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Sample records for stable flavour preferences

  1. Preference for flavoured cigar brands among youth, young adults and adults in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Giovenco, Daniel P; Ambrose, Bridget K; Corey, Catherine G; Conway, Kevin P

    2015-07-01

    While cigarette consumption in the USA continues to decline, cigar consumption has increased. Tobacco-trade publications suggest that flavoured cigars are driving the recent growth in cigar consumption. Limited survey data exist to explore flavoured cigar preferences among youth and adults. This study used the 2010-2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and Nielsen market scanner data. The NSDUH sample consisted of 6678 past 30-day cigar smokers who reported smoking a usual brand of cigars. NSDUH contains a measure on usual cigar brand smoked and was merged with Nielsen data to estimate the per cent of each cigar brand's market share that is flavoured. Multivariate analyses indicate that youth, young adults, females, blacks, cigarette smokers, blunt users and daily cigar smokers are significantly more likely to report a usual cigar brand that is flavoured. Preference for a usual brand that produces flavoured cigars decreases significantly with age. This study finds recent growth in flavoured cigar consumption and preference among youth and young adults for cigar brands that are flavoured. These findings underscore the need to expand monitoring of product attributes as well as individual-level cigar use behaviours captured through population surveillance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry

    2013-05-01

    Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35months; SD±8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de V.W.T.; Graaf, de C.; Jager, G.

    2013-01-01

    Children’s consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children’s intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an

  4. Authenticity and Traceability of Vanilla Flavour by Analysis of Stable Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2014-01-01

    For authentification of vanilla flavours, vanilla pods of the type Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitensis from different geographical habitats were extracted and analyzed together with vanilla flavours made by fermentations and chemical synthesis. Isotopic delta values were determined using Gas Chromatography Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS). The main contributor to the characteristic vanilla flavour is 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, also called vanillin. Delta13C values of vani...

  5. Authenticity and Traceability of Vanilla Flavour by Analysis of Stable Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    Chromatography Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS). The main contributor to the characteristic vanilla flavour is 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, also called vanillin. Delta13C values of vanillin originating from the vanilla plant differ from delta13C values from vanillin made synthetically...... or by fermentation. Furthermore the results showed that there was a significant difference in the isotopic composition of vanillin for the two types of vanilla plants analyzed, where Vanilla tahitensis contained more 13C than Vanilla planifolia. Delta2H values of precipitation at different geographic locations...

  6. The impact of flavour, device type and warning messages on youth preferences for electronic nicotine delivery systems: evidence from an online discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-11-02

    To examine the impact of flavour, device type and health warning messages on youth preference for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and to provide evidence and data to inform the Food and Drug Administration's potential regulatory actions on ENDS. An online discrete choice experiment was conducted in September 2015. Each participant was given nine choice sets and asked to choose one out of two alternative ENDS products, with varying characteristics in three attributes (flavour, device type and warning message). The impact of the attributes on the probability of choosing ENDS was analysed using conditional and nested logit regressions, controlling for individual sociodemographic characteristics and current smoking status. A general population sample of 515 participants (50 ever-users and 465 never-users of ENDS) aged 14-17 years were recruited to complete the experiment using an online panel. Fruit/sweets/beverage flavours significantly increase the probability of choosing ENDS among youth (pe-cigarettes, increase (p<0.05) the probability of choosing ENDS among adolescent never-users. Warning messages reduce (p<0.01) the probability of choosing ENDS among never-users. Restricting fruit/sweets/beverage flavours in ENDS, regulating modifiable vaping devices and adopting strong health warning messages may reduce the uptake of ENDS among youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Meat flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, R.; Liger, P.; Roussel-Ciquard, N.

    1978-01-01

    For the consumer, meat is characterized by a certain number of organoleptic qualities; among them, flavour -that is to say the association of both odour and taste- plays a leading part. This property is based upon a great number of chemical components: some volatile components are responsible for the aroma and some non-volatile ones for the taste. These substances are either made or released during the heating of the meat on account of components called precursors which are produced during the aging of the meat. The two main reactions which preside over the elaboration of flavour are: the Maillard's reaction and the autooxidation reactions. Meat flavour is associated with the animal characteristics; it is influenced by the ante- and post mortem treatments as well as by the technological treatments for storing it. The use of synthetical flavours is to be considered as possible in the future [fr

  8. Children's liking and wanting of snack products: Influence of shape and flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Djin G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's food choices are guided by their preferences. However, these preferences may change due to repeated exposure. Methods This study investigated children's (n = 242, 7–12 yrs-old liking and wanting for snacks over 3 weeks of daily consumption. The snacks differed in size (small vs large or flavour (sweet vs sweet-sour. Two conditions were designed: 1 a monotonous group in which children continuously consumed the same snack across the 3 weeks, and 2 a free choice group in which children were allowed to freely choose amongst 3 different flavours of the snack each day during 3 weeks. Results Shape influenced long-term liking, i.e. small shaped snacks remained stable in liking over repeated consumption, whereas large shaped snacks with the same flavour decreased in liking. Mean wanting ratings for all snack products decreased over 3 weeks daily consumption. Flavour did not significantly influence liking and wanting over time. The ability to freely choose amongst different flavours tended to decrease children's liking (p Conclusion Wanting rather than liking was most affected by repeated daily consumption of snack foods over three weeks. In order to increase the likelihood that children will repeatedly eat a food product, smaller sized healthy snacks are preferred to larger sized snacks. Future research should focus on stabilizing wanting over repeated consumption.

  9. When flexibility is stable: implicit long-term shaping of olfactory preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Delplanque, Sylvain; Porcherot, Christelle; Cayeux, Isabelle; Sander, David

    2012-01-01

    Preferences are traditionally assumed to be stable. However, empirical evidence such as preference modulation following choices calls this assumption into question. The evolution of such postchoice preference over long time spans, even when choices have been explicitly forgotten, has so far not been studied. In two experiments, we investigated this question by using a variant of the free choice paradigm: In a first session, participants evaluated the pleasantness of a number of odors. We then formed pairs of similarly rated odors, and asked participants to choose their favorite, for each pair. Participants were then presented with all odors again, and asked for another pleasantness rating. In a second session 1 week later, a third pleasantness rating was obtained, and participants were again asked to choose between the same options. Results suggested postchoice preference modulation immediately and 1 week after choice for both chosen and rejected options, even when choices were not explicitly remembered. A third experiment, using another paradigm, confirmed that choice can have a modulatory impact on preferences, and that this modulation can be long-lasting. Taken together, these findings suggest that although preferences appear to be flexible because they are modulated by choices, this modulation also appears to be stable over time and even without explicit recollection of the choice. These results bring a new argument to the idea that postchoice preference modulation could rely on implicit mechanisms, and are consistent with the recent proposal that cognitive dissonance reduction could to some extent be implicit.

  10. When flexibility is stable: implicit long-term shaping of olfactory preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Coppin

    Full Text Available Preferences are traditionally assumed to be stable. However, empirical evidence such as preference modulation following choices calls this assumption into question. The evolution of such postchoice preference over long time spans, even when choices have been explicitly forgotten, has so far not been studied. In two experiments, we investigated this question by using a variant of the free choice paradigm: In a first session, participants evaluated the pleasantness of a number of odors. We then formed pairs of similarly rated odors, and asked participants to choose their favorite, for each pair. Participants were then presented with all odors again, and asked for another pleasantness rating. In a second session 1 week later, a third pleasantness rating was obtained, and participants were again asked to choose between the same options. Results suggested postchoice preference modulation immediately and 1 week after choice for both chosen and rejected options, even when choices were not explicitly remembered. A third experiment, using another paradigm, confirmed that choice can have a modulatory impact on preferences, and that this modulation can be long-lasting. Taken together, these findings suggest that although preferences appear to be flexible because they are modulated by choices, this modulation also appears to be stable over time and even without explicit recollection of the choice. These results bring a new argument to the idea that postchoice preference modulation could rely on implicit mechanisms, and are consistent with the recent proposal that cognitive dissonance reduction could to some extent be implicit.

  11. Flavoured co-annihilation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... The amount of flavour mixing permissible is constrained by flavour violating τ → μ or τ → e processes. For RR mass insertions, the constraints from flavour violation are not strong enough in ... symmetric grand unified theories due to RGE running from the Planck scale to the GUT scale generates RR flavour ...

  12. Flavour-flavour learning occurs automatically and only in hungry participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Fletcher, Hollie Z

    2008-01-28

    A novel flavour may become liked if it is presented repeatedly and in combination with a second flavour that is already liked. Conceptually, this 'flavour-flavour learning' is important, because it can account for many of our everyday food and flavour preferences. However, relatively little is known about the underlying process because learning paradigms have lacked reliability. Based on previous research we explored whether learning is determined by three variables; i) hunger state, ii) demand and contingency awareness, and iii) dietary restraint. Participants (male n=15/female n=15) consumed three different and novel-tasting fruit teas. One of the teas had a non-caloric sweetener added (CS+) and two were unsweetened (CS-). Before and after this training the participants ranked their preference for unsweetened versions of the three teas. We found that the training increased preference for the CS+ relative to the CS- teas. However, this effect was only found in hungry participants. We also found little evidence that learning was related to whether the participants could identify (recognition test) the specific tea that had been sweetened during training, suggesting that the underlying process is automatic and it operates outside conscious awareness. Learning was not predicted by dietary restraint (measured using the DEBQ-R scale). Together, these findings provide further evidence for a linkage between flavour-flavour learning and flavour-nutrient learning.

  13. Continuing Care for Mentally Stable Psychiatric Patients in Primary Care: Patients' Preferences and Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent I. O. Agyapong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the preferences of psychiatric patients regarding attendance for their continuing mental health care once stable from a primary care setting as opposed to a specialized psychiatric service setting. Methods. 150 consecutive psychiatric patients attending outpatient review in a community mental health centre in Dublin were approached and asked to complete a semistructured questionnaire designed to assess the objectives of the study. Results. 145 patients completed the questionnaire giving a response rate of 97%. Ninety-eight patients (68% preferred attending a specialized psychiatry service even when stabilised on their treatment. The common reason given by patients in this category was fear of substandard quality of psychiatric care from their general practitioners (GPs (67 patients, 68.4%. Twenty-nine patients (20% preferred to attend their GP for continuing mental health care. The reasons given by these patients included confidence in GPs, providing same level of care as psychiatrist for mental illness (18 patients or 62%, and the advantage of managing both mental and physical health by GPs (13 patients, 45%. Conclusion. Most patients who attend specialised psychiatric services preferred to continue attending specialized psychiatric services even if they become mentally stable than primary care, with most reasons revolving around fears of inadequate psychiatric care from GPs.

  14. Flavoured co-annihilation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    annihilating part- ners of the neutralino is the lightest stau, ˜τ1. In the presence of flavour violation in the right-handed sector, the co-annihilating partner would be a flavour mixed state. The flavour effect is two-fold: (a) It changes the ...

  15. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  16. From Advance Euthanasia Directive to Euthanasia: Stable Preference in Older People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Eva E; Pasman, H Roeline W; Deeg, Dorly J H; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether older people with advance directive for euthanasia (ADEs) are stable in their advance desire for euthanasia in the last years of life, how frequently older people with an ADE eventually request euthanasia, and what factors determine this. Mortality follow-back study nested in a cohort study. The Netherlands. Proxies of deceased members of a cohort representative of Dutch older people (n = 168) and a cohort of people with advance directives (n = 154). Data from cohort members (possession of ADE) combined with after-death proxy information on cohort members' last 3 months of life. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed on determinants of a euthanasia request in individuals with an ADE. Response rate was 65%. One hundred forty-two cohort members had an ADE at baseline. Three months before death, 87% remained stable in their desire for euthanasia; 47% eventually requested euthanasia (vs 6% without an ADE), and 16% died after euthanasia. People with an ADE were more likely to request euthanasia if they worried about loss of dignity. The majority of older adults who complete an ADE will have a stable preference over time, but an advance desire for euthanasia does not necessarily result in a euthanasia request. Writing an ADE may reflect a person's need for reassurance that they can request euthanasia in the future. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Generalists or Specialists: Stable Isotope Analysis of Humpback Whales (Megapteranoveangliae) to Infer Variation in Feeding Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, A.; Boswell, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Though humpback whales (Megapteranovaeangliae) are commonly observed in coastal waters of the Gulf of Alaska, their massive size, behavior, and weather conditionsmake it difficult to make accurate observations regarding their feeding habits. These whales can be highly abundant during feeding aggregations, and given their large energetic needs, they have the potential to impact populations of ecologically important forage such as krill and herring. Previous studies in other areas, such as the Gulf of Maine and the North Pacific Ocean, classify humpback whales as generalists that can efficiently feed on both schooling fish and large zooplankton. In Prince William Sound, scientists have observed the humpbacks feedingprimarily on herring. It is unclear if these whalesfeed exclusively on fish prior to returning to the Sound, and can therefore be considered specialists. Stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen were used to determine the preferred diet of humpback whales (N=22) in 6 sampling regions along the Gulf of Alaska. Isotope analyses were conducted on humpback whale skin, as well as local forage species and basal resources to be used in Bayesian isotope mixing models to elucidate the trophic relationships between whales and their prey, and provide insight to whether location is an important driver in prey selection. This information will not only lead to a better understanding of the potential to use tissue isotopes to elucidate foraging behaviors of humpback whales, but also offer insight into individual feeding preferences and how increasing whale populations may affect the populations of local forage in the future.

  18. A Stable-Matching-Based User Linking Method with User Preference Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks, more and more users choose to use multiple accounts from different networks to meet their needs. Linking a particular user’s multiple accounts not only can improve user’s experience of the net-services such as recommender system, but also plays a significant role in network security. However, multiple accounts of the same user are often not directly linked to each other, and further, the privacy policy provided by the service provider makes it harder to find accounts for a particular user. In this paper, we propose a stable-matching-based method with user preference order for the problem of low accuracy of user linking in cross-media sparse data. Different from the traditional way which just calculates the similarity of accounts, we take full account of the mutual influence among multiple accounts by regarding different networks as bilateral (multilateral market and user linking as a stable matching problem in such a market. Based on the combination of Game-Theoretic Machine Learning and Pairwise, a novel user linking method has been proposed. The experiment shows that our method has a 21.6% improvement in accuracy compared with the traditional linking method and a further increase of about 7.8% after adding the prior knowledge.

  19. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  20. Flavour Tagging at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Grabalosa Gandara, M

    2009-01-01

    To do precise CP violation measurements, the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed B meson is required. This poster summarizes the flavour tagging performances for the LHCb experiment. We use same side an opposite side algorithms to establish wheter the meson contained a b or a b\\bar quark. The final decision is obtained through a combination of several methods. The use of control channels, decays to a flavour specific final state, will allow to determine the wrong tag fraction \\omega (the probability of a tag to be wrong), which can be used as input for the determination of CKM unitary triangle angles.

  1. Heavy Flavour Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour production in QCD. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for top and bottom production are given. Selected topics in charm production are also discussed.

  2. Gauged Lepton Flavour

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, R.; Gavela, M.B.; Grinstein, B.; Merlo, L.; Quilez, P.

    2016-12-22

    The gauging of the lepton flavour group is considered in the Standard Model context and in its extension with three right-handed neutrinos. The anomaly cancellation conditions lead to a Seesaw mechanism as underlying dynamics for all leptons; requiring in addition a phenomenologically viable setup leads to Majorana masses for the neutral sector: the type I Seesaw Lagrangian in the Standard Model case and the inverse Seesaw in the extended model. Within the minimal extension of the scalar sector, the Yukawa couplings are promoted to scalar fields in the bifundamental of the flavour group. The resulting low-energy Yukawa couplings are proportional to inverse powers of the vacuum expectation values of those scalars; the protection against flavour changing neutral currents differs from that of Minimal Flavor Violation. In all cases, the $\\mu-\\tau$ flavour sector exhibits rich and promising phenomenological signals.

  3. Charged-lepton flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This write-up on a talk at the 2011 Lepton–Photon symposium in Mumbai, India, summarizes recent results in the charged-lepton flavour sector. Searches for charged-lepton flavour violation, lepton electric dipole moments and flavour-conserving CP violation are reviewed here. Recent progress in -lepton physics ...

  4. Understanding flavour at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Huge progress in flavour physics has been achieved by the two B-factories and the Tevatron experiments. This progress has, however, deepened the new physics flavour puzzle: If there is new physics at the TeV scale, why aren't flavour changing neutral current processes enhanced by orders of magnitude compared to the standard model predictions? The forthcoming ATLAS and CMS experiments can potentially solve this puzzle. Perhaps even more surprisingly, these experiments can potentially lead to progress in understanding the standard model flavour puzzle: Why is there smallness and hierarchy in the flavour parameters? Thus, a rich and informative flavour program is awaiting us not only in the flavour-dedicated LHCb experiment, but also in the high-pT ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  5. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Future flavour physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The current status of flavour physics and the prospects for present and future experiments will be reviewed. Measurements in B‐physics, in which sensitive probes of new physics are the CKM angle γ, the Bs mixing phase ϕs, and the branching ratios of the rare decays B(s)0→μ+μ− , will be highlighted. Topics in charm and kaon physics, in which the measurements of ACP and the branching ratios of the rare decays K→πνν¯ are key measurements, will be discussed. Finally the complementarity of the future heavy flavour experiments, the LHCb upgrade and Belle‐II, will be summarised. PMID:26877543

  7. Effects of osmolytes and macromolecular crowders on stable GAAA tetraloops and their preference for a CG closing base pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaethe N. Leonard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Osmolytes and macromolecular crowders have the potential to influence the stability of secondary structure motifs and alter preferences for conserved nucleic acid sequences in vivo. To further understand the cellular function of RNA we observed the effects of a model osmolyte, polyethylene glycol (PEG 200, and a model macromolecular crowding agent, PEG 8000, on the GAAA tetraloop motif. GAAA tetraloops are conserved, stable tetraloops, and are critical participants in RNA tertiary structure. They also have a thermodynamic preference for a CG closing base pair. The thermal denaturation of model hairpins containing GAAA loops was monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy in the presence and absence of PEG 200 or PEG 8000. Both of the cosolutes tested influenced the thermodynamic preference for a CG base pair by destabilizing the loop with a CG closing base pair relative to the loop with a GC closing base pair. This result also extended to a related DNA triloop, which provides further evidence that the interactions between the loop and closing base pair are identical for the d(GCA triloop and the GAAA tetraloop. Our results suggest that in the presence of model PEG molecules, loops with a GC closing base pair may retain some preferential interactions with the cosolutes that are lost in the presence of the CG closing base pair. These results reveal that relatively small structural changes could influence how neutral cosolutes tune the stability and function of secondary structure motifs in vivo.

  8. [About flavouring substances and flavouring preparations regulation in the field of manufacturing of flavourings and foodstuffs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriantseva, O V; Shatrov, G N

    2013-01-01

    In article are given substantiation for modification of contemporary list of biologically active substances with undesirable toxicological qualities (namely included in this list of menthofuran, methyleugenol (4-Allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene), teucrin A, capsaicin, estragol1 (-Allyl-4-methoxybenzene) and excluded from the list of quinine, santonin, berberin) and developing the list of plants--natural sources of flavourings substances. The new criteria of European Union for including into the relevant for using in/on foodstuff list of flavouring substances, which was published in the Comission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 872/2012 concerning flavourings, listed the 11 flavouring substances for which have been established indexes of foodstuffs in manufacturing, which there are could using and criteria of their safety (caffeine, theobromine, neohesperidin dihydrocalcone, rebaudioside A, d-camphor, three quinine salts (FL 14.011, FL 14.152 and FL 14.155), glycyrrhizic acid and its ammoniated form, ammonium chloride, discussed the possibility of using R- and S-isomers of flavouring substances and L- and D-forms of aminoacids for preparing of flavours, are discussed. Improving of the system of safety using of flavourings in Russian Federation, harmonized with demands of European Union and FAQ/WHO, are, at first, connected with the necessity of reevaluation of the list flavouring substances, which could be use in/on foodstuff, developing of list of the plants--natural sources of flavourings substances and preparations and regulations of using flavourings preparations which can include biologically active substances.

  9. Flavour tagging performance in LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabalosa Gandara, Marc

    2009-01-01

    To do precise CP violation measurements, the best possible determination of the flavour of the B-meson is necessary. This report summarizes the flavour tagging performances for the LHCb experiment. The flavour tagging is obtained through a combination of several methods, based on different signatures. The use of control channels, which are decays to flavour-specific final states, will allow to determine the wrong tag fraction ω (the probability of a tag to be wrong), which can be used as an input for the determination of CKM unitarity triangle angles.

  10. Flavour Tagging with the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Birnkraut, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of flavour oscillations and time-dependent CP asymmetries in neutral B meson systems require knowledge of the b quark production flavour. This identification is performed by the Flavour Tagging.

  11. Food preferences and Hg distribution in Chelonia mydas assessed by stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, M.F.; Lacerda, L.D.; Rezende, C.E.; Franco, M.A.L.; Almeida, M.G.; Macêdo, G.R.; Pires, T.T.; Rostán, G.; Lopez, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic pollutant that poses in risk several marine animals, including green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Green turtles are globally endangered sea turtle species that occurs in Brazilian coastal waters as a number of life stage classes (i.e., foraging juveniles and nesting adults). We assessed total Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures ( 13 C and 15 N) in muscle, kidney, liver and scute of juvenile green turtles and their food items from two foraging grounds with different urban and industrial development. We found similar food preferences in specimens from both areas but variable Hg levels in tissues reflecting the influence of local Hg backgrounds in food items. Some juvenile green turtles from the highly industrialized foraging ground presented liver Hg levels among the highest ever reported for this species. Our results suggest that juvenile foraging green turtles are exposed to Hg burdens from locally anthropogenic activities in coastal areas. - Highlights: • We report major diet items for foraging green turtles from northeastern Brazil. • We compare Hg levels between industrialized and relatively pristine foraging grounds. • High local Hg background levels increase Hg exposure in foraging green turtles. • Even an herbivore diet could result in high tissue Hg concentrations. - Hg levels in scutes of foraging green turtles correlated with internal Hg burdens and were influenced by local sources of pollution in two tropical foraging grounds.

  12. DESY: Theory with flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckl, R.

    1989-01-01

    Last year, the annual Theory Workshop at the German DESY Laboratory in Hamburg had 'Flavour Physics' as its main theme. The sighting by the UA1 experiment at CERN's proton-antiproton collider and by the ARGUS team at DESY of 'oscillations' in the electrically neutral B mesons carrying the beauty quantum number, and the measurement at CERN of a new parameter in the delicate violation of combined particle-antiparticle and left-right symraetry (CP) in the decays of neutral kaons have made this subject particularly topical

  13. Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2013-06-27

    An introductory overview of the Standard Model description of flavour is presented. The main emphasis is put on present tests of the quark-mixing matrix structure and the phenomenological determination of its parameters. Special attention is given to the experimental evidences of CP violation and their important role in our understanding of flavour dynamics.

  14. Flavour violation in general supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Chankowski, P H; Pokorski, Stefan; Chankowski, Piotr H.; Lebedev, Oleg; Pokorski, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We reappraise the flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) problem in string--derived supergravity models. We overview and classify possible sources of flavour violation and find that the problem often does not arise in classes of models which generate hierarchical Yukawa matrices. In such models, constraints from the K- and D-meson systems leave room for substantial flavour non-universality of the soft terms. The current B-physics experiments only begin to probe its natural range. Correlations among different observables can allow one to read off the chirality structure of flavour violating sources. We briefly discuss the lepton sector where the problem of FCNC is indeed serious and perhaps points at an additional symmetry or flavour universality.

  15. Exposures to Conditioned Flavours with Different Hedonic Values Induce Contrasted Behavioural and Brain Responses in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d.) infusions of 15% glucose (FGlu), lithium chloride (FLiCl), or saline (control treatment, FNaCl). One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three 18FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the FLiCl than the FNaCl or FGlu meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the FNaCl and FGlu foods were significantly preferred over the FLICl food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the FNaCl food was also preferred over the FGlu food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake. PMID:22685528

  16. Exposures to conditioned flavours with different hedonic values induce contrasted behavioural and brain responses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d. infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu, lithium chloride (F(LiCl, or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl. One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three (18FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the F(LiCl than the F(NaCl or F(Glu meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the F(NaCl and F(Glu foods were significantly preferred over the F(LICl food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the F(NaCl food was also preferred over the F(Glu food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake.

  17. Unoriented quivers with flavour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Inverso, Gianluca; Morales, Jose Francisco [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “TorVergata” andDipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “TorVergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Pacifici, Daniel Ricci [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Padova andI.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131, Padova (Italy)

    2014-01-23

    We discuss unoriented quivers with flavour that arise from D3-branes at local orbifold singularities, in the presence of Ω-planes and non-compact D7-branes. We produce a wide class of unoriented quiver gauge theories, including new instances of N=1 superconformal theories. We then consider unoriented D-brane instanton corrections of both ‘gauge’ and ‘exotic’ kinds. In particular, we show that conformal symmetry can be dynamically broken via the generation of exotic superpotentials. Finally we discuss aspects of the recently proposed N=1 remnant of N=4 S-duality. We identify new candidate dual pairs for the ℂ{sup 3}/ℤ{sub n} series of unoriented quiver gauge theories with n odd.

  18. Flavour physics at LHCb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeva B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some selected results of the LHCb experiment, running at the LHC with ppcollisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV, are reported here, after operation with a total integratedluminosity of 3.0 fb−1 (Run 1. We focus on the most recent analyses on flavour physics,that include measurements of the CKM invariant phases γ and β, precision determination of the quark coupling strength Vub, observation of the very rare decays B0(s→μ+μ−, search for new physics in the anomalous branching ratio of B→D*τv̄, and precision angular analysis of the rare decays B0→K*0μ+μ− and B0s→ϕμ+μ−. Detailed comparisons are performed in all cases with the predictions of the Standard Model, and a fewinteresting tensions are observed.

  19. Flavour physics: status and prospects

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The flavour physics sector provides accurate measurements of Standard Model (SM) parameters and probes the existence of new particles at energy scales well beyond the reach of direct detection. In the light of the Tevatron and B-factories legacy, as well as the LHC run I data, I will review what flavour physics tells us today about the SM and about possible physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). I will then present the progress anticipated from the LHC run II, as well as from NA62 and Belle II, before discussing the experimental challenges that we need to overcome in order to produce precise flavour measurements in high luminosity environments, such as those to be faced at the LHC Run III and at the HL-LHC. I will conclude by discussing how future flavour measurements will guide direct searches for BSM physics, whether deviations from the SM picture are observed or not.

  20. Flavour-active wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordente, Antonio G; Curtin, Christopher D; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2012-11-01

    The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can influence wine style. This review explores recent progress towards understanding the range of 'flavour phenotypes' that wine yeast exhibit, and how this knowledge has been used to develop novel flavour-active yeasts. In addition, emerging opportunities to augment these phenotypes by engineering yeast to produce so-called grape varietal compounds, such as monoterpenoids, will be discussed.

  1. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  2. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Duffy, Valerie; Oncken, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour. Participants completed daily logs of cigarette and e-cigarette use and were followed each week. Analyses over days indicated that, during the 6-week e-cigarette period, cigarette smoking rates dropped from an average of about 16 to about 7 cigarettes/day. e-Cigarette flavour had a significant effect such that the largest drop in cigarette smoking occurred among those assigned menthol e-cigarettes, and the smallest drop in smoking occurred among those assigned chocolate and cherry flavours. e-Cigarette vaping rates also differed significantly by flavour assigned, with the highest vaping rates for tobacco- and cherry-flavoured e-cigarettes, and the lowest rates for those assigned to chocolate. The findings suggest that adoption of e-cigarettes in smokers may influence smoking rates and that e-cigarette flavourings can moderate this effect. e-Cigarette vaping rates are also influenced by flavourings. These findings may have implications for the utility of e-cigarettes as a nicotine replacement device and for the regulation of flavourings in e-cigarettes for harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Identification of flavour additives in tobacco products to develop a flavour library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsemann, Erna Jz; Visser, Wouter F; Cremers, Johannes Wjm; Pennings, Jeroen LA; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-01-01

    This study combines chemical analysis and flavour descriptions of flavour additives used in tobacco products, and provides a starting point to build an extensive library of flavour components, useful for product surveillance. Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare 22 commercially available tobacco products (cigarettes and roll-your-own) expected to have a characterising flavour and 6 commercially available products not expected to have a characterising flavour with 5 reference products (natural tobacco leaves and research cigarettes containing no flavour additives). The flavour components naturally present in the reference products were excluded from components present in commercially available products containing flavour additives. A description of the remaining flavour additives was used for categorisation. GC-MS measurements of the 33 tobacco products resulted in an overview of 186 chemical compounds. Of these, 144 were solely present in commercially available products. These 144 flavour additives were described using 62 different flavour descriptors extracted from flavour databases, which were categorised into eight groups largely based on the definition of characterising flavours from the European Tobacco Product Directive: fruit, spice, herb, alcohol, menthol, sweet, floral and miscellaneous. We developed a method to identify and describe flavour additives in tobacco products. Flavour additives consist of single flavour compounds or mixtures of multiple flavour compounds, and different combinations of flavour compounds can cause a certain flavour. A flavour library helps to detect flavour additives that are characteristic for a certain flavour, and thus can be useful for regulation of flavours in tobacco and related products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Studies on mushroom flavours 2. Flavour compounds in coprinus comatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, F Y; Wikén, T O

    1976-01-01

    In an aqueous extract of fruit bodies of Coprinus comatus 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, 2-methyl-2-penten-4-olide, 1-dodecanol and caprylic acid were identified conclusively and n-butyric and isobutyric acids preliminarily. Amino-acids, nucleotides and sugars were also determined. A mixture of 37 compounds found in the extract had a stronger flavour than the natural extract. 3-Octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol and 2-methyl-2-penten-4-olide were the volatiles with the strongest flavour. Mass and IR spectra of 2-methyl-2-penten-4-olide are presented.

  5. Flavour mixings in flux compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-01-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero-modes in flux compactifications. The flavour structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero-modes. We consider a supersymmetric SO(10) x U(1) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T 2 =Z 2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16-plet charged under the U(1) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10-plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16- and 10-plets. The corresponding zero-modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavour phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavour mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  6. Flavour physics from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Martinelli, G; Scrucca, C A; Silvestrini, L

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of introducing an SU(2) global flavour symmetry in the context of flat extra dimensions. In particular we concentrate on the 5-dimensional case and we study how to obtain the flavour structure of the Standard Model quark sector compacti(ying the fifth dimension on the orbifold St/Z2 a la Scberk-Scbwarz (SS). We show that in this case it is possible to justify the five orders of magnitude among the values of the quark masses with only one parameter: the SS flavour parameter. The non-local nature of the SS symmetry breaking mechanism allows to realize this without introducing new instabilities in the theory.

  7. Heavy Higgs searches: flavour matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Stefania; Grojean, Christophe; Juste, Aurelio; Paul, Ayan

    2018-01-01

    We point out that the stringent lower bounds on the masses of additional electrically neutral and charged Higgs bosons crucially depend on the flavour structure of their Yukawa interactions. We show that these bounds can easily be evaded by the introduction of flavour-changing neutral currents in the Higgs sector. As an illustration, we study the phenomenology of a two Higgs doublet model with a Yukawa texture singling out the third family of quarks and leptons. We combine constraints from low-energy flavour physics measurements, LHC measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson rates, and LHC searches for new heavy Higgs bosons. We propose novel LHC searches that could be performed in the coming years to unravel the existence of these new Higgs bosons.

  8. Heavy Higgs searches. Flavour matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Stefania; Paul, Ayan

    2017-10-01

    We point out that the stringent lower bounds on the masses of additional electrically neutral and charged Higgs bosons crucially depend on the flavour structure of their Yukawa interactions. We show that these bounds can easily be evaded by the introduction of flavour-changing neutral currents in the Higgs sector. As an illustration, we study the phenomenology of a two Higgs doublet model with a Yukawa texture singling out the third family of quarks and leptons. We combine constraints from low-energy flavour physics measurements, LHC measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs boson rates, and LHC searches for new heavy Higgs bosons. We propose novel LHC searches that could be performed in the coming years to unravel the existence of these new Higgs bosons.

  9. Contribution of monophenols to beer flavour based on flavour thresholds, interactions and recombination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Femke L; Missiaen, Jonas; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2011-06-15

    Although monophenols are known to contribute to the flavour of many foods and beverages, little is known about their influence on beer flavour. Therefore, the contribution of 11 monophenols to the overall beer flavour was studied by determining their flavour thresholds. Large differences in sensitivity were observed between individual tasters. Next, flavour interactions between monophenols were examined in nine binary mixtures, which showed that strong interactions like synergy and antagonism occur. Based on these results, the flavour contribution of the monophenols was estimated by calculating flavour units. These proved to be rather low for most of the studied monophenols. However, recombination experiments demonstrated that monophenols enriched beer flavour with spicy, smokey and vanilla flavour aspects. This showed how monophenols might influence overall flavour, even at sub-threshold concentrations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flavour-active wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Cordente, Antonio G.; Curtin, Christopher D.; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2012-01-01

    The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can infl...

  11. Heavy Flavour results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The available statistics of heavy flavoured particles collected in pp collisions at the LHC provides an excellent opportunity to test the standard model and probe for new physics effects. A review of selected recent studies on heavy flavours, including the angular analysis in B$^0$ $\\to$ K$^{*0}$$\\mu^+\\mu^-$, the measurements of B$^+$ hadron production cross section, as well as the quarkonium production cross sections, by the CMS experiment based on datasets collected during LHC Run I and Run II is presented.

  12. Discrete flavour groups, θ 13 and lepton flavour violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarelli, Guido; Feruglio, Ferruccio; Merlo, Luca; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2012-08-01

    Discrete flavour groups have been studied in connection with special patterns of neutrino mixing suggested by the data, such as Tri-Bimaximal mixing (groups A 4, S 4…) or Bi-Maximal mixing (group S 4…) etc. We review the predictions for sin θ 13 in a number of these models and confront them with the experimental measurements. We compare the performances of the different classes of models in this respect. We then consider, in a supersymmetric framework, the important implications of these flavour symmetries on lepton flavour violating processes, like μ → eγ and similar processes. We discuss how the existing limits constrain these models, once their parameters are adjusted so as to optimize the agreement with the measured values of the mixing angles. In the simplified CMSSM context, adopted here just for indicative purposes, the small tan β range and heavy SUSY mass scales are favoured by lepton flavour violating processes, which makes it even more difficult to reproduce the reported muon g - 2 discrepancy.

  13. Discrete Flavour Groups, \\theta_13 and Lepton Flavour Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Merlo, Luca; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Discrete flavour groups have been studied in connection with special patterns of neutrino mixing suggested by the data, such as Tri-Bimaximal mixing (groups A4, S4...) or Bi-Maximal mixing (group S4...) etc. We review the predictions for sin(\\theta_13) in a number of these models and confront them with the experimental measurements. We compare the performances of the different classes of models in this respect. We then consider, in a supersymmetric framework, the important implications of these flavour symmetries on lepton flavour violating processes, like \\mu -> e gamma and similar processes. We discuss how the existing limits constrain these models, once their parameters are adjusted so as to optimize the agreement with the measured values of the mixing angles. In the simplified CMSSM context, adopted here just for indicative purposes, the small tan(beta) range and heavy SUSY mass scales are favoured by lepton flavour violating processes, which makes it even more difficult to reproduce the reported muon g-2...

  14. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that the study of flavour physics and CP violation is very important to critically test the Standard Model and to look for possible signature of new physics beyond it. The observation of CP violation in kaon system in 1964 has ignited a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to understand its origin and to look ...

  15. Lifetime of heavy flavour particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1985-10-01

    Recent measurements of the lifetime of the tau leptons and charm and beauty hadrons are reviewed and their significance for the couplings of the charged weak current, flavour mixing, and models relating quarks to hadron decay are discussed. 70 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is long believed that the system could be the harbinger of new physics since it is a system in which both bottom and strange quarks are the constituents. Recently, D0 and CDF announced their result for the mixing which is claimed to be the first possible new physics signature in the flavour sector. We plan to touch ...

  17. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is well known that the study of flavour physics and CP violation is very important to critically test the Standard Model and to look for possible signature of new physics beyond it. The observation of CP violation in kaon system in 1964 has ignited a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to understand its origin ...

  18. Yeast genomics on food flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung Ah

    2005-01-01

    The appearance and concentration of the fusel alcohol 3-methyl-1-butanol is important for the flavour of fermented foods. 3-Methyl-1-butanol is formed by yeast during the conversion of L-leucine. Identification of the enzymes and genes involved in the formation of 3-methyl-1-butanol is a major

  19. Photoproduction of heavy quark flavours

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1978-01-01

    Within QCD the photoproduction of new heavy flavours proceeds via photon-gluon amalgamation. The production cross sections of new particles (charm, top, bottom,...) are calculated. Photon and lepton beams are better suited than hadron beams for producing the new particles. (11 refs).

  20. Porous calcium carbonate as a carrier material to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble flavouring compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin Johnson, Maria; Noreland, David; Gane, Patrick; Schoelkopf, Joachim; Ridgway, Cathy; Millqvist Fureby, Anna

    2017-04-19

    Two different food grade functionalised porous calcium carbonates (FCC), with different pore size and pore size distributions, were characterised and used as carrier materials to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble flavouring compounds in aqueous solution. The loading level was varied between 1.3% by weight (wt%) and 35 wt%, where the upper limit of 35 wt% was the total maximum loading capacity of flavouring compound in FCC based on the fraction of the total weight of FCC plus flavouring compound. Flavouring compounds (l-carvone, vanillin, and curcumin) were selected based on their difference in hydrophilicity and capacity to crystallise. Release kinetic studies revealed that all flavouring compounds showed an accelerated release when loaded in FCC compared to dissolution of the flavouring compound itself in aqueous medium. The amorphous state and/or surface enlargement of the flavouring compound inside or on FCC explains the faster release. The flavouring compounds capable of crystallising (vanillin and curcumin) were almost exclusively amorphous within the porous FCC material as determined by X-ray powder diffraction one week after loading and after storing the loaded FCC material for up to 9 months at room temperature. A small amount of crystalline vanillin and curcumin was detected in the FCC material with large pores and high flavouring compound loading (≥30 wt%). Additionally, two different loading strategies were evaluated, loading by dissolving the flavouring compound in acetone or loading by a hot melt method. Porosimetry data showed that the melt method was more efficient in filling the smallest pores (<100 nm). The main factor influencing the release rate appears to be the amorphous state of the flavouring compound and the increase in exposed surface area. The confinement in small pores prevents crystallisation of the flavouring compounds during storage, providing a stable amorphous form retaining high release rate also after storage.

  1. Aspects of Leptonic Flavour Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruglio, Ferruccio

    2017-09-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations many ideas have been put forward to explain the special features of the leptonic mixing and the differences with respect to the quark sector. In this talk I review some of these proposals, emphasizing especially their predictability. In the light of the new data, I first revisit fixed-point relations among mixing angles and phases. Then I briefly comment on radiative neutrino masses. Finally I discuss the role of flavour symmetries. Given the very many existing models I focus on two classes of models. On the one hand I illustrate the ability of models based on a generalization of the anarchy idea in reproducing the main features of both the quark and the lepton spectrum, also in a GUT framework. On the other hand I discuss less ambitious but more predictive models based on discrete flavour symmetries, centered on the properties of the leptonix mixing matrix.

  2. DeepFlavour in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Flavour-tagging of jets is an important task in collider based high energy physics and a field where machine learning tools are applied by all major experiments. A new tagger (DeepFlavour) was developed and commissioned in CMS that is based on an advanced machine learning procedure. A deep neural network is used to do multi-classification of jets that origin from a b-quark, two b-quarks, a c-quark, two c-quarks or light colored particles (u, d, s-quark or gluon). The performance was measured in both, data and simulation. The talk will also include the measured performance of all taggers in CMS. The different taggers and results will be discussed and compared with some focus on details of the newest tagger.

