Manne, Fredrik; Naim, Md; Lerring, Hakon; Halappanavar, Mahantesh
Research on stable marriage problems has a long and mathematically rigorous history, while that of exploiting greedy matchings in combinatorial scientific computing is a younger and less developed research field. In this paper we consider the relationships between these two areas. In particular we show that several problems related to computing greedy matchings can be formulated as stable marriage problems and as a consequence several recently proposed algorithms for computing greedy matchings are in fact special cases of well known algorithms for the stable marriage problem. However, in terms of implementations and practical scalable solutions on modern hardware, the greedy matching community has made considerable progress. We show that due to the strong relationship between these two fields many of these results are also applicable for solving stable marriage problems.
This paper describes two parallel algorithms for the stable marriage problem implemented on a MIMD parallel computer. The algorithms are tested against sequential algorithms on randomly generated and worst-case instances. The results clearly show that the combination fo a very simple problem...... and a commercial MIMD system results in parallel algorithms which are not competitive with sequential algorithms wrt. practical performance. 1 Introduction In 1962 the Stable Marriage Problem was....
Pini, Maria; Rossi, Francesca; Venable, Brent; Walsh, Toby
The stable marriage problem is a well-known problem of matching men to women so that no man and woman who are not married to each other both prefer each other. Such a problem has a wide variety of practical applications ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals to matching students to schools. A well-known algorithm to solve this problem is the Gale-Shapley algorithm, which runs in polynomial time. It has been proven that stable marriage procedures can always be manipulated. Whilst ...
Lemos Junior, Eloy Pereira; Barbosa, Grasiele Dias
In this paper will be analyzed the inheritance law of the spouse and partner in the light of the 2002 Civil Code and the 1988 Federal Constitution. First it covers an approach to the legislative history of the spouse's estate succession and partner. Then, analyze the characteristics of inheritance law of marriage and stable union. Furthermore, we analyze the innovations and guarantees brought by the Federal Constitution of 1988, which gave special protection to the family, regardless of their...
Caldarelli, Guido; Capocci, Andrea; Laureti, Paolo
In the stable marriage problem two sets of agents must be paired according to mutual preferences, which may happen to conflict. We present two generalizations of its sex-oriented version, aiming to take into account correlations between the preferences of agents and costly information. Their effects are investigated both numerically and analytically.
Matthews, A P; Garenne, M L
The matching algorithm in a dynamic marriage market model is described in this first of two companion papers. Iterative Proportional Fitting is used to find a marriage function (an age distribution of new marriages for both sexes), in a stable reference population, that is consistent with the one-sex age distributions of new marriages, and includes age preference. The one-sex age distributions (which are the marginals of the two-sex distribution) are based on the Picrate model, and age preference on a normal distribution, both of which may be adjusted by choice of parameter values. For a population that is perturbed from the reference state, the total number of new marriages is found as the harmonic mean of target totals for men and women obtained by applying reference population marriage rates to the perturbed population. The marriage function uses the age preference function, assumed to be the same for the reference and the perturbed populations, to distribute the total number of new marriages. The marriage function also has an availability factor that varies as the population changes with time, where availability depends on the supply of unmarried men and women. To simplify exposition, only first marriage is treated, and the algorithm is illustrated by application to Zambia. In the second paper, remarriage and dissolution are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
West, Paul L.; MohdZain, A. Zaidy
Client demands for immediate relief plus restrictions on the duration of therapy brought about by managed care are pressures that influence the marriage counselor. This article discusses the use of the TFA model as a viable, solution-focused approach to marriage counseling. (Contains 19 references.) (Author)
Matthews, A P; Garenne, M L
A dynamic, two-sex, age-structured marriage model is presented. Part 1 focused on first marriage only and described a marriage market matching algorithm. In Part 2 the model is extended to include divorce, widowing, and remarriage. The model produces a self-consistent set of marital states distributed by age and sex in a stable population by means of a gender-symmetric numerical method. The model is compared with empirical data for the case of Zambia. Furthermore, a dynamic marriage function for a changing population is demonstrated in simulations of three hypothetical scenarios of elevated mortality in young to middle adulthood. The marriage model has its primary application to simulation of HIV-AIDS epidemics in African countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choo, Eugene; Siow, Aloysius
We use marriage matching functions to study how marital patterns change when population supplies change. Specifically, we use a behavioral marriage matching function with spillover effects to rationalize marriage and cohabitation behavior in contemporary Canada. The model can estimate a couple's systematic gains to marriage and cohabitation relative to remaining single. These gains are invariant to changes in population supplies. Instead, changes in population supplies redistribute these gains between a couple. Although the model is behavioral, it is nonparametric. It can fit any observed cross-sectional marriage matching distribution. We use the estimated model to quantify the impacts of gender differences in mortality rates and the baby boom on observed marital behavior in Canada. The higher mortality rate of men makes men scarcer than women. We show that the scarceness of men modestly reduced the welfare of women and increased the welfare of men in the marriage market. On the other hand, the baby boom increased older men's net gains to entering the marriage market and lowered middle-aged women's net gains.
Rao Sahib, P. Padma; Gu, X. Xinhua
This paper develops a two sided matching model of premarital cohabitation and marriage in which premarital cohabitation serves as a period of learning. We solve for the optimal policy to be followed by individuals by treating the model as a three stage dynamic programming problem. We find that
Drawing data from the India Human Development Survey 2011 and the year of the first election with reserved seats for women pradhans, I estimate the effect of the Panchayati Raj institutions on age and autonomy over marriage. Results indicate that women in local government decrease the likelihood of child marriage, and increase the age at first marriage and gauna. The effects seem to be driven by changes in gender and cultural norms, because there is a reduction in the prevalence of arranged m...
Hamza, Doha R.
We consider a network comprised of multiple primary users (PUs) and multiple secondary users (SUs), where the SUs seek access to a set of orthogonal channels each occupied by one PU. Only one SU is allowed to coexist with a given PU. We propose a distributed matching algorithm to pair the network users, where a Stackelberg game model is assumed for the interaction between the paired PU and SU. The selected secondary is given access in exchange for monetary compensation to the primary. The PU optimizes the interference price it charges to a given SU and the power allocation to maintain communication. The SU optimizes its power demand so as to maximize its utility. Our algorithm provides a unique stable matching. Numerical results indicate the advantage of the proposed algorithm over other reference schemes.
With a view to investigating the possibility of an attitudinal change towards the timing of 1st and 2nd births, proportional hazards model analysis of the 1st and 2nd birth intervals and univariate life table analysis were both carried out. Results showed that love matches and conjugal families immediately after marriage are accompanied by a longer 1st birth interval than others, even after controlling for other independent variables. Marriage cohort analysis also shows a net effect on the relative risk of having a 1st birth. Marriage cohorts since the mid-1960s demonstrate a shorter 1st birth interval than the 1961-63 cohort. With regard to the 2nd birth interval, longer 1st birth intervals, arranged marriages, conjugal families immediately following marriage, and higher ages at 1st marriage of women tended to provoke a longer 2nd birth interval. There is no interaction between the 1st birth interval and marriage cohort. Once other independent variables were controlled, with the exception of the marriage cohorts of the early 1970s, the authors found no effect of marriage cohort on the relative risk of having a 2nd birth. This suggests that an attitudinal change towards the timing of births in this period was mainly restricted to that of a 1st birth. Fluctuations in the 2nd birth interval during the 1970-72 marriage cohort were scrutinized in detail. As a result, the authors found that conjugal families after marriage, wives with low educational status, women with husbands in white collar professions, women with white collar fathers, and wives with high age at 1st marriage who married during 1970-72 and had a 1st birth interval during 1972-74 suffered most from the pronounced rise in the 2nd birth interval. This might be due to the relatively high sensitivity to a change in socioeconomic status; the oil crisis occurring around the time of marriage and 1st birth induced a delay in the 2nd birth. The unanimous decrease in the 2nd birth interval among the 1973
Full Text Available Until the II World War, the population of the Boka Kotorska Bay was a mixture of Orthodox and Catholic confessions: approximately two thirds of the population was Orthodox, while one third belonged to the Catholics. In spite of the religious affiliation, mixed marriages were relatively often between these two groups. Based on a research in archives, this paper deals with such mixed marriages, formed mostly in 18th and 19th century, in the area of Herceg Novi. The second half of 19th century witnessed 639 of marriages, or 12,78 marriages per year, out of which 72 were mixed or 8,87%. In this particular period, 64 Catholic males married Orthodox females, while only 8 Orthodox males married Catholic females. The Church influence on the society was significant, including issues related to marriage, which sometimes created troubles for mixed marriages; however, positive civil and church regulations supported mixed marriages. Marriages between people of a different religious confession thus created wider kinship affiliations, which in turn enhanced religious tolerance, intertwining of different cultures and customs, and acceptance of different political and social views. The tolerance therefore affected political and social turmoil especially in troubled times, which made many issues easier: troubled issues were solved more rationally, and there were not so many persecutions based on someone’s religious affiliation. We need a wider perspective and a broader research on the Boka Kotorska Bay in order to understand how marriages and kinship ties affected a way of life and intertwining of cultural models of the East and West.
BACKGROUND Marriage histories are a valuable data source for investigating nuptiality. While researchers typically acknowledge the problems associated with their use, it is unknown to what extent these problems occur and how marriage analyses are affected. OBJECTIVE This paper seeks to investigate the quality of marriage histories by measuring levels of misreporting, examining the characteristics associated with misreporting, and assessing whether misreporting biases marriage indicators. METHODS Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), I compare marriage histories reported by the same respondents at two different points in time. I investigate whether respondents consistently report their spouses (by name), status of marriage, and dates of marriage. I use multivariate regression models to investigate the characteristics associated with misreporting. Finally, I examine whether misreporting marriages and marriage dates affects marriage indicators. RESULTS Results indicate that 28.3% of men and 17.9% of women omitted at least one marriage in one of the survey waves. Multivariate regression models show that misreporting is not random: marriage, individual, interviewer, and survey characteristics are associated with marriage omission and marriage date inconsistencies. Misreporting also affects marriage indicators. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of its kind to examine the reliability of marriage histories collected in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Although marriage histories are frequently used to study marriage dynamics, until now no knowledge has existed on the degree of misreporting. Misreporting in marriage histories is shown to be non-negligent and could potentially affect analyses. PMID:27152090
Full Text Available Background: Consanguinity - or marriage between close blood relatives, in particular first cousins - is widely practised and even socially encouraged in many countries. However, in the face of fertility transition where the number of cousins eligible to marry declines, how might such constraints on consanguinity develop in the future? Objective: Numerous studies have stated that the practice cannot continue at present levels and in ist present form in the face of fertility transition. However, the future impact of fertility transition on availability of cousins to marry has not yet been quantified. Methods: We perform a simulation exercise using past and projected net reproduction rates (NRRs derived from the UN. We calculate the average number of cousins of the opposite sex as a function of the average number of children, the average probability of an individual having at least one eligible paternal cousin of the opposite sex, and conclude with an examination of constraints on consanguineous marriage in selected countries under different fertility assumptions. Results: Current and projected fertility levels in Middle Eastern countries will create challenging constraints on the custom once today's birth cohorts reach marriageable age. Conclusions: Either consanguinity prevalence will diminish significantly, or the institution will be forced to adapt by becoming more coercive in the face of reduced choice or at the expense of other social preferences (such as for an older groom wedding a younger bride. Fertility decline affects prospects for social change not only through its well-known consequences for mothers but also through shaping marriage conditions for the next generation.
Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow
Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015
The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs
Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar
Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf
Policies to promote marriage are controversial, and it is unclear whether they are successful. To analyze such policies, one must distinguish between a marriage that is created by a marriage-promoting policy (marginal marriage) and a marriage that would have been formed even in the absence of a state intervention (average marriage). We exploit the suspension of a cash-on-hand marriage subsidy in Austria to examine the differential behavior of marginal and average marriages. The announcement of an impending suspension of this subsidy led to an enormous marriage boom among eligible couples that allows us to locate marginal marriages. Applying a difference-in-differences approach, we show that marginal marriages are surprisingly as stable as average marriages but produce fewer children, children later in marriage, and children who are less healthy at birth.
Full Text Available Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.
Lipatov, Mikhail; Brown, Melissa J; Feldman, Marcus W
With introduction of social niche effects into a model of cultural change, the frequency of a practice cannot predict the frequency of its underlying belief. The combination of a general model with empirical data from a specific case illustrates the importance of collaboration between modellers and field researchers, and identifies the type of quantitative data necessary for analysing case studies. Demographic data from colonial-period household registers in Taiwan document a shift in marriage form within 40 years, from a mixture of uxorilocal marriages and virilocal marriages to the latter's dominance. Ethnographic data indicate marriage-related beliefs, costs, ethnic effects and colonial policies as well as the importance of horizontal cultural transmission. We present a formal model for the effects of moral beliefs about marriage and a population economic index on the decline of uxorilocal marriage. We integrate empirical marriage rates and an estimated economic index to produce five projections of the historical frequencies of one belief. These projections demonstrate how economic development may affect a cultural niche. They also indicate the need for future research on the relationship between wealth and cultural variability, the motivational force of cultural versus social factors, and the process of cultural niche construction.
Lipatov, Mikhail; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.
With introduction of social niche effects into a model of cultural change, the frequency of a practice cannot predict the frequency of its underlying belief. The combination of a general model with empirical data from a specific case illustrates the importance of collaboration between modellers and field researchers, and identifies the type of quantitative data necessary for analysing case studies. Demographic data from colonial-period household registers in Taiwan document a shift in marriage form within 40 years, from a mixture of uxorilocal marriages and virilocal marriages to the latter's dominance. Ethnographic data indicate marriage-related beliefs, costs, ethnic effects and colonial policies as well as the importance of horizontal cultural transmission. We present a formal model for the effects of moral beliefs about marriage and a population economic index on the decline of uxorilocal marriage. We integrate empirical marriage rates and an estimated economic index to produce five projections of the historical frequencies of one belief. These projections demonstrate how economic development may affect a cultural niche. They also indicate the need for future research on the relationship between wealth and cultural variability, the motivational force of cultural versus social factors, and the process of cultural niche construction. PMID:21320903
Chit Hlaing, F.K.L.; Read, Dwight W
Marriage is not founded straightforwardly upon procreation. Rather, marriage is universally — not withstanding groups such as the Mosuo of China lacking institutionalized marriage — a contractua l relationship legitimating a woman’s childbearing and giving her offspring social identity. While a child-bearing woman may simply take on the motherhood role, the same is not true for fatherhood. Rather, marriage defines a male conceptually as fa...
Nejadmalayeri, Alireza; Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Vezolainen, Alexei
A newly defined concept of m-refinement (model-refinement), which provides two-way coupling of physical models and numerical methods, is employed to study the Reynolds scaling of SCALES with constant levels of fidelity. Within the context of wavelet-based methods, this new hybrid methodology provides a hierarchical space/time dynamically adaptive automatic smooth transition from resolving the Kolmogorov length-scale (WDNS) to decomposing deterministic-coherent/stochastic-incoherent modes (CVS) to capturing more/less energetic structures (SCALES). This variable fidelity turbulence modeling approach utilizes a unified single solver framework by means of a Lagrangian spatially varying thresholding technique. The fundamental findings of this computational complexity study are summarized as follows: 1) SCALES can achieve the objective of ``controlling the captured flow-physics as desired'' by profoundly small number of spatial modes; 2) Reynolds scaling of constant-dissipation SCALES is the same regardless of fidelity of the simulations; 3) the number of energy containing structures at a fixed level of resolved turbulent kinetic energy scales linearly with Re; and 4) the fractal dimension of coherent energy containing structures is close to unity. This work was supported by NSF under grant No. CBET-0756046.
Aloysius Siow; Eugene Choo
estimated model shows that a concern for accumulating marriage specific capital is quantitatively significant in generating positive assortative matching in spousal ages at marriage, gender differences in spousal ages at marriage, and a preference for early marriage. Gender variations in population supplies due to gender specific mortality rates and entry cohort sizes have offsetting quantitative effects.
Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual health is the integrity between mind, emotions, and body, and any disorder leading to discoordination, can be associated with sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward sexual health based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 400 couples referring to marriage counseling centers of Hamadan recruited with a random sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and health belief model constructs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software, by Pearson’s coefficient correlation, independent T-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: Couples had a moderate knowledge of sexual health. In addition, perceived susceptibility and severity of the consequences of unsafe sexual behavior among couples were not satisfactory however, perceived benefits and barriers were reported in a relatively good level. Internet and friends were the most important sources for sexual health information. Conclusion: Promoting knowledge and beliefs toward sexual health by preparing training packages based on the needs of couples and removing obstacles to have normal sexual behavior are necessary.
In counseling groups, uncoupling partners learn to say their good-byes and accept the death of the marriage. They complete their unfinished business with each other. An organizational strategy is necessary. Skill in helping partners uncouple is a vital function of a marriage counselor, who must be proficient in group counseling. (Author)
A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference . Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source , BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage . In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring
Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert
A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference . Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source , BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage . In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring
Andersen, Signe Hald; Hansen, Lars Gårn
Despite the strong and persistent influence of Gary Becker’s marriage model, the model does not completely explain the observed correlation between married women’s labor market participation and overall divorce rates. In this paper we show how a simple sociologically inspired extension of the model...... this aspect into Becker’s model, the model provides predictions of divorce rates and causes that fit more closely with empirical observations. (JEL: J1)...
Rahman, Md Mizanur; Akter, Shamima; Rahman, Ataur
This paper investigates the distribution of distance associated with marriage migration in the northern region of Rajshahi and the southern region of Khulna in Bangladesh. The study was conducted in 2007 on 2250 respondents who had migrated due to marriage. Of the wide variety of curves that fitted the distance-marriage/contact data, three are discussed: Pareto, exponential, and Pareto-exponential. Logistic regression models were used to identify the covariates of marriage distance migration. In general, the three functions work better for marriages, whereas Pareto-exponential functions are a superior fit for migrations and marriage distance. The models disclose that the distribution of distance is significantly associated with marriage migration (pPareto-exponential model was 100% stable and its shrinkage was 0.000000125. The main covariates associated with short-distance marriage migration were respondent's education, father's education and religion, whereas age at the time of marriage did not play a significant role in marriage migration. The risk of short-distance migration was greater in higher- than lower-educated Muslim families.
... help with many specific issues, including: Communication problems Sexual difficulties Conflicts about child rearing or blended families Substance abuse Anger Infidelity Marriage counseling might also be helpful in cases ...
... to improve a troubled relationship. You can use marriage counseling to help with many specific issues, including: Communication problems Sexual difficulties Conflicts about child rearing or blended families Substance abuse Anger Infidelity ...
Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at www.fco.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.
The practice of early marriage for women is prevalent in developing countries around the world today, and is believed to cause significant disruption in their accumulation of human capital. This paper develops an overlapping generations model of the marriage market to explain how the practice may be sustained in the absence of any intrinsic preference for young brides. We assume there is a desirable female attribute, relevant for the gains from marriage, that is only noisily observed before a...
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex mar...
Blow, Laura; Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette
We examine theoretically and empirically consumption over the early part of the life-cycle. The main focus is on the transition from being single to living with someone else. Our theoretical model allows for publicness in consumption; uncertainty concerning marriage; differences between lifetime...... incomes for prospective partners and a marriage premium. We develop a two period model to bring out the main features of the impact of marriage on consumption and saving. We then develop a multi-period model that can be taken to the data on expenditures by singles and couples aged between 18 and 30. Our...... empirical work is based on individual based quasi-panels from UK expenditure survey data from 1978 to 2005. The model fits the data relatively well. We find that expenditure by couples leads to 20-40 % more consumption than the same expenditure split between two comparable singles....
Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen
Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...
Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to argue that the sexual difference between female and male should be regarded as soteriologically indifferent. Though a biological reality of being human, sexuality is profoundly influenced by social constructs and the institution of marriage itself is a social construct. In this article the biological and social aspects are taken into account in a theological approach which on the one hand is interested in the relationship between God and human beings, and on the other in the way in which the Bible elucidates sexuality and marriage. The article indicates that the idea of sexual intercourse between a man and a woman as being equal to Godgiven “holy matrimony” has mythological origins. It focuses on these origins and on the multifarious forms of marital arrangements and models.
This brief is concerned with tempered stable distributions and their associated Levy processes. It is a good text for researchers interested in learning about tempered stable distributions. A tempered stable distribution is one which takes a stable distribution and modifies its tails to make them lighter. The motivation for this class comes from the fact that infinite variance stable distributions appear to provide a good fit to data in a variety of situations, but the extremely heavy tails of these models are not realistic for most real world applications. The idea of using distributions that modify the tails of stable models to make them lighter seems to have originated in the influential paper of Mantegna and Stanley (1994). Since then, these distributions have been extended and generalized in a variety of ways. They have been applied to a wide variety of areas including mathematical finance, biostatistics,computer science, and physics.
Rao Sahib, P.; Gu, X.
This paper introduces imperfect information,learning,and risk aversion in a two sided matching model.The modelprovides a theoreticalframework for the com- monly occurring phenomenon of cohabitation followed by marriage,and is con- sistent with empirical findings on these institutions.The paper has
Choe, Minja Kim; Thapa, Shyam; Mishra, Vinod
This paper examines age patterns of first marriage and motherhood and covariates of early marriage, delayed consummation of marriage and early motherhood in Nepal using data from the 2000 Nepal Adolescent and Young Adult Survey (NAYA). Both unmarried and married male and female youths (age 14-22) were included in the survey. The analysis is based on 2800 urban youths and 5075 rural youths with complete information on the variables examined. Proportional hazard models are used to estimate covariates of early marriage and early motherhood, and logistic regression models are used to estimate covariates of delayed consummation of marriage. The results show that early marriage and early motherhood are quite common among Nepalese women, especially in rural areas. Early marriage is much less common among men. Delayed consummation of marriage is common among very young brides, especially in rural areas. The main covariates associated with early marriage and early motherhood are respondent's education, region of residence and ethnicity. The main covariates of delayed consummation of marriage are age at first marriage, region of residence and ethnicity. The study highlights the need to focus on less educated female youths in the Terai region in order to reduce the reproductive and child health risks associated with early marriage and early childbearing.
Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark
In this article we present a framework for understanding the indirect effects of fathering on child development in the context of the marriage. We discuss three central pathways of influence: through relations between marital quality and fathering, through children's exposure to father expressions of marital discord, and through relations between…
An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the age pattern of marriage among Nepalese women. A lognormal distribution has been used and applied to the data from Nepal Fertility Survey (1986). The estimation procedure has been carried out by using method of moments and maximum likelihood method. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab
We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission
Sannibale, F.; Byrd, J.M.; Loftsdottir, A.; Venturini, M.; Abo-Bakr, M.; Feikes, J.; Holldack, K.; Kuske, P.; Wuestefeld, G.; Huebers, H.-W.; Warnock, R.
We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission
Reproductive skew theory has become a popular way to phrase problems and test hypotheses of social evolution. The diversity of reproductive skew models probably stems from the ease of generating new variations. However, I show that the logical basis of skew models, that is, the way in which group formation is modelled, makes use of hidden assumptions that may be problematical as they are unlikely to be fulfilled in all social systems. I illustrate these problems by re-analysing the basic conc...
Wilcox, W. Bradford; Wolfinger, Nicholas H.; Stokes, Charles E.
Since the 1960s, the United States has witnessed a dramatic retreat from marriage, marked by divorce, cohabitation, single parenthood, and lower overall marriage rates. Marriage is now less likely to anchor adults' lives or provide a stable framework for childrearing, especially among poor and working-class Americans. Much research on the retreat…
Full Text Available Background: China has experienced substantial socioeconomic and institutional changes over the past few decades. The literature has documented a variety of demographic changes during this time, including the delay and decline of marriage and the recent prevalence of cohabitation. However, we have little knowledge about how the Chinese enter into marriage. Objective: This study demonstrates the diversification of first marriage entry over time. Methods: We applied event-history analysis to longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (2010-2012 waves and estimated the competing risks of the identified marriage entry types. The observation covered the period from 1960 to 2012. Results: Our estimations from the competing models demonstrated four notable types of first marriage entry, including a general decline in the traditional 'direct marriage,' a rise and decline in 'conception marriage,' and two recently increasing innovative practices of 'cohabitation marriage' and 'cohabitation and conception marriage.' The 1980s marked a turning point when traditional family practices began to decay and innovative family practices began to emerge and spread. Conclusions: The diversification of marriage entry in China since the 1980s occurred in tandem with the development of China's economic reform and 'opening-up' policies. This simultaneity exemplifies the notion that socioeconomic changes at the macro level interact with family behavior changes at the individual level. Contribution: This study demonstrates an increasingly wide array of marriage entry types over time, reflecting the evolution of marriage behaviors from tradition to modernity in contemporary Chinese society.
Reproductive skew theory has become a popular way to phrase problems and test hypotheses of social evolution. The diversity of reproductive skew models probably stems from the ease of generating new variations. However, I show that the logical basis of skew models, that is, the way in which group formation is modelled, makes use of hidden assumptions that may be problematical as they are unlikely to be fulfilled in all social systems. I illustrate these problems by re-analysing the basic concessive skew model with staying incentives. First, the model assumes that dispersal is an all-or-nothing response: all subordinates disperse as soon as concessions drop below a certain value. This leads to a discontinuous 'cliff-edge' shape of dominant fitness, and it is not clear that selection will balance a population at such an edge. Second, it is assumed that subordinates have perfect knowledge of their benefits if they stay in the group. I examine the effects of relaxing these two assumptions. Relaxing the first one strengthens reproductive skew theory, but relaxing the latter makes evolutionary stability disappear. In cases where subordinates cannot accurately measure benefits provided by the individual dominant with which they live, so that their behaviour instead evolves as a response to population-wide average benefits, the logic of reproductive skew models does not apply. This warns against too indiscriminate an application of reproductive skew theory to problems in social evolution: for example, transactional models of extra-pair paternity assume perfect knowledge of paternity, which is unlikely to hold true in nature. It is recommended that models specify the mechanisms by which individuals can adjust their behaviour to that of others, and pay attention to changes that occur in evolutionary versus behavioural time.
Shambleau, Krista M.
Federally funded Healthy Marriage Initiative (HMI) programs provide marriage education as well as other services to low-income diverse individuals and couples at many points along the marital continuum with improving children's well-being as the overarching purpose. These programs need appropriate measures of healthy marriage for couples with…
-, č. 417 (2010), s. 1-32 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:MŠk(CZ) SVV-2010-261801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : aging * divorce * two-sided matching * Gale-Shapley marriage problem Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp417.pdf
Background/Question/Methods The development of stable isotope mixing models has coincided with modeling products (e.g. IsoSource, MixSIR, SIAR), where methodological advances are published in parity with software packages. However, while mixing model theory has recently been ex...
Bowmaker, Simon W.
This thesis contains three studies on the economics of entry into marriage; a life event that has been shown to have significant implications for the well-being (economic and otherwise) of men, women and their children. The first study examines the effect of family background on the timing of first marriage of 7,853 individuals born in 1970 in Great Britain. Hazard model analysis reveals that high levels of parental resources serve to delay entry into marriage for both males and femal...
Finding a life partner is of great importance for persons' life satisfaction, but cancer's potential impact on family life is not well described. Cancer's impact on marriage formation rates was therefore explored. Data on the entire unmarried Norwegian population aged 17-44 in 1974-2001 (N = 2.2 million) come from the Cancer Registry and the Central Population Register. Marriage rates for 12,100 persons diagnosed with cancer were compared to marriage rates for otherwise similar persons using discrete-time hazard regression models. Men with cancer had a marriage probability that was five percent higher (OR 1.05, CI 1.01-1.11) than cancer-free men. No cancer forms reduced men's marriage rates, and significantly elevated rates were seen after skin and testicular cancer (OR 1.16 and 1.11). Cancer did not impact significantly on women's overall marriage rate (OR 0.95, CI 0.90-1.00), but pronounced deficiencies were seen after brain and breast cancer (OR 0.62 and 0.74). Skin cancer elevated women's marriage rate (OR 1.27). Male cancer survivors with children were more likely to marry than their female counterparts. Significant increases in cancer survivors' marriage rates were observed over time. Marrying after cancer is more common today than previously, and only slight overall differences were observed in cancer survivors' marriage rates relative to those of the cancer-free population. However, while brain and breast cancer in women is associated with reduced marriage rates, testicular cancer is associated with increased rates. The differences observed between common cancer forms in young adults deserve further exploration. In general, marriage rates in survivors of most types of cancer are very similar to those in the population as a whole. Women with brain and breast cancer have lower marriage rates than their cancer-free counterparts. While it is necessary to identify exactly why this was observed, the information can alert those with these cancers to the potential
According to research conducted by Anti-Slavery International, child marriage not only persists in many parts of Africa and Asia, but may be increasing. Although many countries have set an age minimum (generally 15 years or older) for marriage, this applies only to couples who lack parental permission. For example, girls in Sri Lanka, Ecuador, and Uruguay can marry at age 12 years with parental consent and no minimum age is stipulated for couples in Ghana and Bangladesh with permission. In general, about half of African women are married by the age of 18 years. Demand for younger brides (and child prostitutes) is in part attributable to older men's fear of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Free and full consent is often ignored. In Gambia, a survey of 470 young wives revealed that 36% had not been asked for their consent and did not know they were to be married until the ceremony. Husbands are able to exert strict control over the productive and reproductive roles of child brides, and suicides and physical abuse are not infrequent among these young women.
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. CONCLUSION: A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536
Musick, Kelly; Bumpass, Larry
This article addresses open questions about the nature and meaning of the positive association between marriage and well-being, namely, the extent to which it is causal, shared with cohabitation, and stable over time. We relied on data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,737) and a modeling approach that controls for fixed differences between individuals by relating union transitions to changes in well-being. This study is unique in examining the persistence of changes in well-being as marriages and cohabitations progress (and potentially dissolve) over time. The effects of marriage and cohabitation are found to be similar across a range of measures tapping psychological well-being, health, and social ties. Where there are statistically significant differences, marriage is not always more advantageous. Overall, differences tend to be small and appear to dissipate over time, even when the greater instability of cohabitation is taken into account. PMID:22611285
Musick, Kelly; Bumpass, Larry
This article addresses open questions about the nature and meaning of the positive association between marriage and well-being, namely, the extent to which it is causal, shared with cohabitation, and stable over time. We relied on data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,737) and a modeling approach that controls for fixed…
Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...
In the 1950s and 1960s there was an unprecedented marriage boom in the United States. This was followed in the 1970s by a marriage bust. Some argue that both phenomena are cohort effects, while others argue that they are period effects. The study reported here tested the major period and cohort theories of the marriage boom and bust, by estimating an age-period-cohort model of first marriage for the years 1925-79 using census microdata. The results of the analysis indicate that the marriage boom was mostly a period effect, although there were also cohort influences. More specifically, the hypothesis that the marriage boom was mostly a response to rising wages is shown to be consistent with the data. However, much of the marriage bust can be accounted for by unidentified cohort influences, at least until 1980.
To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.
Kalashnikova, Irina; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf
This report aims to unify several approaches for building stable projection-based reduced order models (ROMs). Attention is focused on linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The model reduction procedure consists of two steps: the computation of a reduced basis, and the projection of the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) onto this reduced basis. Two kinds of reduced bases are considered: the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis and the balanced truncation basis. The projection step of the model reduction can be done in two ways: via continuous projection or via discrete projection. First, an approach for building energy-stable Galerkin ROMs for linear hyperbolic or incompletely parabolic systems of PDEs using continuous projection is proposed. The idea is to apply to the set of PDEs a transformation induced by the Lyapunov function for the system, and to build the ROM in the transformed variables. The resulting ROM will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. It is shown that, for many PDE systems, the desired transformation is induced by a special weighted L2 inner product, termed the %E2%80%9Csymmetry inner product%E2%80%9D. Attention is then turned to building energy-stable ROMs via discrete projection. A discrete counterpart of the continuous symmetry inner product, a weighted L2 inner product termed the %E2%80%9CLyapunov inner product%E2%80%9D, is derived. The weighting matrix that defines the Lyapunov inner product can be computed in a black-box fashion for a stable LTI system arising from the discretization of a system of PDEs in space. It is shown that a ROM constructed via discrete projection using the Lyapunov inner product will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. Connections between the Lyapunov inner product and the inner product induced by the balanced truncation algorithm are made. Comparisons are also made between the symmetry inner product and the Lyapunov inner product. The performance of ROMs constructed
Avogaro, A.; Bristow, J.D.; Bier, D.M.; Cobelli, C.; Toffolo, G.
The minimal model approach to estimating insulin sensitivity (Sl) and glucose effectiveness in promoting its own disposition at basal insulin (SG) is a powerful tool that has been underutilized given its potential applications. In part, this has been due to its inability to separate insulin and glucose effects on peripheral uptake from their effects on hepatic glucose inflow. Prior enhancements, with radiotracer labeling of the dosage, permit this separation but are unsuitable for use in pregnancy and childhood. In this study, we labeled the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) dosage with [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, [2- 2 H]glucose, or both stable isotopically labeled glucose tracers and modeled glucose kinetics in six postabsorptive, nonobese adults. As previously found with the radiotracer model, the tracer-estimated S*l derived from the stable-label IVGTT was greater than Sl in each case except one, and the tracer-estimated SG* was less than SG in each instance. More importantly, however, the stable-label IVGTT estimated each parameter with an average precision of +/- 5% (range 3-9%) compared to average precisions of +/- 74% (range 7-309%) for SG and +/- 22% (range 3-72%) for Sl. In addition, because of the different metabolic fates of the two deuterated tracers, there were minor differences in basal insulin-derived measures of glucose effectiveness, but these differences were negligible for parameters describing insulin-stimulated processes. In conclusion, the stable-label IVGTT is a simple, highly precise means of assessing insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness at basal insulin that can be used to measure these parameters in individuals of all ages, including children and pregnant women
Reda, A Alex; Lindstrom, David
Ethiopia has been characterized by high population growth. Recent social and economic developments have the potential to alter reproductive patterns in the country. Some of these developments include sustained economic growth, urbanization, rapid growth in school enrollments, expansion of primary health care, and a rise in contraceptive access and use. In other national contexts, these developments have been associated with a gradual decoupling of the transition into sexual activity and marriage among young women. We investigate recent trends in the transition into first sex and marriage among three cohorts of Ethiopian women. Using data from the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) we estimate survival curves and discrete-time hazards models to examine recent trends in age at first sex and first marriage among women ages 20-29. Across the three survey years the median age at first sex has remained relatively stable at 17 years, although the median age at marriage has increased from 17 to 18 years between the 2005 and 2011 surveys. Net of the effects of education and place of residence, there is evidence of a slight trend away from premarital first sex to sexual initiation in the context of marriage. However, among the most educated women and women living in urban areas (who are a small minority of women), there is a much greater tendency to initiate sexual activity outside of marriage compared to women with little schooling and women living in rural areas, and once they have begun sexual activity they tend to wait longer before they get married. We also find evidence in the most recent survey that women who have first sexual intercourse before marriage are delaying marriage more than was the case among earlier cohorts.
DeMaris, Alfred; Sanchez, Laura A.; Krivickas, Kristi
This study investigated differences in the trajectory of marital satisfaction in the first 7 years between couples in covenant versus standard marriages. The authors analyzed data on 707 Louisiana marriages from the Marriage Matters Panel Survey of Newlywed Couples, 1998-2004, using multivariate longitudinal growth modeling. When the sample was…
Spatial extreme value analysis is useful to environmental studies, in which extreme value phenomena are of interest and meaningful spatial patterns can be discerned. Max-stable process models are able to describe such phenomena. This class of models is asymptotically justified to characterize the spatial dependence among extremes. However, likelihood inference is challenging for such models because their corresponding joint likelihood is unavailable and only bivariate or trivariate distributions are known. In this paper, we propose a tapered composite likelihood approach by utilizing lower dimensional marginal likelihoods for inference on parameters of various max-stable process models. We consider a weighting strategy based on a "taper range" to exclude distant pairs or triples. The "optimal taper range" is selected to maximize various measures of the Godambe information associated with the tapered composite likelihood function. This method substantially reduces the computational cost and improves the efficiency over equally weighted composite likelihood estimators. We illustrate its utility with simulation experiments and an analysis of rainfall data in Switzerland.
Manglos-Weber, Nicolette D; Weinreb, Alexander A
Goode's foundational work on the fertility transition identified own-choice marriage as a factor driving fertility decline, part of a widening repertoire of choice pertaining to marriage and childbearing. Yet research supporting this connection in today's transitional societies is scarce and somewhat contradictory, and it is unclear how other marital traditions, such as consanguineous marriage, shape this relationship. This study evaluates Goode's theorized connection using pooled Demographic and Health Survey data from Turkey, comparing children ever born, use of contraception, and parity progression across four types of marriage: own-choice and arranged marriage; and marriage to a cousin versus an unrelated spouse. Results are largely consistent with the idea that a move towards own-choice marriage reflects a widening repertoire of choice that also leads to fertility decline. However, they also show that hybrid models like own-choice marriage to a cousin tempers these effects.
Weinreb, Alexander A.
