameters can't be replaced for each other in analysis, which need separate analysis. Characteristics of ringing and energy can be a very good description of failure, but failure precursors can't be quantized. However, the amplitude, RMS, ASL, can quantify characterization of that precursor of failure, such as the effective voltage value 0.7 V as the precursor of destruction, the emergence of amplitude exceeding 95 dB as that destructive precursor. The relationship between the timing characteristics and damage is not obvious, so you can't use those parameters analysis that fracture of rocks. But those parameters can be used to describe AE source characteristics. The peak frequency, inverse frequency and the center frequency can't reflect AE source characteristics, and that average frequency and initial frequency can reflect AE source characteristics.

  19. Farmers taking responsibility for herd health development—stable schools in research and advisory activities as a tool for dairy health and welfare planning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, Silvia; Bell, Nick J.; Brinkmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining a high herd health and welfare status is an important aim in organic livestock farming. The varying farming systems across and within countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and that can be integrated into local practice. In stable schools...... for animal health and welfare planning, providing an overview of ongoing activities and their implementation into advisory situations in selected European countries. Studies on stable schools as an intervention tool showed improvements regarding the specific project aim on the majority of the participating...... farms. Farmers and facilitators were convinced of the approach and benefits for dairy herds. Farmers’ attitude and attention towards their herds and their ownership of the process appear to be crucial success factors for herd health and welfare situations. In some European countries, this method has...

  20. Form and function relationships revealed by long-term research in a semiarid mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Benner, S. G.; Chandler, D. G.; Flores, A. N.; Marshall, H. P.; Seyfried, M. S.; Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Fifteen years of cumulative research in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho, USA has revealed relationships between catchment form and function and contributed to improved fundamental understanding of Critical Zone structure, function, and evolution that would not have been possible through independent short term projects alone. The impacts of aspect and elevation on incident energy and water, coupled with climate seasonality, has produced tightly connected landforms properties and hydrologic processes. North-facing hillslopes have steeper slopes, thicker soil mantles, and finer soil texture than their south-facing counterparts. Finer soils enable higher water holding capacities on north facing slopes, which when coupled with thicker soils produces higher soil water storage capacity. The storage of water first as snow, then as soil moisture determines how upland ecosystems survive the seasonal and persistent water stress that happens each year, and sustains streamflow throughout the year. The cumulative body of local knowledge has improved general understanding of catchment science, serves as a resource for developing, evaluating, and improving conceptual and numerical of process-based models, and for data-driven hydrologic education.

  1. The assessment of barriers to research from the viewpoint of faculty members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences and relationship to research performance of them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farzad Ebrahimzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first step in improving research conduction in society can be conceived as identifying the weak points of research. Given that faculty members of universities carry out most of the research activities, the present study attempts to study the relationship between barriers to research from the viewpoint of the faculty members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences and the research activities of them. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, using census method, assessed all of the faculty members of Lorestan university of medical sciences. A self-administered questionnaire analyzing the faculty members’ demographic variables, knowledge about and attitudes toward barriers to different steps of research was designed and the self-report questionnaires were filled out and their relationship with the annual assessment scores in research criteria were assessed by chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Variables such as the faculty members’ department, number of their modules, primary motivation for research conduction, knowledge about variables such as research methodologies, searching strategies in medical databases, putting forward proposals, research article writing and also, attitude towards vaiables such as approved research priorities, putting forward proposals, quality of research advice, approval of proposals in research councils,  research facilities, the process of peer review of national scientific articles, presenting papers in conferences and participating in theses were related to the research performance of them (p<0.05. Conclusion: If seems that giving special privileges to the faculty members of faculty of medicine,  those with many modules and those with no optimal knowledge and attitude, we can enhance their motivation to participate in research activities.

  2. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  3. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  4. Mediating role of critical thinking disposition in the relationship between perceived barriers to research use and evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ae; Song, Youngshin; Sim, Hee-Sook; Ahn, Eun-Kyong; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of critical thinking in clinical and educational settings, little is known about its role in evidence-based practice (EBP). This study examined whether critical thinking disposition (CTD) mediates the relationship between perceived barriers to research use and EBP in clinical nurses (N=409). A path diagram using structural equation modeling was used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of perceived barriers to research use on EBP, controlling for CTD as a mediator. CTD partially mediated the relationship between perceived barriers to research use and EBP. Furthermore, the hypothesized mediation model demonstrated an appropriate fit to the data. Individual and organizational efforts are needed to help nurses further improve their critical thinking skills. CTD is important as research barriers to engage effectively in EBP. Without the skills to evaluate evidence carefully, research utilization may be compromised.

  5. Historical Relationships Between Research and Resource Management in the Apalachicola River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Robert J

    1991-11-01

    further complicate the biological relationships of the Apalachicola system. The management of a river-dominated estuary should be based on protection and control of freshwater sources, nutrients, and organic matter with a minimization of physical alterations that often lead to increased salinity stratification and the associated loss of the nursery function of the estuary. There is growing evidence that changes in upland characteristics and within-system habitat alterations are associated with changes in nutrient distributions and salinity relationships and that such changes can have serious impacts on estuarine systems. Issues involving basic changes in estuarine productivity and associated food webs are far more important than those involving species diversity in the management of such resources. Processes such as nutrient flow and salinity alteration underlie the very basis of estuarine productivity and usefulness. Over the past decade, there has been a gradual reduction in the importance of research as an integral part of the planning and management process in the Apalachicola system. This regional trend follows a national pattern. Dredging effects on the river and bay have gone on without effective challenge even though such activities are damaging productive habitats of the system. The once influential Apalachicola oyster fishery remains in disarray following a series of natural disasters and poor management practices. There is a growing problem with the deliberate obstruction of the generation and use of scientific data to determine management policies by various state and federal agencies. The substitution of public relations activities for the development of needed scientific information concerning factors such as the importance of sustained freshwater input to estuaries is further evidence that even the most elaborate and well-conceived management plans can be reversed by political manipulations and short-sighted bureaucratic policies. © 1991 by the Ecological

  6. a Research on Monitoring Surface Deformation and Relationships with Surface Parameters in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, S. J.; Li, Y. T.; Wang, F.; Li, L.; Ge, Y.; Luo, L.; Zhang, C. L.; Chen, J. B.

    2017-09-01

    different in arid areas and wet areas. During the research time, frost heaving firstly accounted for a large proportion both in the arid and wet areas with the decrease of downward radiation from July to December; after December, thaw settlement came into prominence with the increase downward radiation in the arid areas, while in the wet areas, surface put into diverse situations because of water transformation leading to severe deformation. In summary, soil moisture is an important factor that influences the surface deformation. This relationship between deformation process and soil moisture will be researched more in our further work.

  7. Community member and faith leader perspectives on the process of building trusting relationships between communities and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D; Vaughan, Elaine; Pham, Jennifer; Tran, Tuyet; Jones, Marissa; Baker, Dean; Swanson, James M; Olshansky, Ellen

    2014-02-01

    In the first phase of this research, we conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed seven focus groups with more than 50 English- or Spanish-speaking women of childbearing age. Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: (1) expectation that participation would involve relationships based on trust that is built over time and impacted by cultural factors; (2) perceived characteristics of research staff that would help facilitate the development of trusting relationships; (3) perceptions about the location of the visits that may affect trust; (4) perceptions of a research study and trust for the institution conducting the study may affect trust; (5) connecting the study to larger communities, including faith communities, could affect trust and willingness to participate. In the second phase of this research, we conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed interviews with leaders from diverse faith communities to explore the potential for research partnerships between researchers and faith communities. In addition to confirming themes identified in focus groups, faith leaders described an openness to research partnerships between the university and faith communities and considerations for the formation of these partnerships. Faith leaders noted the importance of finding common ground with researchers, establishing and maintaining trusting relationships, and committing to open, bidirectional communication. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Rise of Computing Research in East Africa: The Relationship between Funding, Capacity and Research Community in a Nascent Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, Matthew; Bal, Ravtosh; Wetmore, Jameson; Zachary, G. Pascal; Holden, Kerry

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of vibrant research communities of computer scientists in Kenya and Uganda has occurred in the context of neoliberal privatization, commercialization, and transnational capital flows from donors and corporations. We explore how this funding environment configures research culture and research practices, which are conceptualized as…

  9. The cognition of Parents’ Marital Relationships and Adolescents’ resilience <Research Article>

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Sakina; Ishida, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    A study of whether adolescents’ cognition of their parents’ marital relationships had an influence on their resilience and self-esteem was conducted, taking gender differences into account. College students answered questionnaires that measured their cognition of the parents’ marital relationships and the students’ self-esteem and resilience. The results of examining the relationships between these three factors were as follows: 1) Adolescents who were cognizant of their parents’ marriage bei...

  10. Flexibility of Employment Relationships: Possibilities and Limits. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwei, Ulrich

    The controversial discussion of "atypical" forms of employment overlooks the fact that all parties involved can benefit from greater flexibility in the employment relationship. It all depends on what is made more flexible and how this greater flexibility is achieved. Employment relationships are built on a variety of factors…

  11. The Role of Gratitude in Enhancing the Relationship between Doctoral Research Students and Their Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Kerry; Stafford, Karen; Guijt, Rosanne; Breadmore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    While increasing attention is being placed on the crucial importance of a positive supervisor-student relationship, few studies have investigated how to enhance this. Our paper investigates the effect of gratitude practices, proposing it brings both focus and intentionality to the student-supervisor relationship resulting in better research…

  12. First Time: Characteristics of Teens' First Sexual Relationships. Child Trends Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Manlove, Jennifer; Franzetta, Kerry

    Understanding characteristics of teens' sexual relationships may help us to better understand how to reduce teens' risk of early unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as the psychological and emotional problems that may be associated with teenage romantic relationships and sexual activity. Using data from the…

  13. Telling It like It Is: Teen Perspectives on Romantic Relationships. Research Brief. Publication #2009-44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Lina; Ikramullah, Erum; Manlove, Jennifer; Peterson, Kristen; Scarupa, Harriet J.

    2009-01-01

    Teen romantic relationships have become a pervasive part of popular culture, from TV shows, movies, and books to blogs and social networking sites. But the attention paid to these relationships extends beyond the parameters of popular culture. Romance, teen style, has become of increasing interest to anyone concerned with healthy adolescent…

  14. Canada geese of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: family relationships, behavior and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.

  15. Is there a relationship between research sponsorship and publication impact? An analysis of funding acknowledgments in nanotechnology papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    Full Text Available This study analyzes funding acknowledgments in scientific papers to investigate relationships between research sponsorship and publication impacts. We identify acknowledgments to research sponsors for nanotechnology papers published in the Web of Science during a one-year sample period. We examine the citations accrued by these papers and the journal impact factors of their publication titles. The results show that publications from grant sponsored research exhibit higher impacts in terms of both journal ranking and citation counts than research that is not grant sponsored. We discuss the method and models used, and the insights provided by this approach as well as it limitations.

  16. Measuring research performance during a changing relationship between science and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernø-Kjølhede, Erik; Hansson, Finn

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses developments in research, especially the emergence of problem-oriented, so-called mode 2 research as a supplement to the more scientifically oriented, so-called mode 1 research. Developments in research are compared with research policy developments, focusing on the use of p...

  17. Research in developmental psychology on gender and relationships: reflections on the past and looking into the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell

    2011-06-01

    Recent historical trends and current directions in the study of children's gender and relationships are reviewed using Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) The Psychology of Sex Differences as a reference point. Since the publication of Maccoby and Jacklin's review, researchers have questioned the extent and the magnitude of gender differences in social behaviour as well as the degree to which parents play a primary role in gender development. More attention is now paid to the impact of gender-segregated peer groups and other social relationships (e.g., friendships, romantic relationships) as well as cognitive-motivational and biological processes. Furthermore, the role of the larger social-structural context is addressed in studies of sexism and gender bias during childhood and adolescence. Recommendations for future research are offered.

  18. A Methodological Review of Research on Leadership Development and Social Capital: Is There a Cause and Effect Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Valk, Lawrence J.; Constas, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in studying social aspects of leadership has brought attention to the relationship between leadership and social capital. There is also growing interest among stakeholders (researchers, practitioners, funders, and program participants) to improve evaluation methods for leadership development programs (LDPs). The purpose of the…

  19. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  20. PhD Students' Excellence Scholarships and Their Relationship with Research Productivity, Scientific Impact, and Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lariviere, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between excellence scholarships and research productivity, scientific impact, and degree completion. Drawing on the entire population of doctoral students in the province of Quebec, this pa- per analyzes three distinct sources of data: students, excellence scholarships, and scientific publications. It shows…

  1. Influence of Gender on the Supervisory Relationship: A Review of the Empirical Research from 1996 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindes, Yvonne L.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve empirical studies published since 1996 regarding the effects of gender on the supervisory relationship are reviewed. Each study was reviewed and critiqued in relation to its methodology, research design, critical findings, and limitations. The results of these studies indicate that (a) gender influences the openness and affiliation one…

  2. Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Drug Use in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview and Multinational Research Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman-Mills, Samantha; Gonzalez, Yolanda W.; Melendez, Marlon O.; Garcia, Monica R.; Gomez, Juan D.; Juarez, Cristina G.; Martinez, Eduardo A.; Penalba, Sobeyda J.; Pizzanelli, Miguel E.; Solorzano, Lucia I.; Wright, Gloria; Cumsille, Francisco; Sapag, Jaime; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley; Erickson, Patricia; Mann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment and substance abuse are both international public health priorities. Research shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. Thus, recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to prevent and treat substance use and…

  3. Maximizing Institutional Research Impact through Building Relationships and Collaborating within the Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Yvonne Kochera; Floyd, Nancy D.

    2015-01-01

    Building and maintaining relationships within the institution with shared goals for preserving compliance and presenting an accurate portrait of the institution is critical for effective external reporting. It can also provide immeasurable internal benefit to information stakeholders.

  4. Use of stable isotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F. K.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research is considered to be one of the most important steps to achieve sustainable agriculture development. This paper is focused on the role of stable isotopes and their applications in agriculture for plant and animal production, and to study the relationship between soil, plant, air, water, nutrients and agricultural pests. Symbiotic N 2 fixation and efficient use of chemical and organic N fertilizers using 15 N were reported. Factors affecting 13 C values and application of carbon isotope discrimination to physiological and eco-physiological studies and selection of genotypes with improved water-use efficiency and drought tolerance and the recent progress in this field are reviewed. Moreover, the use of carbon isotope compositions in monitoring environmental changes and its various applications in food technology, animal production and entomology are discussed. (author)

  5. Research on isotope geology. Assessment of heat production potential of granitic rocks and development of geothermal exploration techniques using radioactive/stable isotopes and fission track 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Radioelements and heat production rates of granitic rocks and stable isotopes of groundwaters were analyzed to investigate the geothermal potential of Wolchulsan granite complex in the southern Yeongam area. Wolchulsan granite complex is composed mainly by Cretaceous pink alkali-feldspar granite and partly Jurassic biotite granite. The main target for the geothermal exploration is the alkali-feldspar granite that is known in general to be favorable geothermal reservoir(e.g., Shap granite in UK). To develop exploration techniques for geothermal anomalies, all geochemical data were compared to those from the Jeonju granite complex. Heat production rates(HPR) of the alkali-feldspar granite is 1.8 - 10.6 {mu}Wm{sup -3}. High radio-thermal anomalies were revealed from the central western and northern parts of the granite body. These are relatively higher than the Caledonian hot dry granites in the UK. The integrated assessment of Wolchulsan granite complex suggests potential of the Cretaceous alkali-feldspar granite as a geothermal targets. Groundwater geochemistry of the Yeongam area reflects simple evaporation process and higher oxidation environment. Stable isotope data of groundwaters are plotted on or close to the Meteoric Water Line(MWL). These isotopic data indicate a significant meteoric water dominance and do not show oxygen isotope fractionation between groundwater and wall rocks. In despite of high HPR values of the Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite, groundwater samples do not show the same geochemical properties as a thermal water in the Jeonju area. This reason can be well explained by the comparison with geological settings of the Jeonju area. The Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite does not possess any adjacent heat source rocks despite its high radio-thermal HPR. While the Jeonju granite batholith has later heat source intrusive and suitable deep fracture system for water circulation with sedimentary cap rocks. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. The relationship between passibility, agency and social interaction and its relevance for research and pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Susan A.; Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2016-12-01

    The interaction analysis presented by Kim and Roth examines nine students, their teachers, the learning task and materials in a mixed second and third grade science classroom during the school day. In the research narrative readers are introduced to two resourceful and creative groups of students as they work on a task assigned by their teacher—to cantilever a pizza box over the edge of a student desk. Readers are given glimpses (through images and transcripts) of the inventive ways each group solved the cantilever problem. Sometimes the children disregarded the design constraints, but even after compliance they managed to successfully solve the problem. The point of the learning task was not clearly stated, but readers are told the unit focused on investigating forces, forces in equilibrium, and structures as well as different forces (push, pull, etc.), properties of materials, and the relations between weight and balance while building structures. Kim and Roth were specifically interested in using this session to investigate and resolve the problem of learning as described by socio-cultural theorists as, how does a learner orient toward a learning outcome when they cannot do that until they have learned it? To answer this question Kim and Roth argued that learners (in engineering design) learn when and because: (1) they are open to be affected by the responses of materials to student action (i.e. student and material agency and physical touch) (2) their bodies are endowed with the capacity to be affected (i.e. passibility), and (3) knowledge and understanding emerge as and in social relations first. In their analysis, Kim and Roth argued that knowledge and knowing-how depend on these three universal processes. The authors further theorized the concept of passibility. Included in their theory of passibility was the claim that passibility is necessary for agency. After reading this paper we found we had many questions about Kim and Roth's analysis, context, and

  7. Some Observations on the Relationships Between Research Productivity and Student Evaluations of Courses and Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William A.; Singhal, Sushila

    "Does the good researcher tend to be a good teacher, and vice versa?" University administrators contend that teaching and research are equally important, though students claim that researchers neglect teaching and professors claim that only their research efforts are rewarded. In this study, course and instructor evaluations were defined…

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland soils under different land uses in a coastal estuary: toxic levels, sources and relationships with soil organic matter and water-stable aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Junjing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the soils from industrial, wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites to characterize their distributions, toxic levels and possible sources in the Pearl River Estuary and identify their relationships with soil organic matter (SOM) and water-stable aggregates (WSAs). Our results indicate that the average concentration of total PAHs in this region reached a moderate pollution level, which was higher than that in other larger estuaries in Asia. The average level of total PAHs in industrial soils was 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.3 times higher than those in soils from wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites, respectively. Greater accumulation of PAHs occurred in the middle and/or bottom soil layers where 3-ring PAHs were dominant. Industrial soils also exhibited the highest toxic levels with the highest toxic equivalent concentrations of PAHs, followed by wharf and milldam soils, and the cropland and wetland soils had the lowest toxicity. The diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs primarily originated from biomass and coal combustion at industrial and milldam sites, and petroleum combustion was determined to be the primary source of PAHs at the wharf, cropland and wetland sites. Both 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs in the milldam and wharf soils were significantly positively correlated with the SOM, whereas the 4,5,6-ring PAHs and total PAHs in industrial soils and the 2-ring PAHs in cropland soils were significantly negatively correlated with the SOM. In addition, large WSAs also exhibited a significant positive correlation with PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  10. Listening to community health workers: how ethnographic research can inform positive relationships among community health workers, health institutions, and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth; Closser, Svea; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2014-05-01

    Many actors in global health are concerned with improving community health worker (CHW) policy and practice to achieve universal health care. Ethnographic research can play an important role in providing information critical to the formation of effective CHW programs, by elucidating the life histories that shape CHWs' desires for alleviation of their own and others' economic and health challenges, and by addressing the working relationships that exist among CHWs, intended beneficiaries, and health officials. We briefly discuss ethnographic research with 3 groups of CHWs: volunteers involved in HIV/AIDS care and treatment support in Ethiopia and Mozambique and Lady Health Workers in Pakistan. We call for a broader application of ethnographic research to inform working relationships among CHWs, communities, and health institutions.