  3. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  4. Thermal Preference Ranges Correlate with Stable Signals of Universal Stress Markers in Lake Baikal Endemic and Holarctic Amphipods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Axenov-Gribanov

    Full Text Available Temperature is the most pervasive abiotic environmental factor for aquatic organisms. Fluctuations in temperature range lead to changes in metabolic performance. Here, we aimed to identify whether surpassing the thermal preference zones is correlated with shifts in universal cellular stress markers of protein integrity, responses to oxidative stress and lactate content, as indicators of anaerobic metabolism. Exposure of the Lake Baikal endemic amphipod species Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstfeldt, 1858, Ommatogammarus flavus (Dybowski, 1874 and of the Holarctic amphipod Gammarus lacustris Sars 1863 (Amphipoda, Crustacea to increasing temperatures resulted in elevated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and lactate content, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., catalase and peroxidase, and reduced lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Thus, the zone of stability (absence of any significant changes of the studied molecular and biochemical markers correlated with the behaviorally preferred temperatures. We conclude that the thermal behavioral responses of the studied amphipods are directly related to metabolic processes at the cellular level. Thus, the determined thermal ranges may possibly correspond to the thermal optima. This relationship between species-specific behavioral reactions and stress response metabolism may have significant ecological consequences that result in a thermal zone-specific distribution (i.e., depths, feed spectrum, etc. of species. As a consequence, by separating species with different temperature preferences, interspecific competition is reduced, which, in turn, increases a species' Darwinian fitness in its environment.

  5. Heavy flavour production in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nason, P.; Ridolfi, G.; Frixione, S.; Mangano, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The status of heavy flavour production in QCD is reviewed. Recent results on the doubly-differential cross section are discussed for the photoproduction of heavy flavours. Comparison of experimental results with theoretical calculation is discussed both for b production at hadron colliders and c production in fixed-target hadroproduction and photoproduction. The possibility of using photoproduction of heavy flavour in order to determine the gluon density in the proton is also discussed. (author). 38 refs., 8 figs

  6. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F

    2016-01-01

    Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary flavours (eg, bubble gum and cotton candy), also analysed were convenience samples of e-cigarette fluids in refill bottles from local ‘vape’ shops and online retailers. Results In many liquids, total flavour chemicals were found to be in the ∼1–4% range (10–40 mg/mL); labelled levels of nicotine were in the range of 0.6–2.4% (6 to 24 mg/mL). A significant number of the flavour chemicals were aldehydes, a compound class recognised as ‘primary irritants’ of mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Many of the products contained the same flavour chemicals: vanillin and/or ethyl vanillin was found in 17 of the liquids as one of the top three flavour chemicals, and/or at ≥0.5 mg/mL. Conclusions The concentrations of some flavour chemicals in e-cigarette fluids are sufficiently high for inhalation exposure by vaping to be of toxicological concern. Regulatory limits should be contemplated for levels of some of the more worrisome chemicals as well as for total flavour chemical levels. Ingredient labeling should also be required. PMID:25877377

  7. Taste comparisons for lansoprazole strawberry-flavoured delayed-release orally disintegrating tablet and ranitidine peppermint-flavoured syrup in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolia, Vasundhara; Han, Cong; North, Janine D; Amer, Fouad

    2005-01-01

    To compare the flavour and taste preferences of two acid-inhibitory therapies in children. 104 (52 male and 52 female) healthy children aged 6-11 years participated in this phase IV single-centre, taste-test study after parental consent was obtained. Children were divided into two groups based upon age: group 1 included children aged 6-8 years and group 2 included children aged 9-11 years. Within each group an equal number of male and female subjects were recruited. Within each of the four strata defined by group and sex, an equal number of subjects were randomised to taste the strawberry-flavoured lansoprazole 15mg orally disintegrating tablet or the ranitidine 75mg/5mL peppermint-flavoured syrup samples in position 1. In group 1, the lansoprazole 15mg delayed-release orally disintegrating tablet was dispersed in 5mL of water, while in group 2, children gently rolled the tablet on the tongue until dissolution, before swallowing the particles. Children given the dose of lansoprazole dispersed in water (group 1) and the ranitidine dose (groups 1 and 2) were to taste it, swish it in their mouth for up to 10 seconds, and then swallow it. Children were given ambient temperature water and unsalted crackers to cleanse the palate during a 10-minute break between tastings. After each tasting, children rated their degree of liking on a five-point facial hedonic scale (5 = like very much, 1 = dislike very much). Product preference was recorded after the tasting of both samples. Among group 1 and group 2 participants, 86.5% (45/52) and 90.4% (47/52) of children, respectively, 'liked' ('like a little' or 'like very much') the strawberry-flavoured lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablet. The proportion of children who 'liked' the peppermint-flavoured ranitidine syrup was lower than the proportion who liked lansoprazole, and the proportions were similar between the groups: 13.5% (7/52) in group 1 and 9.6% (5/52) in group 2. Children in both groups preferred the strawberry-flavoured

  8. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13)C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13)C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13)C values. The highest δ(15)N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15)N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13)C values, but similar δ(15)N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13)C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area.

  9. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lemos Bisi

    Full Text Available To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13C and δ(15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13C values. The highest δ(15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13C values, but similar δ(15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area.

  10. Flavourings: production, composition, applications, regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziegler, Herta

    2007-01-01

    ... for the world of flavours. This 2 nd edition had initially been scheduled as homage on the occasion of his 80 th birthday in 2005, a target the large pool of authors could, however, not fulfil completely. On behalf of all authors, I would like to dedicate this edition to Mr. Erich Ziegler, whose initiative and efforts were instrumental in gathering the first group of authors. Edition 2 again represents a compendium which in its entirety is intended to familiarise the reader with the complex subject...

  11. Production of Japanese soy-sauce flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.

    2001-01-01

    The salt-tolerant yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis are important for the formation of flavour in Japanese soy-sauce processes. In these processes Z. rouxii produces the flavour components ethanol, higher

  12. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Scopes and outlook of the hadron physics at the heavy flavour sector in view of the future experimental facilities are highlighted. Keywords. Heavy flavour; spectroscopy; potential models; exotics. PACS Nos 12.40.Yx; 14.40.Pq; 14.40.Rt; 12.39.Pn. 1. Introduction. In recent years, the investigation of hadrons containing heavy ...

  13. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-31

    Oct 31, 2014 ... ... CLEO-c, BaBar, Belle, LHC etc., the scope for theoretical extensions of the present knowledge of heavy flavour physics would be very demanding. In this context, many relevant contributions from the forthcoming PANDA Facility are expected. Scopes and outlook of the hadron physics at the heavy flavour ...

  14. Flavour from partially resolved singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, G. [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: bonelli@sissa.it; Bonora, L. [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Ricco, A. [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    In this Letter we study topological open string field theory on D-branes in a IIB background given by non-compact CY geometries O(n)-bar O(-2-n) on P{sup 1} with a singular point at which an extra fiber sits. We wrap N D5-branes on P{sup 1} and M effective D3-branes at singular points, which are actually D5-branes wrapped on a shrinking cycle. We calculate the holomorphic Chern-Simons partition function for the above models in a deformed complex structure and find that it reduces to multi-matrix models with flavour. These are the matrix models whose resolvents have been shown to satisfy the generalized Konishi anomaly equations with flavour. In the n=0 case, corresponding to a partial resolution of the A{sub 2} singularity, the quantum superpotential in the N=1 unitary SYM with one adjoint and M fundamentals is obtained. The n=1 case is also studied and shown to give rise to two-matrix models which for a particular set of couplings can be exactly solved. We explicitly show how to solve such a class of models by a quantum equation of motion technique.

  15. Pedogenic carbonate stable isotopic evidence for wooded habitat preference of early Pleistocene tool makers in the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Rhonda L; Lepre, Christopher J; Feibel, Craig S; Wright, James D; Mortlock, Richard A; Harmand, Sonia; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Roche, Hélène

    2013-07-01

    circa 40% throughout our study interval and were 4-12% more woody than coeval basin environs. We propose that Turkana Basin early tool makers may have preferred a more wooded portion of the savanna ecosystem to reduce heat stress and to gain differential access to potable water, raw materials, animal carcasses, and edible plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect on PDFs and [Formula: see text] due to changes in flavour scheme and higher twist contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, R S

    I consider the effect on MSTW partons distribution functions (PDFs) due to changes in the choices of theoretical procedure used in the fit. I first consider using the 3-flavour fixed flavour number scheme instead of the standard general mass variable flavour number scheme used in the MSTW analysis. This results in the light quarks increasing at all relatively small [Formula: see text] values, the gluon distribution becoming smaller at high values of [Formula: see text] and larger at small [Formula: see text], the preferred value of the coupling constant [Formula: see text] falling, particularly at NNLO, and the fit quality deteriorates. I also consider lowering the kinematic cut on [Formula: see text] for DIS data and simultaneously introducing higher twist terms which are fit to data. This results in much smaller effects on both PDFs and [Formula: see text] than the scheme change, except for quarks at very high [Formula: see text]. I show that the structure function one obtains from a fixed input set of PDFs using the fixed flavour scheme and variable flavour scheme differ significantly for [Formula: see text] at high [Formula: see text], and that this is due to the fact that in the fixed flavour scheme there is a slow convergence of large logarithmic terms of the form [Formula: see text] relevant for this regime. I conclude that some of the most significant differences in PDF sets are largely due to the choice of flavour scheme used.

  17. Cigarette brands with flavour capsules in the filter: trends in use and brand perceptions among smokers in the USA, Mexico and Australia, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Moodie, Crawford; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Cummings, K Michael; Yong, Hua-Hie; Salloum, Ramzi G; Czoli, Christine; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe trends, correlates of use and consumer perceptions related to the product design innovation of flavour capsules in cigarette filters. Methods Quarterly surveys from 2012 to 2014 were analysed from an online consumer panel of adult smokers aged 18–64, living in the USA (n=6865 observations; 4154 individuals); Mexico (n=5723 observations; 3366 individuals); and Australia (n=5864 observations; 2710 individuals). Preferred brand varieties were classified by price (ie, premium; discount) and flavour (ie, regular; flavoured without capsule; flavoured with capsule). Participants reported their preferred brand variety's appeal (ie, satisfaction; stylishness), taste (ie, smoothness, intensity), and harm relative to other brands and varieties. GEE models were used to determine time trends and correlates of flavour capsule use, as well as associations between preferred brand characteristics (ie, price stratum, flavour) and perceptions of relative appeal, taste and harm. Results Preference for flavour capsules increased significantly in Mexico (6% to 14%) and Australia (1% to 3%), but not in the USA (4% to 5%). 18–24 year olds were most likely to prefer capsules in the USA (10%) and Australia (4%), but not Mexico. When compared to smokers who preferred regular brands, smokers who preferred brands with capsules viewed their variety of cigarettes as having more positive appeal (all countries), better taste (all countries), and lesser risk (Mexico, USA) than other brand varieties. Conclusions Results indicate that use of cigarettes with flavour capsules is growing, is associated with misperceptions of relative harm, and differentiates brands in ways that justify regulatory action. PMID:25918129

  18. Precision physics with heavy-flavoured hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Koppenburg, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of flavour dynamics is one of the key aims of elementary particle physics. The last 15 years have witnessed the triumph of the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism, which describes all flavour changing transitions of quarks in the Standard Model. This important milestone has been reached owing to a series of experiments, in particular to those operating at the so-called $B$ factories, at the Tevatron, and now at the LHC. We briefly review status and perspectives of flavour physics, highlighting the results where the LHC has given the most significant contributions, notably including the recent observation of the $B_s^0\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay.

  19. Flavour Physics and Implication for New Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Isidori, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Flavour physics represents one of the most interesting and, at the same time, less understood sector of the Standard Theory. On the one hand, the peculiar pattern of quark and lepton masses, and their mixing angles, may be the clue to some new dynamics occurring at high-energy scales. On the other hand, the strong suppression of flavour-changing neutral-current processes, predicted by the Standard Theory and confirmed by experiments, represents a serious challenge to extend the Theory. This article reviews both these aspects of flavour physics from a theoretical perspective.

  20. Improvements in the Flavour of Soy Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of biochemical and technological similarities and dissimilarities between soy cheese and Cheddar cheese is presented to provide guidelines for the improvements in the flavour of soy cheese. Processing technology as well as the final product of soy cheese have many similarities with Cheddar in terms of appearance, texture, mouth feel, chemical nature, biochemical processes, etc. Soy protein has many useful amino acids like Asp, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, Tyr, Val, etc., which are precursors of flavouring compounds and the right choice of microbial cultures is necessary to benefit from them. Using low levels of sodium chloride, without the use of ethanol, and introducing new milk cheese starter and non-starter cultures like Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (formerly L. lactis ssp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis var. maltigenes and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris that enhance flavour will be helpful to improve the flavour of soy cheese.

  1. Flavour physics in the LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Gershon, Tim

    2014-01-01

    These lectures give a topical review of heavy flavour physics, in particular \\CP violation and rare decays, from an experimental point of view. They describe the ongoing motivation to study heavy flavour physics in the LHC era, the current status of the field emphasising key results from previous experiments, some selected topics in which new results are expected in the near future, and a brief look at future projects.

  2. b-flavour tagging in pp collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Birnkraut, Alex

    2015-01-01

    An essential ingredient of all time-dependent CP violation studies of B mesons is the ability to tag the initial flavour of the B meson. The harsh environment of 7 and 8 TeV pp collisions makes this a particularly difficult enterprise. We report progresses in the flavour tagging of B0 and Bs mesons, including developments of novel techniques like the use of an opposite side charm tagger.

  3. The impact of sensory quality of pork on consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaslyng, Margit D; Oksama, Marjatta; Olsen, Eli V; Bejerholm, Camilla; Baltzer, Maiken; Andersen, Grethe; Bredie, Wender L P; Byrne, Derek V; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2007-05-01

    Danish consumers from Roskilde, a town near the Danish capital Copenhagen (n=213), and from Holstebro, a provincial town in the north-western part of Jutland (n=162), rated nine different samples of pork on an unstructured hedonic scale from "do not like at all" to "like very much". The samples represented variation in raw meat quality (pH, IMF and carcass weight), muscle (LD and BF), origin (Danish/French Pay Basque), cooking method (pan/oven) and end point temperature (65°C/75°C). The meat was described by sensory profiling and chemical and physical analysis (pH, fat, water, colour, fatty acid composition). All the consumers preferred tender, juicy meat with a fried flavour and no off-flavours. However, within this description there were differences. The consumers from Holstebro put more emphasis on tenderness and the absence of off-flavours, while the consumers in Roskilde preferred the fried flavour. The young consumers put less emphasis on tenderness, compared with consumers aged over 30 years, but preferred instead some crumbliness in the meat. A segmentation of the consumers showed that about 6% of the consumers were only influenced by flavour attributes in their preference. In contrast, 12% of the consumers were mainly influenced by texture irrespective of flavour attributes other than sour-like taste. Most of the consumers were, however, influenced by both flavour and texture as well as appearance.

  4. Heavy Flavour Electron Elliptic Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto

    Due to the large mass of the Charm and Beauty quarks, they are c reated in the very first moments of the ultra-high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions taking place at the CERN LHC, therefore, they should be unaware of the geome try of the colli- sion system and carry no azimuthal anisotropies. Similarly , the energy loss via gluon radiation for these massive quarks should be suppressed, th e so-called dead cone ef- fect. Although the observation of elliptic flow in the electro ns produced through the semileptonic decay of these heavy mesons is an indirect meas urement, throughout this thesis it will be shown that a strong correlation exists between the momentum anisotropy of the mother and daughter particles. In the low t ransverse momentum region such measurement would establish whether or not the s ystem reaches local thermal equilibrium. While at large transverse momentum, t he observation of collec- tivity for the heavy flavours can be understood only if the col lisional and radiative in-medium interaction...

  5. Heavy Flavour results from Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borissov, G.; /Lancaster U.

    2012-06-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments finalize the analysis of their full statistics collected in the p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper presents several new results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy b- and c-quarks obtained by both collaborations. These results include the search for the rare decays B{sup 0}, B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} (CDF), the study of CP asymmetry in B{sub s} {yields} J{psi}{phi} decay (CDF, D0), the measurement of the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry (D0), the measurement of CP asymmetry in D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays (CDF), and the new measurement of the B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} branching fraction (CDF). Both experiments still expect to produce more results on the properties of heavy flavours.

  6. Flavour formation by lactic acid bacteria and biochemical flavour profiling of cheese products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Flavour development in dairy fermentations, most notably cheeses, results from a series of (bio)chemical processes in which the starter cultures provide the enzymes. Particularly the enzymatic degradation of proteins (caseins) leads to the formation of key-flavour components, which contribute to the

  7. Sensory properties and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risvik, E

    1994-01-01

    Common mistakes are frequent in sensory evaluation of meats and meat products. Conceptual confusion is often observed in triangular tests when add-on questions are included in the testing procedures, and when descriptive and hedonic scales are mixed in profiling exercises. Similar consumer responses are often recorded from trained, and thus biased, panels. Preference for meats seems to be most strongly affected by changes in colour/appearance and texture, and to a lesser extent by changes in flavour (that is when off-flavours are not present). It is difficult to generalise as to whether appearance/colour attributes or texture attributes are the most important. A simplified model for texture understanding is suggested, where water/fat perception and structure perception (described by juiciness and tenderness) are orthogonal phenomena and where most other textural attributes can be explained by this structure. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Formula optimization for garlic and pepper-flavoured puffed snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Wilkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbs show high potential as functional ingredients in Thai snacks. Garlic was the most preferred herb in snacks, followed by holy basil, and pepper. This study was to determine the amount of spices such as garlic and pepper to be added to the products to beneficially improve the health status of the consumer without detrimental effect on the flavour and taste. The Box-Behnken (k = 3, nc = 3 response surface design was used to create a model to determine the optimum garlic and pepper flavour for puffed snacks. Specified quantities of salt (1-2 %(w/w, garlic (0-4 %(w/w, and pepper (0-4 %(w/w were used in the design. Fifteen spiced snacks were evaluated by 30 Thai panelists. The model showed the optimum pepper quantity of 0.7 % (w/w and salt and garlic of no more than 1.10 and 2.80 %(w/w, respectively. If 25 g of the puffed snacks were eaten daily the consumer would get enough garlic to satisfy its daily requirements, but not enough pepper to get its purported health benefits. However, as the Thais use copious quantities of pepper in most other dishes, it is likely that eating 25 g of the proposed functional snack with their other dishes would more than likely provide enough pepper to give them the health benefits from this herb.

  9. Flavour in the era of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The 4th meeting of the 'Flavour in the era of the LHC'workshop will take place at CERN on 9-11 October, 2006. The goal of this workshop is to outline and document a programme for flavour physics for the next decade, addressing in particular the complementarity and synergy between the discoveries we expect to emerge from the LHC and the potential for accurate measurements of future flavour factories. Over 150 physicists will join in the discussions of the three working groups dedicated to 'Flavour physics at high Q', 'B/D/K decays'and 'Flavour in the lepton sector, EDM's, g-2, etc'. The previous meetings took place in November 2005, and in February and May this year. In addition to the working group sessions, a special miniworkshop dedicated to future prospects for electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and g-2 measurements will be held on 9-10 October. Sensitive EDM and g-2 experiments probe physics in an integral way, and in many cases their physics reach is much higher than the spectrometer searches at th...

  10. Flavour in the era of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The 4th meeting of the 'Flavour in the era of the LHC' workshop will take place at CERN on 9-11 October, 2006. The goal of this workshop is to outline and document a programme for flavour physics for the next decade, addressing in particular the complementarity and synergy between the discoveries we expect to emerge from the LHC and the potential for accurate measurements of future flavour factories. Over 150 physicists will join in the discussions of the three working groups dedicated to 'Flavour physics at high Q', 'B/D/K decays' and 'Flavour in the lepton sector, EDM's, g-2, etc'. The previous meetings took place in November 2005, and in February and May this year. In addition to the working group sessions, a special miniworkshop dedicated to future prospects for electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and g-2 measurements will be held on 9-10 October. Sensitive EDM and g-2 experiments probe physics in an integral way, and in many cases their physics reach is much higher than the spectrometer searches at th...

  11. New perspectives for heavy flavour physics from the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, R.

    2009-06-01

    Heavy flavours represent a challenge for lattice QCD. We discuss it in very general terms. We give an idea of the significant recent progress which opens up good perspectives for high precision first principles QCD computations for flavour physics. (orig.)

  12. Flavour-Violating Gluino and Squark Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurth, Tobias; /CERN /SLAC; Porod, Werner; /Wurzburg U.

    2010-06-11

    We consider scenarios with large flavour violating entries in the squark mass matrices focusing on the mixing between second and third generation squarks. These entries govern both, flavour violating low energy observables on the one hand and squark and gluino decays on the other hand. We first discuss the constraints on the parameter space due to the recent data on B mesons from the B factories and Tevatron. We then consider flavour violating squark and gluino decays and show that they can still be typically of order 10% despite the stringent constraints from low energy data. Finally we briefly comment on the impact for searches and parameter determinations at future collider experiments such as the upcoming LHC or a future International Linear Collider.

  13. New trends in beer flavour compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio; Sancho, Daniel; Blanco, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    As the beer market is steadily expanding, it is important for the brewing industry to offer consumers a product with the best organoleptic characteristics, flavour being one of the key characteristics of beer. New trends in instrumental methods of beer flavour analysis are described. In addition to successfully applied methods in beer analysis such as chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry or electronic nose and tongue techniques, among others, sample extraction and preparation such as derivatization or microextraction methods are also reviewed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Tests of lepton flavour universality at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Lupato, Anna

    2018-01-01

    In the Standard Model the electroweak coupling of the gauge bosons to leptons is independent of the lepton flavour. Semileptonic and rare decays of b quarks provide an ideal laboratory to test this property. Any violation of Lepton Flavour Universality would be a clear sign of physics beyond the Standard Model. In this work a review of the Lepton Flavour Universality tests performed using data collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 and 2012 at a centre of mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV is presented.

  15. Searches for lepton flavour violation at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Charged lepton flavour is conserved within the Standard Model (SM) up to exceedingly small rates of about $10^{-50}$. This makes charged lepton flavour violation (cLFV) a very interesting place to look for hints of New Physics (NP). In fact, many NP scenarios predict cLFV to occur at rates within the reach of the experiments. Finding these transitions would mean a definite departure from the SM, while not finding them narrows the NP phase space. In this seminar, the latest LHCb results in the cLFV sector will be presented, and their implications for NP scenarios discussed.

  16. Heavy Flavour Production and Decay at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, RWL; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is taking advantage of its large integrated luminosity band sophisticated muon and dimuon triggers to make competitive measurements of heavy flavour production and decay. Inclusive production and heavy flavour jet production is discussed before turning to charm and onium production. The production and decay of individual B hadron species is then addressed, including the current best measurement of the Λb lifetime. A much improved analysis of CP related quantities in Bs decays is presented, before turning to recent results and prospects for rare B decays.

  17. Flavon-induced lepton flavour violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keus, Venus

    2017-07-01

    ATLAS and CMS have observed a flavor violating decay of the Higgs to muon and tau. The fact that flavour violating couplings of the Higgs boson are exactly zero in the Standard Model suggests the mixing of the Higgs with another scalar with flavour violating couplings. We use the flavon field from the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, responsible for generating the lepton Yukawa matrices, for this purpose. The parameter space is constrained from experimental bounds on charged lepton flavor violation in other processes, however, we show that a substantial region of parameter space survives these bounds while producing a large enough Br(h → μτ).

  18. Heavy-flavour production in ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Shingo

    2014-06-15

    We present measurements of heavy-flavour production in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV and in p–Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. A strong suppression of heavy-flavour production at high p{sub T} is observed in central Pb–Pb collisions, while non-zero elliptic flow is seen at low p{sub T} in semi-central collisions. The cold nuclear matter effects on the measurements in Pb–Pb collisions have been investigated in p–Pb collisions, and no large effects have been observed.

  19. An expert system for automated flavour matching - Prioritizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Bárbara Santos; Tøstesen, Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Flavour matching can be viewed as trying to reproduce a specific flavour. This is a time consuming task and may lead to flavour mixtures that are too complex or too expensive to be commercialized. In order to facilitate the matching, we have developed a new mathematical model, called Prioritizer....

  20. LHCb New algorithms for Flavour Tagging at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Fazzini, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The Flavour Tagging technique allows to identify the B initial flavour, required in the measurements of flavour oscillations and time-dependent CP asymmetries in neutral B meson systems. The identification performances at LHCb are further enhanced thanks to the contribution of new algorithms.

  1. Attributes and consumer acceptance of yoghurt flavoured with non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of non-cultivated indigenous fruits as flavouring agents for yoghurt has not been given sufficient attention in Swaziland. Consequently, commercial cultivated fruits are used as yoghurt flavours, resulting in higher production costs for the dessert. A study of sensory and physical characteristics of yoghurt flavoured ...

  2. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects

  3. Lepton flavour violation in composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feruglio, Ferruccio, E-mail: feruglio@pd.infn.it; Paradisi, Paride, E-mail: paride.paradisi@pd.infn.it [Sezione di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘G. Galilei’, INFN, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131, Padua (Italy); Pattori, Andrea, E-mail: pattori@physik.uzh.ch [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, 8057, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-08

    We discuss in detail the constraints on the partial compositeness coming from flavour and CP violation in the leptonic sector. In the first part we present a formulation of partial compositeness in terms of a flavour symmetry group and a set of spurions, whose background values specify the symmetry breaking pattern. In such a framework we construct the complete set of dimension-six operators describing lepton flavour violation and CP violation. By exploiting the existing bounds, we derive limits on the compositeness scale in different scenarios, characterised by increasing restrictions on the spurion properties. We confirm that in the most general case the compositeness scale should lie well above 10 TeV. However, if in the composite sector the mass parameters and Yukawa couplings are universal, such a bound can be significantly lowered, without necessarily reproducing the case of minimal flavour violation. The most sensitive processes are decays of charged leptons either of radiative type or into three charged leptons, μ→e conversion in nuclei and the electric dipole moment of the electron. In the second part we explicitly compute the Wilson coefficients of the relevant dimension-six operators in the so-called two-site model, embodying the symmetry breaking pattern discussed in our first part, and we compare the results with those of the general spurion analysis.

  4. Lepton flavour violation in composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feruglio, Ferruccio; Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' G. Galilei' , Padua (Italy); INFN, Padua (Italy); Pattori, Andrea [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    We discuss in detail the constraints on the partial compositeness coming from flavour and CP violation in the leptonic sector. In the first part we present a formulation of partial compositeness in terms of a flavour symmetry group and a set of spurions, whose background values specify the symmetry breaking pattern. In such a framework we construct the complete set of dimension-six operators describing lepton flavour violation and CP violation. By exploiting the existing bounds, we derive limits on the compositeness scale in different scenarios, characterised by increasing restrictions on the spurion properties. We confirm that in the most general case the compositeness scale should lie well above 10 TeV. However, if in the composite sector the mass parameters and Yukawa couplings are universal, such a bound can be significantly lowered, without necessarily reproducing the case of minimal flavour violation. The most sensitive processes are decays of charged leptons either of radiative type or into three charged leptons, μ → e conversion in nuclei and the electric dipole moment of the electron. In the second part we explicitly compute the Wilson coefficients of the relevant dimension-six operators in the so-called two-site model, embodying the symmetry breaking pattern discussed in our first part, and we compare the results with those of the general spurion analysis. (orig.) 7.

  5. Working group report: Collider and flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Working group report: Collider and flavour physics. Coordinators: DEBAJYOTI CHOUDHURY1, ASESH K DATTA2 and ANIRBAN KUNDU3,∗. 1Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110 007, India. 2Regional Centre for Accelerator-based Particle Physics, Harish-Chandra Research.

  6. Some theoretical issues in heavy flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the recent developments in heavy flavour physics will be reviewed. This will include an update on some of the Standard Model predictions, and a summary of recent measurements that may indicate the presence of new physics (NP). The focus will be on selected models of NP that are indicated by the anomalies in ...

  7. Working group report: Collider and flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The activities of the working group took place under two broad subgroups: Collider Physics subgroup and Flavour Physics subgroup. Reports on some of the projects undertaken are included. Also, some of the leading discussions organized by the working group are summarized.

  8. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-31

    Oct 31, 2014 ... A comprehensive overview and some of the theoretical attempts towards understanding heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy are presented. Apart from the conventional quark structure (quark, antiquarks structure for the mesons and three-quarks structure of baryons) of hadrons, multiquark hadrons the ...

  9. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A comprehensive overview and some of the theoretical attempts towards understand- ing heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy are presented. Apart from the conventional quark structure. (quark, antiquarks structure for the mesons and three-quarks structure of baryons) of hadrons, multi- quark hadrons the hadron ...

  10. Safety evaluation of natural flavour complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Hall, R.L.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural flavour complexes (NFCs) are chemical mixtures obtained by applying physical separation methods to botanical sources. Many NFCs are derived from foods. In the present paper, a 12-step procedure for the safety evaluation of NFCs, 'the naturals paradigm', is discussed. This procedure, which is

  11. Neutrino flavour evolution through fluctuating matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Kneller, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    A neutrino propagating through fluctuating matter can experience large amplitude transitions between its states. Such transitions occur in supernovae and compact object mergers due to turbulent matter profiles and neutrino self-interactions. In this paper we study, both numerically and analytically, three-flavour neutrino transformation through fluctuating matter built from two and three Fourier modes (FMs). We find flavour transformation effects which cannot occur with just two flavours. For the case of two FMs we observe the equivalent of ‘induced transparency’ from quantum optics whereby transitions between a given pair of states are suppressed due to the presence of a resonant mode between another pair. When we add a third FM we find a new effect whereby the third mode can manipulate the transition probabilities of the two mode case so as to force complete transparency or, alternatively, restore ‘opacity’ meaning the perturbative Hamiltonian regains its ability to induce neutrino flavour transitions. In both applications we find analytic solutions are able to match the amplitude and wavenumber of the numerical results to within a few percent. We then consider a case of turbulence and show how the theory can be used to understand the very different response of a neutrino to what appears to be two, almost identical, instances of turbulence.

  12. Search for Charged Lepton Flavour Violation at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Swagata

    2017-01-01

    Lepton flavour is a conserved quantity in the standard model of particle physics, but it does not follow from an underlying gauge symmetry. After the discovery of neutrino oscillation, it has been established that lepton flavour is not conserved in the neutral sector. Thus the lepton sector is an excellent place to look for New Physics, and in this perspective the Charged Lepton Flavour Violation is interesting. Various extensions of the standard model predict lepton flavour violating decays that can be observed at LHC. This talk presents several searches for lepton flavour violation with data collected by the CMS detector.

  13. General squark flavour mixing: constraints, phenomenology and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    De Causmaecker, Karen; Herrmann, Bjoern; Mahmoudi, Farvah; O'Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner; Sekmen, Sezen; Strobbe, Nadja

    2015-11-19

    We present an extensive study of non-minimal flavour violation in the squark sector in the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We investigate the effects of multiple non-vanishing flavour-violating elements in the squark mass matrices by means of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scanning technique and identify parameter combinations that are favoured by both current data and theoretical constraints. We then detail the resulting distributions of the flavour-conserving and flavour-violating model parameters. Based on this analysis, we propose a set of benchmark scenarios relevant for future studies of non-minimal flavour violation in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  14. Comparison of Flavour and Volatile Flavour Compounds of Mixed Elderberry Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find the best composition for fruit drink based on elderberries with optimal flavour characteristics. For this purpose elderberry juice was mixed with various fruit juices (grape, black currant, apple, orange, carrot in various ratios, flavour was evaluated sensorially and instrumentally as the content of aroma compounds. Five flavour characteristics (sweet, acid/sour, bitter, astringent, characteristic elderberry, off-flavour, odour, texture (mouth-feel, colour and overall acceptability were evaluated sensorially using scale. Aroma compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction and assessed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The significant differences (P < 0.05 in flavour were found between samples, which could be explained by differences in their volatile profiles. In total 57 compounds were identified in fruit juices and included 20 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 7 acids, 7 esters and 5 other compounds. Alcohols were quantitatively the most important group of all juices. The grape-elderberry juice, in optimum ratio 7:3 (70% v/v of elderberry, was proposed for practical use owing to the pleasant sweetish, elderberry flavour, and excellent other sensory characteristics.

  15. Cern Academic Training programme 2011 - Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES   4, 5, 6 and 7 April 2011 Flavour Physics and CP Violation Dr. Yosef Nir (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 11:00-12:00 - 4, 6 and 7 April - Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant 5 April - Bldg. 80-1-001 - Globe 1st Floor   The B-factories have led to significant progress in our understanding of CP violation and of flavour physics. Yet, two flavour puzzles remain. The standard model flavour puzzle is the question of why there is smallness and hierarchy in the flavour parameters. The new physics flavour puzzle is the question of why TeV-scale new physics was not signalled in flavour changing neutral current processes. The high pT experiments, ATLAS and CMS, are likely to shed light on these puzzles. As concerns CP violation, the LHC will lead to progress on the puzzle of the baryon asymmetry as well.  

  16. Two approaches towards the flavour puzzle. Dynamical minimal flavour violation and warped extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Michaela E.

    2010-08-16

    The minimal-flavour-violating (MFV) hypothesis considers the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa matrices as the only source of flavour violation. In this work, we promote their entries to dynamical scalar spurion fields, using an effective field theory approach, such that the maximal flavour symmetry (FS) of the SM gauge sector is formally restored at high energy scales. The non-vanishing vacuum expectation values of the spurions induce a sequence of FS breaking and generate the observed hierarchy in the SM quark masses and mixings. The fact that there exists no explanation for it in the SM is known as the flavour puzzle. Gauging the non-abelian subgroup of the spontaneously broken FS, we interpret the associated Goldstone bosons as the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the corresponding massive gauge bosons. Integrating out the heavy Higgs modes in the Yukawa spurions leads directly to flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) at tree level. The coefficients of the effective four-quark operators, resulting from the exchange of heavy flavoured gauge bosons, strictly follow the MFV principle. On the other hand, the Goldstone bosons associated with the global abelian symmetry group behave as weakly coupled axions which can be used to solve the strong CP problem within a modified Peccei-Quinn formalism. Models with a warped fifth dimension contain five-dimensional (5D) fermion bulk mass matrices in addition to their 5D Yukawa matrices, which thus represent an additional source of flavour violation beyond MFV. They can address the flavour puzzle since their eigenvalues allow for a different localisation of the fermion zero mode profiles along the extra dimension which leads to a hierarchy in the effective four-dimensional (4D) Yukawa matrices. At the same time, the fermion splitting introduces non-universal fermion couplings to Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson modes, inducing tree-level FCNCs. Within a Randall-Sundrum model with custodial protection (RSc model) we carefully work

  17. Flavour Physics in the LHC Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, A.

    2011-01-01

    This decade will allow to improve the resolution of the short distance scales by at least an order of magnitude, extending the picture of fundamental physics down to scales 5 x 10 -20 with the help of the LHC. Further resolution down to scales as short as 10 -21 should be possible with the help of high precision experiments in which flavour violating processes will play a prominent role. Will this increase in resolution allow us to see new particles (new animalcula) similarly to what Antoni van Leeuvenhoek saw by discovering bacteria in 1676? The basic question for particle physics is how these new animalcula will look like and which difficulties of the Standard Model (SM) they will help us to solve and which new puzzles and problems they will bring with them. I will describe what role flavour physics will play in these exciting times provided this new world is animalculated. (author)

  18. Heavy flavour production and spectroscopy at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258787

    2012-01-01

    At the Moriond QCD conference LHCb has presented results on heavy flavour production and spectroscopy. Here the latest results are discussed, which include the first observation and measurement of the branching fraction of the hadronic decay $B^+_e \\to J/\\psi\\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^+$, the mass measurement of the excited B mesons and the mass measurement of the $\\Xi_b$ and $\\Omega_b$ baryons.

  19. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as indicators of habitat selection by cultured and natural fish preferences. A case study of ayu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Huang; Kyushu University, Fukuoka; Xixi Chen; Xiaobo Liu; Shinichiro Yano

    2017-01-01

    Reliable indicators on whether natural and cultured fish exhibit differences in habitat preferences are lacking. In this study, δ 13 C and δ 15 N were used to distinguish the habitat preferences of cultured versus natural ayu and their prey (periphyton) in a typical riffle-pool river reach. It found that the δ 13 C of natural ayu (-13.747‰) was consistent with that of periphyton in riffles (-14.611‰), while the δ 13 C of cultured ayu (-19.088‰) was consistent with that of periphyton (-19.711‰) in pools. The results indicated that cultured ayu appear to favor pools whereas natural ayu favor riffles, and δ 13 C and δ 15 N represent potential reliable indicators of habitat preferences of cultured ayu. (author)

  20. Neutrino-Flavoured Sneutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    March-Russell, John; McCullough, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    A simple theory of supersymmetric dark matter (DM) naturally linked to neutrino flavour physics is studied. The DM sector comprises a spectrum of mixed lhd-rhd sneutrino states where both the sneutrino flavour structure and mass splittings are determined by the associated neutrino masses and mixings. Prospects for indirect detection from solar capture are good due to a large sneutrino-nucleon cross-section afforded by the inelastic splitting (solar capture limits exclude an explanation of DAMA/LIBRA). We find parameter regions where all heavier states will have decayed, leaving only one flavour mixture of sneutrino as the candidate DM. Such regions have a unique `smoking gun' signature--sneutrino annihilation in the Sun produces a pair of neutrino mass eigenstates free from vacuum oscillations, with the potential for detection at neutrino telescopes through the observation of a hard spectrum of nu_mu and nu_tau (for a normal neutrino hierarchy). Next generation direct detection experiments can explore much of...

  1. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Gregory A; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2014-01-01

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of two different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a blue-black cloth target modified into a cylindrical trap (BCT). Both traps were covered with sticky sleeves to retain the attracted flies. Paired trap types were placed at sites that were 20-100 m apart. Distance between trap pairs within sites ranged from 1 to 2 m, and was limited by exhibit design and geography. Both trap types reflect/refract ultraviolet (UV) light which attracts adult S. calcitrans. During this 15-week study, AFTs captured significantly more stable flies than the BCTs at 8 of the 10 sites. Of the 12,557 stable flies found on the traps, 80% and 20% were captured by AFTs and BCTs, respectively. The most attractive trap site at the zoo was at the goat exhibit where most stable flies were consistently captured throughout the study. This exhibit was 100 m from the other exhibits, next to a small lake, and adjacent to a field containing pastured exotic ungulates, rhea and ostrich. Stable fly populations peaked in early June then slowly decreased as the last trapping date approached. We believe this to be the first seasonality data collected at a zoological park. Results demonstrate the use of urban zoos by stable flies and the need to develop environmentally friendly stable fly management systems for zoos. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Correlations between high-p(T) and flavour physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hurth, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Squark and gluino decays are governed by the same mixing matrices as the contributions to flavour violating loop transitions of B-mesons. This allows for possible direct correlations between flavour non-diagonal observables in B and high-p_T physics. The present bounds on squark mixing, induced by the low-energy data on b to s transitions, still allow for large contributions to flavour violating squark decays at tree level. Due to the restrictions in flavour tagging at the LHC, additional information from future flavour experiments will be necessary to interpret those LHC data properly. Also the measurement of correlations between various squark decay modes at a future ILC would provide information about the flavour violating parameters.

  3. Risk assessment of flavouring substances used in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norby, Karin; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Greve, Krestine

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present project, the FLAVIS project, is to perform risk assessment of chemically defined flavouring substances. The evaluations are then presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for final adoption in its Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids...... the EU Commission (DG SANCO) plans to issue the first European Positive list on flavouring substances. The project is financial supported by EFSA and the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research....

  4. arXiv Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenik, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    These notes represent a summary of three lectures on flavour and CP violation, given at the CERNs European School of High Energy Physics in 2014. They cover flavour physics within the standard model, phenomenology of CP violation in meson mixing and decays, as well as constraints of flavour observableson physics beyond the standard model. In preparing the lectures (and consequently this summary) I drew heavily from several existing excellent and exhaustive sets of lecture notes and reviews on flavour physics and CP violation [1]. The reader is encouraged to consult those as well as the original literature for a more detailed study.

  5. Flavour tagging of $b$ mesons in $pp$ collisions at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Mueller, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Flavour tagging, i.e. the inference of the production flavour of reconstructed $b$ hadrons, is essential for precision measurements of decay time-dependent $CP$ violation and of mixing parameters in the the neutral $B$ meson systems. LHC's $pp$ collisions with their high track multiplicities constitute a challenging environment for flavour tagging and demand for new and improved strategies. We present recent progress and new developments in flavour tagging at the LHCb experiment, which will allow for a further improvement of $CP$ violation measurements in decays of $B^0$ and $B_s^0$ mesons.