Goode’s foundational work on the fertility transition identified own-choice marriage as a factor driving fertility decline, part of a widening repertoire of choice pertaining to marriage and childbearing. Yet research supporting this connection in today’s transitional societies is scarce and somewhat contradictory, and it is unclear how other marital traditions, such as consanguineous marriage, shape this relationship. This study evaluates Goode’s theorized connection using pooled Demographic and Health Survey data from Turkey, comparing children ever born, use of contraception, and parity progression across four types of marriage: own-choice and arranged marriage; and marriage to a cousin versus an unrelated spouse. Results are largely consistent with the idea that a move towards own-choice marriage reflects a widening repertoire of choice that also leads to fertility decline. However, they also show that hybrid models like own-choice marriage to a cousin tempers these effects. PMID:28316343
Gibson-Davis, Christina M; Ananat, Elizabeth O; Gassman-Pines, Anna
Conventional wisdom holds that births following the colloquially termed "shotgun marriage"-that is, births to parents who married between conception and the birth-are nearing obsolescence. To investigate trends in shotgun marriage, we matched North Carolina administrative data on nearly 800,000 first births among white and black mothers to marriage and divorce records. We found that among married births, midpregnancy-married births (our preferred term for shotgun-married births) have been relatively stable at about 10 % over the past quarter-century while increasing substantially for vulnerable population subgroups. In 2012, among black and white less-educated and younger women, midpregnancy-married births accounted for approximately 20 % to 25 % of married first births. The increasing representation of midpregnancy-married births among married births raises concerns about well-being among at-risk families because midpregnancy marriages may be quite fragile. Our analysis revealed, however, that midpregnancy marriages were more likely to dissolve only among more advantaged groups. Of those groups considered to be most at risk of divorce-namely, black women with lower levels of education and who were younger-midpregnancy marriages had the same or lower likelihood of divorce as preconception marriages. Our results suggest an overlooked resiliency in a type of marriage that has only increased in salience.
Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.
, and the extent to which men and women sort positively on several traits in marriage. Counterfactual analysis conducted with the model, suggests that US middle aged men and women are earning in the order of 30 percent of their return to schooling through improved marital outcomes.......A collective marriage matching model is estimated and calibrated to quantify the share of returns to schooling that is realized through marriage. The predictions of the model are matched with US data on the relationship between schooling and wage rates, the division of time within the household...
Full Text Available Based on data from qualitative interviews with 40 engaged heterosexual couples, this paper examines how couples transform their relationship from “serious” to being “engaged to be married.” Social Scientists have developed relationship models designed to explain the transformation, but these models fail to adequately capture how couples transform their relationship and the context in which this behavior occurs. Using a constructionist framework, an alternative process model is offered. The five-process model captures the ongoing and fluid work couples perform to negotiate a redefinition of the relationship. Couples reflexively use a host of complex symbolic interaction including talk, rituals, relationships with others, testing, and use of time to construct their relationship in a new way. By examining the underlying reality construction process, rather than merely looking at the outcome, the social processes and human actions that shape relationships are revealed.
Uhlig, Louise; Hodzic, Lejla; Löchte, Frans; Stjerneby, Luna; Ravn, Katrine; Zampetis, Marios
How do Simone De Beauvoir and Phyllis Schlafly describe marriage, and what role does the woman play in their respective conceptions of the ideal marriage? In this project the point of departure is taken in the opposing opinions of feminist philosopher Simone De Beauvoir and conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly on the subject of marriage and the ethics and morality within. With the help of critical analysis and skepticism, this project delves into opinions and arguments uttered by Schlafly a...
Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon
Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...
James Alm; J. Sebastian Leguizamon
We use household data from the Current Population Survey to calculate how the real value of the so-called "marriage tax" or "marriage subsidy" in the federal individual income tax has changed over the period 1969 to 2009. We examine three issues: the magnitude of the marriage tax/subsidy and its evolution over time, its effects on the distribution of income (including the effects of different demographic characteristics on the magnitudes and trends), and the causal factors in its evolution (e...
Rumble, Lauren; Peterman, Amber; Irdiana, Nadira; Triyana, Margaret; Minnick, Emilie
Child marriage, defined as marriage before age 18, is associated with adverse human capital outcomes. The child marriage burden remains high among female adolescents in Indonesia, despite increasing socioeconomic development. Research on child marriage in Southeast Asia is scarce. No nationally representative studies thus far have examined determinants of child marriage in Indonesia through multivariate regression modeling. We used data from the nationally representative 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey and the Adolescent Reproductive Health Survey to estimate determinants of child marriage and marital preferences. We ran multivariate models to estimate the association between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and the following early marriage outcomes: 1) ever been married or cohabited, 2) married or cohabited before 18 years, 3) married or cohabited before 16 years, 4) self-reported marital-age preferences and 5) attitudes approving female child marriage. Among the child marriage research sample (n = 6578, females aged 20-24 at time of survey), approximately 17% and 6% report being married before 18 and 16 years old respectively. Among the marital preferences research sample (n = 8779, unmarried females 15-24), the average respondent preferred marriage at approximately 26 years and 5% had attitudes approving child marriage. Education, wealth and media exposure have protective effects across marriage outcomes, while rural residence is a risk factor for the same. There are significant variations by region, indicating roles of religious, ethnic and other geographically diverse factors. This research fills a gap in understanding of child marriage determinants in Indonesia. There appears to be little support for child marriage among girls and young women, indicating an entry point for structural interventions that would lead to lasting change. Future research efforts should prioritize rigorous testing of gender
Hauser, A.; Verhey, J. L.
The present work shows a method for stable simulations via the lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for electromagnetic waves (EM) transiting homogeneous media. LB models for such media were already presented in the literature, but they suffer from numerical instability when the media transitions are sharp. We use one of these models in the limit of pure vacuum derived from Liu and Yan [Appl. Math. Model. 38, 1710 (2014), 10.1016/j.apm.2013.09.009] and apply an extension that treats the effects of polarization and magnetization separately. We show simulations of simple examples in which EM waves travel into media to quantify error scaling, stability, accuracy, and time scaling. For conductive media, we use the Strang splitting and check the simulations accuracy at the example of the skin effect. Like pure EM propagation, the error for the static limits, which are constructed with a current density added in a first-order scheme, can be less than 1 % . The presented method is an easily implemented alternative for the stabilization of simulation for EM waves propagating in spatially complex structured media properties and arbitrary transitions.
In the contemporary United States, marriage is closely related to money. Men and (perhaps to a lesser extent) women with more education, higher incomes, larger stocks of wealth, and more stable employment are more likely to marry than are people in more precarious economic positions. But is this relationship truly causal? That is, does economic…
Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C
Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram
We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using panel data on two cohorts of Danish men and women. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter marriage. We find...... that the educations of husbands and wives are complements. Education raises the share of the marital surplus for men but not for women. As men and women get older, husbands receive a larger share of the marital surplus. The estimated costs of divorce are high both early and late in marriage....
Andreev, V. A.; Tsipenyuk, D. Yu.
The generalization of Einstein's special theory of relativity (SRT) is proposed. In this model the possibility of unification of scalar gravity and electromagnetism into a single unified field is considered. Formally, the generalization of the SRT is that instead of (1+3)-dimensional Minkowski space the (1+4)-dimensional extension G is considered. As a fifth additional coordinate the interval S is used. This value is saved under the usual Lorentz transformations in Minkowski space M, but it changes when the transformations in the extended space G are used. We call this model the extended space model (ESM). From a physical point of view our expansion means that processes in which the rest mass of the particles changes are acceptable now. If the rest mass of a particle does not change and the physical quantities do not depend on an additional variable S, then the electromagnetic and gravitational fields exist independently of each other. But if the rest mass is variable and there is a dependence on S, then these two fields are combined into a single unified field. In the extended space model a photon can have a nonzero mass and this mass can be either positive or negative. The gravitational effects such as the speed of escape, gravitational red shift and detection of light can be analyzed in the frame of the extended space model. In this model all these gravitational effects can be found algebraically by the rotations in the (1+4) dimensional space. Now it becomes possible to predict some future results of visible size of supermassive objects in our Universe due to new stage of experimental astronomy development in the RadioAstron Project and analyze phenomena is an explosion of the star V838 Mon.
The author presents an historical perspective on abortion, contraception and marriage as a prelude to an examination of changing attitudes toward sex. The article deals with the negative effects attributed to the increased incidence of early dating and early marriage of teenagers in the United States. The author also assumes positions on such…
Gromov, Sergey S.
This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ 13 C, δ 18 O and Δ 17 O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13 CO/ 12 CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13 C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH 4 ) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH 4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13 C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The
Full Text Available We present a new type of hybrid simulation model, intended to simulate a single stable auroral arc in the latitude/altitude plane. The ionospheric ions are treated as particles, the electrons are assumed to follow a Boltzmann response and the magnetospheric ions are assumed to be so hot that they form a background population unaffected by the electric fields that arise. The system is driven by assumed parallel electron energisation causing a primary negative charge cloud and an associated potential structure to build up. The results show how a closed potential structure and density depletion of an auroral arc build up and how they decay after the driver is turned off. The model also produces upgoing energetic ion beams and predicts strong static perpendicular electric fields to be found in a relatively narrow altitude range (~ 5000–11 000 km.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; auroral phenomena – Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies
Sam Cameron; Nicolas Vaillant
The present paper adopts a modelling perspective derived from goods characteristics analysis [Lancaster (1971)] and the general ideas of transactions costs. This is implemented in estimated equations, which feature the age of partner sought as the dependent variable and own age and various other personal characteristics, and characteristics desired in a partner, as the right-hand side variables. The results show a very strong relationship between age and desired partner age. More interestingl...
Rajan, S I
Demographers are interested in marriage age because women who marry early are exposed to conceptions through the most fecund years of their lives. Women who marry young are exposed comparatively to a longer duration and tend to shorten the intergenerational years, consequently influencing the fertility to be higher. In India, despite the law, child marriages occur in many states, more prevalent among the backward conservative communities. According to India's Child Marriage Restraint Act, a woman must be 18 to marry (a man 21), but in fact in 1981 the marriage age of females was 15. This young marriage age is substantiated by available survey and report data. For example, in a mass marriage solemnized at Wardha village in Vidisha district in 1981, there was not 1 of the 110 couples of the prescribed marriage age. 55 of the brides were below age 10 and 48 were between 10-12 years. Only 8 brides were older than 14 years. A survey conducted by the Population Research Center, Lucknow University, revealed that more than half of the females surveyed were married before age 15. The census data for 1981 provide the following information: 1.19 million or 2.63% of the total 45.18 million boys aged 10-14 years and 2.67 million or 6.59% of the total 40.49 million girls were married. Christians had the highest mean age at marriage followed by Sikhs and Jains, but all religious groups had shown an improvement in their age at marriage. Several factors are responsible for child marriage. Consequently, a multidimensional approach to dealing with the problem is needed. The way to bring about this change is through creating more job and educational opportunities for women.
Maswikwa, Belinda; Richter, Linda; Kaufman, Jay; Nandi, Arijit
The relationship of national laws that prohibit child marriage with the prevalence of child marriage and adolescent birth is not well understood. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys and from the Child Marriage Database created by the MACHEquity program at McGill University were used to examine the relationship between laws that consistently set the age for marriage for girls at 18 or older and the prevalence of child marriage and teenage childbearing in 12 Sub-Saharan African countries. Countries were considered to have consistent laws against child marriage if they required females to be 18 or older to marry, to marry with parental consent and to consent to sex. Associations between consistent laws and the two outcomes were identified using multivariate regression models. Four of the 12 countries had laws that consistently set the minimum age for marriage at 18 or older. After adjustment for covariates, the prevalence of child marriage was 40% lower in countries with consistent laws against child marriage than in countries without consistent laws against the practice (prevalence ratio, 0.6). The prevalence of teenage childbearing was 25% lower in countries with consistent minimum marriage age laws than in countries without consistent laws (0.8). Our results support the hypothesis that consistent minimum marriage age laws protect against the exploitation of girls.
B’tari Sekar Nastiti
Full Text Available In general, the marriage is lived by a spouse who lives together and cooperates with each other to shape the family. Recently, many couples do not live together, but in a distant city, and are called a long-distance marriage or a commuter marriage. From many reasons that create the long distance marriage, one of which is the job. The aim of this study is to find out the condition of the marriage life in commuter marriage and the dynamics on perceived marital satisfaction. This research method uses the qualitative method. Subjects in this study are 3 pairs of husband and wife practicing commuter marriage, which has a minimum marriage age of 5 years and has at least one child. The research result has shown that wives tend to experience dissatisfaction in the marriage, while the husbands feel quite happy in the marriage.
Weisfeld, Glenn E; Weisfeld, Carol C
Marriage is universal, and pair bonding is found in other species too with highly dependent young. So marriage functions as a reproductive social arrangement that traditionally involved the extended family. The sexes are not identical in their biological contributions to children's survival, so they seek somewhat different attributes in a mate. Men seek a young, attractive, sexually faithful bride. Women seek a man who is older, taller, and (as in many other species) socially dominant. Both sexes prefer a kind, healthy, attractive, similar mate who is emotionally attached to them. A spouse who fails to maintain sufficiently high mate value is vulnerable to divorce. Infertility and sexual dissatisfaction predict divorce, as does death of a child, but the more children, the stabler the marriage. Cross-cultural data suggest that cruel or subdominant men (e.g., poor providers) and unfaithful women are prone to divorce. Marriages in which the wife dominates the husband in economic contributions, nonverbal behavior, and decision making tend to be less satisfying. In societies in which wives are economically independent of husbands, divorce rates are high. As women's economic power has risen with industrialization, divorce rates have climbed. Economic and fitness considerations also help explain cultural differences in polygyny, age at marriage, arranged marriage, concern with the bride's sexual chastity, and marriage ceremonies. Other factors also affect marital dynamics, such as state subsidies to families, the sex ratio, and influence of the couple's parents.
Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include food sources for animals, water sources for plants, pollution sources...
Nobles, Jenna; Buttenheim, Alison
This study investigates the relationship between economic trends and entry into marriage in a rapidly developing setting. We examine Indonesian marriage in the 1990's, a decade of substantial economic growth followed by a sudden financial collapse in 1998. We use discrete-time hazard models to analyze information on 4,078 women and 4,496 men from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. While previous research has shown that marriages may be postponed after economic downturn, we find no evidence of such delays at the national level following the 1998 financial crisis. In contrast, we use regional wage rate data to show that entry into marriage is inversely related to economic growth throughout the decade for all women and for men from lower socioeconomic strata.
Carlson, Jon; Dinkmeyer, Don, Sr.
Describes the assumptions, processes, and techniques used in Alderian marriage therapy. Describes purpose of therapy as assessing current beliefs and behaviors while educating the couple in new procedures that can help the couple establish new goals. (Author/ABL)
Bazant, Z.P.; Tabbara, M.R.
This paper presents general thermodynamic criteria for the stable states and stable path of structures with an interacting system of cracks. In combination with numerical finite element results for various cracked structure geometries, these criteria indicate that the crack response path of structures may exhibit bifurcations, after which the symmetry of the crack system is broken and some cracks grow preferentially. The problem is of interest for the prediction of ultimate loads, ductility and energy absorption capability of nuclear concrete structures as well as structures made of composites and ceramics
Syse, Astri; Aas, Gjøril Bergva
Cancer's impact on family formation in older adulthood is not well described. Marriage rates among older adults were therefore explored. Data on the unmarried Norwegian population aged 45-80 in 1974-2001 (N = 306 000) was retrieved from the Cancer Registry, the Central Population Register, and population censuses. Marriage rates for 27,600 persons diagnosed with cancer were compared to those of the general population by means of discrete-time hazard regression models. Men with cancer had a similar marriage rate as cancer-free men, whereas women experienced a 25% marriage deficit after cancer. This deficit was most pronounced after ovarian (OR 0.48) and breast (OR 0.69) cancer. Marriage rates decreased with time from diagnosis. No cancer forms elevated marriage rates. Marriage rates among older male cancer survivors are similar to those of the general population. Ovarian and breast cancer in older women was associated with pronounced marriage deficits. A possible explanation is that these gender-specific cancers relate to aspects of persons' psychological well-being, body image, and sense of femininity. Long-term adverse treatment effects are also common for the cancers in question. To explore explanations further, more details on treatment and illness progression are needed. Increased awareness of how ovarian and breast cancer may affect (prospects of) interpersonal relationships is valuable for cancer survivors and clinicians, and may facilitate communication of relevant, related issues during consultations. Our findings may suggest a need for more extensive psychosocial follow-up after these gender-specific cancer forms in older women, but further research is clearly warranted.
B’tari Sekar Nastiti; Bagus Wismanto
In general, the marriage is lived by a spouse who lives together and cooperates with each other to shape the family. Recently, many couples do not live together, but in a distant city, and are called a long-distance marriage or a commuter marriage. From many reasons that create the long distance marriage, one of which is the job. The aim of this study is to find out the condition of the marriage life in commuter marriage and the dynamics on perceived marital satisfaction. This research method...
Full Text Available One of the most frequent forms of child abuse worldwide is child marriage. Underage marriages are going on to keep their commonness in countries such as Turkey although frequencies of them are decreasing in the world. Child marriage generally refers to the marriage of a child who is under 18 years of age. Because the majority of these marriages are performed without the conscious consent of the child, they are also defined as early and forced marriages. Child marriages seperate children from their families and friends, expose them to domestic violence, jeopardize their development and the opportunities in educational, social and occupational areas. Early marriages may lead to psychologi-cal problems as well as depression and suicide. The aim of this article is to evaluate the frequency and causes of early marriage and its psychosocial consequences. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 410-420
Stier, H; Shavit, Y
"This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy." excerpt
Nath, D C; Singh, K K; Land, K C; Talukdar, P K
The length of the first birth interval is one of the strongest and most persistent factors affecting fertility in noncontracepting populations, with longer intervals usually associated with lower fertility. Compared to Western society, the average length of the first birth interval is much longer in traditional Indian society. Yet Indian fertility rates are higher because of either ineffective family planning procedures or deliberate nonuse of birth control and because of the high proportion of the population that is married. Here, we examine the effects of various sociodemographic covariates (with an emphasis on the role of age at marriage) on the length of the first birth interval for two states of India: Assam and Uttar Pradesh. Life table and multivariate hazards modeling techniques are applied to the data. Covariates such as age at marriage, present age of mother, female's occupation, family income, and place of residence have strong effects on the variation of the length of the first birth interval. For each subgroup of females (classified according to different levels of the covariates), the median length of the first birth interval for the Assam (Bengali-speaking) sample is shorter than that of the Uttar Pradesh (Hindi-speaking) sample.
Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina
Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.
Kitpitak, B.; Kanjanaput, W.; Poolyarat, N.; Picha, R; Onjun, T.
The formation of plasma transport barrier in Tokamak is an important issue for achieving high energy confinement and sufficient fusion performance. The simulation using in this experiment simulates cycles of dropping grains in a sandpile with two stable and two unstable slope regimes which share the same characteristic as the formation of pedestal and there are several parameters used, including stable boundaries, grains in a toppling, relax process iterations per cycle, grains in a drop and number of drops per cycle. By using this simulation, the effects of the relaxation times and number of trooping grain (the number of collapsing grain in the relaxation process) can be investigated. It is found in the simulations that the pedestal region can be observed only when the number of deposited grain exceeds a critical value which is related to number of relaxation times and number of allowed trooping grain. In another words, the pedestal formation occurs when the particle deposition rate is higher than the average diffusion rate. In addition, altering amount of trooping grain can lead to remarkable effects on slope and height of the profiles. In order to achieve better energy confinement, further study of formation of plasma transport barrier is needed.
The paper discusses the Akan concept of marriage, and analyses aphorisms and proverbs that relate to Akan marriage. The aphorisms are discussed under four categories namely (a) marriage in general, (b) pre-marriage, (c) during marriage, and (d) post marriage. These maxims are analysed to depict how the Akans ...
We use elementary game-theoretical concepts to compare domestic equilibria with and without marriage. In particular, we examine the effects of marriage legislation, matrimonial property regime, and divorce court sentencing practice, on the decision to marry, and on the choice of game conditional on marriage. We find that, in the absence of social stigma or legal discrimination against unmarried couples, a couple will marry only if marriage serves as a commitment device which facilitates coope...
The subject of this thesis is the modeling of the isotopic temperature proxies d18O, dD and deuterium excess in precipitation. Two modeling studies were carried out, one using the regional climate model, and one using a global climate model. In the regional study the model was run for the period...... the modeled isotopes do not agree with ice core data. The discrepancy between the model output and the ice core data is attributed to the boundary conditions, where changes in ice sheets and vegetation have not been accounted for....
van Poppel, F.W.A.; Monden, C.; Mandemakers, K.
Strong relationships have been hypothesized between the timing of marriage and the familial environment of the couple. Sociologists have identified various mechanisms via which the age at marriage in the parental generation might be related to the age at marriage of the children. In our paper we
Kane, Jennifer B.
Marriage is a social tie associated with health advantages for adults and their children, as lower rates of preterm birth and low birth weight are observed among married women. This study tests two competing hypotheses explaining these marriage advantages—marriage protection versus marriage selection—using a sample of recent births to single, cohabiting, and married women from the National Survey of Family Growth, 2006–10. Propensity score matching and fixed effects regression results demonst...
interglacial. Present day boundary conditions were used except for the insolation and the SST patterns. The modeled summer temperatures for the Northern Hemisphere were found to match proxy data well, with the large summer insolation anomalies causing warmer summers than for present day. The peak summer......The subject of this thesis is the modeling of the isotopic temperature proxies d18O, dD and deuterium excess in precipitation. Two modeling studies were carried out, one using the regional climate model, and one using a global climate model. In the regional study the model was run for the period...... 1959 to 2001 using meteorological data and a domain including Greenland and the surrounding North Atlantic. The model was found to reproduce the observed seasonal variability of temperature and precipitation well. In comparison with ice core data from Greenland and observations from coastal stations...
Wilson, Sven E
A large body of literature argues that marriage promotes health and increases longevity. But do these benefits extend to maintaining a healthy body weight, as the economic theory of health investment suggests they should? They do not. Using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), I find that entry into marriage among both men and women aged 51-70 is associated with weight gain and exit from marriage with weight loss. I evaluate three additional theories with respect to the cross-sectional and longitudinal variation in the data. First, it may be that a broader set of shared risk factors (such as social obligations regarding meals) raises body mass for married couples. However, the shared risk factor model predicts that the intra-couple correlation should increase with respect to marital duration. Instead, it declines. Second, scholars have recently promoted a "crisis" model of marriage in which marital transitions, not marital status, determine differences in body mass. The crisis model is consistent with short-term effects seen for divorce, but not for the persistent weight gains associated with marriage or the persistent weight loss following widowhood. And transition models, in general, cannot explain significant cross-sectional differences across marital states in a population that is no longer experiencing many transitions, nor can it account for the prominent gender differences (in late middle-age, the heaviest group is unmarried women and the lightest are unmarried men). Third, I argue that pressures of the marriage market, in combination with gendered preferences regarding partner BMI, can account for all the longitudinal and cross-sectional patterns found in the data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kerckhoff, Richard K.
The author discusses the various contradictory views about middle age. Some claim that middle aged persons face a new identity crisis and have a number of adjustment problems in their work and marriage. Others maintain that middle age is a period of maturity and strength. (SE)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. Plant-Fungus Marriages. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 33-44. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/04/0033-0044. Keywords. Fungi ...
Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Martin, MichaelC.; Venturini, Marco
We present a model for producing stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), enhancing higher frequency coherent emission and limits to stable emission due to a microbunching instability excited by the SR. We use this model to optimize the performance of a source for CSR emission
The term of undocumented marriage is only known in Muslim community in Indonesia. Undocumented marriage is a legal type of marriage based on Islam as long as it is meets the marriage’s legal requirements; however, it is diverge from the state rules because it is not registered in the authorized institution for marriage. A woman who married with this type of marriage, based on law and administration, has no clear identity before the state. It will make her difficult to have her right as a wife...
The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets were used by Zeppelin et al. (2015) to model northern fur seal foraging habitats based on stable isotope values measured in plasma and red blood...
Caltabiano, Marcantonio; Castiglioni, Maria
In Nepal, marriage occurs at a relatively young age and arranged weddings are widespread. However, recent changes in the family formation process and the timing of first sexual intercourse suggest that a transformation may be under way. Data on marriage, cohabitation and first sexual intercourse from the 2001 Nepalese Demographic and Health Survey were used to describe the family formation process. The sequence of these events and the intervals between them were explored for currently married men and women. Hazard models were used to identify factors associated with behavioral changes over time. The average age at marriage among women married before age 20 increased from 13.7 years for those born in 1952-1956 to 15.6 years for those born in 1977-1981, while remaining relatively stable for men married before age 25 (17.3 years for the 1942-1946 birth cohort to 17.7 for the 1972-1976 birth cohort). After individual and couple characteristics were controlled for, younger age at interview was associated with greater odds of simultaneous marriage and cohabitation for both genders (odds ratios, 1.3-1.7). Younger age at interview was also associated with premarital sex among men--those aged 39 or younger had significantly higher risks than older men of having had premarital sex, with odds ratios rising from 1.6 among those aged 35-39 to 1.8 among those aged 15-24. It is important not only to promote education as a means of delaying marriage and childbearing, but also to implement programs and services that prevent reproductive health problems for young married couples.
Kane, Jennifer B
Marriage is a social tie associated with health advantages for adults and their children, as lower rates of preterm birth and low birth weight are observed among married women. This study tests two competing hypotheses explaining these marriage advantages-marriage protection versus marriage selection-using a sample of recent births to single, cohabiting, and married women from the National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-10. Propensity score matching and fixed effects regression results demonstrate support for marriage selection, as a rich set of early life selection factors account for all of the cohabiting-married disparity and part of the single-married disparity. Subsequent analyses demonstrate prenatal smoking mediates the adjusted single-married disparity in birth weight, lending some support for the marriage protection perspective. Study findings sharpen our understanding of why and how marriage matters for child well-being, and provide insight into preconception and prenatal factors describing intergenerational transmissions of inequality via birth weight.
Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram
We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using 27 years of panel data for the entire Danish cohort born in 1960. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce, and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter...
Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry
The prevailing view that the vast majority of those who complete suicide have an underlying psychiatric disorder has been recently challenged by research on the contribution of "predicaments", in the absence of mental illness, to suicide. In this paper, we sought data to support the notion that forced marriage may lead to suicide without the presence of psychiatric disorder. Historical records, newspapers, and the electronic media were searched for examples. Two examples from ancient times and six from the last hundred years were located and described. These cases suggest that forced marriage may lead to suicide and complements earlier findings that loss of fortune, health, liberty, and reputation may lead to suicide in the absence of mental disorder.
Patterns of marriage among the aboriginal population of Australia are investigated. The author attempts to determine "the economic significance of a method of family formation in which child-bearing is an essential component of the process....[and discusses the impact of] change in the micro-economies of Aboriginal households and families." Probabilities of change in marital status are also considered. Data are from the 1981 census. excerpt
Child marriages have been practiced in India for thousands of years. Even though its popularity has now decreased due to changes in law and society, it is still a major problem, causing a great deal of hardship. Even though laws prohibited child marriage as early as 1860, statistics show that, on the average, Indians marry very young (1972: females at age 17; males at age 22 years of age; 34 females and 13 males under age 15). The following are incentives to marry young and have large families: 1) religion teaches that only those with descendants go to heaven; 2) unmarried women are traditionally scorned; and 3) most importantly, economic reasons encourage people to have large families as soon as possible, e.g., male children are encouraged to marry to obtain the dowry as soon as possible and children are considered a source of income in India. Child marriage in India causes the following problems: 1) a high infant mortality rate, as much as 75% in rural areas; 2) an imbalance in the male to female ratio (1901: 970 females/1000 males; 1971: 930 females/1000 males) because women who marry young tend to lose their health earlier; 3) a population explosion: in 1971, the Indian population was found to be increasing at the rate of 225/1000.
Agrawal, P; Srivastava, O P
As a result of sociocultural factors, including increased access on the part of females to education and urbanization, the average age at marriage is steadily increasing among females in India. In fact, the Government of India is attempting to limit the age at marriage to age 18 years and above. Since age at marriage is an important determinant of completed family size, there is a need for models that can take account of this trend toward a reduction in the number of years Indian women spend in a married state. The model presented in this paper derives the distribution of the time interval from marriage to nth conception and is based on the assumptions of constant fertility until menopause and nonuse of contraception. To illustrate the effect of a shift in marriage age, data from the village of Haryana were used. The average rest period associated with each live birth was assumed to be 1.365 years and the length of the fertile period 45 years. In this data set, the average age at marriage was 15.33 years, which produces a completed family size of 11 children according to the model. However, if the marriage age is shifted to 20 years, the model produces an estimate of only 7 births.
Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir
Recent substantial declines in first marriage in Western countries have been accompanied by increases in the average age at first marriage. Since the period proportion ever marrying, PEM, is sensitive to cohort tempo changes, the recent fall in the PEM may simply reflect cohort delays in marriage....... The importance of timing factors is examined in the light of twentieth-century experience of first marriage in England and Wales and the USA. Using a variant of the Timing Index developed in research on fertility, we measure cohort timing effects for marriage and calculate an adjusted PEM. After examining...... twentieth-century trends in nuptiality for men and women, we find substantial tempo effects on the period PEM. Adjusted PEM values show a real decline in marriage for cohorts, but that decline is considerably smaller than the one shown by the unadjusted figures. This is especially true for England and Wales...
Uhlig, Louise; Vehabovic, Lejla; Zampetis, Marios; Löchte, Frans; Stjerbeby, Luna; Ravn, Katrine
How do Simone De Beauvoir and Phyllis Schlafly describe marriage, and what role does the woman play in their respective conceptions of the ideal marriage? In this project the point of departure is taken in the opposing opinions of feminist philosopher Simone De Beauvoir and conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly on the subject of marriage and the ethics and morality within. With the help of critical analysis and skepticism, this project delves into opinions and arguments uttered by Schlafly a...
Ma, Chao; Ma, Qinghua; Yao, Haixiang; Hou, Tiancheng
In this paper, we propose to use the Fractional Stable Process (FSP) for option pricing. The FSP is one of the few candidates to directly model a number of desired empirical properties of asset price risk neutral dynamics. However, pricing the vanilla European option under FSP is difficult and problematic. In the paper, built upon the developed Feynman Path Integral inspired techniques, we present a novel computational model for option pricing, i.e. the Fractional Stable Process Path Integral (FSPPI) model under a general fractional stable distribution that tackles this problem. Numerical and empirical experiments show that the proposed pricing model provides a correction of the Black-Scholes pricing error - overpricing long term options, underpricing short term options; overpricing out-of-the-money options, underpricing in-the-money options without any additional structures such as stochastic volatility and a jump process.
Martinussen, Torben; Pipper, Christian Bressen
model in situations where the correlated survival data show a decreasing association with time. In this paper, we devise a likelihood based estimation procedure for the positive stable shared frailty Cox model, which is expected to obtain high efficiency. The proposed estimator is provided with large...
Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline
Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...
Killewald, Alexandra; Gough, Margaret
Married men’s wage premium is often attributed to within-household specialization: men can devote more effort to wage-earning when their wives assume responsibility for household labor. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the specialization hypothesis, arguing that, if specialization causes the male marriage premium, married women should experience wage losses. Furthermore, specialization by married parents should augment the motherhood penalty and the fatherhood premium for married as compared to unmarried parents. Using fixed-effects models and data from the NLSY79, we estimate within-gender differences in wages according to marital status and between-gender differences in the associations between marital status and wages. We then test whether specialization on time use, job traits, and tenure accounts for the observed associations. Results for women do not support the specialization hypothesis. Childless men and women both receive a marriage premium. Marriage augments the fatherhood premium but not the motherhood penalty. Changes in own and spousal employment hours, job traits, and tenure appear to benefit both married men and women, although men benefit more. Marriage changes men’s labor market behavior in ways that augment wages, but these changes do not appear to occur at the expense of women’s wages. PMID:24039271
I study the effects of improvements in contraception on premarital sexual behavior, pregnancy, and marriage. I develop a model where individuals date before marrying in order to learn about relationship quality. While dating, individuals face the risk of pregnancy or contracting a sexually-transmitted infection (STI). The model predicts that contraceptive improvements increase the number of sexual partners, increase sexual acts, increase STI rates, and, under certain conditions, delay marriag...
Basit, Abdul; Raza, S Shoaib; Irfan, Naseem
In this paper a Monte Carlo model for describing the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides (represented by Lagrangian particles/neutral tracers) continuously released into a stable planetary boundary layer is presented. The effect of variation in release height and wind directional shear on plume dispersion is studied. The resultant plume concentration and dose rate at the ground is also calculated. The turbulent atmospheric parameters, like vertical profiles of fluctuating wind velocity components and eddy lifetime, were calculated using empirical relations for a stable atmosphere. The horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients calculated by a numerical Lagrangian model are compared with the original and modified Pasquill-Gifford and Briggs empirical σs. The comparison shows that the Monte Carlo model can successfully predict dispersion in a stable atmosphere using the empirical turbulent parameters. The predicted ground concentration and dose rate contours indicate a significant increase in the affected area when wind shear is accounted for in the calculations
Capturing the potentially strong dependence among the peak concentrations of multiple air pollutants across a spatial region is crucial for assessing the related public health risks. In order to investigate the multivariate spatial dependence properties of air pollution extremes, we introduce a new class of multivariate max-stable processes. Our proposed model admits a hierarchical tree-based formulation, in which the data are conditionally independent given some latent nested $\\\\alpha$-stable random factors. The hierarchical structure facilitates Bayesian inference and offers a convenient and interpretable characterization. We fit this nested multivariate max-stable model to the maxima of air pollution concentrations and temperatures recorded at a number of sites in the Los Angeles area, showing that the proposed model succeeds in capturing their complex tail dependence structure.
Full Text Available A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase was performed in January 2015 to examine the available literature on validated diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease and to describe the characteristics of the models. Studies that were designed to develop and validate diagnostic models of pre-test probability for stable coronary artery disease were included. Data regarding baseline patient characteristics, procedural characteristics, modeling methods, metrics of model performance, risk of bias, and clinical usefulness were extracted. Ten studies involving the development of 12 models and two studies focusing on external validation were identified. Seven models were validated internally, and seven models were validated externally. Discrimination varied between studies that were validated internally (C statistic 0.66-0.81 and externally (0.49-0.87. Only one study presented reclassification indices. The majority of better performing models included sex, age, symptoms, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia as variables. Only two diagnostic models evaluated the effects on clinical decision making processes or patient outcomes. Most diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease have had modest success, and very few present data regarding the effects of these models on clinical decision making processes or patient outcomes.
Full Text Available Background: Despite increased attention to shifting union-formation processes, there is little consensus as to which is more stable, modern unions or traditional marriages. This is especially relevant in Malawi, where divorce is common. Objective: We investigate what individual, family, and relationship characteristics are associated with early divorce, and how unions with these characteristics make sense in the lives of young women. Methods: We draw on the 2006 wave of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH and on qualitative peer interviews by young people. We first investigate the prevalence of divorce by time since first union and then estimate a logistic discrete-time hazard model to test the association between individual, family, and relationship characteristics and early divorce. Finally, we use a thematic analysis of qualitative data to understand the social context of fragile relationships. Results: The first three years of marriage exhibit the highest rates of divorce. Women who marry someone they have known for a short time and whose relationship is not embedded in family ties are more likely to divorce early. These impulsive marriages reflect characteristics that are borrowed from both modern and traditional cultural repertoires. Their fragility stems from the absence of both family involvement and a strong emotional bond between spouses. Contribution: This research bridges the demographic literature on divorce in sub-Saharan Africa with anthropological inquiry into the globalization of romantic courtship and companionate marriage. We show that hybrid impulsive unions are more fragile than either modern or traditional unions.
This essay examines how marriage relationships came to be constituted as therapeutic objects after WWII and the impact that this had on British postwar understandings of the meaning of marriage. In contrast to prevailing concerns during the interwar decades about sexual dissatisfaction as the chief impediment to marital stability, post-WWII marriage counselors and therapists framed marital harmony as dependent upon spouses' psychological maturity. An inability to sustain a stable marriage was interpreted as a sign of arrested development, most often stemming from a dysfunctional relationship with one or both parents in childhood. This essay reveals that the equal-but-different gender roles that were the cornerstone of the modern "companionate" marriage were crucial to marital counselors and therapists' psychological understanding of marriage as an interpersonal relationship during the decades following WWII. Practitioners gauged therapeutic success not only in accordance with whether or not couples stayed married, but also in terms of the extent to which spouses enthusiastically accepted the adult masculine and feminine spousal roles that the male-breadwinning nuclear family required. Moreover, therapists' valuing of the emotional dimensions of marriage made "natural" feminine attributes-such as a presumed ease in establishing loving relationships-a centrally valued aspect of therapeutic work and intimate life more broadly. Far from having a potentially disruptive impact on the presumed naturalness of gender difference (which had been a focus of criticism of psychoanalysis during the interwar decades), the psychoanalytic techniques that were developed to treat marriage problems after WWII were profoundly normalizing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F
This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abstract. If women marry younger than men, increased population growth causes a surplus of women in the marriage market. This paper introduces search frictions into a matching model with transferable utility and age-dependent match payoffs to study if this so-called marriage squeeze has caused a dowry inflation in India. Using data from Karnataka it is shown that the observed shifts in the age distributions and sex ratio of unmarried men and women during the marriage squeeze lead to higher do...
