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Sample records for stabilizing fish oil

  1. Oxidative stability of fish oil blended with butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, M; Konishi, H; Tatsumi, K

    1999-09-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil blended with milk products was evaluated. Oxidation of the oil blend was determined by peroxide value and rancimat test. Improved oxidative stability was observed for fish oil blended with butter. Unsalted and salted butters showed no difference in improvement of effect on oxidative stability of fish oil. No influence on oxidative stability for the fish oil was observed with butter oil, which was the oil fraction of butter. These studies suggested that the improved oxidative stability of fish oil-butter blend was due to the hydrophilic fraction of butter and that butter could improve the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated oils such as fish oil.

  2. Improving oxidative stability of liquid fish oil supplements for pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Griinari, Mikko; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    of fish oil by adding vegetable oils, mixed tocopherols and rosemary extract, and to formulate a commercial product according to the results obtained. The formulated product was evaluated against commercial fish oil products. An initial screening for antioxidative effect was performed by using Oxipres...... equipment. The effect of antioxidant and vegetable oil blends was examined in oils stored at 30 and 40°C by measuring peroxide value, volatile compounds with GC-MS and tocopherol content. Addition of vegetable oil and rosemary extract at high level (4000–6000 ppm) plus 600 ppm of mixed tocopherols increased...... oxidative stability to the same extent as 2000 ppm mixed tocopherols in Oxipres. Overall, oxidative stability of fish oil or fish oil + vegetable oil blends was improved the most by addition of 5000 ppm rosemary extract and 500 ppm mixed tocopherols. A commercial oil blend with composition optimized based...

  3. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...

  4. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente

    2013-01-01

    oil was added to fish oil in only 5 and 10 %, whereas no protective effect of camelina oil was observed when evaluated by these methods. Moreover, fish oil blended with oat oil conferred the lowest PV and lower amounts of volatile compounds during the storage period of 14 days at 4 °C. Surprisingly......The objective of this research was to determine the oxidative stability of fish oil blended with crude plant oils rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, camelina oil and oat oil, respectively, in bulk and after supplementation of 1 wt% of oil blends to skimmed milk emulsions. Ability of crude...

  5. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil-In-Water Emulsions Stabilized with Fish Protein Hydrolysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M.

    2016-01-01

    The emulsifying and antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the physical and oxidative stabilization of 5% (by weight) fish oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. Muscle proteins from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) were...... hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-4-5-6% with subtilisin. Sardine hydrolysates with low DH, 3% and 4%, presented the most effective peptides to physically stabilize emulsions with smaller droplet size. This implied more protein adsorbed at the interface to act as physical barrier against......% yielded a physically stable emulsion with low concentration of unsaturated aldehydes. These results show the potential of FPH as alternative protein emulsifiers for the production of oxidatively stable fish oil-in-water emulsions....

  6. Oxidative stability of pullulan electrospun fibers containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, Cecilie; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    stability of fibers loaded with 10wt% fish oil (EE=88.5±0.7%) was significantly improved when adding δ-tocopherol (500ppm) and rosemary extract (500ppm) as antioxidants. However, higher concentration of antioxidants (2000ppm δ-tocopherol and 1000ppm rosemary extract) did not further improve the oxidative...... for fibers without and with antioxidants (500ppm of δ-tocopherol and 500ppm of rosemary extract). Practical applications: Encapsulation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and addition of antioxidants are the most efficient strategies to protect these lipids against oxidation when incorporating them...... into food matrices. These results show the feasibility to encapsulate fish oil in pullulan ultra-thin fibers and to improve their oxidative stability by adding natural antioxidants such as δ-tocopherol and rosemary extract. Therefore, this study might open up new opportunities for further technological...

  7. Antioxidants stabilizing fish oils : effect of antioxidant, storage temperature and type of fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Kasbo, Mari Kristine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate four commercially available antioxidants in two fish oils. The antioxidants were investigated to see which one of them is most efficient in preventing oxidation. Antioxidants were added in three levels to find the optimal concentration. In addition a possible synergistic effect between the antioxidants was investigated. Two different oils with different concentration of EPA and DHA were added antioxidants. Four of the antioxidants were single antioxida...

  8. Oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaise-based salads and the influence of different vegetables in shrimp and tuna salads were evaluated. Moreover, the lipid oxidation in the presence of 1% oregano, rosemary, or thyme in fish oil-enriched tuna salad was assessed. The results obtained...... showed that the mayonnaise itself was more oxidatively stable without vegetables and tuna or shrimp, in spite of the higher oil content in mayonnaise (63 and 6.3% fish oil, respectively) compared to salads (∼24 and 2.4% fish oil, respectively). Surprisingly, the fish oil-enriched mayonnaise was only...... significantly different from the standard mayonnaise in the volatile concentration during the end of storage. In fish oil-enriched shrimp salad, asparagus had an anti-oxidative effect and shrimp a pro-oxidative effect, where the anti-oxidative effect of asparagus was strong enough to prevent the pro...

  9. Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil......The oxidative stabilities of fish oil-enriched milk and fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt were compared by following the development of lipid oxidation in plain milk, plain yoghurt and yoghurt to which ingredients present in drinking yoghurt were added one by one. All samples were enriched with 1...... wt-% fish oil. After 3 weeks of storage, development of peroxide values, volatile secondary oxidation products and fishy offflavors were much more pronounced in the milk compared to any of the yoghurt samples, irrespective of any added ingredients used to prepare flavored drinking yoghurt. Thus...

  10. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  11. New antioxidants and antioxidant systems for improvement of the stability of vegetable oils and fish oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most vegetable oils and fish oils contain polyunsaturated fatty acids ranging from 18 carbons with two to three double bonds, to 22 or 24 carbons, and up to six double bonds. Nutritional research over the years has indicated that individual fatty acids from the diet play a complex role in nutrition ...

  12. Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin-Gelatin Colloidal Complexes on Stability and in Vitro Digestion of Fish Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Chao, An-Chong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2015-11-25

    The colloidal complexes composed of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) and gelatin (GLT), as natural antioxidants to improve stability and inhibit lipid oxidation in menhaden fish oil emulsions, were evaluated. The interactions between GSP and GLT, and the chemical structures of GSP/GLT self-assembled colloidal complexes, were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Fish oil was emulsified with GLT to obtain an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. After formation of the emulsion, GLT was fixed by GSP to obtain the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes stabilized fish oil emulsion. Menhaden oil emulsified by GSP/GLT(0.4 wt %) colloidal complexes yielded an emulsion with smaller particles and higher emulsion stability as compared to its GLT emulsified counterpart. The GSP/GLT colloidal complexes inhibited the lipid oxidation in fish oil emulsions more effectively than free GLT because the emulsified fish oil was surrounded by the antioxidant GSP/GLT colloidal complexes. The digestion rate of the fish oil emulsified with the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes was reduced as compared to that emulsified with free GLT. The extent of free fatty acids released from the GSP/GLT complexes stabilized fish oil emulsions was 63.3% under simulated digestion condition, indicating that the fish oil emulsion was considerably hydrolyzed with lipase.

  13. Encapsulation of fish oil in nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning: Physical characterization and oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; van derKruijs, Jules

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of fish oil in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning was investigated. Independently of the emulsifier used, whey protein isolate (WPI) or fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), PVA concentration had a high influence on fiber morphology. Fibers without bead d...... presented a higher content of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products (e.g. 1-penten-3-ol, hexanal, octanal and nonanal) compared to emulsified and unprotected fish oil....... defects were only produced for solutions with 10.5% (w/w) PVA, which presented sufficient number of polymer chain entanglements. On the other hand, increasing oil load from 1.5 to 3% (w/w) resulted in fibers with larger diameters containing spindle-like enlargements interspersed. High omega-3...... encapsulation efficiency (92.4 ± 2.3%) was obtained for fibers produced from 10.5% (w/w) PVA-5% (w/w) emulsion blend stabilized with WPI, resulting in an oil load capacity of 11.3 ± 0.3%. Moreover, the encapsulated oil was randomly distributed as small droplets inside the fibers. However, the electrospun fibers...

  14. Oxidative stability of pullulan nanofibers loaded with fish oil: effect of oil content and antioxidants addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Damberg, C.; Stephansen, K.

    Electrospinning processing is a promising technique for the encapsulation of thermolabile bioactive compounds (e.g. fish oil) since it does not require the use of heat. Furthermore, the nano-microfibers (NMF) obtained present a reduced size, which makes them easier to disperse in food matrices...... compared to traditional encapsulates (e.g. microcapsules produced by spray-drying). Biopolymers such as proteins and polysaccharides are required for the production of food-grade NMF. In this sense, pullulan, which is a food-approved polysaccharide, is an interesting encapsulating material due to its high...

  15. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    .g. homogenization pressure can affect how proteins locate themselves at the interface of an emulsion. The hypothesis is therefore that emulsions produced with different emulsification equipments differ in their oxidative stability due to differences in the behaviour of the proteins at the interface. The aim...... of this study was therefore to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey...

  16. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    .g. homogenization pressure can affect how proteins locate themselves at the interface of an emulsion. The hypothesis is therefore that emulsions produced with different emulsification equipments differ in their oxidative stability due to differences in the behaviour of the proteins at the interface. The aim...... of this study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey protein...

  17. Oxidative Stability and Sensory Attributes of Fermented Milk Product Fortified with Fish Oil and Marine Phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe

    2013-01-01

    Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk...... of primary, secondary volatile oxidation products and tocopherol content upon 32 days storage at 2 °C and 28 days storage at 5 °C, respectively. Analyses of particle size distribution, viscosity and microbial growth were also performed. In addition, sensory attributes such as sour, fishy and rancid flavor...

  18. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stability to oxidation of spray-dried fish oil powder microencapsulated using milk ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keogh, M.K.; O'Kennedy, B.T.; Kelly, J.

    2001-01-01

    Microencapsulation of fish oil was achieved by spray-drying homogenized emulsions of fish oil using 3 different types of casein as emulsifier and lactose as filler. As the degree of aggregation of the casein emulsifier increased, the vacuole volume of the microencapsulated powders decreased...

  20. STUDY ON THE THERMAL STABILITY OF EPA AND DHA IN MUJAHIR (Oreochromis mossambicus FISH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngatidjo Hadipranoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid content in common fresh water fish : mujahir (Oreochromis mossambicus after indirect heating were analysed. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of indirect heating process and α-tocopherol additions on both fatty acid stability.Lipids content in the mujahir fillets were extracted by Folch method using chloroform-metanol (2:1 mixture. Fatty acids in fish oil were converted to fatty acid methyl esters and then injected into gas chromatography to determine the EPA and DHA concentration. Operating condition of gas chromatography were programmed as follows: injection port temperature at 270 oC, detector at 280 oC, initial column temperature at 200 oC, and the final at 280 oC, the carrier gas was helium with flow rate of 10 ml per minute and temperature of column was increased gradually at 10 oC per minute. The effect of α-tocopherol addition on the stability of EPA and DHA was studied by adding α-tocopherol at 50 to 200 mg per kilogram sample before indirect heating process was carried out.The analysis of mujahir fish oil showed that the content of EPA and DHA in 100 grams fresh sample was 105 and 406,5 mg respectivelly. Indirect heating caused the EPA and DHA content decreased significantly. The addition of α-tocopherol results in a positive corelation between α-tocopherol concentration added and the decrease of EPA and DHA content during the heating process.   Keywords: fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  1. Combination of sodium caseinate and succinylated alginate improved stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Sodium caseinate (CAS) and commercial sodium alginate (CA), long chain modified alginate (LCMA) or short chain modified alginate (SCMA) were used in combination for emulsifying and stabilizing high fat (50–70%) fish oil-in-water emulsions. Physical (creaming, droplet size, viscosity and protein...

  2. Oxidative Stability of Granola Bars Enriched with Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion in the Presence of Novel Brown Seaweed Based Antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun; Karadaǧ, Ayşe; Andersen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus extracts that have both radical scavenging activity and metal chelating ability in vitro were used as natural antioxidant in granola bars enriched with fish oil emulsion by using primary and secondary emulsion systems stabilized by sodium caseinate alone and sodium caseinate...... were added to the granola bars especially in combination with acetone and ethanol extracts of Fucus vesiculosus....

  3. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...

  4. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise and milk drink produced with structured lipids based on fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative stabilities of traditional fish oil (FO), randomized lipids (RFO), or specific structured lipids (SFO) produced from fish oil were compared when incorporated into either milk drink or mayonnaise. Furthermore, the effect of adding the potential antioxidants EDTA (240 mg...... not be ascribed to a single factor, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipids and differences in the processes used to produce and purify the lipids. In milk drinks based on SFO, EDTA slightly reduced oxidation, while lactoferrin did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect...

  5. Influence of surfactant composition on physical and oxidative stability of Quillaja saponin-stabilized lipid particles with encapsulated ω-3 fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Hanna; Aulbach, Susanne; Leuenberger, Bruno H; Tedeschi, Concetta; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a saponin-rich extract of Quillaja saponaria to replace bile salts in the surfactant formulations for stabilization of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). The influence of Quillaja extract and/or high-melting lecithin at different concentrations on physical and oxidative stability was evaluated in (i) NLC containing tristearin and ω-3 fish oil, (ii) ω-3 fish oil-in-water emulsion, and (iii) solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing tristearin. Best physical, polymorphic and oxidative stability of NLC were achieved with a surfactant combination of 2.4% (w/w) Quillaja extract and 0.6% (w/w) high-melting lecithin. The results showed that encapsulation of ω-3 fish oil into NLC inhibited the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, propanal and hexanal by 72, 53 and 57%, respectively, compared to the fish oil-in-water emulsion prepared with the same surfactants. This indicated that the low oxidation observed in NLC cannot be due to potential antioxidative effects of the surfactant combination itself. Evidence is accumulating that tristearin is able to form a protective shell around the ω-3 fish oil, when crystallization is induced via high-melting phospholipids in the solidified interfacial layer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative stability during storage of fish oil from filleting by-products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is largely independent of the processing and production temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    be used to produce high quality fish oil. In this study, the oxidative stability of fish oil produced from filleting by-products was evaluated. The oil was produced from conventional or organic fish (low and high omega-3 fatty acid content) at different temperatures (70 and 90°C). The oxidative stability......Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the main fish species produced in Danish fresh water farming. Large amounts of fileting by-products like heads, bones, tails (HBT), and intestines are produced when rainbow trout is processed to smoked rainbow trout filets. The filleting by-products can...... of the oil was tested during storage at two different temperatures (20 and 40°C). Results showed that omega-3 content of the fish oil influenced the oxidative stability, whereas the processing temperature during oil production played a minor role....

  7. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, E.N.; Satue-Gracia, T.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants, and t...... high iron:EDTA ratios. Therefore, to be effective as a metal chelator, EDTA must be added at molar concentrations higher than that of iron to inhibit oxidation of foods containing long-chain PUFA from either fish or algae and fortified with iron.......The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants......-chain PUFA-containing fish oils and DHA-containing algal oils. The relatively high oxidative stability of an algal oil containing 42% DHA was completely lost after chromatographic purification to remove tocopherols and other antioxidants. Therefore, this evidence does not support the claim that DHA-rich oils...

  8. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    2004-01-01

    lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...

  9. Oxidative Stability of Granola Bars Enriched with Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion in the Presence of Novel Brown Seaweed Based Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermund, Ditte B; Karadağ, Ayşe; Andersen, Ulf; Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-11-09

    Fucus vesiculosus extracts that have both radical scavenging activity and metal chelating ability in vitro were used as natural antioxidant in granola bars enriched with fish oil emulsion by using primary and secondary emulsion systems stabilized by sodium caseinate alone and sodium caseinate-chitosan. The bars were stored at 20 °C and evaluated over a period of 10 weeks by measuring the development of primary and secondary oxidation products. The samples prepared with secondary emulsion system developed less oxidation products probably due to increased interfacial layer thickness that would act as a barrier to the penetration and diffusion of molecular species that promote oxidation. The positive charge of oil droplets in the secondary emulsion may also inhibit iron-lipid interaction through electrostatic repulsion. Additional protection against lipid oxidation was obtained when fish oil emulsions were added to the granola bars especially in combination with acetone and ethanol extracts of Fucus vesiculosus.

  10. Oxidative stability of fish oil supplemented with carnosic acid compared with synthetic antioxidants during long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Fang; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Han; Qu, Shengzhuo; Zhang, Ying

    2011-09-01

    The effects of carnosic acid (CA) of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3mg/g) and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in fish oil stored for 66days at different temperatures (30 and 4°C) were compared. The investigation focused on the increase in peroxide and conjugated diene values, as well as free fatty acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The changes in trans fatty acid and aldehyde compound contents were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid content were monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the three CA concentrations were more effective in restraining fish oil oxidation, in which a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of CA was stronger than that of vitamin E, but still weaker than that of tertiary-butyl hydroquinone. Fish oil supplemented with 0.2mg/g CA exhibited favourable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physicochemical characterization and oxidative stability of fish oil-loaded electrosprayed capsules: Combined use of whey protein and carbohydrates as wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Pelayo, Andres; Yu, Sen

    2018-01-01

    The encapsulation of fish oil in electrosprayed capsules using whey protein and carbohydrates (pullulan and dextran or glucose syrup) mixtures as glassy wall materials was studied. Capsules with fish oil emulsified by using only a rotor-stator emulsification exhibited higher oxidative stability.......9 ± 0.4 meq/kg oil and 1-penten-3-ol of 1161.0 ± 222.0 ng/g oil). This finding may be attributed to differences in oxygen permeability between both types of capsules. These results indicated the potential of both combinations of whey protein, pullulan, and dextran or glucose syrup as shell materials...

  12. Combination of sodium caseinate and succinylated alginate improved stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García-Moreno, Pedro J; Anankanbil, Sampson; Guo, Zheng; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2018-07-30

    Sodium caseinate (CAS) and commercial sodium alginate (CA), long chain modified alginate (LCMA) or short chain modified alginate (SCMA) were used in combination for emulsifying and stabilizing high fat (50-70%) fish oil-in-water emulsions. Physical (creaming, droplet size, viscosity and protein determination) and oxidative (primary and secondary oxidation products) stabilities of the emulsions were studied during 12 days of storage. Creaming stability was higher for emulsions produced with alginates and CAS compared to emulsions prepared with only CAS. Combined use of CAS + LCMA performed better in terms of physical stability compared to emulsions produced with only CAS. However, the oxidative stability of this emulsion was inferior probably due to the presence of an unsaturated carbon chain in LCMA structure. CAS + SCMA emulsions not only showed better physical stability such as smaller droplet size, lower creaming and higher viscosity, but also had an improved oxidative stability than emulsions produced with only CAS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off-flavor...... of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad...

  14. Physical and oxidative stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate and sodium alginate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yesiltas, Betül; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2017-01-01

    .2 ratio NaCas:NaAlg by Box-Behnken's design, the formulae 70%-1.4%-1.2 was decided due to high fish oil content's decreasing effect on droplet size and peroxide value. Practical applications: Physically and oxidatively stable high fat (50-70%) omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions are of high...

  15. Influence of Casein-Phospholipid Combinations as Emulsifier on the Physical and Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of casein (0.3% w/w) and phospholipid (0.5% w/w) emulsifier combinations on the physical and oxidative stability of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions at pH 7. For that purpose, three phospholipids were evaluated, namely, lecithin (LC), ph...

  16. Fish oil for use as hydraulic oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, T.E. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Bio-Resource Engineering; Bimbo, A.P. [Zapata Protein, Inc., Reedville, VA (United States). Menhaden Oil Refinery

    1996-04-01

    A study initiated to find a non-toxic environmentally friendly fluid suitable for use in hydraulic systems, such as in marine and food processing operations, has resulted in a fish-oil-based fluid that appears promising. This paper describes the fluid testing and laboratory and field system tests used to evaluate the fish oil with additive packages. The fish oil with non-toxic additives was endurance tested for durability in complete hydraulic systems in the laboratory and introduced into a commercial system. The results indicate that the oil functioned very well in the systems and the components were compatible with the oil, giving no degradation, wear or performance problems. (author)

  17. Fish Oil in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Peter; Hansen, Birgitte V.; Nielsen, Flemming S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... oil in diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 1-year double-blind randomized controlled study comparing fish oil (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) with placebo (olive oil) was performed in an outpatient clinic in a tertiary referral center. Thirty-six normotensive IDDM patients with diabetic...... nephropathy were included; 18 were treated with fish oil. Seven patients dropped out (four received fish oil), and results for the remaining 29 are presented. Albuminuria (enzyme immunoassay), glomerular filtration rate (51Cr-labeled EDTA plasma clearance), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and lipid profile...

  18. Fish oil in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Hansen, B V; Nielsen, F S

    1996-01-01

    oil in diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 1-year double-blind randomized controlled study comparing fish oil (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) with placebo (olive oil) was performed in an outpatient clinic in a tertiary referral center. Thirty-six normotensive IDDM patients with diabetic......OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... nephropathy were included; 18 were treated with fish oil. Seven patients dropped out (four received fish oil), and results for the remaining 29 are presented. Albuminuria (enzyme immunoassay), glomerular filtration rate (51Cr-labeled EDTA plasma clearance), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and lipid profile...

  19. Emulsion stability and properties of fish gelatin-based films as affected by palm oil and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsuwan, Krisana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin films exhibit the poor water vapour barrier properties. The use of palm oil, which is abundant and available in Thailand, can be a means to lower water vapour migration. To disperse oil in film-forming dispersion (FFD), a surfactant along with appropriate homogenization is required. The study aimed to investigate the influence of palm oil level and surfactants in the absence or presence of glycerol on characteristics of FFD and resulting gelatin films. Similar oil droplet sizes, both d32 and d43 values, of FFD containing soy lecithin were observed, regardless of palm oil level used (P > 0.05). FFD with Tween-20 had larger droplet size as the levels of oil increased (P palm oil level increased (P 0.05). FFD containing 500 or 750 g kg(-1) palm oil using soy lecithin as a surfactant in the presence of 300 g kg(-1) glycerol had the enhanced homogeneity and stability of oil droplets. The resulting gelatin film had the improved water vapour barrier properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Naringin and vitamin E influence the oxidative stability and lipid profile of plasma in lambs fed fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodas, R; Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Giráldez, F J; Andrés, S

    2011-08-01

    Thirty two Merino lambs (15 weeks old) fed barley straw and fish oil enriched concentrate were used to assess the effect of vitamin E (6 g kg(-1) DM) and naringin (1.5-3 g kg(-1) DM) on plasma lipid peroxidation (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), immune response, plasma cholesterol, and triglycerides. After 21 days feeding the experimental diets, lambs were subjected to a 4 h transportation stress period and then held 4 more hours without feed. TBARS values before stress were lower for animals consuming vitamine E and naringin when compared to control lambs (Pvitamin E or naringin. Both pre-stress TBARS and triacylglycerol-reducing effects of naringin added to fish oil enriched concentrate for fattening lambs are reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Retardation Of Lipid Oxidation In Fish Oil-Enriched Fish Pâté- Combination Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative stability during storage of fish pâté made from cod and enriched with 5% oil was investigated. Pâtés were produced with neat fish oil, pre-emulsified fish oil, microencapsulated fish oil, inert medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil or a fish/rapeseed oil mixture. Addition of fish...... oil decreased the oxidative stability. Fish pâté with microencapsulated fish oil or MCT oil did not oxidize, whereas oxidation was slower in fish pâté with pre-emulsified oil compared with fish pâté with neat oil. Packaging in vacuum did not decrease oxidation. Fish pâtés with emulsified oil...... stored at 2 or 10C were equally stable. Mixing fish oil with rapeseed oil before emulsification slightly increased the stability of the fish pâtés. Addition of antimicrobial agents, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate increased oxidative stability. It is recommended to produce enriched fish pâté...

  2. Effects of refining and removal of persistent organic pollutants by short-path distillation on nutritional quality and oxidative stability of fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterhals, Åge; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2010-12-08

    Food and feed legislations are implemented to control the level of unwanted persistent organic pollutants (POPs) below health risk concerns. Short-path distillation is established as the most effective industrial process to remove POPs in fish oil. However, the technology involves heating of the oil to high temperature levels (>200 °C) that possibly give unwanted heat-induced side reactions and coevaporation of minor compounds of importance for the nutritional quality of the oil. The effects on retention of vitamins, cholesterol, and unsaponifiable compounds, geometrical isomerization, loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), oxidation level, and oxidative stability have been studied on the basis of experiments designed to optimize and model the effect of process conditions (i.e., evaporator temperature, feed rate, and addition of working fluid) on the reduction of POPs. Loss of volatile nutrients was observed, but the extent will depend on the process conditions needed to obtain target decontamination level, as well as the concentration ratio and difference in vapor pressure between free and esterified forms of the studied compounds. Some reduction in oxidation level was documented with preservation of PUFA level and quality. Oxidative stability was influenced both positively and negatively depending on the applied process conditions. Generally, no adverse negative effects on the nutritional quality of the fish oil could be documented. Optimal process conditions were modeled that ensure removal of POPs to within legislation levels while retaining most of the vitamin levels in fish oil. A 76% reduction of the WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ level in the used feedstock was needed to be in accordance with the voluntary industrial monograph of GOED. This could be achieved on the basis of operation conditions giving vitamins. A 90% decontamination rate gave vitamin retentions in the 60-90% range.

  3. Sardine Fish Oil By Sentrifugation and Adsorbent for Emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Haryati; Sugeng Heri Suseno; Nurjanah Nurjanah

    2017-01-01

    Sardine fish meal by-product contain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) and it can be made as emulsion. The purpose of this study were to determine the best fish oil emulsion by mixingthe oil phase (lecithin 3% and oil) and water phase (carboxymethyl cellulose/CMC 2% and fruit juice) and then stored until creaming, and the emulsion is analyzed their viscosity, pH, percent of stability and longseparation. Sardine oil is separated from the emulsion and tested oxidation parame...

  4. Oxidative stability and microstructure of 5% fish-oil-enriched granola bars added natural antioxidants derived from brown algaFucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadağ, Ayşe; Hermund, Ditte Baun; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    2017-01-01

    microscopy. All extracts - except water extract in low concentration - reduced lipid oxidation during 10 weeks of storage when added in a concentration of 0.5 or 1 g extract/100 g emulsion. EE and AE (in the lowest concentration) were found to be most efficient as antioxidants in the bars. The antioxidant...... applications: The work showed the application potential of Fucus vesiculosus extracts as a natural antioxidant in low-moisture foods such as granola bars. These findings implied that the multi-functional nature of these extracts provides not only oxidative stability of the food but also a physical stability.......The aims of this study were to; 1) investigate the ability of Icelandic brown algae Fucus vesiculosus extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation in granola bars fortified with fish oil-in-water emulsion; 2) investigate whether addition of the seaweed extracts affected the physical microstructure...

  5. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of pork as influenced by duration and time of dietary linseed or fish oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, L; De Smet, S; Fremaut, D; Van Walleghem, K; Raes, K

    2008-06-01

    In this experiment, the effect of duration and time of feeding n-3 PUFA sources on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of the longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was investigated. Linseed (L) and fish oil (F), rich in alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA and DHA), respectively, were supplied equivalent to a level of 1.2% oil (as fed), either during the whole fattening period or only during the first (P1; 8 wk) or second (P2; 6 to 9 wk until slaughter) fattening phase. All diets were based on barley, wheat, and soybean meal and were fed ad libitum. Crossbred pigs (n = 154; Topigs 40 x Piétrain) were randomly allotted to the 7 feeding groups. In the basal diet (B), only animal fat was used as the supplementary fat source. Three dietary groups were supplied the same fatty acid source during both fattening phases (i.e., group BB, LL, and FF). For the other 4 dietary groups, the fatty acid source was switched after the first phase (groups BL, BF, LF, and FL; the first and second letter indicating the diet in P1 and P2, respectively). Twelve animals per feeding group were selected based on average live BW. The LT was analyzed for fatty acid composition; lipid stability (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and color stability (a* value, % of myoglobin pigments) were determined on the LT after illuminated chill storage for up to 8 d. The alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid incorporation was independent of the duration of linseed feeding (1.24, 0.54, and 0.75% of total fatty acids, respectively, for group LL). Supplying fish oil during both phases resulted in the greatest EPA and DHA proportions (1.37 and 1.02% of total fatty acids; P fish oil was administered during P2 compared with P1 (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on meat ultimate pH and drip loss or on lipid or color oxidation.

  6. Characteristic of sausages as influenced by partial replacement of pork back-fat using pre-emulsified soybean oil stabilized by fish proteins isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopparat Cheetangdee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Substitution of animal fat with oils rich in n-3 is a feasible way to improve the nutritive value of comminuted meat product. The effect on the characteristics of sausages was investigated of partial replacement of porcine fat with soybean oil (SBO using a pre-emulsification technique. Fish protein isolate (FPI produced from yellow stripe trevally (Selaroides leptolepis was used as an emulsifier to prepare pre-emulsified SBO (preSBO, and its concentration effect (1%, 2% and 3%, w/v was observed in comparison with soy protein isolate (SPI. Substitution of porcine fat using preSBO enhanced the product stability. SPI exhibited better emulsifying ability than FPI. However, FPI was more effective at reinforcing the protein matrix of the sausages than SPI, as suggested by a lowered cooking loss and the restored textural attributes of the sausages formulated with FPI stabilized preSBO. The effective concentration of FPI to improve the product stability was 2%. This work suggested that FPI was promising in the preparation of emulsified meat products.

  7. Effects of Resin Refining on the Chemical and Physical Stability of Sardine Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Irianto, Hari Eko

    2014-01-01

    The effect of resin refining on the stability of sardine oil was studied. Fish canning waste oil and fish meal processing waste oil were used in the experiment. The oils were refined by passing through the resin packed column at fish oil and resin ration of 1 : 1.            The fish oil stability was investigated using Schaal oven method by placing the oil in an oven at 63 ± 2oC and the sample was withdrawn after 0, 2, 4, 7 and 11 days. Resin refining improved fish oil quality as indicated b...

  8. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammat...

  9. Protection of fish oil from oxidation by microencapsulation using freeze-drying techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzelmann, K.; Franke, K.; Jensen, Benny

    2000-01-01

    of fish oil with respect to oxidation, it has to be protected from oxygen and light. The investigations presented demonstrate the microencapsulation of fish oil using freeze-drying techniques. Emulsions containing 10% fish oil, 10% sodium caseinate, 10% carbohydrate and 70% water were frozen using...... on the oxidative stability of dried microencapsulated fish oil. The shelf life of the produced samples was determined by measuring the development of volatile oxidation products vs. storage time. It could be shown that the addition of antioxidants to fish oil was necessary to produce dried microencapsulated fish...

  10. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammation are reviewed here. The results of the clinical trials on various skin parameters (hydration, trans epidermal water loss, roughness, scaling, superficial inflammation and blood flow were quite convincing about the interest of such a supplementation.

  11. Stability of vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 in oil, fish and mushrooms after household cooking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ložnjak, Petra; Jakobsen, Jette

    2018-01-01

    Information on the retention of vitamin D in food following household cooking is scarce. So far the retention of its metabolites vitamin D3, vitamin D2, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 has shown that the type of food and the cooking method are the essential determinants, and there is no significant...... difference between the metabolites. We investigated the retention of vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 in sunflower oil, vitamin D3 in rainbow trout, and vitamin D2 in button mushrooms. The investigated cooking methods were boiling at different pH, steam cooking, microwave cooking, pan-frying, and oven baking....... There was no difference between the retention of vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 added to sunflower oil, which ranged from 70 to 99%. In rainbow trout, the retention of vitamin D3 at 85–114% was not significantly different from 100%, except for panfrying at 85%. However, the retention of vitamin D2 in mushrooms at 62...

  12. Dietary fish oil and experimental atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Hartog

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn the review of (most human) fish oil studies in chapter 1 it was shown that the data are not all confirmative and only a few studies were well-controlled. However, the safety of the needed experimental high doses of fish oil requires further investigation. The general aims of this

  13. Health effects of fish and fish oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandra, Ranjit Kumar

    1989-01-01

    .... Based on epidemiologic data, it has been suggested that a fish-containing diet is beneficial in the prevention and management of a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, hypertension, and psoriasis...

  14. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  15. The influence of emulsifier type on lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched light mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    analysis. Surprisingly, our hypothesis that substitution of egg yolk with a less iron-containing emulsifier (milk protein-based emulsifier) could increase the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched mayonnaises was not confirmed. These findings suggest that the initial quality of the emulsifiers was more......The oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched light mayonnaise (40% oil) and the influence of two different emulsifiers, egg yolk and milk protein-based emulsifier, were evaluated. Moreover, the effects of different fish oil concentrations (4, 10 and 14%) and storage temperatures (2 and 20 degrees C...... mayonnaise due to significant lipid oxidation even in mayonnaises without fish oil. However, enrichment of light mayonnaises with 4% fish oil without adding antioxidant did not result in increased oxidation when stored at 2 degrees C, and thus seems feasible; however, this has to be confirmed by sensory...

  16. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, SF; Østerdal, ML; Salvig, JD

    2007-01-01

    )) from around week 20 (groups 1 and 2) or 6.3 g n-3 PUFA from week 33 (group 3). The control regimen was capsules with olive oil. Effect on timing of spontaneous delivery was examined by Cox regression, assuming elective delivery (occurring in 40%) as a censoring event. Analyses of effect of fish oil......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  17. Effect of storage on oxidative quality and stability of extruded astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Markus Wied; Hjermitslev, Niels Harthøj; Frosch, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the stability of extruded and astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets during storage in a light box at 28°C and 620lx. Seven groups of fish feed pellets were vacuum coated with fish oil that contained levels of astaxanthin ranging from 0 to 100ppm. To equalize differences...

  18. Sardine Fish Oil By Sentrifugation and Adsorbent for Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Haryati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sardine fish meal by-product contain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA and it can be made as emulsion. The purpose of this study were to determine the best fish oil emulsion by mixingthe oil phase (lecithin 3% and oil and water phase (carboxymethyl cellulose/CMC 2% and fruit juice and then stored until creaming, and the emulsion is analyzed their viscosity, pH, percent of stability and longseparation. Sardine oil is separated from the emulsion and tested oxidation parameters. The best emulsion was fish oil emulsion after refined without citric acid (RTS with viscosity (2470.31 cP, pH (5.64, percent of stability (56.14% and long separation (14 days. Primary and secondary oxidation parameters of RTS  were FFA (14.87%, PV (14.43 meq/kg, AV (32.57 meq KOH/g, AnV (17.3 meq/kg, and Totox (46.16 meq/kg.

  19. Encapsulation of fish oil into hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles using carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junsi; Ciftci, Ozan Nazim

    2017-09-15

    Fish oil was encapsulated in hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles formed from fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) using a novel green method based on atomization of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 )-expanded lipid. The highest fish oil loading efficiency (97.5%, w/w) was achieved at 50%, w/w, initial fish oil concentration. All particles were spherical and in the dry free-flowing form; however, less smooth surface with wrinkles was observed when the initial fish oil concentration was increased up to 50%. With increasing initial fish oil concentration, melting point of the fish oil-loaded particles shifted to lower onset melting temperatures, and major polymorphic form transformed from α to β and/or β'. Oxidative stability of the loaded fish oil was significantly increased compared to the free fish oil (p<0.05). This innovative method forms free-flowing powder products that are easy-to-use solid fish oil formulation, which makes the handling and storage feasible and convenient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fish oil quality of by-product (fish skin from swangi fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Huli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin of swangi fish is a potential fish skin to be produced for fish oil. The objectives of this research were aimed to determine the yield and the best quality of fish oil and also to compare fatty acid profile of the fish according to different extraction methods. Fish oil extractions were used by wet rendering method with extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100°C for 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemical oil characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, AV, anisidin, and TOTOX. Fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu. The results of the study showed that the highest fish oil yield in each treatment was obtained extraction temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes with percentage of 0.33, (70°C for 30 minutes 0.46, (80°C for 30 minutes 1.23, (90°C for 20 minutes 1.14 and (100°C for 20 minutes 0.84. These values were lower compare to Bligh & Dyer and Soxhlet methods. Then, the best fish oil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 60°C for 30 minutes with PV, FFA, anisidin, AV, and TOTOX were 9.17 meq/kg, 6.92%, 13,77 mg KOH/g, 0.86 meq/kg and 19.19 meq/kg, respectively. FUFA fatty acid compositions of swangi skin fish oil especially EPA and DHA in wet rendering method were gained 0.73% and 2.53%, respectively. These results were lower than Bligh & Dyer method which was consisted of 3.66% (EPA, and 13.29% (DHA and also Soxhlet extraction method with value of EPA was 2.78% and DHA was 9.62%.Keywords: EPA, extraction temperature, DHA, fish oil quality, fish skin

  1. Do oil dispersants make spilled oil more toxic to fish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.

  2. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions fortified with enzymatic hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Physical and oxidative stability of 5% (by weight) cod liver oil-in-water emulsions fortified with common carp (C. carpio) roe protein hydrolysate (CRPH) were examined. CRPH was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of discarded roe by using Alcalase 2.4 L for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min to yield different...... degrees of hydrolysis (DH). All the hydrolysates showed in vitro antioxidant activity in terms of radical scavenging and chelating properties. CRPH-containing emulsions had significantly smaller droplets than control (p ...

  3. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...

  4. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Østerdal, M L; Salvig, J D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation on duration of pregnancy, conditional on the woman's habitual fish intake. DESIGN: Multicentre 1:1 randomised clinical trial of effect of fish oil in a high-risk population of pregnant women in whom habitual fish intake was assessed...... at randomisation. SETTING: Nineteen university delivery wards in seven European countries. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a previous pregnancy (group 1, n=495); with twin pregnancies (group 2, n=367......); or with suspicion of IUGR or threatening preeclampsia in the current pregnancy (group 3, n=106). Women were stratified into low, middle, or high fish consumers. METHODS: The intervention group received fish oil capsules providing 2.7 g long-chain n-3 fatty acids per day (n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA...

  5. Effective Prevention of Oxidative Deterioration of Fish Oil: Focus on Flavor Deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Kazuo; Uemura, Mariko; Hosokawa, Masashi

    2018-03-25

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both abundant in fish oil, are known to have significant biochemical and physiological effects primarily linked to the improvement of human health, especially cardiovascular and brain health. However, the incorporation of fish oil into foods and beverages is often challenging, as fish oil is very easily oxidized and can cause undesirable flavors. This review discusses this rapid formation of the fishy and metallic off-flavors, focusing especially on an early stage of fish oil oxidation. Although oxidative stability and quality of commercialized fish oil have improved over the past few years, there is a still a problem with its application: Flavor deterioration can be found even at very low oxidation levels. This review also notes the effective way to inhibit the formation of the volatile compounds responsible for the flavor deterioration.

  6. Estabilidade oxidativa de óleo de peixe encapsulado em diferentes tipos de embalagem em condição ambiente Encapsulated fish oil oxidative stability stored in different types of packing under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Guidorizzi Antonio Pacheco

    2009-12-01

    due to oxidation. This research main interest was the stability of encapsulated fish oil stored in different types of packagings. The fish oil used in this experiment was supplied by Cardinal Pharmaceutical Industry in soft gel capsules. After encapsulation, half of the samples were sent to SERPAC Industry LTDA for blistering, where polychlortrifluoroethylene (PCTFE, commercially known as Aclar Rx 160 (15 μ, polyvinyldichloride (PVDC-60 gsm², and polyvinylchoride (PVC-250 μ films were used as treatments. The blisters were packed in carton boxes. The other half of the capsules was packed in amber glass or high density polyethylene (PEAD rigid flasks with and without silica bags. Each treatment contained 60 capsules in triplicate and all packs were stored under ambient conditions for 12 months. Analytical determinations were performed on the oil every 28 days and included acid and peroxide values and absortivities in the ultraviolet region at 232 and 270 nm. The fatty acid composition determinations, specifically EPA and DHA content, were performed during the experiment. The package which presented the largest changes in quality of the oil was the PVC film "blister". The best results were found in the encapsulated oil stored in PEAD flasks with silica bags. EPA and DHA contents were kept constant for all samples.

  7. Comparison of soybean oils, gum, and defatted soy flour extract in stabilizing menhaden oil during heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X; Xu, Z; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Losso, J N; King, J M; Godber, J S

    2008-01-01

    Capabilities of crude soy oil, degummed oil, gum, and defatted soy flour extract in preventing the oxidation of menhaden oil and its omega-3 fatty acids, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), during heating were evaluated. The menhaden oil mixed with defatted soy flour extract demonstrated the greatest stability by producing the lowest TBA reactive oxidation products and retaining the highest concentrations of DHA and EPA after heating at 150 degrees C for 30 min. A range of 62.8% to 71.5% of DHA and 67.7% to 75.9% of EPA remained in the fish oil with defatted soy flour extract, while only 29.9% of DHA and 37.2% of EPA were retained in the fish oil with no addition. Stabilizing capability from highest to lowest was defatted flour extract > gum > degummed oil = crude oil. The defatted flour extract had the highest level of total phenolic content (11.3 microg catechin equivalent/g), while crude oil, degummed oil, and gum contained 7.1, 6.1, and 6.0 microg catechin equivalent/g, respectively. The level of isoflavones in the defatted soy flour extract was 55 mg/g, which was over 100 times higher than in the crude oil or gum. Although isoflavones were not detected in the degummed oil, it contained the highest level of tocopherols (414 mug/g), whereas the lowest level (215 microg/g) was found in the defatted flour extract. The order of free radical scavenging capability measured from high to low was the defatted soy flour extract, crude oil, degummed oil, and gum.

  8. Efficacy of Fish Oil in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Heidari

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of fish oil fatty acids (omega - 3 fatty acids inhibits the formation of arachidonic acid - derived cytokines and leads to production of compounds with diminished biological activity. Beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis have been shown in many controlled trials."nMethods : 43 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis entered in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to recieve either lOgr fish oil daily (treatment group or corn oil (placebo group. Baseline drugs and usual diet were continued without any changes. Disease variables were evaluated at baseline and after completion of study period."nThe changes in disease variables were compared by paired t-tesl in each group. Comparison of the two groups was done by t-test. Functional capacity was compared by Wilcoxon ranks test."nResults : 19 patients in treatment group and 20 patients in placebo group completed the study which lasted eight weeks . In the treatment group, joint pain index decreased from 30±11 at baseline, to 18±11 at the end of study period (P < 0.01. Joint swelling index decreased from 8 ± 4 to 2 ± 4, (P< 0.01, morning stiffness from 87 ± 41 to 24±16 minutes (P < 0.01. In the placebo group the above variable changes were from 19±14 to 25±14 ; 8±8 to 7±6 and 80±71 to 76±75 minutes respectively, which were not significant . The differences between the treatment and placebo groups were significant in joint swelling index (P < 0.05, morning stiffness (P<0.01 and functioal capacity (p< 0.005, the differences in joint pain index and grip strenght did not quite achieve statstical significance. During study period there were no adverese effects with fish oil consumption."nConclusion : Fish oil supplemention has anti-inflamatory effects in rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies are needed to recommend its long - term usage concomittant with other drugs in all patients

  9. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J.; Turcotte, D.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  10. Oil price stability and free markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamani, A.Z.

    1992-01-01

    The oil industry, like any capital-intensive industry with long supply lead times, is prone to price instability. Free markets in oil reflect this inherent instability, for prices are efficient signallers of imbalances between supply and demand. Free markets are desirable in principle, but entirely free oil markets are unstable. Volatile oil prices are undesirable. This article advocates trading some market freedom for more price stability, since such a trade off will be beneficial to the world as a whole. (author)

  11. 21 CFR 186.1551 - Hydrogenated fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrogenated fish oil is further processed by alkali refining, bleaching, and deodorization by steam stripping... determined by Section Cc 1-25, Official and Tentative Methods of the American Oil Chemists' Society method... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrogenated fish oil. 186.1551 Section 186.1551...

  12. Does functional redundancy stabilize fish communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, Jake; Daan, Niels; Gislason, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    in abundance or biomass could be accounted for by the Law of Large Numbers, providing no evidence that specific ecological processes or co-adaptations are necessary to produce this effect. This implies that successful conservation policies to maintain the resilience of a marine fish community could be based......Functional redundancy of species sharing a feeding strategy and/or maximum size has been hypothesized to contribute to increased resilience of marine fish communities (the “portfolio effect”). A consistent time-series of survey data of fish in the North Sea was used to examine if trophic functional...... groups or maximum length of species (Lmax) groups with larger numbers of species had lower coefficients of variation in abundance and biomass over time than did groupings with fewer species. Results supported this hypothesis. However, the stabilizing effect of numbers of species in a group on variation...