  6. The colour and flavour 1/N expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, G.

    General ideas about the colour and flavour 1/N expansions are presented in a non-specialized fashion according to both: a unified approach to meson dynamics (the basic logical scheme, lepton-hadron interactions, hadronic processes in lowest order, higher order effects and the Reggeon calculus); and a possible extension to baryons (difficulties with baryons in dual and gauge theories, possible definition of dual baryons in quantum chromodynamics, lowest order B anti-B and BB scattering: baryonium, Reggeon calculus for processes involving baryons)

  7. Production and spectroscopy in heavy flavour

    CERN Document Server

    Maevskiy, Artem; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A wide programme of studies of heavy flavour production at the LHC is performed with the ATLAS detector, which includes charm and beauty hadrons, quarkonia production in both sectors, and associated production J/psi + W, J/psi + Z and J/psi + J/psi. This talk will cover recent results, including the differential production cross-section measurement of di-Jpsi and effective cross-section from double parton scattering. Studies on the production of exotic states are also presented.

  8. New Physics Search in Flavour Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurth, Tobias; /CERN /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    With the running B, kaon and neutrino physics experiments, flavour physics takes centre stage within today's particle physics. We discuss the opportunities offered by these experiments in our search for new physics beyond the SM and discuss their complementarity to collider physics. We focus on rare B and kaon decays, highlighting specific observables in an exemplary mode. We also comment on the so-called B {yields} {pi}{pi} and B {yields} K{pi} puzzles. Moreover, we briefly discuss the restrictive role of long-distance strong interactions and some new tools such as QCD factorization and SCET to handle them.

  9. Heavy flavour production in 13 TeV pp collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Braun, Svende Annelies

    2015-01-01

    This summer first data at the unprecedented energy of 13 TeV is collected at the LHC. This opens a new era in searches for new particles and precision tests of the Standard Model. Heavy flavour production plays an important role both as precision QCD test and as backgrounds for new particles. The first measurements of heavy flavour production are presented.

  10. Flavour democracy and the lepton-quark hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, H. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland) Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Physik); Plankl, J. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Physik)

    1990-03-22

    The mass hierarchy of the leptons and quarks is interpreted as a consequence of a coherent state phenomenon ('flavour democracy'). It is emphasized that particular forms of the mass matrices can arise from the coherent state basis. The violations of the 'flavour democracy' turn out to be relatively large. Numerical examples are presented. (orig.).

  11. Formation of flavour compounds in the Maillard reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the Maillard reaction for food quality and focuses on flavour compound formation. The most important classes of Maillard flavour compounds are indicated and it is shown where they are formed in the Maillard reaction. Some emphasis is given on the kinetics of

  12. Effects of Alkali Concentration and Conching Temperature on Flavour, Hardness and Colour of Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkalization is an addition of alkali into cocoa mass to improve product quality in terms of flavour and colour appearance. Sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate are usual to be added into cocoa cotyledon prior to roasting. A study has been carried out to evaluate the effects of alkalization proceeded upon conching on chocolate sensory properties, hardness and colour. Re sponse Surface Methodology design at alkali concentrations of 1—15 g kg -1 and conching temperature of 40—80 oC have been used in the study. Parameters evaluated were sensory properties, particle size, hardness and colour. Results of the study showed that alkali concentration significantly influenced aroma, overall preference, particle size and hardness; meanwhile, conching temperature showed significant influence on aroma, taste, appearance, overall preference and texture of chocolate. Alkali concentration and conching temperature showed interactively influence on aroma and overall preference. A good quality of chocolate could be found at the alkali concentration of 8—15 g kg -1 and conching temperature of 74—80 oC. Key words: cocoa bean, chocolate, flavour, conching, alkalization, colour, particle size, texture.

  13. Linear flavour violation and anomalies in B physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripaios, Ben [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge,J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Nardecchia, Marco [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge,J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Renner, Sophie [DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-14

    We propose renormalizable models of new physics that can explain various anomalies observed in decays of B-mesons to electron and muon pairs. The new physics states couple to linear combinations of Standard Model fermions, yielding a pattern of flavour violation that gives a consistent fit to the gamut of flavour data. Accidental symmetries prevent contributions to baryon- and lepton-number-violating processes, as well as enforcing a loop suppression of new physics contributions to flavour violating processes. Data require that the new flavour-breaking couplings are largely aligned with the Yukawa couplings of the SM and so we also explore patterns of flavour symmetry breaking giving rise to this structure.

  14. Flavour chemicals in a sample of non-cigarette tobacco products without explicit flavour names sold in New York City in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Shannon M; Schroth, Kevin Rj; Grimshaw, Victoria; Luo, Wentai; DeGagne, Julia L; Tierney, Peyton A; Kim, Kilsun; Pankow, James F

    2018-03-01

    Youth who experiment with tobacco often start with flavoured products. In New York City (NYC), local law restricts sales of all tobacco products with 'characterising flavours' except for 'tobacco, menthol, mint and wintergreen'. Enforcement is based on packaging: explicit use of a flavour name (eg, 'strawberry') or image depicting a flavour (eg, a fruit) is presumptive evidence that a product is flavoured and therefore prohibited. However, a tobacco product may contain significant levels of added flavour chemicals even when the label does not explicitly use a flavour name. Sixteen tobacco products were purchased within NYC in 2015 that did not have explicit flavour names, along with three with flavour names. These were analysed for 92 known flavour chemicals plus triacetin by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 14 of the 16 products had total determined flavour chemical levels that were higher (>0.3 mg/g) than in previously studied flavour-labelled products and of a chemical profile indicating added flavour chemicals. The results suggest that the tobacco industry has responded to sales restrictions by renaming flavoured products to avoid explicitly identifying them as flavoured. While chemical analysis is the most precise means of identifying flavours in tobacco products, federal tobacco laws pre-empt localities from basing regulations on that approach, limiting enforcement options. If the Food and Drug Administration would mandate that all tobacco products must indicate when flavourings are present above a specific level, local jurisdictions could enforce their sales restrictions. A level of 0.1 mg/g for total added flavour chemicals is suggested here as a relevant reference value for regulating added flavour chemicals in tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. SUSY in processes with flavour violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matak, P.

    2009-01-01

    I this work we present our first results of the calculation of the branching ratio for rare B 0 s meson di-muon decay. High energy physicists studied flavour changing processes in past decades very intensively. The reason is large sensitivity of such a processes on the contributions of the beyond Standard Model theories, where the amplitudes of flavour changing processes could be enhanced up to several orders by the new particle content. Most of their contributions come from extended Higgs sector. As an example of such a theory and we could say the most favourite one, is the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We choose the B 0 s → μ + μ - decay because of its experimental accessibility at LHC. Observation of this process will probably be one of the first signals of new particle physics. We started in our work with short introduction to the idea of supersymmetry, including its motivation in particle physics. Then, in the second chapter, we present the proper calculation of the decay amplitude and branching ration. In all calculations we used MS-renormalization scheme. (author)

  16. Recent heavy-flavour results from ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    2018-02-01

    The ATLAS heavy-ion program utilizes heavy-flavour hadrons to probe the hot, dense matter formed at the LHC. Quarkonium measurements have been performed in pp, p+Pb and Pb+Pb systems to study medium effects. The Pb+Pb results show a strong suppression of charmonium productions in more central events. Proton-lead interactions show little modification of the 1S charmonium state, but seem to indicate a centrality dependence of the 2S state. Upsilons have been studied in p+Pb and are found to show decreasing behaviour in more central collisions. Inclusive muons with pT above 4 GeV have been studied to provide insight on open-flavour production, and are found to be strongly suppressed in Pb+Pb collisions with a substantial and significant elliptic flow signal. Muon-hadron correlations have also been studied in the 2016 = 8.16 TeV p+Pb data. There are clear indications of a near-side ridge, suggesting that similar mechanisms may be relevant for both the small and large systems.

  17. Flavour symmetry breaking and tuning the strange quark mass for 2+1 quark flavours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Bornyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protovino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    QCD lattice simulations with 2+1 flavours typically start at rather large up-down and strange quark masses and extrapolate first the strange quark mass to its physical value and then the updown quark mass. An alternative method of tuning the quark masses is discussed here in which the singlet quark mass is kept fixed, which ensures that the kaon always has mass less than the physical kaon mass. Using group theory the possible quark mass polynomials for a Taylor expansion about the flavour symmetric line are found, which enables highly constrained fits to be used in the extrapolation of hadrons to the physical pion mass. Numerical results confirm the usefulness of this expansion and an extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives hadron mass values to within a few percent of their experimental values. (orig.)

  18. Modelling the effect of oil/fat content in food systems on flavour absorption by LLDPE.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the phenomena in food packaging interactions is flavour absorption. Absorption of flavour compounds from food products into food-packaging materials can result in loss of flavour compounds or an unbalance in the flavour profile changing a product's quality. The food matrix influences the

  19. Search for Lepton Flavour Violation at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; 10.1016/j.physletb.2011.05.023

    2011-01-01

    A search for second and third generation scalar and vector leptoquarks produced in ep collisions via the lepton flavour violating processes ep -> mu X and ep -> tau X is performed by the H1 experiment at HERA. The full data sample taken at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt{s} = 319 GeV is used for the analysis, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 245 pb^-1 of e^+ p and 166 pb^-1 of e^- p collision data. No evidence for the production of such leptoquarks is observed in the H1 data. Leptoquarks produced in e^+- p collisions with a coupling strength of lambda=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to leptoquark masses of 712 GeV and 479 GeV, respectively.

  20. Further developments in the Flavour Les Houches Accord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, F.; Heinemeyer, S.; Arbey, A.; Bharucha, A.; Goto, T.; Haisch, U.; Kraml, S.; Muhlleitner, M.; Reuter, J.; Slavich, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Flavour Les Houches Accord (FLHA) specifies a standard set of conventions for flavour-related parameters and observables such as Wilson coefficients, form factors, decay tables, etc, using the generic SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA) file structure. The accord provides a model-independent interface between codes evaluating and/or using flavour related observables. We present here a few clarifications and improvements to the accord. In addition, we provide instructions for a new block concerning the electric and magnetic dipole moments. (authors)

  1. Flavour breaking effects in the pseudoscalar meson decay constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Bornyakov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The SU(3 flavour symmetry breaking expansion in up, down and strange quark masses is extended from hadron masses to meson decay constants. This allows a determination of the ratio of kaon to pion decay constants in QCD. Furthermore when using partially quenched valence quarks the expansion is such that SU(2 isospin breaking effects can also be determined. It is found that the lowest order SU(3 flavour symmetry breaking expansion (or Gell-Mann–Okubo expansion works very well. Simulations are performed for 2+1 flavours of clover fermions at four lattice spacings.

  2. Neutrino masses and mixing: a flavour symmetry roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morisi, S.; Valle, J.W.F. [AHEP Group, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-04-02

    Over the last ten years tri-bimaximal mixing has played an important role in modeling the flavour problem. We give a short review of the status of flavour symmetry models of neutrino mixing. We concentrate on non-Abelian discrete symmetries, which provide a simple way to account for the TBM pattern. We discuss phenomenological implications such as neutrinoless double beta decay, lepton flavour violation as well as theoretical aspects such as the possibility to explain quarks and leptons within a common framework, such as grand unified models. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Minimal flavour violation and neutrino masses without R-parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcadi, G.; Di Luzio, L.; Nardecchia, M.

    2012-01-01

    symmetry breaking all the couplings of the superpotential including the R-parity violating ones. If R-parity violation is responsible for neutrino masses, our setup can be seen as an extension of MFV to the lepton sector. We analyze two patterns based on the non-abelian flavour symmetries SU(3)(4) circle...... times SU(4) and SU(3)(5). In the former case the total lepton number and the lepton flavour number are broken together, while in the latter the lepton number can be broken independently by an abelian spurion, so that visible effects and peculiar correlations can be envisaged in flavour changing charged...

  4. Meat flavour in pork and beef - From animal to meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaslyng, Margit D; Meinert, Lene

    2017-10-01

    An intense meat flavour is greatly appreciated by consumers. Meat flavour is generated during the cooking process through a complex series of chemical reactions between precursors, intermediate reaction products and degradation products. The content and nature of the precursors present in the meat are affected by several factors including genetics, feed, handling of the live animals and subsequent handling of the meat. The fatty acid composition can easily be altered though feeding, especially in monogastric animals, while the carbohydrate content is more closely related to genetics (pigs), feeding in the last days before slaughter and handling at slaughter (both ante and post mortem). Ageing of the meat is not particularly important for the flavour, unless the meat is dry-aged. In comparison, cooking is crucial for the development of flavour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Flavour Geometry and Effective Yukawa Couplings in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Lee, Jae Sik; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2010-01-01

    We present a new geometric approach to the flavour decomposition of an arbitrary soft supersymmetry-breaking sector in the MSSM. Our approach is based on the geometry that results from the quark and lepton Yukawa couplings, and enables us to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for a linearly-independent basis of matrices related to the completeness of the internal [SU(3) x U(1)]^5 flavour space. In a second step, we calculate the effective Yukawa couplings that are enhanced at large values of tan(beta) for general soft supersymmetry-breaking mass parameters. We highlight the contributions due to non-universal terms in the flavour decompositions of the sfermion mass matrices. We present numerical examples illustrating how such terms are induced by renormalization-group evolution starting from universal input boundary conditions, and demonstrate their importance for the flavour-violating effective Yukawa couplings of quarks.

  6. Euroopa Liidu 7. Raamprogrammi projekt FLAVOURE / Marge Malbe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Malbe, Marge, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    2009. a sai Eesti Maaviljeluse Instituut 843,270.00 € suuruse Euroopa Liidu finantseeringu 3 aastat kestva projekti FLAVOURE (Food and Feed Laboratory of Varied and Outstanding Research in Estonia) läbiviimiseks ja koordineerimiseks

  7. Flavour and collider interplay for SUSY at LHC7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibbi, L.; Hodgkinson, R.N.; Vives, O.; Jones Perez, J.; Masiero, A.

    2012-01-01

    The current 7 TeV run of the LHC experiment shall be able to probe gluino and squark masses up to values larger than 1 TeV. Assuming that hints for SUSY are found in the jets plus missing energy channel by the end of a 5 fb -1 run, we explore the flavour constraints on three models with a CMSSM-like spectrum: the CMSSM itself, a seesaw extension of the CMSSM, and Flavoured CMSSM. In particular, we focus on decays that might have been measured by the time the run is concluded, such as B s →μμ and μ→e γ. We also analyse constraints imposed by neutral meson bounds and electric dipole moments. The interplay between collider and flavour experiments is explored through the use of three benchmark scenarios, finding the flavour feedback useful in order to determine the model parameters and to test the consistency of the different models. (orig.)

  8. Flavour-symmetric type-II Dirac neutrino seesaw mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Cesar; Lamprea, J. M.; Peinado, Eduardo; Valle, Jose W. F.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a Standard Model extension with underlying A4 flavour symmetry where small Dirac neutrino masses arise from a Type-II seesaw mechanism. The model predicts the "golden" flavour-dependent bottom-tau mass relation, requires an inverted neutrino mass ordering and non-maximal atmospheric mixing angle. Using the latest neutrino oscillation global fit [1] we derive restrictions on the oscillation parameters, such as a correlation between δCP and mνlightest.

  9. Dark matter within the minimal flavour violation ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Honorez, Laura; Merlo, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Minimal Flavour Violation hypothesis can provide an attractive framework for Dark Matter (DM). We consider scalar DM candidates carrying flavour quantum numbers and whose representation under the flavour group guarantees DM stability. They interact with the Standard Model fields through Higgs portal at renormalisable level and also to quarks through dimension-6 operators. We provide a systematic analysis of the viable parameter space for the DM fields, which are triplet of the flavour group, considering several DM-quark interactions. In this framework, we analyse in which cases the viable parameter space differs from Higgs portal models thanks to the underlying flavour structure. In contrast to minimal Higgs portal scenarios, we find that light DM in the GeV mass range as well as heavier candidates above Higgs resonance could be allowed by colliders, direct and indirect DM detection searches as well as flavour constraints. The large mass regime above m t could even be beyond the reach of future experiments such as Xenon 1T

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 201Rev1: 2-Alkylated, aliphatic, acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and precursors, with or without additional double-bonds, from chemical subgroup 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider in this revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 201, the additional data on genotoxicity submitted by the Industry on two substances, 2-methylpent-2-enal....... The Panel therefore concluded that further data are required in order to clarify the genotoxic potential of this subgroup. The Panel considers the Comet assay with [FL-no: 05.095] as test material and performed on liver, blood and first site of contact, as a preferred option to further investigate...

  11. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, Revision 1 (FGE.66Rev1): Consideration of Furfuryl Alcohol and Related Flavouring Substances Evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the s...

  12. Flavour blindness and patterns of flavour symmetry breaking in lattice simulations of up, down and strange quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Univ. Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Bornyakov, V. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protovino (Russian Federation); Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2011-02-15

    QCD lattice simulations with 2+1 flavours typically start at rather large up-down and strange quark masses and extrapolate first the strange quark mass to its physical value and then the up-down quark mass. An alternative method of tuning the quark masses is discussed here in which the singlet quark mass is kept fixed, which ensures that the kaon always has mass less than the physical kaon mass. Using group theory the possible quark mass polynomials for a Taylor expansion about the flavour symmetric line are found, first for the general 1+1+1 flavour case and then for the 2+1 flavour case (when two quark flavours are mass degenerate). These enable highly constrained fits to be used in the extrapolation of hadrons to the physical pion mass. Numerical results for the 2+1 flavour case confirm the usefulness of this expansion and an extrapolation to the physical pion mass gives hadron mass values to within a few percent of their experimental values. Singlet quantities remain constant which allows the lattice spacing to be determined from hadron masses (without necessarily being at the physical point). Furthermore an extension of this programme to include partially quenched results is also given. (orig.)

  13. Potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for the characterisation of maple syrup flavours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, Bernard; Clément, Alain; Lagacé, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Maple syrup has high maket value. It is produced in North East America from the heat-evaporated sap of Acer saccharum Marshall. For marketing purposes, there is interest in defining its flavour profile in a consistent and repeatable manner. An experiment was undertaken to explore the potential of autofluorescence of maple syrup induced at 275 and 360 nm to characterise flavours. A mixed data factor analysis revealed two independent groups of variables. One represents early season woody and late season empyreumatic flavours. The other is related to off-flavour, confectionery and maple flavours. Maple and confectionery flavours are subtle, difficult to distinguish and opposed to off-flavour. There were clear relationships among the two groups and fluorescence profiles. For each of the five basic flavours, discriminant models based on partial least squares regressions were developed. For each sample of syrup, flavours combined to form flavour profiles, and the results from the five discriminant models were aggregated to reproduce these profiles. For excitation at 275 nm, the woody/off-flavour and confectionery/empyreumatic/maple flavour profiles were classified correctly 86 and 78% of the time (cross-validation) respectively. Induced autofluorescence spectra were shown to contain information related to maple syrup flavours. This fluorescence-flavour relationship is not considered quantitative yet, and further research avenues are proposed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Search for lepton flavour violation at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-03-15

    A search for second and third generation scalar and vector leptoquarks produced in ep collisions via the lepton flavour violating processes ep{yields}{mu}X and ep{yields}{tau}X is performed by the H1 experiment at HERA. The full data sample taken at a centre-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=319 GeV is used for the analysis, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 245 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}p and 166 pb{sup -1} of e{sup -}p collision data. No evidence for the production of such leptoquarks is observed in the H1 data. Leptoquarks produced in e{sup {+-}}p collisions with a coupling strength of {lambda}=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to leptoquark masses of 712 GeV and 479 GeV, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Anomaly-free models for flavour anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Tunney, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    We explore the constraints imposed by the cancellation of triangle anomalies on models in which the flavour anomalies reported by LHCb and other experiments are due to an extra U(1)^' gauge boson Z^' . We assume universal and rational U(1)^' charges for the first two generations of left-handed quarks and of right-handed up-type quarks but allow different charges for their third-generation counterparts. If the right-handed charges vanish, cancellation of the triangle anomalies requires all the quark U(1)^' charges to vanish, if there are either no exotic fermions or there is only one Standard Model singlet dark matter (DM) fermion. There are non-trivial anomaly-free models with more than one such `dark' fermion, or with a single DM fermion if right-handed up-type quarks have non-zero U(1)^' charges. In some of the latter models the U(1)^' couplings of the first- and second-generation quarks all vanish, weakening the LHC Z^' constraint, and in some other models the DM particle has purely axial couplings, weakening the direct DM scattering constraint. We also consider models in which anomalies are cancelled via extra vector-like leptons, showing how the prospective LHC Z^' constraint may be weakened because the Z^' → μ ^+ μ ^- branching ratio is suppressed relative to other decay modes.

  16. On flavourful Easter eggs for New Physics hunger and lepton flavour universality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuchini, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Coutinho, Antonio M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Rome (Italy); Fedele, Marco [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Franco, Enrico; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    Within the standard approach of effective field theory of weak interactions for ΔB = 1 transitions, we look for possibly unexpected subtle New Physics effects, here dubbed ''flavourful Easter eggs''. We perform a Bayesian global fit using the publicly available HEPfit package, taking into account state-of-the-art experimental information concerning these processes, including the suggestive measurements from LHCb of R{sub K} and R{sub K{sup *}}, the latter available only very recently. We parametrise New Physics contributions to b → s transitions in terms of shifts of Wilson coefficients of the electromagnetic dipole and semileptonic operators, assuming CP-conserving effects, but allowing in general for violation of lepton flavour universality. We show how optimistic/conservative hadronic estimates can impact quantitatively the size of New Physics extracted from the fit. With a conservative approach to hadronic uncertainties we find nonzero New Physics contributions to Wilson coefficients at the level of ∝ 3σ, depending on the model chosen. Furthermore, given the interplay between hadronic contributions and New Physics effects in the leptonic vector current, a scenario with nonstandard leptonic axial currents is comparable to the more widely advocated one with New Physics in the leptonic vector current. (orig.)

  17. On flavourful Easter eggs for New Physics hunger and lepton flavour universality violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciuchini, Marco; Coutinho, Antonio M.; Fedele, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Within the standard approach of effective field theory of weak interactions for ΔB = 1 transitions, we look for possibly unexpected subtle New Physics effects, here dubbed ''flavourful Easter eggs''. We perform a Bayesian global fit using the publicly available HEPfit package, taking into account state-of-the-art experimental information concerning these processes, including the suggestive measurements from LHCb of R K and R K * , the latter available only very recently. We parametrise New Physics contributions to b → s transitions in terms of shifts of Wilson coefficients of the electromagnetic dipole and semileptonic operators, assuming CP-conserving effects, but allowing in general for violation of lepton flavour universality. We show how optimistic/conservative hadronic estimates can impact quantitatively the size of New Physics extracted from the fit. With a conservative approach to hadronic uncertainties we find nonzero New Physics contributions to Wilson coefficients at the level of ∝ 3σ, depending on the model chosen. Furthermore, given the interplay between hadronic contributions and New Physics effects in the leptonic vector current, a scenario with nonstandard leptonic axial currents is comparable to the more widely advocated one with New Physics in the leptonic vector current. (orig.)

  18. Biovanillin from agro wastes as an alternative food flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzuri, Nur Ain; Abd-Aziz, Suraini

    2013-02-01

    This review provides an overview of biovanillin production from agro wastes as an alternative food flavour. Biovanillin is one of the widely used flavour compounds in the foods, beverages and pharmaceutical industries. An alternative production approach for biovanillin as a food flavour is hoped for due to the high and variable cost of natural vanillin as well as the limited availability of vanilla pods in the market. Natural vanillin refers to the main organic compound that is extracted from the vanilla bean, as compared to biovanillin, which is produced biologically by microorganisms from a natural precursor such as ferulic acid. Biovanillin is also reviewed as a potential bioflavour produced by microbial fermentation in an economically feasible way in the near future. In fact, we briefly discuss natural, synthetic and biovanillin and the types of agro wastes that are useful as sources for bioconversion of ferulic acid into biovanillin. The subsequent part of the review emphasizes the current application of vanillin as well as the utilization of biovanillin as an alternative food flavour. The final part summarizes biovanillin production from agro wastes that could be of benefit as a food flavour derived from potential natural precursors. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Inclusive tagging of B-flavour at LHCb [Vidyo

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important procedure needed for the study of CP violation in Beauty sector is the tagging of the flavour of neutral B-mesons at production. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present a proposal to upgrade current flavour tagging strategy in LHCb experiment. This strategy consists of inclusive tagging ensemble methods (i.e: the use inclusive information about the event without a firm selection rule), which are combined using a probabilistic model for each event. The probabilistic model uses all reconstructed tracks and secondary vertices to obtain well-determined probability of B flavour at production. Such approach reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus has the potential to increase the overall performance.

  20. Signatures of top flavour-changing dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondt, Jorgen d'; Mariotti, Alberto; Moortgat, Seth; Tziveloglou, Pantelis

    2015-12-01

    We develop the phenomenology of scenarios in which a dark matter candidate interacts with a top quark through flavour-changing couplings, employing a simplified dark matter model with an s-channel vector-like mediator. We study in detail the top-charm flavour-changing interaction, by investigating the single top plus large missing energy signature at the LHC as well as constraints from the relic density and direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. We present strategies to distinguish between the top-charm and top-up flavour-changing models by taking advantage of the lepton charge asymmetry as well as by using charm-tagging techniques on an extra jet. We also show the complementarity between the LHC and canonical dark matter experiments in exploring the viable parameter space of the models.

  1. Challenges for New Physics in the Flavour Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crivellin, A.

    2014-09-01

    In these proceedings I present a personal perspective of the challenges for new physics (NP) searches in the flavour sector. Since the CKM mechanism of flavour violation has been established to a very high precision, we know that physics beyond the Standard Model can only contribute sub-dominantly. Therefore, any realistic model of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) must respect the stringent constrains from flavour observables like b → sγ, B S → μ + μ - , ΔF=2 processes etc., in a first step. In a second step, it is interesting to ask the question if some deviations from the SM predictions (like the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon or recently observed discrepancies in tauonic B decays or B → K*μ + μ - ) can be explained by a model of NP without violating bounds from other observables. (author)

  2. Challenges for New Physics in the Flavour Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In these proceedings I present a personal perspective of the challenges for new physics (NP) searches in the flavour sector. Since the CKM mechanism of flavour violation has been established to a very high precision, we know that physics beyond the Standard Model can only contribute sub-dominantly. Therefore, any realistic model of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) must respect the stringent constrains from flavour observables like $b\\to s \\gamma$, $B_s\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$, $\\Delta F=2$ processes etc., in a first step. In a second step, it is interesting to ask the question if some deviations from the SM predictions (like the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon or recently observed discrepancies in tauonic $B$ decays or $B\\to K^*\\mu^+\\mu^-$) can be explained by a model of NP without violating bounds from other observables.

  3. Impact of Wort Amino Acids on Beer Flavour: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês M. Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process by which beer is brewed has not changed significantly since its discovery thousands of years ago. Grain is malted, dried, crushed and mixed with hot water to produce wort. Yeast is added to the sweet, viscous wort, after which fermentation occurs. The biochemical events that occur during fermentation reflect the genotype of the yeast strain used, and its phenotypic expression is influenced by the composition of the wort and the conditions established in the fermenting vessel. Although wort is complex and not completely characterized, its content in amino acids indubitably affects the production of some minor metabolic products of fermentation which contribute to the flavour of beer. These metabolic products include higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulfur-containing compounds. The formation of these products is comprehensively reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, the role of amino acids in the beer flavour, in particular their relationships with flavour active compounds, is discussed in light of recent data.

  4. Controlled flavour changing neutral couplings in two Higgs Doublet models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Joao M.; Branco, Gustavo C.; Nebot, Miguel [Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Lisboa Univ., Departamento de Fisica e Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Lisboa (Portugal); Botella, Francisco J.; Cornet-Gomez, Fernando [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain)

    2017-09-15

    We propose a class of two Higgs doublet models where there are flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) at tree level, but under control due to the introduction of a discrete symmetry in the full Lagrangian. It is shown that in this class of models, one can have simultaneously FCNC in the up and down sectors, in contrast to the situation encountered in the renormalisable and minimal flavour violating 2HDM models put forward by Branco et al. (Phys Lett B 380:119, 1996). The intensity of FCNC is analysed and it is shown that in this class of models one can respect all the strong constraints from experiment without unnatural fine-tuning. It is pointed out that the additional sources of flavour and CP violation are such that they can enhance significantly the generation of the Baryon asymmetry of the Universe, with respect to the standard model. (orig.)

  5. Minimal flavour violation in the quark and lepton sector and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, S.L.

    2008-01-07

    We address to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe in a framework that generalizes the quark minimal flavour violation hypothesis to the lepton sector. We study the impact of CP violation present at low and high energies and investigate the existence of correlations among leptogenesis and lepton flavour violation. Further we present an approach alternative to minimal flavour violation where the suppression of flavour changing transitions involving quarks and leptons is governed by hierarchical fermion wave functions. (orig.)

  6. LHCb: Optimization and Calibration of Flavour Tagging Algorithms for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Falabella, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb purposes are to make precise measurements of $B$ and $D$ meson decays. In particular in time-dependent CP violation studies the determination of $B$ flavour at production is fundamental. This is known as "flavour tagging" and at LHCb it is performed with several algorithms. The performances and calibration of the flavour tagging algorithms with 2011 data collected by LHCb are reported. Also the performances of the flavour tagging algorithms in the relevant CP violation and asymmetry studies are also reported.

  7. LHCb: Optimization and Calibration of Flavour Tagging Algorithms for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Falabella, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb purposes are to make precise measurements in $B$ and $D$ meson decays. In particular in time-dependent CP violation studies the determination of $B$ flavour at production ("Flavour Tagging") is fundamental. The performances and calibration of the flavour tagging algorithms with 2011 data collected by LHCb are reported. The performances of the flavour tagging algorithms on the relevant CP violation and asymmetry studies are also reported.

  8. Event displays with heavy flavour jets from 2016 CMS data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A broad range of physics analyses at CMS rely on the efficient identification of heavy flavour jets. Identification of these objects is a challenging task, especially in the presence of a large number of multiple interactions per bunch crossing. The presented summary contains a set of graphical displays of reconstructed events in data collected by CMS in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV in 2016. The displays highlight the main properties of heavy flavour jets in several event topologies, including QCD multijet, top quark pair, W+c and boosted H to bb.

  9. Non-thermal Unruh radiation for flavour neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasone, M.; Lambiase, G.; Luciano, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    In the quantum field theory framework, both flavour mixing and Unruh effect have been shown to arise from Bogoliubov transformations connecting inequivalent Hilbert spaces. In the present work, we study how these transformations combine when field mixing for an accelerated observer (Rindler observer) is considered. In particular, a simplified two–flavour model involving Dirac neutrino fields is analyzed. In spite of such basic setting, we find that the spectrum of Unruh radiation gets significantly modified, losing its characteristic thermal behaviour. Exploiting this result, the possibility of fixing new constraints on the neutrino squared mass differences is investigated.

  10. Jagiellonian University Heavy flavour highlights from the LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00640989

    2017-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the flavour anomalies observed by the LHCb experiment. All results are based on the dataset collected during the full LHC Run 1 by the LHCb Collaboration. Measurements of branching fractions of several $b \\rightarrow sll$ decays are presented together with the angular analysis of $B^{0} \\rightarrow K∗ \\mu^{+}\\mu^{−}$ decays and the lepton flavour universality tests R(K) and R(D∗). In addition, a direct search for a new light scalar particle in the $B^{+} \\rightarrow K^{+}\\chi$ decay, with $\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$, is presented.

  11. FlavBit : a GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernlochner, F.U.; Chrząszcz, M.; Dal, L.A.; Farmer, B.; Jackson, P.; Kvellestad, A.; Mahmoudi, F.; Putze, A.; Rogan, C.; Scott, P.; Serra, N.; Weniger, C.; White, M.

    2017-01-01

    Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour

  12. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese : their formation and their contribution to flavour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01


    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour

  13. Flavour development in pork. Influence of flavour precursor concentrations in longissimus dorsi from pigs with different raw meat qualities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis

    2009-01-01

    Flavour development and overall eating quality of pan-fried pork chops of longissimus dorsi from eight different raw meat qualities aged for 4 and IS days were assessed by a trained sensory panel. The raw meat qualities were obtained through combinations of strategic feeding/fasting (control vs....... low glycogen concentration), slaughter live-weight (84 kg vs. 110 kg), and gender (female vs. castrate). The flavour development was investigated for possible correlation with the concentrations of selected individual flavour precursors present in the raw meat: rnonosaccharides, IMP and degradation...... products, fatty acids, lactate and thiamine. Differences in precursor concentrations between the raw Meat qualities were observed with feeding/fasting and ageing as the main factors with the largest influence of all experimental factors. However, the concentrations of the precursors could not explain...

  14. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 215 (FGE.215): Seven α,β-Unsaturated Cinnamyl Ketones from subgroup 3.2 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of flavouring substances from subgroup 3.2 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 215 (FGE.215). The Flavour Industry has pro...

  15. Use of locally available flavouring materials in suppressing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... effect of blending soymilk with pineapple, banana, lemongrass, honey or sugar on acceptability of the resulting blends. Sensory evaluation ... Banana-flavoured blends resulted in phase separation that accounted for the relatively low acceptance. Soymilk ...

  16. Physicochemical parameters related to organoleptic properties of flavour components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, M.H.; Gemert, L.J. van

    1986-01-01

    Straight chain, saturated and unsarurated, aldehydes are important constituents of citrus fruit, dairy, vegetable, meat and other flavours. For instance, alkanals and 2-alkenals (C6 to C14) have been detected and quantified in Bitter Orange Oil. The organoleptic qualities and threshold values of

  17. Effect of tomato pleiotropic ripening mutations on flavour volatile biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, K.; Fray, R.G.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Graham, N.; Bradley, G.; Seymour, G.B.; Bovy, A.G.; Grierson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Ripening is a tightly controlled and developmentally regulated process involving networks of genes, and metabolites that result in dramatic changes in fruit colour, texture and flavour. Molecular and genetic analysis in tomato has revealed a series of regulatory genes involved in fruit development

  18. LHCb results on flavour physics and implications to BSM

    CERN Document Server

    Langenbruch, C

    2014-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated flavour physics experiment at the LHC. Precision measurements of CP violation and the study of rare decays of hadrons containing beauty and charm quarks constitute powerful searches for New Physics. A selection of recent LHCb results and their implications to physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed.

  19. Nothing in Biology makes Sense without the Flavour of Mathematics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. Nothing in Biology makes Sense without the Flavour of Mathematics. H A Ranganath. General Article Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 49-56. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Heavy Flavour Cross Section Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Chris; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of heavy flavour production are presented using b-hadron decays to the D*muX final state, inclusive D(*) meson production, inclusive electron and muon production and b-jet tagging. The results are compared with QCD calculations. This is a review talk prepared for the BEACH 2012 conference, 23-28 July 2012.

  1. Effect of irradiation on the flavour of Iraqi dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaddou, H.; Al-Hakim, M.

    1978-01-01

    A method was developed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the flavour of dates that involved low temperature distillation under reduced pressure. The distillate was freeze concentrated before solvent extraction. Zahdi dates were given three doses of 50, 100 and 150krad. Combined treatments of heat plus irradiation were also applied: 50krad+50 0 C, 100krad+50 0 C and 150krad+50 0 C. Flavour analyses were carried out immediately after irradiation and after 3 weeks of storage. Both the acid and non-acid fractions of the distillates were found to retain the initial aroma. Gas-chromatography was used to separate the fractions into their various constituents. The volatile free fatty acids isolated form data distillates are C 6 , C 8 , C 9 , C 10 , C 11 , C 12 , C 14 , C 16 , C 18 , Csub(18:2) and C 20 . Increases in the quantity of most of the free fatty acid contents of dates over those of controls were noticed. This increase did not impart any odd flavour to the product, indicating that the free fatty acids are present in concentrations below their threshold values. Little change was noticed when the non-acid fractions were separated by gas-chromatography, indicating that irradiation at this low level and the combined heat and irradiation treatments used in this experiment have no effect on the flavour of the product. (author)

  2. Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: flavour absorption, scalping, packaging, food matrix, lldpe, ldpe, pp, pc, pet, pen,b-lactoglobulin, casein, pectin, cmc, lactose, saccharose, oil, modelling, storage, oxygen permeability, taste perception,

  3. Formation of Amino Acid Derived Cheese Flavour Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), among them Lactococcus lactis, are often used for the fermentation of milk into various products, such as cheeses. For their growth and maintenance LAB metabolise milk sugar, protein and fat into various low molecular compounds, which sometimes have strong flavour

  4. Linear Collider Flavour Identification status report: Sensors for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Linear Collider Flavour Identification (LCFI) collaboration is continuing the work to develop column-parallel CCDs (CPCCD) and CMOS readout chips to be used in the vertex detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The CPCCD achieves several orders of magnitude faster readout than conventional CCDs ...

  5. LHCb : Search for Lepton Flavour Violation at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Rives Molina, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations has re-opened the case for searches of lepton-flavour violating decays. We report on recent results on searches for short or long-lived Majorana heavy neutrinos in B&arr;μμπ and τ→μμμ decays

  6. Flavour alignment in physics beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Carolin Barbara

    2012-11-21

    There are numerous reasons to think that the Standard Model of physics is not the ultimate theory of nature on very small scales. However, attempts to construct theories that go beyond the Standard Model generically lead to high rates of flavour changing neutral processes that are in conflict with experiment: Quarks are the fundamental constituents of protons and neutrons. Together with electrons they form the visible matter of the universe1. They come in three generations or ''flavours''. In interactions, quarks of different generations can mix, i.e. a quark of one flavour can transform into a quark of another flavour. In the Standard Model, at first order in perturbation theory, such processes occur only via the exchange of a charged particle. Flavour changing neutral processes can only arise in processes involving loops of charged particles. This is due to the fact that all couplings of two quarks to a neutral particle are diagonal in the basis of the mass eigenstates of the quarks. There is thus no mixing of quarks of different flavour at first order. Since the loop processes are suppressed by a loop factor, the Standard Model predicts very low rates for neutral processes that change the flavour of quarks. So far, this is in agreement with experiment. In extensions of the Standard Model, new couplings to the quarks are usually introduced. In general there is no reason why the new coupling matrices should be diagonal in the mass basis of the quarks. These models therefore predict high rates for processes that mix quarks of different flavour. Extensions of the Standard Model must therefore have a non-trivial flavour structure. A possibility to avoid flavour violation is to assume that the new couplings are aligned with the mass matrices of the quarks, i.e. diagonal in the same basis. This alignment could be due to a flavour symmetry. In this thesis, two extensions of the Standard Model with alignment are studied. The first is a simple

  7. SU(2) Gauge Theory with Two Fundamental Flavours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Drach, Vincent; Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the continuum spectrum of the SU(2) gauge theory with $N_f=2$ flavours of fermions in the fundamental representation. This model provides a minimal template which is ideal for a wide class of Standard Model extensions featuring novel strong dynamics that range from composite...

  8. Masses and magnetic moments of triple heavy flavour baryons in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the spin-flavour structure of the constituting quarks and by defining effective mass of the confined quarks within the baryons, the magnetic moments are computed with no additional free parameters. Keywords. Hypercentral constituent quark model; charmed and beauty baryons; hyper-. Coulomb plus power potential; ...

  9. Supersymmetry, the flavour puzzle and rare B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, David Michael

    2010-07-14

    The gauge hierarchy problem and the flavour puzzle belong to the most pressing open questions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Supersymmetry is arguably the most popular framework of physics beyond the Standard Model and provides an elegant solution to the gauge hierarchy problem; however, it aggravates the flavour puzzle. In the first part of this thesis, I discuss several approaches to address the flavour puzzle in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model and experimental tests thereof: supersymmetric grand unified theories with a unification of Yukawa couplings at high energies, theories with minimal flavour violation and additional sources of CP violation and theories with gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and a large ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values. In the second part of the thesis, I discuss the phenomenology of two rare B meson decay modes which are promising probes of physics beyond the Standard Model: The exclusive B {yields} K{sup *}l{sup +}l{sup -} decay, whose angular decay distribution will be studied at LHC and gives access to a large number of observables and the b{yields}s{nu}anti {nu} decays, which are in the focus of planned high-luminosity Super B factories. I discuss the predictions for these observables in the Standard Model and their sensitivity to New Physics. (orig.)