Manfredini, Matteo; Breschi, Marco; Fornasin, Alessio; Seghieri, Chiara
This study examines the role of height in the process of mate selection in two Italian populations at the turn of the twentieth century, Alghero, in the province of Sassari, and Treppo Carnico, in the province of Udine. Based on a linkage between military registers and marriage certificates, this study reveals a negative selection of short men on marriage and a differential effect of tallness by population in the process of mate choice. These findings emerge once SES is taken into account in the risk models of marriage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marriage mentorship is one of the most effective methods through which a couple can enrich their marriage. A good mentorship relationship is based on feelings of warmth and affinity between mentors and mentees. When a relationship of trust is established, the mentees feel more freedom to express their deeper feelings and to explore new paths of…
Cherlin, Andrew J.
This article argues that marriage has undergone a process of deinstitutionalization - a weakening of the social norms that define partners' behavior - over the past few decades. Examples are presented involving the increasing number and complexity of cohabiting unions and the emergence of same-sex marriage. Two transitions in the meaning of…
Wang, Wendy; Taylor, Paul
Throughout history, marriage and parenthood have been linked milestones on the journey to adulthood. But for the young adults of the Millennial Generation, these social institutions are becoming delinked and differently valued. Today's 18- to 29-year-olds value parenthood far more than marriage, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of…
Musick, Kelly; Brand, Jennie E.; Davis, Dwight
Educational expansion has led to greater diversity in the social backgrounds of college students. We ask how schooling interacts with this diversity to influence marriage formation among men and women. Relying on data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3208), we use a propensity score approach to group men and women into social strata and multilevel event history models to test differences in the effects of college attendance across strata. We find a statistically significant, positive trend in the effects of college attendance across strata, with the largest effects of college on first marriage among the more advantaged and the smallest—indeed, negative—effects among the least advantaged men and women. These findings appear consistent with a mismatch in the marriage market between individuals’ education and their social backgrounds. PMID:22563132
Breslau, J.; Miller, E.; Jin, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Alonso, J.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Fayyad, J.; Fukao, A.; Gălăon, M.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Matschinger, H.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Scott, K. M.; Kessler, R. C.
Objective Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Method Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46 128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30 729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Results Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. Conclusion This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. PMID:21534936
Breslau, J; Miller, E; Jin, R; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Bromet, E J; de Girolamo, G; Demyttenaere, K; Fayyad, J; Fukao, A; Gălăon, M; Gureje, O; He, Y; Hinkov, H R; Hu, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Matschinger, H; Medina-Mora, M E; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Kessler, R C
Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46,128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30,729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Nicola J. Barker
Full Text Available This special issue of the Onati Socio-Legal Series offers inter-disciplinary, feminist perspectives that collectively ‘re-think’ the institution of marriage, not only in the field of legal discourse and institutions but also in the humanities and social sciences as well as through activisms. With a focus on jurisdictions in Europe, North America and Africa, the articles included in this issue challenge normative assumptions about marriage, reconsider forms of conjugality, re-write judicial interpretations and problematize legal and activist interventions and reasonings.Este número especial de la Oñati Socio-legal Series ofrece perspectivas interdisciplinarias y feministas que "re-piensan" colectivamente la institución del matrimonio, no sólo en el campo del discurso jurídico y las instituciones, sino también en las humanidades y ciencias sociales, así como en los activismos. Enfocándose en las jurisdicciones de Europa, América del Norte y África, los artículos incluidos en este número cuestionan las asunciones normativas sobre el matrimonio, reconsideran las formas de la conyugalidad, reescriben las interpretaciones judiciales y problematizan las intervenciones y razonamientos legales y activistas.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2890956
Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet
For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.
Bouchard, D.; Cornaton, F.; Höhener, P.; Hunkeler, D.
Analytical models were developed that simulate stable isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near a point source contamination in the unsaturated zone. The models describe diffusive transport of VOCs, biodegradation and source ageing. The mass transport is governed by Fick's law for diffusion. The equation for reactive transport of VOCs in the soil gas phase was solved for different source geometries and for different boundary conditions. Model results were compared to experiment...
W David Walls
In this paper we apply a recently-developed statistical model that explicitly accounts for the extreme uncertainty surrounding film returns. The conditional distribution of box-office returns is analyzed using the stable distribution regression model. The regression coefficients in this model represent what is known about the correlates of film success while at the same time permitting the variance of film success at the box office to be infinite. The empirical analysis shows that the conditi...
It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law.
Full Text Available The industrial development in Wonoayu district contributes to economic growth in society. On the other hand, there is a shift of norms because of open information access that affects sexual intercourse among teenagers. This results in an early marriage because the girls have already been pregnant. This research uses a qualitative approach in order to investigate the influential factors, causes, motives and impact of the early marriage, and how society’s view on early marriage in Wonoayu district. The contributing factors of early marriages are sexual intercourse and pre-marital pregnancy. The motives of early marriage are; religiously legal marriage, reducing economic burden of parent, and preserving social reputation of their parents. Meanwhile the impact of legally formal marriage is to avoid sin and to protect the children’s status legally. Economically, the family in general is not ready to get married, and psychologically they are not mature yet, because they still have strong ego and are not independent.
Becker, Charles M; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan
We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers. Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and IV estimation. We find that children born to mothers in kidnap-based marriages have lower birth weight compared with children born to other mothers. The largest difference is between kidnap-based and arranged marriages: the magnitude of the birth weight loss is in the range of 2 % to 6 % of average birth weight. Our finding is one of the first statistically sound estimates of the impact of forced marriage and implies not only adverse consequences for the women involved but potentially also for their children.
Guillén-González, F.; Tierra, G.
Numerical schemes to simulate the deformation of vesicles membranes via minimizing the bending energy have been widely studied in recent times due to its connection with many biological motivated problems. In this work we propose a new unconditionally energy stable numerical scheme for a vesicle membrane model that satisfies exactly the conservation of volume constraint and penalizes the surface area constraint. Moreover, we extend these ideas to present an unconditionally energy stable splitting scheme decoupling the interaction of the vesicle with a surrounding fluid. Finally, the well behavior of the proposed schemes are illustrated through several computational experiments.
A generalized distribution for the water residence time in hydrological transport is proposed in the form of the tempered one-sided stable (TOSS) density. It is shown that limiting cases of the TOSS distribution recover virtually all distributions that have been considered in the literature for hydrological transport, from plug flow to flow reactor, the advection-dispersion model, and the gamma and Levy densities. The stable property of TOSS is particularly important, enabling a seamless transition between a time-domain random walk, and the Lagrangian (trajectory) approach along hydrological transport pathways.
Takahashi, T., and Kawamura, A. "A Study on the Zero Moment Point Measurement for Biped Walking Robots ", Proc. of the 7th International Workshop on...STABLE MOBILE ROBOT WITH ARMS" 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER CAPT SCHEARER ERIC M 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...Std. Z39.18 Modeling Dynamics and Exploring Control of a Single-Wheeled Dynamically Stable Mobile Robot with Arms Eric M. Schearer CMU-RI-TR-06-37
Yount, Kathryn M; Crandall, AliceAnn; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Osypuk, Theresa L; Bates, Lisa M; Naved, Ruchira T; Schuler, Sidney Ruth
Child marriage (before age 18) is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Worldwide, Bangladesh has the highest prevalence of IPV and very early child marriage (before age 15). How the community prevalence of very early child marriage influences a woman's risk of IPV is unknown. Using panel data (2013-2014) from 3,355 women first married 4-12 years prior in 77 Bangladeshi villages, we tested the protective effect of a woman's later first marriage (at age 18 or older), the adverse effect of a higher village prevalence of very early child marriage, and whether any protective effect of a woman's later first marriage was diminished or reversed in villages where very early child marriage was more prevalent. Almost one-half (44.5 %) of women reported incident physical IPV, and 78.9 % had married before age 18. The village-level incidence of physical IPV ranged from 11.4 % to 75.0 %; the mean age at first marriage ranged from 14.8 to 18.0 years. The mean village-level prevalence of very early child marriage ranged from 3.9 % to 51.9 %. In main-effects models, marrying at 18 or later protected against physical IPV, and more prevalent very early child marriage before age 15 was a risk factor. The interaction of individual later marriage and the village prevalence of very early child marriage was positive; thus, the likely protective effect of marrying later was negated in villages where very early child marriage was prevalent. Collectively reducing very early child marriage may be needed to protect women from IPV.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional commitment...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage licenses. 11.601 Section 11.601 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.601 Marriage licenses. A marriage license shall be issued by the clerk of the court in the absence of any showing that the proposed marriage would be invalid under any...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage. 3.205 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.205 Marriage. (a) Proof of marriage. Marriage is established by one of the following types of evidence: (1) Copy or abstract of the...
Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora
Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…
McConnell (1930) first described and attempted to explain an “age spiral” in Australian Aboriginal systems of descent, marriage and kinship over eighty years ago. Since then, ethnographic and theoretical research concerning this matter has been sporadic and inconclusive, with societies that display this feature most often being treated as anomalous, transitional, hybrid or aberrant. Atkins (1981) attributed the failure to understand these societies to a lack of realism in the models; specific...
Beam, Christopher R.; Dinescu, Diana; Emery, Robert E.; Turkheimer, Eric
Marriage is associated with reductions in both perceived stress and depressive symptoms, two constructs found to be influenced by common genetic effects. A study of sibling twins was used to test whether marriage decreases the proportion of variance in depressive symptoms accounted for by genetic and environmental effects underlying perceived stress. The sample consisted of 1,612 male and female twin pairs from the University of Washington Twin Registry. The stress-buffering role of marriage was tested relative to two unmarried groups: the never married and the divorced. Multivariate twin models showed that marriage reduced genetic effects of perceived stress on depressive symptoms, but did not reduce environmental effects. The findings suggest a potential marital trade-off for women: Access to a spouse may decrease genetic effects of perceived stress on depressive symptoms, although marital and family demands may increase environmental effects of perceived stress on depressive symptoms. PMID:28661771
David A. Gay
Full Text Available Attitudes toward same-sex marriage have changed dramatically over the last decade. U.S. adults are becoming more supportive of same-sex marriage, and there are a number of reasons for this change. Our research examines the relationship between cohort, religiosity, spirituality, and attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using data from the 2012 and 2014 General Social Surveys, we examine the differential impact of religiosity and spirituality by cohort on attitudes toward same-sex marriage. We present models for four separate cohorts: The Millennials, Generation X, the Baby Boomers, and the Silent Generation. The Millennial cohort exhibits significant differences from the other birth cohorts. The results of our analyses locate various changes in these attitudes and provide directions for future research.
Carpenter, Russell; Lee, Taesul
Long data outages may occur in applications of global navigation satellite system technology to orbit determination for missions that spend significant fractions of their orbits above the navigation satellite constellation(s). Current clock error models based on the random walk idealization may not be suitable in these circumstances, since the covariance of the clock errors may become large enough to overflow flight computer arithmetic. A model that is stable, but which approximates the existing models over short time horizons is desirable. A coupled first- and second-order Gauss-Markov process is such a model.
Watkins, N W; Credgington, D; Sanchez, R; Rosenberg, S J; Chapman, S C
Lévy flights and fractional Brownian motion have become exemplars of the heavy-tailed jumps and long-ranged memory widely seen in physics. Natural time series frequently combine both effects, and linear fractional stable motion (lfsm) is a model process of this type, combining alpha-stable jumps with a memory kernel. In contrast complex physical spatiotemporal diffusion processes where both the above effects compete have for many years been modeled using the fully fractional kinetic equation for the continuous-time random walk (CTRW), with power laws in the probability density functions of both jump size and waiting time. We derive the analogous kinetic equation for lfsm and show that it has a diffusion coefficient with a power law in time rather than having a fractional time derivative like the CTRW. We discuss some preliminary results on the scaling of burst "sizes" and "durations" in lfsm time series, with applications to modeling existing observations in space physics and elsewhere.
Bond, Alexander L; Diamond, Antony W
Stable isotopes are now used widely in ecological studies, including diet reconstruction, where quantitative inferences about diet composition are derived from the use of mixing models. Recent Bayesian models (MixSIR, SIAR) allow users to incorporate variability in discrimination factors (delta13C or delta15N), or the amount of change in either delta13C or delta15N between prey and consumer, but to date there has been no systematic assessment of the effect of variation in delta13C or delta15N on model outputs. We used whole blood from Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and muscle from their common prey items (fish and euphausiids) to build a series of mixing models in SIAR (stable isotope analysis in R) using various discrimination factors from the published literature for marine birds. The estimated proportion of each diet component was affected significantly by delta13C or delta15N. We also use recently published stable-isotope data on the reliance of critically endangered Balearic Shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus) on fisheries discards to show that discrimination factor choice can have profound implications for conservation and management actions. It is therefore crucial for researchers wishing to use mixing models to have an accurate estimate of delta13C and delta15N, because quantitative diet estimates can help to direct future research or prioritize conservation and management actions.
Hidalgo, Juan J.; Lagneau, Vincent; Agrinier, Pierre
Stable isotopes can be of great usefulness in the characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites. Stable isotopes can be used to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources. Moreover, they provide unique information about the chemical reactions that take place on the CO2-water-rock system. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools that help modelers to incorporate stable isotope information into the flow and transport models used in CO2 sequestration problems. In this work, we present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable isotopes in groundwater reactive systems. The code is an extension of the groundwater single-phase flow and reactive transport code HYTEC . HYTEC's transport module was modified to include element isotopes as separate species. This way, it is able to track isotope composition of the system by computing the mixing between the background water and the injected solution accounting for the dependency of diffusion on the isotope mass. The chemical module and database have been expanded to included isotopic exchange with minerals and the isotope fractionation associated with chemical reactions and mineral dissolution or precipitation. The performance of the code is illustrated through a series of column synthetic models. The code is also used to model the aqueous phase CO2 injection test carried out at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory site (Palisades, New York, USA) . References  N. Assayag, J. Matter, M. Ader, D. Goldberg, and P. Agrinier. Water-rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects. Chemical Geology, 265(1-2):227-235, July 2009.  Jan van der Lee, Laurent De Windt, Vincent Lagneau, and Patrick Goblet. Module-oriented modeling of reactive transport with HYTEC. Computers & Geosciences, 29(3):265-275, April 2003.
Gage, Anastasia J
Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jamaluddin, Fadhilah; Rahim, Rahela Abdul
Markov Chain has been introduced since the 1913 for the purpose of studying the flow of data for a consecutive number of years of the data and also forecasting. The important feature in Markov Chain is obtaining the accurate Transition Probability Matrix (TPM). However to obtain the suitable TPM is hard especially in involving long-term modeling due to unavailability of data. This paper aims to enhance the classical Markov Chain by introducing Exponential Smoothing technique in developing the appropriate TPM.
Bayer, S.; Wahle, R.; Brooks, D. A.; Brady, D. C.
The giant sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, is a commercially valuable sedentary broadcast spawner that occupies offshore banks and coastal bays and estuaries in the Northwest Atlantic. Although area closures have helped repopulate depleted scallop populations, little is known about whether populations at densities that yield larvae supply local or distant populations. Surveying scallop populations in the Damariscotta River estuary in Maine during the 2013 and 2014 spawning seasons, and settling out spat bags to collect settling larvae along the gradient of the estuary, we were able to compare adult densities to newly settled juvenile (`spat') abundance. Using the location where we found a high density of adults, we incorporated previously published behavior, pelagic larval duration, wind and current data into a particle dispersal model within the estuary to determine likely sinks for larvae from the 2013 and 2014 spawning seasons. Preliminary model simulations demonstrate where in the estuary swimming is effective in affecting water column position for larvae, and that most larvae are retained much closer to the mouth of the estuary than previously expected. Combining larval dispersal modeling with empirical data on adult densities and spat settlement on the scale of an embayment or estuary may be helpful in determining sources, sinks and areas that are both sources and sinks for shellfish species that are endangered or economically critical. This may aid in determining small area closures or Marine Protected Areas along coastal regions in the Gulf of Maine and beyond.
Liu, Lige; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.
Since the 1990s, inter-provincial female migration for marriage has become important in central and eastern rural China. Using survey data from X County in rural Anhui Province, we explore the arrangement of inter-provincial marriages, as well as the characteristics of husbands and wives, marital satisfaction, and marital stability for these marriages. We find that inter-provincial marriage is an important option for local men to respond to the marriage squeeze and the increasing expense of marriage. It helps to relieve the shortage of marriageable women in the local marriage market. Because this kind of marriage is based on economic exchange, but not affection, it is often subject to a higher risk of marriage instability, and can lead to such illegal behaviors as marriage fraud and mercenary marriage. PMID:26594102
Wagner, Jenny; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich
How stable is self-esteem? This long-standing debate has led to different conclusions across different areas of psychology. Longitudinal data and up-to-date statistical models have recently indicated that self-esteem has stable and autoregressive trait-like components and state-like components. We applied latent STARTS models with the goal of replicating previous findings in a longitudinal sample of young adults (N = 4,532; Mage = 19.60, SD = 0.85; 55% female). In addition, we applied multigroup models to extend previous findings on different patterns of stability for men versus women and for people with high versus low levels of depressive symptoms. We found evidence for the general pattern of a major proportion of stable and autoregressive trait variance and a smaller yet substantial amount of state variance in self-esteem across 10 years. Furthermore, multigroup models suggested substantial differences in the variance components: Females showed more state variability than males. Individuals with higher levels of depressive symptoms showed more state and less autoregressive trait variance in self-esteem. Results are discussed with respect to the ongoing trait-state debate and possible implications of the group differences that we found in the stability of self-esteem. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kadi, A S
This article on age at marriage in the Indian context uses 1981 census data in an attempt to highlight the trend, pattern, and differentials in age at marriage by rural-urban residence, state, religion, and educational levels, while attempting to hypothesize theories concerning those trends. An examination of the proportion of young females ever married indicates that a major change in social attitudes has occurred in India over the past 2 decades. The proportion of rural females 15-19 ever married dropped from 75% in 1961, to 62% in 1971, and 57.6% in 1981. Significant decreases in the proportion ever married also occurred for females aged 20-24. The shift in the age at marriage from earlier to older ages and the increasing difference in the rural-urban proportion of those ever married are additional features of a population in the mid-transition period during which fertility starts to decline following a rapid decline in mortality as observed in the case of India. Christians marry a little later than Sikhs, who marry a little later than Jains, while Buddhists marry a little earlier than Muslims and Hindus. The projected shortage of females of marriageable age should induce parents to delay the marriage of their daughters while continuing to invest in their future prospects through providing a greater amount of education. The combination of increased education, later marriage, and projected changes in fertility and mortality are likely to lead to significant changes in the status of women in India.
Rita de Cássia Pereira Farias
Full Text Available Este artigo analisa um grupo de pré-adolescentes pobres do interior mineiro que frequentaram um Curso de Modelo. Face ao apelo erótico que envolve, na mídia, a imagem dessa profissão, parece paradoxal que os pais - que associam esta carreira à prostituição - matriculem as filhas em tal curso, em aparente conflito com sua moral familiar e religiosa. O curso permite a aquisição de habilidades e o domínio de códigos que não pertencem a sua condição de classe. Além disso, participar do curso e desfilar em ambientes frequentados pela elite se tornam estratégias de apresentar a filha à sociedade, ampliando o capital social familiar.This paper analyses a group of poor pre-adolescents in a modeling course in Minas Gerais. Facing the erotic image of the profession, presented by the media, it seems paradoxical that the parents - who associate this career with prostitution - register the daughters in such a course, in apparent conflict with the family's religious morals. The course allows the acquisition of abilities and codes which do not belong to the family' class condition. However, to participate in it and to model in events attended by the elite become a strategy to present the daughters to the society, enlarging the family's social capital.
Björklund, Anders; Ginther, Donna K.; Sundström, Marianne
This paper examines whether parental marriage confers educational advantages to children relative to cohabitation. We exploit a dramatic marriage boom in Sweden in late 1989 created by a reform of the Widow's Pension System that raised the attractiveness of marriage compared to cohabitation to identify the effect of marriage. Sweden's rich administrative data sources enable us to identify the children who were affected by parental marriage due to this marriage boom. Our analysis addresses the...
Björklund, Anders; Ginther, Donna K.; Sundström, Marianne
This paper examines whether parental marriage confers educational advantages to children relative to cohabitation. We exploit a dramatic marriage boom in Sweden in late 1989 created by a reform of the Widow’s Pension System that raised the attractiveness of marriage compared to cohabitation to identify the effect of marriage and the effect of selection bias on marriage estimates. Sweden’s rich administrative data sources enable us to identify the children who were affected by parental marriag...
The existing literature on marriage and fertility decisions pays little attention to the roles played by risk preferences and uncertainty. However given uncertainty regarding the availability of suitable marriage partners, the ability to contracept, and the ability to conceive, women's risk preferences might be expected to play an important role in marriage and fertility timing decisions. By using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), I find that measured risk preferences have a significant effect on the timing of both marriage and fertility. Highly risk-tolerant women are more likely to delay marriage, consistent with either a search model of marriage or a risk-pooling explanation. In addition, risk preferences affect fertility timing in a way that differs by marital status and education, and that varies over the life cycle. Greater tolerance for risk leads to earlier births at young ages, consistent with these women being less likely to contracept effectively. In addition, as the subgroup of college-educated, unmarried women nears the end of their fertile periods, highly risk-tolerant women are likely to delay childbearing relative to their more risk-averse counterparts and are therefore less likely to become mothers. These findings may have broader implications for both individual and societal well-being.
Full Text Available The study on the human grip has inspired to the robotics over the past decades, which has resulted in performance improvements of robotic hands. However, current robotic hands do not have the enough dexterity to execute complex tasks. Recognizing this fact, the soft fingertips with hemispherical shape and deformation models have renewed attention of roboticists. A high-friction contact to prevent slipping and the rolling contribution between the object and fingers are some characteristics of the soft fingertips which are useful to improve the grasping stability. In this paper, the parallel distributed deformation model is used to present the dynamical model of the soft tip fingers with n-degrees of freedom. Based on the joint angular positions of the fingers, a control scheme that fuses a stable grasping and the object manipulation into a unique control signal is proposed. The force-closure conditions are defined to guarantee a stable grasping and the boundedness of the closed-loop signals is proved. Furthermore, the convergence of the contact force to its desired value is guaranteed, without any information about the radius of the fingertip. Simulation results are provided to visualize the stable grasping and the object manipulation, avoiding the gravity effect.
Full Text Available This paper proposes the mixture of Alpha-stable (MAS distributions for modeling statistical property of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images in a supervised Markovian classification algorithm. Our work is motivated by the fact that natural scenes consist of various reflectors with different types that are typically concentrated within a small area, and SAR images generally exhibit sharp peaks, heavy tails, and even multimodal statistical property, especially at high resolution. Unimodal distributions do not fit such statistical property well, and thus a multimodal approach is necessary. Driven by the multimodality and impulsiveness of high resolution SAR images histogram, we utilize the mixture of Alpha-stable distributions to describe such characteristics. A pseudo-simulated annealing (PSA estimator based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC is present to efficiently estimate model parameters of the mixture of Alpha-stable distributions. To validate the proposed PSA estimator, we apply it to simulated data and compare its performance to that of a state-of-the-art estimator. Finally, we exploit the MAS distributions and a Markovian context for SAR images classification. The effectiveness of the proposed classifier is demonstrated by experiments on TerraSAR-X images, which verifies the validity of the MAS distributions for modeling and classification of SAR images.
David F. Mullins
Full Text Available This article adds to recent literature in the study of religion and marriage by examining older couples’ use of religion as a cultural repertoire in enduring marriages. The study includes qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 43 married, Christian couples. Couples reported four predominant social contexts that gave sacred meanings to their marriage: prayer, worship services and sermons, first-rite rituals and communion. These social contexts magnify sacred meanings within religious cultural repertoires by enhancing older couples’ perceptions of their marriages as sacred through formal and public recognition of their marriage longevity, lauding their marriage longevity as a blessing from God to be emulated, promoting religious meanings of familism and giving positive marriage outcomes sacred meanings. Negative effects of religion on marriage outcomes occurred among older couples when lived experiences of religion conflicted with their cultural expectations for enduring marriages.
Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C; Lynskey, Michael T; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G
Although associations between drinking behavior and marital status are well documented, timing of marital transitions as a function of alcohol use or disorder has received limited empirical attention. We examine the relationship between lifetime history of alcohol dependence (AD) and timing and survival of first marriages in a sample of 3,575 female and 1,845 male adult Australian twins born mostly between 1940 and 1964. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results indicate moderate delays in marriage associated with AD for both women and men. Among ever-married respondents, AD was strongly predictive of early separation, with similar effects observed for women and men. Heritable sources of covariation were also documented. For women, genetic influences shared between early-onset AD and marital timing were found. Genetic influences shared between AD and marital survival were observed for women without regard to onset and for men with later-onset AD. Results confirm the importance of AD as a predictor of both timing and survival of first marriages, with genetic influences contributing to observed associations. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Full Text Available Marriage is not just a bond between men and women, but the inner bond between a man and a woman based on the One and Only God. This research was a philosophical normative, thus the approaches used were philosophical, normative, and historical. Besides, a qualitative-descriptive strategy was used in finding a depth description of the law politics of interfaith marriage regulation in Indonesia based on the the 1974 Marriage Law. The results show that the interfaith marriage is not regulated in the 1974 Marriage Law, because: First, the rejection of the majority of Muslims and the faction in Parliament because the interfaith marriage is against the aqidah (matters of faith of Islam; Second, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the marriage culture in Indonesia, because marriage contains legal, sociology and religious aspects; Third, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the theological teachings of religions in Indonesia that do not want interfaith marriages, such as Islam, Christianity, Protestantism, Hinduism and Buddhism. Furthermore, the interfaith marriage is inconsistent with the philosophical purposes of marriage in Indonesia where the purpose of marriage forms a happy and eternal family based on the One Supreme God.
Mizutani, M Y; Tomioka, N; Itai, A
An efficient automatic method has been developed for docking a ligand molecule to a protein molecule. The method can construct energetically favorable docking models, considering specific interactions between the two molecules and conformational flexibility in the ligand. In the first stage of docking, likely binding modes are searched and estimated effectively in terms of hydrogen bonds, together with conformations in part of the ligand structure that includes hydrogen bonding groups. After that part is placed in the protein cavity and is optimized, conformations in the remaining part are also examined systematically. Finally, several stable docking models are obtained after optimization of the position, orientation and conformation of the whole ligand molecule. In all the screening processes, the total potential energy including intra- and intermolecular interaction energy, consisting of van der Waals, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding energies, is used as the index. The characteristics of our docking method are high accuracy of the results, fully automatic generation of models and short computational time. The efficiency of the method was confirmed by four docking trials using two enzyme systems. In two attempts to dock methotrexate to dihydrofolate reductase and 2'-GMP to ribonuclease T1, the exact structures of complexes in crystals were reproduced as the most stable docking models, without any assumptions concerning the binding modes and ligand conformations. The most stable docking models of dihydrofolate and trimethoprim, respectively, to dihydrofolate reductase were also in good agreement with those suggested by experiment. In all test cases, it was shown that our method can accurately predict the correct docking structures, discriminating the correct model from incorrect ones. The efficiency of our method was further tested from the viewpoint of ability to predict the relative stability of the docking structures of two triazine derivatives to
Hamilton, W. Derek; Sayle, Kerry L.
This paper reviews the results of a long-term research project that used stable isotope analyses (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) and Bayesian mixing models to better model the chronology for a presumed Viking Age cemetery at Hofstaðir, near Lake Mývatn in north-east Iceland. δ13C and radiocarbon dating indicated that many of the individuals consumed a large amount of marine protein, which results in a marine reservoir effect (MRE), making ages older than expected. In addition to the MRE, geological activi...
Lutz, Stefanie; Van Breukelen, Boris
Natural attenuation can represent a complementary or alternative approach to engineered remediation of polluted sites. In this context, compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has proven a useful tool, as it can provide evidence of natural attenuation and assess the extent of in-situ degradation based on changes in isotope ratios of pollutants. Moreover, CSIA can allow for source identification and apportionment, which might help to identify major emission sources in complex contamination scenarios. However, degradation and mixing processes in aquifers can lead to changes in isotopic compositions, such that their simultaneous occurrence might complicate combined source apportionment (SA) and assessment of the extent of degradation (ED). We developed a mathematical model (stable isotope sources and sinks model; SISS model) based on the linear stable isotope mixing model and the Rayleigh equation that allows for simultaneous SA and quantification of the ED in a scenario of two emission sources and degradation via one reaction pathway. It was shown that the SISS model with CSIA of at least two elements contained in the pollutant (e.g., C and H in benzene) allows for unequivocal SA even in the presence of degradation-induced isotope fractionation. In addition, the model enables precise quantification of the ED provided degradation follows instantaneous mixing of two sources. If mixing occurs after two sources have degraded separately, the model can still yield a conservative estimate of the overall extent of degradation. The SISS model was validated against virtual data from a two-dimensional reactive transport model. The model results for SA and ED were in good agreement with the simulation results. The application of the SISS model to field data of benzene contamination was, however, challenged by large uncertainties in measured isotope data. Nonetheless, the use of the SISS model provided a better insight into the interplay of mixing and degradation
Roden, J. S.; Farquhar, G. D.
Stable isotopes ratios of carbon and oxygen in tree ring cellulose have been used to infer environmental change. Process-based models have been developed to clarify the potential of historic tree ring records for meaningful paleoclimatic reconstructions. However, isotopic variation can be influenced by multiple environmental factors making simplistic interpretations problematic. Recently, the dual isotope approach, where the variation in one stable isotope ratio (e.g. oxygen) is used to constrain the interpretation of variation in another (e.g. carbon), has been shown to have the potential to de-convolute isotopic analysis. However, this approach requires further testing to determine its applicability for paleo-reconstructions using tree-ring time series. We present a study where the information needed to parameterize mechanistic models for both carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios were collected in controlled environment chambers for two species (Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus). The seedlings were exposed to treatments designed to modify leaf temperature, transpiration rates, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. Both species were grown for over 100 days under two humidity regimes that differed by 20%. Stomatal conductance was significantly different between species and for seedlings under drought conditions but not between other treatments or humidity regimes. The treatments produced large differences in transpiration rate and photosynthesis. Treatments that effected photosynthetic rates but not stomatal conductance influenced carbon isotope discrimination more than those that influenced primarily conductance. The various treatments produced a range in oxygen isotope ratios of 7 ‰. Process models predicted greater oxygen isotope enrichment in tree ring cellulose than observed. The oxygen isotope ratios of bulk leaf water were reasonably well predicted by current steady-state models. However, the fractional difference between models that
Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the
Macdonald, L.D.; Lewis, B.J.; Iglesias, F.C.
A microstructure-dependent fission-gas release and swelling model (FREEDOM) has been developed for UO 2 fuel. The model describes the transient release behaviour for both the radioactive and stable fission-product species. The model can be applied over the full range of operating conditions, as well as for accident conditions that result in high fuel temperatures. The model accounts for lattice diffusion and grain-boundary sweeping of fusion products to the grain boundaries, where the fission gases accumulate in grain-face bubbles as a result of vacancy diffusion. Release of fission-gas to the free void of the fuel element occurs through the interlinkage of bubbles and cracks on the grain boundaries. This treatment also accounts for radioactive chain decay and neutron-induced transmutation effects. These phenomena are described by mass balance equations which are numerically solved using a moving-boundary, finite-element method with mesh refinement. The effects of grain-face bubbles on fuel swelling and fuel thermal conductivity are included in the ELESIM fuel performance code. FREEDOM has an accuracy of better than 1% when assessed against an analytic solution for diffusional release. The code is being evaluated against a fuel performance database for stable gas release, and against sweep-gas and in-cell fission-product release experiments at Chalk River for active species
Full Text Available Reconstructing the diet of top marine predators is of great significance in several key areas of applied ecology, requiring accurate estimation of their true diet. However, from conventional stomach content analysis to recent stable isotope and DNA analyses, no one method is bias or error free. Here, we evaluated the accuracy of recent methods to estimate the actual proportion of a controlled diet fed to a top-predator seabird, the Little penguin (Eudyptula minor. We combined published DNA data of penguins scats with blood plasma δ(15N and δ(13C values to reconstruct the diet of individual penguins fed experimentally. Mismatch between controlled (true ingested diet and dietary estimates obtained through the separately use of stable isotope and DNA data suggested some degree of differences in prey assimilation (stable isotope and digestion rates (DNA analysis. In contrast, combined posterior isotope mixing model with DNA Bayesian priors provided the closest match to the true diet. We provided the first evidence suggesting that the combined use of these complementary techniques may provide better estimates of the actual diet of top marine predators- a powerful tool in applied ecology in the search for the true consumed diet.
Malé, Chata; Wodon, Quentin
This brief has provided a basic profile of child marriage in Egypt. Measures of child marriage are very high. The share of women ages 18-22 who married as children is 16.5 percent and it has declined over time. The share of girls marrying very early, before the age of 15, has also declined. Other measures of child marriage have declined as well over the last 25 years. Child marriage is ass...
Fathol Hedi; Abdul Ghofur Anshori; Harun Harun
Marriage is not just a bond between men and women, but the inner bond between a man and a woman based on the One and Only God. This research was a philosophical normative, thus the approaches used were philosophical, normative, and historical. Besides, a qualitative-descriptive strategy was used in finding a depth description of the law politics of interfaith marriage regulation in Indonesia based on the the 1974 Marriage Law. The results show that the interfaith marriage is not regulated in ...
Silva, Filipe da, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pinto, Martin Campos, E-mail: email@example.com [CNRS, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Després, Bruno, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France); Heuraux, Stéphane, E-mail: email@example.com [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, CNRS – University Lorraine, Vandoeuvre (France)
This work analyzes the stability of the Yee scheme for non-stationary Maxwell's equations coupled with a linear current model with density fluctuations. We show that the usual procedure may yield unstable scheme for physical situations that correspond to strongly magnetized plasmas in X-mode (TE) polarization. We propose to use first order clustered discretization of the vectorial product that gives back a stable coupling. We validate the schemes on some test cases representative of direct numerical simulations of X-mode in a magnetic fusion plasma including turbulence.
sources of law material which include books on marriages, articles in journals as well as articles on the internet. ... sex couples for about three decades, and people aware of the 'gay right movement', but they did not ... One school of thought believed that, gay rights movement is the next to Civil rights struggle7 while the.
This has necessitated the need to ask; at what point can a young man and a woman who has agreed to marry, be socially described as a married couple? In Nigeria, some Pentecostal Christian churches do not allow the bride to immediately go home with the groom and his people after traditional marriage rite has been ...
Silveira, L.M.; Kamon, M.; Elfadel, I.; White, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)
Model order reduction based on Krylov subspace iterative methods has recently emerged as a major tool for compressing the number of states in linear models used for simulating very large physical systems (VLSI circuits, electromagnetic interactions). There are currently two main methods for accomplishing such a compression: one is based on the nonsymmetric look-ahead Lanczos algorithm that gives a numerically stable procedure for finding Pade approximations, while the other is based on a less well characterized Arnoldi algorithm. In this paper, we show that for certain classes of generalized state-space systems, the reduced-order models produced by a coordinate-transformed Arnoldi algorithm inherit the stability of the original system. Complete Proofs of our results will be given in the final paper.
Grossbard, Shoshana Amyra
This paper points to parallels between the economic approach to marriage and Jewish Law. The economic approach is applied to the sex ratio question, the price of Torah scholars, the need for marriage brokers, marriage contracts and polygamy, all topics also addressed by Jewish law.
Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.
This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage. 551.111 Section 551.111... Pretrial Inmates § 551.111 Marriage. A pretrial inmate may request permission to marry in accordance with... marriage request of the pretrial inmate and to request their comments. ...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage dates. 3.54..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.54 Marriage dates. A surviving spouse may qualify for pension, compensation, or dependency and indemnity compensation if the marriage to the...
Ribar, David C.
Marriage between two parents, compared with other family living arrangements, appears, on average, to enhance children's wellbeing and development. Some of the positive association between marriage and children's wellbeing comes from positive associations between marriage and other things that also contribute to children's wellbeing. David Ribar…
Petersen, Larry R.
Examined assertion that interfaith marriages have secularizing effect on family members. Assessed effects of respondent's and his/her parents' type of religious marriage on 11 measures of religious commitment. Catholics married to non-Catholics scored lower on attending mass and receiving communion than Catholics in homogamous marriages, but most…
Li, Yi; Liu, Hexuan; Guo, Guang
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 1,254), the authors investigated whether marriage can foster desistance from delinquency and violence by moderating genetic effects. In contrast to existing gene-environment research that typically focuses on one or a few genetic polymorphisms, they extended a recently developed mixed linear model to consider the collective influence of 580 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 64 genes related to aggression and risky behavior. The mixed linear model estimates the proportion of variance in the phenotype that is explained by the single nucleotide polymorphisms. The authors found that the proportion of variance in delinquency/violence explained was smaller among married individuals than unmarried individuals. Because selection, confounding, and heterogeneity may bias the estimate of the Gene × Marriage interaction, they conducted a series of analyses to address these issues. The findings suggest that the Gene × Marriage interaction results were not seriously affected by these issues.