  13. Vegetable, Fish and Mineral Oils Control Grapevine Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Martín

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments were performed on vegetable, fish and mineral oils to evaluate their phytotoxic effects on grapevine and their effectiveness in the control of grapevine powdery mildew. None of the oils tested showed detectable phytotoxic effects at concentrations of 2% or less applied up to 4 times per week. In greenhouse trials, the efficacy of paraffin oil, refined rapeseed oil and partially refined fish oil against powdery mildew was similar to that obtained with the standard fungicides (tebuconazole or colloidal sulphur. In field trials, the three oils tested (paraffin oil, crude soya oil, and fish oil: 1% in aqueous emulsion were at least as effective as the standard fungicide Quinoxifen, with crude soya oil being the most effective. The oils used in the field trials were also effective for controlling eriophyd mites such as Calepitrimerus vitis.

  14. No impact of fish oil supplements on bleeding risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begtrup, Katrine Munk; Krag, Andreas Engel; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Fish oil supplementation may inhibit platelet aggregation and can potentially increase the risk of bleeding. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplements on haemostasis and bleeding risk, and to provide recommendations on whether...... it is necessary to discontinue fish oil supplementation prior to surgery. Methods: Studies were identified through PubMed and Embase searches and by reviewing the reference lists of the included papers. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used. Included...... of the included studies were randomised controlled trials or included a control group. Overall, fish oil supplements reduced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Fish oil exposure in surgical patients did not increase bleeding or blood transfusions either during or after surgery. Conclusion: Fish oil...

  15. Effect of peppermint and citronella essential oils on properties of fish skin gelatin edible films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanwong, S.; Threepopnatkul, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with peppermint and citronella essential oils at difference concentrations (10, 20 and 30% w/w) were prepared by solution casting. Addition of peppermint oil contributed to a significant decrease of tensile strength and Young's modulus, while the percent elongation at break showed an obvious increase except at 30% w/w. On the other hand, addition of citronella oils promoted a great increase of tensile strength and young's modulus, but an intense decrease of the percent elongation at break. At the predetermined content, the film incorporated with citronella oils outperformed the one with peppermint oils in term of water vapor transmission and solubility in water. Thermal properties of gelatin films with citronella oils exhibited an enhancement in heat stability, while the one with peppermint oils showed slight decrease in heat stability. The additions with both of essential oils exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  16. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.F.; Almeida, M.F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Dias, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A process was established to produce biodiesel from fish canning industry wastes. • Biodiesel production was enabled by an acid esterification pre-treatment. • Optimization studies showed that the best catalyst concentration was 1 wt.% H 2 SO 4 . • There was no advantage when a two-step alkali transesterification was employed. • Waste oil from olive oil bagasse could be used to improve fuel quality. - Abstract: The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.% H 2 SO 4 ) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60–90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (⩾6 h), which

  17. Effects of microencapsulation on bioavailability of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Yang, Mingshi; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Increased research interest in the health benefits of fish oils and the wide publicity of these studies have led to the marketing and launch of a wide array of new and traditional food and beverage products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. This chapter focuses on the impact of microencapsulation...... and other factors on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils. To help understand the impact of microencapsulation on bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids, it presents a brief overview of encapsulation techniques and excipients used. Microencapsulation of fish oil improves its chemical...... stability by preventing oxidation and ensuring satisfactory organoleptic properties. Even though encapsulation excipients food matrices and lipid structures can affect the absorption rate of omega-3 fatty acids in short-term studies, microencapsulated fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids enriched foods...

  18. Oxidative stability of krill oil (Euphausia superba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Bruheim, I.

    conditions. These compounds include Strecker degradation compounds and pyrroles. Some of these compounds may have antioxidative effect. Commercial scale processing of krill prior to extraction may affect the oxidative stability of krill oil. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to compare lipid...... oxidation in krill oil produced in a commercial process and krill oil carefully extracted from frozen krill in the laboratory. Krill oil was incubated at different temperatures (20, 30 and 40 oC) for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks, under conditions of constant stirring while being exposed to air. The oxidative......Krill oil has been reported in many studies to have high oxidative stability when evaluated by peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). However, recent studies have shown that other compounds than primary and secondary oxidation products are formed when krill oil is exposed to oxidative...

  19. Investigation of oxidative degradation and non‐enzymatic browning reactions in krill and fish oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Haugsgjerd, Bjørn Ole; Griinari, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    substance (TBARS), conjugated dienes and trienes, and antioxidant content, and (ii) advanced methods such as determination of volatiles content by dynamic headspace (DHS)‐GC/MS, lipid classes, and pyrrole content. In addition, the oxidative stability of the oils was evaluated under accelerated oxidation...... of these classical methods. Nevertheless, the conclusion was supported by the results of the Oxipres™ measurements, which showed that the oxygen consumption was higher for fish oil. Furthermore, the level of most volatile lipid oxidation products was higher for fish oil. The development of Strecker degradation...

  20. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of dietary fats rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), fish oil (n-3 rich oil), soybean oil (n-6 rich oil), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) alone or in dual mixtures, as well as palm oil as a more saturated fat on tissue fat deposition and serum lipid ...

  1. Nutritional value of micro-encapsulated fish oils in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Annemette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1996-01-01

    The nutritional value of a micro-encapsulated fish oil product has been investigated. Three groups of 10 male Wistar rats each were fed dietscontaining 20% (w/w) of fat, and only the type and form of the fat added was different. In the test groups 5% (w/w) of fish oil either as such or in amicro...

  2. Gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil to maintain fish quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Qianqian; Gao, Fei; Ding, Yuting; Liu, Shulai

    2017-12-01

    Effects of gamma radiation combined with cinnamon oil on quality of Northern Snakehead fish fillets were observed during storage at 4 °C. Fish fillets were treated with 1-5 kGy gamma radiation, 0.05-0.5% cinnamon oil or the combination of radiation and cinnamon oil. The antimicrobial activity increased with radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration. During storage, the combination of 1 kGy radiation and 0.5% cinnamon oil displayed better inhibiting activities on aerobic plate counts, total volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances than 1 kGy radiation or 0.5% cinnamon oil used alone. Moreover, the combination could arrive at the similar inhibiting activities of cinnamon oil with higher concentration of 0.5% or radiation with higher dose of 5 kGy. Thus, the combination could decrease the radiation dose and cinnamon oil concentration without decreasing the effect of them on maintaining fish quality.

  3. Age dependent sensitivity of oil on fish larvae, used in assessment of potential oil pollution damages on fish resources

    OpenAIRE

    Føyn, Lars; Serigstad, Bjørn

    1987-01-01

    Oil exploration in Norwegian waters will probably be extended further north into the Barents Sea. The Barents Sea is the nursery ground for important fish stocks spawning outside the norwegian coast, north of 62°N. Fish eggs and larvae are transported with the current systems northwards ending up as 0-group fish no longer dependent of the transportation provided by the currents. Some place between the egg/larval stage and mature fish, the fish is not longer vulnerable ...

  4. Production of oxidatively stable fish oil enriched food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette

    Purpose: The objective of the project is to determine how a number of selected fish oil enriched foods can be protected against oxidation by the right choice of antioxidants, emulsifiers and optimal process conditions. Furthermore the influence of antioxidant addition to the fish oil it......-self on the effect of antioxidants added to the foods will also be investigated. Background: Fish oils are rich sources of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA of which DHA is a vital component of the phospholipids of human cellular membranes, especially those in the brain and retina. Fish oils...... have many other health benefiting properties such as preventing heart diseases. Addition of fish oils to foods is therefore of interest. The many double bonds in the fatty acids are however susceptible to oxidation. Collaboration partners: The project is a collaborative project between DFU-FF, Bio...

  5. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed...... oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety......, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity...

  7. Dietary Fish Oil in Reducing Bone Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini

    2006-01-01

    .... The tumors arising within the animals fed a fish oil diet have decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and BclXL, increased expression of cytochrome-c, and activation of caspase 3, indicating increased apoptosis...

  8. Influence of microwaves on olive oil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, R.S.; El-Baroty, G.; Abd El-Aziz, N.; Basuny, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fruits of Picual and Shemlalli olive cultivars were exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at low and moderate power settings for 3, 6, 9 and 12 min. The physicochemical constants and fatty acid composition of the olive oil samples extracted from nonmicrowaved and microwaved fruits were determined. The data demonstrated that microwaves did not alter the values of the above mentioned parameters compared with the oil extracted from nonmicrowaved fruits. Quality assurance tests (acid, peroxide and TBA values) elucidated that microwaves generally increased the olive oil stability of Picual and Shemlalli cultivars during storage. In addition, microwaves generated from oven ot moderate power setting for 12 min. exhibited an antioxidant power on olive oil equivalent to that possessed by BHT at 200 ppm [es

  9. Antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid in fish oil enriched mayonnaise and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1–C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic...... compound. The optimal chain length with respect to protection against oxidation was, however, different for the two food systems. Fish oil enriched mayonnaise with caffeates of medium alkyl chain length (butyl, octyl and dodecyl) added resulted in a better oxidative stability than caffeates with shorter...... (methyl) or longer (octadecyl) alkyl chains. Whereas in fish oil enriched milk emulsions the most effective caffeates were those with shorter alkyl chains (methyl and butyl) rather than the ones with medium and long chains (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl and eicosyl). These results demonstrate that there might...

  10. Models of oil spill dispersion stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarized the theory of oil-in-water emulsion stability resulting in the resurfacing of oil spill dispersion. Since most emulsions are unstable, they will break down into their constituent parts because of the many forces and processes that act on them. These include gravitational forces; surfactant interchange with water and the subsequent surfactant loss to the water column; creaming; coalescence; flocculation; Ostwald ripening; and sedimentation. Gravitational separation is the most important force that contributes to the resurfacing of oil droplets from an oil-in-water emulsion. The paper presented a newly developed model that used 4 basic processes. Initial dispersion was an input, then the dispersion was distributed over the mixing depth, as predicted by the wave height. The droplets then rise to the surface according to Stokes' law. Oil on the surface from the rising oil and undispersed oil is redispersed. The droplets in the water column are subject to coalescence as governed by the Smoluchowski equation. The dispersion in the water column therefore decreases at an exponential rate with dispersion half-lives ranging from 120 to 250 minutes. Over 200 runs were performed using variations of the models. The study showed that the most important factor is the effectiveness of the initial dispersion and the the redispersion. Increased sea energy was found to increase the amount of coalescence that occurs, resulting in an increase in resurfacing. However, increased turbulence also caused redispersion, offsetting the effect of the recoalescence slightly. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  11. Fish Oil Microencapsulation as Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fortification Material for Cream of Crab Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiara Putri Pramesti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in improvement of intelligent and health of human. Microencapsulation of fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids is an effort to maintain flavor, aroma, stability, and also to successfully transfer bioactive component from the fish oil as fortification material for foods or medicines. Improvement of instant crab cream soup enriched with fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acid has never been conducted before. The purpose of this research was to improve microencapsulation method for fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids as fortification material for instant cream of crab soup. Microencapsulation methods in this research are homogenization and spray drying. The results showed that the best microcapsule was obtained from homogenization treatment for 10 minutes with efficiency of 90.41±0.64%. The shape of the obtained microcapsule was spherical with average size of 6.52 μm, with induction time up to 26.09±0.01 hours. The best cream of crab soup formula was at fish oil microcapsule concentration of 3.30%, with 8.19% daily value of omega-3, inclusion 11.32% of EPA and DHA at serving size of 17.56 gram.

  12. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  13. Stabilization of Model Crude Oil Emulsion using Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an ongoing research into the stability of oil-field emulsions, model oil samples have been utilized to probe the effects of asphaltene interactions on crude oil/water emulsion stability. Asphaltenes were precipitated from treated Ondo State oil sand bitumen with n-hexane in a 40:1 solvent to bitumen ratio which was ...

  14. Comparison between fish and linseed oils administered orally for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two sources of omega 3 and 6, fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO), orally administered, alone or in combination, for treating experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Seven animals ...

  15. Lipophilized phenolics as antioxidants in fish oil enriched food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Food products containing long chain omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation, which causes undesirable flavors and loss of health beneficial fatty acids. Many omega-3 enriched food products on the market are oil-in-water emulsions. According to the so called “polar paradox”, polar compounds...... hypothesis is that lipophilization of such polar phenolic compounds may improve their efficacy in fish oil enriched food systems. Our study aimed at evaluating rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid and their esters as antioxidants in o/w emulsion model system and milk enriched with fish oil. Moreover, the effect...

  16. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Postresistance Exercise Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Grant M; Gann, Joshua J; Huber, Stefan R; Andre, Thomas L; La Bounty, Paul M; Bowden, Rodney G; Gordon, Paul M; Grandjean, Peter W

    2016-07-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fish oil supplementation on the magnitude and time-course of postresistance exercise muscle soreness. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Nonresistance trained females were randomized into one of two groups: fish oil supplementation (6 g/day; 5:1 eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid (EPA:DHA)) or placebo (6 g/day corn/soy oil). After consuming the supplements for one week, participants underwent a single bout of resistance exercise consisting of 10 sets to failure of elbow flexion and leg extension machines. Muscle soreness was measured daily over the next week via grounded visual analog scale while participants continued to consume their assigned supplement. At 48 hours and one week postexercise, soreness during functional movements and limb circumferences were measured. The fish oil group perceived less static and functional muscle soreness than placebo, although the differences were not statistically significant. Effect sizes for resistance exercise-induced static and functional soreness responses were 33 to 42% lower in fish oil versus placebo without changes in upper arm and thigh circumferences. Supplementing the diet with 6 g per day of fish oil may alleviate muscle soreness experienced after resistance training in young untrained females.

  17. Oxidative flavour deterioration of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Frankel, E.N.

    2003-01-01

    -% of n-3 fatty acids) and one with cod liver oil (26 wt-% of n-3 fatty acids). The effect of added calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) on oxidation was also investigated. Emulsions based on cod liver oil with a slightly elevated peroxide value (1.5 meq/kg) oxidised significantly faster......The oxidative deterioration of milk emulsions supplemented with 1.5 wt-% fish oil was investigated by sensory evaluation and by determining the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products after cold storage. Two types of milk emulsions were produced, one with a highly unsaturated tuna oil (38 wt...... than the tuna oil emulsions, having a lower initial peroxide value (0.1 meq/kg). In the tuna oil emulsions the fishy off-flavour could not be detected throughout the storage period. Addition of 5-50 ppm EDTA significantly reduced the development of volatile oxidation products in the cod liver oil...

  18. Nutritional value of micro-encapsulated fish oils in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Annemette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1996-01-01

    The nutritional value of a micro-encapsulated fish oil product has been investigated. Three groups of 10 male Wistar rats each were fed dietscontaining 20% (w/w) of fat, and only the type and form of the fat added was different. In the test groups 5% (w/w) of fish oil either as such or in amicro......-encapsulated form was incorporated in the diets. The remaining fat was lard supplemented with corn oil to a dietary content of linoleic acid at10% (w/w). The control group received lard and corn oil only. A mixture similar to the dry matter in the micro-encapsulated product was alsoadded to the diets not containing...... of vitamin E in plasma while the content of vitamin E in the liver was unchanged. Overall, fishoil and micro-encapsulated fish oil resulted in the same fatty acid pattern in the major lipid classes and the same concentrations of liver and plasmalipids. Furthermore, supplementation of fish oil or micro-encapsulated...

  19. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  20. Investigation of carrier oil stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The polyunsaturated carrier oil (flaxseed oil) is used as a stabilizing agent for iron oxide nanoparticles. Kirby Bauer method was used to investigate the antibiotic sensitivity of carrier oil stabilized and uncoated SPIONs at 10 and 20 μg/L on Gram-positive ...

  1. Integrated optimization of fish oil microencapsulation process by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mobli, Hossien; Madadlou, Ashkan; Rafiee, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    An integrated approach through coupling response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) was applied to optimize the spray dryer operational condition for production of fish oil microcapsules. The inlet drying air temperature, aspirator rate, and peristaltic pump rate were independent and encapsulation efficiency (EE) and exergy efficiency were dependent variables. RSM was applied to establish the relationship between the independent and dependent variables followed by integrating the developed models using three mathematical approaches and measure the fitness value of GA. Consequently, the optimal drying condition for microencapsulation of fish oil was: inlet drying air temperature = 177.23°C, aspirator rate = 63.93%, and peristaltic pump rate = 14.04% yielding exergy efficiency of 8.10% and EE of 79.14%. The results of confirmation experiments for selected drying condition proved the capability of utilized approach for determination of sustainable and qualified process in fish oil microencapsulation by spray drying.

  2. Hepatic Regeneration and Reno-Protection by Fish oil, Nigella sativa Oil and Combined Fish Oil/Nigella sativa Volatiles in CCl4 Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okbi, Sahar Y; Mohamed, Doha A; Hamed, Thanaa E; Edris, Amr E; Fouda, Karem

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of fish oil, crude Nigella sative oil and combined fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil as hepato-regenerative and renal protective supplements. The oils were administered as emulsions to rat model with liver injury induced by CCl 4 . Plasma activities of transaminases (AST and ALT) were evaluated as liver function indicators, while plasma creatinine and urea and creatinine clearance were determined as markers of kidney function. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were estimated to assess the exposure to oxidative stress and subsequent inflammation. Liver fat was extracted and their fatty acids´ methyl esters were determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that plasma activities of AST and ALT were significantly higher in CCl 4 control group compared to control healthy group. Plasma levels of creatinine and urea increased significantly in CCl 4 control, while creatinine clearance was reduced significantly in the same group. All rat treated groups given the three oil emulsions showed improvement in liver function pointing to the initiation of liver regeneration. The combination of fish oil/Nigella sative volatiles showed the most promising regenerative activity. Oxidative stress and inflammation which were increased significantly in CCl 4 control group showed improvement on administration of the three different oil emulsions. Fatty acids methyl ester of liver fat revealed that rats treated with fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil presented the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids (45.52% ± 0.81) while fish oil showed the highest saturated fatty acids (53.28% ± 1.68). Conclusion; Oral administration of oil emulsions of native fish oil, Nigella sative crude oil and combined fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil reduced liver and kidney injury in rat model of CCl 4 through exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Fish oil

  3. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  4. Technical Suitability and Static Stability of Sungkur Fishing Boats for Fish and Shrimp Catching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmilyansari; Rosadi, E.; Iriansyah

    2017-10-01

    Sungkur fishing gear is operated actively on one the side of fishing boat, which requires technical suitability and fishing gear stability to ensure success in fish catching. This is a case study which aimed to analyze some technical issues related to the boat, boat’s hydrostatic parameters, and the boat’s stability. The data were collected though observation, measuring the boat to obtain the offset table. The data were analyzed numerically and descriptively. The data were processed with technical formula, Microsoft Office’s Excel software, graphic display, minitab, statistical data processing, and maxsurf program. The research results showed that: (1) the sungkur fishing boat dimensional ratio L/B (6.47 - 7.00); L/D (10.90 - 11.20) and B/D (1.60 - 1.668) is within the range value of Indonesian fishing boats suitable to operate the fishing gear by towing or dragging. However, during fish catching operation, there have been problems in a hydrodynamic force due to the fishing gear movement, which affect the fish catching efficiency. (2) The boat’s coefficient of fineness is in the fine type shape; the displacement on each waterline has increased; the loads of the boat are getting larger following the increase of waterline from one to five; this is also shown from the increasing midship area value. Ton per centimeter immersion to change wl 1 by 1 cm needs 0.04 tons of weight. (3) Sungkur fishing boat have a good static stability, which is proven by the positive value of angle of maximum GZ by 79.1 - 83.6. In other words, the boat has the ability to return to its original position after tilting; however, stability dynamics happens because fishing gear operation are located on just one side of boat.

  5. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsdottir, I.; Tomasson, H.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Gisladottir, E.; Kiely, M.; Parra, M.D.; Bandarra, N.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Martinez, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were

  6. Effect of fish oil encapsulates incorporation on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumari, A; Janarthanan, G; Chouksey, M K; Venkateshwarlu, G

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been focused on the various health benefits apparently associated with consumption of fish oil. The incorporation of fish oils in food products is becoming increasingly widespread and a large variety of products is being marketed. However, the use of fish oil as functional nutritional ingredients in foods has been limited by its oxidative susceptibility. In the present study, attempts were made to develop fish oil fortified cookies as healthy snack foods by incorporating fish oil microencapsulate. Microencapsulation of fish oil was done by spray drying. Commercially available milk was used to form micro sized complexes with fish oil. Fish gelatin/maltodextrin were used as a wall material for encapsulation. Fish oil was added in three forms (fish oil as such, fish oil-in-water emulsion and fish oil microencapsulate) for the preparation of cookies. Cookies prepared without incorporating fish oil was served as control. The physical, chemical and sensory attributes of cookies were evaluated. Encapsulation significantly (P cookies. The sensory evaluation of cookies showed significant (P cookies through emulsification and microencapsulation which may increase the intake of omega-3 fatty acids for nutritional benefits.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Crude Oil Developmental Toxicity in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P

    2017-07-01

    With major oil spills in Korea, the United States, and China in the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of studies characterizing the developmental toxicity of crude oil and its associated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The use of model fish species with associated tools for genetic manipulation, combined with high throughput genomics techniques in nonmodel fish species, has led to significant advances in understanding the cellular and molecular bases of functional and morphological defects arising from embryonic exposure to crude oil. Following from the identification of the developing heart as the primary target of crude oil developmental toxicity, studies on individual PACs have revealed a diversity of cardiotoxic mechanisms. For some PACs that are strong agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), defects in heart development arise in an AHR-dependent manner, which has been shown for potent organochlorine agonists, such as dioxins. However, crude oil contains a much larger fraction of compounds that have been found to interfere directly with cardiomyocyte physiology in an AHR-independent manner. By comparing the cellular and molecular responses to AHR-independent and AHR-dependent toxicity, this review focuses on new insights into heart-specific pathways underlying both acute and secondary adverse outcomes to crude oil exposure during fish development.

  8. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... oil or fish oil as the only dietary fat deposited more fat in breast tissue compared with other groups (P < ... lipid analysis. Lipids content of liver, breast and thigh tissues were measured by the method of Folch et al. (1957). The serum lipoprotein fractions were ..... Effects of dietary fatty acids on blood pressure:.

  9. Natural antioxidants in the stability of ray liver oil

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-García, Gerardo; Gámez-Meza, Nohemí; Medina-Juárez, Luis Angel; Ortega-García, Jesús; Cota-Quiñones, Elizabeth; Ramirez-Suarez, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants on oxidative stability of ray ( Rhinoptera bonasus) liver oil was evaluated. Different concentrations of rosemary extract, α-tocopherol, and caffeic acid (w/w) were added to the oil. Afterwards, concentration of each antioxidant that gave the highest stability was used in an accelerated stability test (Schaal method). The protective effect was established by the retention in the oil of fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahe...

  10. High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Fjære, Even

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high...... metabolic effects of fish oil by demonstrating that high-GI carbohydrates attenuate the antiobesity effects of fish oil....

  11. Effect of citronella essential oil fractions as oil phase on emulsion stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiyanti, Melati; Meliana, Yenny; Agustian, Egi

    2017-11-01

    The emulsion system consists of water, oil and surfactant. In order to create stable emulsion system, the composition and formulation between water phase, surfactant and oil phase are very important. Essential oil such as citronella oil has been known as active ingredient which has ability as insect repellent. This research studied the effect of citronella oil and its fraction as oil phase on emulsion stability. The cycle stability test was conducted to check the emulsion stability and it was monitored by pH, density, viscosity, particle size, refractive index, zeta potential, physical appearance and FTIR for 4 weeks. Citronellal fraction has better stability compared to citronella oil and rhodinol fraction with slight change of physical and chemical properties before and after the cycle stability test. However, it is need further study to enhance the stability of the emulsion stability for this formulation.

  12. Impact of the type of emulsifier on the physicochemical characteristics of the prepared fish oil-loaded microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Judeh, Zaher M A

    2017-06-01

    Fish oil microcapsules were successfully prepared from fish oil-in-water emulsions using chitosan as shell material and anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), sodium cholate (cholate), and sodium deoxycholate (DOC) as emulsifiers. The type of emulsifier influenced the physicochemical characteristics of the prepared microcapsules to different extents. The microcapsules formed with DOC showed the least mean effective diameter (MED) of 500 nm. Emulsion formed with DOC exhibited the smallest MED of 100 nm. The emulsions showed negative zeta potential values which became positive after encapsulation with chitosan. The surfactants showed little influence on thermal stability. Microcapsule suspensions showed creaming over storage. Fish oil at higher loading in SDS microcapsules showed higher primary and secondary oxidation. All microcapsules showed sustained release but the values varied depending upon the surfactants. The emulsion and microcapsules formed with DOC showed better morphology and stability despite its lower loading and encapsulation efficiency.

  13. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( Preplacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  14. Effect of lipophilization of dihydrocaffeic acid on its antioxidative properties in fish oil enriched emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; de Diego, Sara; Petersen, Lone Kristine

    oxidation than PUFAs from vegetable oils due to their highly polyunsaturated nature, it is necessary to develop methods to protect these PUFAs. Many food systems are emulsions. Due to the so-called polar paradox phenomenon, hydrophilic antioxidants may in many cases be better antioxidants in bulk oil than...... lipophilic compounds, whereas lipophilic antioxidants are more efficient than hydrophilic antioxidants in emulsions. This phenomenon has been explained by the affinity of the compounds towards the different phases in bulk oil and emulsions. The hydrophilic character of many naturally occurring antioxidants...... that generally, lipophilized dihydrocaffeic acid and rutin increased the oxidative stability of o/w emulsions and fish oil enriched milk compared with their parent compound. The results supported a cut-off effect in relation to the acyl chain length esterified to the phenolic compound. Octyl dihydrocaffeate (C8...

  15. Fish oil supplementation modulates immune function in healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Lauritzen, L.; Kjaer, T.M.R.

    2007-01-01

    (n-3) PUFA influence immune function in adults and may also affect immune maturation during development. This randomized trial is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate whether fish oil supplementation in late infancy modifies immune responses. The study was a 2 x 2 intervention in 64 health...

  16. Fish oil supplementation improves docosahexaenoic acid status of malnourished infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Oelen, EA; Seerat, E; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Aim-To investigate whether the low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of malnourished, mostly breast fed, Pakistani children can be improved by fish oil (FO) supplementation. Methods-Ten malnourished children (aged 8-30 months) received 500 mg FO daily for nine weeks. The supplement contained 62.8

  17. Supercritical fluid chromatography of fish, shark and seal oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Jensen, Christina; Mollerup, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Various natural and treated fish, shark liver and seal oils have been analyzed by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using a non-polar capillary column. The lipids are separated according to molecular mass. The lipid groups found included free fatty acids, cholesterol, squalene, vitamins, wax...

  18. Tocopherol And Fish Oil On In Vivo Paraquat Induced Oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential protective role of α-tocopherol and fish oil against oxidative damage induced by paraquat were investigated. Forty male albino rats with average body weight of 100-120 gm were housed in 8 groups of 5 rats each. The first group served as control and injected with saline, group 2 was injected with a single dose ...

  19. Comparing Nigella sativa Oil and Fish Oil in Treatment of Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza; Khalili, Ali; Rokhafrooz, Darioush

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the autoimmune skin diseases that destroy the melanocytes of the skin. Moreover, its prevalence varies in different countries and regions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Nigella sativa and fish oil on vitiligo lesions of the patients referred to a dermatology clinic. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double blind clinical trial was conducted in the dermatology clinic of the Imam Khomeini Hospital Ahvaz, Iran, from June to December 2011. We used a randomized simple sampling. From 96 patients with vitiligo, 52 eligible patients were selected and allocated to two groups with equal size. The study medications were applied twice a day by patients on their lesions. After six months, the improvement rate of lesions was assessed by the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI). Data were analyzed using SPSS v. 15; P value Nigella sativa and from 4.98 to 4.62 in those using topical fish oil. Most of the percent improvement observed in upper extremities, trunk, head, and neck of those who received Nigella sativa and head, neck, trunk, and feet of those who received fish oil. No adverse effect was reported by the patients. Conclusions: Nigella sativa oil and fish oil were effective in reduction the size of patient’s lesions; however, Nigella sativa was more effective in comparison to the fish oil. Therefore, using Nigella sativa with the major drugs in the treatment of vitiligo is recommended. PMID:25068060

  20. Differential effects of krill oil and fish oil on the hepatic transcriptome in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eBurri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, specifically the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3, is known to have beneficial health effects including improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis and modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of two different sources of ω-3 PUFAs, we performed gene expression profiling in the liver of mice fed diets supplemented with either fish oil or krill oil. We found that ω-3 PUFA supplements derived from a phospholipid krill fraction (krill oil downregulated the activity of pathways involved in hepatic glucose production as well as lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The data also suggested that krill oil-supplementation increases the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Surprisingly, an equimolar dose of EPA and DHA derived from fish oil modulated fewer pathways than a krill oil-supplemented diet and did not modulate key metabolic pathways regulated by krill oil, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, fish oil upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite effect of krill supplementation. Neither diet elicited changes in plasma levels of lipids, glucose or insulin, probably because the mice used in this study were young and were fed a low fat diet. Further studies of krill oil supplementation using animal models of metabolic disorders and/or diets with a higher level of fat may be required to observe these effects.

  1. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono

    2017-02-01

    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  2. Stability of traditionally processed vegetable oils and their blends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the stability of traditionally processed palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and sesame oil (SSO) and their blends as function of storage conditions by analysing their physicochemical properties which included acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value and ...

  3. Enzymatic interesterification of vegetable oil/ fish oil blend for margarine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    In margarine formulation, oils of different melting points are blended to make a product that is spreadable at room temperature. Usually, the blend would be subjected to modification process, either by interesterification (chemical or enzymatic) or partial hydrogenation in order to achieve...... the desired properties. In this study, palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and fish oil (FO) are blended and modified by enzymatic interesterification. PS functioned as the hard stock, PKO as the soft oil and FO as a source for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The purpose...

  4. Fish oil replacement by soybean oil in the diet of fat snook juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Bendhack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate fish oil replacement by soybean oil in diets, as for the effects on the performance and body composition of juveniles of fat snook (Centropomus parallelus. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with three treatments (lipid sources and six replicates, in a 60-day period. Fat snook juveniles (24.17±0.28g were distributed in 18 experimental tanks of 200 L each, equipped with aeration and heating systems, under continuous water renovation (800% per day. Three isoproteic (44% CP and isoenergetic (4,635 kcal CE kg-1 diets were formulated to comprise three replacement rates (0, 50, and 100% of fish oil by soybean oil. Biometric analyses were done to evaluate fish performance, and two entire specimens from each replicate were used for body composition analyses. The zootechnical indices of weight gain (38.68±5.41 g, feed conversion (1.38±0.10, and specific growth at 1.70±0.18% weight gain per day were considered satisfactory. Lipid source substitution does not affect the performance and body composition of fat snook juveniles, which suggests that soybean oil can replace fish oil in diet formulation.

  5. Comparative Effect of Dietary Soybean Oil, Fish Oil, and Coconut Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X F; Liu, S; Tong, J M

    2018-04-14

    Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments and fed 1of 3 diets containing 8% soybean oil, fish oil, or coconut oil from 28 to 47 wk of age to investigate comparative effect of dietary soybean oil, fish oil, and coconut oil on the performance, egg quality and blood malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and uric acid (UA). Hens fed fish oil showed poor performance compared with soybean oil or coconut oil, and especially egg weight throughout the trial was significantly and consistently decreased (P oil. Unexpectedly, shell reflectivity throughout the majority of the trial was consistently and significantly higher (P oil than that when fed soybean oil or coconut oil. Dietary treatments affected (P oil treatment was higher (P coconut oil group. Albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk color were influenced by dietary treatments only at 1 or 2 time points. However, average albumen height and Haugh unit in fish oil treatment were higher (P oil or coconut oil treatments and average yolk color in coconut oil treatment was higher (P oil group. Serum MDA, AST and UA concentrations were increased (P oil during the majority of the first 2 mo of the trial. These data suggested that the inclusion of fish oil into feed may reduce the performance of laying hens, especially the egg weight, decrease the intensity of egg brown color and increase blood MDA, AST and UA levels compared with soybean oil or coconut oil. As a result, hens fed fish oil may lay smaller, longer and lighter-brown eggs whereas those fed coconut oil produce blunter and darker-brown eggs relative to soybean oil.

  6. Experimental Investigations on Diesel engine using Methyl esters of Jatropha oil and fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, A.; Jayaprabakar, J.; Dude Williams, Richard

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to use fish oil methyl ester (FME) and Jatropha oil methyl ester (JME) as a substitute for diesel in compression ignition engine. Experiments were conducted when the engine was fuelled with Diesel, Fish oil methyl ester and Jatropha oil methyl ester. The experiment covered a range of loads. An AVL smoke meter was used to measure the smoke density in HSU (Hatridge Smoke Unit). The exhaust emissions were measured using exhaust gas analyzer. High volume sampler was employed to measure the particulate matter in exhaust. The performance of the engine was evaluated in terms of brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency. The combustion characteristics of the engine were studied in terms of cylinder pressure with respect to crank angle. The emissions of the engine were studied in terms of concentration of CO, NOx, particulate matter and smoke density. The results obtained for Fish oil methyl ester, Jatropha oil methyl ester, were compared with the results of diesel. Bio-diesel, which can be used as an alternate diesel fuel, is made from vegetable oil and animal fats. It is renewable, non-toxic and possesses low emission profiles.

  7. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Moldal, Torfinn; Løkka, Guro; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Austbø, Lars; Torstensen, Bente E; Rosenlund, Grethe; Dale, Ole Bendik; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with incr...

  8. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  9. Stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste and their use as colorant in fish sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2010-01-01

    The stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste using organic solvents and vegetable oils as affected by antioxidants and pigment carriers was evaluated during storage under different conditions. Solvent extracted carotenoid incorporated into alginate and starch as carriers was stored in metallised polyester and polypropylene pouches. Oil extracted carotenoids were stored in transparent and amber bottles. Also the use of recovered pigments as colorants in fish sausage was evaluated. Antioxidants, packaging material and storage period had a significant effect (p≤0.001) on the reduction of carotenoid content, while type of carrier had marginal effect (p≥0.05) on solvent extracted carotenoids during storage. Carotenoid content in pigmented oil was significantly affected by antioxidants (p≤0.001), packaging material (p≤0.05) and storage period (p≤0.001). Addition of carotenoid to the sausage enhanced the sensory colour, flavour and overall quality score of sausage and the added carotenoid was stable during processing.

  10. Microencapsulation of fish oil using supercritical antisolvent process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Tamzeedul Karim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the encapsulation process, a newly supercritical antisolvent process was developed to encapsulate fish oil using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a polymer. Three factors, namely, temperature, pressure, and feed emulsion rate were optimized using response surface methodology. The suitability of the model for predicting the optimum response value was evaluated at the conditions of temperature at 60°C, pressure at 150 bar, and feed rate at 1.36 mL/min. At the optimum conditions, particle size of 58.35 μm was obtained. The surface morphology of the micronized fish oil was also evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy where it showed that particles formed spherical structures with no internal voids. Moreover, in vitro release of oil showed that there are significant differences of release percentage of oil between the formulations and the results proved that there was a significant decrease in the in vitro release of oil from the powder when the polymer concentration was high.

  11. Microencapsulation of fish oil using supercritical antisolvent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Fahim Tamzeedul; Ghafoor, Kashif; Ferdosh, Sahena; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Ali, Eaqub; Yunus, Kamaruzzaman Bin; Hamed, Mir Hoseini; Islam, Ashraful; Asif, Mohammad; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam

    2017-07-01

    In order to improve the encapsulation process, a newly supercritical antisolvent process was developed to encapsulate fish oil using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a polymer. Three factors, namely, temperature, pressure, and feed emulsion rate were optimized using response surface methodology. The suitability of the model for predicting the optimum response value was evaluated at the conditions of temperature at 60°C, pressure at 150 bar, and feed rate at 1.36 mL/min. At the optimum conditions, particle size of 58.35 μm was obtained. The surface morphology of the micronized fish oil was also evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy where it showed that particles formed spherical structures with no internal voids. Moreover, in vitro release of oil showed that there are significant differences of release percentage of oil between the formulations and the results proved that there was a significant decrease in the in vitro release of oil from the powder when the polymer concentration was high. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Alternative Methods of Frying and Antioxidant Stability in Soybean Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Probir Kumar Ghosh; Dipan Chatterjee; Paramita Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    A study on shallow and parfrying in soybean oil as alternatives to deep frying and evaluation of stability of a formulated antioxidant administered to the oil was conducted. Potato wedges were deep, shallow and parfried in soybean oil for optimized time and temperature. A citric acid based antioxidant using BHT was formulated and administered to the oils before frying. The performance of antioxidant was assessed by studying its physicochemical properties and DPPH radical scavenging activity w...

  13. Enrichment of spreadable fats with polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 using fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanowski, W; Swiderski, F; Lis, E; Berger, S

    2001-11-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-3 series, especially very long chain--eicosapenta- and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA, DHA)--exert a strongly desirable influence on health. However, their intake with the western-style diet is usually too low which favours development of many diseases (CVD, cancers, allergies, etc.). Nowadays elevation of EPA and DHA intake is commonly recommended, but almost the only dietary source of them is seafoods, especially fish. A new way to increase the intake of long-chain omega-3 without radical changes of eating patterns is enrichment of regularly consumed foods with unhydrogenated fish oil. The aim of this study was to establish sensory and nutritionally acceptable enrichment level of low-calorie spreadable fats (soft margarine and mix of butter and vegetable oil) with EPA and DHA by addition of fish oil preparations (ROPUFA--30% EPA, DHA and MARITEX--10%), and evaluation of the stability of enriched spreads during storage (sensory and chemical). It was shown that tested spreadable fats might be enriched up to 1% EPA, DHA (i.e. 3% ROPUFA, 8% MARITEX), and that this had no significant influence on sensory acceptability. Both used fish oils which exerted similar influence on the quality of fats. An enriched mix of butter and vegetable oil and margarine may be stored up to 3 and 6 weeks respectively without significant decrease of quality. Peroxide value and acid numbers were not much affected by enrichment and storage. Daily portion (25-30 g/day) of spreadable fats enriched on the level established in the study may provide 0.2-0.3 g EPA, DHA, significantly increasing the amount of long-chain omega-3 in the diet above those eaten normally.

  14. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  15. Fish oil supplementation modulates immune function in healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Lauritzen, L.; Kjaer, T.M.R.

    2007-01-01

    (n-3) PUFA influence immune function in adults and may also affect immune maturation during development. This randomized trial is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate whether fish oil supplementation in late infancy modifies immune responses. The study was a 2 x 2 intervention in 64 healthy...... Danish infants, who received cow's milk or infant formula alone or with fish oil (FO) (3.4 +/- 1.1 mL/d) from 9 to 12 mo of age. Before and after the intervention, fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes, plasma IgE, C-reactive protein, and soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations were measured. TNF......-alpha, INF-gamma, and IL-10 concentrations in whole-blood cultures, stimulated for 22 h with LPS+phytohema-glutinin (PHA) or Lactobacillus paracasei, were also determined. IgA was measured in feces when infants were 10 mo of age. FO supplementation effectively raised erythrocyte (n-3) PUFA (P

  16. Nutritional value of various ray fish liver oils to the pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Velazquez, Martin; González-Félix, Mayra L; Navarro-García, Gerardo; Valenzuela-Escalante, Erasmo

    2008-11-01

    A 32-day comparative feeding trial was performed to evaluate the nutritional value of four different ray fish liver oils to the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Four feeds were prepared with liver oil extracted from Dasyatis brevis, Rhinoptera steindachneri, Aetobatus narinari, and R. bonasus. A control feed was prepared with Menhaden fish oil. Ray fish liver oils were mainly composed of poly- and highly unsaturated fatty acids and contained levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 comparable in magnitude to those of Menhaden fish oil, except for A. narinari liver oil, which had moderately low concentrations of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 but showed a particularly high level of 20:4n-6, more than six times greater than that of Menhaden fish oil. Dietary fatty acids significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle tissue, e.g., the diet with Menhaden fish oil elicited significantly higher shrimp muscle DHA level than diets with oil from D. brevis, and A. narinari, but not than diets with oil from R. steindachneri and R. bonasus. In spite of these differences, all four ray fish liver oils evaluated were as efficient in promoting growth and survival of L. vannamei as Menhaden fish oil, an ingredient known for its adequate nutritional quality to shrimp and fish. This study demonstrated one of the many possible applications of a locally-available resource that is currently being wasted.

  17. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayef Golandam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3 relative to omega-6 (n-6 fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. Methods 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflammatory lesion counts, and colorimetry. Findings There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne. Conclusion There is some evidence that fish oil supplementation is associated with an improvement in overall acne severity, especially for individuals with moderate to severe acne. Divergent responses to fish oil in our pilot study indicates that dietary and supplemental lipids are worthy of further investigation in acne.

  18. Purification of Sardine Fish Oil Through Degumming and Neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bija

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sardine fish oil can be improved by purification method through the step of degumming and neutralization. The aimed of this this study was analysis characteristic of crude sardin fish oil and determined the best method of purification. Degumming was carried out using 30% water and salt at concentration 5%, 8%, 10% b/v. Neutralization process using  NaOH with 16°Be and bleaching using 5% Magnesol XL. All step of refining was done at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. The result of analysis showed that sardine crude fish oil had 24.86% of palmitic acid as the highest fatty acid, heavy metal was not detected,dencity was 0.92 g/cm3 and viscocity was 51 cPs. The best treatment of purification method was degumming using 5% NaCl at 50°C with rendement 65.37±0.72%; free fatty acid (FFA 0.38±0.03%; peroxide (PV 1.07±0.12 mEq/kg; anisidine (p-AnV 15.18±0.16 mEq/kg; total oxidation value (TOTOX 17.31±0.39 mEq/kg; and clarity was 75.09± 1.20%.

  19. Mackerel biodiesel production from the wastewater containing fish oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.P.; Huang, H.M.; Lin, Y.F.; Huang, W.D.; Huang, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine fish such as mackerel are important for coastal fisheries in Taiwan. Nearly 60,000 tons of mackerel are produced in Suao, I-lan, Taiwan every year. In this study, oil from the discarded parts of mackerel fish contained in wastewater stream were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The major fuel properties of MB (mackerel biodiesel), including the iodine value, dynamic viscosity, flash point, and heat value, were determined and compared with sunflower seed oil methyl ester (SFM), JCB (Jatropha curcas biodiesel), and premium diesel (D). MB had a higher iodine value, dynamic viscosity, density, and flash point, but a lower heat value, than did D. MB was also used as fuel in a regular diesel engine to verify its emission characteristics. The MB fuel used for exhaust emission test included pure MB (MB100) and a 20% MB blend with premium diesel (MB20). The exhaust emission of MB was also compared with the exhaust emissions of D and JCB. The results showed that MB20 provided a significant reduction in NO, NO x , and SO 2 emissions under varied engine loads, and required no engine modification. - Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from wastewater containing mackerel fish oil. • Mackerel biodiesel is compared with Jatropha biodiesel and sunflower seed biodiesel. • MBE (mackerel biodiesel) was found to contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids. • Mackerel biodiesel, diesel, and Jatropha biodiesel emissions are compared

  20. Effect of dietary fish oil and corn oil on blood biochemical factors in diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shariati

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potential role of omega – 3 (ω-3 and omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids on blood biochemical factors are in interest and controversy. Some experiences showed that omega – 3 (ω-3 and omega-6 (ω-6 fatty acids have a potential effect on triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels in diabetes mellitus. Methods: Male rats were divided into four groups (one normal group and three diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes was done by streptozotocin [50mg/kg, s.c. (STZ]. In diabetic groups, one group was Control, received STZ alone, and the other diabetic groups were fed with fish oil or corn oil for 8 weeks after 4 weeks of induction of diabetes. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- choleserol and HDL-cholesterol were measured at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Results: Fish oil and corn oil diets had an inhibitory effect on increased plasma glucose in diabetic rat by 46.8% and 40.7%, respectively. Diabetic rats in the control group demonstrated increased plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels, but plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly decreased and HDL-cholesterol level was increased by both diets in interventional groups. Conclusion: Corn oil and fish oil supplementation have a role on plasma glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. To understand the functional mechanisms of these diets, further studies remain to be accomplished.