  10. On flavour and naturalness of composite Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsedonskyi, Oleksii

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the interplay of the constraints imposed on flavour-symmetric Composite Higgs models by Naturalness considerations and the constraints derived from Flavour Physics and Electroweak Precision Tests. Our analysis is based on the Effective Field Theory which describes the Higgs as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson and also includes the composite fermionic resonances. Within this approach one is able to identify the directions in the parameter space where the U(3)-symmetric flavour models can pass the current experimental constraints, without conflicting with the light Higgs mass. We also derive the general features of the U(2)-symmetric models required by the experimental bounds, in case of elementary and totally composite t R . An effect in the Zb-barb coupling, which can potentially allow for sizable deviations in Z→b-barb decay parameters without modifying flavour physics observables, is identified. We also present the analysis of the mixed scenario, where the top quark mass is generated due to Partial Compositeness while the light quark masses are Technicolor-like.

  11. Volatile flavour components of grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez, A.J.; Maarse, H.; Bemelmans, J.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of volatile flavour components in grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) was performed using a gas chromatography/mass spectro‐metry/computer system which allowed the identification of 58 components, 25 of them being reported for the first time. The aroma concentrates

  12. Hip-Hop and Bongo Flavour Music in Contemporary Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used as instruments to innovate and produce change, this article argues that Bongo Flavour and hip-hop are not only music genres, but also cultural expressions necessary for the understanding of a substantial part of contemporary Tanzanian youths. The focus here is on young male artists living in urban environments.

  13. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N =

  14. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N=69:

  15. Leptonic minimal flavour violation in warped extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-10

    Oct 10, 2012 ... Abstract. Lepton mass hierarchies and lepton flavour violation are revisited in the framework of. Randall–Sundrum models. Models with Dirac-type as well as Majorana-type neutrinos are con- sidered. The five-dimensional c-parameters are fit to the charged lepton and neutrino masses and mixings using χ2 ...

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 309 (FGE.309): Sodium Diacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate sodium diacetate [FL-no: 16.073] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 309, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. However, although...... on Food. Based on this group ADI, the use as sodium diacetate as a flavouring substance at the current levels of dietary intake raises no safety concern....

  17. Quark-flavour phenomenology of models with extended gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Gauge invariance is one of the fundamental principles of the Standard Model of particles and interactions, and it is reasonable to believe that it also regulates the physics beyond it. In this thesis we have studied the theory and phenomenology of two New Physics models based on gauge symmetries that are extensions of the Standard Model group. Both of them are particularly interesting because they provide some answers to the question of the origin of flavour, which is still unexplained. Moreover, the flavour sector represents a promising field for the research of indirect signatures of New Physics, since after the first run of LHC we do not have any direct hint of it yet. The first model assumes that flavour is a gauge symmetry of nature, SU(3) 3 f , spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation values of new scalar fields; the second model is based on the gauge group SU(3) c x SU(3) L x U(1) X , the simplest non-abelian extension of the Standard Model group. We have traced the complete theoretical building of the models, from the gauge group, passing through the nonanomalous fermion contents and the appropriate symmetry breakings, up to the spectra and the Feynman rules, with a particular attention to the treatment of the flavour structure, of tree-level Flavour Changing Neutral Currents and of new CP-violating phases. In fact, these models present an interesting flavour phenomenology, and for both of them we have analytically calculated the contributions to the ΔF=2 and ΔF=1 down-type transitions, arising from new tree-level and box diagrams. Subsequently, we have performed a comprehensive numerical analysis of the phenomenology of the two models. In both cases we have found very effective the strategy of first to identify the quantities able to provide the strongest constraints to the parameter space, then to systematically scan the allowed regions of the latter in order to obtain indications about the key flavour observables, namely the mixing parameters of

  18. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2 (FGE.24Rev2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 24 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision.......002, 14.023, 14.094, 14.107, 14.138, 14.145, 14.163 and 14.169], for which additional data were requested, are no longer supported by Industry for use as flavouring substances in Europe and will therefore not be considered any further. None of the 24 substances were considered to have genotoxic potential...

  19. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part 1: occurrence and contents of monoterpenes in Earl Grey teas marketed in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Yu, Lu; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Estimations of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods play a central role in the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. To assess uncertainties, actual data regarding the occurrence and concentration levels of flavouring substances were determined in commercially available flavoured foods, using Earl Grey tea as an example. The contents of the consistently occurring monoterpenes linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, β-pinene and γ-terpinene were determined in 90 tea samples purchased in 10 European Union member states. Rather narrow frequency distributions were observed for the major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool. The factors (1) country of purchase, (2) source of the products (national/international brands versus private label brands versus speciality tea shops), and (3) enantiomeric purities of the flavouring substances had no significant impact on the contents of the flavouring substances. Only in teas sold as loose leaves were the median contents of linalyl acetate and linalool (66% and 39%, respectively) higher than in teas offered in tea bags. Significant losses of flavouring substances were observed on storage of teas, indicating an impact of the type of packaging and the flavouring technology on the contents of flavouring substances in the product finally consumed.

  20. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Heavy flavour production and heavy flavour mixing at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijk, B. van.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis some results of the proton-antiproton-collision experiment UA1 with the CERN Super Proton-Antiproton Synchrotron are presented and interpreted. Ch. 1 contians a general introduction to the physics motivations behind the proton-antiproton-collider project, a brief description of the CERN facilities and a summary of collider and UA1 physics achievements. Furthermore the concept of studying heavy flavours via their weak decays into muons is introduced. Ch. 2 gives a brief overview of the UA1 experimental set-up, while those parts of the detector that are relevant for the analysis, presented in this thesis, is discussed in some more detail. Ch. 3 contains a short introduction to, and motivation for the use of Monte Carlo techniques in event simulations, while Ch. 4 describes the framework of the recently developed 'EUROJET' event generator. In Ch. 5 a treatment is given of the theoretical background and concepts like 'quark-mixing' and 'CP-violation' are explained, also other useful definitions and formulae are introduced on which the later analysis of the same-sign to opposite-sign dimuon ratio is built. Data collection and event reconstruction is the subject of Ch. 6, while a detailed comparison between the theoretical models and experimentally obtained distributions is given in Ch. 7. Finally, in Ch. 8 some concluding remarks are made. 182 refs.; 81 figs.; 9 tabs

  2. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  3. Quantum resonant leptogenesis and minimal lepton flavour violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); De Simone, Andrea [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Isidori, Gino [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56100 Pisa (Italy); Masina, Isabella; Riotto, Antonio, E-mail: cirigliano@lanl.gov, E-mail: andreads@mit.edu, E-mail: Gino.Isidori@lnf.infn.it, E-mail: imasina@mail.cern.ch, E-mail: riotto@mail.cern.ch [CERN, Department of Physics, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2008-01-15

    It has recently been shown that the quantum Boltzmann equations may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario. In particular, they lead to a time-dependent CP asymmetry which depends upon the previous dynamics of the system. This memory effect in the CP asymmetry is particularly important in resonant leptogenesis where the asymmetry is generated by the decays of nearly mass-degenerate right-handed neutrinos. We study the impact of the non-trivial time evolution of the CP asymmetry in the so-called minimal lepton flavour violation framework where the charged-lepton and the neutrino Yukawa couplings are the only irreducible sources of lepton flavour symmetry breaking and resonant leptogenesis is achieved. We show that significant quantitative differences arise with respect to the case in which the time dependence of the CP asymmetry is neglected.

  4. Flavour-enhanced cortisol release during gum chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information. Salivary cortisol concentrations were highest and lowest for the subjects who chewed the most flavourful gum and the least flavourful gum, respectively. These findings suggest that the salivary cortisol level during gum chewing is not a marker of negative emotions (i.e., stressful conditions as traditionally considered but, rather, an index of positive emotions that can facilitate biological responses to overcome stressful conditions.

  5. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brümmer, Felix [SISSA/ISAS,Via Bonomea 265, Trieste I-34136 (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics,and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); CERN Theory Division,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-10

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3){sub F} symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3){sub F} is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3){sub F} breaking.

  6. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); McGarrie, Moritz [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.

    2014-04-15

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3){sub F} symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3){sub F} is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3){sub F} breaking.

  7. Quantum Resonant Leptogenesis and Minimal Lepton Flavour Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Isidori, Gino; Masina, Isabella; Riotto, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the quantum Boltzmann equations may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario. In particular, they lead to a time-dependent CP asymmetry which depends upon the previous dynamics of the system. This memory effect in the CP asymmetry is particularly important in resonant leptogenesis where the asymmetry is generated by the decays of nearly mass-degenerate right-handed neutrinos. We study the impact of the non-trivial time evolution of the CP asymmetry in the so-called Minimal Lepton Flavour Violation framework where the charged-lepton and the neutrino Yukawa couplings are the only irreducible sources of lepton-flavour symmetry breaking and resonant leptogenesis is achieved. We show that significant quantitative differences arise with respect to the case in which the time dependence of the CP asymmetry is neglected.

  8. Quasi-relativistic fermions and dynamical flavour oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean; Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce new Lorentz-symmetry violating kinematics for a four-fermion interaction model, where dynamical mass generation is allowed, irrespectively of the strength of the coupling. In addition, these kinematics lead to a quasi-relativistic dispersion relation, in the sense that it is relativistic in both the infrared and the ultraviolet, but not in an intermediate regime, characterized by the mass $M$. For two fermions, we show that a flavour-mixing mass matrix is generated dynamically, and the Lorentz symmetric limit $M\\to\\infty$ leads to two free relativistic fermions, with flavour oscillations. This model, valid for either Dirac or Majorana fermions, can describe any set of phenomenological values for the eigen masses and the mixing angle.

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 303 (FGE.303): Spilanthol from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... of the flavouring substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured....... In conclusion, for the candidate substance spilanthol [FL-no: 16.121] additional data on chemical defined material are required as a 28 day study is not considered sufficient to deriving a NOAEL....

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 305 (FGE.305): L - Methionylglycine of chemical group 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, the dipeptide L-methionylglycine [FL-no: 17.037], in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 305, using the Procedure in Commission...... data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that for the flavouring substance, evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. The present evaluation of the candidate substance L-methionylglycine [FL-no: 17.037] is only applicable for its...... use in foods that are not heated or intended to be heated. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the material of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have...

  11. Enhanced flavour extraction in continuous liquid-liquid extractors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Apps, P

    2005-08-12

    Full Text Available , Determination of 1,2,3- Trichloropropane in Drinking Water by Continuous Liquid?Liquid Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, 2002, p. 1. [11] A. Buettner, P. Schieberle, J. Agric. Food Chem. 47...: Sample preparation; Liquid?liquid extraction; Solvent extraction; Aroma; Flavour; Fruit; Guava; Pineapple; Gas chromatography; Mass spectrometry 1. Introduction ?Sample preparation is one of the most critical aspects of the analysis of complex matrices...

  12. The pT spectrum in heavy-flavour hadroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, M.; Nason, P.

    1998-03-01

    The Authors consider the transverse-momentum distribution of heavy flavours in hadronic collisions. The authors present a formalism in which large transverse-momentum logarithms are summed at the next-to-leading level, and mass effects are included exactly up to order α S 3 , so as to retain predictivity at both small and large transverse momenta. As an example, the Authors apply our formalism to b production at the Tevatron

  13. Test of Lepton Flavour Universality in $K^{+} \\to l^{+}\

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzeroni, C.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Dyulendarova, M.; Frabetti, P.L.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Popov, I.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retiere, F.

    2011-04-04

    A precision test of lepton flavour universality has been performed by measuring the ratio RK of kaon leptonic decay rates K+ --> e+nu and K+ --> mu+nu in a sample of 59813 reconstructed K+ --> e+nu candidates with (8.71 +- 0.24)% background contamination. The result RK = (2.487 +- 0.013) * 10^{-5} is in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.

  14. Phenomenology of geometrical flavour interactions at TeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, F.; Wetterich, C.

    1990-10-01

    We investigate the experimental signatures of the recently proposed 'geometrical' production of many W. Z. Higgs and (primordial) fermions (nω ≅ αω -1 ≅ 30) with a relatively large cross section. Such events, if they exist, should be seen at the LHC (SSC) provided that the (parton) threshold energy for the onset of geometrical flavour production is below 11 (28) TeV. (orig.)

  15. Working group report: Low energy and flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Working group report: Low energy and flavour physics. Coordinators: AMOL DIGHE1 and ANIRBAN KUNDU2. Participants: K Agashe3, B Anantanarayan4, A Chandra1, A Datta5, P K Das6,. S P Das5, A Dighe1, R Forty7, D K Ghosh8, Y -Y Keum9, A Kundu2, N Mahajan6,. S Majhi6, G Mazumdar1, K Mazumdar1, P Mehta6 ...

  16. Deep Learning in Flavour Tagging at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lanfermann, Marie Christine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A novel higher-level flavour tagging algorithm called DL1 has been developed using a neural network at the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have investigated the potential of Deep Learning in flavour tagging using inputs from lower-level taggers. A systematic grid search over architectures and the training hyperparameter space is presented. In this novel neural network approach, the training is performed on multiple output nodes, which provides a highly flexible tagger. The DL1 studies presented show that the obtained neural network improves discrimination against both $light-flavour$-jets and $c$-jets, and also provides a better performing $c$-tagger. The performance for arbitrary background mixtures can be adjusted after the training according to the to the needs of the physics analysis. The resulting DL1 tagger is described and a detailed set of performance plots presented, obtained from simulated $t\\overline{t}$ events at $\\sqrt(s)$=13 TeV and the Run-2 data taking conditions where t...

  17. Search for lepton flavour violation in ep collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, A. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)]|[National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2007-02-15

    A search for the lepton flavour violating processes ep{yields}{mu}X and ep{yields}{tau}X is performed with the H1 experiment at HERA. Final states with a muon or tau and a hadronic jet are searched for in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 66.5 pb{sup -1} for e{sup +}p collisions and 13.7 pb{sup -1} for e{sup -}p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV. No evidence for lepton flavour violation is found. Limits are derived on the mass and the couplings of leptoquarks inducing lepton flavour violation in an extension of the Buchmueller-Rueckl-Wyler effective model. Leptoquarks produced in ep collisions with a coupling strength of {lambda}=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to masses of 459 GeV and 379 GeV, respectively. (orig.)

  18. Minimal flavour violation an effective field theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, G.; Isidori, G.; Strumia, A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a general analysis of extensions of the Standard Model which satisfy the criterion of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV). We define this general framework by constructing a low-energy effective theory containing the Standard Model fields, with one or two Higgs doublets and, as the only source of SU(3)^5 flavour symmetry breaking, the background values of fields transforming under the flavour group as the ordinary Yukawa couplings. We analyse present bounds on the effective scale of dimension-six operators, which range between 1 and 10 TeV, with the most stringent constraints imposed by B -> X_s gamma. In this class of theories, it is possible to relate predictions for FCNC processes in B physics to those in K physics. We compare the sensitivity of various experimental searches in probing the hypothesis of MFV. Within the two-Higgs-doublet scenario, we develop a general procedure to obtain all tan(beta)-enhanced Higgs-mediated FCNC amplitudes, discussing in particular their impact in B -> l^+l^-, Delta...

  19. Characterization of beer flavour stability (EPR - spin trapping)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, A.; Liptakova, M.; Malik, F.

    1999-01-01

    The beer flavour stability is coupled with free radical degradation processes. Probably, aldehydes produced during the brewery but also generated by stalling are responsible for beer flavour as well as for its breaking down. The storing beer at the lower temperatures and in the dark place inhibits, and otherwise the rising temperature and illumination accelerate the rate of such radical processes. Beers contain naturally occurring radical scavengers - antioxidants which inhibit such unwanted reactions. Then depleting of scavengers results in the breaking down of the beer stability. EPR spin trapping technique was used as monitor such processes and for characterising so the flavour stability of beer. The probe was temperated at 60 grad C in the cavity of EPR spectrometer in the presence of spin trapping agent, N-tert.-butyl-α-phenyl nitrone (PBN) and EPR spectra were recorded for few hours. After beer antioxidants become depleted, free radicals formed by the beer degradation are scavenged by PBN spin trap and this point is characterised with a dramatically increased concentration of the free radicals trapped

  20. Auditory contributions to flavour perception and feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Charles

    2012-11-05

    This article reviews the research that has looked at the role of audition in both flavour perception and feeding behaviour in humans. The article starts by looking at early research that focused on the effect of background noise on the sensory-discriminative aspects of taste/flavour perception and on people's hedonic responses to food and beverage items. Next, I move on to look at the role of the sound made by the food (or beverage) itself. Additionally, recent studies that have started to assess the impact of food and beverage packaging sounds, not to mention food preparation sounds, on people's sensory-discriminative and hedonic responses to a variety of food and beverage products are discussed. Finally, the literature on the effect of background music and/or soundscapes on food and beverage perception/consumption are reviewed briefly. Taken together, this body of research, spanning both highly-controlled laboratory experiments and more ecologically-valid field studies, clearly demonstrates that what the consumer hears, be it the sound of the food, the sound of the packaging, the sound of the machine used to prepare that food or beverage (e.g., as in the case of the sound of a coffee machine), and even the sound of the environment in which the consumer happens to be eating and drinking can all exert a profound, if often unacknowledged, role in our feeding behaviours not to mention on our flavour perception. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deep Learning in Flavour Tagging at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lanfermann, Marie Christine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A novel higher-level flavour tagging algorithm called DL1 has been developed using a neural network at the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We have investigated the potential of Deep Learning in flavour tagging using higher-level inputs from lower-level physics-motivated taggers. A systematic grid search over architectures and the training hyperparameter space is presented. In this novel neural network approach, the jet flavours are treated on an equal footing while training with multiple output nodes, which provides a highly flexible tagger. The DL1 studies presented show that the obtained neural network improves discrimination against both light-jets and c-jets, and also provides a novel c-tagging possibility. The performance for arbitrary background mixtures can be fine-tuned after the training by using iso-efficiency lines of constant signal efficiency, according to the to the needs of the physics analysis. The resulting DL1 tagger is described and a detailed set of performance plots pr...

  2. Following butter flavour deterioration with an acoustic wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Cláudia R B S; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2012-09-15

    Off-flavours develop naturally in butter and the process is accelerated by heat. An acoustic wave sensor was used to detect the aroma compounds evolved from heated butter and the results have shown that registered marked changes were coincident to odour changes detected by sensory analysis. The flavour compounds have also been analysed by GC/MS for identification. The response of the sensor was fully characterized in terms of the sensitivity to each of the identified compounds, and sensitivities of the system SPME/sensor were compared with the sensitivities of the system SPME/GC/MS. It was found that the sensor analytical system was more sensitive to methylketones than to fatty acids. The SPME/GC/MS system also showed the highest sensitivity to 2-heptanone, followed by 2-nonanone, but third place was occupied by undecanone and butanoic acid, to which the sensor showed moderate sensitivity. 2-heptanone was found to be an appropriate model compound to follow odour changes till the 500 h, and the lower sensitivity of the sensor to butanoic acid showed to be a positive characteristic, as saturation was prevented, and other more subtle changes in the flavour could be perceived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lepton-flavour violating $B$ decays in generic $Z'$ models

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Matias, Joaquim; Nierste, Ulrich; Pokorski, Stefan; Rosiek, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has reported deviations from the SM expectations in $B\\to K^* \\mu^+\\mu^-$ angular observables, in $B_s\\to\\phi\\mu^+\\mu^-$ and in ratio $R(K)=Br[B\\to K \\mu^+\\mu^-]/Br[B\\to K e^+e^-]$. For all three decays, a heavy neutral gauge boson mediating $b\\to s\\mu^+\\mu^-$ transitions is a prime candidate for an explanation. As $R(K)$ measures violation of lepton-flavour universality, it is interesting to examine the possibility that also lepton flavour is violated. In this article, we investigate the perspectives to discover the lepton-flavour violating modes $B\\to K^{(*)}\\tau^\\pm\\mu^\\mp$, $B_s\\to \\tau^\\pm\\mu^\\mp$ and $B\\to K^{(*)} \\mu^\\pm e^\\mp$, $B_s\\to \\mu^\\pm e^\\mp$. For this purpose we consider a simplified model in which new-physics effects originate from an additional neutral gauge boson ($Z^\\prime$) with generic couplings to quarks and leptons. The constraints from $\\tau\\to3\\mu$, $\\tau\\to\\mu\

  4. Flavour quality of early and late harvested tomatoes from different organic growing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Edelenbos, Merete; Thybo, Anette; Christensen, Lars P.

    2005-01-01

    Flavour and firmness are important quality criteria for tomatoes [1]. Tomato flavour is mainly attributed to the content of sugar and acid and volatile compounds. Many factors determine tomato flavour e.g. cultivar, growing system, maturity, harvest time and post-harvest treatments [1, 2]. In Denmark, organic tomatoes are grown directly in the soil. It is difficult, however, to provide enough organic manure, to prevent leaching out of nutrients and to control soil-born diseases in a soil syst...

  5. Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 2 quark flavours : chiral symmetry and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagae, J.-F.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the restoration of chiral symmetry in lattice QCD at the finite temperature transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. By measuring the screening masses of flavour singlet and non-singlet meson excitations, we have seen evidence that, although flavour chiral symmetry is restored at this transition, flavour singlet (U(1)) axial symmetry is not. We conclude that this indicates that instantons continue to play an important role in the quark-gluon plasma phase

  6. The role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stokkom, V L; Blok, A E; van Kooten, O; de Graaf, C; Stieger, M

    2018-02-01

    It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of ten vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands (broccoli, cauliflower, French bean, leek, bell pepper, carrot, cucumber, iceberg lettuce, onion and tomato). Subjects (n = 194) were randomly assigned to one of four test conditions which differed in the sensory cues available for vegetable identification: taste, smell (orthonasal), flavour (taste and smell) and flavour-texture (taste, smell and texture). Blindfolded subjects were asked to identify the vegetable from a list of 24 vegetables. Identification was the highest in the flavour-texture condition (87.5%). Identification was significantly lower in the flavour condition (62.8%). Identification was the lowest when only taste cues (38.3%) or only smell cues (39.4%) were provided. For four raw vegetables (carrot, cucumber, onion and tomato) providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues did not significantly change identification suggesting that flavour cues were sufficient to identify these vegetables. Identification frequency increased for all vegetables when perceived intensity of the smell, taste or flavour cue increased. We conclude that providing flavour cues (taste and smell) increases identification compared to only taste or only smell cues, combined flavour and texture cues are needed for the identification of many vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flavour tagging of $b$-mesons in $pp$ collisions at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Flavour tagging, i.e. the inference of the production flavour of reconstructed B hadrons, is essen- tial for precision measurements of decay-time-dependent CP violation and of mixing parameters in the neutral B meson systems. At the LHC hadronic events create a challenging environment for flavour tagging and demand for new and improved strategies. We present recent progress and new developments in terms of the flavour tagging at the LHCb experiment, which will allow for a further improvement of CP violation measurements in neutral B meson decays.

  8. Experimental constraints from flavour changing processes and physics beyond the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersabeck, M.; Gligorov, V. V.; Serra, N.

    2012-08-01

    Flavour physics has a long tradition of paving the way for direct discoveries of new particles and interactions. Results over the last decade have placed stringent bounds on the parameter space of physics beyond the Standard Model. Early results from the LHC, and its dedicated flavour factory LHCb, have further tightened these constraints and reiterate the ongoing relevance of flavour studies. The experimental status of flavour observables in the charm and beauty sectors is reviewed in measurements of CP violation, neutral meson mixing, and measurements of rare decays.

  9. Rats' memory for serially presented novel flavours: evidence for non-spatial primacy effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P; Croft, H; Yeomans, M

    1996-05-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of serially presenting a number of novel flavours to rats on their subsequent consumption of those flavours. In Experiments 1-4, rats were orally infused with 0.5 ml of flavour over 30 sec for each of five flavours in the exposure phase of the experiment. In these studies, primacy and recency effects emerged, the size of the primacy effect being related to the length of the retention interval, which varied from zero to twenty-four hours. Thus, both primacy and recency effects can be generated using non-spatial stimuli with rats.

  10. Production of medium-chain volatile flavour esters in Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts with extracellular expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA:ethanol O-acyltransferase Eht1 or Eeb1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Fu, Junshu; Powell, Chris; Huang, Jinhai; Xia, Yihe; Yan, Ruixiang

    2015-01-01

    Medium-chain volatile flavour esters are important molecules since they have extensive applications in food, fragrance, cosmetic, paint and coating industries, which determine different characteristics of aroma or taste in commercial products. Biosynthesis of these compounds by alcoholysis is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:ethanol O-acyltransferases Eht1 or Eeb1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, these two yeast enzymes were selected to explore their preparations as the form of whole cell biocatalysts for the production of volatile flavour esters. Here, the novel whole cell biocatalysts Pichia pastoris yeasts with functional extracellular expression of Eht1 or Eeb1 were constructed. Flavour production was established through an integrated process with coupled enzyme formation and ester biosynthesis in the recombinant yeasts in one pot, leading to the formation of volatile C6-C14 methyl and ethyl esters from wort medium. Interestingly, there is no significant difference between P. pastoris-EHT1 and P. pastoris-EEB1 in substrate preference during flavour biosynthesis, indicating a similar role of Eht1 and Eeb1 in P. pastoris cells, in contradiction with previous findings in S. cerevisiae to some extent. Consequently the study not only provides a greater understanding of these two enzymes in a heterogeneous host, but also demonstrated the positive effect of the recombinant Eht1 and Eeb1 in ester formation by P. pastoris live cells, potentially paving the way towards achieving efficient production of volatile flavour by an integrated biocatalytic system composed of recombinant enzyme production and flavour biosynthesis.

  11. Microbial populations causing off-flavour in recirculated aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Mie Bech; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Schramm, Edward

    and are found in at least six phylogenetic groups covering 0.1% of the total community with only a minor fraction being culturable. Quantification of geoA within recirculated aquaculture systems reveals that geosmin-producing bacteria are more abundant in the water treatment compartments compared to the water......Microbial production of geosmin, a secondary metabolite with an earthy off-flavour is a serious economic problem in wine production, drinking water and aquaculture. Geosmin is produced by a small group of bacteria all harboring the geosmin synthetase gene (geoA). Sequencing and analyzing...

  12. The Symmetry behind Extended Flavour Democracy and Large Leptonic Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I

    2002-01-01

    We show that there is a minimal discrete symmetry which leads to the extended flavour democracy scenario constraining the Dirac neutrino, the charged lepton and the Majorana neutrino mass term ($M_R$) to be all proportional to the democratic matrix, with all elements equal. In particular, this discrete symmetry forbids other large contributions to $M_R$, such as a term proportional to the unit matrix, which would normally be allowed by a $S_{3L}\\times S_{3R}$ permutation symmetry. This feature is crucial in order to obtain large leptonic mixing, without violating 't Hooft's, naturalness principle.

  13. Flavour changing decays of Z0 in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamberini, G.; Ridolfi, G.

    1987-01-01

    The possible existence of detectable flavour-changing branching modes of the Z 0 boson is examined in the context of supersymmetric models of currrent interest. An explicit calculation shows that in the so-called minimal version of the supersymmetric standard model the branching ratios for Z 0 →banti s or tanti c are not larger than in the standard model itself and are as such unobservable. On the contrary, we find that in a recently proposed extension of the supersymmetric standard model the mode Z 0 →tanti c may be at the order of being detectable. (orig.)

  14. Collider Aspects of Flavour Physics at High Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Aguila, F.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Allanach, B.C.; Alwall, J.; Andreev, Yu.; Aristizabal Sierra, D.; Bartl, A.; Beccaria, M.; Bejar, S.; Benucci, L.; Bityukov, S.; Borjanovic, I.; Bozzi, G.; Burdman, G.; Carvalho, J.; Castro, N.; Clerbaux, B.; de Campos, F.; de Gouvea, A.; Dennis, C.; Djouadi, A.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Louvain U., CP3 /Moscow, INR /Valencia U. /Vienna U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Barcelona, IFAE /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Karlsruhe U. /Sao Paulo U. /LIP, Coimbra /Brussels U. /Sao Paulo U., Guaratingueta /Northwestern U. /Oxford U. /Orsay, LPT /Athens U. /Lisbon U.

    2008-03-07

    This chapter of the report of the 'Flavour in the era of LHC' workshop discusses flavor related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at LHC, both from the experimental side and from the theoretical side. We review top quark physics and discuss flavor aspects of several extensions of the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs model or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects as well as measurement of several properties of these heavy states. We also present public available computational tools related to this topic.

  15. Heavy Flavour Production and Properties at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Adam Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of heavy flavour properties and production are an important part of the physics program of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC. They can potentially expose physics beyond the standard model, constrain supersymmetry and advance hadron spectroscopy and test QCD. In the past years, the two collaborations have published results in several different fields, such as rare decays, searches for new states, CP and P violation and quarkonia polarization. In this note, some of the most recent results from ATLAS and CMS are summarized

  16. Search for Lepton Flavour Number violating $Z^0$-Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chernyaev, E; Chikilev, O G; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1997-01-01

    A search for lepton flavour number violating $Z^0$ decays in the channels \\begin{center} $Z^0\\rightarrow \\mu\\tau$,\\\\ $Z^0\\rightarrow e\\tau$, \\\\ $Z^0\\rightarrow e\\mu$, \\\\ \\end{center} using the DELPHI detector with data collected during the 1991--94 LEP runs, is described. No signal was found. Upper limits at 95\\% confidence level for the respective branching fractions of $1.2\\times 10^{-5}$, $2.2\\times 10^{-5}$, and $0.25\\times 10^{-5}$, were obtained.

  17. Aspects of Flavour and Supersymmetry in F-theory GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, Joseph P; 10.1007

    2009-01-01

    We study the constraints of supersymmetry on flavour in recently proposed models of F-theory GUTs. We relate the topologically twisted theory to the canonical presentation of eight-dimensional super Yang-Mills and provide a dictionary between the two. We describe the constraints on Yukawa couplings implied by holomorphy of the superpotential in the effective 4-dimensional supergravity theory, including the scaling with \\alpha_{GUT}. Taking D-terms into account we solve explicitly to second order for wavefunctions and Yukawas due to metric and flux perturbations and find a rank-one Yukawa matrix with no subleading corrections.

  18. Minimal flavour violation in the quark and lepton sector and the impact of extra dimensions on flavour changing neutral currents and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiler, A.

    2007-01-16

    We study flavor-changing decays of hadrons and leptons and an extra-dimensional approach to electroweak symmetry breaking. Specifically we study the framework of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) as an explanation of the flavour problem. We discuss the impact of a specific extra-dimensional model of the MFV class on flavour changing neutral currents. We derive model-independent upper bounds on rare decays. -We discuss the extension of the MFV framework from the quark to the lepton sector and show how baryogenesis through leptogenesis can be achieved and examine if possible correlations with charged lepton flavour violation exist. We discuss the dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry in extra dimensions by unifying gauge and Higgs fields and we show that realistic models are possible once the extra dimension is strongly curved. (orig.)

  19. Minimal flavour violation in the quark and lepton sector and the impact of extra dimensions on flavour changing neutral currents and electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, A.

    2007-01-01

    We study flavor-changing decays of hadrons and leptons and an extra-dimensional approach to electroweak symmetry breaking. Specifically we study the framework of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) as an explanation of the flavour problem. We discuss the impact of a specific extra-dimensional model of the MFV class on flavour changing neutral currents. We derive model-independent upper bounds on rare decays. -We discuss the extension of the MFV framework from the quark to the lepton sector and show how baryogenesis through leptogenesis can be achieved and examine if possible correlations with charged lepton flavour violation exist. We discuss the dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry in extra dimensions by unifying gauge and Higgs fields and we show that realistic models are possible once the extra dimension is strongly curved. (orig.)

  20. Production of heavy flavours at the next-to-leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nason, P.; Ridolfi, G.; Frixione, S.; Mangano, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The status of next-to-leading calculations of heavy quark production is reviewed. In particular, results on the doubly-differential cross section for the photoproduction of heavy flavours are discussed. The possibility of using heavy flavour production in order to determine the gluon density in the proton at HERA is also discussed. 3 figs., 22 refs

  1. Enhancing and accelarating flavour formation by salt-tolerant yeasts in Japanese soy-sauce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    In soy-sauce processes salt-tolerant yeasts are very important for the flavour formation. This flavour formation is, however, slow and poorly understood. In the last decades, a concerted research effort has increased the understanding and resulted in the derivation of mutants with an enhanced

  2. The role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokkom, van V.L.; Blok, A.E.; Kooten, van O.; Graaf, de C.; Stieger, M.

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not

  3. The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones,

  4. Arginine metabolism in sugar deprived Lactococcus lactis enhances survival and cellular activity, while supporting flavour production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, J.B.; Kraats, van de I.; Abee, T.; Zwietering, M.H.; Meijer, W.C.

    2012-01-01

    Flavour development in cheese is affected by the integrity of Lactococcus lactis cells. Disintegrated cells enhance for instance the enzymatic degradation of casein to free amino acids, while integer cells are needed to produce specific flavour compounds from amino acids. The impact of the cellular

  5. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like...

  6. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  7. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  8. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    masseter muscle activity (MMA), chewing force (CFO), and saliva flow rate (SFR), may also play a role. In 10 healthy young males, the retronasal expired air of menthol and menthone from peppermint-flavoured (2%) chewing gum was determined as functions of CF, SFR, MMA, and CFO. The experimental setup......, the concentration of flavour compounds in the expired air depended primarily on MMA and CF, becoming higher with increased MMA and CF. The concentration of flavour compounds in saliva depended primarily on SFR and the duration of the chewing task, becoming lower with high SFR and prolonged chewing duration....... An increased volume of saliva in the mouth seemed to keep more flavour compounds in the aqueous phase, thereby diminishing the release via the retronasal route. In conclusion, flavour release to the retronasal compartment was dependent on MMA and CF and influenced by the volume of saliva present in the mouth....

  9. FlavBit. A GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernlochner, Florian U. [Physikalisches Institut der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Chrzaszcz, Marcin [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Polish Academy of Sciences, H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Dal, Lars A. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Farmer, Ben [Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Jackson, Paul; White, Martin [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Kvellestad, Anders [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); Mahmoudi, Farvah [Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Rogan, Christopher [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Serra, Nicola [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Flavour Workgroup

    2017-11-15

    Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour observables, including detailed uncertainties and correlations associated with LHCb measurements of rare, leptonic and semileptonic decays of B and D mesons, kaons and pions. It provides a generalised interface to external theory codes such as SuperIso, allowing users to calculate flavour observables in and beyond the Standard Model, and then test them in detail against all relevant experimental data. We describe FlavBit and its constituent physics in some detail, then give examples from supersymmetry and effective field theory illustrating how it can be used both as a standalone library for flavour physics, and within GAMBIT. (orig.)

  10. arXiv FlavBit: A GAMBIT module for computing flavour observables and likelihoods

    CERN Document Server

    Bernlochner, Florian U.; Dal, Lars A.; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Kvellestad, Anders; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Putze, Antje; Rogan, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin

    2017-11-21

    Flavour physics observables are excellent probes of new physics up to very high energy scales. Here we present FlavBit, the dedicated flavour physics module of the global-fitting package GAMBIT. FlavBit includes custom implementations of various likelihood routines for a wide range of flavour observables, including detailed uncertainties and correlations associated with LHCb measurements of rare, leptonic and semileptonic decays of B and D mesons, kaons and pions. It provides a generalised interface to external theory codes such as SuperIso, allowing users to calculate flavour observables in and beyond the Standard Model, and then test them in detail against all relevant experimental data. We describe FlavBit and its constituent physics in some detail, then give examples from supersymmetry and effective field theory illustrating how it can be used both as a standalone library for flavour physics, and within GAMBIT.

  11. Association between menthol-flavoured cigarette smoking and flavoured little cigar and cigarillo use among African-American, Hispanic, and white young and middle-aged adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, K; Fryer, C; Pagano, I; Jones, D; Fagan, P

    2016-11-01

    Flavour additives in cigarettes and little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), which influence smokers' risk perceptions, may reinforce dual flavoured tobacco use. We examined the association among mentholated cigarette use, risk perceptions for flavour additives in LCCs and flavoured LCC smoking behaviour. Data from a national probability sample of 964 young and middle-aged adult current cigarette smokers were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the relationship among mentholated cigarette smoking, risk perceptions and current flavoured LCC use for the analytic sample and gender and race/ethnicity. Daily menthol cigarette smokers, compared to occasional, non-menthol smokers, had increased odds of flavoured LCC smoking (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.98). This relationship was found for males, blacks/African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos (psmokers, specifically those from vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Neutrino Masses and Lepton Flavour Violation in Thick Brane Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, G; De Gouvêa, A; Rebelo, Margarida N; Barenboim, Gabriela; Gouvea, Andre de

    2001-01-01

    We address the issue of lepton flavour violation and neutrino masses in the ``fat-brane'' paradigm, where flavour changing processes are suppressed by localising different fermion field wave-functions at different positions (in the extra dimensions) in a thick brane. We study the consequences of suppressing lepton number violating charged lepton decays within this scenario for lepton masses and mixing angles. In particular, we find that charged lepton mass matrices are constrained to be quasi-diagonal. We further consider whether the same paradigm can be used to naturally explain small Dirac neutrino masses by considering the existence of three right-handed neutrinos in the brane, and discuss the requirements to obtain phenomenologically viable neutrino masses and mixing angles. Finally, we examine models where neutrinos obtain a small Majorana mass by breaking lepton number in a far away brane and show that, if the fat-brane paradigm is the solution to the absence of lepton number violating charged lepton de...

  13. Heavy flavours in high energy e+e-annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.

    1989-06-01

    This paper reviews the quantum flavour dynamic and fragmentation properties of the heavy leptons and quarks and for the purpose of this report, the heavy flavours are taken to be the τ lepton and the c and b quarks. The production of τ + τ - and the electroweak properties of the τ are first discussed and then the τ charged current decay properties are considered and compared with those of the μ. The role of τ decays in the understanding of Quantum Chromo Dynamics is also considered. The production of heavy quark pairs is considered in the framework of the standard model and the weak neutral current charges of the quarks are presented from a global analysis of all existing data. The weak decays of c and b are discussed and the measurements of lifetimes and leptonic widths considered as input parameters to the eventual determination of the quark weak mixing matrix elements. Finally the fragmentation of c and b quarks is discussed and the various measurements presented. (author)

  14. Changes in flavour and taste of irradiated coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.; Loaharanu, S.; Vokac, L.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of changes in the smell and taste of coffee from beans submitted to irradiation for preservation is a significant gap in the programme devoted to increasing the product life time with such a process. Therefore, the main objective of the paper was to evaluate changes in aroma and flavour that can be noticed by the consumer. Coffee beans were given disinfestation doses of 50krad, producing an insect mortality rate of 98.33% +-2.89 in Araecerus fasciculatus (adult stage). The samples, provided by IBC, were from the same crop and free from pesticides. Some of the material was kept by that Institute for organoleptic tests. The remainder was sent to the National Institute of Technology for gas-chromatographic analysis. Should any significant changes be noticed, it could be assumed that the gamma-irradiation process would be rejected by the consumer. However, no significant change was observed in the most important characteristics, flavour and aroma, that might induce the consumer to reject irradiated coffee beans. (author)

  15. Synthesis of the flavour precursor, alliin, in garlic tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J; Tregova, A; Tomsett, A B; Jones, M G; Cosstick, R; Collin, H A

    2005-01-01

    The path of synthesis of alkyl cysteine sulphoxides, or flavour precursors, in the Alliums is still speculative. There are two proposed routes for alliin biosynthesis, one is from serine and allyl thiol while the other is from glutathione and an allyl source via gamma glutamyl peptides. The routes have been investigated by exposing undifferentiated callus cultures of garlic and onion to potential pathway intermediates. After a period of incubation of 2 days the callus was extracted, and analysed for flavour precursors and related compounds by HPLC. Standards of alliin, isoallin and propiin were synthesised and their identity confirmed by HPLC and NMR. Putative intermediates selected included the amino acids serine and cysteine, as well as more complex intermediates such as allylthiol, allyl cysteine and glutathione. Both garlic and onion tissue cultures were able to synthesize alliin following incubation with allylthiol, and cysteine conjugates such as allyl cysteine. The ability of the tissue cultures to form alliin from intermediates was compatible with the proposed routes of synthesis of alliin.

  16. ALICE measurements of heavy-flavour production at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of open charm and beauty production in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC gives access to the mechanisms of heavy-quark transport and energy loss in hot and dense QCD matter. The ALICE apparatus allows us to measure heavy flavour particles over a wide acceptance, using hadronic and electronic final states at central rapidity and muonic final states at forward rapidity, in both cases with coverage down to low transverse momentum. These measurements, in pp collisions, besides constituting the reference for the heavy-ion studies, provide acceptance-wise unique information on heavy-quark production at LHC energies. After presenting results for pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 2.76 and 7 TeV, we focus on the observation of the suppression of heavy-flavour production in central Pb-Pb collisions and of the azimuthal anisotropy of charmed hadrons in semi-central collisions at 2.76 TeV.