Lahoz-Beneytez, Julio; Elemans, Marjet; Zhang, Yan; Ahmed, Raya; Salam, Arafa; Block, Michael; Niederalt, Christoph; Asquith, Becca; Macallan, Derek
Human neutrophils have traditionally been thought to have a short half-life in blood; estimates vary from 4 to 18 hours. This dogma was recently challenged by stable isotope labeling studies with heavy water, which yielded estimates in excess of 3 days. To investigate this disparity, we generated new stable isotope labeling data in healthy adult subjects using both heavy water (n = 4) and deuterium-labeled glucose (n = 9), a compound with more rapid labeling kinetics. To interpret results, we developed a novel mechanistic model and applied it to previously published (n = 5) and newly generated data. We initially constrained the ratio of the blood neutrophil pool to the marrow precursor pool (ratio = 0.26; from published values). Analysis of heavy water data sets yielded turnover rates consistent with a short blood half-life, but parameters, particularly marrow transit time, were poorly defined. Analysis of glucose-labeling data yielded more precise estimates of half-life (0.79 ± 0.25 days; 19 hours) and marrow transit time (5.80 ± 0.42 days). Substitution of this marrow transit time in the heavy water analysis gave a better-defined blood half-life of 0.77 ± 0.14 days (18.5 hours), close to glucose-derived values. Allowing the ratio of blood neutrophils to mitotic neutrophil precursors (R) to vary yielded a best-fit value of 0.19. Reanalysis of the previously published model and data also revealed the origin of their long estimates for neutrophil half-life: an implicit assumption that R is very large, which is physiologically untenable. We conclude that stable isotope labeling in healthy humans is consistent with a blood neutrophil half-life of less than 1 day. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
L. Cherchye (Laurens); B. de Rock (Bram); S. Walther (Selma); F. Vermeulen (Frederic)
textabstractDo individuals divorce for economic reasons? Can we measure the attractiveness of new matches in the marriage market? We answer these questions using a structural model of the household and a rich panel dataset from Malawi. We propose a model of the household with consumption, production
González-Gutiérrez, María Victoria; Guerrero Velázquez, José; Morales García, Concepción; Casas Maldonado, Francisco; Gómez Jiménez, Francisco Javier; González Vargas, Francisco
The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and anxiety and depression is not yet completely characterized, and differences between countries may exist. We used a predictive model to assess this association in a Spanish population. Prospective transversal descriptive study of 204 patients with stable COPD. Concomitant anxiety or depression were diagnosed by psychiatric assessment, using the diagnostic criteria of the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). Sociodemographic, clinical and lung function parameters were analyzed. In total, 36% of stable COPD patients had psychiatric comorbidities, but 76% were unaware of their diagnosis. Nineteen percent had a pure anxiety disorder, 9.8% had isolated depression, and 7.3% had a mixed anxiety-depression disorder. Predictive variables in the multivariate analysis were younger age, higher educational level, lack of home support, higher BODE index, and greater number of exacerbations. The ROC curve of the model had an AUC of 0.765 (P<0.001). In COPD, concomitant psychiatric disorders are significantly associated with sociodemographic factors. Anxiety disorders are more common than depression. Patients with more severe COPD, according to BODE, younger patients and those with a higher educational level have a greater risk of being diagnosed with anxiety or depression in a structured psychiatric interview. In our population, most patients with psychiatric comorbidities remain unidentified. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang
This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.
Henrich, Joseph; Boyd, Robert; Richerson, Peter J
The anthropological record indicates that approximately 85 per cent of human societies have permitted men to have more than one wife (polygynous marriage), and both empirical and evolutionary considerations suggest that large absolute differences in wealth should favour more polygynous marriages. Yet, monogamous marriage has spread across Europe, and more recently across the globe, even as absolute wealth differences have expanded. Here, we develop and explore the hypothesis that the norms and institutions that compose the modern package of monogamous marriage have been favoured by cultural evolution because of their group-beneficial effects-promoting success in inter-group competition. In suppressing intrasexual competition and reducing the size of the pool of unmarried men, normative monogamy reduces crime rates, including rape, murder, assault, robbery and fraud, as well as decreasing personal abuses. By assuaging the competition for younger brides, normative monogamy decreases (i) the spousal age gap, (ii) fertility, and (iii) gender inequality. By shifting male efforts from seeking wives to paternal investment, normative monogamy increases savings, child investment and economic productivity. By increasing the relatedness within households, normative monogamy reduces intra-household conflict, leading to lower rates of child neglect, abuse, accidental death and homicide. These predictions are tested using converging lines of evidence from across the human sciences.
Rubio Covarrubias, Ariana Gabriela
In this dissertation I present three papers, each as an individual chapter. The first two papers are in the field of development economics, while the third paper is in the field of education economics. The first two chapters document and study the disappearance of arranged marriages in Asia, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa. For this…
Leen Sterckx; Jaco Dagevos; Willem Huijnk; Jantine van Lisdonk
Original title: Huwelijksmigratie in Nederland When a man or woman living in the Netherlands embarks on a relationship with a partner from another country and the couple decide to build a married life together in the Netherlands, we call this marriage migration. The foreign partner who moves to
Glick, Peter; Handy, Christopher; Sahn, David E
The low school attainment, early marriage, and low age at first birth of females are major policy concerns in less developed countries. This study jointly estimated the determinants of educational attainment, marriage age, and age at first birth among females aged 12-25 in Madagascar, explicitly accounting for the endogeneities that arose from modelling these related outcomes simultaneously. An additional year of schooling results in a delay to marriage of 1.5 years and marrying 1 year later delays age at first birth by 0.5 years. Parents' education and wealth also have important effects on schooling, marriage, and age at first birth, with a woman's first birth being delayed by 0.75 years if her mother had 4 additional years of schooling. Overall, our results provide rigorous evidence for the critical role of education-both individual women's own and that of their parents-in delaying the marriage and fertility of young women.
Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.
Background Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage Asia, where the majority of girl child marriages occur, substantial improvements in girl education have not corresponded to equivalent reductions in child marriage. This study examines the levels of education associated with female age at marriage over the previous 20 years across four South Asian nations with high rates (>20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Methods Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20–24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher) on age at marriage (education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents. PMID:25203635
Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G; Rusch, Melanie L A
Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage globally. However, in South Asia, where the majority of girl child marriages occur, substantial improvements in girl education have not corresponded to equivalent reductions in child marriage. This study examines the levels of education associated with female age at marriage over the previous 20 years across four South Asian nations with high rates (>20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20-24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher) on age at marriage (education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents.
Umgiesser, Georg; Razinkovas-Baziukas, Arturas; Barisevičiūtė, Ruta; Baziukė, Dalia; Ertürk, Ali; Gasiūnaitė, Jovita; Gulbinskas, Saulius; Lubienė, Irma; Maračkinaite, Jurgita; Petkuvienė, Jolita; Pilkaitytė, Renata; Ruginis, Tomas; Zemlys, Petras; Žilius, Mindaugas
The spatial pattern of the hydrodynamic circulation of the Curonian lagoon, the largest European coastal lagoon, is still little understood. In absence of automatic current registration data all the existing models relied mostly on such data as water levels leaving high level of uncertainty. Here we present CISOCUR, a new project financed by the European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure. The project applies a new methodology that uses the carbon stable isotope (SI) ratio of C12 and C13 that characterize different water sources entering the lagoon and may be altered by internal kinetic processes. Through the tracing of these isotope ratios different water masses can be identified. This gives the possibility to validate several hypotheses of water circulation and validate hydrodynamic models. In particular it will be possible to 1) trace water masses entering the lagoon through the Nemunas and the Klaipeda strait; 2) test the hypothesis of sediment transport mechanisms inside the lagoon; 3) evaluate the importance of physical forcing on the lagoon circulation. The use of a hydrodynamic finite element model, coupled with the SI method, will allow for a realistic description of the transport processes inside the Curonian lagoon. So the main research goal is to apply the stable isotope tracers and a finite element model to determine the circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Overall, the project will develop according to 4 main phases: 1) A pilot study to measure the isotope composition of different carbon compounds (dissolved and suspended) in different water bodies that feed water into the central lagoon. Through this pilot study the optimal study sites for the seasonal campaign will be identified as well. 2) Seasonal field campaigns in the monitoring stations identified in phase 1 to measure the carbon isotope ratio. 3) Development of a model that describes the kinetics of carbon isotopes and its transformation. 4) Application of a hydrodynamic model
Full Text Available The focus of this research was the phenomenon of early marriage which was domi- nated by cultural traditions. It was a qualitative research that used interview, obser- vation and document reviews to collect the data. The result of the study was expected to provide people enough information and materials on the picture of early marriage. The findings showed some determining factors in the phenomenon: culture, textual understanding of religion, and economic motives. Although the phenomenon of early marriage was like this, people actually perceive that the ideal marriage was a mar- riage which is conducted after reaching the age mature enough to be able to live inde- pendently. The practice of such marriage should get special attention because there are many social problems that are related direcly to the mature age of marriage, such as: mortality, poverty, and the low quality of education. Therefore, the implementa- tion of the marriage must be in accordance with the laws and regulations.
Valmir Luiz Strapasolas
Full Text Available This article concerns the questioning of cultural values among farm families and specifically presents various representations that have been constructed by young people and women about the notion of marriage. To discuss the meaning, importance and the redefinitions currently being established about the category of marriage, an analysis was conducted of the statements of the sons and daughters of farm families collected during my doctoral research in western Santa Catarina state. Based on the analysis of the representations and actions of rural youth, an emergence of conflicts was identified concerning the choice of family models and marriage. This has influenced the life plans made by young men and women and gives importance to the factor of gender in the migratory movement of youth.
Vuille, M.; Werner, M.
The South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) is a prominent feature of summertime climate over South America and has been identified in a number of paleoclimatic records from across the continent, including records based on stable isotopes. The relationship between the stable isotopic composition of precipitation and interannual variations in monsoon strength, however, has received little attention so far. Here we investigate how variations in the intensity of the SASM influence δ18O in precipitation based on both observational data and Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) simulations. An index of vertical wind shear over the SASM entrance (low level) and exit (upper level) region over the western equatorial Atlantic is used to define interannual variations in summer monsoon strength. This index is closely correlated with variations in deep convection over tropical and subtropical South America during the mature stage of the SASM. Observational data from the International Atomic Energy Agency-Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (IAEA-GNIP) and from tropical ice cores show a significant negative association between δ18O and SASM strength over the Amazon basin, SE South America and the central Andes. The more depleted stable isotopic values during intense monsoon seasons are consistent with the so-called ’‘amount effect‘’, often observed in tropical regions. In many locations, however, our results indicate that the moisture transport history and the degree of rainout upstream may be more important factors explaining interannual variations in δ18O. In many locations the stable isotopic composition is closely related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), even though the moisture source is located over the tropical Atlantic and precipitation is the result of the southward expansion and intensification of the SASM during austral summer. ENSO induces significant atmospheric circulation anomalies over tropical South America, which affect both SASM
Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.
It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248
Cuong D. Tran
Full Text Available It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease.
Bouchard, Daniel; Cornaton, Fabien; Höhener, Patrick; Hunkeler, Daniel
Analytical models were developed that simulate stable isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near a point source contamination in the unsaturated zone. The models describe diffusive transport of VOCs, biodegradation and source ageing. The mass transport is governed by Fick's law for diffusion. The equation for reactive transport of VOCs in the soil gas phase was solved for different source geometries and for different boundary conditions. Model results were compared to experimental data from a one-dimensional laboratory column and a radial-symmetric field experiment. The comparison yielded a satisfying agreement. The model results clearly illustrate the significant isotope fractionation by gas phase diffusion under transient state conditions. This leads to an initial depletion of heavy isotopes with increasing distance from the source. The isotope evolution of the source is governed by the combined effects of isotope fractionation due to vaporisation, diffusion and biodegradation. The net effect can lead to an enrichment or depletion of the heavy isotope in the remaining organic phase, depending on the compound and element considered. Finally, the isotope evolution of molecules migrating away from the source and undergoing degradation is governed by a combined degradation and diffusion isotope effect. This suggests that, in the unsaturated zone, the interpretation of biodegradation of VOC based on isotopic data must always be based on a model combining gas phase diffusion and degradation.
John B Hopkins
Full Text Available Using stable isotope mixing models (SIMMs as a tool to investigate the foraging ecology of animals is gaining popularity among researchers. As a result, statistical methods are rapidly evolving and numerous models have been produced to estimate the diets of animals--each with their benefits and their limitations. Deciding which SIMM to use is contingent on factors such as the consumer of interest, its food sources, sample size, the familiarity a user has with a particular framework for statistical analysis, or the level of inference the researcher desires to make (e.g., population- or individual-level. In this paper, we provide a review of commonly used SIMM models and describe a comprehensive SIMM that includes all features commonly used in SIMM analysis and two new features. We used data collected in Yosemite National Park to demonstrate IsotopeR's ability to estimate dietary parameters. We then examined the importance of each feature in the model and compared our results to inferences from commonly used SIMMs. IsotopeR's user interface (in R will provide researchers a user-friendly tool for SIMM analysis. The model is also applicable for use in paleontology, archaeology, and forensic studies as well as estimating pollution inputs.
Macko, S. A.; O'Connell, M. T.; Fu, Y.
The Najinhe watershed is a topographically diverse, heavily agricultural watershed in northeastern China that provides opportunities for identification of the impact of land use on nitrogen cycling. Land use, both historic and current, influences the biological processing of nitrogen in a particular area. Soil conditions, including moisture, texture, and organic content, control the capacity of a parcel for processing reactive nitrogen. Compounds derived from natural and anthropogenic sources exhibit characteristic ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen that serve as tracers of origin as well as integrators of biological processes. A distributed hydrologic model coupled with one focusing on reactive transport is able to help determine locations with the highest impact on the dissolved N in this system. Gaussian Markov Random Fields were used to determine the biogeochemical influence of model locations whereas δ15N measurements from NO3- and NH4+ in soil extracts were used to calibrate and validate model predictions based on measured precipitation and streamflow values. Sources were integrated using a Bayesian mixing model to determine likely fate and transport parameters for various N inputs to the watershed. The application of the coupled hydrologic and transport models to a village scale catchment suggests integration and expansion to larger watersheds on the basin scale. Identification of sensitive parcels on multiple spatial scales can direct targeted land management efforts to mitigate ecological and health effects of reactive N in surface waters.
Full Text Available The trophic ecology of epibenthic mesopredators is not well understood in terms of prey partitioning with sympatric elasmobranchs or their effects on prey communities, yet the importance of omnivores in community trophic dynamics is being increasingly realised. This study used stable isotope analysis of (15N and (13C to model diet composition of wild southern stingrays Dasyatis americana and compare trophic niche space to nurse sharks Ginglymostoma cirratum and Caribbean reef sharks Carcharhinus perezi on Glovers Reef Atoll, Belize. Bayesian stable isotope mixing models were used to investigate prey choice as well as viable Diet-Tissue Discrimination Factors for use with stingrays. Stingray δ(15N values showed the greatest variation and a positive relationship with size, with an isotopic niche width approximately twice that of sympatric species. Shark species exhibited comparatively restricted δ(15N values and greater δ(13C variation, with very little overlap of stingray niche space. Mixing models suggest bivalves and annelids are proportionally more important prey in the stingray diet than crustaceans and teleosts at Glovers Reef, in contrast to all but one published diet study using stomach contents from other locations. Incorporating gut contents information from the literature, we suggest diet-tissue discrimination factors values of Δ(15N ≈ 2.7‰ and Δ(13C ≈ 0.9‰ for stingrays in the absence of validation experiments. The wide trophic niche and lower trophic level exhibited by stingrays compared to sympatric sharks supports their putative role as important base stabilisers in benthic systems, with the potential to absorb trophic perturbations through numerous opportunistic prey interactions.
Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Ford, W. I., III; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J. C.; Taylor, C. J.
Sediment tracing tools provide an insight into provenance, fate, and transport of sediment and, when coupled to stable isotopes, can elucidate in-stream biogeochemical processes. Particulate nitrogen fate in fluviokarst systems is a relatively unexplored area of research partially due to the complex hydrodynamics at play in karst systems. Karst topography includes turbulent conduits that transport groundwater and contaminants at speeds more typical of open channel flows than laminar Darcian flows. While it is accepted that karst hydro-geomorphology represents a hybrid surface-subsurface system for fluid, further investigation is needed to determine whether, and to what extent, karst systems behave like surface agricultural streams or porous media aquifers with respect to their role in nitrogen cycling. Our objective is to gain an understanding of in-conduit nitrogen processes and their effect on net nitrogen-exports from karst springs to larger waterbodies. The authors apply water, sediment, carbon, and nitrogen tracing techniques to analyze water for nitrate, sediment carbon and nitrogen, and stable sediment nitrogen isotope (δ15N). Thereafter, a new numerical model is formulated that: simulates dissolved inorganic nitrogen and sediment nitrogen transformations in the phreatic karst conduit; couples carbon turnover and nitrogen transformations in the model structure; and simulates the nitrogen stable isotope mass balance for the dissolved and sediment phases. Nitrogen tracing data results show a significant increase in δ15N of sediment nitrogen at the spring outlet relative to karst inputs indicating the potential for isotope fractionation during dissolved N uptake by bed sediments in the conduit and during denitrification within bed sediments. The new numerical modeling structure is then used to reproduce the data results and provide an estimate of the relative dominance of N uptake and denitrification within the surficial sediments of the karst conduit system
O. V. Zenkin
Full Text Available The article highlights the method of calculating the optimum curvature of the river channels using the kinematic model of the flow structure based on the concept of discrete nature of the channel process. It offers the analytic form of the equation of motion of river flow, which can be used simulation modeling for searching dynamically stable form of the river channel, and which can control water level in rivers. The source data for the illustrations of given in the article modeling methods have been served the images received from MODIS on the Terra satellite, for the lower reaches of the river Kur, which merges with the river Urmi, forming the Tunguska river – the left tributary of the Amur.The modified geometric method can be used to calculate obliquity of tangent to the curve and normal in those situations when observed on satellite imagery points are located on the coordinate of the network irregularly and when three points lying on the curve of the riverbed do not form isosceles triangle.The model assembles tangential and radial components of the forces acting on the water flow (centrifugal, friction and gravity. Curvature radius is explicitly expressed in the model through the parameter – gradient angle relative to the axis X. As solution for the value of the angle is searched, when the correlation function reaches its maximum. It is assumed that the riverbed shape “wrong” and could be modified so that the resulting curve better correlated with calculated curve. Morphometric dependences for macroforms allow creating series of morphological methods for the calculation of deformations and displacement of the shore in any section of meander scroll.The proposed technique has been tested also on satellite imagery of high resolution. The presented methods of calculation are used as the basis for hydrological projects of geoinformation systems oriented at prediction of morphodynamic processes and morphological evolution of river
Bondov S. N.
The article is devoted to the analysis of various approaches to the main definitions of a family law, such as marriage, family, and marriage legal relationship. In the article we profoundly considered the legal aspects of a procedure of marriage as the act of registration of marriage is the basis of emergence of marriage legal relationship. The conditions and the bases of marriage are characterized. We made a conclusion that marriage is a legal fact establishing, changing or stopping the corr...
Westra, S.; Sisson, S.
The question of how extreme precipitation will change under a future climate represents an urgent research problem, not least because of the significant societal impacts that would result from an increase in precipitation-induced flooding. To better constrain future projections, an important line of evidence comes from statistical assessments of change to extreme precipitation in the observational record, as a significant amount of warming since pre-industrial times has already taken place. In this study we address this problem by applying a max-stable process model to evaluate whether extreme precipitation at sub-daily and daily timescales has changed at various locations around Australia. This max-stable process approach, which was developed to simulate spatial fields comprising observations from multiple point locations, significantly increases the precision of a statistical inference compared to standard univariate methods. Applying the technique to a field of annual maxima derived from 30 sub-daily gauges in east Australia from 1965 to 2005, we find a statistically significant increase of 18% for 6-minute rainfall over this period, with smaller increases for longer duration events. We also find an increase of 5.6% and 22.5% per degree of Australian land surface temperature and global sea surface temperature at 6-minute durations, respectively, again with smaller scaling relationships for longer durations. In contrast, limited change could be observed in daily rainfall at most locations, with the exception of a statistically significant decline of 7.4% per degree land surface temperature in southwest Western Australia. These results suggest both the importance of better understanding changes to precipitation at the sub-daily timescale, as well as the need to more precisely simulate temporal variability by accounting for the spatial nature of precipitation in any statistical model.
Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhong-ping; Li, Chun-wang
This paper modified an Armstrong-Frederick-type plasticity model for investigating the stable cyclic deformation behavior of metallic materials with different sensitivity to nonproportional loadings. In the modified model, the nonproportionality factor and nonproportional cyclic hardening coefficient coupled with the Jiang-Sehitoglu incremental plasticity model were used to estimate the stable stress-strain responses of the two materials (1045HR steel and 304 stainless steel) under various tension-torsion strain paths. A new equation was proposed to calculate the nonproportionality factor on the basis of the minimum normal strain range. Procedures to determine the minimum normal strain range were presented for general multiaxial loadings. Then, the modified model requires only the cyclic strain hardening exponent and cyclic strength coefficient to determine the material constants. It is convenient for predicting the stable stress-strain responses of materials in engineering application. Comparisons showed that the modified model can reflect the effect of nonproportional cyclic hardening well.
Manning, Wendy D; Cohen, Jessica A
Cohabitation is an integral part of family research; however, little work examines cohabitation among teenagers or links between cohabitation and teenage childbearing. Drawing on the National Survey of Family Growth (2006-10), we examine family formation activities (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing) of 3,945 15-19 year old women from the mid 1990s through 2010. One-third (34%) of teenagers cohabit, marry, or have a child. Teenage cohabitation and marriage are both positively associated with higher odds of having a child. The vast majority of single pregnant teenagers do not form a union before the birth of their child; only 22% cohabit and 5% marry. Yet most single pregnant teenagers eventually cohabit, 59% did so by the child's third birthday and about 9% marry. Cohabitation is an important part of the landscape of the adolescent years, and many teenage mothers described as "single mothers" are actually in cohabiting relationships.
Kanematsu, Akihiro; Higuchi, Yoshihide; Tanaka, Shiro; Hashimoto, Takahiko; Nojima, Michio; Yamamoto, Shingo
Patients with hypospadias are treated surgically during childhood, which has the intention of enabling a satisfactory sexual life in adulthood. However, it is unclear whether patients with corrected hypospadias can lead a satisfactory sexual life and sustain a marital relationship and produce offspring. To evaluate factors associated with achievement of sexual intercourse, marriage, and paternity in patients with hypospadias who have reached adulthood. Self-completion questionnaires were mailed in April 2012 to patients with hypospadias at least 18 years old who had been treated at our institution during childhood from 1973 through 1998 by a single surgeon and the same surgical policy. Assessments included the International Prostate Symptom Score, the International Index for Erectile Function-5, and non-validated questions related to current social and physical status and sexual, marital, and paternity experiences. Candidate factors were extracted from patients' neonatal data, surgical findings and results, and current physical and social status obtained by the questionnaires. Candidate factors associated with heterosexual intercourse, marriage, and paternity experiences were analyzed using univariate and multivariate proportional hazard models and log-rank test of Kaplan-Meier curves. Of the 518 patients contacted, 108 (age = 18-50 years, median = 28 years) met the inclusion criteria. Two- and one-stage repairs were performed as the initial treatment in 79 and 12, respectively, and 17 of the analyzed cases were reoperations for patients initially treated elsewhere. Fifty-seven patients had the milder type (31 glandular, 26 penile), 36 had the proximal type (13 penoscrotal, 23 scrotal-perineal), and 15 had an unknown type. Multivariate analyses by Cox proportional hazard model and log-rank tests confirmed that experience of sexual intercourse was associated with the milder type of hypospadias (P = .025 and .0076 respectively), marriage was associated with stable
The myth of marriage has been and is still a fascinating historical societal phenomenon. Paradoxically, the empirical divorce rates are at an all-time high. This work describes a unique paradigm for preserving relationships and marital stability from mean-field game theory. We show that optimizing the long-term well-being via effort and society feeling state distribution will help in stabilizing relationships.
Okorobia-Onwuzurigbo, G. (Gregory)
The Catholic bishops of Onitsha Ecclesiastical Province in their joint Pastoral Letter to mark the first centenary celebrations of the advent of Catholic Church in Eastern Nigeria call for an intense catechesis as a way of deepening the faith of the huge number of Catholics recorded in the first century of the Church1 . Undoubtedly marriage and family life are some of the institutions at the centre of this intense catechesis. Hence this work has been proposed as a surv...
Lischke, Heike; Löffler, Thomas J
One way to explore assembly of extant and novel communities from species pools, and by that biodiversity and species ranges, is to study the equilibrium behavior of dynamic competition models such as the Lotka-Volterra competition (LVC) model. We present a novel method (COMMUSTIX) to determine all stable fixpoints of the general LVC model with abundances x from a given pool of n species. To that purpose, we split the species in potentially surviving species (x i >0) and in others going extinct (x i =0). We derived criteria for the stability of x i =0 and for the equilibrium of x i >0 to determine possible combinations of extinct and surviving species by iteratively applying a mixed binary linear optimization algorithm. We tested this new method against (a) the numerical solution at equilibrium of the LVC ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and (b) the fixpoints of all combinations of surviving and extinct species (possible only for small n), tested for stability and non-negativity. The tests revealed that COMMUSTIX is reliable, it detects all multiple stable fixpoints (SFPs), which is not guaranteed by solving the ODEs, and more efficient than the combinations method. With COMMUSTIX, we studied the dependence of the fixpoint behavior on the competition strengths relative to the intra-specific competition. If inter-specific competition was considerably lower than intra-specific competition, only globally SFPs occurred. In contrast, if all inter-specific was higher than intra-specific competition, multiple SFPs consisting of only one species occurred. If competition strengths in the species pool ranged from below to above the intra-specific competition, either global or multiple SFPs strongly differing in species composition occurred. The species richness over all SFPs was high for pools of species with similar, either weak or strong competition, and lower for species with dissimilar or close to intra-specific competition strengths. The new approach is a reliable
Norris, R.; Miller, N.; Wassenaar, L.; Hobson, K.
Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate up to 3000 km from central Mexico to re-colonize eastern North America. However, despite centuries of research, the patterns of re-colonization are not well understood. We combined stable-hydrogen (δD) and -carbon (δ13C) isotope measurements with demographic models to test (1) whether individuals sampled in the northern part of the breeding range in the Great Lakes originate directly from Mexico or are second generation individuals born in the southern US and (2) to estimate whether populations on the eastern seaboard migrate longitudinally over the Appalachians or originate directly from the Gulf Coast. In the Great Lakes, we found that the majority of individuals were second-generation monarchs born in the Gulf Coast and Central regions of the US. However, 25% individuals originated directly from Mexico and we estimated that these individuals produced the majority of offspring born in the Great Lakes region during June. On the eastern seaboard, we found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results demonstrate how stable isotopes, when combined with ecological data, can provide insights into patterns of connectivity in migratory insects that have been impossible to test using conventional techniques. The migration patterns presented here have important implications for predicting future changes in population size and for developing effective conservation plans for this species.
Chan, Dick C; Barrett, P Hugh R; Watts, Gerald F
The accompanying review in this issue of Clinical Science [Chan, Barrett and Watts (2004) Clin. Sci. 107, 221-232] presented an overview of lipoprotein physiology and the methodologies for stable isotope kinetic studies. The present review focuses on our understanding of the dysregulation and therapeutic regulation of lipoprotein transport in the metabolic syndrome based on the application of stable isotope and modelling methods. Dysregulation of lipoprotein metabolism in metabolic syndrome may be due to a combination of overproduction of VLDL [very-LDL (low-density lipoprotein)]-apo (apolipoprotein) B-100, decreased catabolism of apoB-containing particles and increased catabolism of HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-apoA-I particles. These abnormalities may be consequent on a global metabolic effect of insulin resistance, partly mediated by depressed plasma adiponectin levels, that collectively increases the flux of fatty acids from adipose tissue to the liver, the accumulation of fat in the liver and skeletal muscle, the hepatic secretion of VLDL-triacylglycerols and the remodelling of both LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and HDL particles in the circulation. These lipoprotein defects are also related to perturbations in both lipolytic enzymes and lipid transfer proteins. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism in the metabolic syndrome is well complemented by extensive cell biological data. Nutritional modifications may favourably alter lipoprotein transport in the metabolic syndrome by collectively decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB and the catabolism of HDL-apoA-I, as well as by potentially increasing the clearance of LDL-apoB. Several pharmacological treatments, such as statins, fibrates or fish oils, can also correct the dyslipidaemia by diverse kinetic mechanisms of action, including decreased secretion and increased catabolism of apoB, as well as increased secretion and decreased catabolism of apoA-I. The complementary
Banks, J. W.; Henshaw, W. D.; Schwendeman, D. W.; Tang, Qi
A stable partitioned algorithm is developed for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems involving viscous incompressible flow and rigid bodies. This added-mass partitioned (AMP) algorithm remains stable, without sub-iterations, for light and even zero mass rigid bodies when added-mass and viscous added-damping effects are large. The scheme is based on a generalized Robin interface condition for the fluid pressure that includes terms involving the linear acceleration and angular acceleration of the rigid body. Added-mass effects are handled in the Robin condition by inclusion of a boundary integral term that depends on the pressure. Added-damping effects due to the viscous shear forces on the body are treated by inclusion of added-damping tensors that are derived through a linearization of the integrals defining the force and torque. Added-damping effects may be important at low Reynolds number, or, for example, in the case of a rotating cylinder or rotating sphere when the rotational moments of inertia are small. In this first part of a two-part series, the properties of the AMP scheme are motivated and evaluated through the development and analysis of some model problems. The analysis shows when and why the traditional partitioned scheme becomes unstable due to either added-mass or added-damping effects. The analysis also identifies the proper form of the added-damping which depends on the discrete time-step and the grid-spacing normal to the rigid body. The results of the analysis are confirmed with numerical simulations that also demonstrate a second-order accurate implementation of the AMP scheme.
Chen, J. M.; Chen, B.; Huang, L.; Tans, P.; Worthy, D.; Ishizawa, M.; Chan, D.
The variation of the stable isotope 13CO2 in the air in exchange with land ecosystems results from fractionation processes in both plants and soil during photosynthesis and respiration. Its diurnal and seasonal variations therefore contain information on the carbon cycle. We developed a model (BEPS-iso) to simulate its exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere. To be useful for regional carbon cycle studies, the model has the following characteristics: (i) it considers the turbulent mixing in the vertical profile from the soil surface to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL); (ii) it scales individual leaf photosynthetic discrimination to the whole canopy through the separation of sunlit and shaded leaf groups; (iii) through simulating leaf-level photosynthetic processes, it has the capacity to mechanistically examine isotope discrimination resulting from meteorological forcings, such as radiation, precipitation and humidity; and (iv) through complete modeling of radiation, energy and water fluxes, it also simulates soil moisture and temperature needed for estimating ecosystem respiration and the 13C signal from the soil. After validation using flask data acquired at 20 m level on a tower near Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada, during intensive campaigns (1998-2000), the model has been used for several purposes: (i) to investigate the diurnal and seasonal variations in the disequilibrium in 13C fractionation between ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis, which is an important step in using 13C measurements to separate these carbon cycle components; (ii) to quantify the 13C rectification in the PBL, which differs significantly from CO2 rectification because of the diurnal and seasonal disequilibriums; and (iii) to model the 13C spatial and temporal variations over the global land surface for the purpose of CO2 inversion using 13C as an additional constraint.
It concludes by pointing out several issues which are in need of clarification and where the common law should be developed to give effect to fundamental constitutional rights. Keywords: Universal partnerships; customary marriage; putative marriage; Muslim marriage; Hindu marriage; bigamy; marriage out of community of ...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage ceremony in the institution. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Marriages of Inmates § 551.16 Marriage ceremony in the institution. (a) The Warden may approve the use of institution facilities for an inmate's marriage ceremony. If a marriage...
Uchida, Hiroyuki; Odagiri, Youichi; Ohtake, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Jun
An age-period-cohort (APC) analysis was performed to provide information about age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects on marriage trends in Japanese women. In addition, the relationships of the trends of age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects between marriage and birth were analyzed. We obtained data regarding marriages of Japanese women aged between 19 and 38 years for the period of 1985 to 2005 from the National Vital Statistics. Population data used were for an estimated population, obtained from the Population Estimates Annual Reports. Standard cohort tables comprising marriage and population data were analyzed using a Bayesian APC model to identify age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects on marriage rate trends. Previously obtained data for a similar APC-analysis of birth trends were used to compare the trends in the effects of age, period, and cohort on marriage and birth patterns. For this purpose, the estimated values for each effect were normalized. With regard to the marriage trends in Japanese women, the effect of age was the greatest, peaking at the age of 25 years. The period effect increased after 1997; however, its effect was relatively limited as compared to the other effects. The cohort effect, which was greater than the period effect and less than the age effect, on marriage trends showed a decreasing slope for birth cohorts born after 1966 and subsequent increase after 1982. Comparison of age, period and cohort effects between the trends in marriage and birth rates showed that the age effect distinctly peaked at 25 and 28 years for marriage and births, respectively. The period effect on marriage and birth showed a decreasing trend until 1991 and subsequent increased in 1992 and 1997 for births and marriage, respectively. With regard to the cohort effect on birth rates, a decreasing trend was observed for the birth cohorts after 1961, with increase after 1977. However, with regard to the cohort effect on marriage rates, the decreasing
Hashemi, Ali Reza; Pishevar, Ahmad Reza; Valipouri, Afsaneh; Pǎrǎu, Emilian I.
In a typical electro-spinning process, the steady stretching process of the jet beyond the Taylor cone has a significant effect on the dimensions of resulting nanofibers. Also, it sets up the conditions for the onset of the bending instability. The focus of this work is the modeling and simulation of the initial stable jet phase seen during the electro-spinning process. The perturbation method was applied to solve hydrodynamic equations, and the electrostatic equation was solved by a boundary integral method. These equations were coupled with the stress boundary conditions derived appropriate at the fluid-fluid interface. Perturbation equations were discretized by the second-order finite difference method, and the Newton method was implemented to solve the discretized nonlinear system. Also, the boundary element method was utilized to solve the electrostatic equation. In the theoretical study, the fluid is described as a leaky dielectric with charges only on the jet surface in dielectric air. In this study, electric charges were modeled as static. Comparison of numerical and experimental results shows that at low flow rates and high electric field, good agreement was achieved because of the superior importance of the charge transport by conduction rather than convection and charge concentration. In addition, the effect of unevenness of the electric field around the nozzle tip was experimentally studied through plate-plate geometry as well as point-plate geometry.
Saito, L.; Redd, C.; Chandra, S.; Atwell, L.; Fritsen, C.H.; Rosen, Michael R.
Aquatic foodweb models for 2 seasons (relatively high- [March] and low-flow [August] conditions) were constructed for 4 reaches on the Truckee River using ??13C and ??15N data from periphyton, macroinvertebrate, and fish samples collected in 2003 and 2004. The models were constructed with isotope values that included measured periphyton signatures and calculated mean isotope values for detritus and seston as basal food sources of each food web. The pseudo-optimization function in Excel's Solver module was used to minimize the sum of squared error between predicted and observed stable-isotope values while simultaneously solving for diet proportions for all foodweb consumers and estimating ??13C and ??15N trophic enrichment factors. This approach used an underdetermined set of simultaneous linear equations and was tested by running the pseudo-optimization procedure for 500 randomly selected sets of initial conditions. Estimated diet proportions had average standard deviations (SDs) of 0.03 to 0.04??? and SDs of trophic enrichment factors ranged from dead ends because they generally were not consumed. Predatory macroinvertebrate diets varied along the river and affected estimated trophic positions of fish that consumed them. Differences in complexity and composition of the food webs appeared to be related to season, but could also have been caused by interactions with nonnative species, especially invasive crayfish. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.
Tang, Jie; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Yue-Li; Liu, Mou-Ze; Hu, Yong-Fang; Shao, Ming-Jie; Zhu, Li-Jun; Xin, Hua-Wen; Feng, Gui-Wen; Shang, Wen-Jun; Meng, Xiang-Guang; Zhang, Li-Rong; Ming, Ying-Zi; Zhang, Wei
Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic window and considerable variability in clinical use. Our goal was to compare the performance of multiple linear regression (MLR) and eight machine learning techniques in pharmacogenetic algorithm-based prediction of tacrolimus stable dose (TSD) in a large Chinese cohort. A total of 1,045 renal transplant patients were recruited, 80% of which were randomly selected as the “derivation cohort” to develop dose-prediction algorithm, while the remaining 20% constituted the “validation cohort” to test the final selected algorithm. MLR, artificial neural network (ANN), regression tree (RT), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), boosted regression tree (BRT), support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR), lasso regression (LAR) and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) were applied and their performances were compared in this work. Among all the machine learning models, RT performed best in both derivation [0.71 (0.67-0.76)] and validation cohorts [0.73 (0.63-0.82)]. In addition, the ideal rate of RT was 4% higher than that of MLR. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use machine learning models to predict TSD, which will further facilitate personalized medicine in tacrolimus administration in the future.