  1. Protection of fish oil from oxidation by microencapsulation using freeze-drying techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzelmann, K.; Franke, K.; Jensen, Benny

    2000-01-01

    of fish oil with respect to oxidation, it has to be protected from oxygen and light. The investigations presented demonstrate the microencapsulation of fish oil using freeze-drying techniques. Emulsions containing 10% fish oil, 10% sodium caseinate, 10% carbohydrate and 70% water were frozen using......(N-3)-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Cold sea water plankton and plankton- consuming fish are known sources of (n-3)-PUFAs. Enriching normal food components with fish oil is a tool for increasing the intake of (n-3)-PUFAs. Due to the high sensitivity...

  2. Influence of stability of polymer surfactant on oil displacement mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Li, Chengliang; Pi, Yanming; Wu, Di; He, Ying; Geng, Liang

    2018-02-01

    At present, most of the oilfields of China have entered the late stage of high water-cut development, and three oil recovery technique has become the leading technology for improving oil recovery. With the improvement of three oil recovery techniques, the polymer surfactant flooding technology has been widely promoted in oil fields in recent years. But in the actual field experiment, it has been found that the polymer surfactant has chromatographic separation at the extraction end, which indicates that the property of the polymer surfactant has changed during the displacement process. At present, there was few literature about how the stability of polymer surfactant affects the oil displacement mechanism. This paper used HuaDing-I polymer surfactant to conduct a micro photolithography glass flooding experiment, and then compared the oil displacement law of polymer surfactant before and after static setting. Finally, the influence law of stability of polymer surfactant on the oil displacement mechanism is obtained by comprehensive analysis.

  3. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21. cm......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...... (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09. cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially...

  4. Characterization of Emulsions of Fish Oil and Water by Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Addition of fish oil to industrially prepared food products is attractive to the food industry because of the well-documented health effects of the omega 3 fatty acids in the fish oil [1]. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids including omega 3 fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation due...... to the many double bonds. Emulsions of fish oil in water are potential candidates for a delivery system of fish oil to food products. It has been suggested that oxidation of oil-in-water emulsions is initiated at the interface between oil and water. It has also been proposed that oxidation is to some extent...... is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, distribution, and ultimately to view the structure and thickness of the interface layer. A freeze-fractured surface viewed at low temperatures under the scanning electron microscope is a promising strategy to reveal variations...

  5. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Berasategi, I. (Izaskun); Barriuso, B. (Blanca); Ansorena, D. (Diana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0 h and after different times of heating process (180 °C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t = 0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t = 0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0 h (339.64; 228.27...

  6. Comparison of thermal stability of grape seed oil with virgin sesame oil

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh; Peyman; Fayegh Moulodi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heating causes extensive physical and chemical changes in oil and fats, which can change all physical and chemical characteristics and quality of oil during frying is so critical. This study was aimed to compare the thermal stability of virgin sesame oil and grape seed oil. Methods: The grape seed oil and virgin sesame oil were heated at 180 ° C for 8 hours. Every hour, a sample of the heated oils was taken to determine the changes in acid value, peroxide, anisidine and Totox. ...

  7. Comparison of thermal stability of grape seed oil with virgin sesame oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heating causes extensive physical and chemical changes in oil and fats, which can change all physical and chemical characteristics and quality of oil during frying is so critical. This study was aimed to compare the thermal stability of virgin sesame oil and grape seed oil. Methods: The grape seed oil and virgin sesame oil were heated at 180 ° C for 8 hours. Every hour, a sample of the heated oils was taken to determine the changes in acid value, peroxide, anisidine and Totox. Results: Heating the oil caused extensive chemical variations both oils. The acidity index increased over time (p<0.05, there were fluctuations inperoxide value, and anisidine and Totox values also increased during thermal processes (p<0.05. Conclusion: Grape seed oil showed more resistance to heat than sesame oil.

  8. Development of carbohydrate-based nano-microstructures loaded with fish oil by using electrohydrodynamic processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    2017-01-01

    attributed to a higher fish oil entrapment and to the location of the oil in large bead-structures with a reduced specific surface area. These results indicated the feasibility of producing omega-3 nanodelivery systems by encapsulating fish oil in pullulan nano-microfibers using electrospinning processing....

  9. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how......%) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...... levels of diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramides and arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipins compared with mice fed WD-FO. In addition, C57BL/6J mice were fed fish oil-enriched diets with different carbohydrate sources, and we observed that sucrose dose-dependently abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil...

  10. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  11. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldal, Torfinn; Løkka, Guro; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Austbø, Lars; Torstensen, Bente E; Rosenlund, Grethe; Dale, Ole Bendik; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Koppang, Erling Olaf

    2014-03-07

    Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with increased risk of colitis and colon cancer in rodents and humans, as well as lowered transcription levels of certain stress and antioxidant-related genes in Atlantic salmon.The aim of the present study was to investigate the intestinal health in Atlantic salmon fed with different vegetable oils as partial substitutes of fish oil in the diet. A feed trial lasting for 28 weeks included one reference diet containing fish oil as the sole lipid source and three diets where 80% of the fish oil was replaced by a plant oil blend with either olive oil, rapeseed oil or soybean oil as the main lipid source. These plant oils have intermediate or low n-3/n-6-ratios compared to fish oil having a high n-3/n-6-ratio. The protein and carbohydrate fractions were identical in all the feeds. Morphometric measurements showed significantly shorter folds in the mid intestine in all groups fed vegetable oils compared to the group fed fish oil. In the distal intestine, the complex folds were significantly shorter in the fish fed soybean oil compared to the fish fed rapeseed oil. Histological and immunohistochemical examination did not show clear difference in the degree of inflammation or proliferation of epithelial cells related to dietary groups, which was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR which revealed only moderate alterations in the mRNA transcript levels of selected immune-related genes. Shortened intestinal folds might be associated with reduced intestinal surface and impaired nutrient absorption and

  12. Fish oil in various doses or flax oil in pregnancy and timing of spontaneous delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, V.K.; Hansen, Harald S.; Østerdal, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    treatment. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort. Sample: A total of 3098 women allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Methods: The six intervention groups were offered fish oil capsules in doses of 0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.8 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid per......Objectives: To test the earlier suggested hypothesis that intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish oil may delay the timing of spontaneous delivery and to test if alpha-linolenic acid, provided as flax oil capsules, shows the same effect. Design: Randomised controlled trial including women...... day or 2.2 g of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) per day from week 17-27 of gestation until delivery. Main outcome measures: Timing of spontaneous delivery. Results: No differences in timing of spontaneous delivery was detected in the fish oil groups or the flax oil group, compared with the control group...

  13. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...... with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3...

  14. Stability of traditionally processed vegetable oils and their blends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajol.info/index.php/ijbcs http://indexmedicus.afro.who.int. Stability of traditionally processed vegetable oils and their blends under different storage conditions. Faustine N. NGASSAPA1, Tupeligwe R. MWAISAKA2 and Stephen S. NYANDORO1*.

  15. Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavor compounds in a fish oil enriched milk emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    Development of objectionable fishy off-flavors is an obstacle in the development of fish oil enriched foods. Only little is known about the sensory impact of specific volatile fish oil oxidation products in food emulsions. This study examined the volatiles profiles of fish oil enriched milk during......,4,7-decatrienal were identified in fish oil enriched milk emulsions with peroxide values 0.8 and 3.4 meq/kg, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on appearance of these decatrienals in food emulsions having. a relatively low peroxide value...

  16. Effects of extra virgin olive oil and fish oil on lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Danielle; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if extra virgin olive oil and fish oil have a synergistic effect on lipid and oxidative stress parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This intervention study included 102 patients (81 women and 21 men) with MetS (mean age 51.45 ± 8.27 y) from the ambulatory center of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Patients in the control group (CG) were instructed to maintain their usual diet; the second group (fish oil group [FO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids (10 capsules); the third group (extra virgin olive oil group [OO]) received 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil at lunch and dinner; and the fourth group (fish oil and extra virgin olive oil group [FOO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids and 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil. MetS related markers and oxidative stress were measured at baseline and after 90 d. Differences across treatment groups showed a statistically significant decrease (P olive oil have beneficial synergistic effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  18. Dose-titration effects of fish oil in osteoarthritic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, D; Allen, T A; Dodd, C E; Jewell, D E; Sixby, K A; Leventhal, P S; Hahn, K A

    2010-01-01

    Food supplemented with fish oil improves clinical signs and weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA). Determine whether increasing the amount of fish oil in food provides additional symptomatic improvements in OA. One hundred and seventy-seven client-owned dogs with stable chronic OA of the hip or stifle. Prospective, randomized clinical trial using pet dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive the baseline therapeutic food (0.8% eicosopentanoic acid [EPA] + docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or experimental foods containing approximately 2- and 3-fold higher EPA+DHA concentrations. Both veterinarians and owners were blinded as to which food the dog received. On days 0, 21, 45, and 90, serum fatty acid concentrations were measured and veterinarians assessed the severity of 5 clinical signs of OA. At the end of the study (day 90), veterinarians scored overall arthritic condition and progression of arthritis based on their clinical signs and an owner interview. Serum concentrations of EPA and DHA rose in parallel with food concentrations. For 2 of 5 clinical signs (lameness and weight bearing) and for overall arthritic condition and progression of arthritis, there was a significant improvement between the baseline and 3X EPA+DHA foods (P=.04, .03, .001, .0008, respectively) but not between the baseline and the 2X EPA+DHA foods. Increasing the amount of fish oil beyond that in the baseline food results in dose-dependent increases in serum EPA and DHA concentrations and modest improvements in the clinical signs of OA in pet dogs. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Fish and fish-liver oil consumption in adolescence and midlife and risk of CHD in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsdottir, Alfheidur; Torfadottir, Johanna E; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Aspelund, Thor; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2016-02-01

    To study the association of fish and fish-liver oil consumption across the lifespan with CHD later in life among Icelandic women, with special emphasis on the effects of consumption in adolescence. Prevalence association study. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of CHD according to fish or fish-liver oil exposure. Models were adjusted for age, education, concurrent diet and other known risk factors. The study was nested within the AGES-Reykjavik Study, conducted in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants were 3326 women aged 66-96 years, with available information on CHD status at entry to the study and information on fish and fish-liver oil consumption during midlife and adolescence. Dietary habits were assessed retrospectively using a validated FFQ. CHD was identified in 234 (7·9 %) women. Compared with women with no intake of fish-liver oil in adolescence or midlife, women who consumed fish-liver oil at least three times weekly in adolescence or in midlife had a decreased risk of CHD (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·85 and OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·50, 0·94, respectively). No associations were observed between fish intake (>2 portions/week v. ≤2 portions/week) in adolescence or midlife and CHD in this population with high fish intake. Fish-liver oil consumption, from early life, may reduce the risk of CHD in older women. Lifelong nutrition may be of importance in the prevention of CHD in older women.

  20. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2012-05-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0h and after different times of heating process (180°C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t=0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t=0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0h (339.64; 228.27mg/100g) and at 9h (270.44; 210.30mg/100g) of heating. TBARs was higher in olive oil after 3h, reaching the maximum values in both oils at 6h of heating treatment. Vitamin E was higher in olive oil (35.52 vs. 24.5mg/100g) and it disappeared earlier in avocado oil (at 4 vs. 5h). The stability of avocado oil was similar to that of olive oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  2. Thermal stability of Vernonia galamensis seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny M. Wamalwa

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical changes of refined vernonia oil-RVO (which naturally contains epoxidized triglycerides upon heating was evaluated and is reported in this manuscript. A boiling point range of 183 °C to 190 °C (at 760 mm Hg for the vernonia oil was obtained using the Siwolobboff's method. The oil changed its physical appearance and consistency in the course of the heating. A homogenous free-flowing beige-sand shade refined vernonia oil at room temperature (25 °C was transformed irreversibly to an intense-brown shade, becoming increasingly more viscous with increase in temperature, and ceasing to flow momentarily at 188 °C. On cooling to room temperature, the oil solidified into a brown rubber-like elastic material. The oil also exhibited a reduction in its oxirane content from 1.39 plus or minus 0.004 equivalent HBr kg-l at 25 °C to 0.542 plus or minus 0.002 equivalent HBr kg-l at 70 °C. This signifies a 61% drop in oxirane content for the 45 °C temperature rise. These findings point towards a thermally driven polymerization and/or decomposition of the refined vernonia oil (RVO.

  3. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    [1,2]; see figure 1. It is thus interesting to investigate the pure emulsions to gain knowledge about the oxidation without the effects of an external food matrix. It has been seen that some factors that influence the oxidation in pure emulsions are the type of emulsifier, the oil droplet size......Addition of fish oil to food products to improve nutritional quality by the addition of omega-3 fatty acids is attractive both to the consumers and the food industry for reasons such as health benefits and added product value. The long chain omega-3 fatty acids contain a large number of double...... bonds which causes the fish oil to be susceptible to oxidation. The shelf lives of fish oil enriched products are thus limited by fast oxidation rates of the fish oil which causes development of off flavours as well as degeneration of the beneficial health effects of the fish oil. At the present moment...

  4. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies) Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Dewita Dewita; Syahrul Syahrul; Desmelati Desmelati; Suardi Lukman

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookies)from Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patinfish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil usingspray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1), 40 : 60 (A2)and 60 : 40 (A3) for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s resultswas fortified into str...

  5. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies) Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Dewita; Syahrul; Desmelati

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookies) from Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patin fish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil using spray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1), 40 : 60 (A2) and 60 : 40 (A3) for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s results wa...

  6. Stability analysis of oil yield in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, M Y; Jalani, B S; Rajanaidu, N; Kushairi, A; Puteh, A; Latif, M A

    2012-10-04

    We evaluated 38 dura x pisifera (DP) oil palm progenies in four locations in Malaysia for genotype by environment interaction and genotypic stability studies. The DP progenies derived from crosses between pisifera palms of AVROS, Serdang S27B, Serdang 29/36, and Lever Cameroon were chosen to be the males' parent and Deli dura palms designated as females' parent. All the locations differed in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, and the soil types ranged from coastal clay to inland soils. The genotype by environment interaction and stability of the individual genotypes were analyzed for oil yield trait using several stability techniques. A genotype by environment interaction was detected for oil yield and it had a larger variance component than genotypic variance (σ(2)(gl)/σ(2)(g) = 139.7%). Genotype by environment interaction of oil yield was largely explained by a non-linear relationship between genotypic and environmental values. Overall assessment of individual genotypic stability showed that seven genotypes were highly stable and had consistent performance over the environments for the oil yield trait [total individual genotype stability scored more than 10 and mean oil yielded above the average of the environment (genotype means are more than 34.37 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1))]. These genotypes will be useful for oil palm breeding and tissue culture programs for developing high oil yielding planting materials with stable performance.

  7. Protein-Protein Multilayer Oil-in-Water Emulsions for the Microencapsulation of Flaxseed Oil: Effect of Whey and Fish Gelatin Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustier, Patrick; Achouri, Allaoua; Taherian, Ali R; Britten, Michel; Pelletier, Marylène; Sabik, Hassan; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Mondor, Martin

    2015-10-28

    The impact of whey protein isolate (WPI) and fish gelatin (FG) deposited sequentially at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.75% on the surface of primary oil-in-water emulsions containing 5% flaxseed oil stabilized with either 0.5% fish gelatin or whey protein, respectively, was investigated. The results revealed that the adsorption of WPI/FG or FG/WPI complexes to the emulsion interface led to the formation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions with different stabilities and different protection degrees of the flaxseed oil. Deposition of FG on the WPI primary emulsion increased the particle size (from 0.53 to 1.58 μm) and viscosity and decreased electronegativity (from -23.91 to -11.15 mV) of the complexes. Different trends were noted with the deposition of WPI on the FG primary emulsion, resulting in decreasing particle size and increasing electronegativity and viscosity to a lower extent. Due to the superior tension-active property of WPI, the amount of protein load in the WPI primary emulsion as well as in WPI/FG complex was significantly higher than the FG counterparts. A multilayer emulsion made with 0.5% WPI/0.75% FG exhibited the lowest oxidation among all of the multilayered emulsions tested (0.32 ppm of hexanal) after 21 days, likely due to the charge effect of FG that may prevent pro-oxidant metals to interact with the flaxseed oil.

  8. The influence of fish oil on neurological development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ouf, Noran M; Jan, Mohammed M

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil originates from fish tissue rich in omega-3 fatty acids. These include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Healthy individuals are advised to consume foods rich in fish oil at least twice a week. However, such intake varies depending on cultural or personal preference, and socio-economic status. Many families and patients with chronic neurological conditions consume supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids. We are frequently requested to give advice and recommendations on using such agents to help improve neurological developmental and cognitive functions. The objective of this review is to discuss the available literature supporting the role of fish oils on brain development and function. There is a growing body of literature suggesting a potential benefit of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; however it is still unclear if there are response variations according to the developmental stage, age, and dose. L'influence de l'huile de poisson sur le développement et la fonction neurologique. L'huile de poisson provient de tissus de poisson riches en acides gras oméga-3, l'acide eicosapentaéno&IUque (EPA) et l'acide docosahexaénoïque (DHA). On conseille aux individus en bonne santé de consommer des aliments riches en huiles de poisson au moins deux fois par semaine. Cependant, leur consommation varie selon les préférences culturelles ou personnelles ainsi que selon le statut socio-économique. Plusieurs familles et plusieurs patients atteints de maladies neurologiques chroniques consomment des suppléments contenant des acides gras oméga-3. On nous demande souvent des conseils et des recommandations sur l'utilisation de ces agents pour aider à améliorer le développement neurologique et les fonctions cognitives. L'objectif de cette revue est de discuter de la littérature disponible en faveur du rôle des huiles de poisson dans le développement et le fonctionnement du cerveau. Il existe une documentation de plus en

  9. Fish oil curtails the human action potential dome in a heterogeneous manner: Implication for arrhythmogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Coronel, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil modulate various ion channels, including the L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). As a result, fish oil shortens the cardiac action potential and may cause a loss of the dome of the action potential (AP). Under conditions of increased

  10. A fish oil diet preserves renal function in nephrotoxic serum nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharschmidt, L; Miller, M; Holthofer, H; Sinha, A; Schlondorff, D; Gibbons, N; Santiago, A

    1990-04-01

    Fish oil diets preserve renal function in murine lupus, but we have found that these diets accelerate renal deterioration in renoprival nephropathy. In this study we examined the effects of dietary fish oil in accelerated nephrotoxic serum nephritis. For 1 month, 14 female rats were fed diets that differed only in fat composition, containing either menhaden (fish) oil or beef tallow (control). Rats were then preimmunized with rabbit IgG and, 5 days later, were injected with nephrotoxic serum. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously in conscious animals by means of intraperitoneal 14C-labeled inulin minipumps. Fish oil-containing diets markedly attenuated the nephrotoxic serum-induced decline in GFR and the rise in proteinuria and significantly reduced glomerular prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2. The results of tests of renal histology showed no differences between the two groups. Five days after preimmunization, rats fed fish oil had more rabbit IgG remaining in their serum and had mounted less of an antibody response to the rabbit IgG. Fish oil diets also resulted in an attenuated disappearance of injected 14C-labeled rabbit IgG. In vitro, peritoneal macrophages from rats fed fish oil took up less rabbit IgG than macrophages from rats fed control diets. Thus the beneficial effects of a fish oil diet may result from defective immune surveillance and from alterations in eicosanoids.

  11. Influence of different levels of n-3 supplemented (fish oil) diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate fish oil as n-3 fatty acids source on some performance, carcass and serum parameters in broilers. One-day old Ross strain male broiler chickens (n = 120) were randomly arranged in four dietary treatments (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 percent fish oil), with three replicates for each treatment.

  12. Effects of fish oil on oxidation resistance of VLDL in hypertriglyceridemic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hau, M.-F.; Smelt, A.H.M.; Bindels, A.J.G.H.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.; Laarse, A. van der; Onkenhout, W.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Princen, H.M.G.

    1996-01-01

    In hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients the addition of fish oil to the diet causes a marked reduction in the concentration of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the serum. To investigate the effects of fish oil on the oxidation resistance of VLDL and LDL in HTG patients, nine male patients received 1

  13. Enzymatic Transesterification of Ethyl Ferulate with Fish Oil and Its Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Glasius, Marianne; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    The enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with cod liver fish oil was investigated with Novozym 435 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the synthesis system for production of feruloyl fish oil in industry. The modified HPLC method was ...

  14. Enhanced bioavailability of EPA from emulsified fish oil preparations versus capsular triacylglycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-emulsified fish oil supplements, an alternative to capsular triacylglycerol, may enhance the uptake of LCn3 fatty acids it contains. A randomized, Latin-square crossover design was used to compare the effects of four fish oil supplement preparations on phospholipid (PLFA) and chylomicron fatty ...

  15. Optimizing headspace sampling temperature and time for analysis of volatile oxidation products in fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Karen; Jensen, Benny

    1997-01-01

    Headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC), based on adsorption to Tenax GR(R), thermal desorption and GC, has been used for analysis of volatiles in fish oil. To optimize sam sampling conditions, the effect of heating the fish oil at various temperatures and times was evaluated from anisidine values (AV...

  16. Variable hypocoagulant effect of fish oil intake in humans: Modulation of fibrinogen level and thrombin generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, K.van; Feijge, M.A.H.; Paquay, M.; Rosing, J.; Saris, W.; Kluft, C.; Giesen, P.L.A.; Maat, M.P.M.de; Heemskerk, J.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective-The beneficial effect of dietary fish oil, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on cardiovascular disease is multifactorial and may partly rely on their anticoagulant action. We studied how fish oil intake influenced thrombin generation in plasma and which factors were

  17. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3.......04) than infants not administered fish oil. Plasma triacylglycerol was inversely associated with the erythrocyte content of eicosapentaenoic acid (r = 0.34, P dose. The observed effects of fish oil are in accordance with findings in adults. The long-term health implications......Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...

  18. Diversity and stability of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Loic M; Connolly, Sean R; Sweatman, Hugh P A

    2012-04-01

    Biodiversity may provide insurance against ecosystem collapse by stabilizing assemblages that perform particular ecological functions (the "portfolio effect"). However, the extent to which this occurs in nature and the importance of different mechanisms that generate portfolio effects remain controversial. On coral reefs, herbivory helps maintain coral dominated states, so volatility in levels of herbivory has important implications for reef ecosystems. Here, we used an extensive time series of abundances on 35 reefs of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia to quantify the strength of the portfolio effect for herbivorous fishes. Then, we disentangled the contributions of two mechanisms that underlie it (compensatory interactions and differential responses to environmental fluctuations ["response diversity"]) by fitting a community-dynamic model that explicitly includes terms for both mechanisms. We found that portfolio effects operate strongly in herbivorous fishes, as shown by nearly independent fluctuations in abundances over time. Moreover, we found strong evidence for high response diversity, with nearly independent responses to environmental fluctuations. In contrast, we found little evidence that the portfolio effect in this system was enhanced by compensatory ecological interactions. Our results show that portfolio effects are driven principally by response diversity for herbivorous fishes on coral reefs. We conclude that portfolio effects can be very strong in nature and that, for coral reefs in particular, response diversity may help maintain herbivory above the threshold levels that trigger regime shifts.

  19. Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R. H.; Ardiyanti, A. R.; Wildschut, J.; Oasmaa, A.; Heeres, H. J.

    BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited

  20. on the oxidation stability of lubricating oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    The internal combustion engine is a model oxidator, since it contains a hydrocarbon motor oil with air under agitation at high temperatures. In addition, metals such as copper, lead, nickel, chromium and iron, used for the manufacture of the engines, are effective oxidation catalysts which increases the rate of oxidation. The.

  1. Oxidative stability, thermal stability and acceptability of coconut oil flavored with essential oils from black pepper and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Janu; Nayana, N; Roshini, N; Nisha, P

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the oxidative and thermal stability of flavoured oils developed by incorporating essential oils from black pepper and ginger to coconut oil (CNO) at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0% (CNO P-0.1 , CNO P-1 , CNO G-0.1 , CNO G-1 ). The stability of oils were assessed in terms of free fatty acids, peroxide, p -anisidine, conjugated diene and triene values and compared with CNO without any additives and a positive control with synthetic antioxidant TBHQ (CNO T ). It was found that the stability of CNO P-1 and CNO G-1 were comparable with CNO T at both study conditions. The possibility of flavoured oil as a table top salad oil was explored by incorporating the same in vegetable salad and was found more acceptable than the control, on sensory evaluation. The synergetic effect of essential oil as a flavour enhancer and a powerful natural antioxidant that can slow down the oxidation of fats was established in the study.

  2. Composition and properties of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, R J; Ryali, J; Schingoethe, D J; Kasperson, K M; Donovan, D C; Hippen, A R; Franklin, S T

    2001-02-01

    A control diet and a fish oil diet were fed to 12 multiparous Holstein cows to determine how the incorporation of Menhaden fish oil in the diet would influence the fatty acid composition, especially the conjugated linoleic acid and transvaccenic acid, contents of milk and butter. The control diet consisted of a 50:50 ratio of forage to concentrate, and the fish oil diet consisted of the control diet with 2% (on a dry matter basis) added fish oil. Milk from cows fed the control diet contained higher average concentrations of milk fat (3.37%) compared with milk from cows fed the fish oil diet (2.29%). Milk from cows fed fish oil contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and total unsaturated fatty acids (0.68 and 2.51; 1.42 and 6.28; and 30.47 and 41.71 g/100 g of fat, respectively). Butter made from the fish oil diet milk also had higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and unsaturated fatty acids. Penetrometer readings indicated fish oil diet butters were softer at 4 and 20 degrees C than the control diet butters. Acid degree values were similar in the fish oil butters compared with the control butters. No significant difference was found in the flavor characteristics of milk and butter from cows fed the control and fish oil diets. Production of milk and butter with increased amounts of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and other beneficial fatty acids may have a desirable impact on the health of consumers and lead to increased sales.

  3. Fish oil reduces cholesterol and arachidonic acid levels in plasma and lipoproteins from hypercholesterolemic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M; Amalik, F; Linares, A; García-Peregrín, E

    2000-07-01

    The value of fish oil for prevention and/or treatment of human atherosclerosis has not been fully established. This study shows that replacement of saturated fat in young chick diet with menhaden oil produced a significant reversion of the hypercholesterolemia previously induced by coconut oil feeding. Fish oil also produced a clear decrease of plasma triacylglycerol levels. Coconut oil increased the percentages of 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids, while menhaden oil increased those of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3. Percentages of 20:4 n-6, 18:2 n-6 and 18:1 n-9 significantly decreased by fish oil addition to the diet. Total cholesterol, phospholipid and protein contents of high and low density lipoproteins increased by coconut oil feeding. When coconut oil was replaced by menhaden oil, total cholesterol was significantly reduced in high, low and very low density lipoproteins. All chemical components of VLDL were decreased by menhaden oil feeding. Our results show a strong hypocholesterolemic effect of menhaden oil when this fat was supplemented to hypercholesterolemic chicks. The clear decrease found in arachidonic acid content of chick plasma and lipoproteins may contribute to the beneficial effects of fish oil consumption by lowering the production of its derived eicosanoids.

  4. Properties and Sustainability of Biodiesel from Animal Fats and Fish Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Teresa M.; Mendes, Adélio M.; Caetano, Nídia Sá; Martins, António A.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents and analyses the fat and fuel properties and the methyl ester profile of biodiesel from animal fats and fish oil (beef tallow, pork lard, chicken fat and sardine oil). Also, their sustainability is evaluated in comparison with rapeseed biodiesel and fossil diesel, currently the dominant liquid fuels for transportation in Europe. Results show that from a technological point of view it is possible to use animal fats and fish oil as feedstock for biodiesel producti...

  5. Stability studies on refined soybean oil stored in various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arawande, J.O.; Amoo, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 12 months stability study of freshly produced refined soybean oil revealed that refined soybean oil stored in plastic containers in dark was more hydrolytically and oxidatively stable than that stored in other containers in light condition. There was no significant difference at P < 0.05 in free fatty acids and acid value of oil stored under light and dark conditions in tin and glass containers but there was significant difference at P < 0.05 in peroxide value of oil stored in light and dark conditions in all the storage containers. Light increased the degree of oxidative rancidity of refined soybean oil, the most in tin containers, followed by glass containers and the least in plastic containers. (author)

  6. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  7. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  8. Lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis of fish oil to obtain diacylglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeza-Jiménez, R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerols (DAG rich in n-3 residues were successfully produced by Novozym 435-catalysed glycerolysis of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil. Orbital and magnetic agitations were evaluated in order to minimize mass transfer limitations and thus assure the homogeneity of the reactant mixture. Different temperatures (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 °C and speeds (300, 500, 700 and 900 rpm were tested. Optimal conditions to obtain the highest amount of DAG were: 65 °C, with a substrate molar ratio of 3:1 (oil:glycerol, 500 rpm and 15% enzyme load after 2.5 h, with a yield of 60%.Diacilglicéridos (DAG ricos en n-3 fueron producidos en la glicerolisis de aceite de pescado rico en n-3 PUFA catalizada por Novozym 435. Las agitaciones orbital y magnética fueron evaluadas con el propósito de minimizar las limitaciones de transferencia de masa y garantizar la homogeneidad de la mezcla de reactivos. Diferentes temperaturas (65, 70, 75, 80, 85 y 90 °C y velocidades de agitación (300, 500, 700 y 900 rpm fueron empleadas. Las condiciones óptimas para alcanzar la mayor cantidad de DAG fueron: 65 °C, una relación molar de sustratos 3:1 (aceite:glicerol, 500 rpm y 15% de enzima, después de 2.5 h, con un rendimiento de 60%.

  9. Stability of cosmetic emulsion containing different amount of hemp oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M; Ziomek, M; Żbikowska, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions, that is the content of hemp oil and time of homogenization to obtain stable dispersion systems. For this purpose, six emulsions were prepared, their stability was examined empirically and the most correctly formulated emulsion composition was determined using a computer simulation. Variable parameters (oil content and homogenization time) were indicated by the optimization software based on Kleeman's method. Physical properties of the synthesized emulsions were studied by numerous techniques involving particle size analysis, optical microscopy, Turbiscan test and viscosity of emulsions. The emulsion containing 50 g of oil and being homogenized for 6 min had the highest stability. Empirically determined parameters proved to be consistent with the results obtained using the computer software. The computer simulation showed that the most stable emulsion should contain from 30 to 50 g of oil and should be homogenized for 2.5-6 min. The computer software based on Kleeman's method proved to be useful for quick optimization of the composition and production parameters of stable emulsion systems. Moreover, obtaining an emulsion system with proper stability justifies further research extended with sensory analysis, which will allow the application of such systems (containing hemp oil, beneficial for skin) in the cosmetic industry. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Leaching of Oil from Tuna Fish Liver by Using Solvent of Methyl-Ethyl Ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of oil leaching from Tuna Fish Liver has been carried out by extracting of tuna fish liver in soxhlet by using methyl-ethyl ketone as solvent. Liver of fresh tuna fish is blended, put into soxhlet, and extracted at temperatures of 60oC, 65oC, 70oC, 75oC, and 80oC. After obtaining the oil, separation between solvent and oil is carried out by distillation. Oil obtained is analyzed by testing the yield, acid number, Iodine value, viscosity, and its impurities content. Yield obtained is influenced by temperature and time of leaching. Both variables indicates that the higher the variables, the more fish liver oil obtained. Maximum yield obtained is 25.552% at operating condition of leaching temperature 80oC, and leaching duration of 5 hours.

  11. Decrease of erythrocyte deformability in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant patients: correction with fish oil as well as corn oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, N. H.; Hardeman, M. R.; Wilmink, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine renal transplant recipients with good, stable transplant function were included in a double-blind cross-over study to investigate the effects of different immunosuppressive treatment modalities and also the effects of fish oil and corn oil supplementation on erythrocyte deformability.

  12. Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MU, Jenny; PM, Adria

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

  13. Fish oil promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Pellizzon, Michael A; Aihara, Masakazu; Stylianou, Ioannis M; Billheimer, Jeffery T; Rothblat, George; Rader, Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Fish oil (FO), and specifically omega 3 fatty acids, has favorable effects on cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of FO on the process of macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in an in vivo mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were fed a FO diet, whereas control mice were fed diets containing alternative sources of fats, soybean oil (SO), and coconut oil (CO) for 4 weeks. Macrophage RCT was assessed by injecting [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages intraperitoneally into mice. After 48 hours, tissues were harvested and feces were collected. An increase in the excretion of macrophage-derived [(3)H]-tracer recovered in fecal neutral sterols for FO-fed mice was observed (273% versus SO and 182% versus CO). FO also decreased [(3)H]-tracer in hepatic cholesteryl ester compared to SO and CO by 76% and 56%, respectively. To specifically determine the effect of FO on the fate of HDL-derived cholesterol, mice fed FO or SO diets were injected with HDL labeled with [(3)H]cholesteryl oleate, and the disappearance of [(3)H]-tracer from blood and its excretion in feces was measured. There was no significant difference in the fractional catabolic rate of [(3)H]cholesteryl oleate-HDL between the 2 groups. However, there was a 242% increase in the excretion of HDL-derived [(3)H]-tracer recovered in fecal neutral sterols in FO-fed mice, concordant with significantly increased expression of hepatic Abcg5 and Abcg8 mRNA. As measured by this tracer-based assay, FO promoted reverse cholesterol transport, primarily by enhancement of the hepatic excretion of macrophage-derived and HDL-derived cholesterol.

  14. Formulation and stability of topical water in oil emulsion containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate the water in oil (W/O) emulsion of corn silk (CS) extract and to evaluate its stability at various storage conditions. Methods: Ethanol CS extract was prepared using maceration (cold) technique. A 4 % CS emulsion was prepared using varying concentrations of liquid paraffin, ABIL EM90 and water.

  15. Stress determination and geomechanical stability analysis of an oil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a numerical model using three-dimensional finite difference code FLAC3D is proposed for analysing the stability of an oil well drilled in four formations. Normalized Yielded Zone Area (NYZA, i.e., the ratio of surrounding yielded cross-sectional area to initial area of well) has been determined for different mud ...

  16. Stability of wheat germ oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    심정은

    For determination of stability, wheat germ oil obtained by ethanolysis reactants was characterized by ... extract non polar lipids with lipid soluble bioactive com- pounds from different sources (Esquivel et al., 1997; ... thin layer of cotton was placed at the bottom of the extraction vessel. Before plugging with cap another layer of ...

  17. Ozone-Induced Vascular Contractility and Pulmonary Injury Are Differentially Impacted by Diets Enriched With Coconut Oil, Fish Oil, and Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Henriquez, Andres; Hodge, Myles; Bass, Virgina; Nelson, Gail M; Carswell, Gleta; Richards, Judy E; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chorley, Brian; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Tong, Haiyan; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2018-05-01

    Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet supplemented with fish, olive, or coconut oil for 8 weeks. Animals were then exposed to air or ozone (0.8 ppm), 4 h/day for 2 days. Ozone exposure increased phenylephrine-induced aortic vasocontraction, which was completely abolished in rats fed the fish oil diet. Despite this cardioprotective effect, the fish oil diet increased baseline levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) markers of lung injury and inflammation. Ozone-induced pulmonary injury/inflammation were comparable in rats on normal, coconut oil, and olive oil diets with altered expression of markers in animals fed the fish oil diet. Fish oil, regardless of exposure, led to enlarged, foamy macrophages in the BALF that coincided with decreased pulmonary mRNA expression of cholesterol transporters, cholesterol receptors, and nuclear receptors. Serum microRNA profile was assessed and demonstrated marked depletion of a variety of microRNAs in animals fed the fish oil diet, several of which were of splenic origin. No ozone-specific changes were noted. Collectively, these data indicate that although fish oil offered vascular protection from ozone exposure, it increased pulmonary injury/inflammation and impaired lipid transport mechanisms resulting in foamy macrophage accumulation, demonstrating the need to be cognizant of potential off-target pulmonary effects that might offset the overall benefit of this vasoprotective supplement.

  18. Is Exposure to Macondo Oil Reflected in the Otolith Chemistry of Marsh-Resident Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Duarte, Paola C; Fodrie, F Joel; Jensen, Olaf P; Whitehead, Andrew; Galvez, Fernando; Dubansky, Benjamin; Able, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and physiological responses in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) in the northern Gulf of Mexico have confirmed oil exposure of resident marsh fish following the Macondo blowout in 2010. Using these same fish, we evaluated otolith microchemistry as a method for assessing oil exposure history. Laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze the chemical composition of sagittal otoliths to assess whether a trace metal signature could be detected in the otoliths of F. grandis collected from a Macondo-oil impacted site in 2010, post-spill relative to pre-spill, as well as versus fish from areas not impacted by the spill. We found no evidence of increased concentrations of two elements associated with oil contamination (nickel and vanadium) in F. grandis otoliths regardless of Macondo oil exposure history. One potential explanation for this is that Macondo oil is relatively depleted of those metals compared to other crude oils globally. During and after the spill, however, elevated levels of barium, lead, and to a lesser degree, copper were detected in killifish otoliths at the oil-impacted collection site in coastal Louisiana. This may reflect oil contact or other environmental perturbations that occurred concomitant with oiling. For example, increases in barium in otoliths from oil-exposed fish followed (temporally) freshwater diversions in Louisiana in 2010. This implicates (but does not conclusively demonstrate) freshwater diversions from the Mississippi River (with previously recorded higher concentrations of lead and copper), designed to halt the ingress of oil, as a mechanism for elevated elemental uptake in otoliths of Louisiana marsh fishes. These results highlight the potentially complex and indirect effects of the Macondo oil spill and human responses to it on Gulf of Mexico ecosystems, and emphasize the need to consider the multiple stressors acting simultaneously on inshore fish communities.

  19. Fish oil and atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influence of fish oil supplementation on postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF was inconsistent according to published clinical trials. The aim of the meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of perioperative fish oil supplementation on the incidence of POAF after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing perioperative fish oil supplementation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery were identified. Data concerning study design, patient characteristics, and outcomes were extracted. Risk ratio (RR and weighted mean differences (WMD were calculated using fixed or random effects models. RESULTS: Eight RCTs involving 2687 patients were included. Perioperative supplementation of fish oil did not significantly reduce the incidence of POAF (RR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.71 to 1.03, p = 0.11 or length of hospitalization after surgery (WMD = 0.10 days, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.67 days, p = 0.75. Fish oil supplementation also did not affect the perioperative mortality, incidence of major bleeding or the length of stay in the intensive care unit. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses indicated mean DHA dose in the supplements may be a potential modifier for the effects of fish oil for POAF. For supplements with DHA >1 g/d, fish oil significantly reduced the incidence of POAF; while it did not for the supplements with a lower dose of DHA. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence did not support a preventative role of fish oil for POAF. However, relative amounts of DHA and EPA in fish oil may be important for the prevention of POAF.

  20. Oil Extraction from “Morelos Rice” Bran: Kinetics and Raw Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zúñiga-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Morelos rice” is a variety of rice with certificate of denomination of origin. It is a large grain of opaque appearance and extra large size that is grown exclusively in Morelos state (Mexico. Thus, the quality and characteristics of its rice bran may affect the kinetic of the extraction process of its oil as well as its stability. Therefore, this work is oriented to determine the extraction kinetics of its oil and its oxidative stability. The latter one is obtained through the proposal of a method based on open-circuit potential measurements. The results showed that the rice bran has 21.44% of raw oil, with a chemical composition (based on fatty acids of 48.48% oleic acid, 35.26% linoleic acid, and 14.54% palmitic acid, as well as a free fatty acid content of 8.15%. A high percentage of its oil content can be recovered in a short time at room temperature, and its extraction kinetics is a function of both the washing and the diffusion of its oil. Under storage conditions the raw oil has a high stability, at least 8 months, and its oxidative stability was of 24, 9, and 7 hours at 50°C, 80°C, and 110°C, respectively.

  1. Effects of filtration methods on the neutralization yield of crude marine fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Viana do Nascimento

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of filtration methods on the yield and oleochemicals characteristics on the crude fish oil from the soapstock of marine fish for purposes of nutrition has been conducted in this work. The analytical properties of the crude and the neutralized oil with three excesses of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 20%, 40% and 60% were carried out on two different ways with organza and the “glass wool”. The neutralization of the oil brought about a notable improvement in the analytical properties of the oil. Thus, it leads to a high quality fish oil in terms of taste, colour, odours, shelf life and market value. Based on the improved characteristics of the oil, it could be suitable for applications in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  2. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of Arjan (Amygdalus reuteri) kernel oil as emerging edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Emadi, Teymour; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Munekata, Paulo Eduardo Sichetti; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel; Brnčić, Mladen; Barba, Francisco J

    2018-05-01

    The oxidative stability, as well as the chemical composition of Amygdalus reuteri kernel oil (ARKO), were evaluated and compared to those of Amygdalus scoparia kernel oil (ASKO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) during and after holding in the oven (170 °C for 8 h). The oxidative stability analysis was carried out by measuring the changes in conjugated dienes, carbonyl and acid values as well as oil/oxidative stability index and their correlation with the antioxidant compounds (tocopherol, polyphenols, and sterol compounds). The oleic acid was determined as the predominant fatty acid of ARKO (65.5%). Calculated oxidizability value and an iodine value of ARKO, ASKO and EVOO were reported as 3.29 and 3.24, 2.00 and 100.0, 101.4 and 81.9, respectively. Due to the high wax content (4.5% and 3.3%, respectively), the saponification number of ARKO and ASKO (96.4 and 99.8, respectively) was lower than that of EVOO (169.7). ARKO had the highest oxidative stability, followed by ASKO and EVOO. Therefore, ARKO can be introduced as a new source of edible oil with high oxidative stability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Optimization of Microencapsulation of Fish Oil with Gum Arabic/Casein/Beta-Cyclodextrin Mixtures by Spray Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Xiong, Shanbai; Wang, Fang; Regenstein, Joe M; Liu, Ru

    2015-07-01

    Fish oil was encapsulated with gum arabic/casein/beta-cyclodextrin mixtures using spray drying. The processing parameters (solids concentration of the barrier solutions, ratio of oil to barrier materials, emulsifying temperature, and air inlet temperature) were optimized based on emulsion viscosity, emulsion stability, encapsulation efficiency, and yield. A suitable viscosity and high emulsion stability could increase encapsulation efficiency and yield. Encapsulation efficiency and yield were significantly affected by all the 4 parameters. Based on the results of orthogonal experiments, encapsulation efficiency and yield reached a maximum of 79.6% and 55.6%, respectively, at the optimal condition: solids concentration of 35%, ratios of oil to barrier materials of 3:7, emulsifying temperature of 55 °C, and air inlet temperature of 220 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that fish oil microcapsules were nearly spherical with a smooth surface with droplet size ranging from 1 to 10 μm. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Acute toxicities of crude oils and oil-dispersant mixtures to Red sea fishes and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R.

    1975-11-01

    Crude oil from fields in the Persian Gulf and in the Sinai plus a chemical oil dispersant were tested, using static bioassay procedures, for toxicity to adults or juveniles of ten marine species: Heteroxenia fuscescens, a soft coral; Nerita forskali and Drupa granulata, gastropod molluscs; Mytilus variabilis, a mussel; Acanthopleura haddoni, a chiton (mollusc); Echinometra mathaei, sea urchin; Calcinus latens, a hermit crab; Palaemon pacificus, a shrimp; Parupeneus barberinus, goatfish; and Siganus rivulatus, rabbitfish. Concentrations fatal to 50 percent of individual test species in 168 hours, LC-50 (168 h), ranged from 0.74 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Persian Gulf crude, from 14.5 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and from 0.006 to 0.064 ml/liter for the dispersant. In general, fishes and crustaceans were the most sensitive groups assayed and molluscs the most resistant. LC-50 (168 h) values for oil-dispersant mixtures of 10 parts oil to 1 part dispersant (v/v) for selected species ranged from 0.047 to 0.152 ml/liter which appears to reflect the biocidal properties of the dispersant. Some individuals that survived immersion in high concentrations of the test compounds for 168 h were adversely affected during treatment and afterwards.