  17. Flavour violating gluino three-body decays at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartl, A.; Ginina, E. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Eberl, H.; Majerotto, W. [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Herrmann, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hidaka, K [Tokyo Gakugei Univ., Koganei (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Porod, W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik

    2011-07-15

    We study the effect of squark generation mixing on gluino production and decays at LHC in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) for the case that the gluino is lighter than all squarks and dominantly decays into three particles, g {yields} q q {chi}{sup 0}{sub k}, q anti q'{chi}{sup {+-}}{sub l}. We assume mixing between the second and the third squark generations in the up-type and down-type squark sectors. We show that this mixing can lead to very large branching ratios of the quark-flavour violating gluino threebody decays despite the strong constraints on quark-flavour violation (QFV) from the experimental data on B mesons. We also show that the QFV gluino decay branching ratios are very sensitive not only to the generation mixing in the squark sector, but also to the parameters of the neutralino and chargino sectors. We show that the branching ratio of the QFV gluino decay g {yields} c anti t(anti ct) anti {chi}{sup 0}{sub 1} can go up to {approx} 40%. Analogously, that of the QFV decay g {yields} s anti b(anti sb){chi}{sup 0}{sub 1} can reach {approx} 35%. We find that the rates of the resulting QFV signatures, such as pp{yields} tt anti c anti cE{sup mis}{sub T}, can be significant at LHC. This could have an important influence on the gluino searches at LHC. (orig.)

  18. Assessing the shape symbolism of the taste, flavour, and texture of foods and beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spence Charles

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers reliably match a variety of tastes (bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, oral-somatosensory attributes (carbonation, oral texture, and mouth-feel, and flavours to abstract shapes varying in their angularity. For example, they typically match more rounded forms such as circles with sweet tastes and more angular shapes such as triangles and stars with bitter and/or carbonated foods and beverages. Here, we suggest that such shape symbolic associations could be, and in some cases already are being, incorporated into the labelling and/or packaging of food and beverage products in order to subconsciously set up specific sensory expectations in the minds of consumers. Given that consumers normally prefer those food and beverage products that meet their sensory expectations, as compared to those that give rise to a ‘disconfirmation of expectation’, we believe that the targeted use of such shape symbolism may provide a means for companies to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Here, we review the latest research documenting a variety of examples of shape symbolism in the food and beverage sector. We also highlight a number of the explanations for such effects that have been put forward over the years. Finally, we summarise the latest evidence demonstrating that the shapes a consumer sees on the label and even the shape of the packaging in which the product is served can all impact on a consumer’s sensory-discriminative and hedonic responses to food and beverage products.

  19. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1): Four carboxamides from Chemical Groups 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate four flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1) using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565....../2000. This revision is made due to a re-evaluation of one flavouring substance N-(2-(pyridine-2-yl)ethyl)-3-p-menthanecarboxamide [FL-no: 16.118], as a 90-day dietary rat study has become available. One of the original five flavouring substances [FL-no: 16.124], for which additional data were requested, is no longer...

  20. Sequential effects in preference decision: Prior preference assimilates current preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seah Chang

    Full Text Available An important factor affecting preference formation is the context in which that preference decision takes place. The current research examined whether one's preference formed for a previously presented stimulus influences the processing of a subsequent preference decision, henceforth referred to as the preference sequence effect. Using a novel sequential rating/judgment paradigm, the present study demonstrated the presence of a preference sequence effect using artistic photographs and face stimuli: A neutral stimulus was preferred more following a preferable stimulus than a less preferable stimulus. Furthermore, a similar trend was found even when the potential influence of response bias was controlled. These results suggest that an assimilative sequential effect exists even when sequential judgments are made solely based on one's subjective feeling; preference formed for a preceding stimulus modulates preference for a subsequent stimulus. This implies the need for a consideration of trial sequence as a factor creating a psychological context affecting the subsequent preference decisions.

  1. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  2. New aspects of flavour model building in supersymmetric grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We derive predictions for Yukawa coupling ratios within Grand Unified Theories generated from operators with mass dimension four and five. These relations are a characteristic property of unified flavour models and can reduce the large number of free parameters related to the flavour sector of the Standard Model. The Yukawa couplings of the down-type quarks and charged leptons are affected within supersymmetric models by tan β-enhanced threshold corrections which can be sizeable if tan β is large. In this case their careful inclusion in the renormalisation group evolution is mandatory. We analyse these corrections and give simple analytic expressions and numerical estimates for them. The threshold corrections sensitively depend on the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters. Especially, they determine the overall sign of the corrections and therefore if the affected Yukawa couplings are enhanced or suppressed. In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model many free parameters are introduced by supersymmetry breaking about which we make some plausible assumptions in our first simplified approach. In a second, more sophisticated approach we use three common breaking schemes in which all the soft breaking parameters at the electroweak scale can be calculated from only a handful of parameters. Within the second approach, we apply various phenomenological constraints on the supersymmetric parameters and find in this way new viable Yukawa coupling relations, for example y μ /y s =9/2 or 6 or y τ /y b =3/2 in SU(5). Furthermore, we study a special class of quark mass matrix textures for small tan β where θ u 13 =θ d 13 =0. We derive sum rules for the quark mixing parameters and find a simple relation between the two phases δ u 12 and δ d 12 and the right unitarity triangle angle α which suggests a simple phase structure for the quark mass matrices where one matrix element is purely imaginary and the remaining ones are purely real. To complement

  3. New aspects of flavour model building in supersymmetric grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2010-05-19

    We derive predictions for Yukawa coupling ratios within Grand Unified Theories generated from operators with mass dimension four and five. These relations are a characteristic property of unified flavour models and can reduce the large number of free parameters related to the flavour sector of the Standard Model. The Yukawa couplings of the down-type quarks and charged leptons are affected within supersymmetric models by tan {beta}-enhanced threshold corrections which can be sizeable if tan {beta} is large. In this case their careful inclusion in the renormalisation group evolution is mandatory. We analyse these corrections and give simple analytic expressions and numerical estimates for them. The threshold corrections sensitively depend on the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters. Especially, they determine the overall sign of the corrections and therefore if the affected Yukawa couplings are enhanced or suppressed. In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model many free parameters are introduced by supersymmetry breaking about which we make some plausible assumptions in our first simplified approach. In a second, more sophisticated approach we use three common breaking schemes in which all the soft breaking parameters at the electroweak scale can be calculated from only a handful of parameters. Within the second approach, we apply various phenomenological constraints on the supersymmetric parameters and find in this way new viable Yukawa coupling relations, for example y{sub {mu}}/y{sub s}=9/2 or 6 or y{sub {tau}}/y{sub b}=3/2 in SU(5). Furthermore, we study a special class of quark mass matrix textures for small tan {beta} where {theta}{sup u}{sub 13}={theta}{sup d}{sub 13}=0. We derive sum rules for the quark mixing parameters and find a simple relation between the two phases {delta}{sup u}{sub 12} and {delta}{sup d}{sub 12} and the right unitarity triangle angle {alpha} which suggests a simple phase structure for the quark mass matrices where

  4. Anarchic Yukawas and top partial compositeness: the flavour of a successful marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying; Flacke, Thomas; Lee, Seung J.; Parolini, Alberto; Serôdio, Hugo

    2015-06-01

    The top quark can be naturally singled out from other fermions in the Standard Model due to its large mass, of the order of the electroweak scale. We follow this reasoning in models of pseudo Nambu Goldstone Boson composite Higgs, which may derive from an underlying confining dynamics. We consider a new class of flavour models, where the top quark obtains its mass via partial compositeness, while the lighter fermions acquire their masses by a deformation of the dynamics generated at a high flavour scale. One interesting feature of such scenario is that it can avoid all the flavour constraints without the need of flavour symmetries, since the flavour scale can be pushed high enough. We show that both flavour conserving and violating constraints can be satisfied with top partial compositeness without invoking any flavour symmetry for the up-type sector, in the case of the minimal SO(5)/SO(4) coset with top partners in the four-plet and singlet of SO(4). In the down-type sector, some degree of alignment is required if all down-type quarks are elementary. We show that taking the bottom quark partially composite provides a dynamical explanation for the hierarchy causing this alignment. We present explicit realisations of this mechanism which do not require to include additional bottom partner fields. Finally, these conclusions are generalised to scenarios with non-minimal cosets and top partners in larger representations.

  5. Anarchic Yukawas and top partial compositeness: the flavour of a successful marriage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying [Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon,F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Flacke, Thomas [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung J. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Parolini, Alberto [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Axion and Precision Physics, IBS,291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Serôdio, Hugo [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,335 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The top quark can be naturally singled out from other fermions in the Standard Model due to its large mass, of the order of the electroweak scale. We follow this reasoning in models of pseudo Nambu Goldstone Boson composite Higgs, which may derive from an underlying confining dynamics. We consider a new class of flavour models, where the top quark obtains its mass via partial compositeness, while the lighter fermions acquire their masses by a deformation of the dynamics generated at a high flavour scale. One interesting feature of such scenario is that it can avoid all the flavour constraints without the need of flavour symmetries, since the flavour scale can be pushed high enough. We show that both flavour conserving and violating constraints can be satisfied with top partial compositeness without invoking any flavour symmetry for the up-type sector, in the case of the minimal SO(5)/SO(4) coset with top partners in the four-plet and singlet of SO(4). In the down-type sector, some degree of alignment is required if all down-type quarks are elementary. We show that taking the bottom quark partially composite provides a dynamical explanation for the hierarchy causing this alignment. We present explicit realisations of this mechanism which do not require to include additional bottom partner fields. Finally, these conclusions are generalised to scenarios with non-minimal cosets and top partners in larger representations.

  6. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  7. New Physics searches with Heavy Flavour observables at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    De Sanctis, Umberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    New and recent results from the ATLAS programme of studies in electroweak physics with open beauty are presented. Flavour-Changing-Neutral-Current (FCNC) processes are sensitive to New Physics contributions, in particular through additional electroweak loop amplitudes. The angular analysis of the decay of $B_d \\to K^* \\mu \\mu$ for a number of angular coefficients are measured as a function of the invariant mass squared of the di-muon system for data collected by the ATLAS experiment at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. A comparison is made to theoretical predictions, including for the observable $P^\\prime_5$, for which there has been recent tension between theory and experiments.

  8. B meson mixing and low-energy dynamical flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chkareuli, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The low-energy quantum flavour dynamics offered by the local horizontal symmetry SU(3) H for quark-lepton families is presented in some detail. It is shown that spontaneous breaking of this symmetry naturally leads to the simple Fritzsch ansatz for the quark mass matrices and simultaneously provides the observed magnitude of B d 0 -anti B d 0 mixing without any appreciable perturbation of the K 0 -anti K 0 system. This mixing determines a real scale for the masses of the SU(3) H gauge bosons. In marked contrast to the standard model this new approach is certain to give rise to small B s 0 -anti B s 0 mixing and large D 0 -anti D 0 mixing that can be of real interest in the near future. (orig.)

  9. A grand unification of flavour with testable predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiero, A.; Roncadelli, M.; Yanagida, T.

    1982-01-01

    We present a grand unification of flavour based on the group O'(14) = SO(14) x K'. The novel feature of this model is that the discrete symmetry K' is not the internal parity. This implies a fermion assignment different from the usual O(14) with important consequences on the low energy phenomenology. One new fermion family with V - A weak interactions and four new families with V + A character are predicted, with masses less than 250 GeV. The cosmological bound on light neutrino species forces us to keep an SU(2) family group acting on the V + A families unbroken until low energy. Depending on the hierarchy pattern, either we recover the standard model predictions or a new scenario emerges with substantial departures in the neutral current phenomenology. (orig.)

  10. Searches for new physics with heavy flavour at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Turchikhin, Semen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Flavour Changing Neutral Current processes are sensitive to New Physics contributions, in particular through additional electroweak loop amplitudes. The angular analysis of the decay of $B^0\\to \\mu^+\\mu^-K^{*0}$ is presented. A number of angular coefficients are measured as a function of the invariant mass squared of the dimuon system for data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$~TeV. Comparison is made to theoretical predictions, including for the observable $P_5^\\prime$, for which there has been recent tension between theory and experiment. ATLAS result on the study of the $B^0_{(s)}\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$ rare decays is also presented.

  11. Measurements of heavy-flavour decay leptons with ALICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of electrons and muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at central and forward rapidity performed by the ALICE Collaboration in p–Pb (√sNN = 5.02 TeV and Pb–Pb collisions (√sNN = 2.76 TeV. Electrons are reconstructed using several detectors of the ALICE central barrel. Muons are reconstructed using the muon spectrometer at forward rapidity (2.5 < y < 4. The nuclear modification factors in Pb–Pb (RAA and in p–Pb (RpPb collisions, and the azimuthal anisotropy (v2 in Pb– Pb collisions will be discussed. Theoretical predictions are compared with the data. In addition, the measurement of the azimuthal correlation between electrons from heavyflavour hadron decays and charged hadrons in p–Pb collisions will be shown.

  12. Searches for flavour changing neutral currents in the top sector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00359999; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Flavour Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) processes are forbidden at tree level in the Standard Model and highly suppressed at higher orders. This makes FCNC one of the key processes to search for new physics since any small deviations from the Standard Model expectations could have a big impact. Both ATLAS and CMS Collaborations have designed a comprehensive strategy to search for FCNC in top quark physics both in the production and decay. The strategies followed by both collaborations are here described, using data from $pp$ collisions at the LHC collected at a centre of mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV with integrated luminosities ranging from $5~\\rm{ fb}^{-1}$ to $20.3~\\rm{ fb}^{-1}$.

  13. Oxidative flavour deterioration of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Frankel, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    -% of n-3 fatty acids) and one with cod liver oil (26 wt-% of n-3 fatty acids). The effect of added calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) on oxidation was also investigated. Emulsions based on cod liver oil with a slightly elevated peroxide value (1.5 meq/kg) oxidised significantly faster......The oxidative deterioration of milk emulsions supplemented with 1.5 wt-% fish oil was investigated by sensory evaluation and by determining the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products after cold storage. Two types of milk emulsions were produced, one with a highly unsaturated tuna oil (38 wt...... than the tuna oil emulsions, having a lower initial peroxide value (0.1 meq/kg). In the tuna oil emulsions the fishy off-flavour could not be detected throughout the storage period. Addition of 5-50 ppm EDTA significantly reduced the development of volatile oxidation products in the cod liver oil...

  14. Gauge-Higgs unification with broken flavour symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olschewsky, M.

    2007-05-15

    We study a five-dimensional Gauge-Higgs unification model on the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} based on the extended standard model (SM) gauge group SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F}. The group SO(3){sub F} is treated as a chiral gauged flavour symmetry. Electroweak-, flavour- and Higgs interactions are unified in one single gauge group SU(7). The unified gauge group SU(7) is broken down to SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} by orbifolding and imposing Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The compactification scale of the theory is O(1) TeV. Furthermore, the orbifold S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} is put on a lattice. This setting gives a well-defined staring point for renormalisation group (RG) transformations. As a result of the RG-flow, the bulk is integrated out and the extra dimension will consist of only two points: the orbifold fixed points. The model obtained this way is called an effective bilayered transverse lattice model. Parallel transporters (PT) in the extra dimension become nonunitary as a result of the blockspin transformations. In addition, a Higgs potential V({phi}) emerges naturally. The PTs can be written as a product e{sup A{sub y}}e{sup {eta}}e{sup A{sub y}} of unitary factors e{sup A{sub y}} and a selfadjoint factor e{sup {eta}}. The reduction 48 {yields} 35 + 6 + anti 6 + 1 of the adjoint representation of SU(7) with respect to SU(6) contains SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} leads to three SU(2){sub L} Higgs doublets: one for the first, one for the second and one for the third generation. Their zero modes serve as a substitute for the SM Higgs. When the extended SM gauge group SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} is spontaneously broken down to U(1){sub em}, an exponential gauge boson mass splitting occurs naturally. At a first step SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} x SO(3){sub F} is broken to SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} by VEVs for the selfadjoint factor e{sup {eta}}. This breaking leads to masses of flavour changing SO(3){sub F

  15. Texture zeros and hierarchical masses from flavour (mis)alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollik, W. G.; Saldana-Salazar, U. J.

    2018-03-01

    We introduce an unconventional interpretation of the fermion mass matrix elements. As the full rotational freedom of the gauge-kinetic terms renders a set of infinite bases called weak bases, basis-dependent structures as mass matrices are unphysical. Matrix invariants, on the other hand, provide a set of basis-independent objects which are of more relevance. We employ one of these invariants to give a new parametrisation of the mass matrices. By virtue of it, one gains control over its implicit implications on several mass matrix structures. The key element is the trace invariant which resembles the equation of a hypersphere with a radius equal to the Frobenius norm of the mass matrix. With the concepts of alignment or misalignment we can identify texture zeros with certain alignments whereas Froggatt-Nielsen structures in the matrix elements are governed by misalignment. This method allows further insights of traditional approaches to the underlying flavour geometry.

  16. Flavour Independent Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    A flavour independent search for the CP-even and CP-odd neutral Higgs bosons h and A is performed in 624/pb of data collected with the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209GeV. Higgs boson production through the e^+e^- -> Z h and the e^+e^- ->h A processes is considered and decays of the Higgs bosons into hadrons are studied. No significant signal is observed and 95% confidence level limits on the hZZ and hAZ couplings are derived as a function of the Higgs boson masses. Assuming the Standard Model cross section for the Higgs-strahlung process and a 100% branching fraction into hadrons, a 95% confidence level lower limit on the mass of the Higgs boson is set at 110.3GeV.

  17. Flavour Independent Searches for Hadronically Decaying Neutral Higgs Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes flavour independent searches for hadronically decaying neutral Higgs bosons in the data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV. The collected data-set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of around 610 pb^{-1}. The e+e- -> hA and e+e- -> hZ processes are considered, with direct Higgs boson decays into hadrons. No evidence for Higgs boson production is found, and cross-section limits are set as a function of the Higgs boson masses. No explicit assumptions are made on the underlying physics beyond the Standard Model, allowing interpretation of the data in a large class of models.

  18. Flavour physics and the Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Valerie

    2012-02-28

    An exciting new era in flavour physics has just begun with the start of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHCb (where b stands for beauty) experiment, designed specifically to search for new phenomena in quantum loop processes and to provide a deeper understanding of matter-antimatter asymmetries at the most fundamental level, is producing many new and exciting results. It gives me great pleasure to describe a selected few of the results here-in particular, the search for rare B(0)(s)-->μ+ μ- decays and the measurement of the B(0)(s) charge-conjugation parity-violating phase, both of which offer high potential for the discovery of new physics at and beyond the LHC energy frontier in the very near future.

  19. An MCMC study of general squark flavour mixing in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Björn; Fuks, Benjamin; Mahmoudi, Farvah; O'Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner; Sekmen, Sezen; Strobbe, Nadja

    2015-01-01

    We present an extensive study of non-minimally flavour violating (NMFV) terms in the Lagrangian of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We impose a variety of theoretical and experimental constraints and perform a detailed scan of the parameter space by means of a Markov Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) setup. This represents the first study of several non-zero flavour-violating elements within the MSSM. We present the results of the MCMC scan with a special focus on the flavour-violating parameters. Based on these results, we define benchmark scenarios for future studies of NMFV effects at the LHC.

  20. Signatures of bosonic squark decays in non-minimally flavour-violating supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhnke, Matthias [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik; Herrmann, Bjoern [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik; Porod, Werner [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik; C.S.I.C.-Universitat de Valencia (Spain). AHEP Group

    2010-07-15

    We investigate couplings of squarks to gauge and Higgs-bosons within the framework of non-minimal flavour violation in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Introducing non-diagonal elements in the mass matrices of squarks, we first study their impact on the self-energies and physical mass eigenvalues of squarks. We then present an extensive analysis of bosonic squark decays for variations of the flavour-violating parameters around the two benchmark scenarios SPS1a' and SPS1b. Signatures, that would be characteristic for a non-minimal flavour structure in the squark sector, can be found in wide regions of the parameter space. (orig.)

  1. Development of "same side" flavour tagging algorithms for measurements of flavour oscillations and $CP$ violation in the $B^0$ mesons system

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzini, Davide; Khanji, Basem

    In this thesis new developments of $\\textit{Flavour Tagging}$ algorithms for the $LHCb$ experiment are presented. The $\\textit{Flavour Tagging}$ is a very usefull tool which allows to determine the flavour of the reconstructed particles, such as the $B^0$ mesons. A correctly identification of the flavour is fundamental in certain measurements such as time-dependent $CP$ violation asymmetries or the $B^0 \\leftrightarrow \\overline{B}^0$ oscillations. Both these type of measurements are exploited by LHCb experiment in the research of new physics beyond the Standard Model. The new developments achieved in this work concern an optimization of the $\\textit{Same Side Tagger}$ algorithms, using protons and pions correlated in charge with the signal $B^0$ to infer its initial flavour. Then two combinations are implemented: the first is a combination of the $\\textit{SS Pion Tagger}$ ($SS\\pi$) and the $\\textit{SS Proton Tagger}$ ($SSp$) in a unique $\\textit{Same Side}$ ($SS$) tagging algorithm; the second one is the fi...

  2. Flavour-changing neutral currents in models with extra Z' boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.; Maharana, L.

    2004-01-01

    New neutral gauge bosons Z' are the features of many models addressing the physics beyond the standard model. Together with the existence of new neutral gauge bosons, models based on extended gauge groups (rank > 4) often predict new charged fermions also. A mixing of the known fermions with new states, with exotic weak-isospin assignments (left-handed singlets and right-handed doublets) will induce tree-level flavour-changing neutral interactions mediated by Z exchange, while if the mixing is only with new states with ordinary weak-isospin assignments, the flavour-changing neutral currents are mainly due to the exchange of the new neutral gauge boson Z'. We review flavour-changing neutral currents in models with extra Z' boson. Then we discuss some flavour-changing processes forbidden in the standard model and new contributions to standard model processes. (author)

  3. Flavour Characters of Wines from Cool-Climate Grape Cultivars in Relation to Different Fermentation Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing

    -fermentations. Such systematic studies on the flavour characters of wines can contribute to a rational development of local wine styles. The flavour characters of commercial young mono-varietal Danish white wines from the Solaris cultivar were firstly studied. Conventional descriptive sensory analysis showed that several wines...... for evaluating sensory properties of wines, different variations of Napping and Flash Profile methods were tested using model wines. It turned out that conducting Napping with panel training on either the method (training on how to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarization with the sensory...... based segregation with respected to produced wine flavour. In summary, this PhD project increased knowledge on the flavour characters of wines in relation to cool-climate grape cultivars and different fermentation approaches, as well as contributed to sensory methodology advances...

  4. The Higgs Mass in the MSSM at two-loop order beyond minimal flavour violation

    CERN Document Server

    Goodsell, Mark D; Staub, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Soft supersymmetry-breaking terms provide a wealth of new potential sources of flavour violation, which lead to very tight constraints from precision experiments. This has posed a challenge to construct flavour models to both explain the structure of the Standard Model Yukawa couplings and how their consequent predictions for patterns in the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms do not violate these constraints. While such models have been studied in great detail, the impact of flavour violating soft terms on the Higgs mass at the two-loop level has been assumed to be small or negligible. In this letter, we show that large flavour violation in the up-squark sector can give a positive or negative shift to the SM-like Higgs of several GeV, without being in conflict with any other observation. We investigate in which regions of the parameter space these effects can be expected.

  5. EFSA EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304 (FGE.304): Five carboxamides from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate five flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances...... were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel...... concluded that the three substances [FL-no: 16.117, 16.123 and 16.125] do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining two candidate substances [FL-no: 16.118 and 16.124], no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional...

  6. Aspects of open-flavour mesons in a comprehensive DSBSE study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilger, T. [University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Institute of Physics, Graz (Austria); Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria); Gomez-Rocha, M. [ECT*, Villazzano (Trento) (Italy); Krassnigg, A. [University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Institute of Physics, Graz (Austria); Lucha, W. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-10-15

    Open-flavour meson studies are the necessary completion to any comprehensive investigation of quarkonia. We extend recent studies of quarkonia in the Dyson-Schwinger-Bethe-Salpeter equation approach to explore their results for all possible flavour combinations. Within the inherent limitations of the setup, we present the most comprehensive results for meson masses and leptonic decay constants currently available and put them in perspective with respect to experiment and other approaches. (orig.)

  7. Flavour production by Saprochaete and Geotrichum yeasts and their close relatives

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Eric; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; James, Steve; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; François, Jean marie; Petit, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a total of 30 yeast strains belonging to the genera Dipodascus, Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Magnusiomyces and Saprochaete were investigated for volatile organic compound production using HSSPME-GC/MS analysis. The resulting flavour profiles, including 36 esters and 6 alcohols compounds, were statistically evaluated by cluster and PCA analysis. Two main groups of strains were extracted from this analysis, namely a group with a low ability to produce flavour and a group producing m...

  8. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    OpenAIRE

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand values and beer flavours. Participants evaluated five beer products on a list of brand values, flavour characteristics and package characteristics. The results demonstrated that consumers systemati...

  9. First results with two light flavours of quarks with maximally twisted mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, K.; Urbach, C.

    2006-10-01

    We report on first results of an ongoing effort to simulate lattice QCD with two degenerate flavours of quarks by means of the twisted mass formulation tuned to maximal twist. By utilising recent improvements of the HMC algorithm, pseudo-scalar masses well below 300 MeV are simulated on volumes L 3 .T with T=2L and L>2 fm and at values of the lattice spacing a f =2+1+1 flavours are discussed. (orig.)

  10. New results on heavy-flavour in heavy-ion collisions with LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jiajia

    2017-01-01

    Heavy-flavour quarks are important to probe Quark-Gluon Plasma(QGP) properties. Cold Nuclear Matter(CNM) e ffects can be accessed by $p$Pb collisions. LHCb is a heavy-flavour precision experiment and has collected large collision data samples. Production cross-section measurements of prompt $D^{0}$ at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$= 5 TeV and $J/\\psi$ at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$= 8.16 TeV are presented.

  11. EFSA CEF Panel (Panel on Food Contac t Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids , 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 2 07 (FGE.2 07 )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of one flavouring substance, 2,6-dimethyl-2,5,7-octatriene-1-ol acetate [FL-no: 09.931], from subgroup 1.1.2 of FGE.19, which......-no: 09.034] and santalyl phenylacetate [FL-no: 09.712] from FGE.19 subgroup 2.1 for which 2,6-dimethyl-2,5,7-octatriene-1-ol acetate [FL-no: 09.931] is representative. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  12. The $B^0_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^−$ decay, lepton flavour violation and lepton flavour universality at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pescatore, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Rare decays of $b$ hadrons are sensitive indirect probes of effects beyond the Standard Model. These are processes that are suppressed because they are forbidden at tree level but they can proceed via loops, where new particles can contribute in principle at the same level as the Standard Model. In particular, $b \\to s \\ell \\ell$ processes give access to many observables where effects of new physics can be observed. Recent results on these searches will be presented, including the new measurement of the $B^0_s \\to \\mu^{+} \\mu^-$ branching fraction, lepton flavour violation and lepton flavour universality measurements performed at the LHCb experiment.

  13. FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENGOLAHAN DAN KOMPOSISI BAHAN YANG MEMPENGARUHI CITARASA "OFF FLAVOUR" FORMULA TEMPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PROCESSING FACTORS AND INGREDIENTS CONTRIBUTED IN TEMPE FORMULA'S OFF FLAVOUR.Background: Tempe Formula is processed food with tempe as the main ingredient. was previously formulated as infant formula and under five years children formula who have diarrhea problem. In later researches, tempe Fromula was found to be efective to increase nutritional satatus of severe malnourished children, to cure gastrointestinal infection of 6-24 months children, and had benefit to repair dislipldemia in adults and bone reformation of pre and post menopause women. However, this formula had off flavour that limit Its utilization. Methods: The design is laboratory experiment. The type of research is explorative. The panelist is trained panelist.Results: The result shows that off flavour component identified were beany odour, moldy odour, tangy taste and bitter taste. Tempe processing with half boiled of soybean and steam sterilization with traditional starter of mixed innoculum gave the best sensori quality. Less intensity of beany flavour and bitter taste were gained by improving the composition of palm oil and sesame oil with composition 1:1. The additon of mocca and milk flavours also reduced the beany odour of the formula. Conclusion: Improved tempe formula was determined to have higher intensity of sweetness, less intensity of saltyness, bitemess and tangy taste, and less beany, rancid, and moldy odours than original formula.Keywords: tempe formula, off flavour, processing

  14. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  15. Assessment of Grape, Plum and Orange Synthetic Food Flavourings Using in vivo Acute Toxicity Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Monize Sousa Sales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of synthetic grape, plum and orange flavourings in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the doses of 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mL/kg and exposure times of 24 and 48 h, and in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated orally for seven days with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring. The results of the plant test showed that grape, plum and orange flavourings, at both exposure times, inhibited cell division and promoted the formation of a significant number of micronuclei and mitotic spindle changes. These alterations were observed in at least one exposure time analysed, demonstrating a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In mouse bioassay, animals treated with 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring died before the seventh day of treatment. The amounts of 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg of the three additives were cytotoxic to erythrocytes, and treatment with the grape flavouring significantly induced the formation of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow of animals. Therefore, under the study conditions, the grape, plum and orange flavouring additives promoted significant toxicity to cells of the test systems used.

  16. Heavy-quark mass dependence in global PDF analyses and 3- and 4-flavour parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D; Thorne, R S; Watt, G

    2010-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of our recent MSTW 2008 NLO and NNLO PDF analyses to the values of the charm and bottom quark masses, and we provide additional public PDF sets for a wide range of these heavy-quark masses. We quantify the impact of varying m_c and m_b on the cross sections for W, Z and Higgs production at the Tevatron and the LHC. We generate 3- and 4-flavour versions of the (5-flavour) MSTW 2008 PDFs by evolving the input PDFs and alpha_S determined from fits in the 5-flavour scheme, including the eigenvector PDF sets necessary for calculation of PDF uncertainties. As an example of their use, we study the difference in the Z total cross sections at the Tevatron and LHC in the 4- and 5-flavour schemes. Significant differences are found, illustrating the need to resum large logarithms in Q^2/m_b^2 by using the 5-flavour scheme. The 4-flavour scheme is still necessary, however, if cuts are imposed on associated (massive) b-quarks, as is the case for the experimental measurement of Z b bbar production a...

  17. Oral nutritional supplements and taste preferences: 545 days of clinical testing in malnourished in-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Patrice; Karsegard, Véronique L; Nardo, Patrizia; Dupertuis, Yves M; Pichard, Claude

    2008-08-01

    Acceptability and intake of oral nutritional supplements are often suboptimal, partly because patients dislike flavour, texture or smell. We assessed the taste preferences about milk-based and fruit-juice typed supplements in malnourished in-patients. One hundred and nine in-patients requiring oral nutritional support were assigned to consume four given supplements on four consecutive days, to answer a questionnaire based on a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) on acceptance/tolerance, and to choose their preferred product for the fifth day. Overall pleasantness was significantly better for milk-based supplements than for sweet and salty fruit-juice typed products (on VAS: 6.2+/-3.1 versus 4.4+/-3.9, psupplements (18.4%, pOral nutritional supplements are globally well-accepted and tolerated, but with variations according to categories and flavours that must be considered to improve compliance.

  18. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 208 Revision 1 (FGE.208Rev1): Consideration of genotoxicity data on representatives for 10 alicyclic aldehydes with the a,b-unsaturation in ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of flavouring substances from subgroup 2.2 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 208 Revision 1 (FGE.208Rev1). The Flavour Industry has provided additional...

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 3, Revision 2 (FGE.03Rev2): Acetals of branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and branched- and straight-chain saturated or unsaturated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, acetaldehyde ethyl isopropyl acetal [FL-no: 06.137], structurally related to the 58 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group...

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Ai ds (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 208 (FGE.208): Consideration of genotoxicity data on representatives for 10 alicyclic aldehydes with the α , β - unsaturation in ring / side - chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of one flavouring substance from subgroup 2.2 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 208. The Flavour Industry has provided a...

  1. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 401 (FGE.401): γ-Glutamyl-valyl-glycine from chemical group 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    consumption of these three endogenous amino acids through food is orders of magnitude higher than the anticipated levels of exposure from their use as flavouring substances, the Panel concluded that γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine [FL-no: 17.038] would be of no safety concern at its estimated level of intake......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to carry out a safety assessment of one flavouring substance, γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine [FL-no: 17.038], in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 401 (FGE.401), in accordance...... with the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1331/2008. There is no safety concern with respect to genotoxicity for the flavouring substance. It has been demonstrated that the flavouring substance, which is a tripeptide, will be hydrolysed to the three amino acids L-glutamic acid, L-valine and glycine. As the human...

  2. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 (FGE.300): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance...... that for the substance [FL-no: 16.115] evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. Besides the safety assessment of this flavouring substance, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. The composition of the stereoisomeric...

  3. Heavy flavour and quarkonia measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gallus, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Charm and bottom quarks provide a powerful tool to study the properties of the hot, dense medium created in heavy ion collisions, and in particular may help differentiate between initial and final state effects in large collision systems. Measurements of open heavy flavour particle and quarkonia production, including their prompt and non-prompt components, and their correlations with light hadrons, build a path to understanding how heavy quarks propagate through the quark-gluon plasma. Additionally, an important component in these studies is the comparison between large and small collision systems. In this talk, ATLAS presents results on measurements of quarkonia production in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV, including separated prompt and non-prompt particle yields and a new measurement of the anisotropic flow of the J/Psi. The flow measurement provides information on the stage at which charmonium states are formed during the system evolution, thus giving insights on the effects that modify their production. Add...

  4. arXiv Anomaly-Free Models for Flavour Anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Tunney, Patrick

    We explore the constraints imposed by the cancellation of triangle anomalies on models in which the flavour anomalies reported by LHCb and other experiments are due to an extra U(1)' gauge boson Z'. We assume universal and rational U(1)' charges for the first two generations of left-handed quarks and of right-handed up-type quarks but allow different charges for their third-generation counterparts. If the right-handed charges vanish, cancellation of the triangle anomalies requires all the quark U(1)' charges to vanish, if there are either no exotic fermions or there is only one Standard Model singlet dark matter (DM) fermion. There are non-trivial anomaly-free models with more than one such `dark' fermion, or with a single DM fermion if right-handed up-type quarks have non-zero U(1)' charges. In some of the latter models the U(1)' couplings of the first- and second-generation quarks all vanish, weakening the LHC Z' constraint, and in some other models the DM particle has purely axial couplings, weakening the ...

  5. Probing RS scenarios of flavour at LHC via leptonic channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ledroit, F; Morel, J

    2007-01-01

    We study a purely leptonic signature of the Randall-Sundrum scenario with Standard Model fields in the bulk at LHC: the contribution from the exchange of Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of gauge bosons to the clear Drell-Yan reaction. We show that this contribution is detectable (even with the low luminosities of the LHC initial regime) for KK masses around the TeV scale and for sufficiently large lepton couplings to KK gauge bosons. Such large couplings can be compatible with ElectroWeak precision data on the Zff coupling in the framework of the custodial O(3) symmetry recently proposed, for specific configurations of lepton localizations (along the extra dimension). These configurations can simultaneously reproduce the correct lepton masses, while generating acceptably small Flavour Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) effects. This LHC phenomenological analysis is realistic in the sense that it is based on fermion localizations which reproduce all the quark/lepton masses plus mixing angles and respect FCNC constr...

  6. Heavy flavours production in DIS events at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellan, Paolo

    2008-10-15

    The estimation of the fraction of events in which an heavy quark is produced in the deeply inelastic electron-proton collisions is the measurement performed in the present analysis. The analysed data sample corresponds to about 130 pb{sup -1} collected during the years 2004-2005 by the ZEUS detector, located in one of the interaction points of the HERA collider in Hamburg. The measured percentages are directly related to the proton structure, formally encoded by the contribution of the heavy quarks to the structure functions F{sub 2}. The tagging of the events in which an heavy quark is produced is achieved by means of the Impact Parameter method. The correlation between the lifetime of the hadrons and the geometrical properties of the relative tracks makes possible to pick out the heavy flavours production form the background. This kind of 'topological' method makes an extensive use of the silicon Micro Vertex Detector (MVD). This essential component of the tracking suite of the ZEUS detector has been the major upgrade realized in the second half of the ZEUS experiment data taking period. The achievement of the physical goal has strongly leaned on its performance and reliability, so a considerable part of the work consisted in feasibility, refinement and optimization studies. (orig.)

  7. CMS Phase 1 heavy flavour identification performance and developments

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider, the identification of jets originating from heavy flavour quarks (b or c tagging) is important for searches for new physics and for measurements of standard model processes. A variety of b tagging algorithms has been developed at CMS to select b-quark jets based on variables such as the impact parameters of the charged-particle tracks, the properties of reconstructed decay vertices, and the presence or absence of a lepton, or combinations thereof. The CMS Phase 1 upgrade includes a new pixel detector with an addition layer. In consequence, the resolution of the track reconstruction is expected to improve, in particular close to the beam spot, leading to a more precise determination of the variables important for b tagging. The expected effect on the b tagging performance is presented for a selected set of existing algorithms: CSVv2, cMVAv2, and DeepCSV. The latter deep neural network based multi-classification algorithm is re-trained based on the new detector geometry, while the ...

  8. Real-time flavour tagging selection in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    \\v{Z}ivkovi{c}, Lidija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, online selection is crucial to select interesting collisions from the large data volume. ATLAS b-jet triggers are designed to identify heavy-flavour content in real-time and provide the only option to efficiently record events with fully hadronic final states containing b-jets. In doing so, two different, but related, challenges are faced. The physics goal is to optimise as far as possible the rejection of light jets, while retaining a high efficiency on selecting b-jets and maintaining affordable trigger rates without raising jet energy thresholds. This maps into a challenging computing task, as tracks and their corresponding vertices must be reconstructed and analysed for each jet above the desired threshold, regardless of the increasingly harsh pile-up conditions. We present an overview of the ATLAS strategy for online b-jet selection for the LHC Run 2, including the use of novel methods and sophisticated algorithms designed to face the above mentioned challenges. A firs...

  9. Real-time flavour tagging selection in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00407355; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, online selection is crucial to identify the few interesting collisions from the large data volume processed. In the overall ATLAS trigger strategy, b-jet triggers are designed to identify heavy-flavour content in real-time and, in particular, provide the only option to efficiently record events with fully hadronic final states containing b-jets. In doing so, two different, but related, challenges are faced. The physics goal is to optimise as far as possible the rejection of light jets from multijet processes, while retaining a high efficiency on selecting jets from beauty, and maintaining affordable trigger rates without raising jet energy thresholds. This maps into a challenging computing task, as charged tracks and their corresponding vertexes must be reconstructed and analysed for each jet above the desired threshold, regardless of the increasingly harsh pile-up conditions. The performance of b-jet triggers during the LHC Run 1 data-taking campaigns is presented, togethe...

  10. Real-time flavour tagging selection in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00407355; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, online selection is crucial to identify the few interesting collisions from the large data volume processed. In the overall ATLAS trigger strategy, b-jet triggers are designed to identify heavy-flavour content in real-time and, in particular, provide the only option to efficiently record events with fully hadronic final states containing b-jets. In doing so, two different, but related, challenges are faced. The physics goal is to optimise as far as possible the rejection of light jets from multijet processes, while retaining a high efficiency on selecting jets from beauty, and maintaining affordable trigger rates without raising jet energy thresholds. This maps into a challenging computing task, as charged tracks and their corresponding vertexes must be reconstructed and analysed for each jet above the desired threshold, regardless of the increasingly harsh pile-up conditions. The performance of b-jet triggers during the LHC Run 1 data-taking campaigns is presented, togethe...

  11. Real-time flavour tagging selection in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zivkovic, Lidija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, online selection is crucial to select interesting collisions from the large data volume. ATLAS b-jet triggers are designed to identify heavy-flavour content in real-time and provide the only option to efficiently record events with fully hadronic final states containing b-jets. In doing so, two different, but related, challenges are faced. The physics goal is to optimise as far as possible the rejection of light jets, while retaining a high efficiency on selecting b-jets and maintaining affordable trigger rates without raising jet energy thresholds. This maps into a challenging computing task, as tracks and their corresponding vertexes must be reconstructed and analysed for each jet above the desired threshold, regardless of the increasingly harsh pile-up conditions. We present an overview of the ATLAS strategy for online b-jet selection for the LHC Run 2, including the use of novel methods and sophisticated algorithms designed to face the above mentioned challenges. A firs...