  11. Conceptualizing Context and Its Relationship to the Information Behavior in Disseertation Research Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L.Chang、Yu-Ya Lee

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:4-18

    Context has been addressed as an influential factor of human information behavior. However, there is no consensus on what constitutes a context, or what the relationship between context and information behavior is. In this paper we explore the notions of context and describe the relationship between context and information behavior based on empirical findings, and reviews of current· literature. Our finding suggests that context is stratified and dynamic.

    A context is consisted of several situations, and each situation is defined by a set of related contextual factors. In this way, we propose a new approach to represent the context and situation. At different levels of context, multiple relationships between context and information behavior are identified, including the association relationship, the interaction relationship, and the one-directional relationship. These findings substantiate the concept of situation in Dervin's Sense-making approach, the concept of information horizon proposed by Sonnenwald, and Ingwersen's cognitive model of IR interaction. The multiple relationships between context and information behavior imply that information behavior is related to, but not equal to the process of problem solving. In contrast, information behavior can be viewed as a response of certain situation in the context.

  12. The Evaluation of Relationship between Self-efficacy in Research and Research Performance of Dental Student, of Yazd Dental College in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Davari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achieve to maximum progress and improvement, just depends on addressing targeted research investment and investment of researchers and students. So, the present study was accomplished by the aim of evaluation of the relationship between self-efficacy in research and research performance of dental student of Yazd Dental College in 2014.   Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all interns and assistants in Yazd Dental School were participated. The required data were collected by using the Self-efficacy in Research and Research Performance questionnaire plus demographic variables (age, sex and duration of using denture. The data were analyzed by SPSS ver.16 using ANOVA, T-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient.   Results: In the present study, 80 students with the mean age 27.30±4.67 years were participated. Twenty-two students (27.5% were males and 58 (72.5% were females. The overall mean of self-efficacy in research was 159.79 ± 27.69. And the mean of research performance was 11.02 ± 16.37. The results showed that there was a significant and positive relationship between the overall scale of self-efficacy and research (p-value=0.004,r= .03. Based on the age, there was no significant difference in the mean score of self-efficacy in research in all aspects but in the areas of skills and expertise   (p>0.05. There was a significant difference in the mean score of research performance in terms of the age(p-value=0.023. There was no statistical significant between the overall mean score and the score of seven parts of self-efficacy in research and research performance in the terms of sex (P>0.05.   Conclusions: Regarding the association of self-efficacy in research with research performance of dental students, it can be stated that awareness of the level of self efficacy in research can lead to better planning for improving the research performance.

  13. A Research into the Relationship Between Type a Personality and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan İncebacak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, which is conducted on male and femaleparticipants and managers from different departments and sectors, is to inves-tigate the relationship between Type A personality traits and emotional intelligence dimensions.In addition, for male and female managers, the emotional intelligence dimensions that are effective on type A personality traits are tried to be determined according to each department. In the results of the analysis conducted on 205 participant managers and the survey used as the data collection tool, different findings were obtained for different departments in male and female managers, and the hypotheses proposed for inter-variable effects and relationships were partially accepted.

  14. Relationship between research and regulatory review in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, O.

    1979-01-01

    The current role of all authorities involved in the nuclear safety research programmes is presented. Later this paper discusses the influence of research results on rules, regulations and guidelines for the design of nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Mixed Methods in Indigenous Research: Building Relationships for Sustainable Intervention Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilisa, Bagele; Tsheko, Gaelebale N.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities raise concerns that they are overresearched and tired of research always asking the same questions and reproducing the same answers, thus pressuring researchers to open the discourse on mixed methods research so as to enable new debates and approaches to emerge. A postcolonial indigenous paradigm provides a theoretical…

  16. A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale in HIV/AIDS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, James M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Klostermann, Keith; Trabold, Nicole; Xue, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) was developed over a decade ago to address the lack of reliable and valid measures of relationship power in social, behavioral and medical research. The SRPS and its two subscales (relationship control [RC], decision-making dominance [DMD]) have been used extensively in the field of HIV prevention and sexual risk behavior. We performed a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales as reported in the HIV/AIDS literature from 2000 to 2012. A total of 54 published articles were identified that reported reliability or construct validity estimates of the scales. Description of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales are reported according to study population, and several cross-population trends were identified. In general, the SRPS and RC subscale exhibited sound psychometric properties across multiple study populations and research settings. By contrast, the DMD subscale had relatively weak psychometric properties, especially when used with specific populations and research settings. Factors that influenced the psychometric properties of the various scales and subscales included the study population, mean age of the sample, number of items retained in the scale, and modifications to the original scales. We conclude with recommendations for (a) the application and use of the SRPS and subscales, (b) reporting of psychometric properties of the scales in the literature, and (c) areas for future research. PMID:25331613

  17. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-26

    thin films. Immobilized MgO nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte thin films of polyethyleneimine and polyacrylic acid have been made and characterized by...and limiting the amount of students in the lab. Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) was studied and characterized for the application of SiO 2 diaphragms due to...Partnerships and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration. FINAL REPORT ON ONR GRANT NO. N00014-05-1-0855 PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE: June 15

  18. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  19. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  20. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  1. The Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Research on School Principals' Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between Spiritual Leadership and the dimensions of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) of school principals from the perspectives of primary school teachers. A quantitative survey was performed on a sample of teachers (N = 383) from primary schools to study the influence of spiritual leadership…

  2. Maximize Institutional Relationships with CRMs. CDS Spotlight Report. ECAR Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This Spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 Core Data Service (CDS) to better understand how higher education institutions approach customer relationship management (CRM) systems. Information provided for this Spotlight was derived from Module 8 of the Core Data survey, which asked several questions regarding information systems and applications.…

  3. A Research for Determining the Relationship between Destination Image and Destination Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Artuğer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between destination image and destination personality. The sample group of the study consisted of tourists visiting Alanya district of Antalya province between June and August 2013. A brand personality scale developed by Aaker (1997 and a survey used for grading the destination image were used as tools for collecting data which were obtained from a total of 395 tourists for the application. Descriptive analyses such percentage, frequency, factor analysis (confirmatory and explanatory as well as statistical tests such as the reliability analysis were used for analyzing the obtained data. In addition the relationship between destination image and destination personality was analyzed with the Structural Equation Modeling (SEMAt the conclusion of the study there appeared to be negative and very weak relationship between affective image and destination personality while the relationship between cognitive image and destination personality appeared to be positive and strong. In addition Aaker’s (1997 5 dimensional brand personality grading turned out to be 4 dimensions. These dimensions were determined as excitement, ruggedness, competence and sincerity

  4. Review of Research on the Relationship between School Buildings, Student Achievement, and Student Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthman, Glen, I.; Lemasters, Linda

    The most persistent question in the field of school facility planning relates to that of the relationship between the built environment and the performance and behavior of users, particularly students. Ways in which the built environment affects two student variables--student achievement and student behavior--are explored. The first variable is…

  5. Strengthening Low-Income Families: A Research Agenda for Parenting, Relationship, and Fatherhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers need to decide how to invest in strengthening the most basic foundation for early childhood development: family relationships. The challenges: (1) help parents provide the responsive and stimulating environments that will prepare young children for school; and (2) support fathers' engagement with their children regardless of whether…

  6. The relationship between modifiable health risks and group-level health care expenditures. Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Research Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D R; Whitmer, R W; Goetzel, R Z; Ozminkowski, R J; Dunn, R L; Wasserman, J; Serxner, S

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between modifiable health risks and total health care expenditures for a large employee group. Risk data were collected through voluntary participation in health risk assessment (HRA) and worksite biometric screenings and were linked at the individual level to health care plan enrollment and expenditure data from employers' fee-for-service plans over the 6-year study period. The setting was worksite health promotion programs sponsored by six large private-sector and public-sector employers. Of the 50% of employees who completed the HRA, 46,026 (74.7%) met all inclusion criteria for the analysis. Eleven risk factors (exercise, alcohol use, eating, current and former tobacco use, depression, stress, blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, and blood glucose) were dichotomized into high-risk and lower-risk levels. The association between risks and expenditures was estimated using a two-part regression model, controlling for demographics and other confounders. Risk prevalence data were used to estimate group-level impact of risks on expenditures. Risk factors were associated with 25% of total expenditures. Stress was the most costly factor, with tobacco use, overweight, and lack of exercise also being linked to substantial expenditures. Modifiable risk factors contribute substantially to overall health care expenditures. Health promotion programs that reduce these risks may be beneficial for employers in controlling health care costs.

  7. Probability-of-Superiority SEM (PS-SEM—Detecting Probability-Based Multivariate Relationships in Behavioral Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Ching-Hong Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral research, exploring bivariate relationships between variables X and Y based on the concept of probability-of-superiority (PS has received increasing attention. Unlike the conventional, linear-based bivariate relationship (e.g., Pearson's correlation, PS defines that X and Y can be related based on their likelihood—e.g., a student who is above mean in SAT has 63% likelihood of achieving an above-mean college GPA. Despite its increasing attention, the concept of PS is restricted to a simple bivariate scenario (X-Y pair, which hinders the development and application of PS in popular multivariate modeling such as structural equation modeling (SEM. Therefore, this study addresses an empirical-based simulation study that explores the potential of detecting PS-based relationship in SEM, called PS-SEM. The simulation results showed that the proposed PS-SEM method can detect and identify PS-based when data follow PS-based relationships, thereby providing a useful method for researchers to explore PS-based SEM in their studies. Conclusions, implications, and future directions based on the findings are also discussed.

  8. Implementation and Operational Research: Community-Based Adherence Clubs for the Management of Stable Antiretroviral Therapy Patients in Cape Town, South Africa: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anna; Lesosky, Maia; Kalombo, Cathy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Myer, Landon

    2016-01-01

    Community-based models of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery are widely discussed as a priority in the expansion of HIV treatment services, but data on their effectiveness are limited. We examined outcomes of ART patients decentralized to community-based adherence clubs (CACs) in Cape Town, South Africa and compared these to patients managed in the community health center. The analysis included 8150 adults initiating ART from 2002 to 2012 in a public sector service followed until the end of 2013. From June 2012, stable patients (on ART >12 months, suppressed viral load) were referred to CACs. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) was compared between services using proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates and inverse probability weights of CAC participation. Of the 2113 CAC patients (71% female, 7% youth ages ≤ 24 years), 94% were retained on ART after 12 months. Among CAC patients, LTFU [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26 to 3.73 ] and viral rebound (aHR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.00 to 5.04) were twice as likely in youth (16-24 years old) compared with older patients, but no difference in the risk of LTFU or viral rebound was observed by sex (P-values 0.613 and 0.278, respectively). CAC participation was associated with a 67% reduction in the risk of LTFU (aHR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.40) compared with community health centre, and this association persisted when stratified by patient demographic and clinic characteristics. CACs are associated with reduced risk of LTFU compared with facility-based care. Community-based models represent an important development to facilitate ART delivery and possibly improve patient outcomes.

  9. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING RESEARCH TAILORED TO SUPPORT SALES MANAGEMENT. CASE STUDY: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPRESS LOGISTICS COMPANY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotea Ioan Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Within current economy context, complexities and particularities most companies are constantly seeking to maximize effectiveness and efficiency of their business. As sales force represents for most organizations their “spearheds”and direct contact with the market, its management can be a source for customer satisfaction and overall efficiency. Relationship marketing research with all its particularities and dimensions, if tailored appropriately can explicitly pinpoint major sources of customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Focus of contemporary relationship marketing is the customer viewed across lifetime as a profit source and partner rather than on short term for singular transactions. Research findings help the organization better manage its sales force and generate customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty and maximize profits while achieving superior efficiency.

  10. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING RESEARCH TAILORED TO SUPPORT SALES MANAGEMENT. CASE STUDY: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPRESS LOGISTICS COMPANY IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru; Mihoc Florin; Fotea Ioan Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Within current economy context, complexities and particularities most companies are constantly seeking to maximize effectiveness and efficiency of their business. As sales force represents for most organizations their “spearheds”and direct contact with the market, its management can be a source for customer satisfaction and overall efficiency. Relationship marketing research with all its particularities and dimensions, if tailored appropriately can explicitly pinpoint major sources of custome...

  11. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A research on relationship between ABO blood groups and body mass index among Turkish seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Selçuk; Fışkın, Remzi

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate and to reveal the relationship between ABO blood groups and body mass index (BMI) and obesity among Turkish seafarers by using the health examination reports data obtained from 2009 to 2016. The data on age, gender, weight, height and blood groups obtained from 298,247 medical examination reports of Turkish seafarers were used with the official permission of Directorate General of Health for Border and Coastal Areas. Only 116,871 reports included blood group data. Regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were performed to survey relationship between variables. The results of the study were compared with other studies in the related literature. It has been revealed that AB Rh (-) group was associated the highest mean BMI value (mean: 25.952). It is suggested that seafarers with AB Rh (-) blood group, who have the highest mean BMI value, should pay special attention to their weight.

  13. Research on the relationship between viscoelasticity and shock isolation performance of warp knitted spacer fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin JIANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Warp-knitted spacer fabric which is commonly used in impact protection is selected as test materials to study the relationship between viscoelasticity and the performance of shock isolation. A damping test platform is built to test different specifications of warp-knitted spacer fabric including compression elastic modulus, damping ratio and the residual impact load under different impact speed. Experimental results show that there is no clear correlation between the shock isolation performance and the viscidity or the elasticity. Accordingly, viscosity-to-elasticity ratio is proposed to characterize the relationship between viscoelasticity and shock isolation performance, and it is found that appropriate viscosity-to-elasticity ratio within a certain range can help to achieve better shock isolation performance.

  14. Trust in the doctor-patient relationship in the light of the latest research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlikowska-Łagód Katarzyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Trusting the medical staff, especially the doctor is a fundamental part of the success of the treatment process. Appropriate level of trust in a doctor-patient relationship affects the patient’s compliance with the physician’s recommendations and motivates patient to fight the disease. Over the last few years, numerous studies have been conducted on the level of trust in medical staff, especially doctors.

  15. A Research for Determining the Relationship between Destination Image and Destination Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Savaş Artuğer; Burçin Cevdet Çetinsöz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between destination image and destination personality. The sample group of the study consisted of tourists visiting Alanya district of Antalya province between June and August 2013. A brand personality scale developed by Aaker (1997) and a survey used for grading the destination image were used as tools for collecting data which were obtained from a total of 395 tourists for the application. Descriptive analyses such percentage, frequenc...

  16. Research on the relationships between pancreatic cancer and hyperglycemia in Chinese populations

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shan; Ye, Hongying; Wu, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Li, Ji; Fu, Deliang; Li, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Pancreatic cancer (PC) is related to diabetes. Long‐standing diabetes should be a prerequisite, whereas new‐onset hyperglycemia might be a result of PC. However, the association between diabetes and PC is still in dispute. Materials and Methods We investigated the relationship between glucose metabolism and other factors by retrospectively analyzing the clinical data of 331 PC patients. Any histopathological type was eligible. The patients were divided into three gr...

  17. Care of preterm infants: programs of research and their relationship to developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; Black, Beth Perry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the topics covered in current programs of nursing research on the care of the preterm infant and to determine the extent to which this research is informed by developmental science. A researcher was considered to have a current program of research if he or she had at least five publications published since 1990 and was the first author on at least three of them. The infants in a study could be any age from birth throughout childhood; studies focusing on parenting, nursing, or other populations of infants were not included. Seventeen nurse researchers had current programs of research in this area. These programs had four themes. Those of Becker, Evans, Pridham, Shiao, and Zahr focused on infant responses to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment and treatments. Franck, Johnston, and Stevens focused on pain management. Harrison, Ludington-Hoe, and White-Traut's research focused on infant stimulation. Holditch-Davis, McCain, McGrath, Medoff-Cooper, Schraeder, and Youngblut studied infant behavior and development. These research programs had many strengths, including strong interdisciplinary focus and clinical relevance. However, additional emphasis is needed on the care of the critically ill infant. Also, despite the fact that the preterm infant's neurological system develops rapidly over the first year, only three of these researchers used a developmental science perspective. Only research on infant behavior and development focused on the developmental changes that the infants were experiencing. Most of the studies were longitudinal, but many did not use statistics appropriate for identifying stability and change over time. The response of individual infants and the broader ecological context as evidenced by factors such as gender, ethnic group, culture, and intergenerational effects were rarely examined. Thus research on the care of preterm infants could be expanded if the developmental science perspective

  18. Leveraging the Relationship: Knowledge Processes in School-University Research Networks of Master's Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Frank; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; Van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the way developing, sharing and using of research-based knowledge occurred in the school-university research network of a master's programme for in-service teachers in the Netherlands. Over a 10-month period, a combination of quantitative and qualitative network data was collected. Data were analysed at three network…

  19. New roles and strategies of a research council: intermediation of the principal-agent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Barend

    2003-01-01

    Research councils have mediated the principal-agent relation between government and science: they are expected to mediate the political and policy interests in scientific research into the world of science and technology and promote the interests of science and technology in the policy world.

  20. Is Research Mediating the Relationship between Teaching Experience and Student Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbegal-Mirabent, Jasmina; Mas-Machuca, Marta; Marimon, Frederic

    2018-01-01

    Universities must ensure that academic staff are qualified and competent for performing their job. Teaching and research are two key activities in which lecturers should excel. While some authors suggest teaching and research complement each other and positively influence student satisfaction, some others point to a rivalry effect between the two.…

  1. Relationship between accidents and road user behaviour : an integral research programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P. & Horst, A.R.A. van der

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of accident statistics and the study of road user behaviour are the traditional methods of road safety research. Neither of these involve direct observation of accidents. A research programme has been designed in order to: (1) gain insight into the generation process of traffic

  2. Relationship between accidents and road user behaviour : an integral research programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C. & Horst, A.R.A. van der

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of accident statistics and the study of road user behaviour are the traditional methods of road safety research. Neither of these involve direct observation of accidents. A research programme has been designed to gain insight in the generation process of traffic accidents as well as to

  3. 38 CFR 1.468 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information from Department of Veterans Affairs (va) Records Relating to Drug Abuse, Alcoholism Or Alcohol... on the Attorney General, respectively, the power to authorize researchers conducting certain types of... statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of their identity. 1.468 Section 1.468...