Matthews, J O; Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E
Some properties of classical population processes that comprise births, deaths and multiple immigrations are investigated. The rates at which the immigrants arrive can be tailored to produce a population whose steady state fluctuations are described by a pre-selected distribution. Attention is focused on the class of distributions with a discrete stable law, which have power-law tails and whose moments and autocorrelation function do not exist. The separate problem of monitoring and characterizing the fluctuations is studied, analysing the statistics of individuals that leave the population. The fluctuations in the size of the population are transferred to the times between emigrants that form an intermittent time series of events. The emigrants are counted with a detector of finite dynamic range and response time. This is modelled through clipping the time series or saturating it at an arbitrary but finite level, whereupon its moments and correlation properties become finite. Distributions for the time to the first counted event and for the time between events exhibit power-law regimes that are characteristic of the fluctuations in population size. The processes provide analytical models with which properties of complex discrete random phenomena can be explored, and in addition provide generic means by which random time series encompassing a wide range of intermittent and other discrete random behaviour may be generated
We introduce a provably energy-stable time-integration method for general classes of phase-field models with polynomial potentials. We demonstrate how Taylor series expansions of the nonlinear terms present in the partial differential equations of these models can lead to expressions that guarantee energy-stability implicitly, which are second-order accurate in time. The spatial discretization relies on a mixed finite element formulation and isogeometric analysis. We also propose an adaptive time-stepping discretization that relies on a first-order backward approximation to give an error-estimator. This error estimator is accurate, robust, and does not require the computation of extra solutions to estimate the error. This methodology can be applied to any second-order accurate time-integration scheme. We present numerical examples in two and three spatial dimensions, which confirm the stability and robustness of the method. The implementation of the numerical schemes is done in PetIGA, a high-performance isogeometric analysis framework.
Caley, T.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Waelbroeck, C.; Michel, E.
We use the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean three-dimensional model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM to simulate the climate and oxygen stable isotopic signal during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 000 years). By using a model that is able to explicitly simulate the sensor (Î18O), results can be
Mahajan, Priyanka Thukral; Pimple, Priya; Palsetia, Delnaz; Dave, Nahid; De Sousa, Avinash
Indian religions and cultures are diverse and have always influenced the way people live in this part of the world. Religion has been a very dominant influence in marriage, choice of marital partner and cohabitation. The present paper looks at various religions in India and their influence on sexual attitudes and the institution of marriage. Sikhism, Jainism and the Parsi faith with its influence on sexuality and marriage are reviewed. Christian values and the role they play in shaping sexual...
Moskowitz, David A.; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E.
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men b...
Thornton, A; Freedman, D
Attitudes about the primacy of marriage as a way of life have changed markedly over the past two decades. The legitimacy of singleness as a life-style is increasingly recognized by young people and their parents; most Americans no longer regard getting married as necessarily better than remaining single and do not disapprove of those who eschew marriage. Although most young people interviewed in the 1980 Study of American Families say that they would be bothered at least a little by failure to marry, relatively few say they would be greatly bothered by that outcome. It is somewhat surprising that the mothers of these young people also report fairly evenhanded attitudes regarding marriage for their children, suggesting that the younger generation will probably not experience much parental pressure to marry. Although the imperative to marry has weakened and the perceived advantages of marriage as compared to single life have declined, marriage continues to be valued by the majority of young Americans as shown in several studies of attitudes toward marriage. More than 90 percent expect to marry and there has been almost no decline in that proportion since 1960. What is more, despite the high levels of divorce, most young people say that they expect their marriages to be lasting. What has changed about marriage plans has been the rising age at which young people, especially young women, expect to marry--an expectation reflected in the increasing age at which Americans are actually marrying. There also seems to be a widespread desire not to let marriage interfere with education and to obtain some work experience before marriage. Marriage continues to be more important to young women than young men, despite recent trends toward more egalitarian sex roles. There is some evidence that experience with divorce increases negative attitudes about marriage and favorable ones about singleness as a way of life.
Wijk, Sofi Ohlsson; Brandén, Maria; Duvander, Ann-Zofie
Abstract: Marriage is commonly perceived as a more committed form of union than cohabitation. Individualization perspectives suggest that this makes couples refrain from marriage, while gender perspectives propose that gender equality within couples may increase the willingness to commit to a partner through marriage. We address these differing standpoints by studying the role of commitment and gender equality for marriage formation among cohabiting men and women born in Swe...
This paper investigates empirically whether cultural, racial, and linguistic similarities increase marriage migration. By using marriage migration data from South Korea, I find that the similarities between an origin country and South Korea pull more marriage migration, but the positive effects of the similarities are mainly driven by female marriage migrants from middle and low income countries. The pulling effects of the similarities can be explained by female deficits in the marital age gr...
Smits, Jeroen; Monden, Christiaan W S
Whereas being tall has consistently been found a favorable characteristic at the marriage market for men, much less is known about the association between stature and marital success among women. Taller women are healthier than shorter women, give birth more easily and their offspring are healthier. We therefore would expect them to be more successful at the marriage market. However, existing evidence is mixed. We study the association between women's height and the odds of being married, marrying young, experiencing a divorce, and becoming widowed, and the association between women's height and their husbands' educational attainment and occupational status. Data come from the Indian National Family Health Survey 2005-2006, a representative study among 124,385 women and 74,369 men in all Indian states. Effects of female height on being married, marrying young, divorce, widowhood, and husband's occupation were estimated using logistic regression models. Effects of female height on husband's education were estimated using OLS regression models. Woman's education and age were always taken into account. Where possible controls for husband's height, husband's education, and age at marriage were included. Positive effects of women's height on favorable marital outcomes were found. Taller than average women are more likely to marry, get higher educated husbands with better jobs and are less likely to marry at a very young age or to lose their husbands through divorce or premature death. Taller Indian women seem to be more successful at the marriage market. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lersch, Philipp M
This study examines the association between marriage and economic wealth of women and men. Going beyond previous research that focused on household wealth, I examine personal wealth, which allows identifying gender disparities in the association between marriage and wealth. Using unique data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (2002, 2007, and 2012), I apply random-effects and fixed-effects regression models to test my expectations. I find that both women and men experience substantial marriage wealth premiums not only in household wealth but also in personal wealth. However, I do not find consistent evidence for gender disparities in these general marriage premiums. Additional analyses indicate, however, that women's marriage premiums are substantially lower than men's premiums in older cohorts and when only nonhousing wealth is considered. Overall, this study provides new evidence that women and men gain unequally in their wealth attainment through marriage.
Liangas, Georgios; Athanasou, James A
It has been proposed that legislation for same-sex marriage has a positive mental health benefit. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the empirical and conceptual links between same-sex marriage and mental health. There are substantive methodological issues in the four surveys and comparisons undertaken. Difficulties with the validity of the evidence are discussed. Conceptual difficulties in the arguments relating to victimisation as well as the psychology of marriage are highlighted. It was concluded that it is premature to make claims of causality vis-a-vis same-sex marriage legislation and mental health. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Kealy-Bateman, Warren; Pryor, Lisa
We aim to review marriage equality in New Zealand and Australia and critically evaluate the health impact of such a legal change. We undertook a review of the literature using the search terms "marriage equality", "same sex marriage" and "gay marriage" in combination with "health", "wellbeing", "psych*", "mental illness" and "distress". This search included medical literature, legal literature and mass media. This review indicates that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) people disproportionately face negative health stressors and negative health events compared with the general population and this is related to the stress of being a stigmatised minority group. The evidence strongly supports the proposition that marriage equality is related to improved health outcomes. A diverse range of professional health groups advocate for the legislative progression to marriage equality. The authors found no evidence that marriage equality harms opposite-sex marriage. Marriage equality is still lacking in Australia and as a positive correlate of health should be strongly supported. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Wodon, Quentin; Nguyen, Minh Cong
Nguyen and Wodon suggest that better measurement of child marriage can be obtained by adopting the techniques used for the measurement of poverty. The objective of this article is to use that approach to provide estimates of global and regional trends over time in the extent of child marriage – not only its incidence, but also what we refer to as the child marriage gap and the squared child marriage gap, two measures that take into account how young girls are when they marry.
Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica
In this paper titled “Several key features of marriage in Kosovo”, I have made efforts to address the matrimony, as an important societal and legal concept, in the light of positive law in Kosovo. In short terms, I have addressed the historical development of marriage in general, from the period of promiscuity until today, and I have emphasized key features of marriage in various time periods, only to comprehend better the ways of development of marriage in time and space. A special empha...
Nour, Nawal M
Despite international agreements and national laws, marriage of girls Child marriage is a human rights violation that prevents girls from obtaining an education, enjoying optimal health, bonding with others their own age, maturing, and ultimately choosing their own life partners. Child marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girls' health: increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cancer, malaria, death during childbirth, and obstetric fistulas. Girls' offspring are at increased risk for premature birth and death as neonates, infants, or children. To stop child marriage, policies and programs must educate communities, raise awareness, engage local and religious leaders, involve parents, and empower girls through education and employment.
A supplement to the national marriage law was adopted by the 3rd session of the 4th People's Congress of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region which ended here today. The supplement includes a number of areas. With regard to marriage age it says no marriage shall be contracted before the man has reached 20 years of age and the woman 18. Both these figures are 2 years earlier than the national age specified by the national law. Legal marriage registration must not be replaced by religious ceremonies. With regard to Moslems, those who want religious wedding ceremonies can do so only after obtaining their marriage certificates. Freedom of marriage of widows is protected against any interference under any pretext. Marriage between Hui people and other nationalities, of their own free will, must not be interfered with. The nationality of any children shall be decided by the parents and children may reexamine the decision themselves when they grow up. The supplement has been adopted in accordance with the national marriage law's article 36 which says "The people's congresses and their standing committees in national autonomous areas may enact certain modifications or supplementary articles in keeping with the principles of this law and in conformity with the actual conditions prevailing among the minority nationalities of the locality in regard to marriage and family relations." The congress, held from June 9-June 14, reviewed the implementation of the Communist Party's policies on nationalities and development of economy, culture, education and public health. full text
Generally, marriage is believed to be the union of two persons. However, very little attention is paid to its validity which attracts rights and responsibilities. This paper examined the law surrounding marriage rights and responsibilities attached if any, depending on whether the marriage is valid or not. The paper employed ...
Background: Some scholars claim that marriage is an outmoded institution, decoupled from the childbearing process in Sweden. However, it is likely that the presence of children is still linked to marriage, since most children born to cohabiting couples experience the marriage of their parents. The
Full Text Available In this study we present first results of a new model development, ECHAM5-JSBACH-wiso, where we have incorporated the stable water isotopes H218O and HDO as tracers in the hydrological cycle of the coupled atmosphere–land surface model ECHAM5-JSBACH. The ECHAM5-JSBACH-wiso model was run under present-day climate conditions at two different resolutions (T31L19, T63L31. A comparison between ECHAM5-JSBACH-wiso and ECHAM5-wiso shows that the coupling has a strong impact on the simulated temperature and soil wetness. Caused by these changes of temperature and the hydrological cycle, the δ18O in precipitation also shows variations from −4‰ up to 4‰. One of the strongest anomalies is shown over northeast Asia where, due to an increase of temperature, the δ18O in precipitation increases as well. In order to analyze the sensitivity of the fractionation processes over land, we compare a set of simulations with various implementations of these processes over the land surface. The simulations allow us to distinguish between no fractionation, fractionation included in the evaporation flux (from bare soil and also fractionation included in both evaporation and transpiration (from water transport through plants fluxes. While the isotopic composition of the soil water may change for δ18O by up to +8&permil:, the simulated δ18O in precipitation shows only slight differences on the order of ±1‰. The simulated isotopic composition of precipitation fits well with the available observations from the GNIP (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation database.
Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen
Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify…
Gee, Christina B.; Scott, Rogina L.; Castellani, Angela M.; Cordova, James V.
This study tested whether the observed marital interactions of partners following a marriage checkup predicted marital satisfaction 2 years later. In addition, this study examined whether recommendations to pursue therapy predicted subsequent treatment seeking and whether changes in marital distress following the checkup remained stable over 2…
In this paper, an efficient numerical scheme is designed for a phase field model for the moving contact line problem, which consists of a coupled system of the Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations with the generalized Navier boundary condition [1,2,4]. The nonlinear version of the scheme is semi-implicit in time and is based on a convex splitting of the Cahn-Hilliard free energy (including the boundary energy) together with a projection method for the Navier-Stokes equations. We show, under certain conditions, the scheme has the total energy decaying property and is unconditionally stable. The linearized scheme is easy to implement and introduces only mild CFL time constraint. Numerical tests are carried out to verify the accuracy and stability of the scheme. The behavior of the solution near the contact line is examined. It is verified that, when the interface intersects with the boundary, the consistent splitting scheme [21,22] for the Navier Stokes equations has the better accuracy for pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Wilcox, B.P.; Simanton, J.R.
In this paper, we evaluate runoff and erosion prediction by the WEPP hillslope model for two pinyon-juniper sites in New Mexico: one has a low erosion rate (stable site) and the other (unstable site) is eroding at very rapid rates (as a result of landuse and climatic perturbations over the last century). Runoff and erosion measurements were made at plot and hillslope scales at both sites. WEPP was evaluated using both rainfall simulation and natural rainfall data. Rainfall simulation was performed on both vegetated and bare plots. Parameter values used were developed from rainfall simulation experiments and site characteristics. In general, runoff and erosion were underpredicted at both sites but to a much larger degree at the unstable site. On the unstable site predictions were much improved when we used hydraulic conductivity (Ke) derived from the bare plot rainfall simulation. Also of importance, at the unstable site we observed a large increase in erosion as scale increased from the plot to the hillslope as a result of a well developed channel network. These results are preliminary, in that only a few storms were evaluated, however, they do suggest some important strategies for predicting the impact of reduced vegetation cover to erosion in semiarid landscapes
Teresa Adeltoft Ajslev
Full Text Available Background: The genetic predisposition to obesity may have contributed to the obesity epidemic through assortative mating. We investigated whether spouses were positively assorted by body mass index (BMI; =kg/m2 in late childhood, and whether changes in assorted marriage by upper BMI-percentiles occurred during the obesity epidemic. Methods: In the Copenhagen School Health Records Register boys and girls with measures of BMI at age 13 years later became 37 792 spousal-pairs who married from 1945–2010. Trends in the spousal BMI correlations using sex-, age- and birth cohort-specific BMI z-scores across time were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs of marriage among spouses both with BMI z-scores >90th or >95th percentile compared with marriage among spouses ≤90th percentile were analysed for marriages entered during the years prior to (1945–1970, and during the obesity epidemic (1971–2010.Findings: Spousal BMI correlations were small and stayed similar across time. ORs of marriage among spouses with BMIs >90th percentile at age 13 were 1.21, 1.05–1.39, in 1945–1970, and increased to 1.63, 1.40–1.91, in 1971–2010 (p=0.006. ORs of marriage among spouses both >95th BMI percentile were higher and increased more; from 1.39, 1.10–1.81, to 2.39, 1.85–3.09 (p=0.004.Interpretation: Spousal correlations by pre-marital BMIs were stable during the past 65 years. Yet, assorted marriages between spouses with BMIs in the upper percentiles were observed and increased significantly across the two marriage periods, and this may possibly influence the following generations’ susceptibility to obesity.
This paper examines the interaction between Semiotic choices and the presentation and solution of a family of contemporary mathematical problems centred around the so-called 'stable marriage problem'. I investigate how a socially restrictive choice of signs impacts mathematical production both in terms of problem formation and of solutions. I further note how the choice of gendered language ends up constructing a reality, which duplicates the very structural framework that it imported into mathematical analysis in the first place. I go on to point out some semiotic lines of flight from this interlocking grip of mathematics and gendered language.
Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaofei
We propose an adaptive root-determining strategy that is very useful when dealing with trapped modes or Stoneley modes whose energies become very insignificant on the free surface in the presence of low-velocity layers or fluid layers in the model. Loss of modes in these cases or inaccuracy in the calculation of these modes may then be easily avoided. Built upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficients, the concept of `family of secular functions' that we herein call `adaptive mode observers' is thus naturally introduced to implement this strategy, the underlying idea of which has been distinctly noted for the first time and may be generalized to other applications such as free oscillations or applied to other methods in use when these cases are encountered. Additionally, we have made further improvements upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method; mode observers associated with only the free surface and low-velocity layers (and the fluid/solid interface if the model contains fluid layers) are adequate to guarantee no loss and high precision at the same time of any physically existent modes without excessive calculations. Finally, the conventional definition of the fundamental mode is reconsidered, which is entailed in the cases under study. Some computational aspects are remarked on. With the additional help afforded by our superior root-searching scheme and the possibility of speeding calculation using a less number of layers aided by the concept of `turning point', our algorithm is remarkably efficient as well as stable and accurate and can be used as a powerful tool for widely related applications.
Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Knox, Virginia
To improve the quality and stability of couple and father-child relationships in fragile families, researchers are beginning to consider how to tailor existing couple-relationship and father-involvement interventions, which are now targeted on married couples, to the specific needs of unwed couples in fragile families. The goal, explain Philip Cowan, Carolyn Pape Cowan, and Virginia Knox, is to provide a more supportive developmental context for mothers, fathers, and, especially, the children in fragile families. The authors present a conceptual model to explain why couple-relationship and father-involvement interventions developed for middle- and low-income married couples might be expected to provide benefits for children of unmarried parents. Then they summarize the extensive research on existing couple-relationship and father-involvement interventions, noting that only a few of the programs for couples and a handful of fatherhood programs have been systematically evaluated. Of those that have been evaluated, few have included unmarried couples as participants, and none has investigated whether interventions may have different effects when unmarried fathers live with or apart from the child. Furthermore, although the funders and creators of most programs for couples or for fathers justify their offerings in terms of potential benefits for children, the authors note that the programs rarely assess child outcomes systematically. Next, the authors consider whether interventions for working-class or middle-class fathers or couples that have shown benefits for family members and their relationships might be helpful to fragile families, in which the parents are not married at the time of their child's birth. Because evidence suggests that couple-oriented programs also have a positive effect on father involvement, the authors recommend integrating couple and fatherhood interventions to increase their power to reduce the risks and enhance the protective factors for
Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...
Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for animals, ...
Bönecke, Eric; Franko, Uwe
Soil organic matter (SOM) and carbon (SOC) might be the most important components to describe soil fertility of agricultural used soils. It is sensitive to temporal and spatial changes due to varying weather conditions, uneven crops and soil management practices and still struggles with providing reliable delineation of spatial variability. Soil organic carbon, furthermore, is an essential initial parameter for dynamic modelling, understanding e.g. carbon and nitrogen processes. Alas it requires cost and time intensive field and laboratory work to attain and using this information. The objective of this study is to assess an approach that reduces efforts of laboratory and field analyses by using method to find stable initial soil organic carbon values for further soil process modelling and regionalization on field scale. The demand of strategies, technics and tools to improve reliable soil organic carbon high resolution maps and additionally reducing cost constraints is hence still facing an increasing attention of scientific research. Although, it is nowadays a widely used practice, combining effective sampling schemes with geophysical sensing techniques, to describe within-field variability of soil organic carbon, it is still challenging large uncertainties, even at field scale in both, science and agriculture. Therefore, an analytical and modelling approach might facilitate and improve this strategy on small and large field scale. This study will show a method, how to find reliable steady state values of soil organic carbon at particular points, using the approved soil process model CANDY (Franko et al. 1995). It is focusing on an iterative algorithm of adjusting the key driving components: soil physical properties, meteorological data and management information, for which we quantified the input and the losses of soil carbon (manure, crop residues, other organic inputs, decomposition, leaching). Furthermore, this approach can be combined with geophysical
Segura, C.; Mosquera, G.; Crespo, P.
The identification of water sources contributing to runoff is critical to understand the relation between water and biogeochemical cycles. During rainstorm events runoff can be composed of fractions of event and pre-event water. Tracers in two-component end member mixing analysis are commonly used to investigate these relative contributions to total runoff. However, tracer data are often only available at low temporal resolution, leading to high uncertainties in the estimation of flow components. Here, we present TraSPAN a new numerical tracer based streamflow-partitioning model that simulates both the tracer mass balance and the water flux response at the event scale. TraSPAN has four different structures representing different internal catchment hydrologic characteristics. We used high-resolution (0.25-5 hours) hydrometric and tracer (water stable isotopes (WSI) and electrical conductivity (EC)) data to simulate flow partitioning and compare the results between tracers for a storm in a forest headwater catchment at the western Oregon Cascades. Our results show that flow partitioning and transit time functions (TTFs) of event and pre-event water are well defined using either EC or WSI. The same model structure provided the best fit in both cases (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency > 0.9). This structure includes 2 reservoirs in parallel to route the event and pre-event water fractions following independent TTFs and allows a time-variant fraction of precipitation routed as event water over the course of the storm. The level of agreement between the results attained with EC and WSI is remarkable in terms of parameter values and TTFs. Given the high cost and effort associated to the collection and analysis of WSI at high temporal resolution, our results provide great promise for the use of EC as a tracer in high-resolution flow partitioning modeling. The use of such an inexpensive tracer could allow for detailed investigation of the relative importance of internal (e
Addo, Fenaba R
Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is un-affordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults.
Singh, K K; Suchindran, C M; Singh, V; Ramakumar, R
The study investigates the relationship between age at marriage and the length of first birth interval in two states of India: Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. Life tables of first-birth intervals and median first-birth intervals are computed for several subgroups of the study population. Multivariate hazards modelling technique is used to study the net effect of age at marriage, controlling for a multiple of socioeconomic factors. The result shows that the average first-birth interval varies by age at marriage and is much longer in Uttar Pradesh than in Kerala.
van den Berg, Gerard J; Gupta, Sumedha
This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis estimates bivariate duration models of marriage and mortality, allowing for unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that conditions around birth and school going ages are important for marriage and mortality. Men typically enjoy a protective effect of marriage, whereas women suffer during childbearing ages. However, having been born under favorable economic conditions reduces female mortality during childbearing ages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Uhlig, George E.; And Others
Compared personality characteristics of couples in alcoholic and nonalcoholic marriages. Couples in which one spouse was alcoholic showed fewer personality interrelationships than nonalcoholic couples, raising questions about the hypothesis that alcoholic marriage partners complement each other. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic males differed…
Wiggins, James D.; Lederer, Doris A.
Investigated antecedents of marital infidelity for individuals (N=59) involved with coworkers or others. Data suggested that persons involved with coworkers had more satisfying marriages and scored higher on the Compatibility Index than those involved with others. The number of liaisons was not correlated with age or age at marriage. (JAC)
Cox, Martha J.; And Others
Assessed the impact of parents' marriages on the parenting of firstborn three-month-olds. Concluded that mothers are warmer and more sensitive with infants than fathers are. Fathers hold more positive attitudes toward their infants and their roles as parents when they are in close, confiding marriages. (RH)
Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin
We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…
Doherty, William J.; Walker, Brian J.
Investigated the relationship between participation in Marriage Encounter and subsequent marital or family distress. An analysis of 13 case reports suggested that Marriage Encounter weekends can cause marital or family deterioration through increased marital conflict, avoidance of constructive problem solving, or marital enmeshment at the expense…
Watkins, Erin E.
Trying to understand marriage laws for individuals with disabilities can be frustrating. People looking for a clear-cut answer may turn to the Constitution. Different states address marriage laws differently. Most states consider the nature and severity of the individual's disability and the role of his or her guardian in the decision to marry.…
Czelusniak, Tanja Erika Andersen
Forced marriage is one of the newest crimes against humanity adjudicated at international criminal tribunals. This thesis shall discuss the evolution of this new crime, asking: Has international jurisprudence come to a point of recognition of forced marriage as a separate crime against humanity and if so, is it viable?
Brien, Michael J.; Lillard, Lee A.
Among Malaysian females, changes in education and enrollment account for much of the trend toward later marriage. Increase in age at first conception across cohorts and ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese, Indian) is fully accounted for by cohort and ethnic differences in the age at marriage. (Author/SK)
Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Itoh, Yoshiaki
By computer simulation, the spatial pattern formation in a marriage system is studied. Depending on the interaction range between persons, this system shows a phase transition which resembles the glass transition. It is found that the life style of Australian aborigines can be fitted quite well with such a marriage system. Moreover, we can roughly estimate the population size of tribes of Australian aborigines.
Lauer, Sean R.; Yodanis, Carrie
In individualized marriages, spouses maintain independence in their relationship. In individualized marriages, do married couples manage their money in pooled accounts or do they keep separate accounts? We answer this question with the 2002 International Social Survey Programme (N = 18,587;31 country contexts) and examine how variation in the…
Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.
Mahajan, Priyanka Thukral; Pimple, Priya; Palsetia, Delnaz; Dave, Nahid; De Sousa, Avinash
Indian religions and cultures are diverse and have always influenced the way people live in this part of the world. Religion has been a very dominant influence in marriage, choice of marital partner and cohabitation. The present paper looks at various religions in India and their influence on sexual attitudes and the institution of marriage. Sikhism, Jainism and the Parsi faith with its influence on sexuality and marriage are reviewed. Christian values and the role they play in shaping sexual notions as well Christian marriage traditions are explored. The paper also looks at the influences Islam has had on marriage and sexuality and ends with a feminist perspective on women and sexual attitudes towards women. PMID:23858264
Moskowitz, David A.; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E.
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic towards lesbians than towards gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996
Mahajan, Priyanka Thukral; Pimple, Priya; Palsetia, Delnaz; Dave, Nahid; De Sousa, Avinash
Indian religions and cultures are diverse and have always influenced the way people live in this part of the world. Religion has been a very dominant influence in marriage, choice of marital partner and cohabitation. The present paper looks at various religions in India and their influence on sexual attitudes and the institution of marriage. Sikhism, Jainism and the Parsi faith with its influence on sexuality and marriage are reviewed. Christian values and the role they play in shaping sexual notions as well Christian marriage traditions are explored. The paper also looks at the influences Islam has had on marriage and sexuality and ends with a feminist perspective on women and sexual attitudes towards women.
We investigated the use of output from Bayesian stable isotope mixing models as constraints for a linear inverse food web model of a temperate intertidal seagrass system in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, France. Linear inverse modeling (LIM) is a technique that estimates a complete net...
Hotchkiss, David R; Godha, Deepali; Gage, Anastasia J; Cappa, Claudia
Relatively little research on the issue of child marriage has been conducted in European countries where the overall prevalence of child marriage is relatively low, but relatively high among marginalized ethnic sub-groups. The purpose of this study is to assess the risk factors associated with the practice of child marriage among females living in Roma settlements in Serbia and among the general population and to explore the inter-relationship between child marriage and school enrollment decisions. The study is based on data from a nationally representative household survey in Serbia conducted in 2010 - and a separate survey of households living in Roma settlements in the same year. For each survey, we estimated a bivariate probit model of risk factors associated with being currently married and currently enrolled in school based on girls 15 to 17 years of age in the nationally representative and Roma settlements samples. The practice of child marriage among the Roma was found to be most common among girls who lived in poorer households, who had less education, and who lived in rural locations. The results of the bivariate probit analysis suggest that, among girls in the general population, decisions about child marriage school attendance are inter-dependent in that common unobserved factors were found to influence both decisions. However, among girls living in Roma settlements, there is only weak evidence of simultaneous decision making. The study finds evidence of the interdependence between marriage and school enrollment decisions among the general population and, to a lesser extent, among the Roma. Further research is needed on child marriage among the Roma and other marginalized sub-groups in Europe, and should be based on panel data, combined with qualitative data, to assess the role of community-level factors and the characteristics of households where girls grow up on child marriage and education decisions.
Bou-Zeid, Elie; Huang, Jing; Golaz, Jean-Christophe
A disconnect remains between our improved physical understanding of boundary layers stabilized by buoyancy and how we parameterize them in coarse atmospheric models. Most operational climate models require excessive turbulence mixing in such conditions to prevent decoupling of the atmospheric component from the land component, but the performance of such a model is unlikely to be satisfactory under weakly and moderately stable conditions. Using Large-eddy simulation, we revisit some of the basic challenges in parameterizing stable atmospheric boundary layers: eddy-viscosity closure is found to be more reliable due to an improved alignment of vertical Reynolds stresses and mean strains under stable conditions, but the dependence of the magnitude of the eddy viscosity on stability is not well represented by several models tested here. Thus, we propose a new closure that reproduces the different stability regimes better. Subsequently, tests of this model in the GFDL's single-column model (SCM) are found to yield good agreement with LES results in idealized steady-stability cases, as well as in cases with gradual and sharp changes of stability with time.
Full Text Available Humanoid robots will gradually play an important role in our daily lives. Currently, research on anthropomorphic robots and biped locomotion is one of the most important problems in the field of mobile robotics, and the development of reliable control algorithms for them is a challenging task. In this research two algorithms for stable walking of Russian anthropomorphic robot AR-601M with 41 Degrees of Freedom (DoF are investigated. To achieve a human-like dynamically stable locomotion 6 DoF in each robot leg are controlled with Virtual Height Inverted Pendulum and Preview control methods.
John B Hopkins
Full Text Available Past research indicates that whitebark pine seeds are a critical food source for Threatened grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE. In recent decades, whitebark pine forests have declined markedly due to pine beetle infestation, invasive blister rust, and landscape-level fires. To date, no study has reliably estimated the contribution of whitebark pine seeds to the diets of grizzlies through time. We used stable isotope ratios (expressed as δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S values measured in grizzly bear hair and their major food sources to estimate the diets of grizzlies sampled in Cooke City Basin, Montana. We found that stable isotope mixing models that included different combinations of stable isotope values for bears and their foods generated similar proportional dietary contributions. Estimates generated by our top model suggest that whitebark pine seeds (35±10% and other plant foods (56±10% were more important than meat (9±8% to grizzly bears sampled in the study area. Stable isotope values measured in bear hair collected elsewhere in the GYE and North America support our conclusions about plant-based foraging. We recommend that researchers consider model selection when estimating the diets of animals using stable isotope mixing models. We also urge researchers to use the new statistical framework described here to estimate the dietary responses of grizzlies to declines in whitebark pine seeds and other important food sources through time in the GYE (e.g., cutthroat trout, as such information could be useful in predicting how the population will adapt to future environmental change.
Full Text Available School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the 'tipping point' school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15-17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls' dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl's marriage so as to reduce girls' school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups.
Sekine, Kazutaka; Hodgkin, Marian Ellen
School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the 'tipping point' school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15-17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls' dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl's marriage so as to reduce girls' school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups.
Sekine, Kazutaka; Hodgkin, Marian Ellen
School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the ‘tipping point’ school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls’ school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15–17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls’ dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl’s marriage so as to reduce girls’ school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups. PMID:28727793
Corno, Lucia; Voena, Alessandra
When markets are incomplete, cultural norms may play an important role in shaping economic behavior. In this paper, we explore whether income shocks increase the probability of child marriages in societies that engage in bride price payments - transfers from the groom to the bride's parents at marriage. We develop a simple model in which households are exposed to income volatility and have no access to credit markets. If a daughter marries, the household obtains a bride price and has fewer me...
A recent article by Fry (2013; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 472:1−13) reviewed approaches to solving underdetermined stable isotope mixing systems, and presented a new graphical approach and set of summary statistics for the analysis of such systems. In his review, Fry (2013) mis-characteri...
Mikosch, T; Samorodnitsky, G
For a random walk with negative drift we study the exceedance probability (ruin probability) of a high threshold. The steps of this walk (claim sizes) constitute a stationary ergodic stable process. We study how ruin occurs in this situation and evaluate the asymptotic behavior of the ruin
Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One common application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include pollution sources for air or water bodies, food sources for an...
Full Text Available The flow of stable air over a general region of complex topography and non-uniform surface temperature has been investigated. In order to gain further understanding of the motion of surface air, it was necessary to study the vertical structure...
Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica
Full Text Available In this paper titled “Several key features of marriage in Kosovo”, I have made efforts to address the matrimony, as an important societal and legal concept, in the light of positive law in Kosovo. In short terms, I have addressed the historical development of marriage in general, from the period of promiscuity until today, and I have emphasized key features of marriage in various time periods, only to comprehend better the ways of development of marriage in time and space. A special emphasis is put on the essential (material conditions of marital union. The paper provides sufficient reasons for which the positive law in Kosovo has provided on the free expression of will of spouses; opposite sexes; the age threshold; entry into matrimony before a competent state authority, and under a procedure provided by law, as substantial conditions for entering a valid matrimony. Sufficient room is allowed also for the treatment of consequences and responsibilities of various entities if marriage is developed without obeying substantial conditions as provided by law. Due to the nature of the paper, formal conditions for entering matrimony are not addressed. The right to enter marriage and establish a family under provided legal conditions is guaranteed to every Kosovo citizen, as a substantial right. The marriage is a basic cell of the family, and as such, it is protected by the state and society. Apart from normative and sociological methods, I have also used the historical method in developing this paper. The purpose was to discover several marriage features, which used to exist, and do not anymore, and also underline some new features, which nowadays form the pillars of the marriage.
... of consanguineous and non consanguineous marriages jobs of parents… etc and their effect on child malformations. Results: Consanguineous marriages of all types were related with increased congenital malformations (with ratio 43/1000 for consanguineous marriages and for non consanguineous marriages 28/1000).
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Void or annulled marriage... Void or annulled marriage. Proof that a marriage was void or has been annulled should consist of: (a... marriage void, together with such other evidence as may be required for a determination. (b) Annulled. A...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence a marriage has ended. 404.728... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.728 Evidence a marriage has ended. (a) When evidence is needed that a marriage has ended. If you apply for benefits as the insured...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Celebration of marriage. 52.1 Section 52.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.1 Celebration of marriage. Foreign Service officers are forbidden to celebrate marriages. [31 FR 13546, Oct. 20, 1966] ...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to approve a marriage. 551.11... MISCELLANEOUS Marriages of Inmates § 551.11 Authority to approve a marriage. (a) The Warden may approve the marriage of a federal inmate confined in a federal institution. This authority may not be delegated below...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification as to marriage laws. 52.3 Section 52.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.3 Certification as to marriage laws. Although a consular officer may have knowledge respecting the laws of marriage...
Sánchez-Ruiz Welch, Andrea; Universidad Católica Argentina Argentina; Sierra González, Ángela María
The experience of love goes through every age. However, today we envision that the ways to share love with friends, to express the interconnectedness and communion, are not constrained by legacy models. In these pages then, we will first outline some of the features of the changing reality in which we are immersed and the ecclesiastical echo to the challenges that are present. Then some of the anthropological and theological dimensions of the sacrament of marriage will be developed to finally...
I V Trotsuk; E A Savelieva; A A Saleh
The article emphasizes the continuing relevance of the sociological study of the relationship between concepts of family, marriage and love for the family is one of the oldest types of social interaction and the basic social institution in the foreseeable future. The authors reconstruct the key themes of the sociological discussion on the key trends in the transformation of family models and the main features of the Russian research tradition in the field. At first the authors summarize conte...
Ajslev, Teresa A.; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri; Gamborg, Michael; Allison, David B.; Baker, Jennifer L.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.
Background: The genetic predisposition to obesity may have contributed to the obesity epidemic through assortative mating. We investigated whether spouses were positively assorted by body mass index (BMI; = kg/m2) in late childhood, and whether changes in assorted marriage by upper BMI-percentiles occurred during the obesity epidemic. Methods: In the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) boys and girls with measures of BMI at age 13 years later became 37,792 spousal-pairs who married between 1945 and 2010. Trends in the spousal BMI correlations using sex-, age-, and birth cohort-specific BMI z-scores across time were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) of marriage among spouses both with BMI z-scores >90th or >95th percentile compared with marriage among spouses ≤90th percentile were analyzed for marriages entered during the years prior to (1945–1970), and during the obesity epidemic (1971–2010). Findings: Spousal BMI correlations were around 0.05 and stayed similar across time. ORs of marriage among spouses with BMIs >90th percentile at age 13 were 1.21, 1.05–1.39, in 1945–1970, and increased to 1.63, 1.40–1.91, in 1971–2010 (p = 0.006). ORs of marriage among spouses both >95th BMI percentile were higher and increased more; from 1.39, 1.10–1.81, to 2.39, 1.85–3.09 (p = 0.004). Interpretation: Spousal correlations by pre-marital BMIs were small and stable during the past 65 years. Yet, there were assorted marriages between spouses with high BMI at age 13 years and the tendency increased alongside with the obesity epidemic which may increase the offsprings' predisposition to obesity. PMID:23056005
Serur, David; Charlton, Marian; Bretzlaff, Gretchen; Sinacore, Joseph; Christos, Paul; Gordon-Elliott, Janna
Studies have shown that kidney donation to a spouse has a positive impact on marriage. This study was done to evaluate the impact on marriage when donation occurs to someone other than the spouse. Two groups of donors from our centre who donated around the same period were studied: donation to a spouse (spouse donor (SD)) or to someone other than the spouse (non-spouse donor (ND)). A survey, the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale, was used to evaluate the effect of donation on the marriage. This tool consists of 14 questions that measure how satisfying and stable the relationship is. The results showed equal or better marriage scores in the ND group compared with the SD group. The NDs scored higher on two questions, one regarding agreement or disagreement on career choices (P = 0.05) and the other regarding the frequency of having stimulating exchanges of ideas with one's spouse (P = 0.02). With the highest possible total score of 69, NDs scored 53.4 and SDs scored 47.7 (P = 0.16). Scores of 47 and below indicate marital distress. In one final additional question, 97% of NDs reported 'no change or good effect' on the marriage, similar to 91% for SDs (P = 0.46). This is the first study to evaluate the effect of kidney donation on the state of marriage when the spouse is not the recipient. It appears that marriage is not impacted negatively when kidney donation occurs to someone other than the spouse. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Frischa Meivilona Yendi
Full Text Available Marriage is a bond between the outer and inner man as a husband who has not aged 25 years and women 21 years old wife is not with the purpose of achieving happiness. Marriage and family counseling is a profession that will be developed in Indonesia. Counseling emphasizes on changes contained in the family system. Stages counseling, theory and dynamics as well as the use of counseling skills in marriage and family counseling has similarities with individual counseling and group counseling.