  12. Heavy flavours production in DIS events at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, Paolo

    2008-10-01

    The estimation of the fraction of events in which an heavy quark is produced in the deeply inelastic electron-proton collisions is the measurement performed in the present analysis. The analysed data sample corresponds to about 130 pb -1 collected during the years 2004-2005 by the ZEUS detector, located in one of the interaction points of the HERA collider in Hamburg. The measured percentages are directly related to the proton structure, formally encoded by the contribution of the heavy quarks to the structure functions F 2 . The tagging of the events in which an heavy quark is produced is achieved by means of the Impact Parameter method. The correlation between the lifetime of the hadrons and the geometrical properties of the relative tracks makes possible to pick out the heavy flavours production form the background. This kind of 'topological' method makes an extensive use of the silicon Micro Vertex Detector (MVD). This essential component of the tracking suite of the ZEUS detector has been the major upgrade realized in the second half of the ZEUS experiment data taking period. The achievement of the physical goal has strongly leaned on its performance and reliability, so a considerable part of the work consisted in feasibility, refinement and optimization studies. (orig.)

  13. MC rate at NLO for heavy flavour photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toll, Tobias

    2010-02-01

    A Monte Carlo at next-to-leading order (MC rate at NLO) has been constructed for the production of heavy quark flavours in photoproduction. As such, it is the rst Monte Carlo event generator with next-to-leading order (NLO) accuracy for a process in lepton hadron scattering. In order to construct such an MC rate at NLO, the matrix element for the process has to be calculated at NLO and then be matched with a parton shower. When doing this, it is important that none of the parton configurations produced are doubly counted. In this thesis, the concept of a Monte Carlo event generator will be explained, with emphasis on the HERWIG parton shower. Also, different techniques of calculating matrix elements at NLO accuracy will be explained. It will then be shown how the NLO calculation can be matched with the HERWIG parton shower in an MC rate at NLO without double counting, producing unweighted events at NLO-accuracy. Many comparisons are made between the MC rate at NLO here constructed, the HERWIG Monte Carlo and the FMNR NLO calculation. Also many comparisons are made to HERA data from the H1 and ZEUS experiments. It is shown that all HERA data with heavy quarks produced in photoproduction can be described by the MC rate at NLO program constructed in this thesis. (orig.)

  14. Production of heavy flavours with associated jets at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, O.M.

    2006-12-15

    Inclusive cross-sections for the production of open beauty and charm in ep collisions at HERA recorded with the ZEUS detector in the years 1996-2000 are measured. The data is restricted to photoproduction processes, i. e. collision events with small four-momentum transfers squared, Q{sup 2} {approx}0. Two associated jets with transverse energies E{sub t}>7(6)GeV and pseudo-rapidities vertical stroke {eta} vertical stroke <2.5 are required. The flavour is tagged by the identification of electrons and positrons from semi-leptonic decays of the heavy quark. For this a likelihood method is developed, mainly consisting of energy loss measurements in the central drift chamber of the detector and some other discriminant variables. The fractions of beauty and charm production are determined by a fit of Monte Carlo templates to the data. The total measured production cross-section for b anti b production is 820{+-}150{sup +20}{sub -30} pb for centre-of-mass energies {radical}(S{sub ep})=300 GeV and 1170{+-}130{sup +30}{sub -100} pb for {radical}(S{sub ep})=318 GeV. The total cross-section for charm production is given as well as differential cross-sections for b anti b and c anti c production. (orig.)

  15. MC rate at NLO for heavy flavour photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toll, Tobias

    2010-02-15

    A Monte Carlo at next-to-leading order (MC rate at NLO) has been constructed for the production of heavy quark flavours in photoproduction. As such, it is the rst Monte Carlo event generator with next-to-leading order (NLO) accuracy for a process in lepton hadron scattering. In order to construct such an MC rate at NLO, the matrix element for the process has to be calculated at NLO and then be matched with a parton shower. When doing this, it is important that none of the parton configurations produced are doubly counted. In this thesis, the concept of a Monte Carlo event generator will be explained, with emphasis on the HERWIG parton shower. Also, different techniques of calculating matrix elements at NLO accuracy will be explained. It will then be shown how the NLO calculation can be matched with the HERWIG parton shower in an MC rate at NLO without double counting, producing unweighted events at NLO-accuracy. Many comparisons are made between the MC rate at NLO here constructed, the HERWIG Monte Carlo and the FMNR NLO calculation. Also many comparisons are made to HERA data from the H1 and ZEUS experiments. It is shown that all HERA data with heavy quarks produced in photoproduction can be described by the MC rate at NLO program constructed in this thesis. (orig.)

  16. Real-time flavour tagging selection in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Varni, Carlo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment includes a well-developed trigger system that allows a selection of events which are thought to be of interest, while achieving a high overall rejection against less interesting processes. An important part of the online event selection is the ability to distinguish between jets arising from heavy-flavour quarks (b- and c-jets) and light jets (jets from u-, d-, s- and gluon jets) in real-time. This is essential for many physics analysis that include processes with large jet multiplicity and b-quarks in the final state. An overview of the b-jet triggers with a description of the application and performance of the offline Multivariate (MV2) b-tagging algorithms at High Level Trigger (HLT) in Run 2 will be presented. During 2016 b-jet trigger menu and algorithms were adapted to use The Fast Tracker (FTK) system which will be commissioned in 2017. We will show initial expected performance of newly designed triggers and compare it with the existing HLT chains.

  17. REAL-TIME FLAVOUR TAGGING SELECTION IN ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bokan, Petar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment includes a well-developed trigger system that allows a selection of events which are thought to be of interest, while achieving a high overall rejection against less interesting processes. An important part of the online event selection is the ability to distinguish between jets arising from heavy-flavour quarks (b- and c-jets) and light jets (jets from u-, d-, s- and gluon jets) in real-time. This is essential for many physics analysis that include processes with large jet multiplicity and b-quarks in the final state. Many changes were implemented to the ATLAS online b-jet selection for the Run-2 of the LHC. An overview of the b-jet trigger strategy and performance during 2015 data taking is presented. The ability to use complex offline Multivariate (MV2) b-tagging algorithms directly at High Level Trigger (HLT) was tested in this period. Details on online tagging algorithms are given together with the plans on how to adapt to the new high-luminosity and increased pileup conditions by ex...

  18. Impact of Flavour Variability on Electronic Cigarette Use Experience: An Internet Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A major characteristic of the electronic cigarette (EC market is the availability of a large number of different flavours. This has been criticised by the public health authorities, some of whom believe that diverse flavours will attract young users and that ECs are a gateway to smoking. At the same time, several reports in the news media mention that the main purpose of flavour marketing is to attract youngsters. The importance of flavourings and their patterns of use by EC consumers have not been adequately evaluated, therefore, the purpose of this survey was to examine and understand the impact of flavourings in the EC experience of dedicated users. Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and uploaded in an online survey tool. EC users were asked to participate irrespective of their current smoking status. Participants were divided according to their smoking status at the time of participation in two subgroups: former smokers and current smokers. Results: In total, 4,618 participants were included in the analysis, with 4,515 reporting current smoking status. The vast majority (91.1% were former smokers, while current smokers had reduced smoking consumption from 20 to 4 cigarettes per day. Both subgroups had a median smoking history of 22 years and had been using ECs for 12 months. On average they were using three different types of liquid flavours on a regular basis, with former smokers switching between flavours more frequently compared to current smokers; 69.2% of the former subgroup reported doing so on a daily basis or within the day. Fruit flavours were more popular at the time of participation, while tobacco flavours were more popular at initiation of EC use. On a scale from 1 (not at all important to 5 (extremely important participants answered that variability of flavours was “very important” (score = 4 in their effort to reduce or quit smoking. The majority reported that restricting variability will make ECs less

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 310 (FGE.310): Rebaudioside A from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate rebaudioside A [FL-no: 16.113], a steviol glycoside. The substance was not considered to have genotoxic potential. Since a comprehensive and adequate...

  20. Heavy Flavour Hadron Spectroscopy: Challenges and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2012-07-01

    During the last few years, wealth of new experimental results in the heavy flavor hadron sector has become available. The diversity, quantity and accuracy of the data are impressive and include many surprising spectroscopic results. Following the discovery of ηb states and the excited ηc(2S) states many excited states of open charm and beauty mesons and plethora of exotic states are reported. Discoveries of many new hadrons at B-factories have shed light on a new class of hadrons beyond the ordinary mesons. Many of these states awaits for its right identification. Though we have the theory (QCD) for the strong interaction, we are still far from extracting the major part of the hadron properties from it. These properties at the hadronic scale obviously play relevant role in many searches for new physics and new phenomenon. For obvious reasons, heavy flavour sector offers unique opportunities in this case. For example, the quarkonium systems are crucially important to improve our understanding of QCD as it falls in the low energy region where the non-perturbative effects dominate. Thus the heavy quarks / quark-antiquark bound states are ideal laboratory where our understanding of non-perturbative QCD and its interplay with perturbative QCD may be tested. A comparative review of different model predictions for example in the case of heavy flavor hadronic systems will be highlighted. The quarkonium studies may be used as a benchmark for our understanding of QCD and for the precise determination of standard model strong interaction parameters such as the constituent quark masses, αs, the confinement strength (string tension) etc.

  1. The content of sensory active compounds and flavour of several types of yogurts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify and quantify several sensory active compounds in various types of yogurts using gas chromatography and simultaneously to judge their influence on flavour of yogurts using sensory analysis. In total 4 types of white and 10 types of flavoured yogurts (creamy and low-fat with various flavourings, produced in Dairy Valašské Meziříčí, Ltd., were analysed. The highest content of sensory active compounds (P < 0.05 was found in strawberry yogurts, with high amount of ethyl butyrate. Excepting ethanol no significant differences (P < 0.05 were found between low-fat and creamy varieties. The total content of sensory active compounds in white yogurts was significantly (P < 0.05 lower than in flavoured fruit types. The highest content was in low-fat and lowest in white bio yoghurts. Flavour of yogurts was evaluated sensorially using scale and ranking test. All creamy yogurt varieties were evaluated as significantly (P < 0.05 more tasty than low-fat ones. Similarly in case of white yogurts creamy yogurts were evaluated as the most tasty and low-fat ones as the worst. Bio yogurts were evaluated equally tasty as classic yogurts with the same fat content.

  2. Flavour generation during commercial barley and malt roasting operations: a time course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Hafiza; Linforth, Robert S T; Cook, David J

    2014-02-15

    The roasting of barley and malt products generates colour and flavour, controlled principally by the time course of product temperature and moisture content. Samples were taken throughout the industrial manufacture of three classes of roasted product (roasted barley, crystal malt and black malt) and analysed for moisture content, colour and flavour volatiles. Despite having distinct flavour characteristics, the three products contained many compounds in common. The product concentrations through manufacture of 15 flavour compounds are used to consider the mechanisms (Maillard reaction, caramelisation, pyrolysis) by which they were formed. The use of water sprays resulted in transient increases in formation of certain compounds (e.g., 2-cyclopentene-1,4-dione) and a decrease in others (e.g., pyrrole). The study highlights rapid changes in colour and particularly flavour which occur at the end of roasting and onwards to the cooling floor. This highlights the need for commercial maltsters to ensure consistency of procedures from batch to batch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present FGE.96 concerns 88 JECFA-evaluated substances from different FGEs. Common for all the 88 substances was that for none of them European production volumes were available at the time for the first consideration...... have been calculated and based on these MSDI values the substances have been re-considered by the stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism...

  4. VIERS- User Preference Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...

  5. Broaden Students' Music Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blanc, Albert

    1983-01-01

    A model of music preference theory suggests ways that teachers can broaden their students' musical preferences. Teachers can change preferences by changing something in the listener, the social environment, the music, or the ways that the listener processes information. (AM)

  6. B Flavour Tagging with Artificial Neural Networks for the CDF II Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Andreas [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (Germany)

    2010-01-29

    One of the central questions arising from human curiosity has always been what matter is ultimately made of, with the idea of some kind of elementary building-block dating back to the ancient greek philosophers. Scientific activities of multiple generations have contributed to the current best knowledge about this question, the Standard Model of particle physics. According to it, the world around us is composed of a small number of stable elementary particles: Electrons and two different kinds of quarks, called up and down quarks. Quarks are never observed as free particles, but only as bound states of a quark-antiquark pair (mesons) or of three quarks (baryons), summarized as hadrons. Protons and Neutrons, the constituents forming the nuclei of all chemical elements, are baryons made of up and down quarks. The electron and the electron neutrino - a nearly massless particle without electric charge - belong to a group called leptons. These two quarks and two leptons represent the first generation of elementary particles. There are two other generations of particles, which seem to have similar properties as the first generation except for higher masses, so there are six quarks and six leptons altogether. They were around in large amounts shortly after the beginning of the universe, but today they are only produced in high energetic particle collisions. Properties of particles are described by quantum numbers, for example charge or spin. For every type of particle, a corresponding antiparticle exists with the sign of all charges swapped, but similar properties otherwise. The Standard Model is a very successful theory, describing the properties of all known particles and the interactions between them. Many of its aspects have been tested in various experiments at very high precision. Although none of these experimental tests has shown a significant deviation from the corresponding Standard Model prediction, the theory can not be complete yet: Cosmological aspects like

  7. Preference direction study of Job’s-tears ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Job's-tears (Coix lachryma-jobi L. is a kind of cereal commonly used in Asia as food and medicine, but it is still not widely consumed in Thailand. Four prototype products of Job’s-tears ice cream were developed by varying 2 levels of glucose syrup (16 and 32% of Job's-tears used and coconut milk (50 and 100 % of Job's-tears used. Their sensory attribute profiles were evaluated by 3 groups of 10 selected panelists using Ratio profile test (RPT, and their acceptances, hedonic scores, were evaluated by 100 consumers. Results showed that there were significant effects of coconut milk quantity on several attributes, such as appearance (whiteness, texture (hardness, smoothness, and flavour (coconut milk aroma, sweetness, saltiness, but the effect of glucose syrup quantity was significant on hardness only. Acceptance data were analyzed by cluster analysis to find out the difference of preference directions and 3 clusters (n1 = 39, n2 = 25, n3 = 36 were found. The first cluster preferred Job's tears ice cream containing high glucose syrup and low coconut milk, whilst the second preferred high level of only one of these two ingredients, and the third preferred high level of both ingredients. External preference maps were created from RPT and acceptance data to express the preference direction of each cluster.

  8. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  9. Natural suppression of flavour-changing neutral currents in supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, T.; Lim, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Induced flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNC) in supersymmetric unified theories are investigated both in models with the standard SU(2)sub(L) x U(1) gauge symmetry and in models with an extra U tilde(1) gauge symmetry. Supersymmetric extension of the natural flavour conservation laws for neutral currents is obtained by adding a condition regarding the assumed type of supersymmetry breaking. This condition ensures no direct flavour-changing couplings of neutral gauge-Higgs fermions and at the same time is necessary and sufficient for the natural suppression of the induced FCNC. It is found that in the class of models satisfying the new condition the contribution of the scalar partners of quarks to the induced strangeness-changing neutral current is comparable to that of the quarks in Ksub(L)→μanti μ, while it is negligibly small in Ksub(L)-Ksub(S) mass difference. (orig.)

  10. Phenomenology of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios with non-minimal flavour violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuks, Benjamin [Strasbourg Univ. (France). Inst. Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien; Herrmann, Bjoern [Savoie Univ., Annecy-le-Vieux (France). LAPTh; Klasen, Michael [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1

    2011-12-15

    In minimal anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models, tachyonic sleptons are avoided by introducing a common scalar mass similar to the one introduced in minimal supergravity. This may lead to non-minimal flavour-violating interactions, e.g., in the squark sector. In this paper, we analyze the viable anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking parameter space in the light of the latest limits on low-energy observables and LHC searches, complete our analytical calculations of flavour-violating supersymmetric particle production at hadron colliders with those related to gluino production, and study the phenomenological consequences of non-minimal flavour violation in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios at the LHC. Related cosmological aspects are also briefly discussed.

  11. The supersymmetric flavour problem in 5D GUTs and its consequences for LHC phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Fichet, S.; Kraml, S. [CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie

    2011-09-15

    We study supersymmetric models with a GUT-sized extra dimension, where both the Higgs fields and the SUSY breaking hidden sector are localized on a 4D brane. Exponential wave function profiles of the matter fields give rise to hierarchical structures in the Yukawa couplings and soft terms. Such structures can naturally explain hierarchical fermion masses and mixings, while at the same time alleviating the supersymmetric flavour problem. We discuss two sources of supersymmetry breaking, radion mediation and brane fields, and perform a detailed numerical analysis, thoroughly taking into account the proliferation of unknown O(1) coefficients that occurs in this class of models. It turns out that additional assumptions on supersymmetry breaking are necessary to evade the stringent experimental bounds on lepton flavour violation. The favourable regions of parameter space are then examined with regards to their LHC phenomenology. They generically feature heavy gluinos and squarks beyond current bounds. Lepton flavour violation in SUSY cascade decays can give interesting signatures. (orig.)

  12. Quark flavour observables in the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity after LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Monika; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2016-04-02

    The Littlest Higgs Model with T-parity (LHT) belongs to the simplest new physics scenarios with new sources of flavour and CP violation. We present a new analysis of quark observables in the LHT model in view of the oncoming flavour precision era. We use all available information on the CKM parameters, lattice QCD input and experimental data on quark flavour observables and corresponding theoretical calculations, taking into account new lower bounds on the symmetry breaking scale and the mirror quark masses from the LHC. We investigate by how much the branching ratios for a number of rare $K$ and $B$ decays are still allowed to depart from their SM values. This includes $K^+\\to\\pi^+\

  13. Aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor produced with Bacillus licheniformis by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Bacillus licheniformis as a starter culture for aroma concentration improvement in the fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavour liquor was elucidated. The volatile compounds produced by B. licheniformis were identified by GC-MS, in which C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds were the main ingredients. The strains B. licheniformis (MT-6 and MT-15) produced more volatile compound concentrations, mainly C4 compounds, than the type strain of B. licheniformis (ATCC 14580) at the fermentation temperature of 55°C. Meanwhile, more volatile compound concentrations were produced by B. licheniformis in solid-state fermentation than in submerged state fermentation. Thus, the strains MT-6 and MT-15 were used as the Bacillus starter culture for investigating Moutai-flavour liquor production. The distilled liquor inoculated with Bacillus starter culture was significantly different from the liquor without inoculum. This was particularly evident in the fore-run part of the distilled sample which was inoculated with Bacillus starter culture, where volatile compounds greatly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the distilled liquor with Bacillus starter culture showed improved results in sensory appraisals. These results indicated that B. licheniformis was one of the main species influencing the aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor. This is the first report of an investigation into the effect of Bacillus starter cultures on the flavour features of Moutai-flavour liquor, which verified that Bacillus licheniformis can enhance aroma concentration in Moutai-flavour liquor. Bacillus starter culture brought C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds to the liquor, which gave a better result in sensory appraisals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Heavy flavour in high-energy nuclear collisions: a theoretical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraudo, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    The peculiar role of heavy-flavour observables in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is discussed. Produced in the early stage, c and b quarks cross the hot deconfined plasma arising from the collision, interacting strongly with the latter, until they hadronize. Transport calculations are the tools to follow their propagation in the medium: their formulation as well as their conceptual basis are briefly reviewed. Depending on the strength of the interaction heavy quarks may or not approach kinetic equilibrium with the plasma, tending in the first case to follow the collective flow of the expanding fireball. The presence of a hot deconfined medium may also affect heavy-quark hadronization, being possible for them to recombine with the surrounding light thermal partons, so that the final heavy-flavour hadrons inherit part of the flow of the medium. Here we show how it is possible to develop a complete transport setup allowing one to describe heavy-flavour production in high-energy nuclear collisions. The ultimate goal will be to extract from the experimental data the heavy-flavour transport coefficients in the Quark-Gluon Plasma: we will comment on how far we are from this achievement. Information coming from recent lattice-QCD simulations concerning both the heavy-flavour transport coefficients in the hot QCD plasma and the nature of the charmed degrees around the deconfinement transition is also presented. Finally, the possibility that the formation of a hot deconfined medium even in small systems (high-multiplicity p-Au and d-Au collisions, so far) may affect also heavy-flavour observables is investigated.

  15. Event displays highlighting the main properties of heavy flavour jets in the CMS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Skovpen, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    A broad range of physics analyses at CMS rely on the efficient identification of heavy flavour jets. Identification of these objects is a challenging task, especially in the presence of a large number of multiple interactions per bunch crossing. The presented summary contains a set of graphical displays of reconstructed events in data collected by CMS in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV in 2016. The displays highlight the main properties of heavy flavour jets in several event topologies, including QCD multijet, top quark pair, W+c and boosted H→bb.

  16. Flavour-changing neutral currents making and breaking the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilli, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; Owen, P.; Petridis, K. A.

    2017-06-01

    The standard model of particle physics is our best description yet of fundamental particles and their interactions, but it is known to be incomplete. As yet undiscovered particles and interactions might exist. One of the most powerful ways to search for new particles is by studying processes known as flavour-changing neutral current decays, whereby a quark changes its flavour without altering its electric charge. One example of such a transition is the decay of a beauty quark into a strange quark. Here we review some intriguing anomalies in these decays, which have revealed potential cracks in the standard model—hinting at the existence of new phenomena.

  17. submitter Flavour-changing neutral currents making and breaking the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Archilli, F; Owen, P; Petridis, K A

    2017-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics is our best description yet of fundamental particles and their interactions, but it is known to be incomplete. As yet undiscovered particles and interactions might exist. One of the most powerful ways to search for new particles is by studying processes known as flavour-changing neutral current decays, whereby a quark changes its flavour without altering its electric charge. One example of such a transition is the decay of a beauty quark into a strange quark. Here we review some intriguing anomalies in these decays, which have revealed potential cracks in the standard model—hinting at the existence of new phenomena.

  18. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 93, Revision 1 (FGE.93Rev1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The two substances 5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.130] and 5-ethyl-4-methyl-2......-(2-butyl)-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.131], which are 3-thiazolines, are structural similar to two other 3-thiazolines in FGE.21Rev1 for which the Panel has expressed a genotoxicity concern, and accordingly the Procedure should not be applied to these two substances until adequate genotoxicity data become......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...

  19. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  20. Use of flavour profile and consumer panels to determine differences between local water supplies and desalinated seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, M J; Loveland, J; Means, E G; Garvey, J

    2007-01-01

    The San Diego County Water Authority of California has initiated planning for coastal desalination facilities to augment their water supplies. Integration of the different water qualities from these facilities into existing pipelines must be achieved. This investigation determined whether, and to what degree, consumers can discriminate between desalinated seawater and imported water supplies and how these investigations can contribute to decision making regarding the need for construction of facilities to blend such supplies prior to delivery. Based upon the results of the flavour profile analysis panel and the consumer evaluation sessions, it was concluded that free chlorine versus chloramine disinfection or different concentrations of disinfectants did not significantly affect consumer perception of the taste and odour of desalinated seawater or blends with Colorado River water and State project water. Consumers were able to discern between desalinated seawater and imported water, preferring imported water when forced to make a choice. However, the investigators did not believe that the difference in consumer perception was significant enough to warrant special blending facilities to mitigate the relatively minor aesthetic quality differences between imported water supplies and desalinated seawater.

  1. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  2. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  3. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  4. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... is made due to the inclusion of the assessment of new toxicity data on one supporting substance 5,6-dihydro-2,4,6-tris(2-methylpropyl)-4H-1,3,5-dithiazine [FL-no: 15.113], which is considered to be structurally related to the candidate substances 2-butyl-4-methyl(4H)pyrrolidino[1,2d]-1,3,5-dithiazine [FL......-no: 15.135]. Furthermore, new in vitro genotoxicity studies have become available on the supporting substance 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.010], which is considered to be structurally related to and a supportive substance for 2-methyl-2-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.086]. Eighteen of the original 59...

  5. Changes in physico-chemical characteristics and volatile flavour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a storage stable yoghurt product from these vegetable seeds has the potential to increase utilization and market for peanut and soy beans. The study investigated the keeping quality of Soy-peanut-cow milk yoghurt (SPCY), Defatted peanut-soy milk yoghurt (DPSY) and Cow milk yoghurt (CMY) ...

  6. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  7. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  8. Opposite-side flavour tagging of $B$ mesons at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; de Bruyn, K; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    The calibration and performance of the opposite-side flavour tagging algorithms used for the measurements of time-dependent asymmetries at the LHCb experiment are described. The algorithms have been developed using simulated events and optimized and calibrated with $B^+ \\to J/ \\psi K^+$, $B^0 \\to J/\\psi K^{*0}$ and $B^0 \\to D^{*-} \\mu^+ \

  9. Flavour compounds in tomato fruits: identification of loci and potential pathways affecting volatile composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sandrine; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Fei, Zhangjun; Li, Hua; Bliss, Peter; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J; Tieman, Denise M

    2009-01-01

    The unique flavour of a tomato fruit is the sum of a complex interaction among sugars, acids, and a large set of volatile compounds. While it is generally acknowledged that the flavour of commercially produced tomatoes is inferior, the biochemical and genetic complexity of the trait has made breeding for improved flavour extremely difficult. The volatiles, in particular, present a major challenge for flavour improvement, being generated from a diverse set of lipid, amino acid, and carotenoid precursors. Very few genes controlling their biosynthesis have been identified. New quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect the volatile emissions of red-ripe fruits are described here. A population of introgression lines derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative, S. habrochaites, was characterized over multiple seasons and locations. A total of 30 QTLs affecting the emission of one or more volatiles were mapped. The data from this mapping project, combined with previously collected data on an IL population derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii populations, were used to construct a correlational database. A metabolite tree derived from these data provides new insights into the pathways for the synthesis of several of these volatiles. One QTL is a novel locus affecting fruit carotenoid content on chromosome 2. Volatile emissions from this and other lines indicate that the linear and cyclic apocarotenoid volatiles are probably derived from separate carotenoid pools.

  10. Search for flavour-changing neutral currents with top quarks arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Skovpen, Kirill

    Flavour-changing neutral currents are extremely rare processes in the standard model that can be sensitive to various new physics effects. The summary of the latest experimental results from the LHC experiments is given. Preliminary results of sensitivity studies for future colliders are also discussed.

  11. The role of α-amylase in the perception of oral texture and flavour in custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.; Engelen, L.; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The role of salivary α-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added α-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with

  12. Reviewing progress towards finding an acceptable natural flavour alternative to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Batenburg, M.; Velden, van der R.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The level of sodium in food products needs to be lowered in order to help reduce incidences of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases of the world population. Important functionalities of salt (NaCl) – salty taste and flavour enhancement – are to be delivered by replacer systems. One approach is

  13. A positive-weight next-to-leading-order Monte Carlo for heavy flavour hadroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frixione, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Nason, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading order calculation of heavy flavour production in hadronic collisions that can be interfaced to shower Monte Carlo programs. The calculation is performed in the context of the POWHEG method. It is suitable for the computation of charm, bottom and top hadroproduction. In the case of top production, spin correlations in the decay products are taken into account

  14. The role of alpha-amylase in the perception of oral texture and flavour in custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.; Engelen, L.; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The role of salivary a-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added alpha-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with

  15. Influence of flavour absorption on oxygen permentation through LDPE, PP, PC and PET plastics food packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Stege, van der H.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of flavour absorption on the oxygen permeability of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied using an isostatic continuous flow system. Polymer samples were exposed to a model solution containing limonene,

  16. Search for the lepton-flavour violating decay D-0 -> e(+/-)mu(-/+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abellan; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Albrec, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; AlvarezCartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Akiba, K. Carvalho; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; Francisco, O. De Aguiar; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C-T.; De Camp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Suarez, A. Dosil; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Albor, V. Fernandez; Ferrari, F.; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Torreira, A. Gallas; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Garcia-Pardinas, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J-P; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Cid, E. Lemos; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Vidal, F. Martinez; Tostes, D. Martins; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Rodriguez, J. Molina; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Mueller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Rodrigues, B. Osorio; Goicochea, J. M. Otalora; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilai, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Casasus, M. Plo; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Pernas, M. Ramos; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Molina, V. Rives; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Lopez, J. A. Rodriguez; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Vidal, A. Romero; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Valls, P. Ruiz; Silva, J. J. Saborido; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Guimaraes, V. Salustino; Mayordomo, C. Sanchez; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, I. T.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. Souza; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Regueiro, P. Vazquez; Sierra, C. Vazquez; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-01-01

    A search for the lepton-flavour violating decay D-0 -> e(+/-)mu(-/+) is made with a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. Candidate D-0 mesons are selected using the

  17. A new algorithm for identifying the flavour of $B_s^0$ mesons at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey

    2016-05-17

    A new algorithm for the determination of the initial flavour of $B_s^0$ mesons is presented. The algorithm is based on two neural networks and exploits the $b$ hadron production mechanism at a hadron collider. The first network is trained to select charged kaons produced in association with the $B_s^0$ meson. The second network combines the kaon charges to assign the $B_s^0$ flavour and estimates the probability of a wrong assignment. The algorithm is calibrated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The calibration is performed in two ways: by resolving the $B_s^0$-$\\bar{B}_s^0$ flavour oscillations in $B_s^0 \\to D_s^- \\pi^+$ decays, and by analysing flavour-specific $B_{s 2}^{*}(5840)^0 \\to B^+ K^-$ decays. The tagging power measured in $B_s^0 \\to D_s^- \\pi^+$ decays is found to be $(1.80 \\pm 0.19({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.18({\\rm syst}))$\\%, which is an improvement of about 50\\% compare...

  18. Comparison of flavour qualities of mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) packed with different packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donglu, Fang; Wenjian, Yang; Kimatu, Benard Muinde; Liyan, Zhao; Xinxin, An; Qiuhui, Hu

    2017-10-01

    To clarify the dynamic changes of flavour components in mushrooms packed with different packaging materials during storage, comprehensive flavour characterization, non-volatile and volatile compounds of Flammulina velutipes were evaluated using electronic nose (E-nose), electronic tongue (E-tongue) technology and headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), respectively. Results showed that volatile compounds of fresh F. velutipes mainly consisted of ketones and alcohols, with 3-octanone being the predominant compound. After storage, volatile components significantly changed in mushrooms packed with normal packaging material (Normal-PM) according to the GC-MS analysis and radar fingerprint chart of electronic nose. The ethanol accumulation was inhibited by nanocomposite packaging materials (Nano-PM). Besides, both radar graph and PCA of E-tongue signals could differentiate the samples from different packaging and storage time. In general, these results may provide a profile of flavour substances and explain mechanism of flavour changes in F. velutipes over storage period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Status of indirect searches for New Physics with heavy flavour decays after the initial LHC run

    CERN Document Server

    Isidori, Gino

    2014-01-01

    We present a status report on the indirect searches for New Physics performed by means of heavy flavour decays. Particular attention is devoted to the recent experimental results in B and charm physics obtained by the LHC experiments. The implications of these results for physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed both in general terms and by means of a few specific examples.

  20. Demonstrating FLAVOUR: Friendly Location-aware conference Assistant with priVacy Observant architectURe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavitha Muthukrishnan, K.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Koprinkov, G.T.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Dustdar, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an implementation of FLAVOUR (Friendly Location-aware conference Assistant with priVacy Observant architectURe), in which people/infrastructure resources act as individual service providers offering their location as a service. By subscribing to this service, in the one

  1. Safety assessment of allylalkoxybenzene derivatives used as flavouring substances - methyl eugenol and estragole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Adams, T.B.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.; Rogers, A.E.; Caldwell, J.; Sipes, I.G.

    2002-01-01

    This publication is the seventh in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavouring substances under conditions of

  2. Root mean square radii of heavy flavoured mesons in a quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the results of root mean square (r.m.s.) radii of heavy flavoured mesons in a QCD model with the potential V ( r ) = − ( 4 α s / 3 r ) + b r + c . As the potential is not analytically solvable, we first obtain the results in the absence of confinement and Coulomb terms respectively. Confinement and Coulomb effects are ...

  3. Root mean square radii of heavy flavoured mesons in a quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Root mean square radii of heavy flavoured mesons in a quantum chromodynamics potential model ... We explicitly consider the following two quantum mechanical aspects in the analysis: (a) The scale factor c in the potential should not effect the wave function of the system even while applying the perturbation theory.

  4. A straightforward method to determine flavouring substances in food by GC-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Sanchez, P.; Sisseren, van M.; Marco, De S.; Jekel, A.A.; Nijs, de W.C.M.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A straightforward GC–MS method was developed to determine the occurrence of fourteen flavouring compounds in food. It was successfully validated for four generic types of food (liquids, semi-solids, dry solids and fatty solids) in terms of limit of quantification, linearity, selectivity, matrix

  5. Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

    -starters including strains from our culture collection were used throughout the project. Initially selected strains were screened for enzyme activities involved in cheese flavour formation after growth in a cheese based medium (CBM) and in a nutrient rich growth medium (MRS). The Leuconostoc strains had low...

  6. The changes of flavour and aroma active compounds content during production of Edam cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of flavour of Edam cheeses, i.e. natural hard cheese with low heat curd. The cheese samples were produced in dairy MILTRA B, Ltd., Městečko Trnávka.A number of volatile substances contribute to flavour of cheese including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, esters, lactones, terpenes etc. The development of these components during production was monitored in chosen Edam cheese (fat 30% w/w using headspace-SPME-GC method. The samples were taken from cheesemilk up to technologically ripe cheese. In total 37 various organic compounds belonging to five chemical groups were identified in milk and cheese samples. Their total content increased during production. The first increase was observed after pressing and then especially in last part of ripening. Ethanol (185.8 ± 15.85 mg.kg−1, acetoin (97.7 ± 3.78 mg.kg−1, 2-methylpropanol (71.2 ± 5.23 mg.kg−1, acetic acid (54.4 ± 1.70 mg.kg−1 and acetaldehyde (36.4 ± 10.17 mg.kg−1 were the most abundant in ripened cheeses. The flavour and other organoleptic properties (appearance, texture of Edam cheese samples were also sensorially evaluated during ripening. The five point ordinal scale and profile tests were used for evaluation. The sensory quality was improved during ripening, until the final marked flavour characteristic for these cheese types.

  7. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, Revision 1: Bi- and tricyclic secondary, ketones and related esters from chemical groups 7 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate six flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, including an additional two substances in this Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission...... Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern...

  8. Subtle changes in the flavour and texture of a drink enhance expectations of satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrickerd Keri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of liquid calories has been implicated in the development of obesity and weight gain. Energy-containing drinks are often reported to have a weak satiety value: one explanation for this is that because of their fluid texture they are not expected to have much nutritional value. It is important to consider what features of these drinks can be manipulated to enhance their expected satiety value. Two studies investigated the perception of subtle changes in a drink’s viscosity, and the extent to which thick texture and creamy flavour contribute to the generation of satiety expectations. Participants in the first study rated the sensory characteristics of 16 fruit yogurt drinks of increasing viscosity. In study two, a new set of participants evaluated eight versions of the fruit yogurt drink, which varied in thick texture, creamy flavour and energy content, for sensory and hedonic characteristics and satiety expectations. Results In study one, participants were able to perceive small changes in drink viscosity that were strongly related to the actual viscosity of the drinks. In study two, the thick versions of the drink were expected to be more filling and have a greater expected satiety value, independent of the drink’s actual energy content. A creamy flavour enhanced the extent to which the drink was expected to be filling, but did not affect its expected satiety. Conclusions These results indicate that subtle manipulations of texture and creamy flavour can increase expectations that a fruit yogurt drink will be filling and suppress hunger, irrespective of the drink’s energy content. A thicker texture enhanced expectations of satiety to a greater extent than a creamier flavour, and may be one way to improve the anticipated satiating value of energy-containing beverages.

  9. Sensory profile of warmed-over flavour in tenderloin from steers supplemented with alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of warmed-over flavour (WOF in cooked tenderloin and the influence of alpha-tocopherol on its inhibition. A total of 24 animals were confined, 12 of which received 1200 mg/head/day of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 90 days. Longissimus dorsi muscle cuts (tenderloin were obtained for sensory profile assessment by nine trained tasters. The tasters evaluated the taste of the meat based on four general and 18 specific attributes. The results of the evaluations were analysed with ANOVA, post-hoc tests of the means (Tukey tests, and principal component analysis (PCA. There was no significant difference in the WOF between the cuts of meat from the supplemented and non-supplemented animals. However, as the refrigeration period increased, there was a decrease in the intensity of the umami and sweet taste attributes and the flavour and aroma of the roast meat as well as an increase in the intensity of the oxidised vegetable oil flavour and the aromas of fish, hard-boiled egg, flaxseed oil, and oxidised vegetable oil. The samples that had been stored for one day were characterised by PCA as having sweet and umami tastes and the flavour and aroma of roast meat, whereas after three days, the samples were classified as having sour and bitter tastes, the flavour of chicken and nuts, and the aroma of fish. The typical sensory attributes desirable for roasted meat decreased in intensity during the three days of storage after cooking, whereas the intensity of unpleasant (oxidative attributes for the consumer increased.

  10. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  11. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 3 (FGE.10Rev3): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 63 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, including additional two substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission...

  13. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2 (FGE.13 Rev2) Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side-chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 27 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Three...

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing, an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 61 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 210, Revision 1 (FGE.210Rev1): Consideration of genotoxic potential for α,β-unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 13 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 210 (FGE.210) and one additional substance [FL-no: 07.225] in this revis...

  16. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 220, Revision 2 (FGE.220Rev1): α,β-Unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.4 of FGE.19: 3(2H)-Furanones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 10 flavouring substances from subgroup 4.4 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 220 (FGE.220). FGE.220 is subdivided int...

  17. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 3 (FGE.09Rev3): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 17 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the subs...

  18. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 7, Revision 4 (FGE.07Rev4): Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 49 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 07, including additional five substances in this Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission ...

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 4 (FGE.09Rev4): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present revi...

  20. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 213, Revision 2 (FGE.213Rev2): Consideration of genotoxic potential for α,β-unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 26 flavouring substances from subgroup 2.7 of FGE.19 in Flavouring Group Evaluation (FGE) 213. In the first v...

  1. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 5 (FGE.09Rev5): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 5, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present revi...

  2. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 06, Revision 4 (FGE.06Rev4 ): Straight - and branched - chain aliphatic unsaturated primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids and esters from chemical groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 6, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision is...

  3. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2 (FEG.17Rev2): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. From the in vitro...... data available, genotoxic potential is indicated for the flavouring substances quinoxaline [FL-no: 14.147] and 2-methylquinoxaline [FL-no: 14.139]. Therefore, the Panel decided that the Procedure could not be applied to these two substances, so adequate genotoxicity data should be provided. For one...... substance [FL-no: 14.051] no intake data are available preventing it from being evaluated through the Procedure. The remaining 18 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold...

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 3 (FGE.17Rev3): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, including seven additional substances considered in this Revision 3, using the Procedure...... in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. From the in vitro data available, genotoxic potential is indicated for the flavouring substances quinoxaline [FL-no: 14.147] and 2- methylquinoxaline [FL-no: 14.139]. Therefore, the Panel decided that the Procedure could not be applied to these two substances, until...... adequate data showing absence of genotoxicity are provided. For one substance [FL-no: 14.051] no intake data are available preventing it from being evaluated through the Procedure. The remaining 25 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure...

  5. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 2 (FGE.12Rev2): Primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and esters from chemical group 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs...... group 7. Seven of the nine flavouring substances possess one or more chiral centres and additionally, and due to the presence of a double bond, one of these substances can exist as geometric isomer. For two of these substances, the stereoisomeric composition has not been specified. The nine flavouring...... at the use level reported by the Industry, especially in those cases where the annual production values were reported to be small. In consequence, the Panel had reservations about the data on use and use levels provided and the intake estimates obtained by the MSDI approach. In the absence of more precise...

  6. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids ), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 200 (FGE.200): 74 α , β -unsaturated aldehydes and precursors from subgroup 1.1.1 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 74 flavouring substances from subgroup 1.1.1 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 200 (FGE.200). The Flavour Industry has...... provided additional genotoxicity studies for one representative substance in FGE.200, namely hex-2(trans)-enal [FL-no 05.073], and for other two substances in the same subgroup, namely 2-dodecenal [05.037] and 2-nonenal [05.171]. The Panel has evaluated these data and concluded that the concern still...... remains with respect to genotoxicity for the substances of this subgroup and their three representative substances. The Panel confirms, the need for an in vivo Comet assay performed in duodenum and liver for hex-2(trans)-enal [FL-no: 05.073]. For the two other representative substances of subgroup 1...