  5. Effects of yogurt supplemented with fish oil on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations, and liver lipid contents in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu; Kawashima, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of yogurt supplemented with fish oil on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations, and hepatic lipid contents in mice. Male Crlj:CD-1 (ICR) mice were fed five experimental diets for 12 weeks. The experimental diets were as follows: without yogurt and fish oil (control diet); 10% (w/w) yogurt without fish oil [10% FO(-)]; 10% yogurt with fish oil [10% FO(+)]; 30% yogurt without fish oil [30% FO(-)]; 30% yogurt with fish oil [30% FO(+)]. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the 10% FO(+) and 30% FO(-) groups were significantly lower than that in the control diet group (p cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations were significantly lower in the 30% FO(+) group than in the control diet group (p cholesterol contents in the 30% FO(+) group were significantly lower than those in the control diet group (p yogurt with fish oil.

  6. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses

  7. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    %) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic......Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... levels of diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramides and arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipins compared with mice fed WD-FO. In addition, C57BL/6J mice were fed fish oil-enriched diets with different carbohydrate sources, and we observed that sucrose dose-dependently abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil...

  8. Fish oil supplementation reduces markers of oxidative stress but not muscle soreness after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick; Chappell, Andrew; Jenkinson, Alison McE; Thies, Frank; Gray, Stuart R

    2014-04-01

    Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils-although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.

  9. Effect of microencapsulated fish oil on blood metabolites and rumen fatty acids in Sannan Lactating dairy goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Safari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the effect of microencapsulated fish oil on blood metabolites, rumen and blood plasma fatty acids concentrations twelve Sannan dairy goats with 30 ± 5 days in milk (DIM were allocated to 3 treatments in a 3×2 change over design with 2 periods of 30 days. Treatments were: 1 the control (without fish oil, 2 microencapsulated fish oil (2% fish oil capsulated in 6% treated whey protein concentrate, 3 fish oil (2% fish oil and 6% whey protein concentrate. Concentration of C18:0 in the rumen for microencapsulated fish oil decreased significantly in comparison with the control. The same manner was observed in goat’s blood plasma for microencapsulated fish oil. Microencapsulated fish oil led to a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration, hence concentration of C18:3, C20:5 EPA, C22:5 DPA and C22:6 DHA as a source of ω3 fatty acids increased 10, 20, 10 and 13 folds in comparison with the control and 10, 20, 2 and 2.5 folds in comparison with the fish oil treatment, respectively. HDL concentration in protected fish oil was significantly higher than that for the control and unprotected fish oil treatments. It seems that fish oil supplementation caused significant changes in blood fatty acids composition of ruminants as well as ω3 fatty acids in their products. Significant increase of ω3 fatty acids in blood plasma of microencapsulated fish oil treatment showed the protective effect of capsulation against rumen microbial biohydrogenation.

  10. Dietary fish oil stimulates hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, M A; Woollett, L A; Spady, D K

    1989-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to examine the effect of fish oil, safflower oil, and hydrogenated coconut oil on the major processes that determine the concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in plasma, i.e., the rate of LDL production and the rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL uptake in the various organs of the body. When fed at the 20% level, fish oil reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol levels by 38% primarily by increasing LDL receptor activity in the liver. Dietary...

  11. Natural antioxidants in the stability of ray liver oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Navarro-García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants on oxidative stability of ray ( Rhinoptera bonasus liver oil was evaluated. Different concentrations of rosemary extract, α-tocopherol, and caffeic acid (w/w were added to the oil. Afterwards, concentration of each antioxidant that gave the highest stability was used in an accelerated stability test (Schaal method. The protective effect was established by the retention in the oil of fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA, and concentration of volatile compounds. The best concentrations were: 2.5% of rosemary extract, 0.5% of α-tocopherol, and 0.06% of caffeic acid. Rosemary extract showed to be the product with the greatest ability to retard oxidation, followed by α-tocopherol, and caffeic acid. A high correlation between the peroxide value and the concentration of the 2-decenal, 1-penten-3-ol, and 2-octenal, was reported, suggesting that this can be used to assess the development of oxidative rancidity in the ray liver oil.

  12. Fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of selected cold-pressed grape seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterodt, Herman; Slavin, Margaret; Whent, Monica; Turner, Ellen; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2011-09-15

    Cold-pressed chardonnay, muscadine, ruby red, and concord grape seed oils and their defatted flours were studied for their fatty acid composition, oxidative stability and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The phenolic profiles of the seed flours were also measured. The most abundant fatty acid in the oils was linoleic acid, ranging from 66.0g/100g of total fatty acids in ruby red seed oil to 75.3g/100g of total fatty acids in concord seed oil. The oils were also high in oleic acid and low in saturated fat. Ruby red grape seed oil recorded the highest oxidative stability index of 40h under the accelerated conditions. Total phenolic content (TPC) was up to 100 times lower in the oils than in the flours. Lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol levels were also measured. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity ranged from 0.07 to 2.22mmol trolox equivalents (TE)/g of oil and 11.8 to 15.0mmol TE/g of flour. Oxidative stability of menhaden fish oil containing extracts of the seed flours was extended by up to 137%. HPLC analysis was conducted to determine the levels of free soluble, soluble conjugated and insoluble bound phenolics in the seed flours. The phenolic compounds analyzed included catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, quercetin, gallic acid, and procyanidins B1 and B2. Antiproliferative activity was tested against HT-29 colon cancer cells. All of the seed flours and muscadine seed oil registered significant (Pseed oils and flours as dietary sources of natural antioxidants and antiproliferative agents for optimal health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on large pelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Torres, Sarrah; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    2011-11-01

    Biogeographical analyses provide insights on how the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted large pelagic fishes. We georeferenced historical ichthyoplankton surveys and published literature to map the spawning and larval areas of bluefin tuna, swordfish, blue marlin and whale shark sightings in the Gulf of Mexico with daily satellite-derived images detecting surface oil. The oil spill covered critical areas used by large pelagic fishes. Surface oil was detected in 100% of the northernmost whale shark sightings, in 32.8 % of the bluefin tuna spawning area and 38 % of the blue marlin larval area. No surface oil was detected in the swordfish spawning and larval area. Our study likely underestimates the extend of the oil spill due to satellite sensors detecting only the upper euphotic zone and the use of dispersants altering crude oil density, but provides a previously unknown spatio-temporal analysis.

  14. Alkyl chain length impacts the antioxidative effect of lipophilized ferulic acid in fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Lyneborg, Karina Sieron; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lipophilization of phenolics by esterification with fatty alcohols may alter their localization in an emulsion and thereby their antioxidant efficacy. In this study, synthesized unbranched alkyl ferulates were evaluated as antioxidants in fish oil enriched milk. Lipid oxidation was determined...

  15. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...

  16. Dietary fish oil (4 g daily) and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jespersen, J

    1997-01-01

    Some epidemiological observations indicate that 1 to 2 weekly servings of fish prevent ischemic heart disease (IHD). This might be explained by an effect of the very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 VLCPUFA) of fish oil on lipid metabolism and/or the hemostatic system, both involved...... oil was used as placebo. The fish oil had no significant effect on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), blood coagulation FVII, fibrinogen, endogenous fibrinolysis, beta-thromboglobulin, von Willebrand factor, glucose, or insulin in fasting blood samples. In nonfasting samples (n = 19......), fish oil was associated with an approximately 30% decline in plasma triglycerides (P postprandial triglycerides is the only n-3...

  17. Fish oil as a potential activator of brown and beige fat thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line....... Given the available in vivo evidence and the ability of human adipocytes to aquire a beige phenotype in response to eicosapentaenoic acid incubation, future studies should test the hypothesis that fish oil activates thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissue in humans....

  18. Relative Condition Factors of Fish as Bioindicators One Year after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Research Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 07-01-2010 to 30-1-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Relative Condition Factors of Fish as Bioindicators One...Condition index, relative condition factor, bioindicator , oil spill 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...Condition Factors of Fish as Bioindicators One Year after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Joshua Courtney,1 Taylor Klinkmann,2 Amy Courtney,1 Joseph

  19. Oxidation of free and encapsulated oil fractions in dried microencapsulated fish oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Ruiz, G.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate oxidation of dried microencapsulated fish oils (DMFO during storage at ambient temperature, and to examine the influence of oils distribution (free vs. encapsulated oil in these complex lipidic systems. DMF0 were prepared by freeze-drying emulsions containing sodium caseinate, lactose and fish oil, with and without adding the antioxidant mixture ALT (ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol. Samples were stored at 25 or 30ºC either in the dark or light with limited, accesible air or under vacuum. The progress of oxidation was followed through quantitation of triglyceride polymers, and oxidation levels of free and encapsulated oil fractions were differentiated. Results showed that oxidation was very rapid both in free and encapsulated oil fractions in all DMFOs exposed to light. In the dark, oxidation was triggered first in the free oil fraction of samples not protected with ALT but, in contrast, samples with ALT showed significantly higher oxidation levels in encapsulated than in free oil fractions, regardless of the limited or free availability of air. These results indicated that addition of the antioxidant system ALT was more effective in the free oil fraction, thus reflecting the great influence of partitioning and/or orientation of antioxidants on their efficacy in complex lipid systems.El objetivo de este trabajo es la evaluación de la oxidación de aceites de pescado microencapsulados en matriz seca (DMFO durante su almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente, y examinar la influencia de la distribución del aceite (aceite libre frente a aceite encapsulado en estos sistemas lipídicos complejos. Las muestras se prepararon mediante liofilización de emulsiones constituidas por caseinato sódico, lactosa y aceite de pescado, con o sin la mezcla antioxidante ALT (ácido ascórbico, lecitina y tocoferol; y se almacenaron a 25 o 30ºC a la luz o a la oscuridad, con aire limitado, accesible o al vac

  20. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  1. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Markers of the Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, C.; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    -chain polyunsaturated fatty acid/day) or vegetable oil (control) for 16 weeks. The oils were included in bread. RESULTS: After the intervention, the red blood cell (RBC) content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 1.2% +/- 0.5% and 6.7% +/- 1.6%, respectively, in the those receiving fish......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fish oil affects cardiovascular risk factors during the adolescent growth spurt. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 78 boys age 13-15 years with a mean body fat percentage of 30% +/- 9% were randomly assigned to consume fish oil (providing 1.5 g of n-3 long...... oil (FO group), compared with 0.6% +/- 0.3% and 4.1% +/- 0.9% in the control group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 3.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg lower (P

  2. Fish oil and krill oil supplementations differentially regulate lipid catabolic and synthetic pathways in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillander, Veronika; Bjørndal, Bodil; Burri, Lena; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K; Alexson, Stefan Eh

    2014-01-01

    Marine derived oils are rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have long been associated with health promoting effects such as reduced plasma lipid levels and anti-inflammatory effects. Krill oil (KO) is a novel marine oil on the market and is also rich in EPA and DHA, but the fatty acids are incorporated mainly into phospholipids (PLs) rather than triacylglycerols (TAG). This study compares the effects of fish oil (FO) and KO on gene regulation that influences plasma and liver lipids in a high fat diet mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HF) containing 24% (wt/wt) fat (21.3% lard and 2.3% soy oil), or the HF diet supplemented with FO (15.7% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.8% FO) or KO (15.6% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.7% KO) for 6 weeks. Total levels of cholesterol, TAG, PLs, and fatty acid composition were measured in plasma and liver. Gene regulation was investigated using quantitative PCR in liver and intestinal epithelium. Plasma cholesterol (esterified and unesterified), TAG and PLs were significantly decreased with FO. Analysis of the plasma lipoprotein particles indicated that the lipid lowering effect by FO is at least in part due to decreased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) content in plasma with subsequent liver lipid accumulation. KO lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with a minor effect on fatty acid accumulation in the liver. In spite of a lower omega-3 fatty acid content in the KO supplemented diet, plasma and liver PLs omega-3 levels were similar in the two groups, indicating a higher bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from KO. KO more efficiently decreased arachidonic acid and its elongation/desaturation products in plasma and liver. FO mainly increased the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, while KO specifically decreased the expression of genes involved in the early steps of

  3. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Dewita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookiesfrom Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patinfish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil usingspray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s resultswas fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measureyield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for thebest treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulatedyield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%.Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oilwas 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under fiveyear children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximate analysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%,fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookiesowned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.Keywords : Encaptulated fish, street food, patin fish protein concentrate, palm oil

  4. Optimization of Fish Oil Sardinella lemuru from Canning Industry by Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiah Nurbaya Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil could be extrated from lemuru (Sardinella lemuru or lemuru canning industry byproducts. The fish oil should be refined first before using as omega-3 sources. This reasearchobtained was purification of fish oil from lemuru canning industry by products at Bali usingvariations purification method. The fisrt step was done by analysis of crude oil such of free fattyacids value, peroxide value, and iodine value. Then after the purification process using variationspurification method, the refined fish oil was analyzed for same parametrs. The best refined fishoil was analyzed of composition fatty acid using gas chromatograph (GC instrument. The resultshowed that the crude oil had free fatty acids value, peroxide value, and iodine value as follows24.03%; 6.97 meq/kg sample; 189.13 g/100 g sample. After the refining process using four methods,the result showed that free fatty acids value, peroxide value, and iodine value became: the firstmethod 24.02%; 6.16 meq/kg sample; 187.91 g/100 g sample. The second method 23.14%; 4.17meq/kg sample; 193.94 g/100 g sample. The third method 9.38%; 4.88 meq/kg sample; 225.39 g/100 g sample. And the fourth method 11.03%; 5.64 meq/kg sample; 222.69 g/100 g sample. Dueto the peroxide value, the refined lemuru oil that could met standard of Indonesian farmacope forconsumed fish oil was resulted from the third method. In the refined lemuru oil could be found ofEPA component (Methyl cis-5,8,11,14,17-Eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester with concentration650,65 μg/mL..Keywords: By products, fish oil, refining process, Sardinella lemuru

  5. Assessment of potential oil pollution damages on fish resources. Some examples from the area outside mid-Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Føyn, Lars; Bjørke, Herman

    1987-01-01

    Detailed mapping of fish eggs and larvae both in space and time is essential knowledge when realistic assessments of oil pollution damages to the fish resources are established. The text explain with some examples our attempts to determine how and if pollution from oil fields outside mid-Norway may affect fish stocks.

  6. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  7. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Sorensen, J.D.; Secher, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    duration, birthweight, and birth length of a fish-oil supplement, a control olive-oil supplement, and no supplementation. 533 healthy Danish women in week 30 of pregnancy were randomly assigned in a ratio of 2/1/1 to fish oil (four 1 g Pikasol capsules [containing 2.7 g n-3 fatty acids] per day), olive oil...... (four 1 g capsules per day), or no supplement. The three groups differed in mean length of gestation (p = 0.006), which was highest in the fish-oil group and lowest in the olive-oil group; the result was similar when the analysis was restricted to women with an estimate of gestation length based...... on early ultrasound findings (443 women). Pregnancies in the fish-oil group were on average 4.0 (95% confidence interval 1.5-6.4) days longer than those in the olive-oil group; the difference in birthweight was 107 (1-214) g. The effect of supplementation on length of gestation was influenced by intake...

  8. The acute toxicity of clove oil to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Doleželová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove oil (active substance eugenol is an anaesthetic used in aquaculture for stress prevention and prevention of mechanical damage during veterinary procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of clove oil in two aquarium fish species - zebrafish (Danio rerio and guppy (Poecilia reticulata, which are considered the most commonly used model organisms in toxicity testing. The semi-static method according to OECD no. 203 (Fish, Acute toxicity test was used for testing the toxicity of clove oil for juvenile fish. A series of 5 acute toxicity tests was performed, with 10 fish of both species used for each concentration and for the control. The results obtained (number of dead individuals at particular test concentrations were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 program in order to determine 96hLC50 clove oil values. The significance of the difference between 96hLC50 values in D. rerio and P. reticulata was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The 96hLC50 mean value for clove oil was 18.2 ± 5.52 mg·l–1 in juvenile D. rerio and 21.7 ± 0.8 mg·l–1 in P. reticulata. In spite of variability in clove oil composition, acute toxicity values of clove oil for juvenile stages of both fish species were comparable. The results did not show different sensitivities to clove oil in tested fish species. This is the first similar study in these fish species.

  9. Marine Lipids (Omega-3 Oil) - Stability of Oil and Enriched Products During Production and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2015-01-01

    is prevented both during production and storage. In complex products, lipid oxidation and antioxidant mechanisms are very complex, due to the many factors that can influence the rate and extent of lipid oxidation. In order to obtain and maintain a good quality and oxidative stability of omega-3 oil...

  10. Utilization of fish meal and fish oil for production of Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455 lipase and hydrolysis of polyurethane thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukarasu, K.; Purushothaman, S.; Gowthaman, M. K.; Nakajima-Kambe, T.; Rose, C.; Kamini, N. R.

    2015-01-01

    Fish meal has been used as an additional nitrogen source and fish oil as inducer for the growth and production of lipase from Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455. A response surface design illustrated that the optimum factors influencing lipase production were fish meal, 1.5 %, w/v, Na2HPO4, 0.2 %, w/v, yeast extract, 0.25 %, w/v and sardine oil, 2.0 %, w/v with an activity of 71.23 U/mL at 96 h and 25 °C, which was 48.39 % higher than the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. The crude concentrat...

  11. Mitigating the impact of oil-palm monoculture on freshwater fishes in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giam, Xingli; Hadiaty, Renny K; Tan, Heok Hui; Parenti, Lynne R; Wowor, Daisy; Sauri, Sopian; Chong, Kwek Yan; Yeo, Darren C J; Wilcove, David S

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic land-cover change is driving biodiversity loss worldwide. At the epicenter of this crisis lies Southeast Asia, where biodiversity-rich forests are being converted to oil-palm monocultures. As demand for palm oil increases, there is an urgent need to find strategies that maintain biodiversity in plantations. Previous studies found that retaining forest patches within plantations benefited some terrestrial taxa but not others. However, no study has focused on aquatic taxa such as fishes, despite their importance to human well-being. We assessed the efficacy of forested riparian reserves in conserving freshwater fish biodiversity in oil-palm monoculture by sampling stream fish communities in an oil-palm plantation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forested riparian reserves maintained preconversion local fish species richness and functional diversity. In contrast, local and total species richness, biomass, and functional diversity declined markedly in streams without riparian reserves. Mechanistically, riparian reserves appeared to increase local species richness by increasing leaf litter cover and maintaining coarse substrate. The loss of fishes specializing in leaf litter and coarse substrate decreased functional diversity and altered community composition in oil-palm plantation streams that lacked riparian reserves. Thus, a land-sharing strategy that incorporates the retention of forested riparian reserves may maintain the ecological integrity of fish communities in oil-palm plantations. We urge policy makers and growers to make retention of riparian reserves in oil-palm plantations standard practice, and we encourage palm-oil purchasers to source only palm oil from plantations that employ this practice. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each...... of the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained 230 g fatty acids (FA), whereas the three other fats were fed at about 550, 850 and 1150 g FA/day. The feed-ileùm true digestibility of total FA was 95, 47 and 86% for vegetable, saturated and fish fat, respectively. The true digestibility of FA...

  13. Upgrade of Biofuels Obtained from Waste Fish Oil Pyrolysis by Reactive Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski Jr,Alberto; Wosniak,Lorena; Scharf,Dilamara R.; Wiggers,Vinicyus R.; Meier,Henry F.; Simionatto,Edesio L.

    2015-01-01

    Bio-oil is classified as second-generation biofuel and it is produced mainly through the pyrolysis of a waste lignocellulosic biomass base. The application of this product is still very limited, due to some of its chemical characteristics. This paper presents a proposal for the reduction of the acidity of bio-oil obtained from waste fish oil, previously produced and characterized as described in the literature, applying the reactive distillation process. This process is primarily based on the...

  14. Properties and antioxidant activity of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2012-10-01

    Properties of protein-based film from fish skin gelatin incorporated with different citrus essential oils, including bergamot, kaffir lime, lemon and lime (50% based on protein) in the presence of 20% and 30% glycerol were investigated. Films containing 20% glycerol had higher tensile strength (TS) but lower elongation at break (EAB), compared with those prepared with 30% glycerol, regardless of essential oils incorporated (plemon essential oil showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (pproperties of gelatin-based film from fish skin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidised fish oil does not influence established markers of oxidative stress in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottestad, Inger; Vogt, Gjermund; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    Intake of fish oil reduces the risk of CHD and CHD deaths. Marine n-3 fatty acids (FA) are susceptible to oxidation, but to our knowledge, the health effects of intake of oxidised fish oil have not previously been investigated in human subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate...... markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammation, and the level of plasma n-3 FA after intake of oxidised fish oil. In a double-blinded randomised controlled study, healthy subjects (aged 18–50 years, n 54) were assigned into one of three groups receiving capsules containing either 8 g....../d of fish oil (1·6 g/d EPA þ DHA; n 17), 8 g/d of oxidised fish oil (1·6 g/d EPA þ DHA; n 18) or 8 g/d of high-oleic sunflower oil (n 19). Fasting blood and morning spot urine samples were collected at weeks 0, 3 and 7. No significant changes between the different groups were observed with regard to urinary...

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Hammamieh

    Full Text Available The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD and standard lab diet (SD were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40% encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the

  17. Effects of fish oil and spirulina on oxidative stress and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chao, Jane C-J

    2014-12-06

    Altered plasma lipids, oxidative stress, and inflammation have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Fish oil has shown inconclusive effects on plasma lipids and oxidative stress. Spirulina has both cholesterol lowering and antioxidant properties. However, the effect of fish oil and spirulina on hypercholesterolemia has not been studied. We investigated the effects of fish oil, spirulina, and their combination on hypercholesterolemia. The hamsters were divided into 7 groups: control, high cholesterol (HF), fish oil (post FO), spirulina (post SP), and a combination of fish oil and spirulina (post SF, pre-SF, and HF + SF) groups. The HF and HF + SF groups were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The post FO, post SP, and post SF groups were given a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks and then the treatment for 4 weeks. The pre-SF group was given the combined treatment for 4 weeks and then a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks. The HF and HF + SF groups altered plasma lipids, increased oxidative stress, inhibited antioxidants, and increased inflammation. While the post FO group increased plasma lipids and was more atherogenic. The vice versa was observed in spirulina-treated group. Both the post SP and post SF groups inhibited oxidative stress and increased antioxidant status, and post FO and post SP diets regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines to near the control levels. Both single treatment of fish oil or spirulina inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. Treatment with a combination of fish oil and spirulina (post SF) may be beneficial for diet-induced hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

  18. Effect of supercritical fluid extraction on the reduction of toxic elements in fish oil compared with other extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Afsah-Hejri, Leili; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sarker, Mohd Zaidul Islam

    2015-01-01

    High-quality fish oil for human consumption requires low levels of toxic elements. The aim of this study was to compare different oil extraction methods to identify the most efficient method for extracting fish oil of high quality with the least contamination. The methods used in this study were Soxhlet extraction, enzymatic extraction, wet reduction, and supercritical fluid extraction. The results showed that toxic elements in fish oil could be reduced using supercritical CO2 at a modest temperature (60°C) and pressure (35 MPa) with little reduction in the oil yield. There were significant reductions in mercury (85 to 100%), cadmium (97 to 100%), and lead (100%) content of the fish oil extracted using the supercritical fluid extraction method. The fish oil extracted using conventional methods contained toxic elements at levels much higher than the accepted limits of 0.1 μg/g.

  19. Oxidative stability of biodiesel blends derived from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feroldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of biodiesel production is mainly linked to the price of raw material.This factor has favored the use of alternative fats and oils such as those used in frying. Since biodiesel can be obtained from several vegetable and animal raw materials, the physicochemical characteristics of the fuel may vary considerably. One of these characteristics is the fatty acid composition. It directly affects the oxidative stability of biodiesel, which can be impaired when the fuel undergoes exposure to sunlight, metals, oxygen and high temperatures. In order to improve the oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from waste frying oil some studies involving blends of different raw materials have been carried out. In this sense, this work aimed to assess the characteristics resulting from the blending of soybean waste frying oil with other waste biodiesels in what concerns to oxidation. The blends of fatty materials were obtained by means of a 2² factorial design. The induction periods of biodiesel blends were enough to meet the ASTM D6751 standard. Swine fat was responsible for the increase in the induction period values.

  20. Lipid-soluble nutrient status of healthy Omani school children before and after intervention with oily fish meal or re-esterified triglyceride fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ghannami, Samia; Sedlak, E.; Hussein, I. S.; Min, Yoeju; Al-Shmmkhi, S. M.; Al-Oufi, H. S.; Al-Mazroui A, A.; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab

    2016-01-01

    Objectives\\ud Over the last two decades, the Omani diet has changed considerably to resemble a high calorie and a low nutrient density Western diet. We investigated fat soluble nutrient status of children before and after intervention with fish diet or fish oil.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud Children aged 9 and 10 years (n=314) were recruited from a randomly selected three schools. The schools were assigned to fish, fish oil or control group and the children given a lightly grilled oily fish, a re-esteri...

  1. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  2. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted...... of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg-1. Three...

  3. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  4. Physiological and biochemical responses of small fish exposed to Athabasca oil sands sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetrault, G.R.; Environment Canada, Burlington, ON; McMaster, M.E.; Dixon, D.G.; Parrott, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of naturally occurring oil sands related compounds on the reproductive function and hepatic responses of fish. Wild fish, both exposed and unexposed to the compounds in question, were collected along with sediments for laboratory testing. The study showed that in vitro gonadal incubation levels of steroid production were lower at the tributary sites within the oil sands deposits. One indicator of exposure to oil sands related compounds (hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity) was shown to be 5 times higher at the same sites. In addition, slimy sculpin were exposed to sediment samples from the Steepbank River site for 4 to 8 days to evaluate the absorption of the indicator. The indicator in exposed fish was found to be comparable to that measured in fish native to the oil sands area. The study was not capable of predicting an altered ability of gonadal tissue of exposed fish to produce steroid hormones in vitro. It was concluded that future development could compromise the reproductive health of fish in the area

  5. Controlling the frying stability of vegetable oils with tocopherols and phytosterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyunsaturated vegetable oils are usually oxidatively stable for salad oils; however, in high stability applications such as frying, these oils are not resistant to the deteriorative processes of oxidation, hydrolysis and polymerization. To solve this problem in the past, oils were hydrogenated an...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine fish species in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent fish...

  7. Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Gardner, Luke D; Linbo, Tiffany L; Brown, Tanya L; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John D; French, Barbara L; Labenia, Jana S; Laetz, Cathy A; Tagal, Mark; Sloan, Catherine A; Elizur, Abigail; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2014-04-15

    The Deepwater Horizon disaster released more than 636 million L of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico. The spill oiled upper surface water spawning habitats for many commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species. Consequently, the developing spawn (embryos and larvae) of tunas, swordfish, and other large predators were potentially exposed to crude oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fish embryos are generally very sensitive to PAH-induced cardiotoxicity, and adverse changes in heart physiology and morphology can cause both acute and delayed mortality. Cardiac function is particularly important for fast-swimming pelagic predators with high aerobic demand. Offspring for these species develop rapidly at relatively high temperatures, and their vulnerability to crude oil toxicity is unknown. We assessed the impacts of field-collected Deepwater Horizon (MC252) oil samples on embryos of three pelagic fish: bluefin tuna, yellowfin tuna, and an amberjack. We show that environmentally realistic exposures (1-15 µg/L total PAH) cause specific dose-dependent defects in cardiac function in all three species, with circulatory disruption culminating in pericardial edema and other secondary malformations. Each species displayed an irregular atrial arrhythmia following oil exposure, indicating a highly conserved response to oil toxicity. A considerable portion of Gulf water samples collected during the spill had PAH concentrations exceeding toxicity thresholds observed here, indicating the potential for losses of pelagic fish larvae. Vulnerability assessments in other ocean habitats, including the Arctic, should focus on the developing heart of resident fish species as an exceptionally sensitive and consistent indicator of crude oil impacts.

  8. Iron-lactoferrin complex reduces iron-catalyzed off-flavor formation in powdered milk with added fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi M; Shiota, Makoto; Ueda, Noriko; Isogai, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2012-08-01

    The iron-lactoferrin complex (FeLf) is useful for dietary iron supplementation. However, the effects of FeLf on iron-catalyzed off-flavors in lipid-containing food products have not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of FeLf on off-flavors development during the production and storage of powdered milk with added fish oil. Powdered milk samples were formulated with FeLf or iron (II) sulfate, then stored at 37 °C for 5 mo. A sensory evaluation revealed that FeLf delayed the development of oxidized flavor and reduced metallic taste in the powdered milk compared with iron (II) sulfate. Headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that oxidized volatile compounds, such as pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, (E, E)-2,4-heptadienal, and (E)-2-octenal, were less developed in the powdered milk containing FeLf than in that containing iron (II) sulfate. Iron and lactoferrin (Lf) were retained in the high-molecular-weight (>10000 Da) fraction of the reconstituted FeLf-containing powdered milk after its manufacture and storage, whereas the antigenicity of Lf was lost after ultrahigh-temperature processing at 120 °C for 5 s. These results suggest that FeLf reduces the iron-catalyzed off-flavors that develop during the production and storage of powdered milk. The stable iron-holding property of FeLf contributes to the inhibition of oxidized and metallic volatile formation, although the loss of Lf antigenicity did not affect the stability of FeLf and the iron-catalyzed formation of off-flavors in the powdered milk. Consequently, FeLf is a suitable candidate for the simultaneous supplementation of a single food with iron and fish oil. The supplementation of food products with iron and fish oil is a useful approach to redressing their inadequate intake in many populations. The iron-lactoferrin complex can protect food products against the off-flavors caused by iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation. Our results

  9. Oxidative Stability of Nano-Microstructures containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    Electrohydrodynamic processing is a straightforward and versatile encapsulation technique suitable for the production of nano-microstructures (NMS) (e.g. fibers and capsules) containing bioactive compounds. The process is very gentle and does not require the use of heat, avoiding deterioration...... investigated. For that purpose, three different biopolymers namely pullulan, dextran and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated as encapsulating materials. First, the influence of biopolymer concentration on the physical properties (e.g. viscosity, conductivity and surface tension) of the biopolymer...

  10. Characterisation of fish oils of mukene (Rastrineobola argentae) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty acid composition of fishmeal obtained from samples collected from the two lakes and the Victoria Nile River was determined using chemometric method for five fish samples from each location and subjected to multivariate analysis. In each fish the fatty acids detected ranged from 14 to 24 carbons. Palmitic (16:00) ...

  11. Mercury, fish oils and the risk of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guallar, E.; Sanz-Gallardo, M.I.; Veer, van 't P.; Bode, P.; Aro, A.; Gomez-Aracena, J.; Kark, J.D.; Riemersma, R.A.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that mercury, a highly reactive heavy metal with no known physiologic activity, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Because fish intake is a major source of exposure to mercury, the mercury content of fish may counteract the beneficial effects of its n-3

  12. Marine Lipids (Omega-3 Oil) - Stability of Oil and Enriched Products During Production and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2015-01-01

    off-flavours and gives rise to unhealthy compounds such as free radicals and reactive aldehydes. Necessary prerequisites for successful development of omega-3 enriched products are that the oil used for enrichment is of a high quality and low in oxidation products and that oxidation of the lipids...... oxidation. As processing will often cause extra oxidative stress to the omega-3 oil, extrinsic factors are especially important to consider during processing. Due to the complexity of multiphase foods, it is very difficult to predict the oxidative stability and therefore the behaviour and efficacy...... of antioxidants in omega-3 oil enriched products and optimal composition and processing conditions must be evaluated for each product....

  13. The dynamic stability of OPEC's oil price mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines OPEC's long-lived mechanism which targets the oil price and adjusts the quality ceiling to meet the target. The stability of this controversial mechanism is compared to that of two alternatives: one requires quantity control without any price targeting and the other is a synthesis of quantity control and the OPEC mechanisms. All three mechanisms passed the stability test and the two alternatives give rise to some interesting policy implications. Practicality considerations which involve the availability of specific information make OPEC's mechanism the most appropriate in terms of achieved targeted revenues. The paper also offers a convergence strategy that speeds up the achievement of targeted revenues under OPEC's current mechanism. (author)

  14. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookies from Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patin fish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil using spray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2 and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s results was fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measure yield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for the best treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulated yield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%. Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oil was 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was 18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under five year children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximateanalysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%, fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookies owned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.

  15. Fish oil and olive oil can modify insulin resistance and plasma desacyl-ghrelin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Saidpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence exists for reciprocal effects of insulin and desacyl-ghrelin (DAG concentration, but the association between different fatty acid saturation in high fat diet (HFD and these hormones remain to be established. To evaluate the impact of different sources of dietary fat and the level of fatty acid saturation on plasma insulin and DAG levels and also the association of DAG with insulin action this study was carried out. Methods: Male weaning Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of HFDs, high fat butter (HF-B, high fat soy (HF-S, high fat olive (HF-O, high fat fish (HF-F, and a group of standard diet (SD. Blood samples were collected after 8 weeks and after they were fasted for 24 h. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, insulin, DAG and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were measured. Results: Plasma insulin levels at fed and fasted status, were significantly higher in rats on HF-B compared to those on SD, HF-F and HF-O diets (P<0.05. Insulin concentration in rats on HF-S was also higher than those on SD, HF-F and HF-O diets (P<0.05, in the feeding status. Insulin resistance was significantly higher in rats on HF-B, compared to those on SD, HF-F and HF-O (P<0.05. Rats that were fed with HF-B diet had lower fasting plasma DAG levels than the SD, HF-F and HF-O groups (P<0.05; furthermore, the HF-F group had significantly higher DAG level than the HF-S groups (P<0.05. Conclusions: Fish and olive oils may hence contribute to lower insulin level and HOMA-IR by increasing DAG concentration and may have more health benefits than other fat sources in diets.

  16. Comparison of bioavailability of krill oil versus fish oil and health effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulven SM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stine M Ulven,1 Kirsten B Holven2 1Department of Health, Nutrition and Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, 2Department of Nutrition, Institute for Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Background: The aim of this review is to summarize the effects of krill oil (KO or fish oil (FO on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA incorporation in plasma phospholipids or membrane of red blood cells (RBCs as shown in human and animal studies. Furthermore, we discuss the findings in relation to the possible different health effects, focusing on lipids, inflammatory markers, cardiovascular disease risk, and biological functions of these two sources of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed in January 2015. In total, 113 articles were identified, but based on selection criteria, 14 original papers were included in the review. Results: Studies on bioavailability of EPA and DHA from KO and FO in humans and animals are limited and the interpretation is difficult, as different amounts of EPA and DHA have been used, duration of intervention differs, and different study groups have been included. Two human studies – one postprandial study and one intervention study – used the same amount of EPA and DHA from KO or FO, and they both showed that the bioavailability of EPA and DHA from KO seems to be higher than that from FO. Limited effects of KO and FO on lipids and inflammatory markers in human and animal studies were reported. Gene expression data from animal studies showed that FO upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite of the effect mediated by KO. KO also regulated far more metabolic pathways than FO, which may indicate different biological effects of KO and FO. Conclusion: There seems to be a difference in bioavailability of EPA and DHA after intake of KO and FO, but

  17. Incorporation of medium chain fatty acids into fish oil triglycerides by chemical and enzymatic inter esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltes, M. M. C.; Oliveira de Pilot, L.; Gomes Correira, F.; Grimaldi, R.; Mara Block, J.; Ninow, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Structured triglycerides (STs) containing both medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the same molecule offer nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this work was to establish the incorporation of MCFA into fish oil triglycerides (TAGs), while maintaining substantial levels of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The effects of different acyl donors (capric acid methyl ester/MeC10 or medium chain triglyceride/TCM) and of the catalyst (chemical or enzymatic) on the fatty acid composition of the reaction product were studied. The fatty acid composition of the fish oil TAG was modified after inter esterification to contain MCFA, and it depended on the catalyst and on the substrates. Thermo grams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed that inter esterification promoted noteworthy changes in the melting profile of the samples. STs of clinical nutrition interest containing both EPA and DHA obtained from fish oil along with MCFA were successfully produced. (Author) 70 refs.

  18. Lipoprotein responses to fish, coconut and soybean oil diets with and without cholesterol in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M H; Lu, S C; Hsieh, J W; Huang, P C

    1995-12-01

    Thirty-six young male Syrian hamsters were fed with test diets containing coconut oil, soybean oil or fish oil with and without 0.5% cholesterol for 6 weeks. Without dietary cholesterol supplementation, animals on the fish oil diet had significantly lower plasma total triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol than those on the coconut oil or soybean oil diet. The decrease of TG was seen mainly in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction. The degree of decrease in cholesterol was similar in all of the lipoprotein fractions. With 0.5% dietary cholesterol supplementation, there was no significant difference in plasma TG level among the three dietary groups. However, the fish oil group had significantly higher plasma cholesterol than the coconut oil and soybean oil groups. The increase of cholesterol was mainly in the VLDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions. In contrast to the plasma cholesterol level, the hepatic cholesteryl ester content was significantly lower in the cholesterol-supplemented fish oil group than in the coconut oil and soybean oil counterparts. The cholesterol-supplemented fish oil group showed higher liver microsomal acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity than the other two groups, while there was no significant difference in the excretion of fecal neutral and acidic sterols among the three dietary groups.

  19. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was designed to examine the cardiovascular effects of ozone and the efficacy of FO and OO-rich diets in attenuating these effects of ozone exposure in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet (ND), or a diet enriched with 6% FO or OO starting at 4 weeks of age. Eight weeks following the start of the diet, animals were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 0.8 ppm ozone, 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. Immediately after exposure, cardiac responses were assessed ex vivo using a Langendorff heart preparation with a protocol consisting of 20 min of global ischemia followed by 2 hr reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured as the index of left-ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and contractility (dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin) before ischemia. Upon reperfusion after ischemia, the recovery of post-ischemic LVDP and infarct size were examined. Results: The pre-ischemic LVDP, dP/dtmax, and dP/dtmin were lower after ozone exposure when compared to the FA control in the rats fed ND but not FO and OO. OO diet shortened the time to ischemic contracture of the hearts after FA exposure compared to ND. Ozone exposure increased pre-ischemic heart rate and the time to ischemic contractur

  20. Use Carum copticum essential oil for controlling the Listeria monocytogenes growth in fish model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Rabiey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Carum copticum essential oil (Ajowan EO against Listeria monocytogenes in fish model system. Ajowan EO chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis and the highest concentration of Carum copticum essential oil without any significant changes on sensory properties of kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum was assigned. Then the inhibitory effect of Ajowan EO at different concentrations in presence of salt and smoke component was tested on L. monocytogenes growth in fish peptone broth (FPB, kutum broth and cold smoked kutum broth at 4 ºC for 12 days. Ajowan EO completely decreased the number of L. monocytogenes in FPB after 12 days of storage, however, antimicrobial effect of EO significantly reduced in kutum and cold smoked kutum broth. Addition of 4% NaCl and smoke component improved the anti-listerial activity of Ajowan EO in all fish model broths.

  1. Diversity and stability in Mississippi stream fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocob F. Schaefer; Scott R. Clark; Melvin L. Jr. Warren

    2012-01-01

    Positive correlations between diversity and stability have been reported for a number of ecosystems and are thought to be caused by a stabilizing effect of differential species’ responses to environmental perturbation. Empirical field studies in which investigators tested for diversity–stability relationships are lacking for some taxonomic groups and typically have not...

  2. Amelioration of ischemic acute renal failure by dietary fish oil administration in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayer, H H; Heinrich, M; Schmissas, M; Haller, H; Wagner, K; Luft, F C

    1992-12-01

    The hypothesis that dietary fish oil would protect dogs from ischemic acute renal failure was tested. Fish oil (eicosapentaenoic acid, 55 mg/kg per day, and docosahexaenoic acid, 40 mg/kg per day was given to eight instrumented, female, beagle dogs for 6 wk, while seven control dogs received vehicle. After 3 wk, unilateral nephrectomy was performed and a pneumatic cuff with flow probe was placed around the remaining renal artery of each dog. Three weeks thereafter, the cuff was inflated for 120 min. Renal function, RBF, and prostanoid excretion were measured 24 and 72 h after ischemia. In dogs receiving fish oil, blood pressure, GFR, RBF, renal vascular resistance (RVR), cholesterol, triglycerides, and prostanoid excretion were measured weekly for 6 wk. Further, cytosolic calcium was measured before and five times after fish oil. Blood pressure decreased, serum cholesterol and triglycerides decreased, and the cytosolic calcium within platelets decreased. The urinary excretion (expressed as picograms per milligram of creatinine) of the thromboxane (TX) metabolite TXB2 and the excretion of prostaglandin (PG)E2, as well as the excretion of the PGI2 metabolite 6-keto PGF1 alpha were decreased. GFR, RBF (Cl inulin and Cl para-aminohippuric acid), and RVR were not influenced by fish oil. Unilateral nephrectomy decreased GFR and RBF and increased RVR as expected, whereas it further decreased prostanoid excretion. Acute renal ischemia caused a significant, reversible decrease in GFR and urine volume in vehicle-treated animals, whereas no significant effect on renal function or urine volume was observed in animals pretreated with fish oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Prenatal fish oil supplementation and early childhood development in the Upstate KIDS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollet, K; Ghassabian, A; Sundaram, R; Chahal, N; Yeung, E H

    2017-08-01

    Fish oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, which play a vital role in fetal growth and development. In utero exposure to omega-3 fatty acids is exclusively dependent on maternal nutrition. Previous studies have suggested that prenatal fish oil supplementation has positive impacts on child neurodevelopment later in life. This study examines the associations between fish oil supplementation both before pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and subsequent child development. Mother-child pairs from the Upstate KIDS Study, a birth cohort consisting of children born between 2008 and 2010, were included. Self-reported prenatal fish oil supplementation data were available for 5845 children (3807 singletons and 2038 twins). At multiple time points, from 4 months to 3 years of age, child development was reported by the parents on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Five developmental domains were assessed: fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning and problem solving. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) while adjusting for covariates. Primary analyses showed that the risk of failing the ASQ problem-solving domain was significantly lower among children of women who took fish oil before pregnancy (OR 0.40, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.18-0.89) and during pregnancy (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.83). Gender interaction was not statistically significant, although stratified results indicated stronger associations among girls. Similarly, associations were primarily among singletons. Prenatal fish oil supplementation may be beneficial in regards to neurodevelopment. Specifically, it is associated with a lower risk of failing the problem-solving domain up to 3 years of age.

  4. Effect of unsaponifiable matter extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil on the oxidative stability of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Estakhr, Parviz; Jelyani, Aniseh Zarei

    2017-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the improvement of oxidative stability of refined olive oil using various concentrations of unsaponifiable matters extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil (UFO). For further elucidation of UFO antioxidative power, tertbutylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was used in an olive oil sample, too. Oxidative stability of olive oil samples without and with different levels of UFO (50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) and TBHQ (100 ppm) were studied via evaluation of conjugated diene value, carbonyl value, oil/oxidative stability index, acid value and total tocopherol (TT) contents through 8 h thermal process at 170 °C. Results obtained by oxidative stability assays revealed that the highest antioxidative activity of olive oil was obtained by 100 ppm of UFO, followed using 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 ppm of UFO and 100 ppm TBHQ, respectively. Evaluation of the relationship between oxidative stability indexes and TT changes indicated a strong correlation (R 2  = 0.9718) between mean relative resistance to oxidation and relative resistance to TT reduction during thermal process. By promotion of relative resistance to TT reduction, olive oil samples' relative resistance to oxidation was enhanced exponentially; implying importance of TT in promotion of oxidative stability of edible oils. The results obtained in this study showed that UFO has higher antioxidative activity compared to TBHQ; thus UFO can be considered as a natural antioxidant with ideal antioxidative activity.

  5. Dietary fish oil (4 g daily) and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jespersen, J

    1997-01-01

    Some epidemiological observations indicate that 1 to 2 weekly servings of fish prevent ischemic heart disease (IHD). This might be explained by an effect of the very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 VLCPUFA) of fish oil on lipid metabolism and/or the hemostatic system, both involved...... VLCPUFA effect that could contribute to primary prevention of IHD in healthy middle-aged men as assessed by currently measurable lipid and hemostatic risk markers. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Dec...