  4. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  5. Surrendering to the Dream: An Account of the Unconscious Dynamics of a Research Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Whitehouse-Hart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen psychoanalysis move out of the clinical area into the arena of empirical social research. This article uses a case study from a psychoanalytically informed media research project to explore conceptual, ethical, and methodological implications in research design in the light of this shift. The ideas of unconscious communication between interviewer and interviewee, the role of the researcher’s subjectivity, and the impact of unconscious defences on the generation and interpretation of data are explored. In addition the free association narrative interviewing (FANI method is evaluated.

  6. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  7. [The research progress of relationship between the obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Xie, Yuping; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction that results in brief periods of breathing cessation (apnea) or a marked reduction in airflow (hypopnea) during sleep. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by revesible air-flow obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This article reviewed related reseaches progress of relationship between the obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrom and asthma in the vascular endothelial growth factor, systemic inflammation, leptin, obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease and upper airway diseases, excessive daytime sleepiness and asthma control.

  8. Research Paper: Relationship of Parent-Child Stress with Cochlear Implanted Children’s Developmental Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Faramarzi

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion The results of this study showed that parent-child stress had a significant effect on developmental skills of children with cochlear implants. Due to the importance of developmental skills in children with cochlear implants, the results of this study warned the need to provide counseling and psychological support for this group of parents. Accordingly, the programs should be offered in the form of workshops for mothers of these children. Also, psychologists and family counselors and experts in family therapy are recommended to have special attention to the role of stress in parent-child relationships in treatment programs and training.

  9. Mediation analysis of the relationship between institutional research activity and patient survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochon, Justine; du Bois, Andreas; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that patients treated in research-active institutions have better outcomes than patients treated in research-inactive institutions. However, little attention has been paid to explaining such effects, probably because techniques for mediation analysis...... existing so far have not been applicable to survival data. METHODS: We investigated the underlying mechanisms using a recently developed method for mediation analysis of survival data. Our analysis of the effect of research activity on patient survival was based on 352 patients who had been diagnosed...... mediated through either optimal surgery or chemotherapy. Taken together, about 26% of the beneficial effect of research activity was mediated through the proposed pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Mediation analysis allows proceeding from the question "Does it work?" to the question "How does it work?" In particular...

  10. Customer Relationship Management System in Occupational Safety & Health Companies: Research on Practice and Preliminary Design Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent contemporary trends in formation of companies is the approach to development of a customer-oriented company. In this matter, various versions related to the intensity of this orientation are differentiated. Customer relationship management (CRM system is a well-known concept, and its practice is being studied and improved in connection to various sectors. Companies providing services of occupational safety and health (OHS mainly cooperate with a large number of customers and the quality of this cooperation largely affects the occupational safety and health of employees. Therefore, it is of both scientific and wider social interest to study and improve the relationship of these companies with their customers. This paper investigates the practice of applying CRM in Croatian OHS companies. It identifies the existing conditions and suggests possible improvements in the practice of CRM, based on experts’ assessments using analytic hierarchy process evaluation. Universal preliminary design was created as a framework concept for the formation of a typical customer-oriented OHS services company. Preliminary design includes a structural view, which provides more details through system diagrams, and an illustration of main cooperation processes of a company with its customer.

  11. The relationship between gasoline composition and vehicle hydrocarbon emissions: a review of current studies and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetzle, D; Siegl, W O; Jensen, T E; Dearth, M A; Kaiser, E W; Gorse, R; Kreucher, W; Kulik, E

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current studies concerning the relationship of fuel composition to vehicle engine-out and tail-pipe emissions and to outline future research needed in this area. A number of recent combustion experiments and vehicle studies demonstrated that reformulated gasoline can reduce vehicle engine-out, tail-pipe, running-loss, and evaporative emissions. Some of these studies were extended to understand the fundamental relationships between fuel composition and emissions. To further establish these relationships, it was necessary to develop advanced analytical methods for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons in fuels and vehicle emissions. The development of real-time techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, laser diode spectroscopy, and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry were useful in studying the transient behavior of exhaust emissions under various engine operating conditions. Laboratory studies using specific fuels and fuel blends were carried out using pulse flame combustors, single- and multicylinder engines, and vehicle fleets. Chemometric statistical methods were used to analyze the large volumes of emissions data generated from these studies. Models were developed that were able to accurately predict tail-pipe emissions from fuel chemical and physical compositional data. Some of the primary fuel precursors for benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and C2-C4 alkene emissions are described. These studies demonstrated that there is a strong relationship between gasoline composition and tail-pipe emissions.

  12. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA. Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5 is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  13. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haonan; Zhang, Pengjie; Hou, Zhiguo; Xie, Jiabin; Wang, Yuming; Yang, Bin; Xu, Yanyan; Li, Yubo

    2016-11-25

    Radix Aconiti , a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were available to find the relationships between these endogenous biomarkers and exogenous toxic substances. Therefore, in this study, toxic substances of Radix Aconiti have been found using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Then, we used biochemical indicators as a bridge to find the relationships between biomarkers and toxic substances of Radix Aconiti through Pearson correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Finally, the CCA results showed that LysoPC(22:5) is related to 14-acetyl-talatisamine, mesaconitine, talatisamine and deoxyaconitine in varying degrees; l-acetylcarnitine is negatively correlated with deoxyaconitine and demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline; shikimic acid has a good correlation with karacoline, demethyl-14-acetylkaracoline and deoxyaconitine; and valine is correlated with talatisamine and deoxyaconitine. Research on these relationships provides an innovative way to interpret the toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine, and plays a positive role in the overall study of TCM toxicity.

  14. Brokering: a process for establishing long-term and stable links with gay male communities for research and public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, A J

    1994-02-01

    The success of efforts to prevent continued transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to increase compliance with HIV prophylactic interventions among homosexual and bisexual men will depend in part on health care professionals' understanding of and ability to establish linkages with these men. In order to recruit men into a research project and an educational program, staff at the Pitt Men's Study, an epidemiological investigation of HIV infection, developed a process described here as "brokering," which was based on community organizing and marketing principles. Brokering is a dynamic process by which researchers and public health professionals exchange goods and services with formal and informal leaders of the gay community in order to establish strong, long-term linkages. To date, this process yielded 2,989 homosexual and bisexual recruits into the study, which began in 1983. After 8 years, 79% of those still alive continue to return for follow-up. While recruitment techniques will need to vary from city to city, the importance of establishing linkages with the local indigenous leadership remains of major importance.

  15. Stuttering treatment and brain research in adults: A still unfolding relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger J; Ingham, Janis C; Euler, Harald A; Neumann, Katrin

    2018-03-01

    Brain imaging and brain stimulation procedures have now been used for more than two decades to investigate the neural systems that contribute to the occurrence of stuttering in adults, and to identify processes that might enhance recovery from stuttering. The purpose of this paper is to review the extent to which these dual lines of research with adults who stutter have intersected and whether they are contributing towards the alleviation of this impairment. Several areas of research are reviewed in order to determine whether research on the neurology of stuttering is showing any potential for advancing the treatment of this communication disorder: (a) attempts to discover the neurology of stuttering, (b) neural changes associated with treated recovery, and (c) direct neural intervention. Although much has been learned about the neural underpinnings of stuttering, little research in any of the reviewed areas has thus far contributed to the advancement of stuttering treatment. Much of the research on the neurology of stuttering that does have therapy potential has been largely driven by a speech-motor model that is designed to account for the efficacy of fluency-inducing strategies and strategies that have been shown to yield therapy benefits. Investigations on methods that will induce neuroplasticity are overdue. Strategies profitable with other disorders have only occasionally been employed. However, there are signs that investigations on the neurology of adults who have recovered from stuttering are slowly being recognized for their potential in this regard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Relationship between research funding in the Spanish National Health System and the burden of disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá López, Ferrán; Alvarez Martín, Elena; Gènova Maleras, Ricard; Morant Ginestar, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    The Carlos III Health Institute (Instituto de Salud Carlos III - Spain) allocates funding to health research support in the Spanish National Health System (NHS). This study aimed to analyse the correlation of health research fund allocations in the NHS and the burden of disease in Spanish population. Cross-sectional study. Burden of disease measures were calculated: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs) and mortality by cause. A correlation analysis (Spearman s Rho) was applied to test the association between these measures and 2006/2007 health research funding. Using disease categories (n=21), the correlation between funding and disease-burden measures is: DALY (r=0.72; p funding support. However, the higher funds allocated per DALY lost ratios were for blood and endocrine disorders, infectious and parasitic diseases and congenital anomalies. Our analysis suggests that NHS research funding is positive moderately high-associated with the burden of disease in Spain, although there exists certain diseases categories that are over or under-funded in relation to their burden generated. In health planning, burden of disease studies contributes with useful information for setting health research priorities.

  17. Research on the Relationship between English Majors’ Learning Motivation and Spoken English in Chinese Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆佳佳

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing importance attached to spoken English, it is of great significance to find how the motivation of English majors affects their oral English learning outcomes. Based on the research results and theoretical frameworks of the previous studies on this area, this paper carries out research in Zhujiang College of South China Agricultural University trying to find out the types of motivation and the correlation between motivation factors of English majors and their spoken English, and thus to guide spoken English learning and teaching.

  18. The impact of funding deadlines on personal workloads, stress and family relationships: a qualitative study of Australian researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Danielle L; Coveney, John; Clarke, Philip; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G

    2014-03-28

    To examine the impact of applying for funding on personal workloads, stress and family relationships. Qualitative study of researchers preparing grant proposals. Web-based survey on applying for the annual National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Project Grant scheme. Australian researchers (n=215). Almost all agreed that preparing their proposals always took top priority over other work (97%) and personal (87%) commitments. Almost all researchers agreed that they became stressed by the workload (93%) and restricted their holidays during the grant writing season (88%). Most researchers agreed that they submitted proposals because chance is involved in being successful (75%), due to performance requirements at their institution (60%) and pressure from their colleagues to submit proposals (53%). Almost all researchers supported changes to the current processes to submit proposals (95%) and peer review (90%). Most researchers (59%) provided extensive comments on the impact of writing proposals on their work life and home life. Six major work life themes were: (1) top priority; (2) career development; (3) stress at work; (4) benefits at work; (5) time spent at work and (6) pressure from colleagues. Six major home life themes were: (1) restricting family holidays; (2) time spent on work at home; (3) impact on children; (4) stress at home; (5) impact on family and friends and (6) impact on partner. Additional impacts on the mental health and well-being of researchers were identified. The process of preparing grant proposals for a single annual deadline is stressful, time consuming and conflicts with family responsibilities. The timing of the funding cycle could be shifted to minimise applicant burden, give Australian researchers more time to work on actual research and to be with their families.

  19. Impact on biochemical research of the discovery of stable isotopes: the outcome of the serendipic meeting of a refugee with the discoverer of heavy isotopes at Columbia University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemin, D.

    1987-01-01

    As late as the 1930s, approaches to biochemical research not only were rather primitive, but a certain amount of mysticism still surrounded the biochemical events that occur in the living cell. To a great extent, this was due to the lack of techniques needed to uncover the subtle reactions in the living cell. In the early 1930s, an accidental meeting of two scientists revolutionized approaches in biochemical studies and led to the scientific explosion in molecular biology that has occurred during the last few decades. The dark political storm in Germany deposited Dr. Rudolf Schoenheimer on the New York shore, where he met Professor Urey, who recently had discovered ''heavy'' hydrogen. Schoenheimer suggested that biological compounds tagged with heavy atoms of hydrogen would enable investigators to follow their metabolic pathways. This intellectual leap revolutionized the thinking and design of experiments and made it possible to uncover the myriad reactions that occur in the living cell

  20. Research on the relationship between SPECT and cognitional potential of patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Heqing; Bao Shiyao; He Guangren

    1995-01-01

    The relationships among the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), the diaschisis and the change of cognitional potential in cerebral infarction are discussed. In 46 patients the ratio of rCBF was obtained by brain blood perfusion SPECT imaging. The cognitional potential was produced by evoking P300 wave with auditory Oddball model. The rCBF in infarct and its surrounding area decreased. The ratio of rCBF was less than 0.9. The detection of cognitional potential showed that the latency of P300 was delayed or negative. There was a significant correlation between the change of rCBF and the latency of P300 (r s = 0.876, P<0.001). The hypoperfusion of cerebral blood flow and diaschisis resulted in the cognitive impairment. There was a positive correlation between the cognitive impairment and the site and magnitude of decreased rCBF

  1. Is the Relationship between AP® Participation and Academic Performance Really Meaningful? Research Brief 2015-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Howell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Strong academic performance in college, as measured by first-year grades, is important for a host of reasons, but perhaps the most critical reason is that students who perform well in their first year of college are more likely to earn a bachelor's degree (Adelman, 2006). Research shows that Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) students, particularly…

  2. Relationships between Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Statistics and Bibliometric Indicators: A Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed 2005-2006 Web of Science bibliometric data from institutions belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and corresponding ARL statistics to find any associations between indicators from the two data sets. Principal components analysis on 36 variables from 103 universities revealed obvious associations between…

  3. Student Loan Forbearance and Its Relationship to Default. Synopsis: Higher Education Research Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Derek V.

    As the number and volume of student loans increase nationally, lenders and policymakers look more closely at the use of loan forbearance. This paper examines whether forbearance really cuts the risk of loan default by reporting on a study of more than 9,800 Stafford loans in forbearance in December 1996. That research shows that the default rate…

  4. The Relationship between Passibility, Agency and Social Interaction and Its Relevance for Research and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Susan A.; Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction analysis presented by Kim and Roth examines nine students, their teachers, the learning task and materials in a mixed second and third grade science classroom during the school day. In the research narrative readers are introduced to two resourceful and creative groups of students as they work on a task assigned by their…

  5. Animals Used in Research and Education, 1966-2016: Evolving Attitudes, Policies, and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairmore, Michael D; Ilkiw, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the use of animals in research and education has been a central element of the programs of member institutions. As veterinary education and research programs have evolved over the past 50 years, so too have societal views and regulatory policies. AAVMC member institutions have continually responded to these events by exchanging best practices in training their students in the framework of comparative medicine and the needs of society. Animals provide students and faculty with the tools to learn the fundamental knowledge and skills of veterinary medicine and scientific discovery. The study of animal models has contributed extensively to medicine, veterinary medicine, and basic sciences as these disciplines seek to understand life processes. Changing societal views over the past 50 years have provided active examination and continued refinement of the use of animals in veterinary medical education and research. The future use of animals to educate and train veterinarians will likely continue to evolve as technological advances are applied to experimental design and educational systems. Natural animal models of both human and animal health will undoubtedly continue to serve a significant role in the education of veterinarians and in the development of new treatments of animal and human disease. As it looks to the future, the AAVMC as an organization will need to continue to support and promote best practices in the humane care and appropriate use of animals in both education and research.

  6. Stable isotopes and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krouse, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas traditionally, stable isotope research has been directed towards resource exploration and development, it is finding more frequent applications in helping to assess the impacts of resource utilization upon ecosystems. Among the many pursuits, two themes are evident: tracing the transport and conversions of pollutants in the environment and better understanding of the interplay among environmental receptors, e.g. food web studies. Stable isotope data are used primarily to identify the presence of pollutants in the environment and with a few exceptions, the consequence of their presence must be assessed by other techniques. Increasing attention has been given to the isotopic composition of humans with many potential applications in areas such as paleodiets, medicine, and criminology. In this brief overview examples are used from the Pacific Rim to illustrate the above concepts. 26 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  7. Respecting and protecting our relationships: a community research HIV prevention program for teen fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Janna; Verdugo, Robert L; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tello, Jerry; Kappos, Barbara; Cumberland, William G

    2005-08-01

    This article describes a two-phase community and academic collaboration funded by the California Collaborative Research Initiative to develop and test the feasibility of an innovative HIV prevention program relevant to the needs of the population of inner-city Latino teen parenting couples and realistic for implementation in community settings. The article describes (a) the identification of special issues that needed to be addressed before formation of a productive academic-community-based organization research partnership, including integrating a dominant theoretical model used in health education with principles of practice derived from clinical experience; (b) the first phase of the project that helped to inform the development of the HIV prevention program for couples; (c) examples from the intervention pilot study (Phase 2) that illustrate both the intervention strategies and the young participants' responses to the curriculum; and (d) the feasibility of program implementation and evaluation in a community setting.

  8. Progress in dark tourism and thanatourism research: An uneasy relationship with heritage tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews academic research into dark tourism and thanatourism over the 1996–2016 period. The aims of this paper are threefold. First, it reviews the evolution of the concepts of dark tourism and thanatourism, highlighting similarities and differences between them. Second it evaluates progress in 6 key themes and debates. These are: issues of the definition and scope of the concepts; ethical issues associated with such forms of tourism; the political and ideological dimensions of dar...

  9. Relationship between National Institutes of Health research awards to US medical schools and managed care market penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, E; Mazzaschi, A J; Levin, R J; Blake, D A; Griner, P F

    1997-07-16

    Medical research conducted in academic medical centers is often dependent on support from clinical revenues generated in these institutions. Anecdotal evidence suggests that managed care has the potential to affect research conducted in academic medical centers by challenging these clinical revenues. To examine whether empirical evidence supports a relationship between managed care and the ability of US medical schools to sustain biomedical research. Data on annual extramural research grants awarded to US medical schools by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from fiscal years 1986 to 1995 were obtained, and each medical school was matched to a market for which information about health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration in 1995 was available. Growth in total NIH awards, traditional research project (R01) awards, R01 awards to clinical and basic science departments, and changes in institutional ranking by NIH awards were compared among schools located in markets with low, medium, and high managed care penetration. Medical schools in all markets had comparable rates of growth in NIH awards from 1986 to 1990. Thereafter, medical schools in markets with high managed care penetration had slower growth in the dollar amounts and numbers of NIH awards compared with schools in markets with low or medium managed care penetration. This slower growth for schools in high managed care markets was associated with loss of share of NIH awards, equal to $98 million in 1995, and lower institutional ranking by NIH awards. Much of this revenue loss can be explained by the slower growth of R01 awards to clinical departments in medical schools in high managed care markets. These findings provide evidence of an inverse relationship between growth in NIH awards during the past decade and managed care penetration among US medical schools. Whether this association is causal remains to be determined.