  7. Acquired preferences for piquant foods by chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Kennel, K

    1983-06-01

    Humans frequently develop likings for innately unpalatable substances, while this occurs very rarely in non-humans. In this study, we establish a preference for crackers seasoned with chili pepper in two domesticated chimpanzees. Chimps were offered a series of increasingly piquant crackers by their caretaker, and gradually came to prefer these crackers to unseasoned crackers. The preferences were stable over months, and generalized to a different piquant cracker. Available evidence suggests that these are acquired likes rather than preferences maintained because of positive consequences that follow ingestion. We note that all existing instances of acquired likings for innately aversive foods in animals (including some informal results from dogs presented in this paper) involve animals with a close personal relationship with humans, suggesting an important role for social-affective factors in the reversal of innate aversions.

  8. Positive Illusions of Preference Consistency: When Remaining Eluded by One's Preferences Yields Greater Subjective Well-Being and Decision Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rachael E.; Iyengar, Sheena S.

    2005-01-01

    Psychological research has repeatedly demonstrated two seemingly irreconcilable human tendencies. People are motivated towards internal consistency, or acting in accordance with stable, self-generated preferences. Simultaneously though, people demonstrate considerable variation in the content of their preferences, often induced by subtle external…

  9. Consumers’ preferences for bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2018-01-01

    Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...... or without the use of pesticides, relative to traditionally bred rye, grown with conventional or organic farming methods. Stated preference (SP) data from a choice experiment are combined with revealed preference (RP) data from market purchases from the same respondents. Results show that respondents prefer...... pesticide-free production methods, and that while cisgenics is preferred over transgenics, the majority of respondents favour traditional breeding methods. The distribution in preferences suggests that some respondents prefer bread from cisgenic crops produced without pesticides over traditional crops...

  10. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence...... that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk...

  11. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) is the preferred tool for obtaining non-perturbative results from QCD in the low-energy regime. It has by now entered the era in which high precision calculations for a number of phenomenologically relevant observables at the physical point, with dynamical quark degrees of freedom and controlled systematics, become feasible. Despite these successes there are still quantities where control of systematic effects is insufficient. The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the potential of todays state-of-the-art simulation algorithms for non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions to produce reliable results in the chiral regime and at the physical point both for zero and non-zero temperature. Important in this context is the control over the chiral extrapolation. This thesis is concerned with two particular topics, namely the computation of hadronic form factors at zero temperature, and the properties of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD. The electromagnetic iso-vector form factor of the pion provides a platform to study systematic effects and the chiral extrapolation for observables connected to the structure of mesons (and baryons). Mesonic form factors are computationally simpler than their baryonic counterparts but share most of the systematic effects. This thesis contains a comprehensive study of the form factor in the regime of low momentum transfer q 2 , where the form factor is connected to the charge radius of the pion. A particular emphasis is on the region very close to q 2 =0 which has not been explored so far, neither in experiment nor in LQCD. The results for the form factor close the gap between the smallest spacelike q 2 -value available so far and q 2 =0, and reach an unprecedented accuracy at full control over the main systematic effects. This enables the model-independent extraction of the pion charge radius. The results for the form factor and the charge radius are used to

  12. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin

    2012-11-22

    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) is the preferred tool for obtaining non-perturbative results from QCD in the low-energy regime. It has by now entered the era in which high precision calculations for a number of phenomenologically relevant observables at the physical point, with dynamical quark degrees of freedom and controlled systematics, become feasible. Despite these successes there are still quantities where control of systematic effects is insufficient. The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the potential of todays state-of-the-art simulation algorithms for non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions to produce reliable results in the chiral regime and at the physical point both for zero and non-zero temperature. Important in this context is the control over the chiral extrapolation. This thesis is concerned with two particular topics, namely the computation of hadronic form factors at zero temperature, and the properties of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD. The electromagnetic iso-vector form factor of the pion provides a platform to study systematic effects and the chiral extrapolation for observables connected to the structure of mesons (and baryons). Mesonic form factors are computationally simpler than their baryonic counterparts but share most of the systematic effects. This thesis contains a comprehensive study of the form factor in the regime of low momentum transfer q{sup 2}, where the form factor is connected to the charge radius of the pion. A particular emphasis is on the region very close to q{sup 2}=0 which has not been explored so far, neither in experiment nor in LQCD. The results for the form factor close the gap between the smallest spacelike q{sup 2}-value available so far and q{sup 2}=0, and reach an unprecedented accuracy at full control over the main systematic effects. This enables the model-independent extraction of the pion charge radius. The results for the form factor and the charge

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation and ethyl methane sulphonate on flavour formation in garlic (Allium sativum L. ) cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malpathak, N.P.; David, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    In callus cultures both gamma irradiation and EMS treatments produced stimul ation of flavour formation at lower as well as at higher dosages. Different results were obtained when the plantlets differentiated from both the treatments were analysed. There was a gradual increase in flavour formation with increasing dosages, which declined at a higher dosages. Cytological observations showed an increase in polyploidy with increasing dosages. (author). 5 refs., 5 tabs

  14. High fluoride and low pH level have been detected in popular flavoured beverages in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim, Zubaidah HA; Bakri, Marina M; Zakir, HM; Ahmed, IA; Zulkifli, NA

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In children, excessive ingestion of fluoride from different sources including bottled drinking water and flavoured beverages or soft drinks can lead to the development of dental fluorosis. In addition, the pH level of beverages is important. Low pH can cause dental erosion. In this study we explore the fluoride content and pH level of certain popular beverages available in Malaysian supermarkets and hawkers' stalls. Methods: Bottled drinking water and selected popular flavoured...

  15. Fundamental composite 2HDM: SU(N) with 4 flavours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teng [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University,Beijing, 100084 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Tsinghua University,Beijing, 100084 (China); Cacciapaglia, Giacomo [University Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1,43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (UMR5822), CNRS/IN2P3,4 rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2016-03-31

    We present a new model of composite Higgs based on a gauged SU(N) group with 4 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. At low energy, the model has a global symmetry SU(4)×SU(4) broken to the diagonal SU(4), containing 2 Higgs doublets in the coset. We study in detail the issue of the vacuum alignment. In particular, we prove that, without loss of generality, the vacuum can always be aligned with one doublet. Under certain conditions on the top pre-Yukawas, the second doublet, together with the additional triplets, is stable and can thus play the role of Dark Matter. This model can therefore be an example of composite inert-2HDM model.

  16. Physico-chemical change and heat stability of extra virgin olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M A; Grati-Kamoun, N; Attia, H

    2009-10-01

    Objectives of this work were studying physico-chemical change and heat stability of olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants. Flavoured olive oils were prepared by maceration of fresh plant materials (rosemary, lavender, sage, menthe, basil, lemon and thyme) with olive oil at a 5% w/w level for 15 days. A sensorial evaluation was applied to select more appreciate flavoured olive oils by consumers. An oxidative procedure was applied to test the stability of selected flavoured olive oils: oils samples were kept in glass bottles and heated at 60 and 130 degrees C during 55 days and 6h, respectively. The resistance to oxidation of these selected flavoured oils was compared to a control samples by measuring PV, K232 and K270 values and change in chlorophyll, carotenes and polyphénols contents. Obtained results show that addition of aromatic plants causes a slight increase in free acidity and viscosity of aromatised olive oils. L*, b* and a* values show that addition of thyme cause a great change in olive oil colours. Heat stability results shows that from selected aromatic plants, rosemary was effectiveness against oxidation followed by thyme and lemon. However, olive oil flavoured with basil exhibit a similar behaviour versus thermal oxidation then the natural olive oil.

  17. The effect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and flavour profile properties of yoghurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Tabaszewska, Małgorzata; Grega, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fibre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, flavour profile etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and flavour profile parameters of yoghurts. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper) were added (10% w/w) to the processed cow's milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profile analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive flavour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper flavours were dominating in the fermented milks fortified with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin flavours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not influenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable flavour.

  18. Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

    Undefined mesophilic cheese starters are complex ecosystems that contain both homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, with the Lactococcus genera representing the former and Lceuonostoc and sometimes Lactobacillus the latter. These starters originate from old butter starters...... with plant isolates, the ability to ferment citrate and lacked several genes involved in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. The presented research in this thesis has gained insight in to the role of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria in cheese flavour formation. The traditional DL......-starters contained numerous of strains of heterofermentative Le. mesenteroides, whereas Le. pseudomesenteroides and  only were found in some starters. The potential of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria to effect the flavour formation in cheese seems to be dependent on how well they grow and establish...

  19. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of fruit and flavoured black teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękal, Anna; Dróżdż, Paulina; Biesaga, Magdalena; Pyrzynska, Krystyna

    2011-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of the water extracts of the commercial bagged fruit and flavoured black teas were evaluated and compared with typical black teas of C. sinensis. Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and DPPH radical method were used for these purposes. The content of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids was also determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the negative electrospray ionization mode. Flavoured black teas contain significantly higher level of catechins, quercetin, and rutin, while the content of chlorogenic and caffeic acids as well as naringin and hesperidin was higher in fruit teas. Supplementation with these flavonoids could reduce blood glucose. In FC and DPPH assays, the antioxidant properties of studied tea infusion increases in the order: fruit tea premium black tea, while in CUPRAC method, some aromatized teas exhibit the highest antioxidant properties. Tea infusions with nice smell of fruits would also support the human diet with some source of antioxidants.

  20. Sleptonarium (Constraints on the CP and flavour pattern of scalar lepton masses)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, I. E-mail: masina@spht.saclay.cea.fr; Savoy, C.A. E-mail: savoy@spht.saclay.cea.fr

    2003-06-23

    The constraints on the flavour and CP structure of scalar lepton mass matrices are systematically collected. The display of the resulting upper bounds on the lepton-slepton misalignment parameters is designed for an easy inspection of very large classes of models and the formula are arranged so as to suggest useful approximations. Interferences among the different contributions to lepton flavour violating transitions and lepton electric and magnetic dipole moments of generic character can either tighten or loose the bounds. A combined analysis of all rare leptonic transitions can disentangle the different contributions to yield hints on several phenomenological issues. The possible impact of these results on the study of the slepton misalignment originated in the seesaw mechanism and grand-unified theories is emphasized since the planned experiments are getting close to the precision required in such tests.

  1. Lepton flavour violation in a minimal S{sub 3}-invariant extension of the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondragon, A.; Mondragon, M.; Peinado, E. [IFUNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-12-15

    After a brief review of some relevant results on lepton masses and mixings, that had previously been derived in the framework of a Minimal S{sub 3}-Invariant Extension of the Standard Model, we derive explicit analytical expressions for the matrices of the Yukawa couplings and compute the branching ratios of some selected flavour changing neutral current processes as functions of the masses of the charged leptons and the neutral Higgs bosons. We find that the S{sub 3} X Z{sub 2} flavour symmetry and the strong mass hierarchy of the charged leptons strongly suppress the FCNC processes in the leptonic sector well below the present experimental upper bounds by many orders of magnitude. (Author)

  2. Split-Family SUSY, U(2)^5 Flavour Symmetry and Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jones-Pérez, Joel

    2014-01-01

    In split-family SUSY, one can use a U(2)^3 symmetry to protect flavour observables in the quark sector from SUSY contributions. However, attempts to extend this procedure to the lepton sector by using an analogous U(2)^5 symmetry fail to reproduce the neutrino data without introducing some form of fine-tuning. In this work, we solve this problem by shifting the U(2)^2 symmetry acting on leptons towards the second and third generations. This allows neutrino data to be reproduced without much difficulties, as well as protecting the leptonic flavour observables from SUSY. Key signatures are a $\\mu\\to e\\gamma$ branching ratio possibly observable in the near future, as well as having selectrons as the lightest sleptons.

  3. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  4. Heavy flavour corrections to polarised and unpolarised deep-inelastic scattering at 3-loop order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, J.; Round, M.; Schneider, C.; Hasselhuhn, A.

    2016-11-01

    We report on progress in the calculation of 3-loop corrections to the deep-inelastic structure functions from massive quarks in the asymptotic region of large momentum transfer Q 2 . Recently completed results allow us to obtain the O(a 3 s ) contributions to several heavy flavour Wilson coefficients which enter both polarised and unpolarised structure functions for lepton-nucleon scattering. In particular, we obtain the non-singlet contributions to the unpolarised structure functions F 2 (x,Q 2 ) and xF 3 (x,Q 2 ) and the polarised structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ). From these results we also obtain the heavy flavour contributions to the Gross-Llewellyn-Smith and the Bjorken sum rules.

  5. Flavour formation in pork semimembranosus: Combination of pan-temperature and raw meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis

    2008-01-01

    temperature of 70 degrees C. Frying temperature was the one factor with greatest influence on the sensory attributes, and pan-grilled schnitzels had significantly higher scores in fried/grilled attributes regardless of meat quality compared to pan-fried schnitzels. Texture was not appreciably influenced...... by any treatment. There was no correlation between precursor levels and raw meat qualities or fried sensory attributes. Gender and slaughter live-weight had no pronounced influence on flavour and overall eating quality.......Flavour development and overall eating quality of pork semimembranosus were investigated with regard to different raw meat qualities (feeding/fasting strategy; control/low glycogen level, gender; castrate/female, slaughter live-weight; 84 kg/110 kg) combined with frying temperature (150 degrees C...

  6. What is the scale of new physics behind the B-flavour anomalies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luzio, Luca [Durham University, Department of Physics, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Nardecchia, Marco [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-08-15

    Motivated by the recent hints of lepton flavour non-universality in B-meson semi-leptonic decays, we study the constraints of perturbative unitarity on the new physics interpretation of the anomalies in b → cl anti ν and b → sl anti l transitions. Within an effective field theory approach we find that 2 → 2 fermion scattering amplitudes saturate the unitarity bound below 9 and 80 TeV, respectively for b → cl anti ν and b → sl anti l transitions. Stronger bounds, up to few TeV, are obtained when the leading effective operators are oriented in the direction of the third generation, as suggested by flavour models. We finally address unitarity constraints on simplified models explaining the anomalies and show that the new physics interpretation is ruled out in a class of perturbative realizations. (orig.)

  7. QCD-aware partonic jet clustering for truth-jet flavour labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, Andy; Pollard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present an algorithm for deriving partonic flavour labels to be applied to truth particle jets in Monte Carlo event simulations. The inputs to this approach are final pre-hadronisation partons, to remove dependence on unphysical details such as the order of matrix element calculation and shower generator frame recoil treatment. These are clustered using standard jet algorithms, modified to restrict the allowed pseudo-jet combinations to those in which tracked flavour labels are consistent with QCD and QED Feynman rules. The resulting algorithm is shown to be portable between the major families of shower generators, and largely insensitive to many possible systematic variations: it hence offers significant advantages over existing ad hoc labelling schemes. However, it is shown that contamination from multi-parton scattering simulations can disrupt the labelling results. Suggestions are made for further extension to incorporate more detailed QCD splitting function kinematics, robustness improvements, and potential uses for truth-level physics object definitions and tagging. (orig.)

  8. Lorentz-Violating Regulator Gauge Fields as the Origin of Dynamical Flavour Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean; Mavromatos, Nick E

    2013-01-01

    We show how a mass mixing matrix can be generated dynamically, for two massless fermion flavours coupled to a Lorentz invariance violating (LIV) gauge field. The LIV features play the role of a regulator for the gap equations, and the non-analytic dependence of the dynamical masses, as functions of the gauge coupling, allows to consider the limit where the LIV gauge field eventually decouples from the fermions. Lorentz invariance is then recovered, to describe the oscillation between two free fermion flavours, and we check that the finite dynamical masses are the only effects of the original LIV theory. We also discuss briefly a connection of our results with the case of Majorana neutrinos in both, the standard model, where only left-handed (active) neutrinos are considered, and extensions thereof, with sterile right-handed neutrinos.

  9. The QCD equation of state for two flavours at non-zero chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Ejiri, S; Döring, M; Hands, S J; Kaczmarek, O; Karsch, Frithjof; Laermann, E; Redlich, K

    2006-01-01

    We present results of a simulation of 2 flavour QCD on a $16^3\\times4$ lattice using p4-improved staggered fermions with bare quark mass $m/T=0.4$. Derivatives of the thermodynamic grand canonical partition function $Z(V,T,\\mu_u,\\mu_d)$ with respect to chemical potentials $\\mu_{u,d}$ for different quark flavours are calculated up to sixth order, enabling estimates of the pressure and the quark number density as well as the chiral condensate and various susceptibilities as functions of $\\mu_{u,d}$ via Taylor series expansion. Results are compared to high temperature perturbation theory as well as a hadron resonance gas model. We also analyze baryon as well as isospin fluctuations and discuss the relation to the chiral critical point in the QCD phase diagram. We moreover discuss the dependence of the heavy quark free energy on the chemical potential.

  10. Structure-property relationships in flavour-barrier membranes with reduced high-temperature diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitfeld, Kevin A.; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2009-01-01

    Encapsulation is used to decrease the premature release of volatile flavour ingredients while offering protection against environmental damage such as oxidation, light-induced reactions, etc. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) is investigated here as a 'smart,' temperature responsive membrane for flavour encapsulation and delivery. Gel films were synthesized and characterized by diffusion and small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. Increasing temperature typically increases the diffusion rate across a membrane; HPC, however, can be tailored to give substantially improved elevated temperature properties. Scattering results indicate processing conditions have a significant impact on membrane morphology (micro phase separation). Under certain synthetic conditions, micro phase separation is mitigated and the membranes show temperature-independent diffusivity between 25 C and 60 C.

  11. Streptophage-mediated control of off-flavour taint producing streptomycetes isolated from barramundi ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Anne Jonns

    2017-06-01

    Following the determination of the streptophage susceptibility of the isolates one of the most odourous streptomycete species (USC-14510 was selected to be tested further using different pond simulations resembling real-life applications. Geosmin was tested as the indicator of off-flavour taint production and as it has been previously reported that the cyanobacteria-actinomycete interactions occurring in ponds result in even greater levels of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, the geosmin levels for the isolate in the presence of cyanobacteria and streptophages were also tested. Findings indicated that the highly odourous Streptomyces species (USC-14510 once infected with streptophages, can lose its capacity to produce off-flavour taints. Pond simulation studies also revealed geosmin production was significantly reduced when streptophages were introduced into the pond water where streptomycete species were grown. The bacteriophage control method developed in the presented study might again confirm significant potential for the bacteriophage-mediated remediation strategy to be adapted by the aquaculture industry.

  12. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  13. Branched chain aldehydes: production and breakdown pathways and relevance for flavour in foods

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    Branched aldehydes, such as 2-methyl propanal and 2- and 3-methyl butanal, are important flavour compounds in many food products, both fermented and non-fermented (heat-treated) products. The production and degradation of these aldehydes from amino acids is described and reviewed extensively in literature. This paper reviews aspects influencing the formation of these aldehydes at the level of metabolic conversions, microbial and food composition. Special emphasis was on 3-methyl butanal and i...

  14. Type of sweet flavour carrier affects thyroid axis activity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałkowska-Goździk, Ewelina; Bigos, Anna; Rosołowska-Huszcz, Danuta

    2018-03-01

    Non-nutritive sweeteners are the most widely used food additives worldwide. However, their metabolic outcomes are still a matter of controversy and their effect on the thyroid activity, a key regulator of metabolism, has not been previously studied. Therefore, we aim to determine the influence of the sweet type flavour carrier on selected parameters of thyroid axis activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 105) were divided into 3 groups fed ad libitum for three weeks isocaloric diets (3.76 ± 0.5 kcal/g): two with the same sweet flavour intensity responded to 10% of sucrose (with sucrose-SC-and sucralose-SU) and one non-sweet diet (NS). To evaluate the post-ingested effects, animals were euthanised at fast and 30, 60, 120, 180 min after meal. The results obtained indicate that both the presence and the type of sweet taste flavour carrier affect thyroid axis activity both at fasting and postprandial state. Compared to diet with sucrose which stimulates thyroid axis activity, sucralose addition diminishes thyroid hormone synthesis as thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, plasma thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) concentration was lower than in SC and NS while in non-sweet diet the lowest level of hepatic deiodinase type 1 (DIO1) and the highest reverse T3 (rT3) level indicate on altered thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism. Both the presence and the type of sweet flavour carrier have a significant impact on thyroid axis activity. Our findings suggest that this organochlorine sweetener is metabolically active and might exacerbate metabolic disorders via an adverse effect on thyroid hormone metabolism.

  15. Dry matter content and fruit size affect flavour and texture of novel Actinidia deliciosa genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, Simona; Gamble, Joanna; Axten, Lauren G; Wohlers, Mark W; Clearwater, Michael J; Feng, Jinquan; Harker, F Roger

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies with commercial kiwifruit cultivars have demonstrated that the taste of fruit with higher dry matter content (DM) is more liked by consumers. A unique replicated trial of kiwifruit genotypes (10 high/low DM × small/large-fruited genotypes) has provided an opportunity to consider how the genetic propensity for a kiwifruit to accumulate DM affects fruit flavour and texture. In the present study, eating-ripe fruit from each of the genotypes were assessed using a trained sensory panel and the relationships between these sensory attributes and fresh weight, DM, flesh firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) were explored. The genotypes provided a diversity of flavour and texture attributes, each of which varied in perceived intensity of the sensory experience. High-DM genotypes had higher SSC and were perceived as sweeter than low-DM genotypes. Sweet taste was closely associated with the perception of the tropical flavour and high-DM genotypes were found to have more tropical notes. Fruit size was associated with fruit texture, and small fruit were characterised by a firmer and more fibrous core. Large high-DM fruit were perceived as juicier than those of all other genotypes. Genotypes were perceived differently from one another, and differences in fruit size and DM content were reflected in fruit sensorial properties. This study is unique in demonstrating interactions between fruit size, DM and sensory properties. These findings could be relevant not only to kiwifruit but to fruiting crop breeders in general, because of the demonstrated potential for effects of fruit size and DM content on sweetness, flavour and fruit texture. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Flavour separation of helicity distributions from deep inelastic muon-deuteron scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregisilio, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Donskov, S.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Efremov, A.V.; El Alaoui, A.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hagemann, R.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Käfer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kiefer, J.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Krämer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Reggiani, D.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Wenzl, K.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 680, č. 5 (2009), s. 217-224 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : COMPASS * double-spin asymmetry * helicity density * Parton distribution function * flavour separation analysis * polarised DIS and SIDIS reactions * charged kaon asymmetry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.083, year: 2009

  17. Removal of off-flavours in some Australian crustacea by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Development of an export industry based on the deep sea royal red prawn, haliporoides sibogae and the shallow water shovel nosed lobster or balmain bug, lbacus peronii has been hampered by the sweet garlic off-flavour often encountered in both these species. A method for removing this noxious odour was developed which involved gamma irradiation of the affected crustacea using a cobalt-60 source

  18. The see-saw mechanism: neutrino mixing, leptogenesis and lepton flavour violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodejohann, Werner

    2009-01-01

    The see-saw mechanism to generate small neutrino masses is reviewed. After summarizing our current knowledge about the low energy neutrino mass matrix, we consider reconstructing the see-saw mechanism. Indirect tests of see-saw are leptogenesis and lepton flavour violation in supersymmetric scenarios, which together with neutrino mass and mixing define the framework of see-saw phenomenology. Several examples are given, both phenomenological and GUT-related. (author)

  19. Particle physics and cosmology beyond the Standard Model: inflation, dark matter and flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtier, L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis has been focusing on beyond the Standard Model aspects of particle physics and their implication in cosmology. We have gone through this work along the timeline of the Universe History focusing on three major topics that are the inflationary period, the dark matter relic density production and detection, and finally the question of flavor changing constraints on low energy supersymmetric theories. In the first part of this thesis, after reviewing the theoretical and phenomenological aspects of both the Big Bang theory and the theory of Inflation we will study in detail how describing Inflation in a high energy supersymmetric theory. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to dark matter. We have studied phenomenological aspects of simple models, extending the present Standard Model with simple abelian symmetries, by assuming that the constituent of dark matter would be able to exchange information with the visible sector by the help of a mediator particle. We have studied in particular possible interactions of heavy or light dark matter with respectively the strong and the electroweak sectors of the Standard Model. Our models are strongly constrained of course by experiments. The third part of this work will be dedicated to a different aspect of beyond Standard Model theories, that is the treatment of the flavour changing processes of particle physics. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), as one of these possible enlargement of the Standard Model, introduces new processes of flavour changing that are highly constrained by experiment. We present some works in which we consider the possibility of adding so called Dirac Gauginos to the MSSM to render flavour changing weaker in the theory, and propose different flavour patterns theories

  20. The custodially protected Randall-Sundrum model. Theoretical aspects and flavour phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanke, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Models with a warped extra dimension, so-called Randall-Sundrum models, provide an appealing solution to the gauge and flavour hierarchy problems of the Standard Model. After introducing the theoretical basics of such models, we concentrate on a specific model whose symmetry structure is extended to protect the T parameter and the Zb L anti b L coupling from large corrections. We introduce the basic action and discuss in detail effects of electroweak symmetry breaking and the flavour structure of the model. Then we analyse meson-antimeson mixing and rare decays that are affected by new tree level contributions from the Kaluza-Klein modes of the gauge bosons and from the Z boson in an important manner. After deriving analytic expressions for the most important K and B physics observables, we perform a global numerical analysis of the new effects in the model in question. We confirm the recent findings that a stringent constraint on the model is placed by CP-violation in K 0 - anti K 0 mixing. However, even for Kaluza-Klein particles in the reach of the LHC an agreement with all available data can be obtained without significant fine-tuning. We find possible large effects in either CP-violating effects in the B s - anti B s system or in the rare K decays, but not simultaneously. In any case the deviations from the Standard Model predictions in the rare B decays are small and difficult to measure. The specific pattern of new flavour effects allows to distinguish this model from other New Physics frameworks, which we demonstrate explicitly for the case of models with Minimal Flavour Violation and for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity. (orig.)

  1. Search for the lepton-flavour violating decay D0→e±μ∓

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Everse, LA; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M-O.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.D.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, C.R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; de Miranda, J. M.; Paula, L.E.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T. M.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, Mark; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Carvalho-Gaspar, M.; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T. J.; Ghez, Ph; Gianiỳ, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.Q.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.J.G.A.M.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.M.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T. E.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, S.C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli-Boneschi, F.; Martinez-Santos, D.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; Mcnab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B. T.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, Karl; von Müller, L.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J.G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, E.A.; Owen, R.P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.S; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, D.A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, M. E.; Price, J.D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, C.A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, Y.W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, Jennifer S; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, L.E.T.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, R. H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; de Souza, D.K.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M. N.; Todd, Jim; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, N.T.M.T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel-Plandsoen, M.M.; Velthuis, M.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, John; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, James F; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.J.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-01-01

    A search for the lepton-flavour violating decay D0→e±μ∓is made with a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1of proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7TeV and 8TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. Candidate D0mesons are selected using the decay D*+→D0π+and

  2. The Kaon B-parameter from Two-Flavour Dynamical Domain Wall Fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the calculation of the kaon B-parameter using two dynamical flavours of domain wall fermions. Our analysis is based on three ensembles of configurations, each consisting of about 5,000 HMC trajectories, with a lattice spacing of approximately 1.7 GeV for 16 3 x32 lattices; dynamical quark masses range from approximately the strange quark mass to half of that. Both degenerate and non-degenerate quark masses are used for the kaons

  3. Heavy-flavour hadrons as probes of strongly-interacting matter: highlights from ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    In Pb-Pb collisions the heavy-flavour nuclear modification factor together with the elliptic-flow measurements allow one to study the heavy-quark transport properties in the hot and dense medium. The production of heavy quarks in heavy-ion collisions is furthermore also affected by the presence of cold nuclear matter in the initial state. The study of p-Pb collisions is instrument...

  4. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon flavoured black tea

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, ...

  5. Rare leptonic and semileptonic $b$-hadron decays and tests of lepton flavour universality at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069512

    2016-01-01

    Rare decays of heavy-flavoured particles provide an ideal laboratory to look for deviations from the Standard Model, and explore energy regimes beyond the LHC reach. Decays proceeding via electroweak penguin diagrams are excellent probes to search for New Physics, and $b \\to s \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ processes are particularly interesting since they give access to many observables such as branching fractions, asymmetries and angular observables. Recent results from the LHCb experiment are reviewed.

  6. The custodially protected Randall-Sundrum model. Theoretical aspects and flavour phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanke, Monika

    2009-07-24

    Models with a warped extra dimension, so-called Randall-Sundrum models, provide an appealing solution to the gauge and flavour hierarchy problems of the Standard Model. After introducing the theoretical basics of such models, we concentrate on a specific model whose symmetry structure is extended to protect the T parameter and the Zb{sub L} anti b{sub L} coupling from large corrections. We introduce the basic action and discuss in detail effects of electroweak symmetry breaking and the flavour structure of the model. Then we analyse meson-antimeson mixing and rare decays that are affected by new tree level contributions from the Kaluza-Klein modes of the gauge bosons and from the Z boson in an important manner. After deriving analytic expressions for the most important K and B physics observables, we perform a global numerical analysis of the new effects in the model in question. We confirm the recent findings that a stringent constraint on the model is placed by CP-violation in K{sup 0} - anti K{sup 0} mixing. However, even for Kaluza-Klein particles in the reach of the LHC an agreement with all available data can be obtained without significant fine-tuning. We find possible large effects in either CP-violating effects in the B{sub s} - anti B{sub s} system or in the rare K decays, but not simultaneously. In any case the deviations from the Standard Model predictions in the rare B decays are small and difficult to measure. The specific pattern of new flavour effects allows to distinguish this model from other New Physics frameworks, which we demonstrate explicitly for the case of models with Minimal Flavour Violation and for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity. (orig.)

  7. Biochemical effect of chocolate colouring and flavouring like substances on thyroid function and protein biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Saadany, S S

    1991-01-01

    Synthetic chocolate colourant, flavourant and the mixture of both were administered to healthy adult male albino rats to evaluate their effect on the nucleic acids metabolism, i.e. deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids (DNA and RNA), total serum protein, thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and nuclease enzymes, i.e. cytoplasmic- and mitochondrial deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease (DNase and RNase) in brain, liver, and kidneys. Also, the activity of the fundamental enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, i.e. cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD and 6-PGD), as well as total lipids and cholesterol contents in the same organs were studied. Ingestion of the studied food additives significantly increased serum protein, RNA and T4 hormone, while, DNA and T3 hormone were insignificantly elevated. In connection with this, the hydrolytic enzymes of nucleic acids (DNase and RNase activities) were stimulated by all studied food additives and in all mentioned organs. The activity of G-6-PD and 6-PGD in both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial fractions of all studied organs were increased. The highest increase was noticed in rats fed on diets supplemented with the mixture of both colourant and flavourant followed by colourant then flavourant, respectively.

  8. arXiv 6d SCFTs and U(1) Flavour Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Weigand, Timo

    We study the behaviour of abelian gauge symmetries in six-dimensional N=(1,0) theories upon decoupling gravity and investigate abelian flavour symmetries in the context of 6d N=(1,0) SCFTs. From a supergravity perspective, the anomaly cancellation mechanism implies that abelian gauge symmetries can only survive as global symmetries as gravity is decoupled. The flavour symmetries obtained in this way are shown to be free of ABJ anomalies, and their 't Hooft anomaly polynomial in the decoupling limit is obtained explicitly. In an F-theory realisation the decoupling of abelian gauge symmetries implies that a mathematical object known as the height pairing of a rational section is not contractible as a curve on the base of an elliptic Calabi-Yau threefold. We prove this prediction from supergravity by making use of the properties of the Mordell-Weil group of rational sections. In the second part of this paper we study the appearance of abelian flavour symmetries in 6d N=(1,0) SCFTs. We elucidate both the geometri...

  9. Influence of serving temperature on flavour perception and release of Bourbon Caturra coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Ida; Waehrens, Sandra S; Petersen, Mikael A; Münchow, Morten; Bredie, Wender L P

    2017-03-15

    The present study aimed to investigate coffee flavour perception and release as function of serving temperature to support standardisation in the specialty coffee branch. The coffee cultivar Bourbon Caturra was evaluated at six serving temperatures ranging from 31°C to 62°C. Coffee samples were analysed by dynamic headspace sampling gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and descriptive analyses using sip-and-spit tasting. The release of volatiles followed mostly the van't Hoff principle and was exuberated at temperatures above 40°C. Aliphatic ketones, alkylpyrazines, some furans and pyridines increased most notably at temperatures ⩾50°C. The changes in volatile release profiles could explain some of the sensory differences observed. The flavour notes of 'sour', 'tobacco' and 'sweet' were mostly associated with the coffees served at 31-44°C, whereas coffees served between 50°C and 62°C exhibited stronger 'overall intensity', 'roasted' flavour and 'bitter' notes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and evaluation of novel flavour microcapsules containing vanilla oil using complex coacervation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ziming; Peng, Zheng; Li, Jihua; Li, Sidong; Kong, Lingxue; Li, Puwang; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-02-15

    A novel flavour microcapsule containing vanilla oil (VO) was developed using complex coacervation approach, aimed to control release of VO and enhance its thermostability for spice application in food industry. Viscosity of chitosan (CS) and VO/CS ratio were optimised for fabrication of microcapsules. The flavour microcapsules were evaluated by scanning electron micrograph (SEM), laser confocal microscopy (LSCM), particle size analyser, infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), thermal analysis and controlled-release analysis. The microcapsules were in spherical with good dispersibility when moderate viscosity CS was used. 94.2% of encapsulation efficiency was achieved in VO/CS ratio of 2:1. The FT-IR study proved chemical cross-linking reaction occurred between genipin and chitosan, but a physical interaction between CS and VO. A core-shell structure of microcapsule was confirmed by LSCM, which was beneficial to improve the thermostability of VO in microcapsule. Moreover, VO could be remained about 60% in the microcapsules after release for 30 days, which demonstrated the flavour microcapsules had good potential to serve as a high quality food spice with long residual action and high thermostability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential of different mechanical and thermal treatments to control off-flavour generation in broccoli puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutidou, Maria; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Acharya, Parag

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was scientifically investigate the impact of the sequence of different thermo-mechanical treatments on the volatile profile of differently processed broccoli puree, and to investigate if any relationship persists between detected off-flavour changes and microstructural changes as a function of selected process conditions. Comparison of the headspace GC-MS fingerprinting of the differently processed broccoli purees revealed that an adequate combination of processing steps allows to reduce the level of off-flavour volatiles. Moreover, applying mechanical processing before or after the thermal processing at 90°C determines the pattern of broccoli tissue disruption, resulting into different microstructures and various enzymatic reactions inducing volatile generation. These results may aid the identification of optimal process conditions generating a reduced level of off-flavour in processed broccoli. In this way, broccoli can be incorporated as a food ingredient into mixed food products with limited implications on sensorial consumer acceptance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lepton Flavour Violation and B_s Leptonic Final states at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Reznicek, P

    2008-01-01

    An overview of ATLAS and CMS studies of B_s leptonic decays providing constraints on the lepton flavour violation phenomenon is presented. Except direct lepton flavour violating final states B_s->l1+l2-, constraints can also be set by a measurement of B_s->mu+mu- decay, whose branching ratio in some theoretical models correlates with a branching ratio of B_s->l1+l2-, tau->3mu and some other lepton flavour violating decays. In this paper, the feasibility of measurements of B_s->mu+mu- decay is described, including the present status, the trigger and the offline analysis strategies and the expected reach in the branching ratio measurement. The ATLAS and CMS experiments foresee to provide 3*sigma evidence of Standard Model B_s->mu+mu- branching ratio by the end of LHC low-luminosity stage (30fb^-1). Also a CMS study of tau->3mu decay and an initial particle-level based study of B_s->tau+mu decay are presented. CMS sensitivity of ~10^-8 to the tau->3mu branching ratio measurement is predicted.

  13. Flavour symmetry restoration and kaon weak matrix elements in quenched twisted mass QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, P; Palombi, Filippo; Peña, C; Sint, S; Vladikas, A

    2007-01-01

    We simulate two variants of quenched twisted mass QCD (tmQCD), with degenerate Wilson quarks of masses equal to or heavier than half the strange quark mass. We use Ward identities in order to measure the twist angles of the theory and thus check the quality of the tuning of mass parameters to a physics condition which stays constant as the lattice spacing is varied. Flavour symmetry breaking in tmQCD is studied in a framework of two fully twisted and two standard Wilson quark flavours, tuned to be degenerate in the continuum. Comparing pseudoscalar masses, obtained from connected quark diagrams made of tmQCD and/or standard Wilson quark propagators, we confirm that flavour symmetry breaking effects, which are at most 5%, decrease as we approach the continuum limit. We also compute the pseudoscalar decay constant in the continuum limit, with reduced systematics. As a consequence of improved tuning of the mass parameters at $\\beta = 6.1$, we reanalyse our previous $B_K$ results. Our main phenomenological findin...

  14. Thermal stability of corn oil flavoured with Thymus capitatus under heating and deep-frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoui, Iness Jabri; Dhifi, Wissal; Jemia, Meriam Ben; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-03-30

    The thermal stability of corn oil flavoured with thyme flowers was determined and compared with that of the original refined corn oil (control). The oxidative stability index (OSI) was measured and samples were exposed to heating (30 min at 150, 180 and 200 °C) and deep-frying (180 °C). Changes in peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) content, specific absorptivity values (K(232) and K(270)), colour and chlorophyll, carotenoid and total phenol contents were monitored. The OSI and heating results showed that thyme incorporation was effective against thermal oxidation based on the increased induction time observed for the flavoured oil (6.48 vs 4.36 h), which was characterised by lower PV, FFA content, K(232) and K(270) than the control oil after heating from 25 to 200 °C, with higher red and yellow colour intensities and chlorophyll, carotenoid and total phenol contents. The deep-frying test showed the accelerated deterioration of both oils in the presence of French fries. Compared with the control oil, the thyme-flavoured oil showed improved thermal stability after heating. This could be attributed to the presence of thyme pigments and antioxidant compounds allowing extended oil thermal resistance. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Global volatile profile of virgin olive oils flavoured by aromatic/medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, R; Silva, C; Silva, P; Câmara, J S

    2017-07-15

    The global volatile profile of commercial virgin olive oils and flavoured olive oils with aromatic/medicinal plants, was established using liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). More than 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs belonging to different groups were identified using both methods. Olive oils volatile profile was slightly influenced by maceration process, which occurred at room temperature (20±2°C) for 15days. The predominant differences were observed in terpenoids group, since some of them were only identified in the flavoured olive oils, while others showed an increase with the maceration process. VOCs mass transfer from plants to olive oils could explain the observed results. Principal components analysis (PCA) applied to LLME/GC-qMS data allowed to distinguish the olive oils. The flavoured oils would increase the use of olive oil among consumers as consequence of the improvement of its aromatic profile and healthy properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perspectives for detecting lepton flavour violation in left-right symmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla, Cesar [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València,Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, C/Catedratico José Beltrán 2,E-46980 Paterna (València) (Spain); Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-03-06

    We investigate lepton flavour violation in a class of minimal left-right symmetric models where the left-right symmetry is broken by triplet scalars. In this context we present a method to consistently calculate the triplet-Yukawa couplings which takes into account the experimental data while simultaneously respecting the underlying symmetries. Analysing various scenarios, we then calculate the full set of tree-level and one-loop contributions to all radiative and three-body flavour-violating fully leptonic decays as well as μ−e conversion in nuclei. Our method illustrates how these processes depend on the underlying parameters of the theory. To that end we observe that, for many choices of the model parameters, there is a strong complementarity between the different observables. For instance, in a large part of the parameter space, lepton flavour violating τ-decays have a large enough branching ratio to be measured in upcoming experiments. Our results further show that experiments coming online in the immediate future, like Mu3e and BELLE II, or longer-term, such as PRISM/PRIME, will probe significant portions of the currently allowed parameter space.

  17. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Fo od Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Proce ssing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evalua tion 09, Revision 6 (FGE.09Rev6): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group 8 and 30, and an ester of a phenol derivative from chemical group 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 22 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 6, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the subs......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 22 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 6, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None.......202, 07.203, 09.154, 09.520, 09.618, 09.619, 09.843, 09.935 and 09.949] more reliable exposure data are required for a re-evaluation. For two substances [FL-nos: 07.219 and 09.929] no use levels are available and these should be submitted. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances...