The Government has made the rule about age of marriage, namely the male must be at least 19 years old and the female must be at least 16 years old. Nevertheless, early marriages or under-age mariages are still common in Indonesia since people reffer to the prophet's Sunnah fi'liyyah who was married to ‘Âisyah. Passion and courage from policy makers to revise the rule of minimum marriage age are required to revise that rule and reviewing the Sunnah is also imperative. It is important because t...
Full Text Available There is a number of data referring to the process of marriage and divorce witch show the marital situation region and also compare it with the situations in other regions or abroad. Apart from the average age of first marriage, we have also analyzable the rate of marriages and divorces, we compared our results with the data referring to Serbia, in the Republic of Srpska and some of the former republics of SFRY (Croatia, Slovenia Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and neighbors Bulgaria, Romania Greece.
Full Text Available Adult mortality due to HIV/AIDS and other diseases is posited to affect children through a number of pathways. On top of health and education outcomes, adult mortality can have significant effects on children by influencing demographic outcomes including the timing of marriage. This paper examines marriage outcomes for a sample of children interviewed in Tanzania in the early 1990s and re-interviewed in 2004. We find that while girls who became paternal orphans married at significantly younger ages, orphanhood had little effect on boys. On the other hand, non-parental deaths in the household affect the timing of marriage for boys.
Kusner, Katherine G; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I; DeMaris, Alfred
We examined whether 164 heterosexual, married couples' reports of the sanctification of their marriage and their spiritual intimacy predicted their observed behavior across the transition to parenthood, using highly conservative statistical strategies to control for time-invariant factors and time-varying factors (marital love, collaborative communication skills) that could explain away these links. Spouses provided self-reports of marital sanctification and love, and joint reports of spiritual intimacy and collaboration by each partner. Criterion variables were positive and negative behaviors that spouses exhibited during dyadic discussions of marital conflicts, videotaped during pregnancy and when the couple's first infant was 3, 6, and 12 months old. Using bivariate fixed-effects regression models to control unmeasured time-invariant predictors (e.g., stable traits), his and her sanctification of marriage predicted more observed positivity by 1 or both spouses, and his and her spiritual intimacy predicted more positivity and less negativity by both spouses. Using multivariate regression analyses that controlled for demographic factors, the interdependency of spouses' responses, and salient time-varying marital (spouses' love and collaborative skills), her spiritual intimacy predicted more positivity by both spouses and less negativity by him, and his sanctification marginally predicted more positivity and less negativity by him. Findings offer rigorous causal modeling that spousal reports about marital spirituality influence observed spousal behavior by using longitudinal data to rule out unmeasured and measured third-variable confounds, multiple reporters (husbands, wives), multiple methods (self and joint reports, direct observation), and cross-informant data (spousal reports about him predicting her behavior, and vice versa). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon
Cohabitation has become increasingly widespread over the past decade. Such trends have given rise to debates about the relation between cohabitation and marriage, in terms of what cohabitation means for individual relationship trajectories and for the institution of marriage more generally. Using recent data from a sample of almost 800 African Americans and fixed effects modeling procedures, in the present study the authors shed some light on these debates by exploring the extent to which cohabitation, relative to both singlehood and dating, was associated with within-individual changes in African Americans’ marital beliefs during the transition to adulthood. The findings suggest that cohabitation is associated with changes in marital beliefs, generally in ways that repositioned partners toward marriage, not away from it. This was especially the case for women. These findings suggest that, for young African American women, cohabitation holds a distinct place relative to dating and, in principle if not practice, relative to marriage. PMID:26560129
Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon
Cohabitation has become increasingly widespread over the past decade. Such trends have given rise to debates about the relation between cohabitation and marriage, in terms of what cohabitation means for individual relationship trajectories and for the institution of marriage more generally. Using recent data from a sample of almost 800 African Americans and fixed effects modeling procedures, in the present study the authors shed some light on these debates by exploring the extent to which cohabitation, relative to both singlehood and dating, was associated with within-individual changes in African Americans' marital beliefs during the transition to adulthood. The findings suggest that cohabitation is associated with changes in marital beliefs, generally in ways that repositioned partners toward marriage, not away from it. This was especially the case for women. These findings suggest that, for young African American women, cohabitation holds a distinct place relative to dating and, in principle if not practice, relative to marriage.
TAPP, David; JENKINSON, Susan
‘Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses .’ \\ud \\ud It is important to begin by acknowledging the above statement, which is part of Article 16(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and also to distinguish between an arranged marriage and a forced marriage. \\ud \\ud An arranged marriage is ‘a marriage planned and agreed by the families or guardians of the couple concerned ’, while a forced marriage is ‘a marriage conducted without th...
Larson, T. E.
Transport of carbon dioxide through porous media can be affected by diffusion, advection and adsorption processes. Developing new tools to understand which of these processes dominates migration of CO2 or other gases in the subsurface is important to a wide range of applications including CO2 storage. Whereas advection rates are not affected by isotope substitution in CO2, adsorption and diffusion constants are. For example, differences in the binary diffusion constant calculated between C12O2-He and C13O2-He results in a carbon isotope fractionation whereby the front of the chromatographic peak is enriched in carbon-12 and the tail of the peak is enriched in carbon-13. Interestingly, adsorption is shown to have an opposite, apparent inverse affect whereby the lighter isotopologues of CO2 are preferentially retained by the chromatographic column and the heavier isotopologues are eluted first. This apparent inverse chromatographic effect has been ascribed to Van der Waals dispersion forces. Smaller molar volumes of the heavier isotopologues resulting from increased bond strength (shorter bond length) effectively decreases Van der Waals forces in heavier isotopologues compared to lighter isotopologues. Here we discuss the possible application of stable isotope values measured across chromatographic peaks to differentiate diffusion-dominated from adsorption-dominated transport processes for CO2. Separate 1-dimensional flow-through columns were packed with quartz and illite, and one remained empty. Dry helium was used as a carrier gas. Constant flow rate, temperature and column pressure were maintained. After background CO2 concentrations were minimized and constant, a sustained pulse of CO2 was injected at the head of the column and the effluent was sampled at 4 minute intervals for CO2 concentration, and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios. The quartz-sand packed and empty columns resulted in similar trends in concentration and isotope ratios whereby CO2 concentrations
Frisch, Morten; Hviid, Anders
Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood.
Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P.
Background Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggests that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. Methods The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using three waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (Chassin et al., 1992; N=844; 51% children of alcoholics). Results Longitudinal growth models characterized (1) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17-40, (2) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and moderation of this effect by pre-marriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe pre-marriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Conclusions Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous “turning points” that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically
Weron, Aleksander; Burnecki, Krzysztof; Mercik, Szymon; Weron, Karina
A canonical decomposition of H -self-similar Lévy symmetric α -stable processes is presented. The resulting components completely described by both deterministic kernels and the corresponding stochastic integral with respect to the Lévy symmetric α -stable motion are shown to be related to the dissipative and conservative parts of the dynamics. This result provides stochastic analysis tools for study the anomalous diffusion phenomena in the Langevin equation framework. For example, a simple computer test for testing the origins of self-similarity is implemented for four real empirical time series recorded from different physical systems: an ionic current flow through a single channel in a biological membrane, an energy of solar flares, a seismic electric signal recorded during seismic Earth activity, and foreign exchange rate daily returns.
Stimpson, Jim P; Wilson, Fernando A; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Peek, M Kristen
This study examines the association between marriage and colorectal endoscopy exam, and whether this association varies by gender and financial benefits of marriage including improved access to health insurance and pooled family income. Representative survey data of the non-institutionalized United States population were used from the 2000, 2005, and 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses targeted persons 50-85 years of age without a personal history of cancer and with complete information on all study variables (n=21,760). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model marital status differences in the probability of undergoing a colorectal endoscopy exam with interaction effects used to model variation over time by gender, health insurance, and poverty level. Married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to report ever having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.29), and the difference between married and unmarried persons in the probability of undergoing a colorectal endoscopy exam remained stable over time. Married persons were more likely than unmarried persons to report having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam within the past 10 years (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15-1.95). For each survey year, married men were significantly more likely than women and unmarried men to report having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. For example, in 2008, 56% of married men reported having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam, compared to 49% of unmarried men, 52% of married women, and 50% of unmarried women. Among persons with health insurance, married persons were significantly more likely than unmarried persons to have undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. Among persons who were poor, there was no difference by marital status in the likelihood of having undergone a colorectal endoscopy exam. However, among persons who were not poor, married persons were more likely than unmarried persons
Heffron, Raphael James
Full text: This research assesses models for financing of new nuclear build in European Union (EU) member states to find the most stable form. The countries examined in this study are France, the United Kingdom, Finland and Romania. The results attest that due to various historical, political, competition, and electricity market structural conditions Romania has emerged with the most secure and stable model for financing of new nuclear projects. This paper begins with an assessment of the effects on the nuclear sector from energy, environment and competition legislation in the EU. Then the political and economic climate of the afore mentioned EU member states is completed. Following this an overview of the market structure of the electricity sector in those respective countries is conducted. Then the key research on the models of financing of new nuclear build is explored, contrasted and analysed. The research concludes that there are four main models for financing new nuclear projects in Europe. Each model has transcended from different political and economic forces, and consequently each model has met with varied levels of success. Electricity market structures while operating to the same legal requirements, have been dissimilar in their evolution. The combination of the above factors has led to different models for financing new nuclear build. Upon further analysis it is concluded and demonstrated that the Romanian financing model is the most suitable and provides an example for any new nuclear build aspiring nations in the EU and beyond. (author)
Nakano, E; Watanabe, Y
"The purpose of this paper is to describe [attitudes on] marriage among unmarried youths in contemporary Japan, using the unmarried respondents' part of the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey carried out in July 1992." Aspects considered include the desirability of arranged marriage; desired age at marriage; desired characteristics of future spouse; women's attitudes on marriage and employment; and the desirability of residing with parents after marriage. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
Full Text Available Until recently, morpholino oligonucleotides have been widely employed in zebrafish as an acute and efficient loss-of-function assay. However, off-target effects and reproducibility issues when compared to stable knockout lines have compromised their further use. Here we employed an acute CRISPR/Cas approach using multiple single guide RNAs targeting simultaneously different positions in two exemplar genes (osgep or tprkb to increase the likelihood of generating mutations on both alleles in the injected F0 generation and to achieve a similar effect as morpholinos but with the reproducibility of stable lines. This multi single guide RNA approach resulted in median likelihoods for at least one mutation on each allele of >99% and sgRNA specific insertion/deletion profiles as revealed by deep-sequencing. Immunoblot showed a significant reduction for Osgep and Tprkb proteins. For both genes, the acute multi-sgRNA knockout recapitulated the microcephaly phenotype and reduction in survival that we observed previously in stable knockout lines, though milder in the acute multi-sgRNA knockout. Finally, we quantify the degree of mutagenesis by deep sequencing, and provide a mathematical model to quantitate the chance for a biallelic loss-of-function mutation. Our findings can be generalized to acute and stable CRISPR/Cas targeting for any zebrafish gene of interest.
Marsh, G N; Barr, J
This paper describes the work of a marriage guidance cousellor in a group-practice centre. The considerable advantages to patient, doctor, and counsellor of her close association with the primary medical care team are discussed.
... Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... NCHS National Vital Statistics System. Provisional number of divorces and annulments and rate: United States, 2000-2014 ...
Westley, S B
This article presents an overview of marriage patterns in East Asia. Globally, marriage patterns are changing. In East Asia, cultural patterns are slowing the changes in attitude toward marriage that are occurring in the West. There are implications of changing attitudes for government planners. This issue of Asia-Pacific Population and Policy is based on a series of studies of marriage and family life in Japan, South Korea, and the US. Data were obtained from the 1994 Japan Survey on Work and Family Life; the 1994 South Korea Survey on the Quality of Life; and the 1992-94 US Survey of Families and Households. Findings are reported on marriage age, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes post-marriage, and work patterns during marriage. Both Japan and South Korea have below replacement level fertility and traditional gendered division of labor in the household. In South Korea, women who work 35 or more hours/week spend 31 hours/week on housework, while husbands contribute 14 hours/week. In the US, the equivalent figures were 26 hours for full-time working wives and 9 hours for husbands. In Japan, wives spent 30 hours on housework, while husbands spent 3 hours. Full-time work outside the home involved 57% of married women in Japan, 27% in South Korea, and 66% in the US. Notwithstanding the double burden, women in South Korea and Japan experience pressure from competitive school systems for their children. After-school academic programs are expensive. The trend is for greater reluctance to marry. Replacement level fertility is unlikely unless full equality is achieved in the family.
Widiss, Deborah; Tebbe, Nelson; Gilreath, Shannon
159 University of Pennsylvania Law Review PENNumbra 21 (2010) Professors Tebbe and Widiss revisit the arguments they made in "Equal Access and the Right to Marry" and emphasize their belief that distinguishing between different-sex marriage and same-sex marriage is inappropriate. They lament the sustained emphasis on the equal-protection and substantive-due-process challenges in the Perry litigation and suggest that an equal-access approach is more likely to be successful on appeal. Professor...
Choi, Kate H.; Tienda, Marta
Owing to secular increases in divorce rates, remarriage has become a prevalent feature of American family life; yet, research about mate selection behavior in higher order marriages remains limited. Using log-linear methods to recent data from the 2008–2014 American Community Survey, we compare racial and ethnic sorting behavior in first and subsequent marriages. The two most frequently crossed boundaries – those involving White-Asian and White-Hispanic couples – are more permeable in remarri...
Some critical comments are made on a paper entitled "Consanguineous Marriages in Pakistan." Most studies have considered early age at marriage, rural or extended family setup and low socioeconomic status when investigating the issue. The background demographic variables and behavioral aspects of consanguinity were studied only by a few, therefore a lack of data exists on pertinent social, cultural, and behavioral dynamics. In Pakistan over 60% of marriages are between first or second cousins. The highest rates of such marriages have been reported in rural areas, among individuals with low educational level, and among the poorest. However, cousin unions are also common among landowning families. In addition to socioeconomic reasons, these marriages are socially acceptable because they facilitate prenuptial negotiations and provide more compatibility between the husband and wife as well as the bride and the mother-in-law. The evidence on consanguinity and fertility is conflicting. The effect of inbreeding on fertility has been demonstrated by most studies. The effect of consanguinity on mortality is also wrought with ambiguities because of methodological flaws. Although the present authors used limited bivariate analysis, they could not account for increased fertility and mortality in consanguineous matings by examining socioeconomic differences and background demographic variables. There is a need to indicate clearly to what extent the genetic effect is responsible for the excess fertility and mortality after controlling for maternal, sociodemographic, and behavioral characteristics. The article made a contribution to elucidating the impact of cousin marriages, a well entrenched custom, on fertility, mortality, and the status of women.
Islam, Md Kamrul; Haque, Md Rabiul; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal
This study aimed to investigate the regional variations in the prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh with a view to providing recommendations for division-specific policy interventions. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Substantial regional variations in child marriage were found in Bangladesh. Rangpur and Khulna had more than four times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (4.57 and 4.11 times, respectively). Barisal and Rajshahi had more than three times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (3.70 and 3.48 times, respectively). Chittagong and Dhaka had about two times odds of child marriage than Sylhet (1.98 and 2.67 times, respectively), even after controlling for selected socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics. Respondent's education, employment status, husband's education and wealth index were inversely associated with the prevalence of child marriage. The policy implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Bangladesh.
Giacobello, Daniele; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm
saturations when this is used to synthesize speech. In this paper, we introduce two new methods to obtain intrinsically stable predictors with the 1-norm minimization. The first method is based on constraining the roots of the predictor to lie within the unit circle by reducing the numerical range...... of the shift operator associated with the particular prediction problem considered. The second method uses the alternative Cauchy bound to impose a convex constraint on the predictor in the 1-norm error minimization. These methods are compared with two existing methods: the Burg method, based on the 1-norm...
Cummings, David O.; Buhl, Jerome; Lee, Raymond W.; Simpson, Stephen J.; Holmes, Sebastian P.
Distributions of stable isotopes have been used to infer an organism's trophic niche width, the ‘isotopic niche’, and examine resource partitioning. Spatial variation in the isotopic composition of prey may however confound the interpretation of isotopic signatures especially when foragers exploit resources across numerous locations. In this study the isotopic compositions from marine assemblages are modelled to determine the role of variation in the signature of prey items and the effect of dietary breadth and foraging strategies on predator signatures. Outputs from the models reveal that isotopic niche widths can be greater for populations of dietary specialists rather than for generalists, which contravenes what is generally accepted in the literature. When a range of different mixing models are applied to determine if the conversion from δ to p-space can be used to improve model accuracy, predator signature variation is increased rather than model precision. Furthermore the mixing models applied failed to correctly identify dietary specialists and/or to accurately estimate diet contributions that may identify resource partitioning. The results presented illustrate the need to collect sufficiently large sample sizes, in excess of what is collected under most current studies, across the complete distribution of a species and its prey, before attempts to use stable isotopes to make inferences about niche width can be made. PMID:22876280
Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)
Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie
Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage. © The Author(s) 2016.
Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus; Silverman, Jay G.; Rusch, Melanie L. A.
Background Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage 20%) of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Methods Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20–24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, pr...
Murphy, E. M.; Schramke, J. A.
Changes in geochemistry and stable isotopes along a well-established groundwater flow path were used to estimate in situ microbial respiration rates in the Middendorf aquifer in the southeastern United States. Respiration rates were determined for individual terminal electron acceptors including O 2, MnO 2, Fe 3+, and SO 42-. The extent of biotic reactions were constrained by the fractionation of stable isotopes of carbon and sulfur. Sulfur isotopes and the presence of sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms indicated that sulfate is produced through the oxidation of reduced sulfur species in the aquifer and not by the dissolution of gypsum, as previously reported. The respiration rates varied along the flow path as the groundwater transitioned between primarily oxic to anoxic conditions. Iron-reducing microorganisms were the largest contributors to the oxidation of organic matter along the portion of the groundwater flow path investigated in this study. The transition zone between oxic and anoxic groundwater contained a wide range of terminal electron acceptors and showed the greatest diversity and numbers of culturable microorganisms and the highest respiration rates. A comparison of respiration rates measured from core samples and pumped groundwater suggests that variability in respiration rates may often reflect the measurement scales, both in the sample volume and the time-frame over which the respiration measurement is averaged. Chemical heterogeneity may create a wide range of respiration rates when the scale of the observation is below the scale of the heterogeneity.
Ivashchuk, V D; Ernazarov, K K
A ( n + 1)-dimensional gravitational model with cosmological constant and Gauss-Bonnet term is studied. The ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted and solutions with exponential dependence of scale factors: a i ∼ exp ( v i t ), i = 1, …, n , are considered. The stability analysis of the solutions with non-static volume factor is presented. We show that the solutions with v 1 = v 2 = v 3 = H > 0 and small enough variation of the effective gravitational constant G are stable if certain restriction on ( v i ) is obeyed. New examples of stable exponential solutions with zero variation of G in dimensions D = 1 + m + 2 with m > 2 are presented. (paper)
Full Text Available The term of undocumented marriage is only known in Muslim community in Indonesia. Undocumented marriage is a legal type of marriage based on Islam as long as it is meets the marriage’s legal requirements; however, it is diverge from the state rules because it is not registered in the authorized institution for marriage. A woman who married with this type of marriage, based on law and administration, has no clear identity before the state. It will make her difficult to have her right as a wife. Undocumented marriage will give weak position for children by law. In addition, women’s position in this type of marriage is the disadvantage object. Although undocumented marriage has negative impact especially on women and children; in Warurejo, however, this marriage is widely dispersed among the community. Research is conducted in Warurejo village, East Java using qualitative, quantitative and semantic approaches. Research result shows that the women’s position in this undocumented marriage is having discrimination, subordination, no bargaining power in the family, and susceptible for cervix cancer. They do not have any option for the future because it is determined by family, norm and value system prevailed in the community. Istilah nikah siri hanya dikenal pada masyarakat muslim Indonesia. Nikah siri adalah bentuk pernikahan yang sah secara agama Islam sepanjang memenuhi syarat sahnya pernikahan tapi dianggap menyimpang dari peraturan negara karena tidak terdaftar pada lembaga yang berwenang mengurusi masalah perkawinan. Perempuan yang nikah siri, secara catatan hukum atau administrasi tidak memiliki identitas yang jelas di hadapan negara. Sulit untuk mendapatkan hak-haknya sebagai seorang istri. Pernikahan siri berdampak pula pada kelemahan posisi anak secara hukum. Selain itu, posisi perempuan dalam nikah siri juga lebih banyak menjadi objek yang dirugikan. Walaupun nikah siri mempunyai dampak negatif khususnya terhadap perempuan dan anak
Desai, Sonalde; Andrist, Lester
Research on marriage in developing countries has been somewhat narrow in scope because of both conceptual and data limitations. While the feminist literature recognizes marriage as a key institutional site for the production and reproduction of gender hierarchies, little is known about the processes through which this relationship operates. This article uses data from the newly collected India Human Development Survey 2005 for 27,365 ever-married women aged 25-49 to explore ways in which different dimensions of gender in Indian society shape the decisions regarding age at marriage. We explore the impact of three dimensions of gender: (1) economic factors, such as availability of wage employment, dowry expectations, and wedding expenses; (2) indicators offamilial empowerment, such as women s role in household decision making and access to and control over resources; and (3) markers of gender performance, such as observance of purdah and male-female separation in the household. Results from hierarchical linear models confirm the importance of markers of gender performance but fail to demonstrate a large role for economic factors and familial empowerment.
Full Text Available In our study we investigate interdependencies between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In addition we analyze the impact of some individual characteristics on the propensity to get married, to become a mother, and to migrate. In our analysis we account for several duration dependences ('clocks'. The results illustrate that months since marriage formation is the most important duration variable in the first-birth propensities model. Out-of-wedlock conception is associated with increased marriage risks. Migration is often a part of the family building process: high first-birth propensities of recent migrants as well as high migration risks among pregnant women are due to marriage-related migration.
Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay
The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…
Shostak, Arthur B.
Discusses specific new laws and programs to strengthen family life suggested in the (N=34) detailed reforms proposed and endorsed by the 1980 White House Conference on Families. Explores four reform possibilities including high school marriage preparation classes, a mandated marriage readiness test, family incorporation, and support for prenatal…
Lu, Melody Chia-Wen
This thesis investigates the highly complex issue of cross-border marriages between Mainland China and Taiwan in the period from early 1990 to 2004. The objectives of this research is to investigate three aspects of cross-border marriage migration: 1) factors and motivations for cross-border
Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina
This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…
Martin, Steven P.; Astone, Nan Marie; Peters, H. Elizabeth
Declining marriage rates suggest a growing fraction of millennials will remain unmarried through age 40. In this brief, we use data from the American Community Survey to estimate age-specific marriage rates and project the percentage of millennials who will marry by age 40 in different scenarios. We find that the percentage of millennials marrying…
Huang, J.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Golaz, J.
Parameterization of the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary-layer is of crucial importance to different aspects of numerical weather prediction at regional scales and climate modeling at global scales, such as land-surface temperature forecasts, fog and frost prediction, and polar climate. It is well-known that most operational climate models require excessive turbulence mixing of the stable boundary-layer to prevent decoupling of the atmospheric component from the land component under strong stability, but the performance of such a model is unlikely to be satisfactory under weakly and moderately stable conditions. In this study we develop and test a general turbulence mixing model of the stable boundary-layer which works under different stabilities and for steady as well as unsteady conditions. A-priori large-eddy simulation (LES) tests are presented to motivate and verify the new parameterization. Subsequently, an assessment of this model using the GFDL single-column model (SCM) is performed. Idealized test cases including continuously varying stability, as well as stability discontinuity, are used to test the new SCM against LES results. A good match of mean and flux profiles is found when the new parameterization is used, while other traditional first-order turbulence models using the concept of stability function perform poorly. SCM spatial resolution is also found to have little impact on the performance of the new turbulence closure, but temporal resolution is important and a numerical stability criterion based on the model time step is presented.
Lawrence L. Wu
Full Text Available In this study, we examine cohort trends in who did and did not delay sex until marriage for U.S. women born between 1938 and 1985 using Cycles 3–7 of the National Survey of Family Growth. We find that roughly half of women born in the late 1930s and early 1940s were already sexually active prior to marriage. Especially rapid increases in not delaying sex until marriage occurred for women born between 1942–43 and 1954–55, with subsequent cohorts experiencing less rapid increases and with premarital sex reaching a plateau of roughly 85 to 90 percent for those born after 1962. Our continuous-time competing-risk models illustrate the methodological dangers of using single-decrement procedures for questions such as who did and did not delay sex until marriage. More generally, our findings suggest that the decoupling of sex and marriage was underway well before the so-called "sexual revolution" of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Oberlander, Sarah E; Agostini, Wendy R Miller; Houston, Avril Melissa; Black, Maureen M
Welfare reform has targeted marriage promotion among low-income women. This study explores patterns of marital expectations and marriage among 181 urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and their mothers. Using PROC TRAJ to analyze developmental trajectories of adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality over 24 months, we categorized relationships as either high or low support. We examined the effects of intergenerational marriage models and adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality on marital expectations and marriage over the first 7 years postpartum. At 24 months, half (52%) of adolescent mothers expected to marry, but marital expectations did not predict marriage. Marital expectations were associated with concurrent involvement in a romantic relationship, not intergenerational marriage models or a supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationship. After 7 years, 14% of adolescent mothers were married. Married mothers lived in families characterized by the joint effects of intergenerational marriage models and supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships. They were older and had more children than did single mothers, suggesting that they were in a family formation phase of life. Policies that promote the education and employment opportunities necessary to support a family are needed.
This article discusses changing marriage, divorce, and remarriage patterns in China. The State Statistical Bureau reports that changing life style patterns will impact on the education of children and difficulties of housing and employment of single women, with or without children. Economic development has resulted in the elimination of poverty among over 20 million persons. Early marriage among males aged 15-21 years and females aged 15-19 years declined during 1990-96. The average age at first marriage increased by 2.0 years for males and 0.7 years for females during 1990-96. Average age at first marriage varies with level of economic development and location. Chinese families for centuries maintained arranged marriages. Marriage patterns have been influenced by customs from outside China. Couples use divorce as a means of settling disputes and focus on the quality of married life. Western culture has contributed to more frequent extramarital love affairs and the disintegration of many families. The basic foundation of marriage has weakened. The divorce rate rose during 1990-96. The highest rate of divorce by age was among persons aged 30-39 years in 1996, and among persons aged 50-59 years in 1990. The highest divorce rates by educational status were among illiterates and semiliterates in 1990, and among high school educated in 1996. Urban population had a higher divorce rate than rural population. Remarriage is gaining in popularity. Remarriages rose from 500,000 to 862,000 during 1985-95. The percentage of remarriages rose, especially among persons aged over 50 years.
Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen
The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965-1985 (N = 102,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage.
Druhan, J. L.; Maher, K.
From the point of infiltration to the point of discharge, the chemical signature imparted to fluid flowing through catchments represents the weathering flux from the landscape. The magnitude of this flux is linked to both the time water spends in the system and the time required for reactions to influence fluid chemistry. The ratio of these characteristic times is often represented as a Damköhler number (Da), which links the parameters governing reactivity and flow. Stable isotope ratios are now commonly applied to identify and even quantify the processes and rates of primary mineral weathering, secondary mineral formation and biogeochemical cycling within catchments. Here, we derive a series of fractionation-discharge relationships for a variety of governing chemical rate laws utilizing Da coefficients. These equations can be used to isolate and quantify the effects of (1) fluid travel time distributions and (2) chemical weathering efficiency on observed stable isotope ratios. The analytical solutions are verified against multi-component reactive transport simulations of stable isotope fractionation in homogeneous and spatially correlated heterogeneous flow fields using the CrunchTope code and evaluated against field observations. We demonstrate that for an irreversible reaction, the relationship between stable isotope enrichment and reactant concentration obeys a Rayleigh-type model across a wide range of reaction rates. However, this relationship is violated when a heterogeneous travel time distribution is considered. This observation highlights an important discrepancy in the commonly assumed relationship between fractionation and concentration for irreversible reactions. We further extend our derivation to consider isotope fractionation associated with a reversible reaction (i.e. a kinetically controlled approach to equilibrium) in a steady-state flow field. Due to the dependence of the observed isotope ratio on the flow rate, kinetic enrichment and
de Vet Henrica CW
Full Text Available Abstract Background In prognostic studies model instability and missing data can be troubling factors. Proposed methods for handling these situations are bootstrapping (B and Multiple imputation (MI. The authors examined the influence of these methods on model composition. Methods Models were constructed using a cohort of 587 patients consulting between January 2001 and January 2003 with a shoulder problem in general practice in the Netherlands (the Dutch Shoulder Study. Outcome measures were persistent shoulder disability and persistent shoulder pain. Potential predictors included socio-demographic variables, characteristics of the pain problem, physical activity and psychosocial factors. Model composition and performance (calibration and discrimination were assessed for models using a complete case analysis, MI, bootstrapping or both MI and bootstrapping. Results Results showed that model composition varied between models as a result of how missing data was handled and that bootstrapping provided additional information on the stability of the selected prognostic model. Conclusion In prognostic modeling missing data needs to be handled by MI and bootstrap model selection is advised in order to provide information on model stability.
Choi, Kate H; Tienda, Marta
Owing to secular increases in divorce rates, remarriage has become a prevalent feature of American family life; yet, research about mate selection behavior in higher order marriages remains limited. Using log-linear methods to recent data from the 2008-2014 American Community Survey, we compare racial and ethnic sorting behavior in first and subsequent marriages. The two most frequently crossed boundaries - those involving White-Asian and White-Hispanic couples - are more permeable in remarriages than in first marriages. Boundaries that are crossed with less frequency - those between minority groups and the White-Black boundary-are less permeable in remarriages than in first marriages. Collectively, these findings suggest that racial and ethnic sorting processes in remarriage may reify existing social distances between pan-ethnic groups. Racial and ethnic variations in how the relative permeability of boundary changes between first and higher-order marriages underscore the importance of considering a broad array of interracial pairings when assessing the ways in which changes in family structure and marital sorting behavior promote integration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drawing on an analysis of qualitative interview data from a study of formalized same-sex relationships (civil partnerships) this paper examines the enduring significance of marriage and family as social institutions. In doing so, it intervenes in current debates in the sociology of family and personal life about how such institutions are undermined by reflexivity or bolstered by convention. Against the backdrop of dominating sociological frames for understanding the links between the changing nature of marriage and family and same-sex relationship recognition, the paper analyses the diverse and overlapping ways (including the simple, relational, strategic, ambivalent and critical ways) in which same-sex partners reflexively constructed and engaged with marriage and family conventions. My analysis suggests that instead of viewing reflexivity and convention as mutually undermining, as some sociologists of family and personal life do, it is insightful to explore how diverse forms of reflexivity and convention interact in everyday life to reconfigure the social institutions of marriage and family, but do not undermine them as such. I argue the case for recognizing the ways in which 'reflexive convention', or reflexive investment in convention, contributes to the continuing significance of marriage and family as social institutions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a 'better' life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
Capillary pressure can significantly affect the phase properties and flow of liquid-gas fluids in porous media, and thus, the phase equilibrium calculation incorporating capillary pressure is crucial to simulate such problems accurately. Recently, the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature (NVT-flash) becomes an attractive issue. In this paper, capillarity is incorporated into the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature. A dynamical model for such problem is developed for the first time by using the laws of thermodynamics and Onsager\\'s reciprocal principle. This model consists of the evolutionary equations for moles and volume, and it can characterize the evolutionary process from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state in the presence of capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. The phase equilibrium equations are naturally derived. To simulate the proposed dynamical model efficiently, we adopt the convex-concave splitting of the total Helmholtz energy, and propose a thermodynamically stable numerical algorithm, which is proved to preserve the second law of thermodynamics at the discrete level. Using the thermodynamical relations, we derive a phase stability condition with capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. Moreover, we propose a stable numerical algorithm for the phase stability testing, which can provide the feasible initial conditions. The performance of the proposed methods in predicting phase properties under capillarity effect is demonstrated on various cases of pure substance and mixture systems.
Van Dyk David A
Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents procedures for implementing the PX-EM algorithm of Liu, Rubin and Wu to compute REML estimates of variance covariance components in Henderson's linear mixed models. The class of models considered encompasses several correlated random factors having the same vector length e.g., as in random regression models for longitudinal data analysis and in sire-maternal grandsire models for genetic evaluation. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the procedures. Much better results in terms of convergence characteristics (number of iterations and time required for convergence are obtained for PX-EM relative to the basic EM algorithm in the random regression.
Bizjack, M.; Johnson, T. M.; Druhan, J. L.; Shiel, A. E.
We report a numerical reactive transport model which explicitly incorporates the effectively stable isotopes of uranium (U) and the factors that influence their partitioning in bioactive systems. The model reproduces trends observed in U isotope ratios and concentration measurements from a field experiment, thereby improving interpretations of U isotope ratios as a tracer for U reactive transport. A major factor contributing to U storage and transport is its redox state, which is commonly influenced by the availability of organic carbon to support metal-reducing microbial communities. Both laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that biogenic reduction of U(VI) fractionates the stable isotope ratio 238U/235U, producing an isotopically heavy solid U(IV) product. It has also been shown that other common reactive transport processes involving U do not fractionate isotopes to a consistently measurable level, which suggests the capacity to quantify the extent of bioreduction occurring in groundwater containing U using 238U/235U ratios. A recent study of a U bioremediation experiment at the Rifle IFRC site (Colorado, USA) applied Rayleigh distillation models to quantify U stable isotope fractionation observed during acetate amendment. The application of these simplified models were fit to the observations only by invoking a "memory-effect," or a constant source of low-concentration, unfractionated U(VI). In order to more accurately interpret the measured U isotope ratios, we present a multi-component reactive transport model using the CrunchTope software. This approach is capable of quantifying the cycling and partitioning of individual U isotopes through a realistic network of transport and reaction pathways including reduction, oxidation, and microbial growth. The model incorporates physical heterogeneity of the aquifer sediments through zones of decreased permeability, which replicate the observed bromide tracer, major ion chemistry, U concentration, and U
Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Soltani, Mohsen
In this paper, a conceptual multi-zone model for climate control of a live stock building is elaborated. The main challenge of this research is to estimate the parameters of a nonlinear hybrid model. A recursive estimation algorithm, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is implemented for estimation...
Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A
This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.
This article examines mean-field games for marriage. The results support the argument that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize marriage. However, if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean-field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. We illustrate numerically the influence of the couple\\'s network on their feeling states and their well-being. © 2014 Bauso et al.
Full Text Available This article examines mean-field games for marriage. The results support the argument that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field will help to stabilize marriage. However, if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean-field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. We illustrate numerically the influence of the couple's network on their feeling states and their well-being.
Evidence is mounting that early marriage is a form of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) with detrimental physical, social and economic effects. Policymakers need to focus on the complex interactions between education, early marriage and sexual violence.
Full Text Available We examine changes in marriage and earnings patterns across four cohorts born between 1936 and 1975 using data from Survey of Income and Program Participation panels linked to administrative data on earnings. We find that, for both men and women, marriage has become increasingly positively associated with education and earnings potential. We compare ordinary least squares and fixed-effect estimates of the earnings differential associated with marriage. We find that the marriage earnings gap fell for women in fixed-effect estimates, implying that the impact of specialization has diminished over time. We also find that increasingly positive selection into marriage overstates the reduction in the marriage earnings gap. Although marriage is no longer associated with lower earnings among women in our most recent cohort, the motherhood gap remains large. Among men, we find that the marriage premium actually increases for more recent birth cohorts in fixed-effects regressions.
Kоrоliov M. G.