  10. Free and Open Source Chemistry Software in Research of Quantitative Structure-Toxicity Relationship of Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastija Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are toxic chemicals aimed for the destroying pest on crops. Numerous data evidence about toxicity of pesticides on aquatic organisms. Since pesticides with similar properties tend to have similar biological activities, toxicity may be predicted from structure. Their structure feature and properties are encoded my means of molecular descriptors. Molecular descriptors can capture quite simple two-dimensional (2D chemical structures to highly complex three-dimensional (3D chemical structures. Quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR method uses linear regression analyses for correlation toxicity of chemical with their structural feature using molecular descriptors. Molecular descriptors were calculated using open source software PaDEL and in-house built PyMOL plugin (PyDescriptor. PyDescriptor is a new script implemented with the commonly used visualization software PyMOL for calculation of a large and diverse set of easily interpretable molecular descriptors encoding pharmacophoric patterns and atomic fragments. PyDescriptor has several advantages like free and open source, can work on all major platforms (Windows, Linux, MacOS. QSTR method allows prediction of toxicity of pesticides without experimental assay. In the present work, QSTR analysis for toxicity of a dataset of mixtures of 5 classes of pesticides comprising has been performed.

  11. The relationship between organizational commitment and whistleblowing tendency: An empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiftçi Nusret

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethical position of organizations is of great importance to both organizations and society in general considering people spend their considerable lifespan in organizations. It is important to sustain the determination on ethics by detecting and revealing the ethical infringements inside the organization. In this context; whistleblowing, which is a concept deriving from the field of organizational psychology is defined as the action that informing the individuals and organizations for the on-going unethical and amoral activities in the organizations, has become important. The courage of individuals to report unethical, immoral or illegal activities to the authorities can be affected by the attitude of individuals towards the organization. One of the attitudes that are considered to affect that courage, which is named as whistleblowing, is organizational commitment. Organizational commitment shows the loyalty of employees to the organization. In this study it has been examined the relationship between employees’ organizational commitment and tendency to reporting immoral behaviours. The sample of the study is composed of the employees of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences at Selcuk University. For this empirical study, survey method has been used, and the reached sample chosen by simply random sampling is 88 employees.

  12. Evaluating the quality of research into a single prognostic biomarker: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 83 studies of C-reactive protein in stable coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hemingway

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic evaluations of the quality of research on a single prognostic biomarker are rare. We sought to evaluate the quality of prognostic research evidence for the association of C-reactive protein (CRP with fatal and nonfatal events among patients with stable coronary disease.We searched MEDLINE (1966 to 2009 and EMBASE (1980 to 2009 and selected prospective studies of patients with stable coronary disease, reporting a relative risk for the association of CRP with death and nonfatal cardiovascular events. We included 83 studies, reporting 61,684 patients and 6,485 outcome events. No study reported a prespecified statistical analysis protocol; only two studies reported the time elapsed (in months or years between initial presentation of symptomatic coronary disease and inclusion in the study. Studies reported a median of seven items (of 17 from the REMARK reporting guidelines, with no evidence of change over time. The pooled relative risk for the top versus bottom third of CRP distribution was 1.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78-2.17, with substantial heterogeneity (I(2 = 79.5. Only 13 studies adjusted for conventional risk factors (age, sex, smoking, obesity, diabetes, and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol and these had a relative risk of 1.65 (95% CI 1.39-1.96, I(2 = 33.7. Studies reported ten different ways of comparing CRP values, with weaker relative risks for those based on continuous measures. Adjusting for publication bias (for which there was strong evidence, Egger's p<0.001 using a validated method reduced the relative risk to 1.19 (95% CI 1.13-1.25. Only two studies reported a measure of discrimination (c-statistic. In 20 studies the detection rate for subsequent events could be calculated and was 31% for a 10% false positive rate, and the calculated pooled c-statistic was 0.61 (0.57-0.66.Multiple types of reporting bias, and publication bias, make the magnitude of any independent association between CRP and prognosis

  13. Parents of children with chronic health problems: programs of nursing research and their relationship to developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Margaret Shandor

    2003-01-01

    This review identified nurse researchers and research teams that have current programs of research focused on parents and parenting of children with chronic health problems. Researchers were included if they had at least five publications since 1990, with at least three of these articles first-authored. These programs of research were critiqued from a developmental science perspective. Multiple methods were used for the search, including examination of previous review articles, hand search of journals, online computer searches, and review of the curriculum vitae of authors. Seven programs of research were identified. Two programs of research focused on childhood cancer--Ida M. Martinson et al. and Marsha H. Cohen. Three programs of research used a noncategorical approach encompassing a variety of childhood chronic conditions--Katherine A. Knafl and Janet A. Deatrick, Sharon O. Burke, and Ann Garwick. One program focused primarily on parents of children with Down syndrome and disabilities--Marsha Van Riper--and another on parents of infants with a variety of chronic health problems--Margaret S. Miles and Diane Holditch-Davis. Diverse theories and conceptual frameworks were used, and most had some focus on ecological systems that might affect parents and parenting. Many used a family perspective and included fathers. Still broader aspects of the family and community ecology and the health care were not generally included. Few examined the bidirectionality of the relationship between the child and aspects of the child's illness and parental responses. There was variability in the extent to which ethnicity and socioeconomic status were considered. Studies provide important insight into the responses of parents and their parenting of children with chronic health problems. The studies provide a sound base for continuing to build a developmentally sensitive body of knowledge related to parents and parenting of the child with chronic health problems.

  14. Research Progress about the Relationship between Nanoparticles Silicon Dioxide and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun DAI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nano-silicon dioxide widely distributed in plastic, rubber, ceramics, paint, adhesives, and many other fields, and it is the product of coal combustion. A growing evidence shows that nano-silicon dioxide has certain correlation with respiratory system disease. In this paper, we synthesized existing researches of domestic and abroad, summarized the lung toxicity of nanoparticles. This article are reviewed from the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles silicon dioxide, exposure conditions and environment, and the pathogenic mechanism of nano-silicon dioxide.

  15. [Research advances in the relationship between childhood malnutrition and gut microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Hui; Wen, Fei-Qiu; Wei, Ju-Rong

    2016-11-01

    Childhood malnutrition is an important disease threatening healthy growth of children worldwide. Gut microbiota has close links to food digestion, absorption and intestinal function. Current research considers that alterations in gut microbiota have been strongly implicated in childhood malnutrition. This review article addresses the latest understanding and evidence of interrelationship between gut microbiota and individual nutrition status, the changes of gut microbiota in different types of malnutrition, and the attribution of gut microbiota in the treatment and prognosis of malnutrition. It provides in depth understanding of childhood malnutrition from the perspective of microbiome.

  16. Research progress of the relationship between abnormal vestibular reflexes and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is an agnogenic structural scoliosis occurring in adolescence, and the main diagnostic criteria is coronal Cobb angle >10°in total spine X-ray. Studies have shown that AIS may be associated with abnormal postural reflexes, vestibular system is an important component of postural reflexes and its mechanism in the occurrence and development of scoliosis has received wide attention in recent years. In the study, the research progress on the role of abnormal vestibular reflexes in the pathogenesis of AIS was mainly introduced to help the clinicians better understand the pathogenesis of AIS and provide new ideas for AIS study.

  17. Shoestrings and bricolage: some notes on researching the impact of a child's death on family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Gordon; Dawson, Pam

    2002-04-01

    An earlier version of this paper appeared as the appendix to our recent book, An Intimate Loneliness: Supporting Bereaved Parents and Children (G. Riches & P. Dawson, 2000). In it, we attempt to offer a brief history of the processes we have gone through in taking a simple research question, developing it into a practical proposal, experiencing how it shifted as we explored it, accounting for the changes that our broader reading imposed on our perceptions of what we were doing, and, finally, how the data itself and our efforts to understand it, resulted in a set of broad theoretical propositions rather than any tight conclusions.

  18. Preliminary research on relationship between the somatostatin level and diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hongzhen; Wang Zizheng; Du Tongxin; Liu Jiaqin; Wei Jin; Qi Shaokang

    1996-01-01

    To study the relationship between somatostatin (SS) and diabetes mellitus (DM), and also among SS, C-peptide (C-P), insulin (INS), and glucagon (Gluc). Fasting and postprandial 2h plasma SS, INS, C-P and Gluc in 17 patients of IDDM, 22 patients of NIDDM and 23 normal controls were detected simultaneously by RIA. Dynamic assessment of above parameters was performed at 0,30,60,120,180 min in 8 cases of NIDDM with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Fasting and postprandial 2h SS and Gluc levels were significantly higher in DM than in normal controls. The ratios of SS/INS and Gluc/SS in IDDM were higher than those in NIDDM and normal controls, while no difference was found in NIDDM and normal controls. Fasting Gluc/SS was similar in three groups, but increased significantly in DM after oral glucose intake and postprandial state. OGTT found that the levels of SS both in patients of nIDDM and normal controls reached its maximum at 30 min with a smaller amplitude in peak value in patient group, while the levels of INS, C-P and Gluc attained its climax at 60 min, lagging behind the normal controls (30 min), with a sustained high levels at 180 min. There was a difference of SS-secreting phase between DM and normal controls. The ratios of SS/INS, Gluc/INS provided an important reference value for diagnosis of DM. A relative insufficiency of SS secretion and Gluc/SS imbalance under glucose-loading may play an important role in the etiology of DM

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INNOVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A RESEARCH IN HOTEL ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARIŞ ERDEM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the current globalization process, long-term competitiveness of enterprises depends on their ability to increase business performance. While there are several methods and techniques that affect business performance, innovation has become a significant and frequently used tool to this end in recent years. Although many studies that examine the relation between innovation and business performance are present both in the Turkish and international literature, the limited number of studies that specifically focus on hotel enterprises is of note. Particularly in the Turkish literature, it has not been possible to come across any studies that examine the relation between innovation and business performance with an empirical method. With this regards, we believe that the results obtained from this study will be contributory to the related field. The main question sought after in this study is whether innovation affects business performance for hotel enterprises. Within this framework, a survey research has been conducted on 44 five-star hotel enterprises situated in the Turkish province of Antalya. The results of the study yielded that managers have positive perceptions on the issues around innovation and business performance. The managers have quite affirmative opinions regarding the innovation activities being carried out in their own enterprises. The surveyed managers also have the opinion that the performance of the enterprise they work for is better as compared to their competitors. On the other hand, these positive perceptions of managers are also reflected in the relation between innovation and business performance. In other words, parallel to the findings of previous research, a significant and positive relation has been identified between innovation and business performance in this study as well.

  20. Application of stable isotopes to hydrogeology in coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Qi; Duan Yucheng

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotopes including Oxygen-18 and Deuterium have been applied to investigation of hydrogeology in main coal mines. By determination of stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen together with water analysis, the following studies have been developed: Identification of the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the groundwater from varied aquifers; Analysis of the hydraulic relationship between varied aquifers; Interpretation of the probable recharge source of mine water. The research results mentioned above reveal that: 1. The groundwater from main aquifers at coal mines in north China is of meteoric origin, which is recharged from hilly area surrounding the coal mine. Its isotopic composition differs slightly from that of the local precipitation. 2. There is a mutual hydraulic relationship between the Ordovician and Quarternary aquifers, so the difference of isotopic composition is very small. 3. By way of the variation of isotopic composition of groundwater from coal-bearing strata, we can infer the hydraulic relationship extent between overlaid alluvial layer and underlaid Ordovician limestone. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  1. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  2. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  3. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  4. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  5. Relationship of mutual trust and understanding developed by researches for people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This is report on the special committee of natural radiation research of public acceptance of radiation, Japan Health Physics Society. It consists of three parts such as 1) seven papers on natural radiation and public understandings, 2) six reports on understanding of radiation by risk acknowledge, communication theory and a questionnaire survey and 3) four reports on one's explanation about radiation and radioactivity. Uranium series nuclide in the surroundings, environmental pollution in the sediments of lakes and seaside, background level of plutonium in the land near Kyoto University, radon concentration and Kobe earthquake are reported. Uranium and radon in environments, 137 Cs and heavy metals in Osaka Bay and Pu background concentration are explained. Security is very difficult to define when people think about radiation and radioactive. Some risk communication activities by WIN (Women In Nuclear)-Japan, JAPA (Japan Health Physics Society) and Universities are reported. It was clear that we had to know the mechanism of method of understanding the theme and importance of risk communication. (S.Y.)

  6. Research on the relationship between the elements and pharmacological activities in velvet antler using factor analysis and cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libing

    2017-04-01

    Velvet antler has certain effect on improving the body's immune cells and the regulation of immune system function, nervous system, anti-stress, anti-aging and osteoporosis. It has medicinal applications to treat a wide range of diseases such as tissue wound healing, anti-tumor, cardiovascular disease, et al. Therefore, the research on the relationship between pharmacological activities and elements in velvet antler is of great significance. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate 15 kinds of elements in different varieties of velvet antlers and study on the relationship between the elements and traditional Chinese medicine efficacy for the human. The factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis methods were used to analyze the data of elements in the sika velvet antler, cervus elaphus linnaeus, flower horse hybrid velvet antler, apiti (elk) velvet antler, male reindeer velvet antler and find out the relationship between 15 kinds of elements including Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Sr, Cr, Zn and Ni. Combining with MATLAB2010 and SPSS software, the chemometrics methods were made on the relationship between the elements in velvet antler and the pharmacological activities. The first commonality factor F1 had greater load on the indexes of Ca, P, Mg, Co, Sr and Ni, and the second commonality factor F2 had greater load on the indexes of K, Mn, Zn and Cr, and the third commonality factor F3 had greater load on the indexes of Na, Cu and Ba, and the fourth commonality factor F4 had greater load on the indexes of Fe and Al. 15 kinds of elements in velvet antler in the order were elk velvet antler>flower horse hybrid velvet antler>cervus elaphus linnaeus>sika velvet antler>male reindeer velvet antler. Based on the factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis, a model for evaluating traditional Chinese medicine quality was constructed. These studies provide the scientific base and theoretical foundation for the future large-scale rational

  7. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  8. An Action Research Inquiry into the Relationship Among Aerobic Activities, Memory, and Stress with Students Identified as Gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Denise Marie

    Students identified as gifted come from varying socio-economic strata and nationalities with a range of talents and temperaments comprising a diverse community. They may experience stress for a variety of reasons. Although a certain amount of stress can enhance the learning process, too much stress can impede learning, especially memory. Strategies have been offered for relieving stress, yet the benefits of physical activities as stress reducers for the gifted have frequently been overlooked. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among aerobic activity, stress, and memory ability in students in an elementary school gifted program. An exceptional aspect of this research was that the students were an integral part of their own study. As co-researchers they had a vested interest in what they were doing, enhancing the significance of the experience and heightening learning. This action research project conducted in a mid-western school district with fourth and fifth grade students examined the impact of aerobic movement on physical indicators of stress and memory. The study lasted twelve weeks with data collected on physical indicators of stress, memory test scores, parent observations, interviews with students, a parent focus group session, observational data, student comments, and investigator/teacher journal. By infusing regular exercise into curricula, stress levels in students identified as gifted were examined. Students' scores on declarative memory tasks conducted with and without an accompanying aerobic activity were documented. Students learned of the delicate relationship between stress and memory as they studied the physiology of the brain. Twenty-four hour retention rates of declarative memory items were higher when a 20-minute aerobic activity intervention preceded the memory activity. Perceived stress levels were lowered for 14 of the 16 co-researchers. Students indicated a positive attitude toward physical activity and its

  9. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  10. Development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model for disinfection byproduct (DBP) research: A review of methods and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyang, E-mail: poplar_chen@hotmail.com [Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Water Resource Utilization and Environmental Pollution Control, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhang, Tian [Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Water Resource Utilization and Environmental Pollution Control, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Bond, Tom [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gan, Yiqun [Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Water Resource Utilization and Environmental Pollution Control, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models are tools for linking chemical activities with molecular structures and compositions. Due to the concern about the proliferating number of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water and the associated financial and technical burden, researchers have recently begun to develop QSAR models to investigate the toxicity, formation, property, and removal of DBPs. However, there are no standard procedures or best practices regarding how to develop QSAR models, which potentially limit their wide acceptance. In order to facilitate more frequent use of QSAR models in future DBP research, this article reviews the processes required for QSAR model development, summarizes recent trends in QSAR-DBP studies, and shares some important resources for QSAR development (e.g., free databases and QSAR programs). The paper follows the four steps of QSAR model development, i.e., data collection, descriptor filtration, algorithm selection, and model validation; and finishes by highlighting several research needs. Because QSAR models may have an important role in progressing our understanding of DBP issues, it is hoped that this paper will encourage their future use for this application.

  11. Development of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model for disinfection byproduct (DBP) research: A review of methods and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baiyang; Zhang, Tian; Bond, Tom; Gan, Yiqun

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models are tools for linking chemical activities with molecular structures and compositions. Due to the concern about the proliferating number of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water and the associated financial and technical burden, researchers have recently begun to develop QSAR models to investigate the toxicity, formation, property, and removal of DBPs. However, there are no standard procedures or best practices regarding how to develop QSAR models, which potentially limit their wide acceptance. In order to facilitate more frequent use of QSAR models in future DBP research, this article reviews the processes required for QSAR model development, summarizes recent trends in QSAR-DBP studies, and shares some important resources for QSAR development (e.g., free databases and QSAR programs). The paper follows the four steps of QSAR model development, i.e., data collection, descriptor filtration, algorithm selection, and model validation; and finishes by highlighting several research needs. Because QSAR models may have an important role in progressing our understanding of DBP issues, it is hoped that this paper will encourage their future use for this application.

  12. The golden ratio and Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram: novel research view on relationship of Chinese medicine and modern biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-xue; Huang, Yun-kun; Sun, Ying

    2014-02-01

    Associating geometric arrangements of 9 Loshu numbers modulo 5, investigating property of golden rectangles and characteristics of Fibonacci sequence modulo 10 as well as the two subsequences of its modular sequence by modulo 5, the Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram is created based on strict logical deduction in this paper, which can disclose inherent relationship among Taiji sign, Loshu and Fibonacci sequence modulo 10 perfectly and unite such key ideas of holism, symmetry, holographic thought and yin-yang balance pursuit from Chinese medicine as a whole. Based on further analysis and reasoning, the authors discover that taking the golden ratio and Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram as a link, there is profound and universal association existing between researches of Chinese medicine and modern biology.