  6. Long-term consumption of fish oil-enriched diet impairs serotonin hypophagia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Regina L H; Andrade, Iracema S; Telles, Mônica M; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Casarini, Dulce E; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2010-10-01

    Hypothalamic serotonin inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure. High-fat feeding is obesogenic, but the role of polyunsaturated fats is not well understood. This study examined the influence of different high-PUFA diets on serotonin-induced hypophagia, hypothalamic serotonin turnover, and hypothalamic protein levels of serotonin transporter (ST), and SR-1B and SR-2C receptors. Male Wistar rats received for 9 weeks from weaning a diet high in either soy oil or fish oil or low fat (control diet). Throughout 9 weeks, daily intake of fat diets decreased such that energy intake was similar to that of the control diet. However, the fish group developed heavier retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots. After 12 h of either 200 or 300 μg intracerebroventricular serotonin, food intake was significantly inhibited in control group (21-25%) and soy group (37-39%) but not in the fish group. Serotonin turnover was significantly lower in the fish group than in both the control group (-13%) and the soy group (-18%). SR-2C levels of fish group were lower than those of control group (50%, P = 0.02) and soy group (37%, P = 0.09). ST levels tended to decrease in the fish group in comparison to the control group (16%, P = 0.339) and the soy group (21%, P = 0.161). Thus, unlike the soy-oil diet, the fish-oil diet decreased hypothalamic serotonin turnover and SR-2C levels and abolished serotonin-induced hypophagia. Fish-diet rats were potentially hypophagic, suggesting that, at least up to this point in its course, the serotonergic impairment was either compensated by other factors or not of a sufficient extent to affect feeding. That fat pad weight increased in the absence of hyperphagia indicates that energy expenditure was affected by the serotonergic hypofunction.

  7. Fish oil increases mitochondrial phospholipid unsaturation, upregulating reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in rat colonocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Chapkin, Robert S.; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C.; Turner, Nancy D.; Henderson, Cara E.; Sanders, Lisa M.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Davidson, Laurie A.; Murphy, Mary E.; hide

    2002-01-01

    We have shown that a combination of fish oil (high in n-3 fatty acids) with the butyrate-producing fiber pectin, upregulates apoptosis in colon cells exposed to the carcinogen azoxymethane, protecting against colon tumor development. We now hypothesize that n-3 fatty acids prime the colonocytes such that butyrate can initiate apoptosis. To test this, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with diets differing in the fatty acid composition (corn oil, fish oil or a purified fatty acid ethyl ester diet). Intact colon crypts were exposed ex vivo to butyrate, and analyzed for reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), translocation of cytochrome C to the cytosol, and caspase-3 activity (early events in apoptosis). The fatty acid composition of the three major mitochondrial phospholipids was also determined, and an unsaturation index calculated. The unsaturation index in cardiolipin was correlated with ROS levels (R = 0.99; P = 0.02). When colon crypts from fish oil and FAEE-fed rats were exposed to butyrate, MMP decreased (P = 0.041); and translocation of cytochrome C to the cytosol (P = 0.037) and caspase-3 activation increased (P = 0.032). The data suggest that fish oil may prime the colonocytes for butyrate-induced apoptosis by enhancing the unsaturation of mitochondrial phospholipids, especially cardiolipin, resulting in an increase in ROS and initiating apoptotic cascade.

  8. Physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and oil release of fish gelatin films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiulin Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with various concentrations of cinnamon essential oil (CEO were prepared and characterized. The results showed that tensile strength (TS, elongation at break (EAB, and water content (WC of the gelatin based film decreased with the increasing concentrations of CEO, but water vapor permeability (WVP increased. Addition of CEO improved light barrier property of the film. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed that the heterogeneous surface and porous formation appeared in gelatin-CEO films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses (FTIR-ATR spectra indicated the interactions existed between gelatin and CEO. The gelatin-CEO films exhibited good inhibitory effects against the tested microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, and Paecilomyces varioti and their antifungal activity seemed to be more effective than the resistance to bacterial growth. In vitro release studies showed an initial burst effect of CEO release and that subsequently slowed down at 40 °C, but the initial burst release was not obvious at 4 °C. The obtained results suggested that incorporation of CEO as a natural antimicrobial agent into gelatin film has potential for developing as active food packaging.

  9. Fish oil and olive oil can modify insulin resistance and plasma desacyl-ghrelin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidpour, Atoosa; Zahediasl, Saleh; Kimiagar, Masoud; Vafa, Mohamadreza; Ghasemi, Asghar; Abadi, Alireza; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Zarkesh, Maryam

    2011-07-01

    Evidence exists for reciprocal effects of insulin and desacyl-ghrelin (DAG) concentration, but the association between different fatty acid saturation in high fat diet (HFD) and these hormones remain to be established. To evaluate the impact of different sources of dietary fat and the level of fatty acid saturation on plasma insulin and DAG levels and also the association of DAG with insulin action this study was carried out. Male weaning Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of HFDs, high fat butter (HF-B), high fat soy (HF-S), high fat olive (HF-O), high fat fish (HF-F), and a group of standard diet (SD). Blood samples were collected after 8 weeks and after they were fasted for 24 h. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, insulin, DAG and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured. Plasma insulin levels at fed and fasted status, were significantly higher in rats on HF-B compared to those on SD, HF-F and HF-O diets (Polive oils may hence contribute to lower insulin level and HOMA-IR by increasing DAG concentration and may have more health benefits than other fat sources in diets.

  10. Effect of dietary fish oil on renal function and rejection in cyclosporine-treated recipients of renal transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, J. J.; Bilo, H. J.; Donker, J. M.; Wilmink, J. M.; Tegzess, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dietary fish oil exerts effects on renal hemodynamics and the immune response that may benefit renal-transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine. To evaluate this possibility, we studied the effect of fish oil on renal function, blood pressure, and the incidence of acute rejection episodes in

  11. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of effects of dietary fish oil on total fatty acid composition in mouse skin

    OpenAIRE

    Peiru Wang; Min Sun; Jianwei Ren; Zora Djuric; Gary J. Fisher; Xiuli Wang; Yong Li

    2017-01-01

    Altering the fatty acid (FA) composition in the skin by dietary fish oil could provide therapeutic benefits. Although it has been shown that fish oil supplementation enhances EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) abundance in the skin, comprehensive skin FA profiling is needed. We established a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which allows precise quantification of FA profile using small (

  12. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00...

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  14. Study of fish oil bleaching using the sodium bentonite through a factorial design

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Regina Simões; Reinaldo Aparecido Bariccatti; Caio Guilherme Secco Souza; José Dilson Silva de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This work was a experimental design in order to optimize the process of bleaching of fish oil, using the sodium bentonite as adsorbent, from the influence of variables such as weight of sodium bentonite, the temperature process, thermal activation of sodium bentonite and time of agitation. It was then possible to fit a mathematical model with the influence of each variable in the process of bleaching of the oil. The response variable was the absorbance at 444 nm.

  15. Study of fish oil bleaching using the sodium bentonite through a factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Simões

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was a experimental design in order to optimize the process of bleaching of fish oil, using the sodium bentonite as adsorbent, from the influence of variables such as weight of sodium bentonite, the temperature process, thermal activation of sodium bentonite and time of agitation. It was then possible to fit a mathematical model with the influence of each variable in the process of bleaching of the oil. The response variable was the absorbance at 444 nm.

  16. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills.Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea.It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  17. Physical stability and clinical efficacy of Crocodylus niloticus oil lotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telanie Venter

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The stability and the anti-ageing, skin hydrating and anti-erythema effects of a commercialized Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, Crocodylidae, oil lotion was determined. The lotion was stored at controlled conditions over six months during which several stability tests were performed. For the clinical efficacy studies lotion was applied on volar forearm skin (female volunteers and compared to a liquid paraffin-containing reference product. Skin hydrating and anti-ageing effects were determined with a Corneometer®, Cutometer® and Visioscan®, following single (3 h and multiple applications (12 weeks. The Vapometer® and Mexameter® were utilized to determine this lotion's anti-erythema effects on sodium lauryl sulfate irritated skin. The lotion demonstrated good stability over 6 months. The reference product increased skin hydration and decreased skin wrinkles to a larger extent than the C. niloticus lotion after a single application, whereas the C. niloticus lotion decreased skin scaliness better than the reference product. During the long-term study, the reference product overall increased skin hydration more than the C. niloticus lotion, whereas C. niloticus lotion increased skin elasticity to a larger extent than the reference product. C. niloticus lotion increased skin wrinkles and decreased skin scaliness over 12 weeks. Compared to non-treated, irritated skin, C. niloticus lotion demonstrated some potential anti-inflammatory characteristics.

  18. Maternal Intake of Fish Oil but not of Linseed Oil Reduces the Antibody Response in Neonatal Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, T. M. R.; Porsgaard, Trine

    2011-01-01

    Dietary levels of n-3 PUFA are believed to influence the immune system. The importance of the source of n-3 PUFA is debated. This study addressed how the content and source of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet influenced tissue FA composition and the immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice pups....... From the day of conception and throughout lactation, dams were fed diets containing 4% fat from linseed oil (LSO), fish oil (FO) or a n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (DEF). Pups were injected with OVA within 24 h of birth and sacrificed at weaning (day 21). Overall, the content of n-3 PUFA in milk, liver...

  19. Linking hematological, biochemical, genotoxic, and behavioral responses to crude oil in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; de Azevedo Brust, Sandra Maristher; Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt Valdez; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2013-08-01

    Despite safety protocols, crude oil extraction and transportation in the Amazon basin has a potential for inadvertent oil spills, which can impact aquatic organisms in local rivers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of crude oil on juvenile Amazonian fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, at various biological levels. Furthermore, the effect of crude oil on response to alarm substance, an important communication system in fish, was reported for the first time. Fish exposed to crude oil showed a 90 % decrease in their response to alarm substance and a 60 % decrease in swimming activity relative to control fish. Basic hematology was not affected, although an increase of 200 % of DNA damage and an increase of GST activity were observed in animals exposed to crude oil. Inverse correlations were found between genotoxicity end points and behavioral parameters, suggesting that genotoxic end points can also reflect behavioral changes.

  20. Composition and flavor of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil, extruded soybeans, or their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N; Baer, R J; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kasperson, K M; Whitlock, L A

    2001-10-01

    Milk was collected from eight multiparous Holstein and four multiparous Brown Swiss cows that were distributed into four groups and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four 4-wk periods. The four treatments included a control diet of a 50:50 ratio of forage-to-concentrate; a fish oil diet of the control diet with 2% (on dry matter basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil; a fish oil with extruded soybean diet of the control diet with 1% (on dry matter basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil and 1% (on dry matter basis) added fat from extruded soybeans; and an extruded soybean diet of the control diet with 2% (on dry matter basis) added fat from extruded soybeans. Milk from cows fed control, fish oil, fish oil with extruded soybean, and extruded soybean diets contained 3.31, 2.58, 2.94, and 3.47% fat, respectively. Concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid in milk were highest in the fish oil (2.30 g/100 g of fatty acids) and fish oil with extruded soybean (2.17 g/100 g of fatty acids) diets compared with the control (0.56 g/100 g fatty acids) diet. Milk, cream, butter, and buttermilk from the fish oil, fish oil with extruded soybean, and extruded soybean diets had higher concentrations of transvaccenic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with the controls. Butter made from the extruded soybean diet was softest compared with all treatments. An experienced sensory panel found no flavor differences in milks or butters.

  1. Effects of increasing dietary concentrations of fish oil on lamb performance, ruminal fermentation, and leptin gene expression in perirenal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Abel Hernández-García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of four levels of fish oil on lamb performance, carcass yield, ruminal fermentation, and leptin gene expression in perirenal fat. Thirty-two lambs (24.10±2.15 kg, Katahdin × Pelibuey were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The lambs were assigned to one of four dietary treatments (n = 8 lambs/treatment, expressed as g/kg DM basis: 0 fish oil and 300 corn; 10 fish oil and 250 corn; 20 fish oil and 205 corn; and 30 fish oil and 170 corn. The lambs were weighed on consecutive days at the beginning (days 0 and 1 and at the end (days 55 and 56 of the trial. Ruminal fluid samples were collected on day 56 to evaluate the ruminal fermentation pattern. The lambs were slaughtered on day 56; perirenal adipose tissue samples were collected and the carcass yields were recorded. Volatile fatty acids, ammonia N, and leptin mRNA expression were not affected by the dietary treatments. However, the dry matter intake, average daily gain, final body weight, and the hot carcass yield showed either increased linear or quadratic responses as the proportion of fish oil increased in the ration; the estimated optimal level obtained of fish oil levels for average daily gain was 11.2±0.21 g/kg and 12.8±4.67 g/kg for feed conversion. Additionally, feed efficiency and backfat thickness had an increment, showing quadratic response as the proportion of fish oil increased in the diet. Increasing the fish oil concentration in the diet does not affect leptin messenger ribonucleic acid expression. The lamb performance can be improved with 12 g/kg fish oil in diets of finishing lambs.

  2. Association Between Fish Oil Consumption and the Incidence of Mental Health Issues Among Active Duty Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    contradictory results can be obtained based on the percentage of EPA to DHA in the omega-3 (p. 1574). As well, each study uses different daily dosages of fish ...higher odds can potentially indicate a reverse causality, in that people with depressive symptoms might be advised to take fish oil. However, that...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FISH OIL

  3. Oxidative stability of refrigerated fish pates containing loquat seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Piccolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of hydroethanolic E. japonica seed extracts (EJSE as inhibitors of lipid and protein oxidation on fish pates subjected to refrigerated storage. Five fish pate formulations were developed. These formulations included two control pates (water-control and ascorbic acid-control and three pates with added EJSE (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4g of seed 100g-1 product, equivalent to 3.4, 6.8 or 13.6mg phenolic compounds kg-1 product, which were then stored under refrigeration for 35 days. Conjugated dienes (CD and peroxide (PV values increased along with the storage time; however, these values decreased and were similar among all samples at the end of 35 days of analysis (P<0.05. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels (TBARS did not change along the storage and were not affected by the EJSE. Additionally, there was a linear increase in the protein carbonyl content of fish pates over the storage period (P<0.05, but no effect of EJSE on protein oxidation. The results show that, at the concentrations evaluated, hydroethanolic E. japonica seed extract was unable to inhibit or reduce lipid and protein oxidation in fish pates, but the observed phenolic content emphasizes the need for further studies on the wastes of this fruit.

  4. Deposition and mobilization of lipids varies across the rainbow trout fillet during feed deprivation and transition from plant to fish oil-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying aquaculture feeding strategies that reduce the consumption of fish oil without sacrificing the cardioprotective lipid profile of the salmonid fillet will improve aquafeed economics and sustainability. Transitioning fish from a plant oil-based diet to a finishing diet rich in fish oil an...

  5. Comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of fenofibrate and fish oil treatments in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Wopereis, S.; Müller, M.; Kersten, S.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of fenofibrate and fish oil treatments in mice. Physiol Genomics 43: 1307-1318, 2011. First published September 27, 2011; doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00100.2011. Elevated circulating triglycerides, which are considered a risk factor for

  6. Fish oil LC-PUFAs do not affect blood coagulation parameters and bleeding manifestations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeansen, Stephanie; Witkamp, Renger F.; Garthoff, Jossie A.; Helvoort, van Ardy; Calder, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the

  7. Effects of dietary fish oil and flax seed on cholesterol and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the supplementation of different levels of fish oil (FO) and flax seed (FS) in the diets of layers on the content of egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol, blood parameters, egg production and egg quality criteria. In the experiment, a total of 120 Isa-White laying hens of 34 weeks of ...

  8. Influence of Production Process Parameters on Fish Oil Quality in a Pilot Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.; Kreb, N.; Boonman, M.; Luten, J.B.; Boom, R.M.; Padt, van der A.

    2003-01-01

    A pilot plant used for upgrading herring byproducts into fish oil was analyzed on its operational efficiency and product quality. The temperature of the heat exchanger and the speeds of the pump and the 3-phase decanter were varied according to a 23 fractional factorial design. The initial amount of

  9. Exercise performance, red blood cell deformability, and lipid peroxidation: effects of fish oil and vitamin E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G. S.; Mensink, R. P.; Hardeman, M. R.; de Vries, T.; Brouns, F.; Hornstra, G.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell (RBC) deformability, which may improve exercise performance. Exercise alone, or in combination with an increase in fatty acid unsaturation, however, may enhance lipid peroxidation. Effects of a bicycle time trial

  10. Dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) enhances pancreatic carcinogenesis in azaserine-treated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, M.J.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study the putative chemopreventive effect of dietary fish oil (MaxEPA) on azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats was investigated. Groups of rats were maintained on a semipurified low-fat (LF; 5 wt%) diet or on semipurified high-fat (HF; 25 wt%) diets containing 5 wt%

  11. Incorporated sarcolemmal fish oil fatty acids shorten pig ventricular action potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A.O.; Ginneken, van A.C.G.; Berecki, G.; Ruijter, den H.M.; Schumacher, C.A.; Veldkamp, M.W.; Baartscheer, A.; Casini, S.; Opthof, T.; Hovenier, R.; Fiolet, J.W.T.; Zock, P.L.; Coronel, R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (W-PUFAs) from fish oil reduce the risk of sudden death presumably by preventing life-threatening arrhythmias. Acutely administered omega 3-PUFAs modulate the activity of several cardiac ion channels, but the chronic effects of a diet enriched with

  12. Potent Protective Effect Of α -Tocopherol And Fish Oil On In Vivo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential protective role of α-tocopherol and fish oil against oxidative damage induced by paraquat were investigated. Forty male albino rats with average body weight of 100-120 gm were housed in 8 groups of 5 rats each. The first group served as control and injected with saline, group 2 was injected with a single dose ...

  13. Comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of fenofibrate and fish oil treatments in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Wopereis, S.; Muller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated circulating triglycerides, which are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, can be targeted by treatment with fenofibrate or fish oil. To gain insight into underlying mechanisms, we carried out a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis of the effect of 2 wk

  14. Comparative transcriptomics and metabolomic analysis of fenofibrate and fish oil treatments in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Yingchang (Kevin), Y.; Boekschoten, Mark; Wopereis, Suzan; Muller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2011-01-01

    Elevated circulating triglycerides, which are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, can be targeted by treatment with fenofibrate or fish oil. To gain insight into underlying mechanisms, we carried out a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis of the effect of 2 week

  15. Fish gill responses to pollutants from oil sands mining-associated waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.E.J.; Willfang, S.; Lamb, M.P.; Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    The processing of Athabasca Deposit oil sands results in large amounts of liquid wastes associated with oil sand tailings. In addition to containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these waste waters are high in salinity and naphthenic acids which may be toxic to aquatic biota and their effects must be clarified. This study presents a suite of tests for in-depth and quick analysis of tailings water toxicity and contributes to the assessment of environmental risk. Yellow perch, fathead minnows, and rainbow trout were exposed to reclamation ponds where both in vivo and in vitro evaluation of crude and individual naphthenic acids and salts were conducted to examine their effect on fish gills which are very susceptible to contaminants. The fish exposed to the reclamation ponds showed higher incidence of gill pathological changes than control fish in Mildred Lake, a reservoir lake whose waters are diverted for use in oil sands extraction. Notable gill histopathological changes were observed when fish were exposed in vivo to sulfate/chloride salts and to abietic acid. Changes in membrane integrity, lysosomal activity and general morphology were observed when fished were exposed in vitro to salts, commercial napthenic acids or crude naphthenic extracts from the reclamation ponds

  16. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), from fish oil (FO), in rodents have been shown to reduce adipogenesis. Evidence of an effect on adipose tissue mass in humans is limited, and no studies have specifically aimed to elucidate this in infancy. To explore whether n-3 LCPUFA...... that dietary n-3 LCPUFA is important for infant fat mass, but future studies testing this specifically are warranted. ABBREVIATIONS::...

  17. Utilization of fish meal and fish oil for production of Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455 lipase and hydrolysis of polyurethane thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukarasu, K; Purushothaman, S; Gowthaman, M K; Nakajima-Kambe, T; Rose, C; Kamini, N R

    2015-09-01

    Fish meal has been used as an additional nitrogen source and fish oil as inducer for the growth and production of lipase from Cryptococcus sp. MTCC 5455. A response surface design illustrated that the optimum factors influencing lipase production were fish meal, 1.5 %, w/v, Na2HPO4, 0.2 %, w/v, yeast extract, 0.25 %, w/v and sardine oil, 2.0 %, w/v with an activity of 71.23 U/mL at 96 h and 25 °C, which was 48.39 % higher than the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. The crude concentrated enzyme hydrolyzed polyurethane (PUR) efficiently and hydrolysis was 94 % at 30 °C and 96 h. The products, diethylene glycol and adipic acid were quantified by HPLC and scanning electron microscopic studies of the degraded polymer showed significant increase in size of the holes from 24 to 72 h of incubation. Hydrolysis of PUR within 96 h makes the lipase novel for disposal of PUR and provides an innovative solution to the problems created by plastic wastes.

  18. The effect of dietary fish oil-supplementation to healthy young men on oxidative burst measured by whole blood chemiluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt, Stine; Timm, Michael; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2008-01-01

    a randomised 2 £ 2-factorial design in which subjects were randomly assigned to 8-week supplementation with capsules containing fish oil (about 29 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or olive oil (control). Subjects were also randomly assigned to household use of oils and fat spreads with a high or a low 18 : 2n-6 content...... by the fish oil-supplementation (P,0001, compared to the olive oil groups). No effect of the intervention was observed on neutrophil count, but one measure of the zymosan-induced oxidative burst was higher in the fish oil groups (P¼003) compared to the olive oil groups. The fat intervention did not in itself...

  19. Dietary fish oil intake: effects on glomerular prostanoid formation, hemodynamics, and proteinuria in nephrotoxic serum nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiss, F; Schoeppe, W; Germann, P; Stahl, R A

    1990-08-01

    Dietary fish oil intake improves glomerular pathology and proteinuria in murine models of autoimmune disease. We evaluated glomerular prostanoid formation, glomerular hemodynamics, and proteinuria in rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) to test whether this beneficial effect of marine lipids also applies to other animal models of glomerular immune injury. Rats were fed diets (8 weeks) containing either cod liver oil or sunflower oil. NSN was induced with a rabbit anti-rat glomerular basement membrane antiserum. Antibody injection significantly stimulated glomerular thromboxane B2 (TxB2) formation in animals fed cod liver oil and sunflower oil at 2 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days. TxB2 production in glomeruli of sunflower oil rats, however, was five to seven times higher when compared with that in rats fed cod liver oil. The dietary regimen led to a significant decrease of glomerular TxB2 and prostaglandin E2 formation in the animals receiving cod liver oil when compared with those fed sunflower oil. Induction of NSN resulted in a significant fall of inulin clearance (Cin) and paraaminohippurate clearance at 2 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days in both groups. The decrease in Cin at 2 hours was greater in rats fed cod liver oil when compared with animals receiving sunflower oil (p less than 0.02); it was not different, however, at 24 hours and 7 days. Animals with NSN developed proteinuria. There was no difference in protein excretion between rats fed cod liver oil or those fed sunflower oil (days 2 and 7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and offspring risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Maslova, E.; Hansen, S.

    2013-01-01

    pregnancy as participants in: the RCT90, a single center trial enrolling normal pregnancies in 1990, and FOTIP, a multicenter trial enrolling high-risk pregnancies during 1990–1996. We used definitions of ADHD and depression based on ICD-10 codes and drug dispensary data, using information on first....... Objective: To examine the effect of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on offspring risk of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Methods: We used data from 397 and 654 singleton offspring of mothers who were randomized to fish oil (providing 1 g/day of DHA) or olive oil during...... prescription/hospital contact as a proxy for ADHD and depression, respectively. We performed intention-to-treat analysis and report odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI comparing the two intervention groups. Results: There were 17 and 35 cases of ADHD among offspring to participants in RCT90 and FOTIP, respectively...

  1. Dietary fish oil modulates the effect of dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmy, G. E.; Khalil, W. K. B.; Moharib, S. A.; Kawab, A. A.; Jwanny, E. W.

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group). The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH17 group). Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group) or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group). At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH. (Author) 70 refs.

  2. Investigations of oil refinery effluent on fish in the field and laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.; Munkittrick, K. [New Brunswick Univ., Saint John, NB (Canada). Canadian Rivers Inst., Dept. of Biology; MacLatchy, D.L. [Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Canada's largest oil refinery located near Saint John, New Brunswick, produces 270 000 barrels of oil/day and discharges effluent into the Little River at a rate of 24 274 m{sup 3}/day. The impact of refinery effluent on fish in the receiving environment has been under investigation since 2003. The efforts were first complicated by low dissolved oxygen attributed to ballast water released with the effluent. A more recent study was then initiated to assess any potential recovery after ballast water was removed from the effluent and to determine the effects of refinery effluent on fish. Potential recovery in the receiving environment was assessed through monthly fish surveys and by comparing recent data to previous studies. In order to clarify the effects that refinery effluents may have on fish, both laboratory and field studies were conducted with mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) and northern redbelly dace (Chrosomus eos). Both these brackish water species and freshwater species, respectively, were resident species. The field studies with caged mummichog revealed an increase in liver size relative to fish size and a decrease in condition of the fish downstream of the effluent discharge. Female testosterone levels and liver detoxification enzymes were also elevated. It was concluded that the reactions occurring in the field are more complicated than could be simulated in the laboratory.

  3. Application of the accelerated test Rancimat to evaluate oxidative stability of dried microencapsulated oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Ruiz, G.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply the oxidative test Rancimat to dried microencapsulated oils (DMO, with special emphasis on assessing the efficacy of natural antioxidants. DMO were prepared by freeze-drying emulsions containing sodium caseinate, lactose and fish or sunflower oils, with and without added the antioxidant mixture ALT (ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol. Under the Rancimat working conditions selected for testing DMO (5 g sample, 100ºC and 20 L air/h, excellent repeatability was obtained. The antioxidant effect of ALT was much higher in bulk fish oil than in its counterpart DMO, either in Rancimat or at 30ºC in the dark. Further experiments using Rancimat showed that the moderate increase in stability of DMO added ALT was only attributable to tocopherol while the synergistic actions of lecithin and ascorbic acid were not observed, their action probably depending on their location and orientation in these complex lipid systems. This test enabled to compare monophasic (bulk oils and DMO-extracted oils and heterophasic lipidic systems (DMO and DMO devoid of the accessible, free oil fraction, thus offering a rapid means to examine the influence of oil distribution and partitioning of antioxidants on oxidative stability.El objetivo de este trabajo es la aplicación del test Rancimat a aceites microencapsulados, con especial interés en el estudio de la eficacia de antioxidantes naturales. Los aceites microencapsulados en matriz seca (DMO se prepararon mediante liofilización de emulsiones constituidas por caseinato sódico, lactosa y aceite de pescado o girasol, con o sin la mezcla antioxidante ALT (ácido ascórbico, lecitina y tocoferol. En las condiciones seleccionadas en Rancimat (5 g de muestra, 100ºC y 20 L/h aire se obtuvo excelente repetitividad. La mezcla ALT fue mucho más efectiva en el aceite de pescado que en su correspondiente DMO, tanto en Rancimat como a 30ºC en la oscuridad. Otros experimentos en

  4. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time were optimized. The study raveled that, 0.50% KOH w/w of oil; a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio; a reaction temperature of 60°C and a duration of 1h were the optimal conditions because they resulted in high biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the products were assessed and found better than those of the parent oil. Furthermore, they met the specified limits according to the ASTM standards. Thin layer chromatography was used as a simple technique to monitor the transesterification of the oil. Blending of the optimal biodiesel sample with petro diesel using specified volume percentages was done as well. The results indicated that biodiesel had slight effect on the values of the assessed properties.

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackish/freshwater fish species for the Florida Panhandle. Vector...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Northern California. Vector polygons in...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish species in Central California. Vector polygons in this data set...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackish/freshwater fish species in North Carolina. Vector polygons...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and anadromous fish species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this...

  12. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats focuses on food stability and shelf life, both important factors in the improvement and development of food products. This book, relevant for professionals in the food and pet food industries, presents an evaluation of methods...... for studies on the oxidative stability and shelf life of bulk oils/fats, fried oils and foods, food emulsions, dried foods, meat and meat products, and seafood in food and pet food. Focuses on the application of various evaluation methods to studies of oxidative stability and shelf life in oils and fats...... and oils and fats-containing foods in the food and pet food industries. Discusses oxidative stability and shelf life of low-moisture (dry) food, including dry pet food. Discusses lipid co-oxidation with protein because a number of food products contain both lipids and proteins. Directed mainly toward...

  13. Using otolith microchemistry and shape to assess the habitat value of oil structures for reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Ashley M; Macreadie, Peter I; Bishop, David P; Booth, David J

    2015-05-01

    Over 7500 oil and gas structures (e.g. oil platforms) are installed in offshore waters worldwide and many will require decommissioning within the next two decades. The decision to remove such structures or turn them into reefs (i.e. 'rigs-to-reefs') hinges on the habitat value they provide, yet this can rarely be determined because the residency of mobile species is difficult to establish. Here, we test a novel solution to this problem for reef fishes; the use of otolith (earstone) properties to identify oil structures of residence. We compare the otolith microchemistry and otolith shape of a site-attached coral reef fish (Pseudanthias rubrizonatus) among four oil structures (depth 82-135 m, separated by 9.7-84.2 km) on Australia's North West Shelf to determine if populations developed distinct otolith properties during their residency. Microchemical signatures obtained from the otolith edge using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) differed among oil structures, driven by elements Sr, Ba and Mn, and to a lesser extent Mg and Fe. A combination of microchemical data from the otolith edge and elliptical Fourier (shape) descriptors allowed allocation of individuals to their 'home' structure with moderate accuracy (overall allocation accuracy: 63.3%, range: 45.5-78.1%), despite lower allocation accuracies for each otolith property in isolation (microchemistry: 47.5%, otolith shape: 45%). Site-specific microchemical signatures were also stable enough through time to distinguish populations during 3 separate time periods, suggesting that residence histories could be recreated by targeting previous growth zones in the otolith. Our results indicate that reef fish can develop unique otolith properties during their residency on oil structures which may be useful for assessing the habitat value of individual structures. The approach outlined here may also be useful for determining the residency of reef fish on artificial reefs, which would

  14. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  15. Effects of Short Term Supplementation of Fish Oil Capsules on the Blood Fatty Acid Profile of Vegetarians: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida A Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for cardio vascular as well as overall health. Therefore, fish oil which is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids namely EPA and DHA is recommended. We supplemented vegetarian volunteers, not consuming fish, with fish oil capsules to observe the changes in lipo-protein metabolism. Methods and Results: Commercially available fish oil capsules were given to normal healthy volunteers for two weeks and lipid profiles analyzed. Lipid profile normalizing effect of triglycerides and cholesterol was observed in the consuming subjects. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids increased in the plasma and RBC of all volunteers. Conclusion: Consumption of omega-3 fish oil capsules is beneficial and heart healthy

  16. Roasting pumpkin seeds and changes in the composition and oxidative stability of cold-pressed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyk, Marianna; Siger, Aleksander; Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is valuable oil for its distinctive taste and aroma, as well as supposed health- promoting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate how roasting pumpkin seeds influences the physicochemical properties of cold-pressed oils. The fatty acid composition, content of phytosterols, carotenoids and tocopherols, oxidative stability and colour were determined in oils after cold pressing and storage for 3 months using GC-FID, GCxGC-ToFMS, HPLC, Rancimat and spectrophotometric methods. The results of this study indicate that the seed-roasting and storage process have no effect on the fatty acid composition of pumpkin seed oils, but does affect phytosterols and tocopherols. The carotenoid content decreased after storage. The colour of the roasted oil was darker and changed significantly during storage. Pumpkin oil obtained from roasted seeds shows better physicochemical properties and oxidative stability than oil from unroasted seeds.

  17. The Effect of Adding Fish Oil Sunflower Seed Oil in the Produce of Yogurt From Skim Milk on Cholesterol Level of Mice (Mus Musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Purnama, A; Malaka, R; Ako, A

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to look at the effect of adding fish oil and sunflower seed oil in the produce of yogurt from skim milk as unsaturated fatty acids that can lower blood cholesterol levels are tested on mice (Mus musculus). Materials research is skim milk, lamuru fish oil, sunflower seed oil, starter plain yogurt Lb.delbrueckii subps. bulgaricus, penoptalin 1%, NaOH 0.1 N and experimental animals. Experimental animals used were 27 mice (Mus musculus) which 2-3 month old male and weighing 25-30 ...

  18. Comparison of the effects of fish oil and olive oil on blood lipids and aortic atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Hansen, Birgit Fischer; Hansen, Jørgen Fischer

    1998-01-01

    To compare the effects of fish oil and olive oil on the development of atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic (WHHL) rabbits, 6-week-old animals were given a daily dose (1.5 ml/kg body weight) of fish oil (n 10) or olive oil (n 10) by oral administration for 16 weeks. Plasma...... cholesterol and triacylglycerols were measured once monthly, and their concentrations in lipoproteins, together with susceptibility of LDL to oxidation were measured in vitro at the termination of the experiment. Aortic atherosclerosis was quantified biochemically and microscopically. After 4 weeks...... of treatment, and throughout the study thereafter, blood lipids were significantly (P

  19. Nano-encapsulation of fish oil in nano-liposomes and its application in fortification of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzade, Tahere; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Akhavan, Sahar; Hadavi, Roxana

    2017-02-01

    Fish oils have many dietary benefits, but due to their strong odors and rapid deterioration, their application in food formulations is limited. For these reasons, nano-liposome was used to nano-encapsulate fish oil in this study and encapsulated fish oil was utilized in fortifying yogurt. Physicochemical properties of produced yogurt including pH, acidity, syneresis, fatty acid composition, peroxide value as well as sensory tests were investigated during three weeks storage at 4°C. Nano-liposome encapsulation resulted in a significant reduction in acidity, syneresis and peroxide value. The results of gas chromatography analyses revealed that after 21days storage, yogurt fortified with nano-encapsulated fish oil had a higher DHA and EPA contents than yogurt containing free fish oil. Overall, the results of this study indicates that adding nano-encapsulated fish oil into yogurt gave closer characteristics to control sample in terms of sensory characteristics than yogurt fortified with free fish oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The chronic effects of fish oil with exercise on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron homeostasis in insulin resistant viscerally obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slivkoff-Clark Karin M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin resistance. Methods The single blind study tested the effect of fish oil, exercise and the combined treatments on fasting and postprandial chylomicron metabolism. Twenty nine men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to take fish oil or placebo for four weeks, before undertaking an additional 12 week walking program. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, subjects were tested for concentrations of fasting apo B48, plasma lipids and insulin. Postprandial apo B48 and TAG kinetics were also determined following ingestion of a fat enriched meal. Results Combining fish oil and exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the fasting apo B48 concentration, concomitant with attenuation of fasting TAG concentrations and the postprandial TAGIAUC response (p Conclusion Fish oil was shown to independently improve plasma TAG homeostasis but did not resolve hyper-chylomicronaemia. Instead, combining fish oil with chronic exercise reduced the plasma concentration of pro-atherogenic chylomicron remnants; in addition it reduced the fasting and postprandial TAG response in viscerally obese insulin resistant subjects.

  1. A Transgenic Camelina sativa Seed Oil Effectively Replaces Fish Oil as a Dietary Source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Noemi; Vauzour, David; Betancor, Monica B; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Cochard, Marianne; Rigby, Neil; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Menoyo, David; Tocher, Douglas R; Napier, Johnathan A; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-02-01

    Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineered Camelina sativa (20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil-containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P diets (P Fads1) expression (P Fads2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Ppara), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg) (P < 0.005) expressions were induced by CO. No impact of treatment on liver X receptor α (Lxra) or sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c) was evident. Oil from transgenic Camelina is a bioavailable source of EPA in mice. These data provide support for the future assessment of this oil in a human feeding trial.

  2. Assessment of fish health around the Terra Nova oil development site on the Grand Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, A.; Hanlon, J.; Melvin, W.; French, B. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Myers, M. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Williams, U.; Janes, G. [Petro-Canada, East Coast Operations, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Wight, F. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    American plaice are used as an indicator species for environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs in the Grand Banks area of Newfoundland. This study reported on fish health studies conducted between 2000 to 2006 at the Terra Nova oil development site before and after the release of produced waters. A total of 500 fishes were studied for a 5-year period in order to evaluate health effect indicators including fish condition; visible skin and organ lesions; levels of mixed-function-oxygenase (MFO) enzymes; haematology; and various histopathological indices in the liver and gills. The study demonstrated slight elevations of MFO enzyme activity in fish from the development site in 2002, before the release of produced water. On the basis of the various studied indicators, results suggest that the project is not having a significant impact on the health of American plaice.

  3. Assessment of fish health around the Terra Nova oil development site on the Grand Banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, A.; Hanlon, J.; Melvin, W.; French, B.; Myers, M.; Williams, U.; Janes, G.; Wight, F.

    2010-01-01

    American plaice are used as an indicator species for environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs in the Grand Banks area of Newfoundland. This study reported on fish health studies conducted between 2000 to 2006 at the Terra Nova oil development site before and after the release of produced waters. A total of 500 fishes were studied for a 5-year period in order to evaluate health effect indicators including fish condition; visible skin and organ lesions; levels of mixed-function-oxygenase (MFO) enzymes; haematology; and various histopathological indices in the liver and gills. The study demonstrated slight elevations of MFO enzyme activity in fish from the development site in 2002, before the release of produced water. On the basis of the various studied indicators, results suggest that the project is not having a significant impact on the health of American plaice.

  4. The Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stability of Cold-Pressed Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Prescha, Anna; Grajzer, Magdalena; Dedyk, Martyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2014-01-01

    In our study, we characterized the antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of cold-pressed macadamia, avocado, sesame, safflower, pumpkin, rose hip, Linola, flaxseed, walnut, hempseed, poppy, and milk thistle oils. The radical scavenging activity of the non-fractionated fresh oil, as well as the lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions of the oil was determined using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The fatty acid composition of the fresh and stored oils was analyzed by gas chro...

  5. Organic plant ingredients in the diet of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Impact on fish muscle composition and oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.; Svendsen, Gry Hougaard; Lund, Ivar

    2013-01-01

    Rainbow trout were fed diets containing either fish meal and fish oil (FM‐FO) (control) or diets inwhich 40% of the fishmeal was substituted with a mixture of ingredients grown organically including plant protein concentrate (PP) in combination with either fish oil (FO) as lipid source, or one......‐ROwere themost oxidatively stable during ice storage but the omega‐3 fatty acid content was reduced by 40% compared to fish fed the FM‐FO control diet. Replacing FOby LOwas not suitable as it induced oxidation and the fillet contained 40–50% less of long chain omega‐3 fatty acids...

  6. Sterculia striata seed kernel oil: Characterization and thermal stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Cavalheiro, José Marcelino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to characterize sterculia seed kernel oil. The chemical composition of the seeds, physicochemical properties as well as the fatty acid composition of the kernel oil was determined. The chemical composition of kernel flour presented about 25.8% lipid content. The physicochemical parameters such as acid, iodine, peroxide and saponification values were 0.82 (% as oleic acid, 69.2 (g iodine/100 g oil, 4.20 (m eq./kg and 136.1 (mg. KOH/g oil, respectively. With respect to fatty acid composition, the oil contained 36.2, 43.7 and 10.9% saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Palmitic acid (31.9%, oleic acid (41.7% and linoleic acid (10.73% were the principal saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Two cyclopropanoid fatty acids i.e. sterculic and malvalic acid were identified at a concentration of 5.3 and 2.3%, respectively. With regards to the thermal stability of the oil, a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has shown that the oil was stable until about 284 °C, above that the oil started loosing mass, while a differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTGA revealed three stages of degradation with an increase in temperature. These stages corresponded to the degradation of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty aids. The Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC analysis showed the existence of two exothermic events of energy transition, one of which is related to the oxidation reactions and another to the decomposition of the oil. Exothermic transitions in the oil were initiated at a temperature (Ti of 287.79 °C, and terminated at 347.81 °C, with an enthalpy variation of 11.69 joules.g–1 and at initial temperature (Ti of 384.87 °C, peak temperature (Tp 415.71 °C, final temperature (Tf 448.9 °C and an enthalpy of 200.83 Joules. G–1El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización del aceite de almendra de la semilla de

  7. Biochemical and behavioral responses of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum to crude oil: the effect of oil layer on water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Meyersieck Jardim, Manoela; Valdez Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The largest Brazilian terrestrial province of petroleum mining is located at the margins of Urucu River, Amazonas. Mined crude oil is transported along 400 km across Solimões River to be refined in Manaus. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude oil exposure on biochemical, physiological and behavioral parameters of juveniles of the Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The toxicity of water-soluble and insoluble oil fractions and the influence of a layer formed by the oil on the water surface from low and high concentrations of crude oil were analyzed. The results showed a strong physical effect of oil at the water surface and a significant effect on fish behavior. Swimming time and response to alarm substance decreased when fish was exposed for just one day to water insoluble fraction, and remain lower after 30 days of exposure, compared to control. Chronic exposure to water insoluble fraction of the inert oil also affected these two parameters. Critical swimming velocity decreased in fish exposed to both crude and inert oil water insoluble fraction. These reductions are possibly related to a decrease in aerobic capacity. Only exposure to high concentrations of petroleum water-soluble fractions induced transient alterations of the analyzed parameters. The exposure of fish to low and high concentrations of water insoluble fraction of Urucu oil caused a reduction of responses to alarm substance, spontaneous swimming activity and swimming capacity (Ucrit), decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase. Severe hypertrophy of lamellar epithelium and extensive lamellar fusion of the gills were also observed. Overall, these results show significant behavioral and physiological changes caused by the oil layer on the water surface, which means that toxicity of petroleum produced by its chemical components is, in fact, in this fish species, enhanced by the presence of an oil phase as a

  8. Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine (S. pilchardus) and horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, R; Tamm, F; Guadix, A M; Guadix, E M; Drusch, S

    2016-03-01

    The functionality of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the microencapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Muscle protein from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) was hydrolysed using Alcalase or trypsin. Physically stable emulsions suitable for spray-drying were obtained when using FPH with a degree of hydrolysis of 5%. Microencapsulation efficiency amounted to 98±0.1% and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil over a period of twelve weeks was in a similar range as it is reported for other matrix systems. Therefore, the suitability of FPH for use in spray-dried emulsions has been shown for the first time. Since no clear correlation between the antioxidative activity of the FPH and the course of lipid oxidation could be established future research is required to more specifically characterise the molecular structure of the peptides and its impact on protein alteration and role in lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  10. Use of an oiled gravel column dosing system to characterize exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Hodson, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In August 2005, a freight train derailment near the shore of Lake Wabamun near Edmonton, Alberta resulted in the release of nearly 150,000 litres of Bunker C oil on the lakeshore. The purpose of this study was to define the toxic load of oil in sediments to better describe the exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates. Heavy Bunker C fuel contains a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly the 3-4 ringed alkylated forms that cause sublethal toxic responses in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments where fish spawn. This study evaluated how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to trout embryo. Flow-through oiled gravel columns were used to determine whether the toxic constituents of heavy oil are transferred to water quickly enough to cause toxicity. Embryonic trout exposed to the outflow of these columns showed signs of sublethal toxicity and dose-dependent mortality. In addition, column output of hydrocarbons and CYP1A induction in fish were flow-dependent. The desorption kinetics of the gravel column dosing was characterized in order to evaluate the toxicity of oil on these substrates and relate it back to toxicity of oil in sediments. The time to steady-state desorption of oil constituents in water was first determined, and then the rate at which different classes of oil constituents partition into water were identified.

  11. Use of an oiled gravel column dosing system to characterize exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Hodson, P.

    2010-01-01

    In August 2005, a freight train derailment near the shore of Lake Wabamun near Edmonton, Alberta resulted in the release of nearly 150,000 litres of Bunker C oil on the lakeshore. The purpose of this study was to define the toxic load of oil in sediments to better describe the exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates. Heavy Bunker C fuel contains a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly the 3-4 ringed alkylated forms that cause sublethal toxic responses in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments where fish spawn. This study evaluated how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to trout embryo. Flow-through oiled gravel columns were used to determine whether the toxic constituents of heavy oil are transferred to water quickly enough to cause toxicity. Embryonic trout exposed to the outflow of these columns showed signs of sublethal toxicity and dose-dependent mortality. In addition, column output of hydrocarbons and CYP1A induction in fish were flow-dependent. The desorption kinetics of the gravel column dosing was characterized in order to evaluate the toxicity of oil on these substrates and relate it back to toxicity of oil in sediments. The time to steady-state desorption of oil constituents in water was first determined, and then the rate at which different classes of oil constituents partition into water were identified.