  18. Exposure, health information and flavour-masking strategies for improving the sensory quality of probiotic juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckow, T; Sheehan, V; Fitzgerald, G; Delahunty, C

    2006-11-01

    Probiotics are live microbial food supplements, which have been shown to exert numerous health benefits. Research has identified that probiotics cause perceptible off-flavours that often contribute to consumer dissatisfaction. This research consisted of three objectives. Firstly, to confirm whether probiotics have a significant effect on the sensory quality and the consumer acceptance of juices. Secondly, to evaluate whether the addition of tropical juices masks probiotic off-flavours, thereby increasing consumer liking. Thirdly, to determine whether non-sensory factors (i.e., repeated exposure, and health information) have an impact on consumer liking. Three orange juice products were manufactured for analysis; Control juice, juice containing probiotics, and juice containing probiotics and tropical fruit juices (10% v/v). Descriptive sensory analysis using a trained panel (n=8) determined that probiotic juices possessed unique 'medicinal' characteristics. Using labelled affective magnitude scales, consumers (n=116) evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order in the laboratory. Once assigned into one of three balanced exposure groups, each consumer took home seven, 100mL bottles of one of the juices, and consumed one bottle each day for 7 days. After each in-home consumption, consumers evaluated their 'overall liking' to familiarize themselves with the juice. Furthermore, half of the consumers were provided with information about the presence and the health benefits of probiotics, while the other half of consumers received no information. After 7 days of in-home usage, consumers returned to the laboratory for post-exposure sensory testing, where they re-evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order. Results showed that tropical juices were effective in masking the off-flavours associated with probiotic ingredients, and that consumer liking for the probiotic juice containing tropical juice flavours was

  19. The S{sub 3} flavour symmetry: Neutrino masses and mixings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Canales, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias de la Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Mondragon, A.; Mondragon, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-04-02

    In this work, we discuss the neutrino masses and mixings as the realization of an S{sub 3} flavour permutational symmetry in two models, namely the Standard Model and an extension of the Standard Model with three Higgs doublets. In the S{sub 3} Standard Model, mass matrices of the same generic form are obtained for the neutrino and charged leptons when the S{sub 3} flavour symmetry is broken sequentially according to the chain S{sub 3L} x S{sub 3R} contains S{sub 3}{sup diag} contains S{sub 2}. In the minimal S{sub 3}-symmetric extension of the Standard Model, the S{sub 3} symmetry is left unbroken, and the concept of flavour is extended to the Higgs sector by introducing in the theory three Higgs fields which are SU(2) doublets. In both models, the mass matrices of the neutrinos and charged leptons are reparametrized in terms of their eigenvalues, and exact, explicit analytical expressions for the neutrino mixing angles as functions of the masses of neutrinos and charged leptons are obtained. In the case of the S{sub 3} Standard Model, from a {chi}{sup 2} fit of the theoretical expressions of the lepton mixing matrix to the values extracted from experiment, the numerical values of the neutrino mixing angles are obtained in excellent agreement with experimental data. In the S{sub 3} extension of the Standard Model, if two of the right handed neutrinos masses are degenerate, the reactor and atmospheric mixing angles are determined by the masses of the charged leptons, yielding {theta}{sub 23} in excellent agreement with experimental data, and {theta}{sub 13} different from zero but very small. If the masses of the three right handed neutrinos are assumed to be different, then it is possible to get {theta}{sub 13}also in very good agreement with experimental data. We also show the branching ratios of some selected flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC) process as well as the contribution of the exchange of a neutral flavour changing scalar to the anomaly of the

  20. Quark flavour observables in the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity after LHC Run 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Buras, Andrzej J; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The Littlest Higgs model with T-parity (LHT) belongs to the simplest new physics scenarios with new sources of flavour and CP violation. The latter originate in the interactions of ordinary quarks and leptons with heavy mirror quarks and leptons that are mediated by new heavy gauge bosons. Also a heavy fermionic top partner is present in this model which communicates with the SM fermions by means of standard [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] gauge bosons. We present a new analysis of quark flavour observables in the LHT model in view of the oncoming flavour precision era. We use all available information on the CKM parameters, lattice QCD input and experimental data on quark flavour observables and corresponding theoretical calculations, taking into account new lower bounds on the symmetry breaking scale and the mirror quark masses from the LHC. We investigate by how much the branching ratios for a number of rare K and B decays are still allowed to depart from their SM values. This includes [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]. Taking into account the constraints from [Formula: see text] processes, significant departures from the SM predictions for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are possible, while the effects in B decays are much smaller. In particular, the LHT model favours [Formula: see text], which is not supported by the data, and the present anomalies in [Formula: see text] decays cannot be explained in this model. With the recent lattice and large N input the imposition of the [Formula: see text] constraint implies a significant suppression of the branching ratio for [Formula: see text] with respect to its SM value while allowing only for small modifications of [Formula: see text]. Finally, we investigate how the LHT physics could be distinguished from other models by means of indirect measurements and

  1. Stability, Optimality and Manipulation in Matching Problems with Weighted Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Pini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The stable matching problem (also known as the stable marriage problem is a well-known problem of matching men to women, so that no man and woman, who are not married to each other, both prefer each other. Such a problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical stable marriage problem, both men and women express a strict preference order over the members of the other sex, in a qualitative way. Here, we consider stable marriage problems with weighted preferences: each man (resp., woman provides a score for each woman (resp., man. Such problems are more expressive than the classical stable marriage problems. Moreover, in some real-life situations, it is more natural to express scores (to model, for example, profits or costs rather than a qualitative preference ordering. In this context, we define new notions of stability and optimality, and we provide algorithms to find marriages that are stable and/or optimal according to these notions. While expressivity greatly increases by adopting weighted preferences, we show that, in most cases, the desired solutions can be found by adapting existing algorithms for the classical stable marriage problem. We also consider the manipulability properties of the procedures that return such stable marriages. While we know that all procedures are manipulable by modifying the preference lists or by truncating them, here, we consider if manipulation can occur also by just modifying the weights while preserving the ordering and avoiding truncation. It turns out that, by adding weights, in some cases, we may increase the possibility of manipulating, and this cannot be avoided by any reasonable restriction on the weights.

  2. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  3. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  4. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  5. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  6. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  7. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  8. Endogenous Formation of Preferences: Choices Systematically Change Willingness-to-Pay for Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Katharina; Murawski, Carsten; Bode, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Standard decision theory assumes that choices result from stable preferences. This position has been challenged by claims that the act of choosing between goods may alter preferences. To test this claim, we investigated in three experiments whether choices between equally valued snack food items can systematically shape preferences. We directly…

  9. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  10. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  11. Investigating the Variation of Volatile Compound Composition in Maotai-Flavoured Liquor During Its Multiple Fermentation Steps Using Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple fermentations is one of the most specific characteristics of Maotai-flavoured liquor production. In this research, the variation of volatile composition of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its multiple fermentations is investigated using statistical approaches. Cluster analysis shows that the obtained samples are grouped mainly according to the fermentation steps rather than the distillery they originate from, and the samples from the first two fermentation steps show the greatest difference, suggesting that multiple fermentation and distillation steps result in the end in similar volatile composition of the liquor. Back-propagation neural network (BNN models were developed that satisfactorily predict the number of fermentation steps and the organoleptic evaluation scores of liquor samples from their volatile compositions. Mean impact value (MIV analysis shows that ethyl lactate, furfural and some high-boiling-point acids play important roles, while pyrazine contributes much less to the improvement of the flavour and taste of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its production. This study contributes to further understanding of the mechanisms of Maotai-flavoured liquor production.

  12. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a novel smoke-flavoured salmon product by sodium replacement using water vapour permeable bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Arantxa; Fuentes, Ana; Barat, José M; Fernández-Segovia, Isabel

    2018-05-01

    Food manufacturers need to reduce sodium content to meet consumer and public health demands. In the present study, the use of sodium-free (SF) salt and KCl to develop a novel smoke-flavoured salmon product with reduced sodium content was evaluated. Fifty percent of NaCl was replaced with 50% of SF salt or 50% KCl in the salmon smoke-flavouring process, which was carried out using water vapour permeable bags. Triangle tests showed that samples with either SF salt or KCl were statistically similar to the control samples (100% NaCl). Because no sensorial advantage in using SF salt was found compared to KCl and given the lower price of KCl, the KCl-NaCl samples were selected for the next phase. The changes of physicochemical and microbial parameters in smoke-flavoured salmon during 42 days showed that partial replacement of NaCl with KCl did not significantly affect the quality and shelf-life of smoke-flavoured salmon, which was over 42 days. Smoke-flavoured salmon with 37% sodium reduction was developed without affecting the sensory features and shelf-life. This is an interesting option for reducing the sodium content in such products to help meet the needs set by both health authorities and consumers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Impact of non-menthol flavours in tobacco products on perceptions and use among youth, young adults and adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Baker, Hannah M; Meernik, Clare; Ranney, Leah M; Richardson, Amanda; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review examines the impact of non-menthol flavours in tobacco products on tobacco use perceptions and behaviours among youth, young adults and adults. English-language peer-reviewed publications indexed in 4 databases were searched through April 2016. A search strategy was developed related to tobacco products and flavours. Of 1688 articles identified, we excluded articles that were not English-language, were not peer-reviewed, were qualitative, assessed menthol-flavoured tobacco products only and did not contain original data on outcomes that assessed the impact of flavours in tobacco products on perceptions and use behaviour. Outcome measures were identified and tabulated. 2 researchers extracted the data independently and used a validated quality assessment tool to assess study quality. 40 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data showed that tobacco product packaging with flavour descriptors tended to be rated as more appealing and as less harmful by tobacco users and non-users. Many tobacco product users, especially adolescents, reported experimenting, initiating and continuing to use flavoured products because of the taste and variety of the flavours. Users of many flavoured tobacco products also showed decreased likelihood of intentions to quit compared with non-flavoured tobacco product users. Flavours in most tobacco products appear to play a key role in how users and non-users, especially youth, perceive, initiate, progress and continue using tobacco products. Banning non-menthol flavours from tobacco products may ultimately protect public health by reducing tobacco use, particularly among youth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  16. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 5 (FGE.21Rev5): Thiazoles, thiophenes, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical groups 29 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 41 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 5, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision......-propionylthiophene [FL-no: 15.097]. These data on 2-pentylthiophene [FL-no: 15.096] should cover 2-butylthiophene [FL-no: 15.045], 2-hexylthiophene [FL-no: 15.076] and 2-octylthiophene [FL-no: 15.093]. For two of the substances [FL-no: 15.060 and 15.119] the Panel concluded that additional genotoxicity data...... are required. The remaining 39 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure–activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that the 39...

  17. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2 (FGE.25Rev2): Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 37 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None.......021, 01.022, 01.023, 01.030, 01.031, 01.032, 01.035, 01.036, 01.037, 01.042, 01.043, 01.044, 01.047, 01.050, 01.051, 01.052, 01.053, 01.055, 01.056, 01.058, 01.059, 01.060, 01.064, 01.066, 01.067, 01.070 and 10.078] no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. Besides the safety...

  18. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 82, Revision 1 (FGE.82Rev1): Consideration of Epoxides evaluated by the JECFA (65 th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of five epoxides evaluated by the JECFA at the 65th meeting in 2005. This revision is made due to inclusion of one additional substance, beta-ionone epoxide [FL-no: 07.170], cleared...... for genotoxicity concern and due to additional toxicity data have become available for beta-caryophyllene epoxide [FL-no: 16.043]. Since publication of FGE.82 one substance epoxy oxophorone [FL-no: 16.051] is no longer supported for use as flavouring substances in Europe by Industry and will therefore...

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that these 27 candidate substances do not give rise to safety......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3......,4-methylenedioxyphenol [FL-no: 04.080] was reported to have a genotoxic potential in vitro, while in vivo studies were not available. Therefore, the Panel concluded that the Procedure could not be applied to this substance until adequate genotoxicity data become available. The remaining 27 substances were evaluated...

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Flavouring Group Evaluation 46, Revision 1 (FGE.46Rev1): Ammonia and three ammonium salts from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... that the substance does not induce tumours. Ammonia is a substance that is readily absorbed in the gut. It is produced endogenously in amounts that far exceed those that are to be ingested as flavourings. The three ammonium salts are expected to give rise to ammonium ion and chloride or hydrogen sulphide. Ammonia...... is expected to be transported by the portal circulation to the liver and metabolised to urea by the Krebs urea cycle and subsequently excreted by the kidneys. Hydrogen sulphide is a substance that is produced endogenously. The major pathway for sulphide metabolism is oxidation to sulphate and excretion...

  1. Is choice-induced preference change long lasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharot, Tali; Fleming, Stephen M; Yu, Xiaoyu; Koster, Raphael; Dolan, Raymond J

    2012-10-01

    The idea that decisions alter preferences has had a considerable influence on the field of psychology and underpins cognitive dissonance theory. Yet it is unknown whether choice-induced changes in preferences are long lasting or are transient manifestations seen in the immediate aftermath of decisions. In the research reported here, we investigated whether these changes in preferences are fleeting or stable. Participants rated vacation destinations before making hypothetical choices between destinations, immediately afterward, and 2.5 to 3 years later. We found that choices altered preferences both immediately after being made and after the delay. These changes could not be accounted for by participants' preexisting preferences, and they occurred only when participants made the choices themselves. Our findings provide evidence that making a decision can lead to enduring change in preferences.

  2. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of finitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....... consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisfied. Market data sets consist of finitely...

  3. Characteristics of dry- and brine-salted salmon later treated with liquid smoke flavouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. MARTINEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of smoke flavourings for the processing of salmon has begun to substitute traditional smoking methods. This review examines the quality issues associated with salted salmon ‘smoked’ by this technique along the salting and smoking steps. Firstly, the evidence is examined to determine whether dry or brine salting is better for salmon flesh destined to be treated by liquid smoking. Secondly, influence of liquid smoking on the sensorial, physicochemical and textural characteristics of the flesh are described, as are its effects on potential spoilage organisms.;

  4. Patterns of Lepton-Flavour Violation Motivated by Decoupling and Sneutrino Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Chankowski, Piotr H; Pokorski, Stefan; Raidal, Martti; Turzynski, Krzysztof; Chankowski, Piotr H.; Ellis, John; Pokorski, Stefan; Raidal, Martti; Turzynski, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    We present predictions for flavour-violating charged-lepton decays induced by the seesaw mechanism implemented within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) with universal input soft supersymmetry breaking terms. We assume that one heavy singlet neutrino almost decouples from the see-saw mechanism, as suggested by the pattern of light neutrino masses and mixing angles. This is suggested independently by sneutrino inflation with a low reheating temperature, T(RH)e gamma)>10^(-13) but BR(tau->mu gamma)e gamma)/BR(tau->mu gamma) depends on only one complex parameter, and is particularly interesting to compare with experiment.

  5. Theoretical aspects of heavy-flavour production at ultra-high cosmic ray energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves V. P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main theoretical aspects of heavy-flavour production at ultra-high cosmic ray energies are reviewed, with particular emphasis in the new dynamical effects which are expected to be present in the kinematical range probed by the IceCube and Pierre Auger Observatories. The gluon saturation effects for heavy quark production and the contribution of double parton scattering processes are analysed. Finally, the intrinsic heavy quark hypothesis is presented and some of its phenomenological implications at high energies are discussed.

  6. Flavour physics beyond the standard model in top and bottom quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamou, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is currently exploring dynamics at high energies where we expect physics beyond the standard model to emerge as an answer to at least some of the questions the standard model cannot address. We consider the low-energy flavour signatures of a model with a dynamical explanation of quark masses and mixings, construct a model with new strong interactions that account for the anomalously large measurement of an asymmetry in top antitop production at Tevatron, and compute next-to-leading-order electroweak corrections to the recently observed rare decay B s →μ + μ - .

  7. The Quark Condensate in Multi-Flavour QCD - Planar Equivalence Confronting Lattice Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, Adi; Shore, Graham; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Planar equivalence between the large $N$ limits of ${\\cal N}=1$ Super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory and a variant of QCD with fermions in the antisymmetric representation is a powerful tool to obtain analytic non-perturbative results in QCD itself. In particular, it allows the quark condensate for $N=3$ QCD with quarks in the fundamental representation to be inferred from exact calculations of the gluino condensate in ${\\cal N}=1$ SYM. In this paper, we review and refine our earlier predictions for the quark condensate in QCD with a general number $n_f$ of flavours and confront these with lattice results.

  8. Open heavy-flavour measurements in Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mischke, André

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE experiment has measured charm and beauty production in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{S_{\\rm{NN}}}= 2.76 \\text{ TeV}$ and $5.02 \\text{ TeV}$, via the reconstruction of hadronic D-meson decays and semi-leptonic Dand B-meson decays. In this contribution, an overview is given on current open heavy-flavour results from ALICE ranging from the nuclear modification factor to elliptic flow measurements and on the interpretation of the data by comparing with different model calculations of in-medium energy loss.

  9. Multiplicity dependence of light flavour hadron production at LHC energies in the strangeness canonical suppression picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vislavicius, Vytautas

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of data on light flavour hadron production as function of event multiplicity at LHC energies measured by the ALICE collaboration. The strangeness-canonical approach within the framework of the THERMUS statistical hadronisation model is used for a simultaneous description of pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions. The rapidity window dependence of the strangeness correlation volume is addressed and a value of $\\Delta y = 1.43 \\pm 0.13$ is found. With the exception of the $\\phi$-meson, an excellent description of the experimental data is found.

  10. Search for the lepton flavour violating decay $\\tau^-\\to \\mu^-\\mu^+\\mu^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    A search for the lepton flavour violating decay $\\tau^-\\rightarrow\\mu^-\\mu^+\\mu^-$ is performed with the LHCb experiment. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{−1}$ of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 2.0 fb$^{−1}$ at 8 TeV. No evidence is found for a signal, and a limit is set at 90% confidence level on the branching fraction, $\\mathcal{B}(\\tau^-\\rightarrow\\mu^-\\mu^+\\mu^-)<4.6\\times10^{−8}$.

  11. Four-Loop Anomalous Dimensions for Radiative Flavour-Changing Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Czakon, M; Misiak, M; Czakon, Michal; Haisch, Ulrich; Misiak, Mikolaj

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the complete four-loop anomalous dimension matrix that is necessary for determining the effective flavour-changing neutral current couplings qbar-q'-gamma and qbar-q'-g at the next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD. The resulting O(alpha_s^2(mu_b)) correction to the B -> X_s gamma branching ratio amounts to around -2.9% for mu_b = 5 GeV, and -4.4% for mu_b = 2.5 GeV

  12. Influence of flavour absorption by food-packaging materials (low-density polyethylene, polycarbonate and polyethylene terephthalate) on taste perception of a model solution and orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of flavour absorption by low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on taste perception of a model solution containing seven flavour compounds and orange juice in glass bottles was studied with and without pieces of the respective plastic

  13. Dietary exposure to flavouring substances: from screening methods to detailed assessments using food consumption data collected with EPIC-Soft software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.; Geelen, A.; Donne, Le C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Sette, S.; Raffo, A.; Siebelink, E.; Ocke, M.C.; Veer, van 't P.; Leclercq, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare different methods of assessing dietary exposure to flavourings in the context of a stepwise approach. The dietary exposure to four flavourings - raspberry ketone, glycyrrhizinic acid, coumarin, and caffeine - was determined. When dietary exposure exceeded the safety

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2 (FGE.21Rev2): Thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29. Miscellaneous substances from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven of the su......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven...... of commerce have also been considered. For two substances are an identity test lacking and for one has the stereoisomeric composition to be specified....

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 06, Revision 2 (FGE.06Rev2): Straight- and branched-chain aliphatic unsaturated primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and esters from chemical groups 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs...... and 4, Annex I of the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present Flavouring Group Evaluation deals with 48 straight- and branched-chain unsaturated primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids and esters. Eight of the 48 flavouring substances possess a chiral centre [FL-no: 02.170, 02.175, 05...... in the commercial flavouring material. Forty-six candidate substances are classified into structural class I. The remaining two substances [FL-no: 05.143 and 09.884] are classified into structural class II. Thirty-eight of the flavouring substances in the present group have been reported to occur naturally...

  16. Identification of heavy-flavour jets with the CMS detector in pp collisions at 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-12-19

    Many measurements and searches for physics beyond the standard model at the LHC rely on the efficient identification of heavy-flavour jets, i.e. jets originating from bottom or charm quarks. In this paper, the discriminating variables and the algorithms used for heavy-flavour jet identification during the first years of operation of the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, are presented. Heavy-flavour jet identification algorithms have been improved compared to those used previously at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. For jets with transverse momenta in the range expected in simulated $\\mathrm{t}\\overline{\\mathrm{t}}$ events, these new developments result in an efficiency of 68% for the correct identification of a b jet for a probability of 1% of misidentifying a light-flavour jet. The improvement in relative efficiency at this misidentification probability is about 15%, compared to previous CMS algorithms. In addition, for the first time algorithms have been developed to identify jets containing two b hadrons in Lorentz-boosted event topologies, as well as to tag c jets. The large data sample recorded in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV has also allowed the development of new methods to measure the efficiency and misidentification probability of heavy-flavour jet identification algorithms. The heavy-flavour jet identification efficiency is measured with a precision of a few per cent at moderate jet transverse momenta (between 30 and 300 GeV) and about 5% at the highest jet transverse momenta (between 500 and 1000 GeV).

  17. Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.

  18. Age Preferences for Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furchtgott, Ernest; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    1981-01-01

    For all occupations except clergyman, a relationship between the age of the respondent and preferred age of the professional existed. Older individuals preferred older service providers with one exception, their physician. Highly educated respondents preferred younger physicians. (Author)

  19. Analysis of volatile flavour compounds and acrylamide in roasted Malaysian tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) nuts using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim

    2010-01-01

    Considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. The supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 4 esters, 3 alcohols, 5 furan derivatives a pyrazine, and 2 unknown compounds. While low levels of acrylamide (8-86 microg/kg) were obtained in the roasted nuts, significant (P0.05) concentration of acrylamide was generated with mild roasting and shorter roasting period. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 212 Revision 3 (FGE.212Rev3): α,β-unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2.6 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 22 flavouring substances from subgroup 2.6 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 212. Based on available genotoxicity dat...

  1. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 210 Revision 2 (FGE.210Rev2): Consideration of genotoxic potential for α,β-unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2.4 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 14 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 210 (FGE.210). In FGE.210, the Panel concluded that the genotoxic potential could not be ruled out for any of the flavouring substances. In FGE.210 Revision1, the Panel co...

  2. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  3. Mass textures and wolfenstein parameters from breaking the flavour permutational symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondragon, A; Rivera, T. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico,Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez Jauregui, E. [Deutsches Elekronen-Synchrotron, Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    We will give an overview of recent progress in the phenomenological study of quark mass matrices, quark flavour mixings and CP-violation with emphasis on the possibility of an underlying discrete, flavour permutational symmetry and its breaking, from which realistic models of mass generation could be built. The quark mixing angles and CP-violating phase, as well as the Wolfenstein parameters are given in terms of four quark mass ratios and only two parameters (Z{sup 1}/2, {phi}) characterizing the symmetry breaking pattern. Excellent agreement with all current experimental data is found. [Spanish] Daremos una visita panoramica del progreso reciente en el estudio fenomenologico de las matrices de masas y de mezclas del sabor de los quarks y la violacion de PC, con enfasis en la posibilidad de que, subyacentes al problema, se halle una simetria discreta, permutacional del sabor y su rompimiento a partir de las cuales se puedan construir modelos realistas de la generacion de las masas. Los angulos de mezcla de los quarks y la fase que viola CP, asi como los parametros de Wolfenstein se dan en terminos de cuatro razones de masas de los quarks y solamente dos parametros (Z{sup 1}/2, {phi}) que caracterizan el patron del rompimiento de la simetria. Los resultados se encuentran en excelente acuerdo con todos los datos experimentales mas recientes.

  4. Determination of volatile organic compounds responsible for flavour in cooked river buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Luccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is an important consumer attractive that directly influences the success of food products on the market. The determination of odorous molecules and their identification allows to useful knowledge for producers to valorise their own products. Buffalo meat has a different chemical composition from pork and beef and requires some cautions in cooking and processing. This work aims at the identification of volatile molecules responsible for flavours in river buffalo meat. The determination was carried out by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME technique and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The most relevant results were the higher odorous impact of buffalo meat and the higher content of sulphide compounds responsible for wild aroma respect to pork and beef. These results were obtained comparing the total area of peaks detected in every chromatogram. We have also found significant differences concerning the contents of pentadecane, 1-hexanol-2 ethyl, butanoic acid, furano-2-penthyl. The origin of volatile organic compounds and their influence on the river buffalo aromas were discussed.

  5. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on black truffle (tuber melanosporum) flavour compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verret, C; Ballestra, P; Cruz, C; Moueffak, A H E [Equipe de Recherche Agroalimentaire Perigourdine (ERAP) IUT de Perigueux Universite Bordeaux IV site universitaire F24019 Perigueux Cedex France (France); Pardon, P [Laboratoire d' analyses de l' Institut du pin Universite Bordeaux I France (France); Largeteau, A, E-mail: moueffak@u-bordeaux4.fr

    2008-07-15

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), at 4{sup 0}C or -18{sup 0}C, on black truffle flavour compounds, alteration enzymes (lipoxigenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO)) and microbiological qualities were evaluated. The choosen analytes for this study are six alcohols, three aldehydes, one ketone and on sulfur component. The highest flavour stability was observed when samples were pressurized at 300 MPa / 4{sup 0}C / 10 min. All the treatments induced a drastic decrease of LOX activity and a slight decrease of POD activity. On the other hand, the PPO was not inactivated by pressurization at sub-zero (200 MPa / -18{sup 0}C / 10 min) and was strongly increased after the 300 MPa / 4{sup 0}C / 10 min treatment. Pressurization at 300 and 550 MPa lead to an almost complete Pseudomonas fluorescens reduction (6 and 6.5 log destruction, respectively) whereas pressurization at -18{sup 0}C (200MPa) allowed to obtain only 3 log reduction.

  6. Solvent-Free Synthesis of Flavour Esters through Immobilized Lipase Mediated Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of methyl butyrate and octyl acetate through immobilized Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 3562 lipase mediated transesterification was studied under solvent-free conditions. The effect of different transesterification variables, namely, molarity of alcohol, reaction time, temperature, agitation, addition of water, and enzyme amount on molar conversion (% was investigated. A maximum molar conversion of 70.42% and 92.35% was obtained in a reaction time of 14 and 12 h with the transesterification variables of 0.6 M methanol in vinyl butyrate and 2 M octanol in vinyl acetate using 80 U and 60 U immobilized lipase with the agitation speed of 200 rpm and 0.2% water addition at 32°C and 36°C for methyl butyrate and octyl acetate, respectively. The immobilized enzyme has retained good relative activity (more than 95% up to five and six recycles for methyl butyrate and octyl acetate, respectively. Hence, the present investigation makes a great impingement in natural flavour industry by introducing products synthesized under solvent-free conditions to the flavour market.

  7. Solvent-Free Synthesis of Flavour Esters through Immobilized Lipase Mediated Transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rintu

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of methyl butyrate and octyl acetate through immobilized Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 3562 lipase mediated transesterification was studied under solvent-free conditions. The effect of different transesterification variables, namely, molarity of alcohol, reaction time, temperature, agitation, addition of water, and enzyme amount on molar conversion (%) was investigated. A maximum molar conversion of 70.42% and 92.35% was obtained in a reaction time of 14 and 12 h with the transesterification variables of 0.6 M methanol in vinyl butyrate and 2 M octanol in vinyl acetate using 80 U and 60 U immobilized lipase with the agitation speed of 200 rpm and 0.2% water addition at 32°C and 36°C for methyl butyrate and octyl acetate, respectively. The immobilized enzyme has retained good relative activity (more than 95%) up to five and six recycles for methyl butyrate and octyl acetate, respectively. Hence, the present investigation makes a great impingement in natural flavour industry by introducing products synthesized under solvent-free conditions to the flavour market. PMID:23819043

  8. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Probing lepton-flavour universality with K → πν anti ν decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordone, Marzia; Buttazzo, Dario; Isidori, Gino; Monnard, Joachim [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    We analyse the rare processes K → πν anti ν in view of the recent hints of violations of lepton-flavour universality (LFU) observed in B meson decays. If, as suggested by present data, the new interactions responsible for LFU violations couple mainly to the third generation of left-handed fermions, K → πν anti ν decays turn out to be particularly interesting: these are the only kaon decays with third-generation leptons (the τ neutrinos) in the final state. In order to relate B-physics anomalies and K decays we adopt an effective field theory approach, assuming that the new interactions satisfy an approximate U(2){sub q} x U(2){sub l} flavour symmetry. In this framework we show that O(1) deviations from the Standard Model predictions in K → πν anti ν branching ratios, closely correlated to similar effects in B → K{sup (*)}ν anti ν, are naturally expected. The correlation of B(K → πν anti ν), B(B → K{sup (*)}ν anti ν), and the LFU violations in B decays would provide a very valuable tool to shed more light on this interesting phenomenon. (orig.)

  10. Searches for violation of lepton flavour and baryon number in tau lepton decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    Searches for the lepton flavour violating decay $\\tau^-\\to \\mu^-\\mu^+\\mu^-$ and the lepton flavour and baryon number violating decays $\\tau^-\\to \\bar{p}\\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $\\tau^-\\to p\\mu^-\\mu^-$ have been carried out using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1.0$ fb$^{-1}$, taken by the LHCb experiment at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. No evidence has been found for any signal, and limits have been set at $90\\%$ confidence level on the branching fractions: $\\cal B(\\tau^-\\to \\mu^-\\mu^+\\mu^-) < 8.0 \\times 10^{-8}$, $\\cal B(\\tau^-\\to \\bar{p}\\mu^+\\mu^-) < 3.3 \\times 10^{-7}$ and $\\cal B(\\tau^-\\to p\\mu^-\\mu^-) < 4.4 \\times 10^{-7}$. The results for the $\\tau^-\\to \\bar{p}\\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $\\tau^-\\to p\\mu^-\\mu^-$ decay modes represent the first direct experimental limits on these channels.

  11. Mortality among flavour and fragrance chemical plant workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T L

    1987-01-01

    Vital status on 1 January 1981 was determined for a cohort of 1412 white men employed in a flavour and fragrance chemical plant between 1945 and 1965 in order to investigate the risks from fatal diseases among men exposed to multiple chemicals in the manufacture of fragrances, flavours, aroma chemicals, and other organic substances. Cause specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the entire study population and for several subsets by likelihood of exposure to chemicals, duration of employment, and year of hire. SMRs for rectal cancer and ischaemic heart disease were raised among white male employees whose jobs were in production, maintenance, laboratory, or other jobs that would involve exposure to multiple chemicals used and produced in the plant. The excess of rectal cancer was confined to employees who had worked as chemical operators and mortality was significantly raised among men who worked for ten or more years. Traces of dioxin were recently found in and around plant buildings that used trichlorophenol in the production of hexachlorophene. The study group was small and had limited power to detect excess risk of rare causes of death; however, no soft tissue sarcomas were observed during the study period. PMID:3689704

  12. Lepton flavour violation, Yukawa unification and neutrino masses in supersymmetric unified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.M.D.S.B.

    2000-12-01

    We explore some phenomenological consequences of models based on supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. In particular, we focus on the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model supplemented by right-handed neutrinos in the context of the Pati-Salam SU(4) x SU(2) L x SU(2) R Grand Unified Theory. We start by analysing the possibility of using Lepton Flavour Violation as a probe of physics beyond the Standard Model. We show that the μ → eγ and τ → μγ decays impose important constraints to the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters of the Pati-Salam model that already allow the formulation of lower bounds for the masses of the lighter supersymmetric particles. Secondly, we investigate how third family Yukawa unification can be used to provide a window into the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian. We show that, a successful top quark mass prediction requires that the supersymmetric corrections to the bottom quark mass are small which, in turn, imposes a distinct hierarchy between the soft breaking parameters. Finally, we explicitly construct a realistic model of quark, charged lepton and neutrino masses and mixing angles, based on the Pati-Salam. gauge group supplemented by an abelian flavour symmetry, that can explain the large atmospheric neutrino mixing angle, suggested by the Super-Kamiokande data, and account for the large mixing angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem. (author)

  13. Technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from ewe's milk and cheese with importance for flavour development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeijón, María C; Medina, Roxana B; Katz, Marta B; González, Silvia N

    2006-03-01

    Eight Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from ewe milk and artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina were screened for biotechnological properties relevant to flavour development. The API ZYM test showed absence of proteases, presence of high amounts of peptidases, and high esterase-lipase activities. Low extracellular proteolytic activity was observed. Most strains produced diacetyl in milk, with E. faecium OvL 214 and OvL 254 being the best producers. Biomass and growth rate increased when citrate was added to the medium, suggesting that these strains could use citrate as a main energy source. After 24 h of incubation, citrate was completely consumed in complex medium supplemented with glucose and citrate. An average of 17% residual citrate was detected in complex media supplemented with citrate. For all strains, esterase activity was detected up to alpha-naphthyl-caproate. They hydrolyzed alpha-naphthyl derivatives of fatty acids in this order: C3 > C6 > C4 > C8 > C2. Post-electrophoretic detection of esterase activities revealed the presence of multiple esterases. Hydrolysis of tributyrin, tricaprylin, and milk fat was observed in cell-free extracts. Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from ewe milk and artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina present the metabolic potential to contribute to cheese flavour development.

  14. Flavour production by Saprochaete and Geotrichum yeasts and their close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Eric; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; James, Steve; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; François, Jean Marie; Petit, Thomas

    2017-12-15

    In this study, a total of 30 yeast strains belonging to the genera Dipodascus, Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Magnusiomyces and Saprochaete were investigated for volatile organic compound production using HS-SPME-GC/MS analysis. The resulting flavour profiles, including 36 esters and 6 alcohols compounds, were statistically evaluated by cluster and PCA analysis. Two main groups of strains were extracted from this analysis, namely a group with a low ability to produce flavour and a group producing mainly alcohols. Two other minor groups of strains including Saprochaete suaveolens, Geotrichum marinum and Saprochaete gigas were diverging significantly from the main groups precisely because they showed a good ability to produce a large diversity of esters. In particular, we found that the Saprochaete genus (and their closed relatives) was characterized by a high production of unsaturated esters arising from partial catabolism of branched chain amino-acids. These esters were produced by eight phylogenetically related strains of Saprochaete genus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of different El Nino flavours on global average tempeature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.; Banholzer, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is known to influence surface temperatures worldwide. El Niño conditions are thought to lead to anomalously warm global average surface temperature, absent other forcings. Recent research has identified distinct possible types or flavours of El Niño events, based on the location of peak sea surface temperature anomalies and other variables. Here we analyze the relationship between the type of El Niño event and the global surface average temperature anomaly, using three historical temperature data sets. Separating El Niño events into types or flavours reveals that the global average surface temperatures are anomalously warm during and after canonical eastern Pacific El Niño events or "super" El Ninos. However, the global average surface temperatures during and after central Pacific or "mixed" events, like the 2002-3 event, are not statistically distinct from that of neutral or other years. Historical analysis indicated that slowdowns in the rate of global surface warming since the late 1800s may be related to decadal variability in the frequency of different types of El Niño events.

  16. Topological b-hadron decay reconstruction and application for heavy-flavour jet tagging in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gilles, Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of jets originating from the hadronisation of heavy-flavour quarks represents a key ingredient in the physics program of the ATLAS experiment. Exploiting the topological structure of weak b- and c-hadron decays, the multi-vertex finder algorithm - JetFitter - tries to reconstruct the full b-hadron decay chain inside b-jets and provides a complementary approach to conventional secondary vertex finder algorithms. Based on the hypothesis that the primary and displaced b- and c-hadron decay vertices lie on a common line approximating the b-hadron flight direction, an extension of the Kalman Filter formalism for vertex reconstruction implemented in JetFitter allows to solve this pattern recognition problem. Detailed information on the reconstructed decay cascades is then used to identify and discriminate heavy-flavour jets. This poster presents the principle of this algorithm and its performance in the context of a recent optimization campaign performed in view of the 2017 LHC data-taking by the...

  17. Volatile flavours in raw egg yolk of hens fed on different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagemann, Ina; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-08-30

    Recent studies have suggested that the composition of lipophilic components of egg yolk is influenced by the feed. The aim of the present study was to isolate volatile flavours from egg yolk after different feeding trials using solvent extraction and thin layer high-vacuum distillation. The resulting aroma extract was analysed by various gas chromatographic techniques. Chickens were either fed with laying meal, laying meal plus cabbage and onion or laying meal plus rapeseed oil or held in free-range. The predominating odour impressions were described as onion-like. Comparing all analytical and sensory data of the flavour extracts, there were minimal differences among the respective samples. Free-range eggs contained fewer volatile compounds than the other samples, whereas rapeseed oil supplementation caused an enrichment of sulfur compounds. While data from gas chromatography/flame ionisation detection, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were less conclusive, the results from sulfur-specific analysis using gas chromatography/flame photometric detection showed a considerable effect. However, because of the low abundance of sulfur compounds in the yolk, these differences are not expected to be perceivable by the consumer. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay and Lepton Flavour Violation in Broken μ - τ Symmetric Neutrino Mass Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgohain, Happy; Das, Mrinal Kumar

    2017-09-01

    We have studied neutrinoless double beta decay and charged lepton flavour violation in broken μ - τ symmetric neutrino masses in a generic left-right symmetric model (LRSM). The leading order μ - τ symmetric mass matrix originates from the type I (II) seesaw mechanism, whereas the perturbations to μ - τ symmetry in order for generation of non-zero reactor mixing angle 𝜃 13, as required by latest neutrino oscillation data, originates from the type II (I) seesaw mechanism. In our work, we considered four different realizations of μ - τ symmetry, viz. Tribimaximal Mixing (TBM), Bimaximal Mixing (BM), Hexagonal Mixing (HM) and Golden Ratio Mixing (GRM). We then studied the new physics contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD) ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and the heavy-light neutrino mixing within the framework of LRSM. We have considered the mass of the gauge bosons and scalars to be around TeV and studied the effects of the new physics contributions on the effective mass and the NDBD half life and compared with the current experimental limit imposed by KamLAND-Zen. We further extended our analysis by correlating the lepton flavour violation of the decay processes, ( μ → 3 e) and ( μ → e γ) with the lightest neutrino mass and atmospheric mixing angle 𝜃 23 respectively.

  19. Solving the flavour problem in supersymmetric Standard Models with three Higgs families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howl, R.; King, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    We show how a non-Abelian family symmetry Δ 27 can be used to solve the flavour problem of supersymmetric Standard Models containing three Higgs families such as the Exceptional Supersymmetric Standard Model (E 6 SSM). The three 27-dimensional families of the E 6 SSM, including the three families of Higgs fields, transform in a triplet representation of the Δ 27 family symmetry, allowing the family symmetry to commute with a possible high energy E 6 symmetry. The Δ 27 family symmetry here provides a high energy understanding of the Z 2 H symmetry of the E 6 SSM, which solves the flavour changing neutral current problem of the three families of Higgs fields. The main phenomenological predictions of the model are tri-bi-maximal mixing for leptons, two almost degenerate LSPs and two almost degenerate families of colour triplet D-fermions, providing a clear prediction for the LHC. In addition the model predicts PGBs with masses below the TeV scale, and possibly much lighter, which appears to be a quite general and robust prediction of all models based on the D-term vacuum alignment mechanism.

  20. Changes in the viability of Strongyloides ransomi larvae (Nematoda, Rhabditida under the influence of synthetic flavourings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Boyko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common nematodes of pigs globally is Strongyloides ransomi Schwartz and Alicata 1930. It usually causes aggravation of physiological indicators of its hosts and damage to their immune system. Also it is a good modelling object for the evaluation of the antiparasitic activity of new antihelminthic drugs. We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the effect of flavouring additives with flower odour (benzaldehyde, citral, D-limonene and β-ionone upon the viability of S. ransomi larvae. The mortality rate was calculated for 24 hours exposure at four concentrations of each substance (10, 1, 0.1 и 0.01 g/l with eight replications. The lowest LD50 values were obtained for citral (97 mg/l and benzaldehyde (142 mg/l. These substances are recommended for further evaluation of their antihelminthic effect in experiments using laboratory animals. Unlike other substances, the effect of β-ionone and D-limonene even at a concentration of 10 g/l after 24 hours caused the death of <50% of S. ransomi larvae. The study of flavouring additives with flowery odour, which are permitted to be used in food for humans and also to be used in cosmetics, is a promising field for research aimed at the development of new antiparasitic drugs.