  13. The relationship between guardian certification requirements and guardian sanctioning: a research issue in elder law and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Winsor C; Akinci, Fevzi; Wagner, Sarah A

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between guardian certification requirements and guardian sanctioning in the state of Washington. A total of 377 files were examined. Findings show that 52.4% of guardians with an undergraduate degree or higher education are likely to be sanctioned compared with 42.2% with an Associate of Arts (AA) or Technical (Tech) degree, and 36.9% with a high school diploma (HS) or equivalency (GED). Guardians with an undergraduate or higher education are 1.88 times more likely to be sanctioned compared with GED or HS graduates (p Guardians with an AA or Tech degree are 0.28 times less likely to have more severe sanctions than guardians with an undergraduate degree or higher education (p guardian registration, licensing, certification and quality; licensing and regulation of other professions; the limitations of the study; and the need for further research. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries'' are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs

  15. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ``Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries`` are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs.

  16. Solutions for the stable roommates problem with payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, Péter; Bomhoff, M.J.; Golovach, Petr A.; Kern, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The stable roommates problem with payments has as input a graph G = (V , E ) with an edge weighting w : E → R≥0 and the problem is to find a stable solution. By pinpointing a relationship to the accessibility of the coalition structure core of matching games, we give a constructive proof for showing

  17. A theory of stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickup, J.F.; McPherson, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    In order to perform quantitative analysis using stable isotope dilution with mass spectrometry, an equation is derived which describes the relationship between the relative proportions of natural and labelled material and measured isotope ratios

  18. How clinicians make (or avoid) moral judgments of patients: implications of the evidence for relationships and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Physicians, nurses, and other clinicians readily acknowledge being troubled by encounters with patients who trigger moral judgments. For decades social scientists have noted that moral judgment of patients is pervasive, occurring not only in egregious and criminal cases but also in everyday situations in which appraisals of patients' social worth and culpability are routine. There is scant literature, however, on the actual prevalence and dynamics of moral judgment in healthcare. The indirect evidence available suggests that moral appraisals function via a complex calculus that reflects variation in patient characteristics, clinician characteristics, task, and organizational factors. The full impact of moral judgment on healthcare relationships, patient outcomes, and clinicians' own well-being is yet unknown. The paucity of attention to moral judgment, despite its significance for patient-centered care, communication, empathy, professionalism, healthcare education, stereotyping, and outcome disparities, represents a blind spot that merits explanation and repair. New methodologies in social psychology and neuroscience have yielded models for how moral judgment operates in healthcare and how research in this area should proceed. Clinicians, educators, and researchers would do well to recognize both the legitimate and illegitimate moral appraisals that are apt to occur in healthcare settings. PMID:20618947

  19. Research on Relationship Among Internet-Addiction, Personality Traits and Mental Health of Urban Left-Behind Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Se, Jun; Zhang, Jingfu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this research, we attempted at exploring the relationships among urban left-behind children’s internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. Methods: In the form of three relevant questionnaires (Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Children’s Edition in Chinese and Mental Health Test), 796 urban left-behind children in China were investigated, concerning internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. Results: (1) The internet-addiction rate of urban left-behind children in China reached10.8%—a relatively high figure, with the rate among males higher than that among females. In terms of internet-addition salience, the figure of urban left-behind children was obviously higher than that of non-left-behind children. (2) In China, the personality deviation rate of the overall left-behind children was 15.36%; while the personality deviation rate of the internet-addicted urban left-behind children was 38.88%, a figure prominently higher than that of the non-addicted urban left-behind children group, with the rate among females higher than that among males. (3) The mental health problem rate of the overall urban left-behind children in China was 8.43%; while the rate of the internet-addicted urban left-behind children was 27.77%, a figure significantly higher than that of the non-addicted urban left-behind children. (4) There were significant relationships among internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. The total score of internet-addiction and its related dimensions can serve as indicators of personality neuroticism, psychoticism and the total scores of mental health. PMID:25946911

  20. Applications of stable isotope analysis in mammalian ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W David; Kurle, Carolyn M; Hopkins, John B

    2014-01-01

    In this editorial, we provide a brief introduction and summarize the 10 research articles included in this Special Issue on Applications of stable isotope analysis in mammalian ecology. The first three articles report correction and discrimination factors that can be used to more accurately estimate the diets of extinct and extant mammals using stable isotope analysis. The remaining seven applied research articles use stable isotope analysis to address a variety of wildlife conservation and management questions from the oceans to the mountains.

  1. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  2. [The relationship between Ridit analysis and rank sum test for one-way ordinal contingency table in medical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Xia, Jie-lai; Yu, Li-li; Li, Chan-juan; Wang, Su-zhen

    2008-06-01

    To explore several numerical methods of ordinal variable in one-way ordinal contingency table and their interrelationship, and to compare corresponding statistical analysis methods such as Ridit analysis and rank sum test. Formula deduction was based on five simplified grading approaches including rank_r(i), ridit_r(i), ridit_r(ci), ridit_r(mi), and table scores. Practical data set was verified by SAS8.2 in clinical practice (to test the effect of Shiwei solution in treatment for chronic tracheitis). Because of the linear relationship of rank_r(i) = N ridit_r(i) + 1/2 = N ridit_r(ci) = (N + 1) ridit_r(mi), the exact chi2 values in Ridit analysis based on ridit_r(i), ridit_r(ci), and ridit_r(mi), were completely the same, and they were equivalent to the Kruskal-Wallis H test. Traditional Ridit analysis was based on ridit_r(i), and its corresponding chi2 value calculated with an approximate variance (1/12) was conservative. The exact chi2 test of Ridit analysis should be used when comparing multiple groups in the clinical researches because of its special merits such as distribution of mean ridit value on (0,1) and clear graph expression. The exact chi2 test of Ridit analysis can be output directly by proc freq of SAS8.2 with ridit and modridit option (SCORES =). The exact chi2 test of Ridit analysis is equivalent to the Kruskal-Wallis H test, and should be used when comparing multiple groups in the clinical researches.

  3. Exploring Children’s Peer Relationships through Verbal and Non-verbal Communication: A Qualitative Action Research Focused on Waldorf Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Milena Montenegro Mantilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationships that children around seven and eight years old establish in a classroom. It shows that peer relationships have a positive dimension with features such as the development of children’s creativity to communicate and modify norms. These features were found through an analysis of children’s verbal and non-verbal communication and an interdisciplinary view of children’s learning process from Rudolf Steiner, founder of Waldorf Pedagogy, and Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, specialists in children’s cognitive and social dimensions. This research is an invitation to recognize children’s capacity to construct their own rules in peer relationships.

  4. Relationship of Environmental Conditions to Filariasis Cases in Community (An Advanced Analysis of Basic Health Research 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis (elephantiasis disease in Indonesia is still a health problems, there are still areas with the patient chronic and acute. A total of 1553 villages in 647 health centers scattered in 231 districts in 26 provinces as the location of the endemic, with a number of chronic cases of 6233 people. Elimination program disease elephantiasis has been undertaken by the government, but until today there are still many areas with the number of microfilariae (Mf rate is still high (> 1%. One of the government's efforts in this regard Litbangkes RI in collecting basic data, including data filariasis is with the activities of the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas conducted simultaneously across Indonesia. Based on the results of data collection Riskesdas then further analysis is to look at the environmental conditions and demographic status associated with the incidence of filariasis. Based on the results of analysis show that there were a statistically significant relationship between the type of waste water reservoirs; types of sewage systems and types of livestock kept, the classification of villages with the incidence of filariasis.

  5. Stable isotope methodology and its application to nutrition and gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; Hachey, D.L.; Wong, W.W.; Abrams, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the Stable Isotope Laboratory in its function as a core resource facility for stable isotope applications in human nutrition research. Three aspects are covered: Training of visitors, assessment of new instrumentation, and development of new methodology. The research achievements of the laboratory are indicated in the publications that appeared during this period. (author). 23 refs

  6. Wâhkôhtowin: The Governance of Good Community–Academic Research Relationships to Improve the Health and Well-Being of Children in Alexander First Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Gokiert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a promising decolonizing approach to health and social sciences research with First Nation Peoples. In CBPR, the use of a community advisory committee can act as an anchoring site for trusting reciprocal relationships, collaborative decision-making, and co-learning and co-creation. Through a qualitative case study, this article illustrates the collective experiences of a well-established, multidisciplinary, and intersectoral committee that reviews, monitors, and guides multiple research projects in a First Nation community in Canada. Participants of the Alexander Research Committee (ARC share examples of the value of fostering a high level of commitment to building both positive working relationships and learning spaces that ultimately result in research and policy impacts for their community.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-29

    Sep 29, 2017 ... 1Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital .... stable angina pectoris and inaccessible medical data, and a ..... blockers in patients with heart failure plus atrial fibrillation: an individual-patient data meta-analysis. .... prior renal failure, prior heart failure, prior stroke, prior CABG, eGFR, ...

  8. RESEARCH OF EXISTENCE OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES BY THE METHOD OF CONDITION-CONSEQUENCE DECOMPOSITION OF EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dron'

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the work an algorithm for establishing the existence of relationship between arbitrary socio-economic variables is given. The algorithm is based on the condition-consequence decomposition of events. It involves the construction of event-model and the using two classifications – types of interdependencies between events and types of relationships between their attributes.

  9. Managing Relationships and Competence to Stay Market-Oriented: The Case of a Finnish Contract Research Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seppänen, Veikko; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2001-01-01

    Relationships influence organizations' competencies. A model of competence dynamics at the organization, dyad, and network levels is developed and applied in a contractual R&D case. It is argued that the model also depicts marketing concerns of knowledge-intensive professional services firms....... Finally developing processual models of relationship-related competence management is discussed....

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TYPES AND OCCUPATIONAL PRESSURE VARIABLES: A RESEARCH ON FEMALE EMPLOYEES IN THE TURKISH MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan GÜLER

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this study; concepts of organizational culture, gender and gender discrimination have been explained. The main argument of this study is that cultural values have a significant effect on gender and gender discrimination. The main aim in this research is to find out the effects of organizational culture on work pressure on female employees and the relationship between organizational culture   types and occupational pressure variables. The research was conducted in the Turkish manufacturing industry. Organizational culture construct was used to test the hypothesis. This stage was based on 236 responses received from sample of 384 companies. Data was generated through questionnaires and was analyzed using SPSS. The findings show that the constructs are reliable and exhibit validity. The multidimensional operationalization of the construct allowed the testing of the relationship between organizational cultures and the dimensions of work pressure. Keywords:                Organizational Culture, Occupational Pressure, Manufacturing Industry.ÖRGÜT KÜLTÜRÜ TÜRLERİ İLE MESLEKİ BASKI DEĞİŞKENLERİ ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİ: TÜRK İMALAT SEKTÖRÜNDE BAYAN ÇALIŞANLAR ÜZERİNDE BİR ARAŞTIRMAÖzet: Bu çalışmada örgüt kültürü, cinsiyet ve cinsiyet ayrımcılığı açıklanmıştır. Çalışmanın temel iddiası kültürel değerlerin cinsiyet ve cinsiyet ayrımcılığı üzerinde önemli etkiye sahip olduğudur. Çalışmanın ana amacı orgüt kültürünün kadın çalışanlardaki iş baskısı üzerindeki etkisinin ve örgüt kültürü ile mesleki baskı değişkenleri arasındaki ilişkinin ortaya çıkarılmasıdır. Araştırma Türk imalat sanayiinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Hipotezlerin testinde örgüt kültürü ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Bu aşama, örnek büyüklüğü olan 384 şirketten geri dönen 236’sından alınan veriler ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Soru formları ile al

  11. Nicotine dose-concentration relationship and pregnancy outcomes in rat: Biologic plausibility and implications for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Jabeen; Farkas, Svetlana; MacKinnon, Yolanda; Ariano, Robert E.; Sitar, Daniel S.; Hasan, Shabih U.

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure during pregnancy can lead to profound adverse effects on fetal development. Although CS contains several thousand chemicals, nicotine has been widely used as its surrogate as well as in its own right as a neuroteratogen. The justification for the route and dose of nicotine administration is largely based on inferential data suggesting that nicotine 6 mg/kg/day infused continuously via osmotic mini pumps (OMP) would mimic maternal CS exposure. We provide evidence that 6 mg/kg/day nicotine dose as commonly administered to pregnant rats leads to plasma nicotine concentrations that are 3-10-fold higher than those observed in moderate to heavy smokers and pregnant mothers, respectively. Furthermore, the cumulative daily nicotine dose exceeds by several hundred fold the amount consumed by human heavy smokers. Our study does not support the widely accepted notion that regardless of the nicotine dose, a linear nicotine dose-concentration relationship exists in a steady-state OMP model. We also show that total nicotine clearance increases with advancing pregnancy but no significant change is observed between the 2nd and 3rd trimester. Furthermore, nicotine infusion even at this extremely high dose has little effect on a number of maternal and fetal biologic variables and pregnancy outcome suggesting that CS constituents other than nicotine mediate the fetal growth restriction in infants born to smoking mothers. Our current study has major implications for translational research in developmental toxicology and pharmacotherapy using nicotine replacement treatment as an aid to cessation of cigarette smoking in pregnant mothers

  12. What Motivates Us to Learn as We Grow?-A Research Review on the Relationship between Age and Motivation in Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹晨

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is always a dominatant factor in second language learning and teaching. Dornyei once suggested his model of learners’ motivation, which is, language learning attitudes and the Ideal L2 self. Certainly, this could bring some research interests to other researchers. In this paper, the author reviews a research carried among the Hungarians, where the research focus is clearly given on the relationship between age and motivation to test Dornyei’ s theory and offer a new way to promote learner’s motivation in second language learning.

  13. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-07-03

    Jul 3, 2015 ... work content, (3) working conditions, (4) relationships with senior staff, (5) workplace relationships with peers, (6) educational environment, (7) ... The importance of intern job satisfaction came to a head in Malawi when interns at. QECH took part in a strike in late 2010 into early 2011. This study.

  15. Life Satisfaction of Young Australians: Relationships between Further Education, Training and Employment and General and Career Satisfaction. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth Research Report 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kylie; McMillan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Prepared by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) under an agreement with the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), this report has three broad aims: (1) To describe the relationship between life satisfaction and participation in a range of post-school education, training and labour market…

  16. One-dimensional stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotarev, V M

    1986-01-01

    This is the first book specifically devoted to a systematic exposition of the essential facts known about the properties of stable distributions. In addition to its main focus on the analytic properties of stable laws, the book also includes examples of the occurrence of stable distributions in applied problems and a chapter on the problem of statistical estimation of the parameters determining stable laws. A valuable feature of the book is the author's use of several formally different ways of expressing characteristic functions corresponding to these laws.

  17. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  18. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration. Appendix A. Telecommunications Asset Management in A Global Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griggs, Ken

    2003-01-01

    ... (CPSU Grant Proposal Number 02-007) entitled "California Central Coast Research Partnership" awarded to the Research and Graduate Programs office at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California...

  19. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  20. The Relationship between Research Method and Visual Display: A Study of Conference Proceedings in the Field of Knowledge Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: "Research method" refers to how to conduct research, how to measure progress, and what constitutes success. Visualisation has become the platform for communicating research findings according to Friedman and Smiraglia. Knowledge organization aims to organize knowledge and many researchers employ visualisation in their…

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    7 oct. 2015 ... Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle mass, muscle strength and bone mineral density in ... Androgens, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and carrier proteins (SHBG ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  3. Focal relationships and the environment of project marketing. A literature review with suggestions for practitioners and future research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki

    2000-01-01

    of the review is upon the connection between focal relationships and the wider environment in which project marketing and systems selling takes place. First, several common definitions of projects and project marketing are presented and discussed. Second, the implications of three specific features of project......Project marketing is an important mode of business-to-business marketing today. This paper assesses recent project marketing contributions, including predominantly those of members of the (mainly European) International Network for Project Marketing and Systems Selling (INPM). The emphasis...... business - discontinuity, uniqueness, and complexity - for the focal relationship and the broader marketing environment are considered at the level of multiple projects. Third, three overlapping types of postures that project-selling firms can adopt in relation to their focal relationships...

  4. Buyer-Supplier Relationships in the Perspective of Working Environment and Organizational Performance: Review and Research Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imranul, Hoque; Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review and synthesise how extant literature understand different natures of buyer supplier relationships (BSR) and how BSR affect, and are affected by, the working environment (WE), and how both BSR and WE affect organisational performance (OP). Following...... a systematic review protocol and literature corroboration, we map the literature covering BSR, WE, and OP and conduct a thematic analysis on three themes (i.e. buyer supplier relationships, working environment, organisational performance) and their relationships. Our review synthesises BSR typologies and group......, working environment and organisational performance. Our findings illustrate that working environment is becoming important in cross-border sourcing and supply management, but this has been neglected in BSR literature from almost every disciplinary perspective. No study has directly linked the three themes...

  5. Using customer relationships to acquire technological innovation: a value-chain analysis of supplier contracts with scientific research institutions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "In this exploratory research, a value-chain analysis is used to investigate how industrial suppliers working with the European Research Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) gain benefits resulting from technological innovation".

  6. Work Engagement: A Double-Edged Sword? A Study of the Relationship between Work Engagement and the Work-Home Interaction Using the ARK Research Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Listau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate how being engaged at work affects academics’ work-home interaction. Using the Conservation of Resources theory as a theoretical framework, the study contributes to existing research by examining the relationship between the work engagement subscales (i.e. vigour, dedication, and absorption and both work-home facilitation and work-home conflict. In order to test the hypotheses, a Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling analysis was conducted using a large sample of academics from the Norwegian university sector (N = 4378. The results indicated that vigour and dedication had a positive relationship with work-home facilitation and a negative relationship with work-home conflict. In contrast, absorption was not significantly related to work-home facilitation, but was positively associated with work-home conflict. Thus, we conclude that work engagement seems to have the potential to create both positive and negative outcomes.

  7. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  8. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  9. An analysis of the Research Team-Service User relationship from the Service User perspective: a consideration of 'The Three Rs' (Roles, Relations, and Responsibilities) for healthcare research organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Melanie; Rowley, Emma; Morriss, Richard; Manning, Nick

    2015-12-01

    This article debates interview data from service users who engaged with the work of a Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC). The evidence base, to date, concerning the nature of CLAHRC work at the frontline (i.e. What is it actually like to do CLAHRC work?) is meagre; thus, this article represents an original contribution to that literature. Further, this article analyses service users' participation in research - as members of the research team - and so contributes to the body of developing literature regarding involvement too. This article explores the nature of the Research Team-Service User relationship, plus associated roles, relations and responsibilities of collaborative health research. Qualitative social science research was undertaken in a health-care research organization utilizing interview method and a medical sociology and organizational sociology theoretical framework for analysis. Data utilized originate from a larger evaluation study that focuses on the CLAHRC as an iterative organization and explores members' experiences. There can be a disparity between initial expectations and actual experiences of involvement for service users. Therefore, as structured via 'The Three Rs' (Roles, Relations and Responsibilities), aspects of the relationship are evaluated (e.g. motivation, altruism, satisfaction, transparency, scope, feedback, communication, time). Regarding the inclusion of service users in health research teams, a careful consideration of 'The Three Rs' is required to ensure expectations match experiences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Some Relationships Among and Between Measures of Employee Perceptions and Other Indices of Organizational Effectiveness. Research Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin; Synder, Robert A.