  12. Bioindicator and fish health studies around the Terra Nova oil development site on the Grand Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, A.; Hanlon, J.; Melvin, W.; French, B. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); DeBlois, E. [Elisabeth DeBlois Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Williams, U.; Wight, F.; Janes, G. [Petro-Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Bioindicators or health effect indicators can be a valuable reconnaissance tool for addressing concerns on the part of the fishing industry and public interests regarding any potential impacts of pollutants on fish stocks. American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) was initially chosen by the oil industry as an indicator species for Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) programs in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland because it is an important commercial flatfish. This presentation reported on fish health studies carried out at the Terra Nova development site before and after release of produced waters, which began in 2003. These studies represented 1 component of the overall Terra Nova EEM program. Fish were collected near the development area and in a reference area 20 km away. A broad range of health effect indicators were studied, including fish condition, visible skin and organ lesions, levels of mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) enzymes, haematology and an array of 19 histopathological indices in liver and gills. These indicators have been widely used in laboratory and field investigations with various fish species. A slight elevation of MFO enzyme activity was observed in fish from the development area in 2002, before release of produced water. In 2006, other indices were similar between the development and reference area. It was concluded that the overall results do not indicate any project effects.

  13. Process optimization for the removal of environmental contaminants from fish oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Jeroen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish oils are rich in nutritionally valuable omega-3 components, mainly eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA fatty acids. Unfortunately, they could also be contaminated with a series of toxic pollutants like PCDD/Fs and PCBs. This article focuses on the methods for removal of these unwanted compounds and at the same time preserving the nutritional quality of fish oil. Adsorption, deodorization, packed column stripping, and a combination of processes are reviewed here. Activated carbon at 0.5% dosage was efficient in adsorbing PCDD/Fs and no- PCBs, but only 58% of the mo- PCBs could be removed. Adsorption treatment did not significantly alter the quality of the oil. Simple packed column stripping and/or deodorization removed no-PCBs, and especially mo-PCBs in a better manner, its efficiency increasing with temperature. Nutritional properties were preserved until 210°C, beyond which significant EPA and DHA degradation was observed. Combination of activated carbon treatment and deodorization was a good method to remove contaminants, yet preserving the nutritional quality of fish oil. At deodorization temperature of 190°C and 0.1% AC dosage, the total contamination level of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs could be reduced, independent of the process sequence, from 35 to below 10 pg TEQ/g, in accordance with the European Union (EU regulation.

  14. Replacement of soybean oil by fish oil increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats fed a high-carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Neves, Maria José; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2018-02-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that fish oil consumption improves metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidaemia and hypertension induced by high-fat diet ingestion. Previously, we demonstrated that administration of a fructose-rich diet to rats induces liver lipid accumulation, accompanied by a decrease in liver cytosolic lipases activities. In this study, the effect of replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in a high-fructose diet (FRUC, 60% fructose) for 8 weeks on lipid metabolism in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from rats was investigated. The interaction between fish oil and FRUC diet increased glucose tolerance and decreased serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid droplet volume of hepatocytes. In addition, the fish oil supplementation increased the liver cytosolic lipases activities, independently of the type of carbohydrate ingested. Our results firmly establish the physiological regulation of liver cytosolic lipases to maintain lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. In epididymal adipose tissue, the replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in FRUC diet did not change the tissue weight and lipoprotein lipase activity; however, there was increased basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake. Increased cytosolic lipases activities were observed, despite the decreased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol release to the incubation medium. These findings suggest that fish oil increases the glycerokinase activity and glycerol phosphorylation from endogenous TAG hydrolysis. Our findings are the first to show that the fish oil ingestion increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats treated with high-carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. No Protection against DSS-induced Colitis by Short-term Pretreatment with Seal or Fish Oils in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülen Arslan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have modulating effects in several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to test whether prior short-term dietary supplementation with n-3 (fish or seal oil or n-6 (soy oil PUFA rich oils would protect the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in rats. Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: no intervention, sham, DSS, seal oil + DSS, fish oil + DSS and soy oil + DSS. Following 7 days of acclimatisation, 1 mL oil (seal, fish or soy or distilled water (sham was administered by gavage day 8 to 14. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water from day 15 to 21. Rats were sacrificed on day 23. Histological colitis (crypt and inflammation scores, faecal granulocyte marker protein (GMP and quantitative fatty acid composition in red blood cells were measured. Results Pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not significantly influence DSS induced inflammation. In fact, all the oils tended to exacerbate the inflammation. Soy oil increased the mean crypt score ( P < 0.04, but not the inflammation score or GMP. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs was 11 to 1 and 10 to 1 in standard diet and in red blood cells of control rats, respectively. Following administration of DSS, the ratio fell in all treatment groups ( P < 0.001. The lowest ratios were seen in the groups receiving DSS + fish or seal oils (around 6 to 1. Conclusion Short-term pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not protect against subsequent induction of colitis by DSS in this rat model. Whether the high ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs in the standard diet concealed effects of n-3 FA supplementation should be further investigated.

  16. Essential oils of Varronia curassavica accessions have different activity against white spot disease in freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Nizio, Daniela Aparecida; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Maria, Alexandre Nizio; Carneiro, Paulo César Falanghe; França, Carina Caroline Silva; da Costa Sousa, Natalino; de Andrade Brito, Fabiany; Sampaio, Taís Santos; de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank, Maria; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of essential oils from Varronia curassavica accessions against different stages of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Essential oils from each accession were tested in vitro at the concentrations 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 mg/L. The VCUR-001, VCUR-202, VCUR-509, and VCUR-601 accessions presented the major compounds α-pinene, germacrene D-4-ol, (E)-caryophyllene and epiglobulol, and sabinene, respectively. These isolated compounds were tested in vitro at a concentration proportional to that found in the essential oil which caused 100% mortality of the parasite. The concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L of the essential oil of accession VCUR-202 provided 100% mortality of trophonts and tomonts, respectively. For the accession VCUR-509, 100% mortality of trophonts and tomonts was observed at concentrations 75 and 200 mg/L of essential oil, respectively. The same mortality was observed at concentration 200 mg/L in both stages of the parasite for the other accessions. The major compounds α-pinene, sabinene, and the (E)-caryophyllene + epiglobulol mixture caused 100% mortality of trophonts and tomonts. The in vivo assay for white spot disease control was performed in a therapeutic bath of 1 h with the essential oil of accession VCUR-202 at concentrations of 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L. A significant reduction of about 30% of trophonts on infected fish was observed, independent of the oil concentration. The V. curassavica essential oil, especially the VCUR-202 accession, is a potential source of raw material for the formulation and commercialization of bioproducts to control freshwater white spot disease in fish.

  17. Stability in fish feed and bioavailability to rainbow trout of two ascorbic acid forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelbaek, T.; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Winning, M.

    1990-01-01

    The stability in warm pelleted fish feed and the bioavailability to rainbow trout of crystalline ascorbic acid (AA) and a synthetic polymer-coated AA product (PCAA) were compared. The AA loss during pelleting was 29% for crystalline AA and 19% for PCAA. After 6 weeks at room temperature 73% of PCAA...

  18. Research on the Influence Factors of Emulsion Stability of Oil-in-water Drilling Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxu; Sun, Yuxue; Chen, Xiangming; Wang, Zengkui; Xu, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation standard of emulsion stability of oil-in-water drilling fluid is determined in this paper, based on which an evaluation analysis is conducted for the influence factors of emulsion stability, including the addition of emulsifier, addition of stabilizer, stirring speed, weighing agent, clay, etc. to gain the corresponding regularity understanding.

  19. The Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stability of Cold-Pressed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescha, Anna; Grajzer, Magdalena; Dedyk, Martyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2014-01-01

    In our study, we characterized the antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of cold-pressed macadamia, avocado, sesame, safflower, pumpkin, rose hip, Linola, flaxseed, walnut, hempseed, poppy, and milk thistle oils. The radical scavenging activity of the non-fractionated fresh oil, as well as the lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions of the oil was determined using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The fatty acid composition of the fresh and stored oils was analyzed by gas chromatography. The acid value, peroxide value, p -anisidine value and conjugated diene and triene contents in the fresh oils, as well as in those stored throughout the whole period of their shelf life, were measured by CEN ISO methods. The antioxidant activity of the oils expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ranged from 0.17 to 2.32 mM. The lipophilic fractions of the oils were characterized by much higher antioxidant activity than the hydrophilic ones. There were no significant changes in fatty acid composition and only slight changes in the oxidative stability parameters of the oils during their shelf life. Through the assessment of the relationship between antiradical activity and the oxidative stability of oils, it is proposed that a DPPH assay predicts the formation of oxidation products in cold-pressed oils-however, the correlations differ in fractionated and nonfractionated oils.

  20. Authentication of feeding fats: Classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A.H.; Perez-Garcia, R.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Codony, R.

    2010-01-01

    Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the

  1. SUPPLEMENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH HOMOZYGOUS SICKLE-CELL DISEASE WITH ZINC, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, VITAMIN-C, SOYBEAN OIL, AND FISH OIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester

  2. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  3. Erythrocyte deformability, endothelin levels, and renal function in cyclosporin-treated renal transplant recipients: effects of intervention with fish oil and corn oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, N. H.; Bilo, H. J.; Popp-Snijders, C.; Goedhart, P. T.; Wilmink, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty nine stable renal transplant recipients, 10 receiving cyclosporin, 10 cyclosporin-prednisolone and nine azathioprine-prednisolone were supplemented in a double blind randomization cross-over study with fish oil and corn oil for a period of 4 months each. Erythrocyte deformability was reduced

  4. Thermal stability of Vernonia galamensis seed oil | Wamalwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... vernonia oil at room temperature (25 °C) was transformed irreversibly to an intense?brown shade, becoming increasingly more viscous with increase in temperature, and ceasing to flow momentarily at 188 °C. On cooling to room temperature, the oil solidified into a brown rubber?like elastic material. The oil also exhibited ...

  5. Predictors of failure of fish-oil therapy for intestinal failure–associated liver disease in children12

    OpenAIRE

    Nandivada, Prathima; Baker, Meredith A; Mitchell, Paul D; O’Loughlin, Alison A; Potemkin, Alexis K; Anez-Bustillos, Lorenzo; Carlson, Sarah J; Dao, Duy T; Fell, Gillian L; Gura, Kathleen M; Puder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parenteral fish-oil (FO) therapy is a safe and effective treatment for intestinal failure–associated liver disease (IFALD). Patients whose cholestasis does not resolve with FO may progress to end-stage liver disease.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis questions claims of improved cardiac efficiency by dietary fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Eden; Chapman, Brian; Hickey, Anthony J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in the literature describe the ability of dietary supplementation by omega-3 fish oil to increase the pumping efficiency of the left ventricle. Here we attempt to reconcile such studies with our own null results. We undertake a quantitative analysis of the improvement that could be expected theoretically, subject to physiological constraints, by posing the following question: By how much could efficiency be expected to increase if inefficiencies could be eliminated? Our approach utilizes thermodynamic analyses to investigate the contributions, both singly and collectively, of the major components of cardiac energetics to total cardiac efficiency. We conclude that it is unlikely that fish oils could achieve the required diminution of inefficiencies without greatly compromising cardiac performance. PMID:27574288

  7. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    of the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. To date very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these beneficial effects and the potential pitfalls of the consumption of those two compounds. Only studies of each compound separately and using only small scale molecular biology approaches have been......Fish oil (FO) and tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) - a synthetic modified fatty acid have beneficial effects in regulating lipid metabolism. In order to dissect the mechanisms underlying the molecular action of those two fatty acids we have investigated the changes in mitochondrial protein...... modulate mitochondrial metabolism in a synergistic manner yet the effects of TTA are much more dramatic. We demonstrate in a large scale that fatty acid metabolism and lipid oxidation are affected by fish oil and TTA, a phenomenon already known from more directed molecular biology studies. Our approach...

  8. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  9. Fish Oil and Fenofibrate for the Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-Infected Subjects on Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, John G.; Kitch, Douglas W.; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.; Zackin, Robert A.; Charles, Stéphannie; Hogg, Evelyn; Acosta, Edward P.; Connick, Elizabeth; Wohl, David; Kojic, E. Milu; Benson, Constance A.; Aberg, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Fish oil has been shown to reduce serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations. In HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy, high TG concentrations likely contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5186 examined the safety and efficacy of fish oil plus fenofibrate in subjects not achieving serum TG levels ≤200 mg/dL with either agent alone. Methods One hundred subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy with serum TG concentrations ≥400 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤160 mg/dL were randomized to 3 g of fish oil twice daily or 160 mg of fenofibrate daily for 8 weeks. Subjects with a fasting TG level >200 mg/dL at week 8 received a combination of fish oil and fenofibrate in the same doses from week 10 to week 18. Results Median baseline TG was 662 mg/dL in the fish oil group and 694 mg/dL in the fenofibrate group (P = not significant). Fish oil reduced TG levels by a median of 283 mg/dL (46%), fenofibrate reduced them by 367 mg/dL (58%), and combination therapy reduced them by 65.5%. Combination therapy achieved TG levels of ≤200 mg/dL in 22.7% subjects. Fish oil had no measurable effect on immunologic parameters or the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir. Conclusions Fish oil was safe when administered alone or combined with fenofibrate and significantly reduced TG levels in HIV-infected subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:17971707

  10. The chronic effects of fish oil with exercise on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron homeostasis in insulin resistant viscerally obese men

    OpenAIRE

    Slivkoff-Clark, Karin M; James, Anthony P; Mamo, John CL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin ...

  11. Fish oil and the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid affect the amino acid and carnitine metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPARα-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPARα activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPARα activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms.

  12. Improvement of Fermented Fish Flour Quality Using Essential Oil Extracted From Fresh Leaves of Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore

    OpenAIRE

    Adjou, Euloge S.; D?gnon, Ren? G.; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M.; Sohounhloue, Dominique C. K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of Pimenta racemosa in the improvement of fermented fish flour producing technology. Essential oil of Pimenta racemosa was extracted by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition was determined by GC and GC/MS. Different types of fermented fish flours from Lesser African Threadfin (Galeoides decadactylus) were produced by the modification of the traditional processing technology and the int...

  13. Metabolic engineering Camelina sativa with fish oil-like levels of DHA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Petrie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are critical for human health and development [corrected].. Numerous studies have indicated that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular, inflammatory and other diseases or disorders. EPA and DHA are predominantly sourced from marine fish although the primary producers are microalgae. Much work has been done to engineer a sustainable land-based source of EPA and DHA to reduce pressure on fish stocks in meeting future demand, with previous studies describing the production of fish oil-like levels of DHA in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we describe the production of fish oil-like levels (>12% of DHA in the oilseed crop species Camelina sativa achieving a high ω3/ω6 ratio. The construct previously transformed in Arabidopsis as well as two modified construct versions designed to increase DHA production were used. DHA was found to be stable to at least the T5 generation and the EPA and DHA were found to be predominantly at the sn-1,3 positions of triacylglycerols. Transgenic and parental lines did not have different germination or seedling establishment rates. CONCLUSIONS: DHA can be produced at fish oil-like levels in industrially-relevant oilseed crop species using multi-gene construct designs which are stable over multiple generations. This study has implications for the future of sustainable EPA and DHA production from land-based sources.

  14. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudsepp, P.; Brüggemann, D.A.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Andersen, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during storage

  15. Extraction of fish body oil from Sardinella longiceps by employing direct steaming method and its quantitative and qualitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthy Pravinkumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the quantitative and qualitative properties of the extracted fish oil from Sardinella longiceps (S. longiceps. Methods: Four size groups of S. longiceps were examined for the extraction of fish oil based on length. The size groups included Group I (size range of 7.1–10.0 cm, Group II (size range of 10.1–13.0 cm, Group III (size range of 13.1–16.0 cm and Group IV (size range of 16.1– 19.0 cm. Fish oil was extracted from the tissues of S. longiceps by direct steaming method. The oil was then subjected to the determination of specific gravity, refractive index, moisture content, free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value and observation of colour. Results: The four groups showed different yield of fish oil that Group IV recorded the highest values of (165.00 ± 1.00 mL/kg followed by Group III [(145.66 ± 1.15 mL/kg] and Group II [(129.33 ± 0.58 mL/kg], whereas Group I recorded the lowest values of (78.33 ± 0.58 mL/ kg in monsoon season, and the average yield was (180.0 ± 4.9 mL/kg fish tissues. These analytical values of the crude oil were well within the acceptable standard values for both fresh and stocked samples. Conclusions: The information generated in the present study pertaining to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of fish oil will serve as a reference baseline for entrepreneurs and industrialists in future for the successful commercial production of fish oil by employing oil sardines.

  16. Fish Oil and Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis: Inhibitory Effect on Leukocyte Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Kummer, Raquel; Tronco, Rafael Prizon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, has been studied for its beneficial effects in many diseases. Recent studies have shown the robust anti-inflammatory activity of fish oil (FO), when administered orally to rats, in models of acute inflammation. Herein, we investigated if treatment with fish oil preparation (FOP) could interfere with the recruitment of leukocytes into the joint cavity of arthritic rats. We also evaluated the effect of treatment on rolling behavior and leukocyte adhesion in vivo and on leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. Treatment with FOP (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) initiated on the day of induction of arthritis (day 0) and maintained for 21 days reduced the total number of leukocytes recruited into the joint cavity, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in arthritic rats, and leukocyte migration in response to stimulation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Together, our data provide evidence that FOP plays an important inhibitory role in the recruitment of leukocytes into the joint cavity of arthritic rats.

  17. DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  18. The effects of oil sands wastewater on fish resulting from exposure to sub-lethal concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, D.A.; Goudey, J.S.; Balch, G.C.; Nelson, L.R.; MacKinnon, M.

    1995-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of oil sands wastewater in flow through laboratory experiments as well as to artificial ponds containing sub-lethal concentrations of tailings pond water and fine tails in order to study the viability of the wet landscape remediation option. Large (200--300 g) fish were used for all the exposures in this preliminary study and the following data were collected: blood cell counts, sex hormone concentrations, sexual maturation, stress protein concentrations, PAH-metabolites in bile, condition factors, liver somatic indices, mixed function oxygenase induction, PAHs in muscle, external condition and the condition of internal organs. The data obtained from this study revealed no adverse effects upon fish during extended field exposures. Given similar exposure conditions in the release waters of a wet landscape reclamation, the data suggest that there may be no adverse effects upon fish, however, longer term studies, other indicator organisms and additional chronic tests should be conducted

  19. Lipid-soluble nutrient status of healthy Omani school children before and after intervention with oily fish meal or re-esterified triacylglycerol fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghannami, Samia S; Sedlak, Eva; Hussein, Izzeldin S; Min, Yoeju; Al-Shmmkhi, Saleh M; Al-Oufi, Hamed S; Al-Mazroui, Ahmed; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Omani diet has changed considerably to resemble a high calorie and a low nutrient density Western diet. We investigated the fat soluble nutrient status of children before and after intervention with fish diet or fish oil. Children ages 9 and 10 y (n = 314) were recruited from three randomly selected schools. The schools were assigned to a fish, fish oil, or control group and the children were given a lightly grilled oily fish, a re-esterified triacylglycerol fish oil capsule, or no fish for 12 wk. Plasma vitamin A, beta carotene, vitamin E concentrations, and vitamin E/total lipid ratio at baseline were 2.7 ± 0.85 μmol/L, 0.68 ± 0.48 μmol/L, 21.1 ± 4.8 μmol/L, and 5.0 ± 0.81 μmol/mmol, respectively, and none of the children were deficient. They were severely deficient (alkaline phosphatase (225.2 ± 66.6 versus 247.8 ± 73.7 U/L; P < 0.01) levels were lower in boys. Postintervention, the fish oil (54.1 ± 17.5 nmol/L; P < 0.001) and fish (49.2 ± 17.4 nmol/L; P < 0.05) groups had elevated levels of vitamin D compared with the controls (42.3 ± 17.5 nmol/L). Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Omani school children, but it can be mitigated with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in skeletal and extraskeletal systems. Hence, there is a need for a child-focused program of food fortification and outdoor activities to alleviate the problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial of fish oil treatment for impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Bor, William; Adam, Kareen; Bowling, Francis G; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological research links aggression to low serum concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, such as those found in fish oil. However, no studies have specifically examined whether fish oil supplementation can reduce the frequency and severity of impulsive aggression in children with disruptive behavior disorders. Children presenting with impulsive aggression and meeting research criteria for diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders were randomized to receive either: 1) Fish oil capsules (4 g daily) for 6 weeks followed by placebo (identical-looking capsules) for 6 weeks; or 2) placebo for 6 weeks, followed by fish oil for 6 weeks, in a double-blind, crossover design. Primary outcomes were the Children's Aggression Scale and the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Secondary outcomes included emotional and behavioral functioning (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ]), hyperactivity symptoms (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD] Rating Scale), family functioning (Family Assessment Device), and cognitive functioning (Stop Signal Task, Trail-Making Task, and Eriksen Flanker Task). Serum concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were measured at baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks. Twenty-one children participated (81% male; mean age 10.3±2.2 years; range 7-14). Fish oil treatment increased serum concentrations of eicosapentanoic acid (F=14.76, pConduct Subscale, F=4.34, p=0.06). Fish oil treatment was associated with an improvement in one rating of hyperactivity (SDQ Hyperactivity Subscale, F=2.22, pchildren with disruptive behavior disorders.

  1. Study of the oxidative stability of oils vegetables for production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio R Melo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is technological and estrategical Brazilian oportunity once this country has abundant vegetable species which oils are extracted to produce this biofuel. Oleaginous viability depends on its technical, economical and social-environmental competitiviness. Fatty acid variety determines its thermal and oxidative stability, mainly polyunsaturated ones. In this point of view, this papers aims evaluate oxidative stability and resistence to thermal decomposition of pequi, buriti and macauba oils. These fatty acids profiles are in agreement with literature data. Comparing thermal and oxidative stability of these oils, it can be seen pequi oil is more easily to oxidate than buriti and macauba oils when PetroOXY and Rancimat methods are employed.

  2. Factors affecting the abundance of selected fishes near oil and gas platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, D.R.; Wilson, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    A logbook program was initiated to determine the relative abundance of selected fish species around oil and gas platforms off the Louisiana coast. Logbooks were maintained by 55 anglers and 10 charterboat operators from March 1987 to March 1988. A total of 36,839 fish were caught representing over 46 different species. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped the seventeen most abundant species into reef fish, pelagic fish, bluefish-red drum, Atlantic croaker-silver/sand seatrout, and cobia-shark-blue runner associations. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare PCA groupings to physical platform, temporal, geological, and angler characteristic variables and their interactions. Reef fish, Atlantic croaker, and silver/sand seatrout abundances were highest near large, structurally complex platforms in relatively deep water. High spotted seatrout abundances were correlated with small, unmanned oil and gas platforms in shallow water. Pelagic fish, bluefish, red drum, cobia, and shark abundances were not related to the physical parameters of the platforms

  3. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  4. Acute administration of fish oil inhibits triggered activity in isolated myocytes from rabbits and patients with heart failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Ruijter, H.M.; Berecki, G.; Verkerk, A.O.; Bakker, D.; Baartscheer, A.; Schumacher, C.A.; Belterman, C.N.; de Jonge, N.; Fiolet, J.W.; Brouwer, I.A.; Coronel, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background-Fish oil reduces sudden death in patients with prior myocardial infarction. Sudden death in heart failure may be due to triggered activity based on disturbed calcium handling. We hypothesized that superfusion with ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) from fish inhibits triggered

  5. Effect of natural polyphenol on the oxidative stability of pecan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Fang; Thakur, Kiran; Ci, Ao-Te; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2017-10-05

    We evaluated the antioxidant activity of natural polyphenols which gives high oxidative stability to the pecan oil. The in vitro DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant activity of tested antioxidants demonstrated that tannic acid displayed the highest DPPH scavenging activity and provided the largest reducing power. During storage of pecan oil, based on oxidative stability tests, we further evaluated the protective effect of polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of pecan oil. The results showed that caffeic acid inhibited oxidation of pecan oil effectively. Sesamol and catechin showed slight improvement in oxidative stability, while ferulic acid, erucic acid and rutin had no effect. Taken together, compared with synthetic antioxidants (TBHQ, BHT, BHA), caffeic acid was observed to be stronger than BHT and BHA and was close to TBHQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stability and generalization in seed dispersal networks: a case study of frugivorous fish in Neotropical wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Arujo, Joisiane K; Penha, Jerry; Nunes da Cunha, Catia; Bobier, Karen E; Anderson, Jill T

    2016-08-31

    When species within guilds perform similar ecological roles, functional redundancy can buffer ecosystems against species loss. Using data on the frequency of interactions between fish and fruit, we assessed whether co-occurring frugivores provide redundant seed dispersal services in three species-rich Neotropical wetlands. Our study revealed that frugivorous fishes have generalized diets; however, large-bodied fishes had greater seed dispersal breadth than small species, in some cases, providing seed dispersal services not achieved by smaller fish species. As overfishing disproportionately affects big fishes, the extirpation of these species could cause larger secondary extinctions of plant species than the loss of small specialist frugivores. To evaluate the consequences of frugivore specialization for network stability, we extracted data from 39 published seed dispersal networks of frugivorous birds, mammals and fish (our networks) across ecosystems. Our analysis of interaction frequencies revealed low frugivore specialization and lower nestedness than analyses based on binary data (presence-absence of interactions). In that case, ecosystems may be resilient to loss of any given frugivore. However, robustness to frugivore extinction declines with specialization, such that networks composed primarily of specialist frugivores are highly susceptible to the loss of generalists. In contrast with analyses of binary data, recently developed algorithms capable of modelling interaction strengths provide opportunities to enhance our understanding of complex ecological networks by accounting for heterogeneity of frugivore-fruit interactions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Influence of fish oil supplementation on in vivo and in vitro oxidation resistance of low-density lipoprotein in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H.; Petersen, M.; Major-Pedersen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Fish oil supplement has been proposed as a non-pharmacological strategy to correct the atherogenic lipid profile associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, fish oil may have deleterious effects on lipid peroxidation and glycemic control.Design: In this study, 44 type 2 diabetic...... patients were randomized to vitamin E standardized (53.6 mg/day) supplementation (capsules) with 4 g daily of either fish oil (n = 23) or corn oil (n = 21) for 8 weeks preceded by a 4 week run-in period of corn oil supplementation. LDL was isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and oxidized...... corn oil had no influence on lag time and propagation rate. The changes in lag time and propagation rate differed significantly between fish oil and corn oil treatment. LDL-MDA changes differed borderline significantly between groups (FO, 110.4 pmol/mg protein; CO, 6.7 pmol/mg protein; P = 0.057). Fish...

  8. [The effect of zinc deficiency on heart and brain lipids in rats force-fed with coconut oil or fish oil diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M

    1994-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of zinc deficiency on lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition of heart and brain in force-fed rats receiving either a diet with coconut oil and safflower oil (86:14, w/w) or a diet with fish oil and safflower oil (91:9, w/w). Four groups of growing male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 11.6 g of a semisynthetic diet containing either 0.8 mg Zn/kg or 111 mg Zn/kg with either coconut oil and safflower oil or fish oil and safflower oil per day by gastric tube for 10 days. Concentrations of lipids in heart as well as fatty acid composition of heart phospholipids and brain total lipids were determined. Zinc deficient rats fed the coconut oil diet had higher concentrations of triglycerides (16.3 mg/g vs. 9.21 mg/g) and total fatty acids (29.3 mg/g vs. 21.8 mg/g) in heart than control rats fed coconut oil diet, whereas concentrations of phospholipids and total cholesterol were not different between zinc deficient and control rats. Concentrations of lauric acid (12:0), myristic acid (14:0), palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), and oleic acid (18:1) were by 65 to 192% higher in hearts of zinc deficient rats fed coconut oil diet than in control rats fed coconut oil diet. In contrast, concentrations of triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol, and total fatty acids in heart were similar in zinc deficient rats and control rats fed fish oil diet. The fatty acid composition of heart phospholipids was only slightly influenced by zinc deficiency in the rats fed both types of dietary fat. The level of arachidonic acid in phospholipids which may represent desaturation activity was not different in the zinc deficient rats and control rats fed coconut oil diet, and was only slightly reduced in zinc deficient rats fed fish oil diet compared to control rats fed fish oil diet. This finding suggests that zinc deficiency does not impair delta-5 and delta-6 desaturation of linoleic acid in heart. Concentrations of fatty acids in

  9. Fabrication, stability and efficacy of dual-component antimicrobial nanoemulsions: essential oil (thyme oil) and cationic surfactant (lauric arginate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a cationic surfactant (lauric arginate, LAE) on the physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions was investigated. Nanoemulsions prepared from pure thyme oil were highly unstable due to Ostwald ripening, but they could be stabilized by adding a ripening inhibitor (corn oil) to the oil phase prior to homogenisation. The loading capacity and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions were significantly increased by adding LAE. In the absence of LAE, at least 60 wt% corn oil had to be added to the lipid phase to inhibit Ostwald ripening; but in the presence of 0.1 wt% LAE, only 30 wt% corn oil was needed. LAE addition substantially increased the antimicrobial efficacy of the thyme oil nanoemulsions: 200 μg/ml thyme oil was needed to inhibit growth of a spoilage yeast (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) if LAE was added, whereas ⩾ 400 μg/ml was needed in the absence of LAE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective retardation of perfume oil evaporation from oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by either surfactant or nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Holt, Benjamin L; Beaussoubre, Pascal; Wong, Kenneth

    2010-12-07

    We have used dynamic headspace analysis to investigate the evaporation rates of perfume oils from stirred oil-in-water emulsions into a flowing gas stream. We compare the behavior of an oil of low water solubility (limonene) and one of high water solubility (benzyl acetate). It is shown how the evaporation of an oil of low water solubility is selectively retarded and how the retardation effect depends on the oil volume fraction in the emulsion. We compare how the evaporation retardation depends on the nature of the adsorbed film stabilizing the emulsion. Surfactant films are less effective than adsorbed films of nanoparticles, and the retardation can be further enhanced by compression of the adsorbed nanoparticle films by preshrinking the emulsion drops.

  11. Antibacterial activity and stability of microencapsulated lemon grass essential oil in feeds for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Assis, Yhago Patrycky Antunes Souza; Almeida, Anna Christina de; Nogueira, Wedson Carlos Lima; Souza, Cintya Neves de; Gonçalves, Samuel Ferreira; Silva, Flavio Emanuel Gomes; Santos, Vanessa Kelly Ferreira do Rosário; Martins, Ernane Ronie

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The antibacterial effect of microencapsulated lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil on strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC8739), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (ATCC 6017), and the stability of this oil in feeds for broiler chickens were evaluated. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined by the macrodilution method, using the microencapsulated lemon grass essential oil at...

  12. Short-term thermal stability of transformer and motor oils at wide range of moisture contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volosnikov, D. V.; Povolotskiy, I. I.; Skripov, P. V.

    2018-01-01

    Method of controlled pulse heating of a wire probe was used for studying heat transfer and thermal stability of energy oils and motor oils in the presence of low quantities of moisture. The technique of two-pulse heating is the most suitable method for monitoring the actual state of oils. A distinct signal-response accompanying the appearance of moisture in the tested sample has been revealed.

  13. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation on motor nerve function after eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Eisuke; Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Yanagimoto, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of supplementation with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the M-wave latency of biceps brachii and muscle damage after a single session of maximal elbow flexor eccentric contractions (ECC). Twenty-one men were completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-design study. The subjects were randomly assigned to the fish oil group ( n  = 10) or control group ( n  = 11). The fish oil group consumed eight 300-mg EPA-rich fish oil softgel capsules (containing, in total, 600 mg EPA and 260 mg DHA) per day for 8 weeks before the exercise, and continued this for a further 5 days. The control group consumed an equivalent number of placebo capsules. The subjects performed six sets of ten eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors using a dumbbell set at 40% of their one repetition maximum. M-wave latency was assessed as the time taken from electrical stimulation applied to Erb's point to the onset of M-wave of the biceps brachii. This was measured before and immediately after exercise, and then after 1, 2, 3, and 5 days. Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at the same time points. Compared with the control group, M-wave latency was significantly shorter in the fish oil group immediately after exercise ( p  = 0.040), MVC torque was significantly higher at 1 day after exercise ( p  = 0.049), ROM was significantly greater at post and 2 days after exercise (post; p  = 0.006, day 2; p  = 0.014), and there was significantly less delayed onset muscle soreness at 1 and 2 days after exercise (day 1; p  = 0.049, day 2; p  = 0.023). Eight weeks of EPA and DHA supplementation may play a protective role against motor nerve function and may attenuate muscle damage after eccentric contractions. This trial was registered on July 14th

  14. Can fish oil supplementation improve endothelial function in asymptomatic offspring of patients with peripheral arterial disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spark JI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available J Ian Spark,1 Christopher L Delaney,1 Richard B Allan,1 Melissa HL Ho,2 Michelle D Miller21Department of Vascular Surgery, Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: Peripheral arterial disease affects 10%–25% of adults aged .55 years, and while a multitude of risk factors exist, one key influence is genetics. Rather than awaiting the onset of debilitating symptoms, interventions that target high-risk individuals and prevent or delay the onset of symptoms would have widespread impact. The aim of this study is to implement a 12-week fish oil intervention (10 mL/day containing approximately 1.5 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 1 g of docosahexaenoic acid, with the intention of improving endothelial function, inflammation, and lipid status in a high-risk population, ie, those with impaired endothelial function and a parent with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease.Methods: This is a parallel-group, double-blind, randomized controlled trial involving administration of fish oil containing either about 1.5 g of docosahexaenoic acid and 1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (intervention or about 0.15 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and about 0.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid for 12 consecutive weeks (control. The participants are 100 offspring of adults with diagnosed peripheral arterial disease who themselves have an ankle-brachial pressure index ≥0.9 but impaired endothelial function according to peripheral arterial tonometry. Measures performed at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks include flow-mediated dilatation, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-6 levels, thromboxane and prostacyclin, lipid status, and homocysteine, nitrite, and nitrate levels. Participants will be phoned fortnightly to monitor adherence and side effects, while participants will

  15. Drought and heat stress effects on soybean fatty acid composition and oil stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that oil concentration and fatty acid profile (composition) change with genotype, environment (mainly heat and drought), and geographical location. The changes in fatty acid composition under these conditions affect fatty acid stability, creating a challenge to oil proces...

  16. Characterization of constituents, quality and stability of pomegranate seed oil (Punica granatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Louise Pereira de MELO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to characterize pomegranate seed oil and evaluate its quality and stability parameters against those of linseed oil. The profile of fatty acids and phytosterols and the content of tocopherols were analyzed by gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The quality of both oils was assessed as recommended by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS and stability was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, β-carotene bleaching (coupled oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid and Rancimat® assays. While α-linolenic acid (52% was the most abundant fatty acid in linseed oil (LO, punicic acid (55% was highest in pomegranate seed oil (PSO. Tocopherols and phytosterols (175 and 539 mg/100 g, respectively were greater in PSO than in LO (51 and 328 mg/100 g, respectively. Both oils met quality standards. The β-carotene bleaching and the DPPH assays showed greater oxidative stability for PSO than for LO. The Rancimat® method, on the other hand, indicated low stability for both oils.

  17. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  18. Fish oil in infancy protects against food allergy in Iceland-Results from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M; Jonasson, K; Keil, T; Beyer, K; Sigurdardottir, S T

    2018-01-10

    Consumption of oily fish or fish oil during pregnancy, lactation and infancy has been linked to a reduction in the development of allergic diseases in childhood. In an observational study, Icelandic children (n = 1304) were prospectively followed from birth to 2.5 years with detailed questionnaires administered at birth and at 1 and 2 years of age, including questions about fish oil supplementation. Children with suspected food allergy were invited for physical examinations, allergic sensitization tests, and a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge if the allergy testing or clinical history indicated food allergy. The study investigated the development of sensitization to food and confirmed food allergy according to age and frequency of postnatal fish oil supplementation using proportional hazards modelling. The incidence of diagnosed food sensitization was significantly lower in children who received regular fish oil supplementation (relative risk: 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.82). The incidence of challenge-confirmed food allergy was also reduced, although not statistically significant (0.57, 0.30-1.12). Children who began to receive fish oil in their first half year of life were significantly more protected than those who began later (P = .045 for sensitization, P = .018 for allergy). Indicators of allergy severity decreased with increased fish oil consumption (P = .013). Adjusting for parent education and allergic family history did not change the results. Postnatal fish oil consumption is associated with decreased food sensitization and food allergies in infants and may provide an intervention strategy for allergy prevention. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  19. Genome-wide identification of mononuclear cell DNA methylation sites potentially affected by fish oil supplementation in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Martino, D; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the effects of n-3LCPUFA might be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA-methylation, during pregnancy and early life. A randomized trial was conducted in 133 9-mo-old, infants who received 3.8g/day of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) for 9 mo...

  20. Molecular Fingerprints of the Human Fecal Microbiota From 9 to 18 Months Old and the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2011-01-01

    supplementation with 5mL of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 months of age, stool samples were collected from 132 healthy Danish infants. Molecular fingerprints of the bacterial DNA were obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Results: The T-RFLP profiles indicated...

  1. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National... Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce DOC). ACTION... seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Recreational Diving, Oil...

  2. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...

  3. DIETARY FISH OIL-INDUCED CHANGES IN INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT AND BILE-ACID SYNTHESIS IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, MJ; TEMMERMAN, AM; WOLTERS, H; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ

    Hepatic cholesterol metabolism was studied in rats fed purified diets supplemented (9% wt/wt) with either fish oil (FO) (n-3 fatty acids) or corn oil (CO) (n-6 fatty acids) for 4 wk. Rats were equipped with permanent catheters in heart, bile duct, and duodenum to allow studies under normal feeding

  4. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso Aller

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones and two unprotected (open-access sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania. We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  5. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Aller, Elisa; Jiddawi, Narriman S; Eklöf, Johan S

    2017-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones) and two unprotected (open-access) sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania). We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated) effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  6. Distribution of naphthenic acids in tissues of laboratory-exposed fish and in wild fishes from near the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rozlyn F; Michel, Lorelei Martínez; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2011-05-01

    Naphthenic acids, which have a variety of commercial applications, occur naturally in conventional crude oil and in highly biodegraded petroleum such as that found in the Athabasca oil sands in Alberta, Canada. Oil sands extraction is done using a caustic aqueous extraction process. The alkaline pH releases the naphthenic acids from the oil sands and dissolves them into water as their soluble naphthenate forms, which are anionic surfactants. These aqueous extracts contain concentrations of naphthenates that are acutely lethal to fishes and other aquatic organisms. Previous research has shown that naphthenic acids can be taken up by fish, but the distribution of these acids in various tissues of the fish has not been determined. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to commercial (Merichem) naphthenic acids in the laboratory. After a 10-d exposure to approximately 3mg naphthenic acids/L, the fish were dissected and samples of gills, heart, liver, kidney, muscle, and eggs were extracted and analyzed for free (unconjugated) naphthenic acids by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Each of the tissues contained naphthenic acids and non-parametric statistical analyses showed that gills and livers contained higher concentrations than the muscles and that the livers had higher concentrations than the hearts. Four different species of fish (two fish of each species) were collected from the Athabasca River near two oil sands mining and extraction operations. No free naphthenic acids were detected in the muscle or liver of these fish. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Production, Characterization, and Stability of Orange or Eucalyptus Essential Oil/β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringel, Dianini Hüttner; Antunes, Mariana Dias; Klein, Bruna; Crizel, Rosane Lopes; Wagner, Roger; de Oliveira, Roberto Pedroso; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce and characterize inclusion complexes (IC) between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and orange essential oil (OEO) or eucalyptus essential oil (EEO), and to compare these with their pure compounds and physical mixtures. The samples were evaluated by chemical composition, morphology, thermal stability, and volatile compounds by static headspace-gas chromatography (SH-GC). Comparing the free essential oil and physical mixture with the inclusion complex, of both essential oils (OEO and EEO), it was observed differences occurred in the chemical composition, thermal stability, and morphology. These differences show that there was the formation of the inclusion complex and demonstrate the necessity of the precipitation method used to guarantee the interaction between β-CD and essential oils. The slow loss of the volatile compounds from both essential oils, when complexed with β-CD, showed a higher stability when compared with their physical mixtures and free essential oils. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical composition, molecular size, and structure of the essential oils influence the characteristics of the inclusion complexes. The application of the β-CD in the formation of inclusion complexes with essential oils can expand the potential applications in foods. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfan-Hosseini, Sasan; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Kavosi, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    Purslane seed oil could be considered as potential nutritious oil due to its desirable fatty acid composition and other biological active compounds. In this study the effect of three extraction procedure including solvent extraction, cold pressing and microwave pretreatment (MW) followed by cold pressing on oil yield, physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and rheological behaviors of oil was investigated. Solvent extracted oil had the highest extraction yield (72.31%). Pretreatment by microwave before cold press extraction resulted in an increase in extraction yield, total phenolic compound (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Cold press extracted oil had the lowest oxidative stability (4.64h). This property was greatly enhanced by microwave irradiation, so that the longest oxidative stability was found in MW-cold press extracted oil with 9.67h. Furthermore, all extracted oils demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviors. MW-cold press extracted oil had the greatest apparent viscosity and highest sensitivity to temperature changes (E a =29.18kJ/mol -1 ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stability evaluation of quality parameters for palm oil products at low temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Aainaa Syahirah; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azmil; Musa, Hajar; Ghazali, Razmah

    2017-12-18

    Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced and traded worldwide. The value of palm oil products is mainly influenced by their quality. According to ISO 17025:2005, accredited laboratories require a quality control procedure with respect to monitoring the validity of tests for determination of quality parameters. This includes the regular use of internal quality control using secondary reference materials. Unfortunately, palm oil reference materials are not currently available. To establish internal quality control samples, the stability of quality parameters needs to be evaluated. In the present study, the stability of quality parameters for palm oil products was examined over 10 months at low temperature storage (6 ± 2 °C). The palm oil products tested included crude palm oil (CPO); refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (RBDPO); RBD palm olein (RBDPOo); and RBD palm stearin (RBDPS). The quality parameters of the oils [i.e. moisture content, free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), fatty acids composition (FAC) and slip melting point (SMP)] were determined prior to and throughout the storage period. The moisture, FFA, IV, FAC and SMP for palm oil products changed significantly (P  0.05). The stability study indicated that the quality of the palm oil products was stable within the specified limits throughout the storage period at low temperature. The storage conditions preserved the quality of palm oil products throughout the storage period. These findings qualify the use of the palm oil products CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS as control samples in the validation of test results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Performance and lipid profiles of native chickens fed diet containing skipjack fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, J. R.; Mandey, J. S.; Laihad, J. T.; Tinangon, R. M.; Tangkau, L.; Junus, C.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the use of fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory in diet on the performance and lipid profiles of native chickens. The experiment used 100 native chicken with an average initial body weight of 48,9 gram (sd + 9.9), was used in this study for 8 weeks experiment. These were arranged by a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 5 replications and 4 hens in replication each. The diets were: R0 = 100% Based Diet (BD) + 0% Fish Oil (FO); R1 = 98.5% BD + 1.5% FO; R2 = 98% BD + 2% FO; R3 = 97.5% BD + 2.5% FO; R4 = 97 % BD + 3% FO. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Variables were performance parameters and lipid profiles. Results showed that fish oil inclusion in diets were significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain, carcass percentage, liver, breast and thigh weight, and decreased blood cholesterol, carbohydrate and meat cholesterol, and also tended to decrease abdominal fat. However, there were no affected on feed conversion, water, protein, fat and ash of breast meat. It can be concluded that the use of fish oil in diet up to 3% could improved performance parameters of native chickens.

  11. No Protection against DSS-induced Colitis by Short-term Pretreatment with Seal or Fish Oils in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülen Arslan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have modulating effects in several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to test whether prior short-term dietary supplementation with n-3 (fish or seal oil or n-6 (soy oil PUFA rich oils would protect the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in rats.Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: no intervention, sham, DSS, seal oil + DSS, fi sh oil +DSS and soy oil + DSS. Following 7 days of acclimatisation, 1 mL oil (seal, fish or soy or distilled water (sham was administered by gavage day 8 to 14. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water from day 15 to 21. Rats were sacrificed on day 23. Histological colitis (crypt and inflammation scores, faecal granulocyte marker protein (GMP and quantitative fatty acid composition in red blood cells were measured.Results: Pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not significantly influence DSS induced inflammation. In fact, all the oils tended to exacerbate the inflammation. Soy oil increased the mean crypt score (P < 0.04, but not the inflammation score or GMP. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs was 11 to 1 and 10 to 1 in standard diet and in red blood cells of control rats, respectively. Following administration of DSS, the ratio fell in all treatment groups (P < 0.001. The lowest ratios were seen in the groups receiving DSS + fi sh or seal oils (around 6 to 1.Conclusion: Short-term pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not protect against subsequent induction of colitis by DSS in this rat model. Whether the high ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs in the standard diet concealed effects of n-3 FA supplementation should be further investigated.