Article is devoted consideration of the Christian doctrine about marriage and family. The author analyzes its features in Orthodox and Catholic Churches. Influence of Christian ideas about marriage and family on a life of a modern society is shown.
Westoff, C F
Most developed countries have reached zero population growth or less and, while population projections have often proved badly off-target, it seems that currently low fertility levels are the result of a long-term trend, which was interrupted in the last 100 years only by the still-unexplained postwar baby boom, and which will probably continue. The declining trend has accompanied economic development and modernization, which have transformed the economic value of children, making them a drain on resources rather than a source of income. The concomitant social changes seem largely irreversible: urban economy, the decline in traditional authority, universal, prolonged education, equality of women, low infant mortality, high consumer demands and sophisticated birth control technology are all here to stay. The theory that fertility exhibits a cyclical pattern based on people's perception of their degree of economic and social opportunity ignores the other elements affecting fertility behavior, especially the radical change in the status and expectations of women. Several trends in marriage and reproductive behavior in the U.S., Denmark and Sweden reinforce the presumption that fertility will remain low: declining number of marriages; postponement of marriage; increased tendency for unmarried couples to live together; instability of marriage shown by high divorce rates and declining remarriage rates; and increasing economic activity by women. The traditional institution of marriage is losing its economic, sexual, sociological and parenting rationales. Thus, declining fertility is both cause and consequence of changes in marriage. In Europe, where the decline is more advanced than in the U.S., governments are concerned that population growth will be too low and have instituted social welfare measures to induce and facilitate childbearing and childrearing. As women become more career-oriented, greater incentives will have to be provided. Manipulating immigration quotas
Bentil, D. E.; Murray, J. D.
We investigate a mechanical cell-traction mechanism that generates stationary spatial patterns. A linear analysis highlights the model's potential for these heterogeneous solutions. We use multiple-scale perturbation techniques to study the evolution of these solutions and compare our solutions with numerical simulations of the model system. We discuss some potential biological applications among which are the formation of ridge patterns, dermatoglyphs, and wound healing.
Full Text Available Physiologically and biomechanically, the human body represents a complicated system with an abundance of degrees of freedom (DOF. When developing mathematical representations of the body, a researcher has to decide on how many of those DOF to include in the model. Though accuracy can be enhanced at the cost of complexity by including more DOF, their necessity must be rigorously examined. In this study a planar seven-segment human body walking model with single DOF joints was developed. A reference point was added to the model to track the body’s global position while moving. Due to the kinematic instability of the pelvis, the top of the head was selected as the reference point, which also assimilates the vestibular sensor position. Inverse dynamics methods were used to formulate and solve the equations of motion based on Newton-Euler formulae. The torques and ground reaction forces generated by the planar model during a regular gait cycle were compared with similar results from a more complex three-dimensional OpenSim model with muscles, which resulted in correlation errors in the range of 0.9–0.98. The close comparison between the two torque outputs supports the use of planar models in gait studies.
Full Text Available Design, dynamics and control of a humanoid robotic hand based on anthropological dimensions, with joint friction, is modelled, simulated and analysed in this paper by using computer aided design and multibody dynamic simulation. Combined joint friction model is incorporated in the joints. Experimental values of coefficient of friction of grease lubricated sliding contacts representative of manipulator joints are presented. Human fingers deform to the shape of the grasped object (enveloping grasp at the area of interaction. A mass-spring-damper model of the grasp is developed. The interaction of the viscoelastic gripper of the arm with objects is analysed by using Bond Graph modelling method. Simulations were conducted for several material parameters. These results of the simulation are then used to develop a prototype of the proposed gripper. Bond graph model is experimentally validated by using the prototype. The gripper is used to successfully transport soft and fragile objects. This paper provides information on optimisation of friction and its inclusion in both dynamic modelling and simulation to enhance mechanical efficiency.
Corno, Lucia; Hildebrandt, Nicole; Voena, Alessandra
In this paper, we examine the impact of variation in local economic conditions on the hazard into child marriage (i.e. prior to age 18) among young women in Africa and India. We show that rainfall shocks, a major source of income variation in these areas, have similar effects on crop yields but opposite effects on the early marriage hazard in the two regions: in Africa, droughts increase the hazard into early marriage, while in India, droughts decrease the hazard. We argue that the differenti...
Erulkar, Annabel S; Muthengi, Eunice
Early marriage limits girls' opportunities and compromises their health, yet in Sub-Saharan Africa many girls are married before the age of 18, and few programs have sought to increase the age at marriage on the continent. Berhane Hewan was a two-year pilot project conducted in 2004-2006 that aimed to reduce the prevalence of child marriage in rural Ethiopia, through a combination of group formation, support for girls to remain in school and community awareness. A quasi-experimental research design with baseline and endline surveys was used to measure changes in social and educational participation, marriage age, reproductive health knowledge and contraceptive use. Chi-square tests, proportional hazards models and logistic regressions were conducted to assess changes associated with the project. The intervention was associated with considerable improvements in girls' school enrollment, age at marriage, reproductive health knowledge and contraceptive use. Particularly among girls aged 10-14, those exposed to the program were more likely than those in the control area to be in school at the endline survey (odds ratio, 3.0) and were less likely to have ever been married (0.1). However, among girls aged 15-19, those in the intervention area had an elevated likelihood of having gotten married by the endline (2.4). Sexually experienced girls exposed to the intervention had elevated odds at endline of having ever used contraceptives (2.9). The success of the Berhane Hewan program, one of the first rigorously evaluated interventions to delay marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa, suggests that well-designed and effectively implemented programs can delay the earliest marriages until later adolescence.
Full Text Available Background: With increasing levels of student loan debt, the path to economic stability may be less smooth than it was for earlier generations of college graduates. This paper explores this emerging trend by assessing whether or not student loan debt influences family formation. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine whether student loan debt delays marriage in young adulthood, whether or not the relationship between student loan debt and marriage differs for women and for men, and if this relationship attenuates during the years immediately after college graduation. Methods: We estimate a series of discrete-time hazard regression models predicting the odds of first marriage as a function of time-varying student loan debt balance, using a nationally representative sample of bachelor's degree recipients from the 1993 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (N = 9,410. Results: We find that the dynamics of loan repayment are related to marriage timing for women, but not for men. Specifically, an increase of $1,000 in student loan debt is associated with a reduction in the odds of first marriage by two percent a month among female bachelor degree recipients during the first four years after college graduation. This relationship attenuates over time. Conclusions: Our study lends support to the proposition that the financial weight of monthly loan repayments impedes family formation in the years immediately following college graduation -- however, only for women. This finding questions traditional models of gender specialization in family formation that emphasize the economic resources of men.
Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F.; Kort, Peter M.; Novak, Andreas J.; Seidl, Andrea
We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure’s actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader. PMID:23565027
Lund, Lars; Jønker, M; Graversen, P.H.
INTRODUCTION: Patients with prostate cancer (PC) have so far been followed in specialised hospital departments after diagnosis and initiation of treatment. The main obstacles associated with the transfer of this activity to general practice include lack of experience and uncertainty as to whether...... general practitioners (GPs) can handle follow-up. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Steering Committee was established in collaboration with health-care professionals to devise a strategy for a shared care model. An action plan was designed that included 1) the development of a shared care model for follow......-up and treatment, 2) implementation of the shared care model in cooperation between the parties involved, 3) design of procedures for re-referral, and 4) evaluation of effect, change processes and contextual factors. RESULTS: A total of 2,585 patients with PC were included in the study: 1,172 had disseminated...
Caulkins, Jonathan P; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F; Kort, Peter M; Novak, Andreas J; Seidl, Andrea
We present a novel model of corruption dynamics in the form of a nonlinear optimal dynamic control problem. It has a tipping point, but one whose origins and character are distinct from that in the classic Schelling (1978) model. The decision maker choosing a level of corruption is the chief or some other kind of authority figure who presides over a bureaucracy whose state of corruption is influenced by the authority figure's actions, and whose state in turn influences the pay-off for the authority figure. The policy interpretation is somewhat more optimistic than in other tipping models, and there are some surprising implications, notably that reforming the bureaucracy may be of limited value if the bureaucracy takes its cues from a corrupt leader.
We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...
Deng, Jia; McCalley, Carmody K.; Frolking, Steve; Chanton, Jeff; Crill, Patrick; Varner, Ruth; Tyson, Gene; Rich, Virginia; Hines, Mark; Saleska, Scott R.; Li, Changsheng
Climate change is expected to have significant and uncertain impacts on methane (CH4) emissions from northern peatlands. Biogeochemical models can extrapolate site-specificCH4 measurements to larger scales and predict responses of CH4 emissions to environmental changes. However, these models include considerable uncertainties and limitations in representing CH4 production, consumption, and transport processes. To improve predictions of CH4 transformations, we incorporated acetate and stable carbon (C) isotopic dynamics associated with CH4 cycling into a biogeochemistry model, DNDC. By including these new features, DNDC explicitly simulates acetate dynamics and the relative contribution of acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (AM and HM) to CH4 production, and predicts the C isotopic signature (δ13C) in soil C pools and emitted gases. When tested against biogeochemical and microbial community observations at two sites in a zone of thawing permafrost in a subarctic peatland in Sweden, the new formulation substantially improved agreement with CH4 production pathways and δ13C in emitted CH4 (δ13C-CH4), a measure of the integrated effects of microbial production and consumption, and of physical transport. We also investigated the sensitivity of simulated δ13C-CH4 to C isotopic composition of substrates and, to fractionation factors for CH4 production (αAM and αHM), CH4 oxidation (αMO), and plant-mediated CH4 transport (αTP). The sensitivity analysis indicated that the δ13C-CH4 is highly sensitive to the factors associated with microbial metabolism (αAM, αHM, and αMO). The model framework simulating stable C isotopic dynamics provides a robust basis for better constraining and testing microbial mechanisms in predicting CH4 cycling in peatlands.
In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer.
Baker, Elizabeth H.; Sanchez, Laura A.; Nock, Steven L.; Wright, James D.
This study contributes to research on the deinstitutionalization of marriage and changing gender ideologies by focusing on a unique group of marriage innovators. With quantitative and qualitative data from the Marriage Matters project (1997-2004), this study used a symbolic interactionist perspective to compare covenant- and standard-married…
Although the average age of marriage in the Arab world has risen, rates of early marriage remain high, especially in conflict-affected areas and among displaced populations. Early marriage leads to negative health and social consequences for adolescent girls, including risky early pregnancies, higher rates of school ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized in a formal...
This digest focuses on early marriage--the marriage of children and young people under the age of 18--from a human rights perspective. Research into early marriage has tended to concentrate on specific aspects of its impact, such as the effects on reproductive health and school drop-out. There has been little examination of the practice as a child…
This paper examines polygamous customary marriage in Ghana, West Africa, in the context of colonial policy and legislation, which established the current plural legal environment in which Ghanaians negotiate their marriages and the dissolution of marriages. The human rights polemic between universalist advocates of ...
Briggs, John P.; Briggs, Muriel A.
The technique called "two-marriage therapy" (conjoint cotherapy by married cotherapy teams) has been developed to help couples in marital crises to confront the elusive nature of marriage. This paper attempts to show how the presence of a married cotherapy team adds a significant salutary perspective on the marriage in conflict. (Author)
In this article, Cris Mayo examines the relationship among anti-LGBTQ policies, gay marriage, and sexuality education. Her concern is that because gay marriage is insufficiently different from heterosexual marriage, adding it as an issue to curriculum or broader culture debate elides rather than addresses sexual difference. In other words,…
Awareness of the practice of forced marriage — which refers to a marriage that at least one of the spouses entered into against their will, as a result of some form of coercion exercised by another person — is growing in Europe. Forced marriage is a daily reality in all European countries and has
Silliman, Benjamin; Schumm, Walter R.
Adolescents in rural and small city high schools in the western United States (N = 159) reported their perceptions of marriage and marriage education. They considered preparation for marriage important, but expressed lower familiarity with and lower intentions to attend programs than college students assessed previously. Youth valued parents,…
Simons, Michele; And Others
In 1993-94, a random sample of 547 individuals authorized to perform marriages in Australia (marriage celebrants) and 560 couples from across Australia who had married in 1993 were surveyed regarding their views of premarriage education (PME) and the factors enhancing/inhibiting participation in PME programs (PMEPs). Of the marriage celebrants,…
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractSummary This chapter checks the claim that happiness harms social bonds, marriage in particular. It is shown that happiness rather benefits marriage. Married people appear typically happier than singles, and the difference seems partly due to a positive effect of happines on marriage
Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph
We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee, or...
Are cohabiters different than married couples who cohabited before marriage? This study used the 2002 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to determine how work behavior might differ for 4 relationship types: (a) cohabiters with uncertain marriage plans, (b) cohabiters with definite marriage plans, (c) premarital cohabiters who…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceremonial marriage relationship. 222.12... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.12 Ceremonial marriage relationship. A valid ceremonial marriage is one which would be recognized as valid by the courts of the State...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage after retirement. 19.10-3 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-3 Marriage after retirement. If an... marriage irrevocably elect to receive a reduced annuity and to provide, subject to any obligation to...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed marriage relationship. 222.14 Section... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship. If a ceremonial or common-law marriage relationship cannot be established under State law, a claimant...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of marriage relationship. 222... marriage relationship. A claimant will be considered to be the husband, wife, or widow(er) of an employee... claimant and employee were validly married, or if a deemed marriage is established. (a) Generally, State...
Lundberg, Shelly; Pollak, Robert A.
Since 1950, marriage behavior in the United States has changed dramatically. Though most men and women still marry at some point in their lives, they now do so later and are more likely to divorce. Cohabitation has become commonplace as either a precursor or an alternative to marriage, and a growing fraction of births take place outside marriage.…
Forced marriage violates the principles of personal freedom and individual autonomy. It is viewed as a human rights violation under international human rights law. This project will generate evidence that will help combat forced marriage in India on two key issues: shelters for women resisting forced marriage and a law to ...
Walsh, William M.; Allen, Molly
This study surveyed family life in different regions of the Republic of Ireland. A sample of Irish couples was chosen by the Catholic Marriage Advisory Council for the purposes of examining marriage and family life, and asked to complete a survey. Individuals (N=216) were asked to classify their marriage style as either traditional or egalitarian…
Zaengl, Guenther; Seifert, Axel [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany); Wobrock, Wolfram [Clermont Univ., Univ. Blaise Pascal, Lab. de Meteorologie Physique, Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, INSU, UMR, LaMP, Aubiere (France)
This study presents idealized numerical simulations of moist airflow over a narrow isolated mountain in order to investigate the impact of the autoconversion scheme on simulated precipitation. The default setup generates an isolated water cloud over the mountain, implying that autoconversion of cloud water into rain is the only process capable of initiating precipitation. For comparison, a set of sensitivity experiments considers the classical seeder-feeder configuration, which means that ambient precipitation generated by large-scale lifting is intensified within the orographic cloud. Most simulations have been performed with the nonhydrostatic COSMO model developed at the German Weather Service (DWD), comparing three different autoconversion schemes of varying sophistication. For reference, a subset of experiments has also been performed with a spectral (bin) microphysics model. While precipitation enhancement via the seeder-feeder mechanism turns out to be relatively insensitive against the autoconversion scheme because accretion is the leading process in this case, simulated precipitation amounts can vary by 1-2 orders of magnitude for purely orographic precipitation. By comparison to the reference experiments conducted with the bin model, the Seifert-Beheng autoconversion scheme (which is the default in the COSMO model) and the Berry-Reinhardt scheme are found to represent the nonlinear behaviour of orographic precipitation reasonably well, whereas the linear approach of the Kessler scheme appears to be less adequate. (orig.)
Mon- teith, 1965; Jones, 1976) is used to partition net radiation absorbed by the leaves into latent heat exchange at each level based upon the...of a coupled photosynthesis- based gas exchange evapotranspiration model (GEM) for mesoscale weather forecasting applications, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol
Hyun, Jaeyub; Kook, Junghwan; Wang, Semyung
and basis vectors for use according to the target system. The proposed model reduction scheme is applied to the numerical simulation of the simple mass-damping-spring system and the acoustic metamaterial systems (i.e., acoustic lens and acoustic cloaking device) for the first time. Through these numerical...
Full Text Available intensities in the central region of each petal, each pattern reminiscent of a small Gaussian beam. Following from the model of the petal−pattern formation2,3 it is hypothesized that the petals are individual Gaussian−like modes, each resonating...
Rose, Elaina; Wong, Crystal (Ho Po)
Under the tender years doctrine in effect until the 1970â€™s, custody was virtually always awarded to the mother upon divorce. Gender-neutral custody laws introduced beginning in the 1970â€™s provided married fathers, in principle, equal rights to custody. Subsequent marriage-neutral laws extended the rights to unmarried fathers. We develop a theoretical model of the effect of custody regime on marriage and test the modelâ€™s predictions using a unique data set that merges custody law data wi...
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.
This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...
Chamoiseau, S.; Bertrou, L.; Pujo, J.M.; Massol, M.
Sequential serum sampling over 24 h. has been performed in 7 hemodialysis patients after simultaneous intra-venous injection of tritiated water and 24 Na. Each time-activity curve fits a biexponential pattern. A compartment analysis leads to describe either a simple but incomplete single compartment model or a much more satisfactory open two-compartment mamillary model featuring 2 intercompartment transfer rate constants k 21 and k 12 , and a loss out of the system, k 01 . These constants can be related to intrabody resistances to sodium and water transfers. Compartment analysis allows a comprehensive quantitated description of the exchange and transfer kinetics of sodium and water throughout the system. Evidence for a sodium reservoir, probably located in bone, can be drawn from the results and leads to propose a strategy for a targetted bone sodium removal [fr
Canzian, A. [Grupo de Caracterizacion y Modelacion de Materiales, UTN, FRGP, H. Yrigoyen 288, (B1617FRP) Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Bozzolo, G., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Loyola University of Maryland, 4501 N. Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin (Argentina)
Atomistic modeling of the deposition of Co, Cr, or Fe on a Ag(100) substrate is performed using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith method for alloys, in order to describe the similarities and differences between the three cases. An atom-by-atom description of the deposition process explains the growth patterns from an early stage, establishing a criterion for the determination of the ensuing growth modes.
Full Text Available The human blood brain barrier (BBB is a selective barrier formed by human brain endothelial cells (hBECs, which is important to ensure adequate neuronal function and protect the central nervous system (CNS from disease. The development of human in vitro BBB models is thus of utmost importance for drug discovery programs related to CNS diseases. Here, we describe a method to generate a human BBB model using cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells. The cells were initially differentiated into ECs followed by the induction of BBB properties by co-culture with pericytes. The brain-like endothelial cells (BLECs express tight junctions and transporters typically observed in brain endothelium and maintain expression of most in vivo BBB properties for at least 20 days. The model is very reproducible since it can be generated from stem cells isolated from different donors and in different laboratories, and could be used to predict CNS distribution of compounds in human. Finally, we provide evidence that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway mediates in part the BBB inductive properties of pericytes.
Filimonov, V.; Sornette, D.
We present a simple transformation of the formulation of the log-periodic power law formula of the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of financial bubbles that reduces it to a function of only three nonlinear parameters. The transformation significantly decreases the complexity of the fitting procedure and improves its stability tremendously because the modified cost function is now characterized by good smooth properties with in general a single minimum in the case where the model is appropriate to the empirical data. We complement the approach with an additional subordination procedure that slaves two of the nonlinear parameters to the most crucial nonlinear parameter, the critical time tc, defined in the JLS model as the end of the bubble and the most probable time for a crash to occur. This further decreases the complexity of the search and provides an intuitive representation of the results of the calibration. With our proposed methodology, metaheuristic searches are not longer necessary and one can resort solely to rigorous controlled local search algorithms, leading to a dramatic increase in efficiency. Empirical tests on the Shanghai Composite index (SSE) from January 2007 to March 2008 illustrate our findings.
Using large-scale panel data, this paper examines how social contacts change across the life course. Fixed-effects regression models are used to ascertain within-person changes over a 12-year period. The models show that marriage does not affect weaker ties whereas it does change the nature of the
Islam, M M; Mahmud, M
Data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey are used to examine marriage patterns among adolescents, factors associated with adolescent marriage, and socioeconomic characteristics of married adolescents. Findings indicate that 100% of females married before the age of 30 years. The proportion of those never married increased after 1974 and among females aged 10-14 years and 15-19 years. The proportion of those never married increased from 73.4% to 95.8% among women aged 10-14 years and from 11.3% to 48.6% among women aged 15-19 years. In 1989 only 4% were married after age 20. 55% of total marriages occurred among women aged 13-15 years. 80% of total marriages occurred under 16 years of age. The highest mean age of marriage was found among women aged 20-29 years at the time of the survey. 63.9% of women who married before the age of 20 years married after menarche, 18.1% married before menarche, and 18.0% married during menarche. The average age at menarche was 13.4 years. 13.9% of marriages were dissolved among women who married before the age of 20 years, and 46% remarried. 8.5% of marriages were dissolved among ever married women who married after the age of 20 years, and only 24.4% remarried. Teenage marriage was more prevalent in rural areas and in Dhaka division, followed by Rajshahi division. About 70% of married adolescents were illiterate or had no formal education, and almost 86% did not work outside the home. Only 26% of married adolescents had husbands with more than a primary education. Marriages took place earlier among families with some land. 92.6% of married adolescents lived in poorly constructed housing. Logistic findings indicate that female education was closely associated with an increased chance of adolescent marriage. Low age at marriage was also influenced strongly by husband's occupation. Regional differences were significant covariates.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. On How to Arrange Infinitely many Marriages! B Sury. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 71-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0071-0073. Author Affiliations.
Full Text Available In seeking to combat the growing phenomenon of child marriage among Syrian refugees, it is vital to engage the whole range of actors involved, and to recognise that girls and boys have the capacity to address this issue in their own communities.
Fields, Nina S.
Examines the impact of sexual satisfaction and the congruence of mates' perceptions on overall marital satisfaction in 290 people who had been married 18 to 32 years. Results showed respondents were, overall, satisfied with their marriages. The relationsihps were enhanced by empathy and congruence of perceptions. (Author/JAC)
Carter, Julie H.
As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…
Dolbik-Vorobei, T. A.
Under the conditions of the market, the development of the economy must be of priority to the state, for the state cannot exist and be dynamic without such an economy and, consequently, there can be no question of any transformation of marriage, family relations, and the birthrate. A vital task in the development of the state has to do with…
Gold, Joshua M.
Recent research reports that marriage and family clinicians describe the use of standardized assessment as of little importance. However this contradicts the potential advantages of the use of standardized measures. This contrast may be explained by the hypothesis that students use what they are taught, thus promoting a review of assessment course…
Sep 8, 2014 ... Abstract Background and purpose: The present study was performed to investigate the association between consanguineous marriages and divorce risk. Materials and methods: A total of 496 couples at divorce time and 800 couples from general pop- ulation who have no plan for divorce (as control group) ...
Background and purpose: The present study was performed to investigate the association between consanguineous marriages and divorce risk. Materials and methods: A total of 496 couples at divorce time and 800 couples from general population who have no plan for divorce (as control group) were included in the study.
The traditional marriage festival is a tourism potential that is yet to be fully recognized by the people and government. It is to be made known to the outside world to entice tourist influx from within and outside Nigeria and also expose the accruing social and economic benefit associated with it; if given necessary funding and ...
Pennington, Laura Anne
In 2005, following the deaths of several marriage migrants known as â mail-order bridesâ , the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act was created. Designed to regulate the international matchmaking industry and provide women with the information to make informed, safe decisions about their future partnership in an attempt to decrease instances of violence, this law was the result of an increase in awareness, collaboration between interested parties, and incorporation into a broader bi...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable genes. Model based procedures are attractive because they provide a solid statistical framework. NormFinder, a widely used software, uses a model based method. The pairwise comparison procedure implemented in GeNorm is a simpler procedure but one of the most extensively used. In the present work a statistical approach based in Maximum Likelihood estimation under mixed models was tested and compared with NormFinder and geNorm softwares. Sixteen candidate genes were tested in whole blood samples from control and heat stressed sheep. Results A model including gene and treatment as fixed effects, sample (animal, gene by treatment, gene by sample and treatment by sample interactions as random effects with heteroskedastic residual variance in gene by treatment levels was selected using goodness of fit and predictive ability criteria among a variety of models. Mean Square Error obtained under the selected model was used as indicator of gene expression stability. Genes top and bottom ranked by the three approaches were similar; however, notable differences for the best pair of genes selected for each method and the remaining genes of the rankings were shown. Differences among the expression values of normalized targets for each statistical approach were also found. Conclusions Optimal statistical properties of Maximum Likelihood estimation joined to mixed model flexibility allow for more accurate estimation of expression stability of genes under many different situations. Accurate selection of reference genes has a direct impact over the normalized expression values of a given target gene. This may be critical when the aim of the study is to compare expression rate differences among samples under different environmental
Yeakel, Justin D; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Koch, Paul L; Mangel, Marc
Foraging is constrained by the energy within resources and the mechanics of acquisition and assimilation. Thick molar enamel, a character trait differentiating hominins from African apes, is predicted to mitigate the mechanical costs of chewing obdurate foods. The classic expression of hyperthick enamel together with relatively massive molars, termed megadontia, is most evident in Paranthropus, a lineage of hominins that lived about 2.7-1.2 million years ago. Among contemporary primates, thicker molar enamel corresponds with the consumption of stiffer, deformation-resistant foods, possibly because thicker enamel can better resist cracking under high compressive loads. Accordingly, plant underground storage organs (USOs) are thought to be a central food resource for hominins such as Paranthropus due to their abundance, isotopic composition, and mechanical properties. Here, we present a process-based model to investigate foraging constraints as a function of energetic demands and enamel wear among human ancestors. Our framework allows us to determine the fitness benefits of megadontia, and to explore under what conditions stiff foods such as USOs are predicted to be chosen as fallback, rather than preferred, resources. Our model predictions bring consilience to the noted disparity between functional interpretations of megadontia and microwear evidence, particularly with respect to Paranthropus boisei. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Brock, Rebecca L.; Lawrence, Erika
Objective Marital discord has been linked to both depression and anxiety; however, our understanding of how marriage contributes to the development of internalizing symptoms is limited in scope and lacking specificity. First, it is unclear whether the marital relationship contributes to the broad dimension of internalizing symptoms as opposed to specific diagnoses. Second, it is unclear how the marital relationship contributes to internalizing symptoms: through global marital dissatisfaction or through specific relationship processes (and which processes). The purpose of the present study was to address these two issues and, more generally, to develop a comprehensive and refined framework within which to understand the role of marriage in the developmental course of internalizing symptoms. Method Questionnaire and interview data were collected from 102 husbands and wives 5 times over the first 7 years of marriage. Results Results indicated that marital discord during the transition into marriage was associated with the broad dimension of internalizing symptoms for husbands but not for wives. Further, both global marital dissatisfaction and an imbalance of power and control put husbands at significant risk for symptoms over the first 7 years of marriage, whereas low levels of emotional intimacy put wives at significant risk. Conclusions Results exemplify the need to routinely consider intimate relationship processes in etiological models of depression and anxiety, and identify specific clinical targets that can be prioritized in interventions aimed at preventing internalizing disorders. PMID:21823784
Brock, Rebecca L; Lawrence, Erika
Marital discord has been linked to both depression and anxiety; however, our understanding of how marriage contributes to the development of internalizing symptoms is limited in scope and lacking specificity. First, it is unclear whether the marital relationship contributes to the broad dimension of internalizing symptoms as opposed to specific diagnoses. Second, it is unclear how the marital relationship contributes to internalizing symptoms: through global marital dissatisfaction or through specific relationship processes (and which processes). The purpose of the present study was to address these 2 issues and, more generally, to develop a comprehensive and refined framework within which to understand the role of marriage in the developmental course of internalizing symptoms. Questionnaire and interview data were collected from 102 husbands and wives 5 times over the first 7 years of marriage. Results indicated that marital discord during the transition into marriage was associated with the broad dimension of internalizing symptoms for husbands but not for wives. Further, both global marital dissatisfaction and an imbalance of power and control put husbands at significant risk for symptoms over the first 7 years of marriage, whereas low levels of emotional intimacy put wives at significant risk. Results exemplify the need to routinely consider intimate relationship processes in etiological models of depression and anxiety and to identify specific clinical targets that can be prioritized in interventions aimed at preventing internalizing disorders.
Full Text Available Background: There are two explanations for the inverse relationship between consanguinity and women's education. The female empowerment hypothesis posits that better-educated women will demand more freedom in choosing a marriage partner, whereas the role incompatibility hypothesis posits that school enrollment may prevent women from fulfilling spousal obligations. Objective: This article presents estimates of the relative contributions of school enrolment and educational attainment to the decline in consanguineous marriage. Methods: Our data comes from three rounds of the Palestinians in Israel Socio-Economic Survey. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis, we estimated discrete-time event history models to assess the effects of education on the probability of a consanguineous marriage. To test the two hypotheses we constructed two distinct education vectors for each woman from information on the number of years of schooling. The first charts yearly enrolment in education, whereas the second vector reflects actual attainment in each year. Results: Between 1975‒1979 and 2005‒2010, consanguineous marriage declined by almost 60Š. The rise in the age of leaving school explains about a third of the decline. Educational attainment did not contribute to the decline. Contribution: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to present estimates of the relative contributions of school enrolment and educational attainment to the decline in consanguineous marriage.
Park, Min Hee; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung
The twenty-one item Stress Measurement of Female Marriage Immigrants (SMFMI) was developed to assess stress of female marriage immigrants in Korea. This study reports the psychometric properties of a revised SMFMI (SMFMI-R) for application with female marriage immigrants to Korea who were raising children. Participants were 190 female marriage immigrants from China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and other Asian countries, who were recruited using convenience sampling between November 2013 and December 2013. Survey questionnaires were translated into study participants' native languages (Chinese, Vietnamese, and English). Principal component analysis yielded nineteen items in four factors (family, parenting, cultural, and economic stress), explaining 63.5% of the variance, which was slightly better than the original scale. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated adequate fit for the four-factor model. Based on classic test theory and item response theory, strong support was provided for item discrimination, item difficulty, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.923). SMFMI-R scores were negatively associated with Korean proficiency and subjective economic status. The SMFMI-R is a valid, reliable, and comprehensive measure of stress for female marriage immigrants and can provide useful information to develop intervention programs for those who may be at risk for emotional stress.
Treas, Judith; Lui, Jonathan; Gubernskaya, Zoya
BACKGROUND Consistent with the deinstitutionalization-of-marriage thesis, studies report a decline in support for marital conventions and increased approval of other relationship types. Generalizations are limited by the lack of cross-national research for a broad domain of attitudes on marriage and alternative arrangements, and by the lack of consensus on what counts as evidence. OBJECTIVE Acknowledging the conceptual distinction between expectations for behavior inside and outside marriage, we address the deinstitutionalization debate by testing whether support for marital conventions has declined for a range of attitudes across countries. METHODS Based on eleven International Social Survey Program items replicated between the late 1980s and the 2000s, OLS regressions evaluate attitude changes in up to 21 countries. RESULTS Consistent with the deinstitutionalization argument, disapproval declined for marital alternatives (cohabitation, unmarried parents, premarital and same-sex sex). For attitudes on the behavior of married people and the nature of marriage the results are mixed: despite a shift away from gender specialization, disapproval of extramarital sex increased over time. On most items, most countries changed as predicted by the deinstitutionalization thesis. CONCLUSIONS Attitude changes on ‘new relationships’ and marital alternatives are compatible with the deinstitutionalization of marriage. Beliefs arguably more central to the marital institution do not conform as neatly to this thesis. Because results are sensitive to the indicators used, the deinstitutionalization of marriage argument merits greater empirical and conceptual attention. PMID:26052248
"In the early twentieth century, marriage age of both sexes in India was unusually low, even by the standards of other Asian societies of the era. Although early marriage in the form of child marriage occurred throughout the Indian subcontinent, there were regional differences in the extent of the practice. The article examines influences on the marriage market from the early through the late twentieth century and the changes that have occurred within that time frame. Early on, the peasant marriage regime was regulated more by social and demographic factors, while subsequent changes reflected the growing importance of economics and considerable regional diversity." excerpt
TAPP, David; JENKINSON, Susan
This is Part II of the series.\\ud \\ud ‘Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses .’ \\ud \\ud It is important to begin by acknowledging the above statement, which is part of Article 16(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and also to distinguish between an arranged marriage and a forced marriage. \\ud \\ud An arranged marriage is ‘a marriage planned and agreed by the families or guardians of the couple concerned ’, while a forced marria...
and an increasing number of local love marriages have changed the overall picture. This article discusses how the new marriage preferences affect common notions of family relatedness, and suggest that young couples' decision to engage in a love marriage constitutes an act of symbolic mobility. Ultimately Danish...... Pakistanis are split between the marriage preferences set up by their families, the Danish nation-state and themselves. In this respect marriage is not only about entering adulthood and deciding one's future, but also constitutes a process where notions of identity and belonging are negotiated within local...
Gouda, Alaa S.; Amine, Mahasen S.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard
Two new phosphoramidite building blocks for DNA synthesis were synthesized from 1,5- and 2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinones through alkylation with 3-bromo-1-propanol followed by DMT-protection. The novel synthesized 1,5- and 2,6-disubstituted anthraquinone monomers H15 and H26 are incorporated into a G......-quadruplex by single and double replacements of TGT and TT loops. Monomers H15 and H26 were found to destabilize G-quadruplex structures for all single replacements of TGT or TT loops. The largest destabilization was observed when H26 linker replaced a TT loop. In contrast, the presence of anthraquinone monomers...... anthraquinone-modified quadruplexes revealed no change of the antiparallel structure when compared with the wild type under potassium buffer conditions. The significantly increased thermostabilities were interpreted by molecular modeling of anthraquinone-modified G-quadruplexes....
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
The double square-root DSR equation is known to image data by downward continuation using one-way depth extrapolation methods. A two-way time extrapolation of the DSR-derived phase operator suffers from an essential singularity for horizontally traveling waves. This singularity can be avoided by limiting the range of wavenumbers treated in a spectral-based extrapolation referred to as the low-rank method. However, the region around the singularity will still induce instability. We derive an approximation to the DSR formulation based on a high frequency approximation. The resulting equation is both highly accurate and free of singularities. Applications to synthetic data including imaging of the Marmousi dataset demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modeling and migration approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
de Groot, Richard; Kuunyem, Maxwell Yiryele; Palermo, Tia
Child marriage is a human rights violation disproportionately affecting girls in lower- and middle-income countries and has serious public health implications. In Ghana, one in five girls marry before their 18th birthday and one in 20 girls is married before her 15th birthday. This paper uses a unique dataset from Northern Ghana to examine the association between child marriage and adverse outcomes for women among a uniquely vulnerable population. Baseline data from on ongoing impact evaluation of a government-run cash transfer programme was used. The sample consisted of 1349 ever-married women aged 20-29 years from 2497 households in the Northern and Upper East regions of Ghana. We estimated a series of ordinary least squares (OLS) and logistic regression models to examine associations of child marriage with health, fertility, contraception, child mortality, social support, stress and agency outcomes among women, controlling for individual characteristics and household-level factors. Child marriage in this sample was associated with increased odds of poorer health, as measured by difficulties in daily activities (OR = 2.08; CI 1.28-3.38 among women 20-24 years and OR = 1.58; CI 1.19-2.12 among women 20-29 years), increased odds of child mortality among first-born children (OR = 2.03; CI 1.09-3.77 among women 20-24 years) and lower odds of believing that one's life is determined by their own actions (OR = 0.42; CI 0.25-0.72 among women 20-24 years and OR = 0.54; CI 0.39-0.75 among women 20-29 years). Conversely, child marriage was associated with lower levels of reported stress (regression coefficient = - 1.18; CI -1.84--0.51 among women 20-29 years). Child marriage is common in Northern Ghana and is associated with poor health, increased child mortality, and low agency among women in this sample of extremely poor households. While not much is known about effective measures to combat child marriage in the context of Ghana
Sowers, T.; Davidson, E.; Wagner, A. J.; Shimabukuro, D.
Recent models have attempted to estimate paleoelevations in the Sierra Nevada using δ18O and δ2H values from kaolinitized granite clasts and hydration rinds in volcanic glass. These models require calculation of fluvial stable isotope composition, usually considered to be a function of elevation and source isotope composition at sea-level, applied to the hypsometric curve of the upstream drainage basin. However these relationships were initially determined in mountain ranges with different hydrologic patterns. Furthermore, they relied heavily on precipitation and groundwater oxygen isotope data, incorporating little to no surface water data. Since surface waters are a combination of groundwater and overland flow, it is unclear if these theoretical relationships hold true for the modern or ancestral Sierra Nevada. To test this relationship between oxygen isotopes, elevation, and hypsometry along a transect in the Northern Sierra, water was collected from the North and South Forks of the American River from their respective headwaters to their convergence with the Sacramento River. The stable isotope data from these rivers are presented here along with the average relationship between δ18O, δ2H, and elevation. Initial results suggest that δ18O values of surface waters vary by less than 1.0‰ and δ2H by less than 3‰ above 1300 meters elevation with δ18O and δ2H values at 1325 meters of -13.3‰ and -93.2‰ and -13.6‰ and -95.8‰ at 2200 meters. These new data could be used to modify the global isotope-elevation relationship for the Sierra Nevada.
Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi
Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.
Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen
The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102,839). The res......The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102......,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage...... is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage....
Kail, Ben Lennox; Acosta, Katie L; Wright, Eric R
We assessed the association between the health of people in same-sex relationships and the degree and nature of the legal recognition of same-sex relationships offered in the states in which they resided. We conducted secondary data analyses on the 2010 to 2013 Current Population Survey and publicly available data from Freedom to Marry, Inc. We estimated ordered logistic regression models in a 4-level framework to assess the impact of states' legal stances toward same-sex marriage on self-assessed health. Our findings indicated, relative to states with antigay constitutional amendments, that same-sex couples living in states with legally sanctioned marriage reported higher levels of self-assessed health. Our findings suggested that full legal recognition of same-sex relationships through marriage might be an important legal and policy strategy for improving the health of same-sex couples.
Full Text Available Girl education is believed to be the best means of reducing girl child marriage (marriage 20% of girl child marriage- Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan.Cross-sectional time series analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS from 1991 to 2011 in the four focal nations. Analyses were restricted to ever-married women aged 20-24 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of highest level of education received (none, primary, secondary or higher on age at marriage (<14, 14-15, 16-17, 18 and older.In Bangladesh and Pakistan, primary education was not protective against girl child marriage; in Nepal, it was protective against marriage at <14 years (AOR = 0.42 but not for older adolescents. Secondary education was protective across minor age at marriage categories in Bangladesh (<14 years AOR = 0.10; 14-15 years AOR = .25; 16-17 years AOR = 0.64 and Nepal (<14 years AOR = 0.21; 14-15 years AOR = 0.25; 16-17 years AOR = 0.57, but protective against marriage of only younger adolescents in Pakistan (<14 years AOR = 0.19; 14-15 years AOR = 0.23. In India, primary and secondary education were respectively protective across all age at marriage categories (<14 years AOR = 0.34, AOR = 0.05; 14-15 years AOR = 0.52, AOR = 0.20; 16-17 years AOR = 0.71, AOR = 0.48.Primary education is likely insufficient to reduce girl child marriage in South Asia, outside of India. Secondary education may be a better protective strategy against this practice for the region, but may be less effective for prevention of marriage among older relative to younger adolescents.
Zhu, Chen; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Qiran; Chen, Qihui
In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis). This study explores whether heterosis is a contributing factor to offspring's educational attainment in China by applying a high-dimensional fixed effects (HDFE) modelling framework to the unique 0.1% micro-sample of the 2000 Chinese Population Census data. Concerning potential endogeneity of hybrid marriages, we conduct a series of robustness checks. Reassuringly, the estimated heterosis effect remains significantly positive across various measurements, after controlling for parental educational attainments/height, environmental influences, and over a thousand region and region-by-year fixed effects. The effects in male and higher-educated offspring are found to be stronger. Results are replicated when analyzing body height using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Although endogeneity of "hybrid marriages" may not be completely ruled out, the current study sheds light on the potentially beneficial effects of interprovincial migration on population-level human capital accumulation, and we hope that this paper can intrigue future studies that further address endogeneity. The implied heterosis effect could, therefore, be profound for Homo sapiens as a species from an evolutionary point of view. An additional important implication is that the overall genetic influences of parents on offspring's performance may be further decomposed into a conventional heredity effect and a heterosis effect that has been
This study examines age at first marriage in China, using data from the 1982 10% sample of the population census. Among the married population of July 1, 1982, most men married for the first time at 23; by 24.08 years, half the men were married; the average age at first marriage was 25.49 years. Most women had their first marriage at 20; half were married before the age of 21.9; their average age at first marriage was 22.8 years. Among geographic groupings, the age at marriage is highest for Shanghai populations for both men (27.82 years) and women (25.76 years). The lowest age at marriage is 23.74 years for Heilongjiang Province and 21.44 for women in Qinghai Province. Female age at marriage tends to be higher in the East and South than in the West and North, and higher in coastal than inland areas. The geographic distribution of male age at marriage differs from that of women. Men commonly marry the earliest in the 3 Northeast provinces. Men marry later in Sichuan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Anhui, and shandong than in Beijing and Tianjin. In general, men tend to marry later than women, but the disparity is usually small. Since the revolution, female age at marriage has steadily risen. China's age at marriage is several years lower than that of Japan. Economic development and education levels have a strong impact on female age at marriage. However, female age at marriage has declined in very recent years, suggesting a more complex interaction between age at marriage and socioeconomic factors. Promoting late marriage is essential to controlling population growth.
I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)
I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc
Li, Baozeng; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yingmin; Li, Chunyan; Qiang, Jianbing; Ji, Chunjun; Dong, Chuang
Copper is a good corrosion resisting element, but due to its immiscibility with Fe, it is only used as a minor-alloying element in stainless steels. In this work, we introduced a double-cluster structure model [CuNi12][NiFe12] m for stable solid solutions in Cu-containing Fe-Ni corrosion-resistant invar alloys. Our model takes into account all of the enthalpies between the element pairs by assuming Fe-Ni and Ni-Cu nearest neighbors and by avoiding Fe-Cu ones, so that the ideally stabilized structures are described by mixing two cuboctahedral clusters in the fcc lattice, NiFe12 and CuNi12. Two alloy series were designed by varying the relative proportions of the two clusters and the Cu contents. It was proved that the alloys with Cu contents below those prescribed by this model could easily be solutionized and water-quenched to a monolithic fcc solid solution, and resultant alloys possessed good corrosion-resisting properties in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution.
The changes in age of marriage in ancient China can be classified into 3 periods. Around 680 B.C., the government set the age of marriage at 20 for men and at 15 for women. Even though it was written in the works of the Confucian school that men should marry at 30 and women at 20, it was never really followed. The Wei and Jin dynasties provided the longest periods of war and social instability. Large numbers of population died because of war or famine. Because heavy taxes were collected on each member of family, many families did not report marriage or childbirth. In order to encourage childbirth, the government reduced the age of marriage to 15 for men and 13 for women. Administrative and legislative regulation were introduced to force people to marry early, especially women. Incentives were given to families with more women. These policies was enforced due to the imbalance of the sex ratio and reduction of population size. As female infanticides were prevalent because of differential values placed on male and female children, it was difficult for men to find partners to marry. Shortage of women was also the result of the polygamy of the rich and the aristocracy. The imbalance of the sex ratio forced women to marry early. Nevertheless, women getting married too early were not fertile. Infant or child mortality was high among children of young mothers. From the Song to the Ching dynasties, the age of marriage was set at 16 for men and 14 for women. In the ancient times, the population of China was around 60-70 million before the Ching dynasty. Generally speaking, the population size was small. Early marriage was necessary and feasible. Even though fertility in ancient times was high, mortality has high also. Life expectancy ranged form 22 to 35. People needed to marry early and have children early to replace themselves. On the other hand, large land areas and inefficient production tools required a larger labor force. Large population size also represented
... other in the way in which the Bible elucidates sexuality and marriage. The article indicates that the idea of sexual intercourse between a man and a woman as being equal to Godgiven “holy matrimony” has mythological origins. It focuses on these origins and on the multifarious forms of marital arrangements and models.
Gibson-Davis, Christina M.
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (N = 2,954), a birth cohort study, this work examines how gains in earnings and income are associated with marriage and subsequent childbearing for low-income couples. Using change models, results indicate that positive changes in earnings, controlling for baseline levels of earnings,…
This article evaluates the relationship between the timing of marriage and the purchase of a jointly owned home among Swedish cohabiting couples. Data for this analysis come from the Swedish Housing and Life Course Cohort Study (N = 1,596 couples; 2,006 cohabiting spells). The author develops models
This study examines the effects of a Catholic background on age at first marriage, the odds of never marrying, and the odds of ever divorcing. Estimates using Catholic upbringing are compared with estimates using Catholic at the time of the survey. A case is made that if the latter measure of Catholicism is used, serious selection bias problems occur in some cases because this measure excludes defectors and includes converts. Further, it is shown that a Catholic upbringing generally has no effect on men's age at first marriage and has a positive effect on the age when women marry. It is also shown that older Baptist men are substantially more likely than Catholic men to experience a divorce. Older Catholic women are somewhat less likely to experience a divorce than non-Baptist Protestant women. There is no Catholic effect on the odds that younger men and women will divorce.
Uecker, Jeremy E
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.
: Studies in South Asia suggest that child marriage is a strong risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), but evidence outside the region is lacking. : This study uses standardized data from demographic and health surveys in 34 countries to test the hypothesis that young women (age 20-24) who married as children are at increased risk of past year physical and/or sexual IPV as compared with those women who married as adults. : Globally, 9% of respondents were married before they turned 15; another 25% were married between the ages of 15 and 17. Past year physical and/or sexual IPV was higher among women who married as children (29%) compared with those who married as adults (20%). This difference persisted in logistic regression models that adjust for sociodemographic characteristics [odds ratio (OR) 1.41 (1.30-1.52) for marriage before 15, and 1.42 (1.35-1.50) for marriage at 15-17]. However, there was considerable heterogeneity between countries: marriage before age 15 was associated with a combined measure of past year physical and/or sexual IPV in nine countries; women married between 15 and 17 were at increased risk of physical and/or sexual IPV in 19 countries. This heterogeneity was most evident in sub-Saharan Africa, and warrants further investigation in so far as it may help identify protective policies and norms. : Substantial reductions in IPV will likely require interventions to combat child marriage itself and to protect women from IPV within child marriages. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association
Burt, S Alexandra; Donnellan, M Brent; Humbad, Mikhila N; Hicks, Brian M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
Previous studies have indicated that marriage is negatively associated with male antisocial behavior. Although often interpreted as a causal association, marriage is not a random event. As such, the association may stem from selection processes, whereby men less inclined toward antisocial behavior are more likely to marry. To evaluate selection vs causation explanations of the association between marriage and desistence from antisocial behavior. Co-twin control analyses in a prospective twin study provided an analogue of the idealized counterfactual model of causation. The co-twin control design uses the unmarried co-twin of a married twin to estimate what the married twin would have looked like had he remained unmarried. Discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins are particularly informative because they share a common genotype and rearing environment. General community study. Two hundred eighty-nine male-male twin pairs (65.1% MZ) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study underwent assessment at 17, 20, 24, and 29 years of age. None of the participants were married at 17 years of age, and 2.6% were married at 20 years of age. By 29 years of age, 58.8% of the participants were or had been married. A tally of criterion C symptoms of DSM-III-R antisocial personality disorder, as assessed via structured clinical interview. Mean differences in antisocial behavior across marital status at age 29 years were present even at 17 and 20 years of age, suggesting a selection process. However, the within-pair effect of marriage was significant for MZ twins, such that the married twin engaged in less antisocial behavior following marriage than his unmarried co-twin. Results were equivalent to those in dizygotic twins and persisted when controlling for prior antisocial behavior. Results indicate an initial selection effect, whereby men with lower levels of antisocial behavior are more likely to marry. However, this tendency to refrain from antisocial behavior appears to be accentuated by the
Full Text Available Background: Digit preferences are normally seen as potentially harmful biases in respondents' reports. Possibly such preferences might also be the cause of some patterns found in Swedish marriage formation, thus affecting actual demographic behavior. Objective: Digit preferences in marriage formation in Sweden are examined − more specifically, the additional propensity to marry for the first time during the year 2000 or at ages ending with 0 − and their demographic and socioeconomic correlates. Methods: Event-history analyses are applied to Swedish register data covering 3.5 million men and women in 1991−2007. Results: First-marriage risks clearly increase for both men and women at exact ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 and in the year 2000. These patterns exist across demographic and socioeconomic groups and are not due to measurement error or random variation. Conclusions: The timing of marriage is not strictly determined by conventional demographic or socioeconomic factors. Whether the findings are idiosyncratic to contexts like the Swedish, where there are small differences between marriage and cohabitation, remains to be answered.
Mao, Angelina; Raguram, Ahalya
Increased usage of the Internet has given rise to a new challenge to marriages: That of online infidelity, which is perceived to be as traumatic as actual infidelity. This article highlights the negative impact of online infidelity on marital relationship and its detrimental effect on the mental health of the offended spouse using a case vignette. The article discusses the importance of marital therapy in dealing with the factors contributing to online infidelity and in rebuilding marital trust. PMID:20048458
Tsimpo, Clarence; Wodon, Quentin; Nguyen, Minh Cong
This contribution relies on four different approaches and data sources to assess and discuss the impact of child marriage on secondary school enrollment and completion in Uganda. The four data sources are: (1) qualitative evidence on differences in community and parental preferences for the education of boys and girls and on the higher likelihood of girls to drop out of school in comparison to boys; (2) reasons declared by parents as to why their children have dropped out of school; (3) reaso...
Mao, Angelina; Raguram, Ahalya
Increased usage of the Internet has given rise to a new challenge to marriages: That of online infidelity, which is perceived to be as traumatic as actual infidelity. This article highlights the negative impact of online infidelity on marital relationship and its detrimental effect on the mental health of the offended spouse using a case vignette. The article discusses the importance of marital therapy in dealing with the factors contributing to online infidelity and in rebuilding marital trust.
Mao, Angelina; Raguram, Ahalya
Increased usage of the Internet has given rise to a new challenge to marriages: That of online infidelity, which is perceived to be as traumatic as actual infidelity. This article highlights the negative impact of online infidelity on marital relationship and its detrimental effect on the mental health of the offended spouse using a case vignette. The article discusses the importance of marital therapy in dealing with the factors contributing to online infidelity and in rebuilding marital trust.
Shestak, Kenneth C; Walgenbach, Klaus J; Azari, Kodi
Short scar abdominoplasty-that is, a marriage of aggressive superwet lipoplasty, rectus abdominis muscle plication, and excision of lower abdominal skin and excess adipose tissue-can be used as an alternative to conventional abdominoplasty in properly selected patients. According to the authors, this technique offers the advantages of less invasive surgery, decreased pain, and faster return to work. (Aesthetic Surg J 2002;22:294-301.).
Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure. I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...
Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Karney, Benjamin R
Despite narcissism's relation with interpersonal dysfunction, surprisingly little empirical research has been devoted to understanding narcissism's effect on intimate relationships in general or marital relationships in particular. The current study addressed this gap using longitudinal data from a community sample of 146 newlywed couples assessed 6 times over the first 4 years of marriage. First, we examined partner characteristics associated with higher levels of narcissism to determine the degree to which couples were matched on narcissism and related traits. Second, we examined how narcissism predicted the trajectory of marital quality over time, testing narcissism's association with initial levels of relationship functioning (the intercept) and changes in relationship functioning (the slope). Results indicated a small degree of homophily but otherwise no clear pattern of partner characteristics for individuals higher in narcissism. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that wives' total narcissism and entitlement/exploitativeness scores predicted the slope of marital quality over time, including steeper declines in marital satisfaction and steeper increases in marital problems. Husbands' narcissism scores generally had few effects on their own marital quality or that of their wives. These findings are notable in indicating that the effects of personality characteristics on marital functioning may take some time to manifest themselves, even if they were present from early in the marriage. Future research into the mediating psychological and interpersonal processes that link wives' narcissism with poorer marital functioning over time would be valuable. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Fu, Vincent Kang; Wolfinger, Nicholas H
Several recent studies have investigated the consequences of racial intermarriage for marital stability. None of these studies properly control for first-order racial differences in divorce risk, therefore failing to appropriately identify the effect of intermarriage. Our article builds on an earlier generation of studies to develop a model that appropriately identifies the consequences of crossing racial boundaries in matrimony. We analyze the 1995 and 2002 National Survey of Family Growth using a parametric event-history model called a sickle model. To appropriately identify the effect of interracial marriage we use the interaction of wife's race and husband's race. We find elevated divorce rates for Latino/white intermarriages but not for black/white intermarriages. Seventy-two percent of endogamous Latino marriages remain intact at 15 years, but only 58 percent of Latino husband/white wife and 64 percent of white husband/Latina wife marriages are still intact. We have identified an important deficiency in previous studies and provide a straightforward resolution. Although higher rates of Latino/white intermarriage may indicate more porous group boundaries, the greater instability of these marriages suggests that these boundaries remain resilient.
The relationship between marriage and parent-child relations was studied. Marriage was understood as formation of a new family and also as an extension and enlargement of a parent generation's family. Kaneko reports that advanced level of education of women, change in norm consciousness, and inequality in sex ratio at marriageable age contribute to the phenomenon called marriage delay/avoidance by influencing a series of events leading up to marriage at some point. He makes a novel attempt to elucidate mechanism and impact of various factors at play through demographic analysis of the 1st marriage process. This attempt is timely because the recent trend in legal sociology is to take more dynamic approach in studying marriage and divorce. For example, they include premarital and exmarital co-habitations in the scope of their study. Suzuki reports that the marriage norm is based upon the notion of marriage for all and traditional gender-associated divisions of roles. He says highly educated women have a different norm and men perceive this as a disadvantage and regression in the marriage norm. The norm has changed: society is severely critical of male extramarital sex and less critical of female premarital sex. Sex norms and marriage norms are relatively independent of each other. Men's attitude toward intergenerational relationships is from the perspective of a child taking care of aged parents, while women's attitude toward the same is from the perspective of an aged parent, especially a widowed parent. Men prefer separate household routines, while women prefer coresidence, both of which reflect the norm consciousness of an aging society. Mr. Nakano concludes in his report that marriage delay and avoidance among unmarried young Japanese women is due to their perception of married life as something of diminishing utility. He analyses this attitude toward marriage from the viewpoint of women's career options. Their opinions of ideals are polarized, either full time
de Koning, M.; Storms, O.; Bartels, E.
In March 2014, the Dutch parliament, following Denmark, passed the Combatting Forced Marriage Act in which consanguineous marriages are equated with forced marriages. Why are cousin marriages, practiced worldwide and a recognized marriage pattern in the Netherlands, high on the political agenda
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 404.727... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.727 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) General. A deemed valid marriage is a ceremonial marriage we consider valid even...
Clarkson-Freeman, Pamela A
Recognition of same-sex marriage has been a goal of many in the gay rights movement. With the passage of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), same-sex relationships will not be afforded the same opportunities as heterosexual relationships. This paper will discuss the process leading to the passage of the DOMA, and will argue that the passage of this piece of legislation was a misuse of Article IV, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, "Full Faith and Credit". The Defense of Marriage Act represents an extraordinary act of Congress, as they have rarely passed legislation under this mandate and have never passed legislation that curtails full faith and credit. Strategies that can be utilized to overcome the constraints of the DOMA will also be included.
Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G.
Objectives Child marriage in India is considered a major barrier to the nation's social and economic development, as well as a major women's health concern. The current study assesses prevalence of child marriage (i.e., marriage prior to the national legal age of 18 years) among young adult women in India, and associations between child marriage and women's fertility and fertility control behaviors. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses of a nationally representative household sample of Indian women ages 16-49 years (N=124,385) collected in 2005-2006 via the National Family Health Survey-3. Participants Analyses were restricted to women age 20-24 years (n=22,807) and the subsample of ever married women aged 20-24 years (n=14,628). Data Analysis Prevalence estimates of child marriage were produced for all women 20-24 years. Using the ever married subsample, simple regression models, models adjusted for demographics, and models adjusted for demographics and duration of marriage were constructed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between child marriage and both fertility and fertility control outcomes. Fertility and Fertility Control Outcomes No contraception prior to childbirth, childbirth within first year of marriage, high fertility (3 or more births), history of recent rapid repeat childbirth, unwanted pregnancy, and female sterilization. Results Child marriage was reported by 44.5% of Indian women ages 20-24 years; 22.6% reported marriage prior to age 16 years, and 2.6% were married prior to age 13 years. Child marriage was significantly associated with women's increased risk for no contraceptive use prior to first childbirth (AOR=1.37, 95% CI=1.22, 1.54), high fertility (AOR=7.40, 95% CI=6.45, 8.50), history of rapid repeat childbirth (AOR=3.00, 95% CI=2.74, 3.29), multiple unwanted pregnancies (AOR=2.36, 95% CI=1.90, 2.94), pregnancy termination (AOR=1.22; 95% CI=1.06, 1.41) and female sterilization (AOR=5
Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige
Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.
Nambi, Siva; Sarkar, Siddharth
Marriage is a social institution that formalizes and stabilizes the union between a man and wife. At times, either of the parties undergoing the contract of marriage may ask it be declared null and void. Psychiatrists and legal experts may be called in to provide opinion whether such a marriage should be annulled. Some laws in India do state unsoundness of mind as a valid reason for nullity of marriage. However, determining unsoundness of mind can be a difficult issue, especially when made in retrospect. This paper highlights some cases where nullity of marriage was contested in view of unsoundness of mind. Furthermore, some issues encountered by psychiatrists pertaining to nullity of marriage are discussed. Though psychiatrists and legal experts may have different ways of approaching the issue of nullity on the basis of psychiatric disorder, the overall aim of both remains the same of avoiding broken homes, upholding the dignity of the individual and legal framework.
Full Text Available This article deals with one of the aspects of a pluralistic society: the existence of informal marriages. These are marriages concluded in accordance with religious or cultural traditions that do not comply with the requirements of the formal secular legal order. Two aspects of those marriages will be discussed: primarily, whether and to what extent spouses in informal marriages should be regarded and protected by law as spouses, and secondly, whether spouses who are involuntary kept in their informal marriages should be released by and protected by formal law. With regard to both aspects the question will be raised whether human rights could and should serve as a means to offer spouses of informal marriages their desired protection. From recent case law both from the European Court of Human Rights and the national courts, it becomes clear that human rights have only recently and very cautiously started to demand a role in the informal legal orders.
Describes a wedding ceremony combining Canadian Native and Roman Catholic traditions that could be a model for Indian education. Asserts that Canadian natives must continue to gain control and autonomy over their own schools. Discusses responsibilities and interrelationships between the school and parents, students, and teachers. (CFR)
The rapid growth of internet usage over the last two decades has been influencing many aspects of our life and most noticeably the ways in which people communicate with each other. Therefore, it is appropriate to ask whether the growth of internet usage influences individuals’ marital decisions in modern society. In my study, I concentrate on the effect of the growing internet usage on the gender and age-specific marriage hazard rate for the first time marriages in Europe. The panel data anal...
Martín-Lanas, R. (Raquel); Beunza-Nuin, M.I. (Mª Isabel); Cano-Prous, A. (Adrián); Tricas-Sauras, S. (Sandra); Manrique-Astiz, E. (Eduardo); Aubá-Guedea, E. (Enrique)
INTRODUCTION Infidelity has a significant psychological impact on marriages and families. Marriages with an infidelity experience show a great number of premarital communication problems such as low rates of positive interaction and high rates of invalidation and negative interaction (1). OBJECTIVES To analyse communicative resources of spouses belonging to marriages with at least one unfaithfulness episode. To compare marital communication depending on the sex of the unfaithfu...
This article studies transnational marriages among the second generation and analyses the processes through which transnational marriages shape second-generation women’s attachment to work. Based on in-depth interviews with second-generation women of Pakistani descent in Norway, along with some of their husbands, the article identifies three processes through which transnational marriages can shape women’s attachment to work: 1) conflicting expectations concerning childcare and women’s employ...
2015) also discussed a key component to a successful dual-military marriage is navigating some key life events such as whose career takes precedence...key component to a successful dual-military marriage is navigating key life events such as whose career takes precedence, when/if the couple should...1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0043 TITLE: The Wellbeing of Army Personnel in Dual-Military Marriages PRINCIPAL
Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars H?jsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen
The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965?1985 (N?=?102,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more tha...
Weng, E.; Farrior, C.; Dybzinski, R.; Pacala, S. W.
Leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf lifespan (LL) are two highly correlated plant traits that are key to plant physiological and ecological properties. Usually, low LMA means short LL, high nitrogen (N) content per unit mass, and fast turnover rates of nutrients; high LMA leads to long LL, low N content, and slow turnover rates. Deciduous trees with low LMA and short lifespan leaves have low carbon cost but high nitrogen demand; and evergreen trees, with high LMA and long lifespan leaves, have high carbon cost but low nitrogen demand. These relationships lead to: 1) evergreen trees have higher leaf area index than deciduous trees; 2) evergreen trees' carbon use efficiency is lower than the deciduous trees' because of their thick leaves and therefore high maintenance respiration; 3) the advantage of evergreens trees brought by their extra leaves over deciduous trees diminishes with increase N in ecosystem. These facts determine who will win when trees compete with each other in a N-limited ecosystem. In this study, we formulate a mathematical model according to the relationships between LMA, LL, leaf nitrogen, and leaf building and maintenance cost, where LMA is the fundamental variable determining the other three. We analyze the evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs) of LMA with this mathematical model by examining the benefits of carbon and nitrogen investments to leaves in ecosystems with different N. The model shows the ESS converges to low LMA at high N and high LMA at low N. At intermediate N, there are two ESSs at low and high ends of LMA, respectively. The ESS also leads to low forest productivity by outcompeting the possible high productive strategies. We design a simulation scheme in an individual-based competition model (LM3-PPA) to simulate forest dynamics as results of the competition between deciduous and evergreen trees in three different biomes, which are temperate deciduous forest, deciduous-evergreen mixed forest, and boreal evergreen forest. The
Ould, Patricia; Whitlow, C Julie
This study investigates whether married gays and lesbians in Massachusetts are using the kinship terms commonly associated with marriage in referring to and introducing their marriage partners and, if not, whether alternative terms are being used in a variety of social contexts. We demonstrate through survey and interview data that marriage-related terms are used discriminately, are consciously chosen, and are context specific. Choices are dependent on a variety of factors related to personal demographics, speech community associations, intimacy, identity, and safety. A significant difference in the use of terms after legal marriage has occurred suggesting a shift in attitude.
Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre
The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.
'brug mo skyid འབྲུག་མོ་སྐྱིད།
Full Text Available Marriage in Stag rig Village, Shar lung Township, Khri ka County, Mtsho lho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon Province, China is described in the context of the hair dressing ritual, rules of exclusion and inclusion, the process of marriage (spouse selection, free choice marriage, arranged marriage, engagement, drinking contract liquor, bride wealth discussion, choosing a date for the wedding ritual, wedding preparations at the bride and groom's homes, the wedding ritual and banquet, marrying a groom into the bride's home, divorce, and the atmosphere surrounding the bride's arrival.
Robert S Walker
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The universality of marriage in human societies around the world suggests a deep evolutionary history of institutionalized pair-bonding that stems back at least to early modern humans. However, marriage practices vary considerably from culture to culture, ranging from strict prescriptions and arranged marriages in some societies to mostly unregulated courtship in others, presence to absence of brideservice and brideprice, and polyandrous to polygynous unions. The ancestral state of early human marriage is not well known given the lack of conclusive archaeological evidence. METHODOLOGY: Comparative phylogenetic analyses using data from contemporary hunter-gatherers around the world may allow for the reconstruction of ancestral human cultural traits. We attempt to reconstruct ancestral marriage practices using hunter-gatherer phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. RESULTS: Arranged marriages are inferred to go back at least to first modern human migrations out of Africa. Reconstructions are equivocal on whether or not earlier human marriages were arranged because several African hunter-gatherers have courtship marriages. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that marriages in early ancestral human societies probably had low levels of polygyny (low reproductive skew and reciprocal exchanges between the families of marital partners (i.e., brideservice or brideprice. DISCUSSION: Phylogenetic results suggest a deep history of regulated exchange of mates and resources among lineages that enhanced the complexity of human meta-group social structure with coalitions and alliances spanning across multiple residential communities.
Full Text Available The institution of marriage is considered one the most important institutions of the family. In this thesis we propose to make a short presentation of this institution, its evolution in Romania, until the advent of the Civil Code and the imposition of civil status records, during the reig n of Alexandru Ioan Cuza. The presentation of Roman legal regulations concerning marriage are intended to make the transition towards the existing institution of marriage in the Geto-Dacian space; there are many similarities between the two forms of regulation of this type of marriage. Until the advent of written standards, the marriage was concluded in accordance with the depositions of Country Rules. The form of concluding a marriage was the religious blessing, without an official written document. The emergence of Christianity has brought profound changes regarding the institution of marriage because the Christian church considered marriage as a Holy Communion where the religious moment coincided with the law. The written standards which will regulate the institution of marriage were inspired from the nomocoanons and collections of Roman-byzantine law, after some modification and adaptation to the internal relations and requirements.
In Ethiopia, there traditional early marriage is: 63.6% of women are married before 20 years of age. Some of the multiple and overlapping consequences of early marriage are premature conception, maternal mortality, infant mortality, bereavement, divorce, and abandonment of children. Traditionally women have been regarded as baby-making apparatuses and childbirth regarded as the war women must endeavour to fight through and survive. The causes of early marriage are deeply rooted in socio-cultural values created by wide-spread machoism ruthlessly practiced by men even at immediate risk to women's lives. Among the traditional practices is madego, where a young girl at an age as low as 7 is given away in marriage and fed a rich diet in preparation for the initial premature pregnancy. In May 1980 a ban on the practice of early marriage was announced by the Head of State during a visit to the northern regions, with 18 years set as the minimum age for marriage. Activities needed to promote this announcement include identifying locations and prevalence of early marriage; mounting a campaign of information and education about the dangers of early marriage and intensifying existing programs of mother and child health care and family planning against harmful traditional practices; focusing attention in social and health schools on the problems associated with early marriage; and evaluating strategies 12 months following implementation, taking corrective measures whenever indicated.
Machado, T M B; Bomfim, T F; Souza, L V; Soares, N; Santos, F L; Acosta, A X; Abe-Sandes, K
A high occurrence rate of consanguineous marriages may favour the onset and increased frequency of autosomal recessive diseases in a population. The population of Monte Santo, Bahia, Brazil, has a high frequency of rare genetic diseases such as mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, whose observed frequency in this population is 1:5000, while the incidence of this disease recorded in other regions of the world varies from 1:43,261 in Turkey to 1:1,505,160 in Switzerland. To verify the influence of consanguineous marriage on the increased frequency of observed genetic diseases in this population, the population structure and frequency of different types of marriage during different time periods were evaluated. A total of 9765 marriages were found in an analysis of parish marriage records from the city. Over three periods, 1860-1895, 1950-1961 and 1975-2010, the inbreeding rates were 37.1%, 13.2% and 4.2% respectively. Although there was a high rate of inbreeding, endogamic marriages were the dominant marriage type in all three periods. In the most recent period, there was an increase in the number of exogamous marriages and those among immigrants, but most of these occurred among individuals from cities that neighbour Monte Santo. The low rate of migration and high frequency of endogamic and consanguineous marriages show that growth of this population is predominantly internal and could explain the occurrence, and increase in frequency, of recessive genetic diseases in the city.
Schellenberg, J A
"This paper deals with delayed marriage and singlehood among the Irish as a focus for the study of the persistence of ethnic characteristics. Patterns of delayed marriage in Ireland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are reviewed, and evidence is also presented that Irish persons in other countries (especially in the United States) continue to show significantly higher rates of singlehood and postponed marriage than persons of other nationality groups. Discussion includes how delayed marriage became common in Ireland during the past 150 years and what may be involved in the apparent persistence of this pattern today in Ireland and among the Irish in other countries." excerpt
As interfaith marriage has become more common, religion is thought to be less important for sorting partners. However, prior studies on religious assortative mating use samples of prevailing marriages, which miss how local marriage markets shape both partner selection and marriage timing. Drawing on search theory and data from 8,699 young adults (ages 18–31) in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, the author examined the association between the concentration of co-religionists in local marriage markets and marriage timing and partner selection using event history methods. Religious concentration is associated with higher odds of transitioning to marriage and religious homogamy (conditional on marriage) for women and men at older ages (24–31) but not at younger ages (18–23). The association was also stronger for non-Hispanic Whites compared to other race-ethnic groups. The findings indicate that religion remains relevant in sorting partners for many young adults in today’s marriage market. PMID:27818530
Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Agadjanian, Victor
The demographic literature on union formation in post-communist Europe typically documents retreat from marriage and increase in cohabitation. However, sociological and anthropological studies of post-Soviet Central Asia often point to a resurgence of various traditional norms and practices, including those surrounding marriage, that were suppressed under Soviet rule. We engage these two perspectives on union formation by analyzing transition to first marriage in Kyrgyzstan both before and after the collapse of the USSR. We use uniquely detailed marriage histories from a nationally representative survey conducted in the period 2011-2012 to examine the dynamics of traditional marital practices among that country's two main ethnic groups-Kyrgyz and Uzbeks-focusing on trends in arranged marriages and in marriages involving bride kidnapping. The analysis reveals instructive ethnic and period differences but also indicates an overall decline in the risks of both types of traditional marriage practices in the post-Soviet era. In fact, although the decline has characterized all marriage types, it was more substantial for traditional marriages. We interpret these trends as evidence of continuing modernization of nuptiality behavior in the region.
Killewald, Alexandra; Lundberg, Ian
Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men's economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives. We show that wage declines predate rather than follow divorce, indicating no evidence that staying married benefits men's wages. We find that older grooms experience no unusual wage patterns at marriage, suggesting that the observed marriage premium may simply reflect co-occurrence with the transition to adulthood for younger grooms. We show that men entering shotgun marriages experience similar premarital wage gains as other grooms, casting doubt on the claim that anticipation of marriage drives wage increases. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying when their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.
Jameel, M. Y.; Brewer, S.; Fiorella, R.; Tipple, B. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Terry, S.
Public water supply systems (PWSS) are complex distribution systems and critical infrastructure, making them vulnerable to physical disruption and contamination. Exploring the susceptibility of PWSS to such perturbations requires detailed knowledge of the supply system structure and operation. Although the physical structure of supply systems (i.e., pipeline connection) is usually well documented for developed cities, the actual flow patterns of water in these systems are typically unknown or estimated based on hydrodynamic models with limited observational validation. Here, we present a novel method for mapping the flow structure of water in a large, complex PWSS, building upon recent work highlighting the potential of stable isotopes of water (SIW) to document water management practices within complex PWSS. We sampled a major water distribution system of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, measuring SIW of water sources, treatment facilities, and numerous sites within in the supply system. We then developed a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) isotope mixing model to quantify the proportion of water supplied by different sources at sites within the supply system. Known production volumes and spatial distance effects were used to define the prior probabilities for each source; however, we did not include other physical information about the supply system. Our results were in general agreement with those obtained by hydrodynamic models and provide quantitative estimates of contributions of different water sources to a given site along with robust estimates of uncertainty. Secondary properties of the supply system, such as regions of "static" and "dynamic" source (e.g., regions supplied dominantly by one source vs. those experiencing active mixing between multiple sources), can be inferred from the results. The isotope-based HB isotope mixing model offers a new investigative technique for analyzing PWSS and documenting aspects of supply system structure and operation that are
Holland, Jennifer; Perelli-Harris soton ac uk, B. G.; Andersson, Gunnar
A common finding across studies of the association between family context and wellbeing is a positive correlation between marriage and a host of outcomes related to union quality and stability, mental and physical health, job prospects and economic wellbeing for spouses and their children. The magnitude of the marriage premium and whether it is purely driven by selection remains elusive. We situate our study in Sweden, a context where the legal and social value of marriage is not greatly diff...
Jaffee, Sara R; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine
Married men engage in significantly less antisocial behavior than unmarried men, but it is not clear whether this reflects a causal relationship. Instead, the relationship could reflect selection into marriage whereby the men who are most likely to marry (men in steady employment with high levels of education) are the least likely to engage in antisocial behavior. The relationship could also be the result of reverse causation, whereby high levels of antisocial behavior are a deterrent to marriage rather than the reverse. Both of these alternative processes are consistent with the possibility that some men have a genetically based proclivity to become married, known as an active genotype-environment correlation. Using four complementary methods, we tested the hypothesis that marriage limits men's antisocial behavior. These approaches have different strengths and weaknesses and collectively help to rule out alternative explanations, including active genotype-environment correlations, for a causal association between marriage and men's antisocial behavior. Data were drawn from the in-home interview sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a large, longitudinal survey study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Lagged negative binomial and logistic regression and propensity score matching models (n = 2,250), fixed-effects models of within-individual change (n = 3,061), and random-effects models of sibling differences (n = 618) all showed that married men engaged in significantly less antisocial behavior than unmarried men. Our findings replicate results from other quasiexperimental studies of marriage and men's antisocial behavior and extend the results to a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States.
Gubits, Daniel; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Harris, Jorgen; Hsueh, JoAnn
The Supporting Healthy Marriage (SHM) evaluation was launched in 2003 to test the effectiveness of a skills-based relationship education program designed to help low-and modest-income married couples strengthen their relationships and to support more stable and more nurturing home environments and more positive outcomes for parents and their…
Egert, M.; Graaf, A.A. de; Maathuis, A.; Waard, P. de; Plugge, C.M.; Smidt, H.; Deutz, N.E.P.; Dijkema, C.; Vos, W.M. de; Venema, K.
16S rRNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling were used to identify bacteria fermenting glucose under conditions simulating the human intestine. The TIM-2 in vitro model of the human intestine was inoculated with a GI tract