    Relationships among two measures of job satisfaction and one of organizational climate, among seven production and turnover indices of organizational effectiveness, and between the two sets of measures were investigated in 50 life insurance agencies (N=522). It was shown that: (1) climate and satisfaction measures are correlated for some people…

  11. Research Review: The Relationship between Childhood Violence Exposure and Juvenile Antisocial Behavior--A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Stover, Carla Smith; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The connection between childhood violence exposure and antisocial behavior in adolescence has received much attention and has important implications for understanding and preventing criminal behavior. However, there are a limited number of well-designed prospective studies that can suggest a causal relationship, and little is known…

  12. Merlino-Perkins Father-Daughter Relationship Inventory (MP-FDI): Construction, Reliability, Validity, and Implications for Counseling and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino Perkins, Rose J.

    2008-01-01

    The Merlino-Perkins Father-Daughter Relationship Inventory, a self-report instrument, assesses women's childhood interactions with supportive, doting, distant, controlling, tyrannical, physically abusive, absent, and seductive fathers. Item and scale development, psychometric findings drawn from factor analyses, reliability assessments, and…

  13. Investigating the Relationship between Test Preparation and "TOEFL iBT"® Performance. Research Report. ETS RR-14-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between test preparation and test performance on the "TOEFL iBT"® exam. Information on background variables and test preparation strategies was gathered from 14,593 respondents in China through an online survey. A Chinese standardized English test was used as a control for prior English ability.…

  14. Examining the Disciplinary Level Relationship between the Research Context of Academic Work and the Utilization of Student-Centered Pedagogy at Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbosh, Kyle William

    2015-01-01

    The roles of researcher and teacher are fundamental to faculty work. Academic freedom enables faculty to principally direct the performance of their research and teaching; even so, these roles are not immune to normative influence. Disciplinary affiliation represents a powerful source of peer-driven, norms that inform the performance and…

  15. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  16. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  17. Tempered stable distributions stochastic models for multiscale processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabchak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This brief is concerned with tempered stable distributions and their associated Levy processes. It is a good text for researchers interested in learning about tempered stable distributions.  A tempered stable distribution is one which takes a stable distribution and modifies its tails to make them lighter. The motivation for this class comes from the fact that infinite variance stable distributions appear to provide a good fit to data in a variety of situations, but the extremely heavy tails of these models are not realistic for most real world applications. The idea of using distributions that modify the tails of stable models to make them lighter seems to have originated in the influential paper of Mantegna and Stanley (1994). Since then, these distributions have been extended and generalized in a variety of ways. They have been applied to a wide variety of areas including mathematical finance, biostatistics,computer science, and physics.

  18. [Herbal textual research on relationship between Chinese medicine"Shihu" (Dendrobium spp.) and "Tiepi Shihu" (D. catenatum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Zhang, Yuan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Liu, Jing-Jing; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2017-05-01

    Dendrobium species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts were investigated in this paper, including their dscriptions of original species, producing areas and quality. Our results indicated that the major producing areas were Lu'an, Anhui province and Wenzhou, Taizhou, Zhejiang province. In addition, the sweet flavor, short, thin and solid stems were standing for good quality. Based on the stable producing areas and quality descriptions, D. catenatum (D. officinale) ("Tiepi Shihu") and D. houshanense were high quality medicinal Dendrobium species ("Shihu" ) in ancient China. Besides, there were 3 scientific names for "Tiepi Shihu", including D. candidum, D. officinale, D. catenatum. After textual investigation, We suggest that D. catenatum should be its scientific name, and D. officinale was synonyms published later. However, the name "D. officinale" could be reserved as it is much more popular used in publication and commodities. Moreover, its Chinese name should be "Tiepi Shihu". Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Stable Glasses Using Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sarah; Liu, Tianyi; Jiang, Yijie; Ablajan, Keyume; Zhang, Yue; Walsh, Patrick; Turner, Kevin; Fakhraai, Zahra

    Glasses with enhanced stability over ordinary, liquid quenched glasses have been formed via the process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) by using a sufficiently slow deposition rate and a substrate temperature slightly below the glass transition temperature. These stable glasses have been shown to exhibit higher density, lower enthalpy, and better kinetic stability over ordinary glass, and are typically optically birefringent, due to packing and orientational anisotropy. Given these exceptional properties, it is of interest to further investigate how the properties of stable glasses compare to those of ordinary glass. In particular, the mechanical properties of stable glasses remain relatively under-investigated. While the speed of sound and elastic moduli have been shown to increase with increased stability, little is known about their hardness and fracture toughness compared to ordinary glasses. In this study, glasses of 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene were deposited at varying temperatures relative to their glass transition temperature, and their mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the glasses were compared across substrate temperatures. After indentation, the topography of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to further compare the relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic stability and mechanical failure. Z.F. and P.W. acknowledge funding from NSF(DMREF-1628407).

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-02-26

    Feb 26, 2015 ... despite significant community anti-microbial use suggests likely re-crudescence or re-infection from ... of chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulceration, gastric B-cell .... 1 illustrates the relationship between housing characteristics and H. .... made identification of portals of entry and exit problematic [25].

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... academic and departmental leadership at major universities, new chal- ... approaches to learning, with the use of small-group learning (SGL), ... increased with years of clinical experience (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 - 0.62, ... reinforces learner-teacher relationships correlated with seniority within ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-04-06

    Apr 6, 2016 ... areas of North America have a low prevalence (<2%). .... statistically significant relationship (p=0.046) between occupation of .... Polish perspectives. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental. Medicine. 2012;19(3):523-527. PubMed | Google Scholar. 5. Tong M, Hwang S. Hepatitis B virus infection in Asian.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spend time in rural settings as part of their education. ... of the 3rd and 5th years they complete 8 weeks of family medicine, and in the 4th year they ... 6 Department of Statistics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana .... learn from that and establish a working relationship, so that was good.'.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between HbA1c and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) which is noninvasive marker of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: 81 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. Demographic, clinical and ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assigned to a different rural community, with the purpose of working with ... Objective. To assess the students' self-reported perception and effectiveness of the precommunity placement LDP at MUST and its impact during ... change in the task accomplishment skills, interpersonal relationship skills and quality of leadership.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... The birth of a new baby is a major developmental transition in life that affects not only the woman, but also her baby and the family. [1,2]. A common mental health problem during this period is .... siblings depending on their birth intention status. Child ... relationship in a South African peri-urban settlement.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... Abstract. Introduction: Gonadal steroid hormones play a crucial role during skeletal growth and maturation in both men and women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of sex hormone levels, bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in healthy Moroccan men. Methods: ...

  10. Understanding the importance of therapeutic relationships in the development of self-management behaviours during cancer rehabilitation: a qualitative research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Wendy M; Rance, Jaynie; Fitzsimmons, Deborah

    2017-01-17

    Cancer is a growing health, social and economic problem. 1 in 3 people in the UK will develop cancer in their lifetime. With survival rates rising to over 50%, the long-term needs of cancer survivors are of growing importance. Cancer rehabilitation is tailored to address the physical or psychosocial decline in ability to engage in daily activities. Its use is supported by high-quality international, multicentre research. Incorporating strategies for self-management behaviour development into rehabilitation can prepare individuals for cancer survivorship. However, healthcare professionals will need to adjust their therapeutic interactions accordingly. Research is yet to clarify the impact of the therapeutic relationship on rehabilitation outcomes in cancer. This study aims to explore the impact of therapeutic relationships on self-management behaviours after cancer. This qualitative study aims to understand cancer rehabilitation participants' beliefs regarding the importance of therapeutic relationships in developing self-management behaviours. A sample representative of a local cancer rehabilitation cohort will be asked to complete a semistructured interview to identify their perspectives on the importance of therapeutic relationships in cancer rehabilitation. Data obtained from the interviews will be analysed, coded and entered into a Delphi questionnaire for circulation to a local cancer rehabilitation population to determine if the views expressed by the interviewees are supported by group consensus. This study was approved by Wales Research Ethics Committee 6 (15/WA/0331) in April 2016. Findings will be disseminated through the first author's doctoral thesis; peer-reviewed journals; local, national and international conference presentations; and public events involving research participants and the general public. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Application of Job Demands-Resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands

    OpenAIRE

    Adrianna Potocka; Małgorzata Waszkowska

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with...

  12. Hypothesis-driven research for G × E interactions: the relationship between oxytocin, parental divorce during adolescence, and depression in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Research in molecular genetics has generally focused on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exploratory candidate gene and candidate gene-environment (G × E) studies. In this article it is proposed that hypothesis-driven and biologically informed research provides a complementary approach to GWAS to advance pressing research questions about G × E relations that are of public health relevance. Prior research studies and developmental and evolutionary theory were used to guide hypothesis testing of G × E relationships in this study. The study investigated whether the oxytocin polymorphism, rs53576, moderated the relationship between parental divorce during adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been related to the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors such as empathy, attachment, and nurturance. We hypothesized that the GG polymorphism would be associated with more depressive symptoms following parental divorce, and that this effect would be stronger in females than males. The sample consisted of 340 individuals who participated in a longitudinal study with data used both from adolescence and young adulthood. Findings using prospective follow-up and autoregressive change models supported the hypothesized relationships. Young adult females who had experienced parental divorce during adolescence and had the GG oxytocin genotype reported almost twice as many depressive symptoms relative to young adult females who also experienced parental divorce during adolescence but had the AA or AG genotype. This pattern was not indicated among males. Findings were discussed with regard to how molecular genetic factors in combination with environmental stressors, such parental divorce, framed within a developmental framework may facilitate the future study of G × E relationships in the parental divorce-child adjustment literature and contribute to a prevention science perspective.

  13. Hypothesis-Driven Research for G x E Interactions: The Relationship between Oxytocin, Parental Divorce during Adolescence, and Depression in Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eWindle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research in molecular genetics has generally focused on genome-wide association studies (GWAS and exploratory candidate gene and candidate gene-environment (GE studies. In this article it is proposed that hypothesis-driven and biologically informed research provides a complementary approach to GWAS to advance pressing research questions about GE relations that are of public health relevance. Prior research studies and developmental and evolutionary theory were used to guide hypothesis testing of GE relationships in this study. The study investigated whether the oxytocin polymorphism, rs53576, moderated the relationship between parental divorce during adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been related to the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors such as empathy, attachment, and nurturance. We hypothesized that the GG polymorphism would be associated with more depressive symptoms following parental divorce, and that this effect would be stronger in females than males. The sample consisted of 340 individuals who participated in a longitudinal study with data used both from adolescence and young adulthood. Findings using prospective follow-up and autoregressive change models supported the hypothesized relationships. Young adult females who had experienced parental divorce during adolescence and had the GG oxytocin genotype reported almost twice as many depressive symptoms relative to young adult females who also experienced parental divorce during adolescence but had the AA or AG genotype. This pattern was not indicated among males. Findings were discussed with regard to how molecular genetic factors in combination with environmental stressors, such parental divorce, framed within a developmental framework may facilitate the future study of G X E relationships in the parental divorce-child adjustment literature and contribute to a prevention science perspective.

  14. The synthesis, structure-toxicity relationship of cisplatin derivatives for the mechanism research of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Wu, Tian-Ming; Li, Hong-Ze; Zuo, Ze-Ping; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Yang, Li

    2017-08-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic drug, while its nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application. Although several mechanisms contributing to nephrotoxicity have been reported, the direct protein targets are unclear. Herein we reported the synthesis of 29 cisplatin derivatives and the structure-toxicity relationship (STR) of these compounds with MTT assay in human renal proximal tubule cells (HK-2) and pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). To the best of our knowledge, this study represented the first report regarding the structure-toxicity relationship (STR) of cisplatin derivatives. The potency of biotin-pyridine conjugated derivative 3 met the requirement for target identification, and the preliminary chemical proteomics results suggested that it is a promising tool for further target identification of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Research on the relationship between the structural properties of bedding layer in spring mattress and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liming; Chen, Yu-xia; Guo, Yong; Zhong, ShiLu; Fang, Fei; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Tian-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Mattress, as a sleep platform, its types and physical properties has an important effect on sleep quality and rest efficiency. In this paper, by subjective evaluations, analysis of sleeping behaviors and tests of depth of sleep, the relationship between characteristics of the bedding materials, the structure of mattress, sleep quality and sleep behaviors were studied. The results showed that: (1) Characteristics of the bedding materials and structure of spring mattress had a remarkable effect on sleep behaviors and sleep quality. An optimum combination of the bedding materials, the structure of mattress and its core could improve the overall comfort of mattress, thereby improving the depth of sleep and sleep quality. (2) Sleep behaviors had a close relationship with sleeping postures and sleep habits. The characteristics of sleep behaviors vary from person to person.

  16. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  17. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  18. The status of applying stable isotope in the studies of environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhipeng; Zhang Liwen; Zhu Tan; Feng Yinchang

    2007-01-01

    The stable isotope composition is characteristic in the pollution source, and it is relatively fixed in the process of transferring and reaction. At present the precise analysis result of stable isotope ratio can be obtained easily. So the stable isotopes can be applied to the pollution affair arbitration and source study. The concept and analytical method of stable isotopes are introduced. The research status of the stable isotopes in the field of environmental science and the isotope fractionation is reviewed. (authors)

  19. Technological Determinism in Educational Technology Research: Some Alternative Ways of Thinking about the Relationship between Learning and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are…

  20. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  1. Ethylene vinyl alcohol: a review of barrier properties for packaging shelf stable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, K Khanah; Tang, Juming

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) is one of the best known flexible thermoplastic oxygen barrier materials in use today. It is especially important for refrigerated and shelf-stable foods where oxygen deteriorates the quality of packaged products and reduces their shelf life. EVOH accounts for a majority of thermoplastic barrier materials used for rigid or semi-rigid retortable food containers. However. it is of limited use in flexible packages or lid films for rigid trays used for packaging thermally processed shelf-stable low acid foods due to its moisture sensitivity. Nevertheless, current use of other oxygen barrier materials such as polyvinylidene chloride and aluminum foil creates environmental concerns. Innovations in food processing technologies provide opportunities for increased use of EVOH in food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of research on the oxygen barrier properties of EVOH from the perspective of structure-barrier property relationships and the consequences of food processing conditions.

  2. Relationship of stable auroral red arcs to the plasmapause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleckner, E.W.; Smith, L.L.; Wildman, P.J.L.

    1974-01-01

    The relation between the plasmapause and the light ion trough offers a potential tie between the low and high altitude magnetosphere if the plasma distribution along the field lines between L = 2 to 6 region can be measured. The data from several simultaneous satellite-ground based measurements of ion density and plasmapause position were measured. (U.S.)

  3. A research note on the relationship between long working hours and weight gain for older workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Murat Anil

    2014-09-01

    Working long hours may be related to obesity in older adults. No studies have focused on older workers and long work hours, although the risk of obesity is high among this population group. This study is the first attempt to investigate the relationship between obesity and the older workforce. Panel data from the Health and Retirement Study are examined using Cox regression techniques. We found that older workers who work more than 59 hr a week are more likely to gain weight than older workers who work less than 59 hr per week. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  7. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  8. Symmetric and Asymmetric Tendencies in Stable Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, James P L

    2016-08-22

    A commonly used approach to study stability in a complex system is by analyzing the Jacobian matrix at an equilibrium point of a dynamical system. The equilibrium point is stable if all eigenvalues have negative real parts. Here, by obtaining eigenvalue bounds of the Jacobian, we show that stable complex systems will favor mutualistic and competitive relationships that are asymmetrical (non-reciprocative) and trophic relationships that are symmetrical (reciprocative). Additionally, we define a measure called the interdependence diversity that quantifies how distributed the dependencies are between the dynamical variables in the system. We find that increasing interdependence diversity has a destabilizing effect on the equilibrium point, and the effect is greater for trophic relationships than for mutualistic and competitive relationships. These predictions are consistent with empirical observations in ecology. More importantly, our findings suggest stabilization algorithms that can apply very generally to a variety of complex systems.

  9. Perceived Effects of Pornography on the Couple Relationship: Initial Findings of Open-Ended, Participant-Informed, "Bottom-Up" Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, William A; Campbell, Lorne

    2017-02-01

    The current study adopted a participant-informed, "bottom-up," qualitative approach to identifying perceived effects of pornography on the couple relationship. A large sample (N = 430) of men and women in heterosexual relationships in which pornography was used by at least one partner was recruited through online (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, etc.) and offline (e.g., newspapers, radio, etc.) sources. Participants responded to open-ended questions regarding perceived consequences of pornography use for each couple member and for their relationship in the context of an online survey. In the current sample of respondents, "no negative effects" was the most commonly reported impact of pornography use. Among remaining responses, positive perceived effects of pornography use on couple members and their relationship (e.g., improved sexual communication, more sexual experimentation, enhanced sexual comfort) were reported frequently; negative perceived effects of pornography (e.g., unrealistic expectations, decreased sexual interest in partner, increased insecurity) were also reported, albeit with considerably less frequency. The results of this work suggest new research directions that require more systematic attention.

  10. Relationships, environment, and the brain: how emerging research is changing what we know about the impact of families on human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jo Ellen; Vakili, Susanna

    2014-03-01

    Recent research is providing family therapists with new information about the complex interaction between an individual's biological makeup and his/her social and physical environment. Family and social relationships, particularly during sensitive periods early in life, can affect a child's biological foundation. Additionally, stress during the early years can have a lasting effect on an individual's physical and mental health and contribute to the onset of severe mental illness. Community programs have been developed to intervene early with families who have an at-risk child to prevent or minimize the onset of mental illness including providing partnerships with at-risk mothers of infants to shape attachment relationships. Programs are also developing individual and family interventions to prevent the onset of psychosis. Practicing family therapists can incorporate emerging neuroscience and early intervention research and leverage the growing base of community programs to enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of mental health outcomes for clients. Additionally, family therapy education programs should broaden student training to incorporate the growing body of information about how family relationships affect individual mental health development. © 2013 FPI, Inc.