  12. Physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of bleached pomace-olive oil on Tunisian activated clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahouach, Wafa

    2002-01-01

    This work is a contribution to studying bleaching process, which is an important stage in refining of vegetable oils. This process permitted to reduce or convert undesired constituents to harmless ones from oils and fats. Virgin olive oil, considered as reference, and pomace-olive oil were bleached in optimal conditions using Tunisian activated clays ( collected from the South of Tunisia) which were prepared in our laboratory and compared with commercial bleaching earths. It was shown that activated Tunisian clays are characterized by a very important adsorptive capacity, which is similar to that of commercial ones. In addition, the study of physicochemical properties of bleached oils was considered. The fatty acid composition (GC), the triacylglycerol composition (HPLC), and oxidative stability (UV spectrometry) allowed to conclude that treated oils do not undergo considerable physicochemical alterations and their caracteristics remain in concordance with international standards relative to edible refined oils. (Author)

  13. Linseed, microalgae or fish oil dietary supplementation affects performance and quality characteristics of light lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus de la Fuente-Vazquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve the fatty acid profile of meat from light lamb, frequently reared in Spain and in other Mediterranean countries. A total of 44 light lambs fed different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids sources were studied: control (C (palm oil, extruded linseed (L, extruded linseed mixed with microalgae (LM and fish oil (FO. The productive performance from 14.7 to 26.2 kg of live weights and meat quality characteristics during refrigerated storage were assessed. Lambs fed FO showed lower feed intake (p <0.001, average daily gain (p <0.001 and higher feed conversion ratio (p <0.001 than lambs from the other treatments. Fish oil meat had the lowest (p <0.01 protein proportion and the highest (p <0.001 C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 proportions, while L or LM produced the highest (p <0.001 C18:3n-3 deposition. Fish oil meat had higher (p <0.05 L* and lower (p <0.001 a* than meats from the other treatments. After 7 days of storage, FO meat showed the highest TBARS (p <0.001, while C meat showed similar value to 0 days of storage. Additionally, FO underwent higher microbial growth after 7 days of storage as compared to the other treatments. Dietary supplementation with L and LM leads to C18:3n-3 meat enrichment and to a microbial load and colour characteristics similar to those of C, without adverse effect on lamb performance. However the use of FO improves the fatty acid profile of meat, but negatively affects lamb performance and meat quality.

  14. Stress determination and geomechanical stability analysis of an oil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of an oil well of Iran. AYUB ELYASI1,∗, KAMRAN GOSHTASBI1, OMID SAEIDI2 and. SEYED RAHMAN TORABI2. 1Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, .... So far as the depth of oil and gas exploration is concerned, the in situ stress orientations mani- .... As the real influence of the intermediate principal stress.

  15. Stability of wheat germ oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    심정은

    Wheat germ oil was extracted using an environmental friendly solvent, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-. CO2) at a semi-batch flow ... With better refining technologies, these resources can be turned into value added products. ..... parameter determination of vegetable oil oxidation under rancimat test conditions (Reza et al., ...

  16. Stability of wheat germ oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat germ oil was extracted using an environmental friendly solvent, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) at a semi-batch flow extraction process. The supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction was carried out to extract oil at temperature of 40°C and pressure of 25 MPa. Ethanolysis was performed with 1 ...

  17. Effects of Different Lipophilized Ferulate Esters in Fish Oil-Enriched Milk: Partitioning, Interaction, Protein, and Lipid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of ferulic acid and lipophilized ferulate esters were investigated in fish oil-enriched milk. Methyl ferulate (C1) and ethyl ferulate (C2) more efficiently prevented lipid oxidation than dodecyl ferulate (C12) did, followed by ferulic acid (C0). The combination of C1 or C2...... concentration in the aqueous phase, which was the opposite of the partitioning of C0. C12 had the highest concentration in the oil and emulsion phase. In particular, the interaction between ferulates esterified with short and medium alkyl chain lengths could lead to their "synergistic" effects in fish oil...

  18. Characterization of Thermal Stability of Synthetic and Semi-Synthetic Engine Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar Tripathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engine oils undergo oxidative degradation and wears out during service. Hence it is important to characterize ageing of engine oils at different simulated conditions to evaluate the performance of existing oils and also design new formulations. This work focuses on characterizing the thermo-oxidative degradation of synthetic and semi-synthetic engine oils aged at 120, 149 and 200 °C. Apparent activation energy of decomposition of aged oils evaluated using the isoconversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose technique was used as a thermal stability marker. The temporal variation of stability at different ageing temperatures was corroborated with kinematic viscosity, oxidation, sulfation and nitration indices, total base number, antiwear additive content and molecular structure of the organic species present in the oils. At the lowest temperature employed, synthetic oil underwent higher rate of oxidation, while semi-synthetic oil was stable for longer time periods. At higher temperatures, the initial rate of change of average apparent activation energy of synthetic oil correlated well with a similar variation in oxidation number. A mixture of long chain linear, branched, and cyclic hydrocarbons were observed when semi-synthetic oil was degraded at higher temperatures.

  19. Bio-oil Stabilization by Hydrogenation over Reduced Metal Catalysts at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huamin; Lee, Suh-Jane; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-30

    Biomass fast pyrolysis integrated with bio-oil upgrading represents a very attractive approach for converting biomass to hydrocarbon transportation fuels. However, the thermal and chemical instability of bio-oils presents significant problems when they are being upgraded, and development of effective approaches for stabilizing bio-oils is critical to the success of the technology. Catalytic hydrogenation to remove reactive species in bio-oil has been considered as one of the most efficient ways to stabilize bio-oil. This paper provides a fundamental understanding of hydrogenation of actual bio-oils over a Ru/TiO2 catalyst under conditions relevant to practical bio-oil hydrotreating processes. Bio-oil feed stocks, bio-oils hydrogenated to different extents, and catalysts have been characterized to provide insights into the chemical and physical properties of these samples and to understand the correlation of the properties with the composition of the bio-oil and catalysts. The results indicated hydrogenation of various components of the bio-oil, including sugars, aldehydes, ketones, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids, over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst and 120 to 160oC. Hydrogenation of these species significantly changed the chemical and physical properties of the bio-oil and overall improved its thermal stability, especially by reducing the carbonyl content, which represented the content of the most reactive species (i.e., sugar, aldehydes, and ketones). The change of content of each component in response to increasing hydrogen additions suggests the following bio-oil hydrogenation reaction sequence: sugar conversion to sugar alcohols, followed by ketone and aldehyde conversion to alcohols, followed by alkene and aromatic hydrogenation, and then followed by carboxylic acid hydrogenation to alcohols. Hydrogenation of bio-oil samples with different sulfur contents or inorganic material contents suggested that sulfur poisoning of the reduced Ru metal catalysts was

  20. A Policy study on stabilization of heating oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok Jae [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    As a principal heating fuel for household and commercial sector, and a heat source fuel for industry, the heating oil shows its great demand intensively during a specific period (wintertime) due to its characteristics. It represents that the fluctuation of heating oil demand throughout the year is very extreme. Therefore, the stable supply of heating oil has been rising as an important task. It is desirable to develop and supply a new type of heating oil compounded of kerosene and gasoline with appropriate ratio for short- and mid-term to have a stable supply and demand of heating oil. For long-term prospect, it is desirable to supply petroleum products mixing gasoline and B-C oil as heating oil when it is equipped with combustion technology of boiler and distribution system. In this case, it is required to have investment on infrastructure for the supply of new heating oil (mixture of gasoline and B-C oil) and a proper preparatory period for the conversion of equipment (such as a boiler). The vitalization of storing oil is essential to stabilize the supply and demand of heating oil. In order to vitalize it, the price of heating oil should be determined by a market function reflecting the seasonal supply and demand circumstances. (author). 101 refs., 5 figs., 83 tabs.

  1. Fluctuating interaction network and time-varying stability of a natural fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushio, Masayuki; Hsieh, Chih-Hao; Masuda, Reiji; Deyle, Ethan R.; Ye, Hao; Chang, Chun-Wei; Sugihara, George; Kondoh, Michio

    2018-02-01

    Ecological theory suggests that large-scale patterns such as community stability can be influenced by changes in interspecific interactions that arise from the behavioural and/or physiological responses of individual species varying over time. Although this theory has experimental support, evidence from natural ecosystems is lacking owing to the challenges of tracking rapid changes in interspecific interactions (known to occur on timescales much shorter than a generation time) and then identifying the effect of such changes on large-scale community dynamics. Here, using tools for analysing nonlinear time series and a 12-year-long dataset of fortnightly collected observations on a natural marine fish community in Maizuru Bay, Japan, we show that short-term changes in interaction networks influence overall community dynamics. Among the 15 dominant species, we identify 14 interspecific interactions to construct a dynamic interaction network. We show that the strengths, and even types, of interactions change with time; we also develop a time-varying stability measure based on local Lyapunov stability for attractor dynamics in non-equilibrium nonlinear systems. We use this dynamic stability measure to examine the link between the time-varying interaction network and community stability. We find seasonal patterns in dynamic stability for this fish community that broadly support expectations of current ecological theory. Specifically, the dominance of weak interactions and higher species diversity during summer months are associated with higher dynamic stability and smaller population fluctuations. We suggest that interspecific interactions, community network structure and community stability are dynamic properties, and that linking fluctuating interaction networks to community-level dynamic properties is key to understanding the maintenance of ecological communities in nature.

  2. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  3. Uncovering the exposure mechanisms of sunken heavy oil that makes it chronically toxic to early life stages of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Young, G.; Lemire, B.; Hodson, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A train derailment in 2005 caused the release of 150,000 litres of No. 6 heavy fuel oil into a lake in Alberta. The oil is a residue of the crude oil refinement process and contains 3-4 ringed alkylated forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are known to cause sub-lethal toxic responses during the early life stages of rainbow trout. Because the oil does not disperse well, oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments of the lake where fish spawn. This study assessed how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to the early life stages of fish. Daily renewal tests with heavy fuel oil coated on glass plate demonstrated higher levels of toxicity to trout embryos than oil that was mechanically or chemically dispersed. A flow-through oil gravel column was used to assess whether the toxic constituents of the heavy oil are transferred quickly enough to cause toxicity. The aim of the study was to develop exposure and toxicity test methods that accurately reflect the behaviour of heavy oil after a spill.

  4. Uncovering the exposure mechanisms of sunken heavy oil that makes it chronically toxic to early life stages of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Young, G.; Lemire, B.; Hodson, P.

    2010-01-01

    A train derailment in 2005 caused the release of 150,000 litres of No. 6 heavy fuel oil into a lake in Alberta. The oil is a residue of the crude oil refinement process and contains 3-4 ringed alkylated forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are known to cause sub-lethal toxic responses during the early life stages of rainbow trout. Because the oil does not disperse well, oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments of the lake where fish spawn. This study assessed how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to the early life stages of fish. Daily renewal tests with heavy fuel oil coated on glass plate demonstrated higher levels of toxicity to trout embryos than oil that was mechanically or chemically dispersed. A flow-through oil gravel column was used to assess whether the toxic constituents of the heavy oil are transferred quickly enough to cause toxicity. The aim of the study was to develop exposure and toxicity test methods that accurately reflect the behaviour of heavy oil after a spill.

  5. Optimization of supercritical CO(2) extraction of fish oil from viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Mohamed Zaidul Islam; Selamat, Jinap; Habib, Abu Sayem Md Ahsan; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Mohamed Jahurul Haque; Jaffri, Juliana Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

  6. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Mohamed Zaidul Islam; Selamat, Jinap; Habib, Abu Sayem Md. Ahsan; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Mohamed Jahurul Haque; Jaffri, Juliana Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method. PMID:23109854

  7. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

  8. Analytical Characterization of Pure and Blended Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus oil: Impact of Blending on Oxidative Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waqar Azeem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of pure, blended watermelon (Citrulluslanatus oil and impact of blending on oxidative stability was investigated. Watermelon oil was added with mango (Mangiferaindica L. kernel oil at four different concentrations 5, 10, 15 and 20% (B1, B2, B3 and B4 and referenced with a control (100% watermelon oil. All the blends were stored in transparent PET bottles at ambient temperature (25-28oC for 3 months; storage stability was assessed at the interval of 1 month. Free fatty acid, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, refractive index and iodine value of watermelon seed oil and mango kernel oil was 1.38%, 0.34%; 0.71%, 1.68%; 198, 193; 1.468, 1.457; 107.51, 54.62, respectively. The α tocopherol content of watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 127.49, 205.44, 135.24, 144.52, 156.81 and 169.34 mg/kg. δ tocopherol in watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 55.26, 34.81, 53.64, 51.27, 50.14 and 48.23 mg/kg. Concentration of linoleic acid decreased from 50.78% to 30.17% when 40% mango kernel oil was added to watermelon oil. Oleic acid increased from 22.89% in watermelon oil to 25.19%, 28.84% and 30.64% in B1, B2, B3 and B4. The increase in peroxide value of watermelon oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 10.07, 9.56, 7.62, 5.17 and 2.87 (meqO2/kg in a time dependent manner. Induction period of pure watermelon oil was less than mango kernel oil and blends. These results suggest that chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of pure watermelon oil can be improved by blending with mango kernel oil.

  9. Analytical characterization of pure and blended watermelon (citrullus lanatus) oil: impact of blending on oxidative stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeem, M.W.; Nadeem, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of pure, blended watermelon (Citrulluslanatus) oil and impact of blending on oxidative stability was investigated. Watermelon oil was added with mango (Mangiferaindica L.) kernel oil at four different concentrations 5, 10, 15 and 20% (B 1, B2, B3 and B4) and referenced with a control (100% watermelon oil). All the blends were stored in transparent PET bottles at ambient temperature (25-28 degree C) for 3 months; storage stability was assessed at the interval of 1 month. Free fatty acid, unsaponifiable matter, saponification value, refractive index and iodine value of watermelon seed oil and mango kernel oil was 1.38%, 0.34%; 0.71%, 1.68%; 198, 193; 1.468, 1.457; 107.51, 54.62, respectively. The tocopherol content of watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 127.49, 205.44, 135.24, 144.52, 156.81 and 169.34 mg/kg. delta tocopherol in watermelon oil, mango kernel oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 55.26, 34.81, 53.64, 51.27, 50.14 and 48.23 mg/kg. Concentration of linoleic acid decreased from 50.78% to 30.17% when 40% mango kernel oil was added to watermelon oil. Oleic acid increased from 22.89% in watermelon oil to 25.19%, 28.84% and 30.64% in B1, B2, B3 and B4. The increase in peroxide value of watermelon oil, B1, B2, B3 and B4 was 10.07, 9.56, 7.62, 5.17 and 2.87 (meqO/sub 2//kg) in a time dependent manner. Induction period of pure watermelon oil was less than mango kernel oil and blends. These results suggest that chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of pure watermelon oil can be improved by blending with mango kernel oil. (author)

  10. Properties and stability of butter oil obtained from milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, A

    2000-04-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from cow's milk by two different methods were studied. Butter oil samples from cow's milk were made (i) directly from milk and (ii) from yoghurt. Samples were autoxidized at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C in the dark and the reaction monitored by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. Peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of the acid value was not significant. The thermal stability was highest in butter oil produced from yoghurt. Oxidative changes compared to hydrolytic changes are of greater significance in the thermal stability of butter oil samples. Arrhenius parameters and activation energies were calculated for the peroxide value data. The percent loss of linolenic acid was about 3 times faster than that of linoleic acid.

  11. Humic substances and crude oil induce cytochrome P450 1A expression in the Amazonian fish species Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Aline Y O; Woodin, Bruce R; Reddy, Christopher M; Val, Adalberto L; Stegeman, John J

    2006-04-15

    Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction is used widely as a biomarker of exposure to pollutants, such as petroleum hydrocarbons, yet CYP1A inducibility has been characterized in few tropical fish. Using Western blot analysis, catalytic assay, and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated CYP1A induction in an Amazonian fish (tambaqui; Colossoma macropomum) acclimated to humic substances (HS) and acutely exposed to crude oil. HS are ubiquitous in Amazonian waters, and they are known to affect the bioavailability of pollutants. CYP1A activity was also measured in fish exposed for 10 days to a range of concentrations of HS from both natural and commercial sources. Crude oil induced CYP1A expression in tambaqui, as expected. Exposure to both HS and crude oil resulted in greater levels of CYP1A expression relative to that in fish exposed to petroleum alone. Interestingly, CYP1A induction was also observed in fish exposed to HS alone. Induction by HS was concentration-dependent, and activity was higher in fish exposed to HS from the commercial source than in fish exposed to the HS from the natural source. The use of CYP1A as a biomarker of exposure to pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons in fish living in environments rich in humic substances should be considered with caution given that HS themselves induce CYP1A expression. Our results suggest that there may be as yet unknown CYP1A inducing components (aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists) in humic substances.

  12. Thermo-Oxidative Stability Evaluation of Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutckeviski, Renata; Xavier-Júnior, Francisco H; Morais, Andreza R V; Alencar, Éverton N; Amaral-Machado, Lucas; Genre, Julieta; Gondim, Amanda D; Egito, Eryvaldo S T

    2017-04-10

    Bullfrog oil (BO), a natural product obtained from recycling of adipose tissue from the amphibian Rana catesbeiana Shaw, has been recently evaluated as a therapeutic activity ingredient. This work aimed to evaluate the long-term and accelerated thermal oxidative stabilities of this product, which is a promising raw material for emulsion technology development. BO was extracted from amphibian adipose tissue at 70 °C with a yield of 60% ± 0.9%. Its main fatty acid compounds were oleic (30.0%) and eicosapentaenoic (17.6%) acids. Using titration techniques, BO showed peroxide, acid, iodine and saponification indices of 1.92 mEq·O₂/kg, 2.95 mg·KOH/g oil, 104.2 g I₂/100 g oil and 171.2 mg·KOH/g oil, respectively. In order to improve the accelerated oxidative stability of BO, synthetic antioxidants butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and buthylhydroxyanisole (BHA) were used. The addition of BHT increased the oxidation induction time compared to the pure oil, or the oil containing BHA. From the results, the best oil-antioxidant mixture and concentration to increase the oxidative stability and allow the oil to be a stable raw material for formulation purposes was derived.

  13. Thermal stability of corn oil flavoured with Thymus capitatus under heating and deep-frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoui, Iness Jabri; Dhifi, Wissal; Jemia, Meriam Ben; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-03-30

    The thermal stability of corn oil flavoured with thyme flowers was determined and compared with that of the original refined corn oil (control). The oxidative stability index (OSI) was measured and samples were exposed to heating (30 min at 150, 180 and 200 °C) and deep-frying (180 °C). Changes in peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) content, specific absorptivity values (K(232) and K(270)), colour and chlorophyll, carotenoid and total phenol contents were monitored. The OSI and heating results showed that thyme incorporation was effective against thermal oxidation based on the increased induction time observed for the flavoured oil (6.48 vs 4.36 h), which was characterised by lower PV, FFA content, K(232) and K(270) than the control oil after heating from 25 to 200 °C, with higher red and yellow colour intensities and chlorophyll, carotenoid and total phenol contents. The deep-frying test showed the accelerated deterioration of both oils in the presence of French fries. Compared with the control oil, the thyme-flavoured oil showed improved thermal stability after heating. This could be attributed to the presence of thyme pigments and antioxidant compounds allowing extended oil thermal resistance. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Thermo-Oxidative Stability Evaluation of Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rutckeviski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bullfrog oil (BO, a natural product obtained from recycling of adipose tissue from the amphibian Rana catesbeiana Shaw, has been recently evaluated as a therapeutic activity ingredient. This work aimed to evaluate the long-term and accelerated thermal oxidative stabilities of this product, which is a promising raw material for emulsion technology development. BO was extracted from amphibian adipose tissue at 70 °C with a yield of 60% ± 0.9%. Its main fatty acid compounds were oleic (30.0% and eicosapentaenoic (17.6% acids. Using titration techniques, BO showed peroxide, acid, iodine and saponification indices of 1.92 mEq·O2/kg, 2.95 mg·KOH/g oil, 104.2 g I2/100 g oil and 171.2 mg·KOH/g oil, respectively. In order to improve the accelerated oxidative stability of BO, synthetic antioxidants butylhydroxytoluene (BHT and buthylhydroxyanisole (BHA were used. The addition of BHT increased the oxidation induction time compared to the pure oil, or the oil containing BHA. From the results, the best oil-antioxidant mixture and concentration to increase the oxidative stability and allow the oil to be a stable raw material for formulation purposes was derived.

  15. Glycerin purification using asymmetric nano-structured ceramic membranes from production of waste fish oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, M.; Sadrameli, S. M.; Shamloo, M.

    2018-02-01

    Biodiesel is an environmental friendly alternative liquid transportation fuel that can be used in diesel engines without major modifications. The scope of this research work is to produce biodiesel from waste fish oil and its purification from the byproducts using a ceramic membrane. Transesterification of waste fish oil was applied for the biodiesel production using methanol in the presence of KOH as a catalyst. Effect of catalyst weight percent, temperature and methanol to oil molar ratio (MR) on the biodiesel yield have been studied and the results show that highest methyl ester yield of 79.2% has been obtained at 60 °C, MR: 6 and 1% KOH. The produced biodiesel purified by a ceramic membrane. Membrane flux and glycerin removal at different operating conditions such as temperature, trans-membrane pressures and cross flow velocities have been measured. Glycerin purity by membrane method is 99.97% by weight at the optimum condition. The highest membrane flux occurred at 50 °C temperature, 1 bar pressure and 3 m/s velocity.

  16. The Influence of Palm Oil Addition on Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halva is one of the most popular food products of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Worldwide, the most known halva contains roasted sesame seeds, while usually in Eastern European countries the most appreciated is sunflower halva. However, even if sunflower halva is an appreciated product, it has currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers. Sunflower halva main issue is caused by the oil which separates at the surface during storage, determining a low commercial aspect of the product. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of palm oil addition on sunflower halva stability and texture. Five samples containing different oil percentages [w/w] (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% were prepared, as well as a control sample prepared using the standard recipe (no palm oil added. The texture of all samples was analyzed by an instrumental method, while the colloidal stability was determined by a gravimetric technique during 40 days of storage at two different temperatures (1-2ºC and 15-20ºC. After the storage test at 1-2oC, there were not significant differences between the samples, for all palm oil containing samples as well as for control the percentages of separated oil being below 0.6%. With respect to the control sample, the halva samples containing 1%, 4% and 5% of palm oil showed a decrease in their stability, while samples containing 2% and 3% showed an improved stability (3.44% and 1.78% of separated oil. During this study it was established that the sample containing 3% palm oil was the most favorable, regarding its textural properties, as well as its colloidal stability

  17. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people often mistakenly eat fish. This happens in kitchens when fish gets into a food product because the staff use the same surfaces, utensils (like knives, cutting boards, or pans), or oil to prepare both fish and other foods. This ...

  18. Riboflavin-induced oxidation in fish oil-in-water emulsions: Impact of particle size and optical transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluata, Sibel; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-12-15

    The influence of particle size and optical properties on the stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions to riboflavin-induced oxidation by blending different combinations of small (d=44nm) and large (d=216nm) lipid droplets was examined. Emulsion turbidity increased with increasing mean droplet diameter due to greater light scattering by larger particles. The influence of droplet size on the stability of the emulsions to riboflavin-induced lipid oxidation during storage at 20 or 37°C was measured. At 37°C, the rate of lipid hydroperoxide formation increased with decreasing droplet diameter, but there were no significant differences in propanal concentrations. At 20°C, both peroxide and propanal values indicated that the rate of oxidation increased with decreasing droplet size. These data show that riboflavin was more effective at promoting oxidation in nanoemulsions containing small droplets because light was able to penetrate more easily and generate reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soressa M. Kitessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  20. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  1. Replacing dietary fish oil by vegetable oils has little effect on lipogenesis, lipid transport and tissue lipid uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nadège; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Corraze, Geneviève

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of dietary lipid sources on mechanisms involved in lipid deposition, two groups of rainbow trout were fed from first-feeding to the commercial size of 1 kg (for 62 weeks) with two diets differing only by lipid source: 100% fish oil or 100% blend of vegetable oils (55% rapeseed oil, 30% palm oil, 15% linseed oil). The activities and levels of gene expression of lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) in liver and of lipoprotein lipase in perivisceral adipose tissue, white muscle and liver were determined. Transport of lipid was studied by determining lipid composition of plasma and lipoprotein classes. We also examined the clearance of LDL by assaying the level of LDL receptor gene expression in several tissues. Total replacement of dietary fish oil by the blend of vegetable oils did not affect growth of rainbow trout and did not modify muscle lipid content. Hepatic lipogenesis and lipid uptake in perivisceral adipose tissue, white muscle and liver were also not modified by dietary treatments. Diets containing the blend of vegetable oils induced a decrease in plasma cholesterol and LDL. In trout fed the vegetable oils diet, expression of LDL receptor gene in the liver was down-regulated.

  2. Chemical stability of extra-virgin olive oil added with oregano essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2011-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil is highly consumed and well known for its nutritional and health benefits. However, it is fatty food highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preserving effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp vulgare called "oregano compacto") essential oil on physical and chemical properties in extra virgin olive oil during storage. Oregano essential oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. This essential oil was added into extra virgin olive oil at 0.05%. The samples were stored in 3 different conditions: darkness, light exposure, and temperature (60 °C). Chemical indicators of lipid oxidation (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, conjugated dienes, free fatty acidity, and carotenoid and chlorophyll contents) were measured. High content in carvomenthol (22.52%), terpinolene (19.77%), thymol (13.51%), and γ-terpinene (10.30%) were detected in oregano essential oil. Olive oil samples without oregano essential oil stored at 60 °C and exposure at artificial light had the highest peroxide values during storage. Higher p-anisidine and K232 values after day 7 of storage were detected in temperature, darkness, and light exposure treatments. Light treatment was the main factor that degraded chlorophyll causing loss of color. The highest chlorophyll content (3.87 mg/kg) was observed in olive oil with essential oil at the end of storage. In general, olive oil samples added with oregano essential oil had lower peroxide, conjugated dienes, and p-anisidine values and higher chlorophyll and carotenoid contents during storage. Oregano essential oil retards lipid oxidation process in olive oil prolonging its shelf life. Oregano essential oil was and is used with the purpose of flavoring and aromatizing food. This essential oil due to its composition has shown antioxidant activity. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are thought to be promoters of carcinogenesis

  3. Improving oxidative stability of soya and sunflower oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmarinus officinallis) and tert- butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) as possible antioxidants in sunflower and soya oil. Upon addition of 200 ppm of dried leaf extract, acetone extract yielded protection of the samples against oxidation more efficiently as ...

  4. Stabilization of Bio-Oil Fractions for Insertion into Petroleum Refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Smith, Ryan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Wright, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resasco, Daniel [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Crossley, Steven [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2014-09-28

    This project is part of a collaboration effort between Iowa State University (ISU), University of Oklahoma (OK) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The purpose of this project is to stabilize bio-oil fractions and improve their suitability for insertion into petroleum refineries. Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a complex mixture of unstable organic compounds. These organic compounds react under standard room conditions resulting in increases in bio-oil viscosity and water content – both detrimental for bio-oil storage and transportation. This study employed fractionation and upgrading systems to improve the stability of bio-oil. The fractionation system consists of a series of condensers, and electrostatic precipitators designed to separate bio-oil into five fractions: soluble carbohydrates (SF1&2), clean phenolic oligomers (CPO) and middle fraction (SF3&4), light oxygenates (SF5). A two-stage upgrading process was designed to process bio-oil stage fractions into stable products that can be inserted into a refinery. In the upgrading system, heavy and middle bio-oil fractions were upgraded into stable oil via cracking and subsequent hydrodeoxygenation. The light oxygenate fraction was steam reformed to provide a portion of requisite hydrogen for hydroprocessing. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking employed hydrogen from natural gas, fuel gas and light oxygenates reforming. The finished products from this study consist of gasoline- and diesel-blend stock fuels.

  5. Studied on Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and Olive Oil (OO) as an Alternative for Stabilizer of Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syuhada Ramli; Sofian Ibrahim; Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and olive oil (OO) as an alternative stabilizer in the radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL). Potassium laurite (KL) as a stabilizer considered as a control of RVNRL sample were compared to mixed ratio 1:1 KL: VCO and 1:1 KL: OO stabilizer formulation. Total solid content (TSC) and tensile strength (TS) results showed no significant different between the formulations. Mechanical stability time (MST) indicates higher stability of RVNRL with addition of VCO. The fatty acid composition in VCO indicate VCO was acting well as stabilizer for latex stabilizer formulation. (author)

  6. Oxidative comparison of emulsion systems from fish oil-based structured lipid versus physically blended lipid with purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lu-Jing; Yang, Dan; Shin, Jung-Ah; Kim, Sun-Ju; Hong, Soon-Taek; Lee, Jeung Hee; Sung, Chang-Keun; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2012-01-11

    The effects of the purple-fleshed sweet potato extract (PFSPE) on oxidation stabilities of a model oil-in-water emulsion prepared with enzymatically synthesized fish oil-soybean oil structured lipid (SL) versus physically blended lipid (PBL) without modification were evaluated. The anthocyanins in PFSPE were analyzed and identified by HPLC-MS. The fatty acid composition of SL was similar to that of PBL, except palmitic acid (1.48 in PBL and 9.61% in SL) and linoleic acid (62.47 in PBL and 49.58% in SL). Peonidin 3-caffeoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-(6',6'-caffeoylferuloylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, peonidin-dicaffeoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin 3-(6',6"-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside were identified as the major anthocyanin compounds in PFSPE. Different levels (200, 500, 1000 ppm) of PFSPE were added into both SL- and PBL-based emulsions, with 200 ppm catechin as comparison. Oxidation was monitored by measuring the peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The antioxidant activity of PFSPE increased with an increased concentration, the concentration of 1000 ppm showed high antioxidant ability similar to that of catechin in both PBL- and SL-based oil-in-water emulsions. It is notable that the SL-based emulsion appeared to have better oxidative stability than the PBL-based emulsion.

  7. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Kui; Zhang, Han; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Chen, Jie-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the frying performance of Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil during deep-fat frying of frozen French fries with/without replenishment. Commercial regular canola oil was used for comparison. The frying oils were used during intermittent frying of frozen French fries at 180, 200, and 220 ℃ for 7 h daily over four consecutive days. The Kizakinonatane oil exhibited lower levels of total polar compounds, carbonyl value, and viscosity as well as comparable color (optical density) values to that of the canola oil. The monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios were lower than that of canola oil, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios are higher than that of canola oil after heating. Results showed that fresh Kizakinonatane oil contains higher levels of acid value, viscosity, optical density values, tocopherols, and total phenolics contents than that of canola oil. Replenishment with fresh oil had significant effects on all chemical and physical parameters, except the acid value of the Kizakinonatane oil during frying processes. Based on the results, the Kizakinonatane oil is inherently suitable for preparing deep-fried foods at high temperatures. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. The Prestige oil spill and its economic impact on the Galician fishing sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surís-Regueiro, Juan C; Garza-Gil, M Dolores; Varela-Lafuente, Manuel M

    2007-06-01

    The sinking of the Prestige oil tanker on 18 November 2002 off the coast of Galicia, Spain, had important economic, environmental and social ramifications. The aim of this paper is to carry out an initial analysis of the costs related to a halt in fishing activities in Galicia between November 2002 and December 2003. This involves three different steps: an assessment of the cost of the preventative and palliative measures introduced by Spanish public administrations (compensation for affected fishermen and shellfish fisherman); an indirect evaluation of the implications of the disaster (via a study of data on production); and a direct appraisal of the economic impact of the event (reduction in income), using questionnaires completed by a representative sample of fishermen and shellfish fisherman. The results obtained from these three methods of estimating losses are compatible. By December 2003, losses to the Galician fishing sector stood at an estimated EUR 76 million.

  9. Preparation and Application of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Modified Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoma Fei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of alkyl chain modified graphene oxides (AmGO with different alkyl chain length and content was fabricated using a reducing reaction between graphene oxide (GO and alkyl amine. Then AmGO was used as a graphene-based particle emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Compared with the emulsion stabilized by GO, which was oil-in-water type, all the emulsions stabilized by AmGO were water-in-oil type. The effects of alkyl chain length and alkyl chain content on the emulsion properties of AmGO were investigated. The emulsions stabilized by AmGO showed good stability within a wide range of pH (from pH = 1 to pH = 13 and salt concentrations (from 0.1 to 1000 mM. In addition, the application of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by AmGO was investigated. AmGO/polyaniline nanocomposite (AmGO/PANi was prepared through an emulsion approach, and its supercapacitor performance was investigated. This research broadens the application of AmGO as a water-in-oil type emulsion stabilizer and in preparing graphene-based functional materials.

  10. Female Leuciscus lepidus May Be a New Alternative for Fish Oil Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cakmak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of male and female Leuciscus lepidus in Beyşehir Lake was investigated. The fatty acid profiles of total lipid, phospholipid, and triacylglycerol in muscle and liver of male and female L. lepidus were evaluated by gas chromatography. Proximate analyses showed that meat of male and female L. lepidus had 15.13 ± 0.04 and 18.75 ± 0.11% fat, 20.42 ± 0.45 and 22.21 ± 0.56% protein, 65.47 ± 1.37 and 61.28 ± 1.03% moisture, and 1.51 ± 0.05 and 1.50 ± 0.03% ash, respectively. The percentage of total saturated fatty acids was higher in liver than in muscle, whereas the total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content was the lowest in all fatty acid profiles. The phospholipids contained more PUFAs than triacylglycerol. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P<0.05 between male (47.51% and female (49.98% muscle PUFAs in total lipid. The proportion of omega 3 (ω3 to omega 6 (ω6 fatty acids of total lipid was 3.15 in male and 3.68 in female. The ratio is an important indicator for comparing the value of fish oil. Therefore, it was concluded that L. lepidus was considered to be a high quality product for healthy food choice. Additionally, female L. lepidus may especially be used to produce fish oil supplements from freshwater fish combined with vegetable oils.

  11. The application of autochthonous potential of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 564 in fish oil fortified yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug−1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug−1 for streptococci and >106 cfug−1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009

  12. ON STABILITY OF THE OIL DISPLACEMENT FRONT UNDER CONDITIONS OF THERMOGAS IMPACT ON THE OIL BEARING LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of thermogas impact on the oil bearing layer is a perspective one to improve oil recovery. It is now under experimental implementation in Belarus. Stability of the thermal front and that of the oil displacement is a point of principle for the given technology. The article offers solution based on the method of small perturbations for the problem of the oil-displacement front stability under thermogas impact on the oil layer. The perturbation growth increment is shown to be quite different from that of the gas filtration combustion. Being determined by the perturbation wave number (or wave length, by difference in speed of the blowing filtration and that of the heat development front, by the ratios of densities, filtration coefficients, compressibility of the displacement agent and the displaced oil mass, and by other parameters. The author analyses the main parameters influencing the stability of the front. Recommendations are given on possible methods and procedures improving stability of the displacement front (neutralizing perturbation growth. The mechanisms of suppression or compensation of the front perturbation growth are as follows: the crude oil viscosity reduction and increase of that of the displacement agent, the displacement agent compressibility increase, increase of the thermogas impact heat-front width in the first instance at the expense of the temperature growth and alteration in the chemism (low temperature catalysts utilization, etc., reduction in speed of the front propagation and/or correspondingly of the displacement agent feed. Utilization of the gas or water-gas displacement agent as well as the agent impregnation with hydrophobic gases provides a relatively better stability of the front as compared to that employing water based compounds. Analytical data and derived recommendations are offered for utilization within the framework of general techniques and procedures of the thermogas impact process management

  13. Physical and antimicrobial properties of thyme oil emulsions stabilized by ovalbumin and gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Fuge; Pan, Weichun; Su, Yujie; Yang, Yanjun

    2016-12-01

    Natural biopolymer stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were formulated using ovalbumin (OVA), gum arabic (GA) solutions and their complexes. The influence of interfacial structure of emulsion (OVA-GA bilayer and OVA/GA complexes emulsions) on the physical properties and antimicrobial activity of thyme oil (TO) emulsion against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was evaluated. The results revealed that the two types of emulsions with different oil phase compositions remained stable during a long storage period. The oil phase composition had an appreciable influence on the mean particle diameter and retention of the TO emulsions. The stable emulsion showed a higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the TO emulsions showed an improved long-term antimicrobial activity compared to the pure thyme oil, especially complexes emulsion at pH 4.0. These results provided useful information for developing protection and delivery systems for essential oil using biopolymer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched oil-in-water emulsions and cream cheese with pre-emulsified fish oil is affected differently by the emulsifier used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    acids to foods invariably increases the risk of lipid oxidation. A possible strategy to avoid lipid oxidation and the consecutive development of unpleasant off-flavours is to protect the oil in a delivery emulsion in which the oil droplets are shielded from its possible pro-oxidative surroundings......It is well-documented that a high intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has several health beneficial effects in humans. Consequently, the interest in food products enriched with marine oils has increased during recent years. However, addition of these highly unsaturated fatty...... by an emulsifier. The antioxidative properties of milk proteins make them an obvious choice as emulsifiers in delivery emulsions. Previous studies have furthermore shown that a combination of proteins and phospholipids may increase the thickness of the interfacial layer in an emulsion. This presentation...

  15. Influence of fish oil in the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid and omega 6 and 3 in buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Patiño

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research work was to investigate the influence of fish oil supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and omega 6 and 3 in samples of buffalo milk. A total of 24 female buffaloes separated at random into three groups were fed for 49 days with: natural pasture (group I, supplemented with 70mL of fish oil (group II and 140mL of fish oil (group III. In the experiment the concentration of CLA showed differences (P<0.05 among the three groups, with a maximum of 7.14mg/g fat in group II. No significant differences were found in omega-6 among the three groups. The highest value of 3.82mg/g fat corresponded to group I, whicht had not been supplemented with fish oil. Significant differences were observed in omega 3 (P<0.05 in groups II and III with respect to group I. The highest average value of 2.42mg/g fat was obtained in group III. The closest relationship omega 6/3 (1.37:1 was observed in group III. As a result, the diets of groups II and III, which included fish oil, increased significantly the content of CLA and omega 3 with reductions in levels of omega 6.

  16. Fish oil regulates blood fatty acid composition and oxylipin levels in healthy humans: A comparison of young and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulyniak, Michael A; Roke, Kaitlin; Gerling, Christopher; Logan, Samantha L; Spriet, Lawrence L; Mutch, David M

    2016-03-01

    Increased consumption of fish oils rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with improved cardiometabolic health and inflammatory status; however, age-related responses remain poorly described. In a placebo-controlled study, healthy young and older men consumed five fish oil capsules daily, providing 2.0 g/d EPA and 1.0g/d DHA, for three months. Both young and older men experienced a ∼30% reduction in blood triglycerides with fish oil supplementation. A significant group × time interaction was observed for DHA, with young men experiencing a ∼twofold increase in DHA in serum and RBCs, while older men showed negligible increases. Other fatty acids were differentially regulated between young and older men, most notably osbond acid and several saturates. Small changes were observed in serum oxylipins, with both groups of men responding similarly: 5-HETE was reduced, while PGF2α and 17-HDoHE were increased. Changes in oxylipins occurred independent of changes in whole blood expression of key genes regulating oxylipin production. Our study suggests that both young and older men experience the triglyceride-lowering benefits associated with fish oil supplements, but show differential responses in blood fatty acids. Additionally, fish oil promotes an improved oxylipin profile in both groups of men. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Australian and New Zealand Fish Oil Products in 2016 Meet Label Omega-3 Claims and Are Not Oxidized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Nichols

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We provide new fish oil product results to assist industry in Australia and New Zealand and, ultimately, consumers in understanding the high product quality assurance protocols in place, together with the high product quality that has been determined by both industry and independent laboratories. Fish oil capsule products common to Australia and New Zealand were purchased in May 2016 in Richmond, Victoria, Australia. Products were from two groups; five standard fish oil products and five fish oil concentrates. Noting Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA requirement for use of standard methods, for all analyses undertaken a laboratory was selected that met the TGA criteria, including with accreditation. Total n-3 content exceeded the label-claimed content for all 10 products, with supplements containing on average 124% of the claimed content (range 115%–136%; eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA content averaged 109% of the label claim (range 99%–119%. All 10 products (100% similarly met the international recommended peroxide value (PV level. Anisidine value (pAV met the international recommended level for eight of the 10 products, with two products known to contain flavorings that interfere with the pAV test. When accredited laboratories and standard protocols are used, Australian and New Zealand fish oil products have been shown to clearly meet their label claims for EPA + DHA content, and are not oxidized.

  18. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Julie; Krogh, Anne Louise; Jensen, Mette Behrmann; Guo, Zheng; Mu, Huiling

    2007-09-05

    Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma, erythrocytes, and liver. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in phospholipids than in triacylglycerols. The results suggest that enriching butter blends with small amounts of fish oil can be used as an alternative method for improving the level of n-3 PUFA in biological tissues.

  19. Synergestic effect of aqueous purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) extract and fish oil on radiation-induced damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Azime, Afrag S H; Hussein, Elham M; Ashry, Omaima M

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of oral administration of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) extract or fish oil and their co-treatments in the modulation of radiation-induced damage. Purslane (P) (400 mg/kg body weight) or fish oil (Fo) (60 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to male albino rats via gastric intubation for 15 days after whole body exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma rays. The animals were sacrificed after the elapse of 15 days. The results revealed that irradiation induced a significant elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and atherogenic index: TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in addition to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), alkaline phophatase (ALP), bilirubin, as well as urea, creatinine and uric acid. Moreover, liver, kidney and heart malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly elevated, whereas nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and HDL-c were depressed. Purslane and/or fish oil treatment significantly attenuated lipids alteration, liver and kidney functions as well as oxidative stress in irradiated rats. The results pointed out that dietary fish oil supplementation, at adequate doses, may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against radiation-induced damage without harmful side-effects. It could be concluded that purslane extract and fish oil may have therapeutic potential to improve hepatic and renal functions as well as oxidative stress in irradiated rats. Moreover, their co-administration showed a better improved liver function.

  20. Role of Fish Oil against Physiological Disturbances in Rats Brain Induced by Sodium Fluoride and/or Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; El-Tahawy, N.A.; Ibrahim, F.R.; Kamal, G.M.; EL-Sayed, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of environmental and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and to long-term intake of high levels of fluoride have caused health problems and increasingly alarming in recent years. Fish oil omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids essential fatty acids) is found in the highest concentrations in fish oil, claim a plethora of health benefits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids on sodium fluoride (NaF) and or gamma (γ) rays in inducing neurological and biochemical disturbances in rat’s brain cerebral hemispheres. The results revealed that whole body exposure to γ- radiation at 6 Gy applied as fractionated doses (1.5 Gy x 4 times) and/or chronic receipt of NaF solution (0.13 mg/Kg/day) for a period of 28 days, significantly increased brain fluoride and calcium content, decreased level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and induced brain oxidative stress which led to neurotransmitters dysfunction. Supplementation of treated rats with fish oil, via gavages, at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt has significantly modulated oxidative stress and neurotransmitters alterations. It could be concluded that EPA and DHA, found in fish oil, could possibly protect brain from damaging free radicals and consequently minimize the severity of brain biochemical disturbances

  1. Fish stories: cod, oil and gas turn about to be hard to mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2000-01-01

    In 1992 the Government of Canada gave the green light for the start of construction of the Hibernia oil platform; in the same year moratorium on cod fishing was declared. Hibernia ushered in a new era of growth in Atlantic Canada, the moratorium put an end to cod exports for a period of seven years. Environmental activist believe that the two events are not unrelated; after-effects of the Hibernia development played a role in reducing fish stocks and likely to inhibit their recovery. The environmental group 'Save our Seas and Shores' (SOSS) claims that seismic work and drilling are likely to interfere with the migration patterns of young cod, forcing them to spawn in areas that are not safe for egg maturity. According to SOSS, the future of cod fishing is in danger of destruction by further exploration and development in spawning nursery and migratory areas. The group is claiming support from a Nova Scotia government review of two marine ecosystems both of which were declared too delicate to withstand the effects of oil and gas activity. SOSS, supported by a coalition of fishery, native, environmental and tourism groups is determined to halt petroleum exploration along the western coast of Cape Breton Island. In the meantime, the Atlantic Petroleum Institute, first opened in Nova Scotia, and now in the process of expanding into Newfoundland, supported by industry and the Canada Atlantic Opportunities Council, has been assured of funding for a period of five years to develop education and training programs, organize forums for discussion, debate and problem solving, and coordinate research and development. The Institute hopes that SOSS will want to participate in finding solutions to the problems of fisheries that are acceptable to both petroleum and fishing industry interests

  2. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy and early lactation on the n-3 fatty acid content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, J.; Jensen, Benny; Salvig, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    week 30 of gestation (FO-group) or to a control regimen (olive oil or no oil; controls). The FO-group was randomly subdivided into women stopping fish oil supplementation at delivery [FO(pregn)], and women continuing supplementation for an additional 30 d [FO(pregn/lact)]. Thirty-six women agreed......The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation, in the third trimester of pregnancy and early lactation period of healthy pregnant Danish women. Forty-four pregnant women were randomly allocated to fish oil supplementation (1.3 g EPA and 0.9 g DHA per day) from...