  11. Psychosocial correlates of safe sex communication between Latina women and their stable male partners: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Heidi; Larson, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Latina women in stable relationships have risks for human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections. Improving safe sexual communication (SSC) could enable women to accurately assess and mitigate their risk of infection within their relationship. Literature to identify psychosocial correlates that facilitate or inhibit SSC between Latina women and their partners has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrative review and synthesis of empirical and theoretical research that examines psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women from the United States, Latina America, and the Caribbean with stable male partners. A systematic search of LILACS, EBSCO, and PsychInfo databases was conducted to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that investigated psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women with a stable male partner. Pertinent data were abstracted and quality of individual studies was appraised. A qualitative synthesis was conducted following Miles and Huberman's method. Five qualitative and three quantitative studies meet eligibility criteria. Factors related to SSC related to three main themes: (1) relationship factors such as length, quality, and power/control, (2) individual factors including attitudes, beliefs, background, behaviors, and intrapersonal characteristics, and (3) partner factors related to partner beliefs and behaviors. The interplay of relationship, individual, and partner factors should be considered in the assessment of SSC for Latina women with their stable partners. To inform future interventions and clinical guidelines, additional research is needed to identify which factors are most related to SSC for this population, and how comparable experiences are for Latina women of different subcultures and living in different countries.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  17. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  19. Research on the Coupling Coordination Relationship between Urbanization and the Air Environment: A Case Study of the Area of Wuhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s high-speed socioeconomic development has been characterized by rapid urbanization and a series of ecological environment issues, especially air pollution. This paper proposed a comprehensive indicator system for the evaluation of urbanization and the air environment in Wuhan, a metropolis in central China, and then investigated the relationship between urbanization and the air environment from the perspective of coupling coordination theory. Furthermore, a coupling coordination degree model (CCDM was constructed to estimate the relationship by using panel data collected from 1996–2013. The results showed the following: (1 Spatial urbanization and air environment quality make the greatest contributions to the compound system compared to other first grade indicators, indicating that they are critical factors to consider when the government is making relevant decisions about urban sprawl. (2 The comprehensive level of the air environment initially decreased from 1996–1998 and then increased with fluctuations in Wuhan, with several inflection points, meaning that the variation process of the air environment is unstable and repetitive, and efforts to improve the air environment must persist over a long period of time. Lastly, (3 the degree of coordinated coupling between urbanization and the air environment exhibited an S-shaped curve, indicating that Wuhan changed from having slightly unbalanced development to barely balanced development and then entered into a period of superiorly balanced development, with the air environment lagging. Thus, the ambient urban air quality has been subject to great pressure, and the government should continue to take effective action to improve it.

  20. [Current Treatment of Stable Angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Peiman; Cuculi, Florim

    2015-06-17

    Current therapy for stable angina includes surgical and percutaneous revascularization, which has been improved tremendously over the last decades. Smoking cessation and regular exercise are the cornerstone for prevention of further cerebrovascular events. Medical treatment includes treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and antithrombotic management, which can be a challenge in some patients. Owing to the fact the coronary revascularization is readily accessible these days in many industrialized countries, the importance of antianginal therapy has decreased over the past years. This article presents a contemporary overview of the management of patients with stable angina in the year 2015.

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Gender, Salary, and Student Ratings of Instruction at a Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magel, Rhonda C.; Doetkott, Curt; Cao, Li

    2017-01-01

    Salary studies in the United States and some other countries show a gap between male and female faculty salaries in higher education that widens over time. The present study examines one possible explanation, particularly at research universities, by examining changes in faculty salaries in relation to student ratings of instruction. Student…

  2. Rethinking the relationship between socioeconomic status and health: Challenging how socioeconomic status is currently used in health inequality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Thierry; Ghenadenik, Adrian E

    2018-02-01

    The Scandinavian Journal of Public Health recently reiterated the importance of addressing social justice and health inequalities in its new editorial policy announcement. One of the related challenges highlighted in that issue was the limited use of sociological theories able to inform the complexity linking the resources and mechanisms captured by the concept of socioeconomic status. This debate article argues that part of the problem lies in the often unchallenged reliance on a generic conceptualization and operationalization of socioeconomic status. These practices hinder researchers' capacity to examine in finer detail how resources and circumstances promote the unequal distribution of health through distinct yet intertwined pathways. As a potential way forward, this commentary explores how research practices can be challenged through concrete publication policies and guidelines. To this end, we propose a set of recommendations as a tool to strengthen the study of socioeconomic status and, ultimately, the quality of health inequality research. Authors, reviewers, and editors can become champions of change toward the implementation of sociological theory by holding higher standards regarding the conceptualization, operationalization, analysis, and interpretation of results in health inequality research.

  3. Who I Am: The Meaning of Early Adolescents' Most Valued Activities and Relationships, and Implications for Self-Concept Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Guerin, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Self-concept research in early adolescence typically measures young people's self-perceptions of competence in specific, adult-defined domains. However, studies have rarely explored young people's own views of valued self-concept factors and their meanings. For two major self domains, the active and the social self, this mixed-methods study…

  4. Implementation and Operational Research: CD4 Count Monitoring Frequency and Risk of CD4 Count Dropping Below 200 Cells Per Cubic Millimeter Among Stable HIV-Infected Patients in New York City, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie E; Xia, Qiang; Torian, Lucia V; Irvine, Mary; Harriman, Graham; Sepkowitz, Kent A; Shepard, Colin W

    2016-03-01

    The evidence has begun to mount for diminishing the frequency of CD4 count testing. To determine whether these observations were applicable to an urban US population, we used New York City (NYC) surveillance data to explore CD4 testing among stable patients in NYC, 2007-2013. We constructed a population-based retrospective open cohort analysis of NYC HIV surveillance data. HIV+ patients aged ≥ 13 years with stable viral suppression (≥ 1 viral load the previous year; all per milliliter) and immune status (≥ 1 CD4 the previous year; all ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter) entered the cohort the following year beginning January 1, 2007. Each subsequent year, eligible patients not previously included entered the cohort on January 1. Outcomes were annual frequency of CD4 monitoring and probability of maintaining CD4 ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter. A multivariable Cox model identified factors associated with maintaining CD4 ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter. During 1.9 years of observation (median), 62,039 patients entered the cohort. The mean annual number of CD4 measurements among stable patients was 2.8 and varied little by year or characteristic. Two years after entering, 93.4% and 97.8% of those with initial CD4 350-499 and CD4 ≥ 500 cells per cubic millimeter, respectively, maintained CD4 ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter. Compared to those with initial CD4 ≥ 500 cells per cubic millimeter, those with CD4 200-349 cells per cubic millimeter and CD4 350-499 cells per cubic millimeter were more likely to have a CD4 per cubic millimeter, controlling for sex, race, age, HIV risk group, and diagnosis year. In a population-based US cohort with well-controlled HIV, the probability of maintaining CD4 ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter for ≥ 2 years was >90% among those with initial CD4 ≥ 350 cells per cubic millimeter, suggesting that limited CD4 monitoring in these patients is appropriate.

  5. Representations of attachment relationships in children of incarcerated mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Representations of attachment relationships were assessed in 54 children ages 2.5 to 7.5 years whose mothers were currently incarcerated. Consistent with their high-risk status, most (63%) children were classified as having insecure relationships with mothers and caregivers. Secure relationships were more likely when children lived in a stable caregiving situation, when children reacted to separation from the mother with sadness rather than anger, and when children were older. Common reactions to initial separation included sadness, worry, confusion, anger, loneliness, sleep problems, and developmental regressions. Results highlight need for support in families affected by maternal imprisonment, especially efforts to promote stable, continuous placements for children, in addition to underscoring the importance of longitudinal research with this growing but understudied group.

  6. The Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) Model: An Effective Tool for Engaging Urban Communities in Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceasar, Joniqua; Peters-Lawrence, Marlene H; Mitchell, Valerie; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M

    2017-11-21

    Little is known about recruitment methods for racial/ethnic minority populations from resource-limited areas for community-based health and needs assessments, particularly assessments that incorporate mobile health (mHealth) technology for characterizing physical activity and dietary intake. We examined whether the Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) model could reduce challenges recruiting and retaining participants from faith-based organizations in predominantly African American Washington, D.C. communities for a community-based assessment. Employing C.A.R.E. model elements, our diverse research team developed partnerships with churches, health organizations, academic institutions and governmental agencies. Through these partnerships, we cultivated a visible presence at community events, provided cardiovascular health education and remained accessible throughout the research process. Additionally, these relationships led to the creation of a community advisory board (CAB), which influenced the study's design, implementation, and dissemination. Over thirteen months, 159 individuals were recruited for the study, 99 completed the initial assessment, and 81 used mHealth technology to self-monitor physical activity over 30 days. The culturally and historically sensitive C.A.R.E. model strategically engaged CAB members and study participants. It was essential for success in recruitment and retention of an at-risk, African American population and may be an effective model for researchers hoping to engage racial/ethnic minority populations living in urban communities.

  7. The Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E. Model: An Effective Tool for Engaging Urban Communities in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joniqua Ceasar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about recruitment methods for racial/ethnic minority populations from resource-limited areas for community-based health and needs assessments, particularly assessments that incorporate mobile health (mHealth technology for characterizing physical activity and dietary intake. We examined whether the Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E. model could reduce challenges recruiting and retaining participants from faith-based organizations in predominantly African American Washington, D.C. communities for a community-based assessment. Employing C.A.R.E. model elements, our diverse research team developed partnerships with churches, health organizations, academic institutions and governmental agencies. Through these partnerships, we cultivated a visible presence at community events, provided cardiovascular health education and remained accessible throughout the research process. Additionally, these relationships led to the creation of a community advisory board (CAB, which influenced the study’s design, implementation, and dissemination. Over thirteen months, 159 individuals were recruited for the study, 99 completed the initial assessment, and 81 used mHealth technology to self-monitor physical activity over 30 days. The culturally and historically sensitive C.A.R.E. model strategically engaged CAB members and study participants. It was essential for success in recruitment and retention of an at-risk, African American population and may be an effective model for researchers hoping to engage racial/ethnic minority populations living in urban communities.

  8. Premature and stable critical heat flux for downward flow in a narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Juhyung; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Jo, Daeseong

    2014-01-01

    It has been recommended that RRs and MTRs be designed to have sufficient margins for CHF and the onset of FI as well, since unstable flow could leads to premature CHF under very low wall heat flux in comparison to stable CHF. Even the fact and previous studies, however, the understanding of relationship among FI, premature CHF and stable CHF is not sufficient to date. In this regards, subcooled flow boiling in a vertical rectangular channel was experimentally investigated to enhance the understanding of the CHF and the effect of the two-phase flow instability on it under low pressure conditions, especially for downward flow which was adopted for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) and Kijang research reactor (KJRR) to achieve easier fuel and irradiation rig loading. In this study, CHF for downward flow of water under low pressure in narrow rectangular channel was experimentally investigated. For conditions such as downward flow, narrow rectangular channel and low pressure, it has been deduced from literature that flow instability could largely influence on triggering CHF at lower heat flux, i. e. premature CHF. Total 54 CHF data, which includes premature and stable data was obtained for various fluid conditions and system configurations including inlet stiffness. The upper and lower boundaries of CHF were newly proposed based on the experiment

  9. Research and development tasks of the basalt waste isolation program, and their relationship to the licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.P.

    1978-06-01

    This document presents a preliminary licensing program and outlines the research and development strategy by which a license will be obtained for the repository. It addresses the base data covering the major areas of investigation and technology which will provide input to the licensing process. Basically, each facet of the program, as described in the plan, will be used as part of the documentation required for the Preliminary and Final Safety Analysis Report (PSAR and FSAR), as well as the Environmental Report

  10. Research on the Relationships between Endogenous Biomarkers and Exogenous Toxic Substances of Acute Toxicity in Radix Aconiti

    OpenAIRE

    Haonan Zhou; Pengjie Zhang; Zhiguo Hou; Jiabin Xie; Yuming Wang; Bin Yang; Yanyan Xu; Yubo Li

    2016-01-01

    Radix Aconiti, a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been widely used throughout China for disease treatment due to its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and analgesic effects. However, improper use of Radix Aconiti often generated severe acute toxicity. Currently, research on the toxic substances of Radix Aconiti is not rare. In our previous study, acute toxic biomarkers of Radix Aconiti have been found. However, few studies were availabl...

  11. Possibility of stable quark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    A recent zero temperature equation of state which contains quark-partons separated from conventional baryons by a phase transition is used to investigate the stability of quark stars. The sensitivity to the input physics is also considered. The conclusions, which are found to be relatively model independent, indicate that a separately identifiable class of stable objects called quark stars does not exist

  12. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  13. Plant cell wall proteomics: mass spectrometry data, a trove for research on protein structure/function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Zhang, Yu; San Clemente, Hélène; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2009-09-01

    Proteomics allows the large-scale study of protein expression either in whole organisms or in purified organelles. In particular, mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of gel-separated proteins produces data not only for protein identification, but for protein structure, location, and processing as well. An in-depth analysis was performed on MS data from etiolated hypocotyl cell wall proteomics of Arabidopsis thaliana. These analyses show that highly homologous members of multigene families can be differentiated. Two lectins presenting 93% amino acid identity were identified using peptide mass fingerprinting. Although the identification of structural proteins such as extensins or hydroxyproline/proline-rich proteins (H/PRPs) is arduous, different types of MS spectra were exploited to identify and characterize an H/PRP. Maturation events in a couple of cell wall proteins (CWPs) were analyzed using site mapping. N-glycosylation of CWPs as well as the hydroxylation or oxidation of amino acids were also explored, adding information to improve our understanding of CWP structure/function relationships. A bioinformatic tool was developed to locate by means of MS the N-terminus of mature secreted proteins and N-glycosylation.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  8. Stable isotope measurements of atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.C.; Ferretti, D.F.; Vaughn, B.H.; Francey, R.J.; Allison, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric carbon dioxide, δ 13 CO 2 are useful for partitioning surface-atmospheric fluxes into terrestrial and oceanic components. δC 18 OO also has potential for segregating photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we describe in detail the techniques for making these measurements. The primary challenge for all of the techniques used to measure isotopes of atmospheric CO 2 is to achieve acceptable accuracy and precision and to maintain them over the decades needed to observe carbon cycle variability. The keys to success such an approach are diligent intercalibrations of laboratories from around the world, as well as the use of multiple techniques such as dual inlet and GC-IRMS and the intercomparison of such measurements. We focus here on two laboratories, the Stable Isotope Lab at the Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) at the University of Colorado is described and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation - Atmospheric Research (CSIRO). Different approaches exist at other laboratories (e.g. programs operated by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and The Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Toboku University (TU)) however these are not discussed here. Finally, we also discuss the recently developed Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS) technique which holds significant promise for measuring ultra-small samples of gas with good precision. (author)

  9. Research in radiobiology: Final report of work in progress in immunobiology of experimental host-tumor relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    Our work on the immunobiology of tumors induced in normal mice by non-ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens has previously demonstrated a correlation between MHC molecule expression and the immunogenicity of tumors in a transplanted syngeneic host. Such that immunogenic or regressive tumors were found to demonstrate higher constitutive or inducible levels of MHC expression, while most virulent, aggressive tumors exhibited a low level of MHC Class I expression. We attributed much of the control of MHC molecule expression by antigen-bearing tumors and normal cells to the immunological status of the host since the host must provide the appropriate stimulus to enhance MHC antigen expression by the invading tumor. Our results with UVR-induced tumors suggested that a significant role is played by the T-cell lymphokine, {gamma}-interferon ({gamma}IFN), in the modulation of MHC molecule expression in vivo. Virulent tumors, induced by boneseeking radionuclides, may be refractory to {gamma}IFN stimulation of MHC molecule expression. It is also possible that certain tumors might be fully responsive to the Class I modulatory influences by {gamma}IFN, but exhibit a reduced capacity to stimulate the synthesis of this lymphokine by host T cells. We present experiments designed to : Describe the virulence, latency period, and transplantation characteristics of {sup 238}PU, {sup 24l}Am, and {sup 228}Th tumors arising as osteogenic sarcomas and hepatic carcinomas, to determine the relationship between inducible expression of MHC Class I molecules by {gamma}IFN and in vivo immunogenicity of these radioisotype-induced tumors, and to elucidate any molecular mechanisms responsible for a lack of responsiveness to a {gamma}IFN failure by the host to induce host {gamma}IFN production.

  10. Research in radiobiology: Final report of work in progress in immunobiology of experimental host-tumor relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-15

    Our work on the immunobiology of tumors induced in normal mice by non-ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens has previously demonstrated a correlation between MHC molecule expression and the immunogenicity of tumors in a transplanted syngeneic host. Such that immunogenic or regressive tumors were found to demonstrate higher constitutive or inducible levels of MHC expression, while most virulent, aggressive tumors exhibited a low level of MHC Class I expression. We attributed much of the control of MHC molecule expression by antigen-bearing tumors and normal cells to the immunological status of the host since the host must provide the appropriate stimulus to enhance MHC antigen expression by the invading tumor. Our results with UVR-induced tumors suggested that a significant role is played by the T-cell lymphokine, [gamma]-interferon ([gamma]IFN), in the modulation of MHC molecule expression in vivo. Virulent tumors, induced by boneseeking radionuclides, may be refractory to [gamma]IFN stimulation of MHC molecule expression. It is also possible that certain tumors might be fully responsive to the Class I modulatory influences by [gamma]IFN, but exhibit a reduced capacity to stimulate the synthesis of this lymphokine by host T cells. We present experiments designed to : Describe the virulence, latency period, and transplantation characteristics of [sup 238]PU, [sup 24l]Am, and [sup 228]Th tumors arising as osteogenic sarcomas and hepatic carcinomas, to determine the relationship between inducible expression of MHC Class I molecules by [gamma]IFN and in vivo immunogenicity of these radioisotype-induced tumors, and to elucidate any molecular mechanisms responsible for a lack of responsiveness to a [gamma]IFN failure by the host to induce host [gamma]IFN production.

  11. Experimental studies on lung carcinogenesis and their relationship to future research on radiation-induced lung cancer in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1991-03-01

    The usefulness of experimental systems for studying human lung carcinogenesis lies in the ease of studying components of a total problem. As an example, the main thrust of attack on possible synergistic interactions between radiation, cigarette smoke, and other irritants must be by means of research on animals. Because animals can be serially sacrificed, a systematic search can be made for progressive lung changes, thereby improving our understanding of carcinogenesis. The mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis have not yet been delineated, but modern concepts of molecular and cellular biology and of radiation dosimetry are being increasingly applied to both in vivo and in vitro exposure to determine the mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, to elucidate human data, and to aid in extrapolating experimental animal data to human exposures. In addition, biologically based mathematical models of carcinogenesis are being developed to describe the nature of the events leading to malignancy; they are also an essential part of a rational approach to quantitative cancer risk assessment. This paper summarizes recent experimental and modeling data on radon-induced lung cancer and includes the confounding effects of cigarette-smoke exposures. The applicability of these data to understanding human exposures is emphasized, and areas of future research on human radiation-induced carcinogenesis are discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Stable statistical representations facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jennifer E; Melcher, David

    2014-10-01

    Observers represent the average properties of object ensembles even when they cannot identify individual elements. To investigate the functional role of ensemble statistics, we examined how modulating statistical stability affects visual search. We varied the mean and/or individual sizes of an array of Gabor patches while observers searched for a tilted target. In "stable" blocks, the mean and/or local sizes of the Gabors were constant over successive displays, whereas in "unstable" baseline blocks they changed from trial to trial. Although there was no relationship between the context and the spatial location of the target, observers found targets faster (as indexed by faster correct responses and fewer saccades) as the global mean size became stable over several displays. Building statistical stability also facilitated scanning the scene, as measured by larger saccadic amplitudes, faster saccadic reaction times, and shorter fixation durations. These findings suggest a central role for peripheral visual information, creating context to free resources for detailed processing of salient targets and maintaining the illusion of visual stability.

  13. Up-Beat UK: A programme of research into the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression in primary care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariante Carmine M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease and depression are both common health problems and by 2020 will be the two leading causes of disability worldwide. Depression has been found to be more common in patients with coronary heart disease but the nature of this relationship is uncertain. In the United Kingdom general practitioners are now being remunerated for case-finding for depression in patients with coronary heart disease, however it is unclear how general practitioners should manage these patients. We aim to explore the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression in a primary care population and to develop an intervention for patients with coronary heart disease and depression. Methods/design This programme of research will consist of 4 inter-related studies. A 4 year prospective cohort study of primary care patients with coronary heart disease will be conducted to explore the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression. Within this, a nested case-control biological study will investigate genetic and blood-biomarkers as predictors of depression in this sample. Two qualitative studies, one of patients' perspectives of treatments for coronary heart disease and co-morbid depression and one of primary care professionals' views on the management of patients with coronary heart disease and depression will inform the development of an intervention for this patient group. A feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial will then be conducted. Discussion This study will provide information on the relationship between coronary heart disease and depression that will allow health services to determine the efficiency of case-finding for depression in this patient group. The results of the cohort study will also provide information on risk factors for depression. The study will provide evidence on the efficacy and feasibility of a joint patient and professional led intervention and data necessary to plan a

  14. [Textual research on relationship between traditional Chinese medicine and medical prescriptions in the Sanskrit formulary Bower Manuscript excavated in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyi

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces the Bower Manuscript in Sanskrit written on birch bark excavated in Xinjiang, which was bought in Kuqa by a British India army lieutenant Bower, hence its title. Then, it was researched, annotated, and published in 7 volumes by a German British lieutenant and orientalist Honer. The first three volumes are devoted to medical prescriptions. It is first verified that its "Dazi Xiangye San" is the "Dujuan Dachen San" in Tibetan medicine. By comparing it with other traditional medical systems, such as Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Uyghur medical systems, we found that Bower Manuscript is closer to Tibetan medicine and Mongolian medicine, while it has less relation with Chinese medicine and Uyghur medicine. However, it also exerts some influence on TCM.

  15. A meta-analysis and model of the relationship between sleep and depression in adolescents: recommendations for future research and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to quantify the strength of evidence for a directional relationship between sleep disturbance and depression in adolescents. A literature search was conducted to identify research investigating the relationship between sleep disturbance and depression in adolescent samples (12-20 y). Twenty-three studies were identified; 13 explored associations between depression and sleep disturbance; seven examined the prospective role of sleep disturbance in the development of depression; and three investigated the role of adolescent depression in the development of subsequent sleep disturbance. Average weighted mean differences in sleep/depression-related outcome variables were calculated between adolescents with depression, and non-clinical adolescents, or those in remission. Adolescents with depression experienced significantly more wakefulness in bed (sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, number of awakenings and sleep efficiency), lighter sleep (more stage 1), and reported more subjective sleep disturbance. Overall effect sizes from longitudinal and treatment studies suggest sleep disturbance acts as a precursor to the development of depression. At follow-up, depressed adolescents had significantly longer sleep onset, more wake after sleep onset, and lower sleep efficiency compared to adolescents who were non-clinical, or had undergone remission. Little support was found for a predictive role of depressive symptoms in the development of sleep disturbance. Based on these findings we propose a model to understand the development of depression from initial sleep disturbance, provide recommendations for clinicians and recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  17. Quality of interpersonal relationships and problematic Internet use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Luca; Osualdella, Dania; Di Blasio, Paola

    2009-12-01

    International literature has identified a stable correlation between problems in the sphere of adolescents' personal relationships and potential Internet dependence. The objective of this research is to verify in an Italian context the relationship among problematic Internet use (PIU), the quality of interpersonal relationships, and the cognitive strategies habitually used by adolescents to face daily problems. The participants in the research were 98 adolescents ages 14 to 19 (M = 16.28 years). The following instruments were administered to the participants: the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Test of Interpersonal Relationships (TRI); and the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist (CCSC). Parents of the participants were administered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the participants, 36.7% showed signs of PIU. These adolescents use the Internet for many hours per week; most utilize dysfunctional coping strategies and show worse interpersonal relations than peers who do not show signs of PIU.

  18. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  19. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  20. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen DUMITRASCU; Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we ...

  1. High-precision mass spectrometric analysis using stable isotopes in studies of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schierbeek, Henk; van den Akker, Chris H. P.; Fay, Laurent B.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes combined with mass spectrometry (MS) provides insight into metabolic processes within the body. Herein, an overview on the relevance of stable isotope methodology in pediatric research is presented. Applications for the use of stable isotopes with MS cover carbohydrate,

  2. Relationship of mutual trust and understanding developed by researches for people; Hitobito to tomoniaru kenkyuga hiraku sogorikai to shinraikankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This is report on the special committee of natural radiation research of public acceptance of radiation, Japan Health Physics Society. It consists of three parts such as 1) seven papers on natural radiation and public understandings, 2) six reports on understanding of radiation by risk acknowledge, communication theory and a questionnaire survey and 3) four reports on one's explanation about radiation and radioactivity. Uranium series nuclide in the surroundings, environmental pollution in the sediments of lakes and seaside, background level of plutonium in the land near Kyoto University, radon concentration and Kobe earthquake are reported. Uranium and radon in environments, {sup 137}Cs and heavy metals in Osaka Bay and Pu background concentration are explained. Security is very difficult to define when people think about radiation and radioactive. Some risk communication activities by WIN (Women In Nuclear)-Japan, JAPA (Japan Health Physics Society) and Universities are reported. It was clear that we had to know the mechanism of method of understanding the theme and importance of risk communication. (S.Y.)

  3. Smolt Passage Behavior and Flow-Net Relationships in the Forebay of John Day Dam, 1983 Annual Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, Albert E.

    1984-04-01

    During 1983, the research program had three separate but complementary phases - monitoring current patterns in the forebay, defining fish distribution with purse seine sampling, and describing the migration routes of salmonid smolts using radio tracking techniques. Preliminary results from the radio-tracking and purse seining operations in FY 1983 suggest that the discharge from the John Day River and the turbid plume it forms in the forebay may have a pronounced effect on the distribution of smolts, especially chinook and sockeye salmon, as they approach the dam. The implication of these data is that the plume may be shunting salmon toward the Washington (spill) side of the river where they would be more susceptible to spill passage. This resulted in higher spill passage of tagged chinook salmon than the proportion of water being spilled. In contrast, sillway passage of steelhead not influenced by the plume is approximately the same as the proportion of water being spilled. These findings are based on limited data and must be considered preliminary at this time. Data describing the current patterns have just recently been reduced to a usable format and have not yet been correlated with findings from radio tracking and purse seining. Such data will be icorporated into an overall analysis of the relations of current patterns and John Day River discharge to fish migration patterns. Representative examples of prevailing current patterns during the spring migration have been completed and are included in this document. 10 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. A multicenter study analyzing the relationship of a standardized radiographic scoring system of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and the Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip L; Newton, Peter O; Wenger, Dennis R; Haher, Thomas; Merola, Andrew; Lenke, Larry; Lowe, Thomas; Clements, David; Betz, Randy

    2002-09-15

    A multicenter study examining the association between radiographic and outcomes measures in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To evaluate the association between an objective radiographic scoring system and patient quality of life measures as determined by the Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument. Although surgical correction of scoliosis has been reported to be positively correlated with patient outcomes, studies to date have been unable to demonstrate an association between radiographic measures of deformity and outcomes measures in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A standardized radiographic deformity scoring system and the Scoliosis Research Society outcome tool were used prospectively in seven scoliosis centers to collect data on patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 354 data points for 265 patients consisting of those with nonoperative or preoperative curves >or=10 degrees, as well as those with surgically treated curves, were analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed to identify significant relationships between any of the radiographic measures, the Harms Study Group radiographic deformity scores (total, sagittal, coronal), and the seven Scoliosis Research Society outcome domains (Total Pain, General Self-Image, General Function, Activity, Postoperative Self-Image, Postoperative Function, and Satisfaction) as well as Scoliosis Research Society outcomes instrument total scores. Radiographic measures that were identified as significantly correlated with Scoliosis Research Society outcome scores were then entered into a stepwise regression analysis. The coronal measures of thoracic curve and lumbar curve magnitude were found to be significantly correlated with the Total Pain, General Self-Image, and total Scoliosis Research Society scores (P Society domain and total scores. No radiographic measures taken after surgery were significantly correlated with the postoperative domains of the Scoliosis Research Society

  5. Coordinated Research Project: Relationship between recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, bronchial asthma and gastroesophageal reflux in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, P.; Bernal, P.; Birkenfeld, B.; Boonyaprapa, S.; Chen, S.; Ciofetta, G.; Ellman, A.; Fatima, S.; Kavasakal, L.; Rondain, J.E.; Padhy, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux may cause or contribute to different respiratory problems such as bronchial asthma (BA), recurrent lower respiratory tract infection (rLRTI), among others. There is no clear cut explanation of mechanisms responsible for the respiratory symptoms in children with recurrent GER, and how beneficial GER treatment could be in the management of this children. The aim of this prospective coordinate research project was to evaluated the presence of GER, esophageal transit (ET) abnormalities and lung aspiration (LA) in children with recurrent respiratory symptoms. So far we had evaluated 309 children; 173 boys and 136 girls, between 15 days and 15 years old of age. Under standard and protocolized procedures all children underwent gastroesophageal scintigraphic study. Esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) was performed in 127 and LA scintigraphy in 205. The scintigraphic study was positive for GER in 160/309 (51.8%) of the total group. We found an abnormal ETS in 13.4% and a LA scintigraphy positive for aspiration of gastric content in 3.9% of the studied patients. According to clinical features, 75% of asthmatic children with persistent symptoms had GER and 30.7% of children with rLRTI. Follow-up studies were performed in 85 children after treatment of GER and there was a normalization of the scintigraphic study, associated with clinical improvement in 69.4% of them. These results show that GER prevalence in children with BA and rLRTI is higher than the reported normal prevalence in infancy, specially in the group of asthmatic patients. In our group, we do not find a significant presence of ET abnormalities neither LA of gastric content. The diagnosis and treatment of GER is mandatory in children with rLRTI or persistent BA. In asthmatic patients the recognition of gastric abnormalities is highly relevant for therapeutic problems when GER is in a sub-clinical stage

  6. Using a combination of radiogenic and stable isotopes coupled with hydrogeochemistry, limnometrics and meteorological data in hydrological research of complex underground mine-pit lake systems: The case of Cueva de la Mora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-España, J.; Diez Ercilla, M.; Pérez Cerdán, F.; Yusta, I.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a combination of radiogenic and stable isotopes (3H, 2H and 18O on pit lake water, and 34S on dissolved sulfate) coupled with bathymetric, meteorological and limnometric investigations, and detailed hydrogeochemical studies to decipher the flooding history and hydrological dynamics of a meromictic and deeply stratified pit lake in SW Spain. The application of these combined techniques has been specially succesful considering the complexity of the studied system, which includes a substantial number of horizontal galleries, shafts and large rooms physically connected to the pit lake. Specific conductance and temperature profiles have depicted a physical structure of the water body which includes four monimolimnetic layers of increasing density with depth. This internal configuration includes m-scale layers separated by sharp transional zones and is rarely observed in natural, fresh water bodies and most other pit lakes. The tritium abundance of the different layers indicate that the deepest water consists in strongly acidified and metal-laden meteoric water infiltrated in the mine system soon after the mine closure in 1971-72. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of the different layers reflect a sharp stratification with increasing evaporative influence towards the lake surface. The combination of tritium data with the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of the different layers suggests a model of pit lake formation with an initial stage of flooding (with entrance of highly metal- and sulfate-loaded mine drainage from the underlying mine galleries) that deeply determined the physical structure and meromictic nature of the lake. After reaching the present water level and morphology, the stagnant, anoxic part of pit lake seems to have remained chemically and isotopically unmodified during its 40 year-old history. Although the pit lake receives significant water input during autumn and winter (which in turn provoke significant volumetric increases

  7. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Loffing

    Full Text Available In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing, for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  8. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the verification of

  9. Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a ‘southpaw’ stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of ‘left-oriented’ athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  10. [Sex survey research in Germany and Europe : Liebesleben (LoveLives): A pilot study into the sexual experiences, attitudes and relationships of adults in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Silja; Dekker, Arne; von Rueden, Ursula; Winkelmann, Christine; Wendt, Janine; Briken, Peer

    2017-09-01

    At the Hamburg Institute for Sex Research in Germany, a nationwide study is currently being carried out into the sexual experiences, attitudes and relationships of adults (18-75 years). The main focus of this pilot study is to test the comprehensibility and length of a data collecting instrument as well as the comparison of two data collecting methods with regard to reliability and representativeness of the results as well as of the refusal rate. To this end face-to-face interviews (n = 500) and questionnaires sent by post (n = 500) are to be compared with each other as methods. The data to be collected relates to sexuality, particularly the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The WHO definition of sexual health forms the basis for the study and thus connects up with the existing sex survey research in Europe and western industrial nations. Comparable surveys have been conducted over the past ten years in more than 30 European countries using a variety of methods. The focus of the study is placed upon the increase that has been observed for several years now in certain STIs. The article provides an overview of existing sex survey research in Europe. It becomes clear that the studies conducted so far are very heterogeneous with regard to chosen method, sampling techniques and the choice of content focus, so that no suitable data for cross-national comparability are currently available.

  11. 'Ingredients' of a supportive web of caring relationships at the end of life: findings from a community research project in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegleitner, Klaus; Schuchter, Patrick; Prieth, Sonja

    2018-04-27

    In accordance with the pluralisation of life plans in late modernity, the societal organisation of care at the end of life is diverse. Although the public discourse in western societies is dominated by questions about optimising specialised palliative care services, public health approaches, which take into account the social determinants and inequalities in end-of-life care, have gained in importance over the last decade. Conceptual aspects, dimensions of impact and benefit for the dying and their communities are well discussed in the public health end-of-life care research literature. Our research focuses on the preconditions of a supportive caring web in order to understand how communities can build on their social capital to deal with existential uncertainty. As part of a large-scale community research project, we carried out focus groups and interviews with community members. Through dispositive analysis, we generated a set of care-web 'ingredients', which constitute and foster a caring community. These 'ingredients' need to be cultivated through an ongoing process of co-creation. This requires: (i) a focus on relationships and social systems; (ii) the creation of reflective spaces; and (iii) the strengthening of social capital, and d) the addressing of inequalities in care. © 2018 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  12. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  13. Stable isotopes - separation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this review, methods used for the separation of stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 34 S) will be described. The synthesis of labelled compounds, techniques for detection and assay, and areas of application will also be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen; to date, sulphur isotopes have only assumed a minor role. The field of deuterium chemistry is too extensive for adequate treatment; it will therefore be essentially excluded. (author)

  14. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  15. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) II. Rainfall-runoff relationships and runoff processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latron, J.; Solar, M.; Nord, G.; Llorens, P.; Gallart, F.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrological response and runoff processes have been studied in the Vallcebre research basins (North Eastern Spain) for almost 20 years. Results obtained allowed to build a more complete perceptual model of the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. On a seasonal and monthly scale, there was no simple relationship between rainfall and runoff depths. Monthly rainfall and runoff values revealed the existence of a threshold in the relationship between rainfall and runoff depths. At the event scale, the storm-flow coefficient had a clear seasonal pattern. The effect of the water table position on how rainfall and runoff volumes relate was observed. Examination of soil water potential and water table dynamics during representative floods helped to identify 3 types of characteristic hydrological behaviour during the year. Under dry conditions, runoff was generated essentially as infiltration excess runoff in low permeable areas, whereas saturation excess runoff dominated during wetting-up and wet conditions. During wetting-up transition, saturated areas resulted from the development of scattered perched water tables, whereas in wet conditions they were linked to the rise of the shallow water table. (Author) 8 refs.

  16. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-06-23

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Ubeda, 18-22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes.

  17. The use of stable isotopes in medicinal chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, D.; Thompson, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotopes have been employed increasingly as tracers over the last decade both to provide the clinician with the opportunity to broaden, in a quantitative manner, discrete areas of diagnosis and research, and the clinical chemist with definitive methodology for specific analyte analysis. These non-radioactive 'heavy' isotopes contain one or more extra neutrons in the nucleus compared with their more abundant 'lighter' analogues. Impetus in the application of stable isotopes for in vivo studies has come from an increased awareness of the possible harmful effects in the use of radionuclides, and a realisation of several positive advantages conferred by the use of stable isotopes in their own right - certain elements of clinical importance (especially nitrogen) lack a useable radio-nuclide equivalent; use of a 'cocktail' of stable isotopes permits a range of studies to be performed in the same patient simultaneously and, within specific constraints, serial studies can be performed in the same patients. (author)

  18. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I.; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A.; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Úbeda, 18–22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes. PMID:20015858

  19. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Study on growth mechanism of a-Si:H and preparation of the stable, high quality films; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Amorphous silicon no seimaku kiko to kohinshitsuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, M [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on a film forming mechanism for amorphous silicon for solar cells and its quality improvement. In in-situ observation on plasma CVD surface reaction by using the total reflection infrared absorbing spectroscopy, an observation on a real time basis was performed on the reaction process of an a-Si:H surface in contact with gas mixture plasma composed of SiH4 + CH4. In microscopic observation on initial processes of amorphous silicon growth, surface morphological change before and after a-Si:H deposition at 200{degree}C was observed by using an inter-atomic force microscope. The observation verified that a-Si:H has grown to an atomic layer. In research on defect density in a-Si:H fabricated under high-speed film forming conditions, analysis was made on correlation between the film forming speed at 250{degree}C and defect density in the film. Other research works include those on a high-quality a-SiGe:H film fabricated by using the nanometer film forming/hydrogen plasma annealing method, modulated doping into multi-layer films of a-Si:H/a-Ge:H, and thin film transistor using very thin multi layer films of a-Si:H/a-Ge:H. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Distribution tactics for success in turbulent versus stable environments: A complexity theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bruce Mason

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the external environment influences the choice of distribution tactics. Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand such environments is necessary, but it has not been widely researched. A qualitative case method using in-depth interviews investigated four successful, versus less successful, companies in turbulent versus stable environments. The results tentatively confirmed that the more successful company, in a turbulent market, sees distribution activities as less important than other aspects of the marketing mix, but uses them to stabilise customer relationships and to maintain distribution processes. These findings can benefit marketers by emphasising a new way to consider place activities. How marketers can be assisted, and suggestions for further research, are provided.