  3. The antioxidative effect of lipophilized rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid in fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Petersen, Lone Kirsten; de Diego, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidative effect of phenolipids was evaluated in fish oil enriched milk emulsions as a model for a complex food system. Two different phenolipids modified from dihydrocaffeic acid (with C8 or C18:1) and rutin (with C12 or C16) were evaluated. Both dihydrocaffeate esters and rutin laurate...... provides new knowledge that can be used to develop new antioxidant strategies to protect foods against lipid oxidation. However, the results indicate that both optimization of alkyl chain length for each type of phenolic, and optimization for each type of emulsion will be necessary in order to get the best...

  4. Predator decline leads to decreased stability in a coastal fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Gregory L; Dowd, Michael; Minto, Cóilín; Ferretti, Francesco; Boero, Ferdinando; Lotze, Heike K

    2014-12-01

    Fisheries exploitation has caused widespread declines in marine predators. Theory predicts that predator depletion will destabilise lower trophic levels, making natural communities more vulnerable to environmental perturbations. However, empirical evidence has been limited. Using a community matrix model, we empirically assessed trends in the stability of a multispecies coastal fish community over the course of predator depletion. Three indices of community stability (resistance, resilience and reactivity) revealed significantly decreasing stability concurrent with declining predator abundance. The trophically downgraded community exhibited weaker top-down control, leading to predator-release processes in lower trophic levels and increased susceptibility to perturbation. At the community level, our results suggest that high predator abundance acts as a stabilising force to the naturally stochastic and highly autocorrelated dynamics in low trophic species. These findings have important implications for the conservation and management of predators in marine ecosystems and provide empirical support for the theory of predatory control. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Low-Severity Hydroprocessing to Stabilize Bio-oil: TechnoEconomic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-08-31

    The impetus for this study was the suggestion that recent developments in fast pyrolysis (FP) bio-oil production had indicated instability of the bio-oil in storage which might lead to unacceptable viscosity increases. Commercial operation of FP in Finland began in 2014 and the distribution of the bio-oil to isolated users has been proposed as the long-term plan. Stability of the shipped bio-oil therefore became a concern. Experimental results at PNNL with low-severity hydroprocessing of bio-oil for stabilization has validated a process in which the stability of the bio-oil could be improved, as measured by viscosity increase following storage of the product at 80 °C for 24h. In the work reported here the assessed process configuration consists of fast pyrolysis followed by low temperature and pressure hydroprocessing to produce a stable fuel oil product. The product could then be stored for an extended period of time without significant viscosity increase. This work was carried out as part of a collaborative project between Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an evaluation of the process developed in earlier collaboration and jointly invented by VTT and PNNL researchers.

  6. Effect of structured lipids based on fish oil on the growth and fatty acid composition in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Gøttsche, Jesper; Holm, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    containing DAG. A feeding experiment where groups of rainbow trout were fed six diets containing different types of oils for 61 days was performed. The lipid fraction of the six diets was as follows: 1) Fish oil and rapeseed oil (FO diet), 2) Specific structured lipid and rapeseed oil (SL diet), 3....... There was no additional effect of incorporating the medium chain fatty acids in specific positions and no weight reducing effect of adding DAG to the diets. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Improvement of Fermented Fish Flour Quality Using Essential Oil Extracted From Fresh Leaves of Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou, Euloge S; Dègnon, René G; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of Pimenta racemosa in the improvement of fermented fish flour producing technology. Essential oil of Pimenta racemosa was extracted by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition was determined by GC and GC/MS. Different types of fermented fish flours from Lesser African Threadfin (Galeoides decadactylus) were produced by the modification of the traditional processing technology and the introduction of a step of essential oil adjunction during the process. Three different essential oil concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μL g -1 ) were investigated. Physicochemical, microbiological and nutritional analyzes were performed in order to evaluate the quality of the fermented fish flour produced. Results obtained revealed that the essential oil of Pimenta racemosa investigated has a chemical composition characterized by the presence of myrcene (25.1%), chavicol (7.5%) and eugenol (51.1%). Fermented fish flour produced have a good nutritional potential. However, on the microbiological level, only samples produced by adjunction of essential oil have a low level of microbial contamination, with an absence of pathogenic microorganisms.

  8. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P meal caused the greatest change in cod lipid composition and utilization.

  9. Effects of dietary oxidized fish oil supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Larroquet, Laurence; Dias, Karine; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Heraud, Cécile; Corlay, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the response of the antioxidant defense system against dietary prooxidant conditions in rainbow trout juveniles. Fish (initial mean weight: 62 ± 1 g) were fed three fishmeal and plant-derived protein-based diets supplemented with 15% fresh fish oil (CTL diet), 15% fresh fish oil from tuna by-products (BYP diet) or 15% autooxidized fish oil (OX diet) over a 12-week growth trial at 17.5 ± 0.5 °C. No significant differences in growth performance were recorded between dietary groups. Muscle lipid content was reduced and n-6 PUFA levels were increased in rainbow trout fed diets BYP and OX compared to CTL. After 12 weeks of feeding, the level of lipid peroxidation products in muscle was not affected whereas the 8-isoprostane content in liver was increased in fish fed diet OX as well as plasma total and oxidized glutathione contents. The hepatic and muscle contents for α-tocopherol were decreased in fish fed BYP and OX. Hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA levels were not affected after 12 weeks of feeding, except for catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1b2 mRNA levels that were decreased in trout fed diet OX. Fish fed diet OX and BYP displayed also reduced cytosolic Nrf2 and both cytosolic and nuclear NF-κB protein levels in liver. The present work indicates that feeding rainbow trout juveniles with fresh fish oil from by-products or moderately oxidized lipid appears not to be detrimental to the growth performance of fish. The mechanisms beyond the control of the antioxidant defense system by moderately oxidized lipid require further investigations in rainbow trout juveniles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maritime Renaissance: oil begins to make up for lost seals and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    2000-12-04

    The economic recovery of Newfoundland as a result of success in the Hibernia oilfield off the coast of Newfoundland is discussed. Oil production and the transport of oil from the Hibernia to the mainland by rugged double-hulled tankers that are about five times bigger than any other ship in Canada in terms of carrying capacity is a welcome event, considering that the seal hunt and the fishing industry that formerly provided sustenance to the people of Newfoundland have died as a result of world-wide pressure by animal rights groups, and indiscriminate overfishing. Transport of the crude oil from the Hibernia field is provided by Canship Ugland, a St. John's-based firm which now operates a fleet of three tankers. Each of the three vessels are capable of carrying 850,000 barrels of oil, or more than four times Hibernia's daily production. The 'Vinland' the latest of the three tankers to be commissioned, was built in South Korea, is 272 metres long and 46 metres wide. The ship is expected to carry oil from the rig 315 kms offshore to the Newfoundland Terminal at Whiffen Head, where the oil is picked up by smaller vessels. The 'Vinland' is equipped with the dynamic positioning feature which lets the ship maintain its maneuverability and position even if half her power is lost. The company employs people from all over the province and puts millions of dollars annually into the Newfoundland economy. 1 photo.

  11. Formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) in fish and fish oil during dynamic gastrointestinal in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Karin; Harrysson, Hanna; Havenaar, Robert; Alminger, Marie; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Marine lipids contain a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including the characteristic long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Upon peroxidation these lipids generate reactive products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), which can form covalent adducts with biomolecules and thus are regarded as genotoxic and cytotoxic. PUFA peroxidation can occur both before and after ingestion. The aim of this study was to determine what levels of MDA, HHE and HNE can evolve in the gastric and intestinal lumen after ingesting meals containing fish or fish oil using a dynamic gastrointestinal (GI) model (TIM). The impact of the fish muscle matrix, lipid content, fish species, and oven baking on GI oxidation was evaluated. MDA and HHE concentrations in gastric lumen increased for all meals during digestion, with the highest level found with herring mince; ∼ 25 μM MDA and ∼ 850 nM HHE. Aldehyde concentrations reached in intestinal lumen during digestion of fish containing meals were generally lower than in gastric lumen, while isolated herring oils (bulk and emulsified) generated higher MDA and HHE values in intestinal lumen compared to gastric lumen. Based on aldehyde levels in gastric lumen, meals containing herring lipids were ranked: raw herring (17% lipid) = baked herring (4% lipid) > raw herring (4% lipid) ≫ herring oil emulsion > herring oil. Herring developed higher concentrations of MDA and HHE during gastric digestion compared to salmon, which initially contained lower levels of oxidation products. Cooked salmon generated higher MDA concentrations during digestion than raw salmon. Low levels of HNE were observed during digestion of all test meals, in accordance with the low content of n-6 PUFA in fish lipids.

  12. Antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation and their effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, Gabriela N; Borgarello, Ana V; Grosso, Nelson R; Fernandez, Héctor; Pramparo, María C; Gayol, María F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation (MD) and investigate their effect on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. MD fractions were prepared in a series of low-pressure stages where rosemary essential oil was the first feed. Subsequently, a distillate (D1) and residue (R1) were obtained and the residue fraction from the previous stage used as the feed for the next. The residue fractions had the largest capacity to capture free radicals, and the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was due to oxygenated monoterpenes, specifically α-terpineol and cis-sabinene hydrate. Oxidative stability results showed the residues (R1 and R4) and butylated hydroxytoluene had greater antioxidant activity than either the distillate fractions or original rosemary essential oil. The residue fractions obtained by short path MD of rosemary essential oil could be used as a natural antioxidants by the food industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Studies on carotenoids and oxidative stability of winter squash seed and soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy, H. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash seed and soybean oils were extracted with commercial hexane. Carotenoids and other pigments m the oils were studied using spectrophotometric and thin layer chromatographic analysis. Three types of pigments were identified: carotenoids. mainly lutein and β-carotene, chlorophyll and some unidentified pigments. Carotenoids content were 70, 60, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed oil, and 80, 65, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached soybean oil respectively. Stability was evaluated for crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed and soybean oils and an 1:1 admixture. Mixing winter squash seed oil with soybean oil increased the stability of soybean oil. Crude oil showed greater stability than refined and bleached oils.

    Se han extraído con hexano comercial aceites de semilla de calabaza y de soja. Usando análisis espectrofotométrico y cromatografía en capa fina se han estudiado en estos aceites tres tipos de pigmentos: carotenoides, principalmente luteína y β-caroteno, clorofilas y otros no identificados. Los contenidos en carotenoides fueron 70, 60, 0 ppm en aceite de semilla de calabaza de invierno crudo, refinado y decolorado, y 80, 65, 0 ppm en aceite de soja crudo, refinado y decolorado respectivamente. Se ha evaluado la estabilidad de aceites de semilla de calabaza de invierno, soja y una mezcla 1:1 de ambos, en sus estados crudo, refinado y decolorado. La mezcla de semilla de calabaza de invierno con aceite de soja aumentó la estabilidad de este último. El aceite crudo mostró una mayor estabilidad que los aceites refinados y decolorados.

  14. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  15. Effect of seed quality on oxidative stability of cold-pressed sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the storage time, content of the husk and impurities in the seed mass on the oxidative stability of the cold pressed sunflower oil. The oxidative stability of oil was analyzed by the RSM (Response Surface Methodology, where the response value (output of the model was the content of oxidation products measured via specific absorbance at 232 nm for conjugated dienes and 270 nm for conjugated trienes. Analyses were performed on the fresh oil samples and oil samples tempered under the Schaal-Oven’s test conditions (96 h at 63±2ºC. It was concluded that the seed storage time had significant impact on the primary (A1%232nm and secondary (A1%270nm oil oxidation products, both before (b1-p<0,001; b1-p=0,021 and after (b1-p=0,048; b1-p=0,033 the heating of oil. The content of impurities and husks in the seeds used for pressing also had an influence of the conjugated dienes and trienes contents in both, fresh and heated oil samples. However, their impact was not statistically significant. Interaction of seed storage time, the content of impurities and husks also exert some effect on the values of these quality parameters in the fresh oil as well as in the oil after the heat treatment, even though their influence is not significant. The obtained results have shown that the cold pressed sunflower oil had a good oxidative stability at temperatures up to 63±2ºC.

  16. Characterization of Whey Protein Oil-In-Water Emulsions with Different Oil Concentrations Stabilized by Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Hebishy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH: 100 or 200 MPa at 25 °C, in comparison to colloid mill (CM: 5000 rpm at 20 °C and conventional homogenization (CH: 15 MPa at 60 °C, on the stability of oil-in-water emulsions with different oil concentrations (10, 30 or 50 g/100 g emulsified by whey protein isolate (4 g/100 g was investigated. Emulsions were characterized for their microstructure, rheological properties, surface protein concentration (SPC, stability to creaming and oxidative stability under light (2000 lux/m2. UHPH produced emulsions containing lipid droplets in the sub-micron range (100–200 nm and with low protein concentrations on droplet surfaces. Droplet size (d3.2, µm was increased in CH and UHPH emulsions by increasing the oil concentration. CM emulsions exhibited Newtonian flow behaviour at all oil concentrations studied; however, the rheological behaviour of CH and UHPH emulsions varied from Newtonian flow (n ≈ 1 to shear-thinning (n ˂ 1 and thixotropic behaviour in emulsions containing 50% oil. This was confirmed by the non-significant differences in the d4.3 (µm value between the top and bottom of emulsions in tubes left at room temperature for nine days and also by a low migration velocity measured with a Turbiscan LAB instrument. UHPH emulsions showed significantly lower oxidation rates during 10 days storage in comparison to CM and CH emulsions as confirmed by hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. UHPH emulsions treated at 100 MPa were less oxidized than those treated at 200 MPa. The results from this study suggest that UHPH treatment generates emulsions that have a higher stability to creaming and lipid oxidation compared to colloid mill and conventional treatments.

  17. Determination of the oxidation stability of biodiesel and oils by spectrofluorimetry and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Marilena; Quintella, Cristina M; Tanajura, Alessandra Dos Santos; da Silva, Humbervânia Reis Gonçalves; Fernando, Jaques D'Erasmo Santos; da Costa Neto, Pedro R; Pepe, Iuri M; Santos, Mariana Andrade; Nascimento, Luciana Lordelo

    2011-07-15

    Oxidation stability is an important quality parameter for biodiesel. In general, the methods used to evaluate the oxidation stability of oils and biodiesels are time-consuming. This work reports the use of spectrofluorimetry, a fast analytical technique, associated with multivariate data analysis as a powerful analytical tool to prediction of the oxidation stability. The prediction of the oxidation stability showed a good agreement with the results obtained by the EN14112 reference method Rancimat. The models presented high correlation (0.99276 and 0.97951) between real and predicted values. The R(2) values of 0.98557 and 0.95943 indicated the accuracy of the models to predict the oxidation stability of soy oil and soy biodiesel, respectively. The residual distribution does not follow a trend with respect to the predicted variables indicating the good quality of the fits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stabilization of Softwood-Derived Pyrolysis Oils for Continuous Bio-oil Hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Burton, Sarah D.; Job, Heather M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Swita, Marie S.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Neuenschwander, Gary N.; Frye, John G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-10-15

    The use of fast pyrolysis as a potential renewable liquid transportation fuel alternative to crude oil depends on successful catalytic upgrading to produce a refinery-ready product with oxygen content and qualities (i.e. specific functional group or compound content) that is compatible with the product’s proposed insertion point. Catalytic upgrading of bio-oil requires high temperature and pressure, while similar to crude oil hydrotreating, is not as straightforward for the thermally unstable pyrolysis oil. For years, a two-temperature zone, downflow trickle bed reactor was the state-of-the art for continuous operation. However, pressure excursion due to plug formation still occurred, typically at the high temperature transition zone, leading to a process shutdown within 140 h. Recently, a bio-oil pre-treatment process, together with a robust commercial catalyst, was found to be enabling the continuous operation of the two-zone hydroprocessing system. Here, we report the results on pre-treating bio-oil at 413 K and 8.4 MPa of flowing H2 (500 L H2/L bio-oil, 0.5 L bio-oil/L catalyst bed) and the attempts to characterize this oil product to understand the chemistry which enabled the long-term processing of bio-oil.

  19. The chemical composition and the content of volatile oil: potential factors that can contribute to the oxidative stability of Nigella sativa L. crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Amr E

    2011-03-01

    The crude oil of Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) has well-known nutraceutical and pharmaceutical properties. The oil is prone to rapid oxidative deterioration because of its high content of poly-unsaturated fatty acids. In the current investigation, different cold-pressed crude oils of N. sativa were examined for their composition of fatty acids and oxidative stability. The data obtained were correlated with the chemical composition and content of volatile oils, which correspond to each crude oil. Results indicated that different crude oils have the same fatty acid composition, and linoleic acid was the major constituent (60.0-61.7%). Though, the oxidative stability index of the crude oils was different ranging from 2.5 hr to 26.9 hr, as revealed by the Rancimate test at 100°C and airflow rate of 20 ml/min. The results showed that there is a straightforward correlation between the volatile oil content and the oxidative stability of the corresponding parent crude oil. In addition, high γ-terpinene content in the constitution of volatile oil can also be another contributing factor for enhancing the oxidative stability of the crude oil. The data presented here draw attention to some important factors that may guide the nutraceutical and food supplement processors in their screening for the highest quality of Nigella crude oils with maximum health benefits.

  20. Investigation of chemical modifiers for the direct determination of arsenic in fish oil using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Éderson R; de Almeida, Tarcísio S; Borges, Daniel L G; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Feldmann, Jörg; Campo Menoyo, Javier Del

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS) has been applied for the development of a method for the determination of total As in fish oil samples using direct analysis. The method does not use any sample pretreatment, besides dilution with 1-propanole, in order to decrease the oil viscosity. The stability and sensitivity of As were evaluated using ruthenium and iridium as permanent chemical modifiers and palladium added in solution over the sample. The best results were obtained with ruthenium as the permanent modifier and palladium in solution added to samples and standard solutions. Under these conditions, aqueous standard solutions could be used for calibration for the fish oil samples diluted with 1-propanole. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1400 °C and 2300 °C, respectively, and the limit of detection and characteristic mass were 30 pg and 43 pg, respectively. Accuracy and precision of the method have been evaluated using microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples with subsequent determination by HR-CS GF AAS and ICP-MS; the results were in agreement (95% confidence level) with those of the proposed method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential effects of coconut oil- and fish oil-enriched diets on tricarboxylate carrier in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudetti, Anna Maria; Sabetta, Simona; di Summa, Roberta; Leo, Monica; Damiano, Fabrizio; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V

    2003-11-01

    The mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier (TCC) plays an important role in lipogenesis being TCC-responsible for the efflux from the mitochondria to the cytosol of acetyl-CoA, the primer for fatty acid synthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of two high-fat diets with different fatty acid composition on the hepatic TCC activity. Rats were fed for 3 weeks on a basal diet supplemented with 15% of either coconut oil (CO), abundant in medium-chain saturated fatty acids, or fish oil (FO), rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mitochondrial fatty acid composition was differently influenced by the dietary treatments, while no appreciable change in phospholipid composition and cholesterol level was observed. Compared with CO, the TCC activity was markedly decreased in liver mitochondria from FO-fed rats; kinetic analysis of the carrier revealed a decrease of the Vmax, with no change of the Km. No difference in the Arrhenius plot between the two groups was observed. Interestingly, the carrier protein level and the corresponding mRNA abundance decreased following FO treatment. These data indicate that FO administration markedly decreased the TCC activity as compared with CO. This effect is most likely due to a reduced gene expression of the carrier protein.

  2. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols, the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils.

  3. Trans fatty acids: chemical synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid isomers and detection in rats fed a deodorized fish oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Carla; Grabovskiy, Stanislav A; Aoun, Manar; Melchiorre, Michele; Kabal'nova, Natalia; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Coudray, Charles; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos

    2012-03-19

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in fish oils used for omega-3 enriched diets. The natural cis double bond geometry can be transformed to the trans configuration during the deodorization process utilized in the food industry. The analytical discrimination of the possible five monotrans regioisomers represents a limiting step for the recognition and structure-activity relationship in connection with the harmful effects of trans fatty acids in health. We carried out a dual synthetic strategy, providing new access to monotrans EPA isomers and valuable information on GC and NMR characteristics for further applications in metabolomics and lipidomics. This small library was used as an analytical reference for isomer determination in deodorized fish oils and the follow-up of rats fed fish oil diets, evidencing for the first time that monotrans EPA isomers are incorporated in liver mitochondrial membranes after dietary intake. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...... blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower...

  5. Effect of rosemary extract and TBHQ on the stability of radish seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongling, Z.; Yancheng, G.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of rosemary extract (RE) and tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) on the storage stability of radish seed oil were studied according to the change of the acid value, peroxide value, tocopherol and sulforaphene in radish seed oil. The results showed that under conditions of accelerated oxidation by (60+-1) degree C, the storage stability of the radish seed oil with antioxidants could be significantly improved, among which TBHQ was better than RE. Besides, RE and TBHQ had a synergistic effect on antioxidation. The compound of 0.01% RE and 0.01% TBHQ had a better antioxidation effect than 0.07% RE and 0.02% TBHQ respectively, which recommended it can be a suitable antioxidant of radish seed oil. (author)

  6. Crude oil and stock markets. Stability, instability, and bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J. Isaac; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the long-run relationship between the world price of crude oil and international stock markets over 1971:1-2008:3 using a cointegrated vector error correction model with additional regressors. Allowing for endogenously identified breaks in the cointegrating and error correction matrices, we find evidence for breaks after 1980:5, 1988:1, and 1999:9. There is a clear long-run relationship between these series for six OECD countries for 1971:1-1980.5 and 1988:2-1999.9, suggesting that stock market indices respond negatively to increases in the oil price in the long run. During 1980.6-1988.1, we find relationships that are not statistically significantly different from either zero or from the relationships of the previous period. The expected negative long-run relationship appears to disintegrate after 1999.9. This finding supports a conjecture of change in the relationship between real oil price and real stock prices in the last decade compared to earlier years, which may suggest the presence of several stock market bubbles and/or oil price bubbles since the turn of the century. (author)

  7. Stabilization of Model Crude Oil Emulsion using Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-31

    Dec 31, 2015 ... the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation and the increasing use of plastic. More than 4000 years ago, according to. Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of. Babylon (Chisholm et al, 1911). There were oil pits.

  8. Stress determination and geomechanical stability analysis of an oil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The geological history of this basin includes a long time subsidence and deposition which is interrupted by a short-term uplift. Its folding process began during Miocene and Pliocene anti- clines and continued until now, hence forming a long anticline (Mottiei 1995). These anticlines constitute most of oil traps in this basin.

  9. Physical Stability of Oil in Water Emulsions in the Presence of Gamma Irradiated Gum Tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Neda Mollakhalili; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Farhoodi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Gum tragacanth (GT) exuded from an Iranian Astragalus species was γ-irradiated at 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 10 kGy and used to stabilize a model oil in water emulsion system. Stability and physicochemical properties of emulsion samples were investigated with respect to the effect of irradiation....... Emulsions were prepared by homogenizing 10% w/w sun flower oil with 90% w/w aqueous gum dispersions and stored quiescently at 25°C for 120 days. Results indicated that using 1.5 kGy irradiated GT was more effective in providing optimum values of apparent viscosity, number mean diameter, electrosteric...... repulsion and structure strength for getting maximum emulsion stability. GT significantly reduced the interfacial tension of the oil and water system, but no significant differences were observed among all irradiation treated and non-irradiated samples. This study revealed that, GT acts as a bifunctional...

  10. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Brito, Gleisson A P; Coelho, Isabela; Pequitto, Danielle C T; Yamaguchi, Adriana A; Borghetti, Gina; Schiessel, Dalton Luiz; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Machado, Juliano; Rocha, Ricelli E R; Aikawa, Julia; Iagher, Fabiola; Naliwaiko, Katya; Tanhoffer, Ricardo A; Nunes, Everson A; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2011-04-28

    Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO), obese control group (Ob), coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO) and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO). Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Obese animals (Ob) presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt) showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO) similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30%) and triacylglycerol (TG; 33%) compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day) was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.

  11. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iagher Fabiola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG (4 mg/g body weight was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C, coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO, fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO, obese control group (Ob, coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO. Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Results Obese animals (Ob presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30% and triacylglycerol (TG; 33% compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Conclusions Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.

  12. Impact of Refrigerated Storage on Quality of Oil from Freshwater Jarko (Wallago attu Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat N. Memon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated storage on the quality of freshwater fish oil Jarko (Wallago attu was evaluated by measuring fatty acid profile, free fatty acids (FFA, peroxide value (PV, acid value (AV, sponification value (SV, iodine value (IV and poylene index (PI up to the time period of 120 days. After 120 days storage, mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA contents were decreased by 24.89% and 33.70%, respectively. While, saturated fatty acids (SFA content was found to be increased by 26.82%, against the actual value. The change in polyunsaturated fatty acids during refrigerated storage was measured by the PI value. The PI decreased during storage due to lipid oxidation, but remained nearly constant after 90th day of storage. The results of PV, AV and FFA demonstrates that Wallago attu fish oil remained acceptable for consumption for 60 days but eventually exceeded the recommended values after 60 days of refrigerated storage.

  13. Protective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds and oil against columnaris disease in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H H; Arias, C R

    2016-06-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is currently the most frequently reported bacterial disease affecting farm-raised channel catfish in the USA. Common treatments against the disease include the use of medicated feed that has led to emergent antibiotic resistant strains of F. columnare. Nigella sativa (Black cumin) is a medicinal herb commonly used by many cultures as a natural remedy for numerous disorders. Recently, we have discovered the antibacterial activity of N. sativa and its oil extract against F. columnare. In this study, we showed N. sativa oil (NSO) strongly inhibited the growth of all of the strains of F. columnare tested and yielded significantly larger zones of inhibition than those produced by oxytetracyclin. We tested the protective effect against columnaris disease in vivo by incorporating NSO (5%) or N. sativa seeds (NSS) (5%) into fish feeds. Fishes (Ictalurus punctatus and Danio rerio) fed amended diets displayed significantly lower mortality than those fed control diets. Per cent mortalities in control groups ranged from 77% to 44% and from 70% to 18% in zebrafish and channel catfish, respectively. A dose study using different NSS concentrations showed that 5% NSS offered the most protection against columnaris disease in channel catfish. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Influence of fish oil alone or in combination with hydrogenated palm oil on sensory characteristics and fatty acid composition of bovine cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Fehrmann-Cartes, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of fish oil (FO) alone or in combination with hydrogenated palm oil (FOPO) on the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk and cheese from dairy cows, and the sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine Holstein cows (173...... treatments than with control. Compared with control and FOPO, FO treatment increased VA and DHA content in milk and cheese. In conclusion, supplementation of dairy cow diets with FO alone or in combination with hydrogenated palm oil can enhance the FA profile of milk and cheese without deleterious effects...

  15. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iagher Fabiola; Aikawa Julia; Rocha Ricelli ER; Machado Juliano; Kryczyk Marcelo; Schiessel Dalton; Borghetti Gina; Yamaguchi Adriana A; Pequitto Danielle CT; Coelho Isabela; Brito Gleisson AP; Yamazaki Ricardo K; Naliwaiko Katya; Tanhoffer Ricardo A; Nunes Everson A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish...

  16. Check Amount of heavy metals in muscle and fish oil Rutilus frisii kutum, Clupeonella cultriventris and Liza saliens

    OpenAIRE

    S. Salehi Borban; M. Gharachorloo; F. Zamani

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in marine environments and the potential for bioaccumulation of contaminants have been considered as a serious threat for a long time. These contaminants accumulate in fish body and then transferred through the food chain to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metals cadmium, lead, arsenic, mercury and copper and iron metals in muscle and fish oil (Rutilus frisii kutum ،Clupeonella cultriventris ،Liza saliens). Three samples of Rutilus frisii kutum ،...

  17. Comparison of fishes taken by a sportfishing party vessel around oil platforms and adjacent natural reefs near Santa Barbara, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, M.S.; Westphal, W.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1958, 29 oil platforms have been sited in the southern California Bight of which 28 still remain in place. However, little is known of the fish populations surrounding these structures, particularly those sited in water deeper than 30 m. In the course of research on the Santa Barbara, California, party vessel sport fishery, it was noted that the platforms off Santa Barbara supported considerable sportfishing activity. Those platforms, located to the southeast of Santa Barbara in depths of 48-62 m, were particularly important and were fished intensively for various rockfishes (genus Sebastes). When fishing a platform, the vessel pulled up to within 5-10 m of a platform and drifts along one side, with the vessel operator using intermittent power to keep it near the structure. Most of the desirable species, particularly rockfishes, remained close to the platforms, rarely venturing more than perhaps 20 m from the structure. The party vessels also spent considerable time fishing over nearby natural reefs. In this survey, it was noted that there appeared to be differences in species catch composition and fish size between oil platforms and these natural reefs. Increased offshore oil drilling off California has raised interest in the role platforms play in marine systems. Questions have been raised regarding what fish live around platforms, how these structures influence populations over surrounding reefs, and whether the platforms act as fish enhancers (promoting recruitment) or only as aggregators. These questions are particularly relevant when the platforms are to be decommissioned and the possibility of allowing them to remain as artificial reefs is raised. This paper describes the results of the study on the fish populations around oil platforms and nearby natural reefs off Santa Barbara

  18. Enhancement of the nutritional status and quality of fresh pork sausages following the addition of linseed oil, fish oil and natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, I; O'Grady, M N; Ansorena, D; Astiasarán, I; Kerry, J P

    2008-12-01

    Fresh pork sausages (pork shoulder, pork back fat, water, rusk and seasoning) were manufactured where 15% of the pork back fat was substituted with linseed oil (LO) or fish oil (FO). Green tea catechins (GTC) and green coffee antioxidant (GCA) were added to both LO (LGTC 200 and LGCA 200) and FO (FGTC 200 and FGCA 200) substituted sausages at a level of 200mg/kg. Raw and cooked pork sausages were either over-wrapped with oxygen permeable film (aerobic storage) or stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing 80% O(2):20% CO(2) or 70% N(2):30% CO(2), respectively for 7 days at 4°C. Effects on fatty acid profiles, lipid oxidation, colour and sensorial properties were investigated. α-Linolenic acid increased from 1.34% (control) to 8.91% (LO) and up to 11.2% (LGTC 200 and LGCA 200). Addition of fish oil increased levels of EPA from 0.05% (control) to 2.83% (FO), 3.02% (FGTC 200) and 2.87% (FGCA 200) and DHA levels increased from 0.04% (control) to a maximum of 1.93% (FGTC 200). Lipid oxidation was low in raw and cooked linseed oil containing sausages. GTC (200mg/kg) significantly (Praw fish oil containing sausages after 7 days of storage. Colour parameters in raw pork sausages were unaffected by the packaging atmosphere. L(∗) lightness values were lower (P<0.05) in LGTC 200 and a(∗) redness values lower (P<0.05) in LGTC 200 and FGTC 200 after 7 days of storage. Sensory scores of cooked pork sausages were unaffected by linseed oil addition. Flavour and overall acceptability scores in cooked fish oil containing sausages were improved by GTC addition. Results obtained demonstrate potential for the production of nutritionally enhanced fresh pork sausages.

  19. Effect of cinnamaldehyde on oxidative stability of several fats and oils at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba İnanç Horuz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural antioxidants recently have gained popularity since synthetic ones have toxic and carcinogenic effects. In the present study, effect of temperature (120, 150 and 180°C and cinnamaldehyde on oxidative stability of several oils (olive, hazelnut and palm oils and fats (milkfat and butter was examined. In order to compare the results with the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT was used at a concentration of 200 ppm. This level is the legal maximum limit allowed. Experiments were conducted by using a PetroOxy device, a rapid small scale oxidation stability test. According to induction time values obtained by PetroOxy device, the stability of oils drastically decreased with increasing temperature. Cinnamaldehyde had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on all fat and oil samples compared to control (no antioxidant added and BHT added samples. BHT significantly increased induction times of all fat and oil samples at lower temperatures. However, it was not effective at 180°C (p < 0.05. It can be concluded that cinnamaldehyde could not be considered as a good alternative to BHT for preservation of fats and oils at high temperatures.

  20. Characterisation and antioxidant evaluation of Icelandic F. vesiculosus extracts in vitro and in fish-oil-enriched milk and mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun; Yesiltas, Betül; Honold, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from Fucus vesiculosus were extracted and their antioxidant efficacy in fish-oil-enriched foods was evaluated. Water extract (WE) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) were obtained and characterised. Furthermore, WE and EAF were added to fish-oil-enriched milk or mayonnaise....... Oxidation during storage was evaluated. EAF showed highest phenolic and pigment contents compared with WE. Antioxidant efficacy was found to be dependent on the concentration in the foods. Furthermore, high antioxidant activity in the foods was related to high radical scavenging, high or moderate metal...

  1. Ascorbyl palmitate, gamma-tocopherol, and EDTA affect lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched salad dressing differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Let, M.B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of γ-tocopherol, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and ascorbyl palmitate to protect fish oil enriched salad dressing against oxidation during a 6 week storage period at room temperature. The lipid-soluble γ-tocopherol (220 and 880 µg g-1...... of fish oil) reduced lipid oxidation during storage by partly retarding the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (PV) and by decreasing the concentrations of individual volatile oxidation products by 34-39 and 42- 66%, respectively. EDTA (10 and 50 µg g-1 of dressing) was the most efficient single...

  2. Plasma triacylglycerol and coagulation factor concentrations predict the anticoagulant effect of dietary fish oil in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Feijge, Marion A H; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-01-01

    fish-oil effects. In study 1, 54 overweight subjects consumed 3.1 g (n-3) PUFA daily. In study 2, which involved 42 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, 20 subjects consumed (n-3) PUFA, whereas 22 others ingested a preparation rich in (n-6) PUFA. Tissue factor-induced thrombin generation (thrombin...... determined partly the interindividual variation in thrombin generation, of which prothrombin and triacylglycerol concentrations were the main determinants. In both healthy subjects and diabetes patients, high triacylglycerol concentrations (>1.69 mmol/L) at baseline were closely linked to a strong fish oil...

  3. The effectiveness of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats is limited by an inefficient action on ASM function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, D T S Z; Zanatta, A L; Dias, B C L; Fogaça, R T H; Maurer, J B B; Donatti, L; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2013-09-01

    Episodes of acute exacerbation are the major clinical feature of asthma and therefore represent an important focus for developing novel therapies for this disease. There are many reports that the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, but there are few studies of the action of fish oil on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. In the present investigation, we evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation on smooth muscle force of contraction in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Wistar rats, and its consequences on static lung compliance, mucus production, leukocyte chemotaxis and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil supplementation suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in asthmatic animals (2.04 ± 0.19 × 10(6) cells vs. 3.33 ± 0.43 × 10(6) cells in the control asthmatic group; P < 0.05). Static lung compliance increased with fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats (0.640 ± 0.053 mL/cm H2O vs. 0.399 ± 0.043 mL/cm H2O; P < 0.05). However, fish oil did not prevent asthma-associated lung eosinophilia and did not affect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in lung tissue or the proportion of the airways obliterated with mucus. Fish oil had no effect on the force of contraction in asthmatic rats in response to acetylcholine (3.026 ± 0.274 mN vs. 2.813 ± 0.364 mN in the control asthmatic group). In conclusion, although fish oil exerts some benefits in this model of asthma, its effectiveness appears to be limited by an inefficient action on airway smooth muscle function.

  4. Studies for the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures. Final report, August 1978-May 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsaris, G.D.; Glazman, Y.M.; Adams-Viola, M.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) was developed. Aggregation of the coal particles was determined to control both the sedimentation and rheological properties of the COM. Sedimentation stability of COM prepared with coal, 80% < 200 mesh, is achieved by particle aggregation, which leads to the formation of a network of particles throughout the oil. The wettability of coal powders was evaluated by the Pickering emulsion test and a spherical agglomeration test to assess its effect on the stability of various COM formulations. Sedimentation stability of hydrophilic coal-oil-water mixtures (COWM) involves the formation of water bridges between the coal particles, while less stabilization of oleophilic COWM is achieved by the formation of an emulsion. Anionic SAA were least sensitive to the coal type and enhanced the aggregation stability of the suspension. The effect of cationic SAA, nonionic SAA and polymer additives depended upon the specific chemical structure of the SAA, the water content of the COM and the type of coal. The sedimentation stability of ultrafine COM was not directly due to the fineness of the powder but due to the formation of a network of flocculated particles.

  5. The effect of food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on oil blend degradation during repeated frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Álvarez, María Del Carmen; Molina-Hernández, Erika F; Hernández-Raya, José Concepción; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2012-11-01

    Oil that is reused multiple times for deep frying goes through changes in chemical composition and physical characteristics, affecting the quality of the fried foods. In this study, the effect of the food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on the degradation of an oil blend during the deep-fat frying of each food at 180°C during 12 days was determined, and the characteristics of the fried products were evaluated. The degradation of oil during repeated use was relatively faster when fish nuggets were fried than when French fries were fried, as higher values of total polar compounds were obtained. The results are useful for producers of French fries and fish nuggets, such as restaurants or fast foods sellers, providing them with practical guidelines within the permitted values established by the regulatory authorities. The studied foods have high economic importance and are different in their composition. Under the studied conditions, the tested oil blend may be used during 4 d (4 h per day) with a daily replenishment, without discarding the oil when frying fish nuggets, and must be discarded after 8 d when French fries are processed. This suggestion allows preparing safe fried foods for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Some Fish Spoilage Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis by broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory (MIC and minimum bactericidal (MBC concentrations. Results: GC-MS results showed that phenolic components such as carvacrol (51.55% and thymol (25.49% were predominant constituents of the EO. Zataria multiflora Boiss EO exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Shewanella Putrefaciens was the most sensitive bacteria with MBC value of 0. 5 mg/ml. Conclusion: According to the results, this EO could be used as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food specially seafood products to preserve them against bacterial spoilage.

  7. Rheological properties and physical stability of ecological emulsions stabilized by a surfactant derived from cocoa oil and high pressure homogenization

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo-Cayado, L. A.; Natera, A.; García, M. C.; Muñoz, J.; Alfaro, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of the emulsification method on the rheological properties, droplet size distribution and physical stability of O/W green emulsions formulated with an eco-friendly surfactant derived from cocoa oil. The methodology used can be applied to other emulsions. Polyoxyethylene glycerol esters are non-ionic surfactants obtained from a renewable source which fulfill the environmental and toxicological requirements to be used as eco-fri...

  8. Effect of ripening inhibitor type on formation, stability, and antimicrobial activity of thyme oil nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Victor; McClements, David J; Corradini, Maria G; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2018-04-15

    The objective of this research was to study the impact of ripening inhibitor level and type on the formation, stability, and activity of antimicrobial thyme oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification. Oil-in-water antimicrobial nanoemulsions (10 wt%) were formed by titrating a mixture of essential oil, ripening inhibitor, and surfactant (Tween 80) into 5 mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 3.5). Stable nanoemulsions containing small droplets (d palm ≈ corn > canola > coconut which also depended on their ability to transfer hydrophobic antimicrobial constituents to the separated hydrophobic domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  10. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret; Brüggemann, Dagmar A.; Lenferink, Aufried

    2014-01-01

    storage was lower in mixed mayonnaise compared to LSO mayonnaise, while in mixed oil mayonnaise the level of peroxides was constantly low. Mixed oil mayonnaise had a lower rate of oxygen consumption than mixed mayonnaise, LSO mayonnaise having the highest rate. The decay of water-soluble nitroxyl radicals...

  11. Fishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, G.

    1984-09-01

    Two classifications of fishing jobs are discussed: open hole and cased hole. When there is no casing in the area of the fish, it is called open hole fishing. When the fish is inside the casing, it is called cased hole fishing. The article lists various things that can become a fish-stuck drill pipe, including: broken drill pipe, drill collars, bit, bit cones, hand tools dropped in the well, sanded up or mud stuck tubing, packers become stuck, and much more. It is suggested that on a fishing job, all parties involved should cooperate with each other, and that fishing tool people obtain all the information concerning the well. That way they can select the right tools and methods to clean out the well as quickly as possible.

  12. Diets enriched in menhaden fish oil, seal oil, or shark liver oil have distinct effects on the lipid and fatty-acid composition of guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G; Wright, V; Ackman, R G; Horackova, M

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether diets supplemented with oils from three different marine sources, all of which contain high proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), result in qualitatively distinct lipid and fatty acid profiles in guinea pig heart. Albino guinea pigs (14 days old) were fed standard, nonpurified guinea pig diets (NP) or NP supplemented with menhaden fish oil (MO), harp seal oil (SLO) or porbeagle shark liver oil (PLO) (10%, w/w) for 4-5 weeks. An n-6 PUFA control group was fed NP supplemented with corn oil (CO). All animals appeared healthy, with weight gains marginally lower in animals fed the marine oils. Comparison of relative organ weights indicated that only the livers responded to the diets, and that they were heavier only in the marine-oil fed guinea pigs. Heart total cholesterol levels were unaffected by supplementing NP with any of the oils, whereas all increased the triacylglycerol (TAG) content. The fatty-acid profiles of total phospholipid (TPL), TAG and free fatty acid (FFA) fractions of heart lipids showed that feeding n-3 PUFA significantly altered the proportions of specific fatty-acid classes. For example, all marine-oil-rich diets were associated with increases in total monounsaturated fatty acids in TPL (p docosahexacnoic acid (DHA), ratios of DHA/EPA in the hearts were 1.2, 2.2 and 1.5 in TPL, TAG and FFA, respectively. In SLO-fed guinea pigs in which dietary EPA approximately DHA, ratios of DHA/EPA were 0.9, 3.4 and 2.1 in TPL, TAG and FFA, respectively. Feeding NP + PLO (DHA/EPA = 4.8), resulted in values for DHA/EPA in cardiac tissue of 2.1, 10.6 and 2.9 in TPL, TAG and FFA, respectively. In the TAG and FFA, proportions of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (n-3 DPA) were equal to or higher than EPA in the SLO- and PLO-fed animals. The latter group exhibited the greatest difference between the DHA/n-3 DPA ratio in the diet and in cardiac TAG and FFA fractions (7, 3.4 and 3

  13. Quality characteristics of Dutch-style fermented sausages manufactured with partial replacement of pork back-fat with pure, pre-emulsified or encapsulated fish oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josquin, N.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dutch-style fermented sausages were manufactured with 15% and 30% pork back-fat substitution by pure or commercial encapsulated fish oil, either added as such or as pre-emulsified mixture with soy protein isolate. Adding commercial encapsulated fish oil was the most important factor influencing the

  14. Effect of dietary fish-oil on renal-function and rejection in cyclosporine-treated recipients of renal-transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Donker, J. M.; Wilmink, J. M.; Tegzess, Adam M.

    1993-01-01

    Background. Dietary fish oil exerts effects on renal hemodynamics and the immune response that may benefit renal-transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine. To evaluate this possibility, we studied the effect of fish oil on renal function, blood pressure, and the incidence of acute rejection

  15. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  16. The effects of different extraction methods on composition and storage stability of sturgeon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shuxian; Wei, Ya; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Cen, Jianwei; Huang, Hui; Lin, Wanling; Yuan, Xiaomin

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different extraction methods on oil yield, colour attributes, oxidative stability, fatty acids composition and production of volatile compounds in sturgeon oil during storage. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method with carbon dioxide resulted in higher oil yields, better colour attributes, and higher oxidative stability compared to other traditional extraction methods such as enzymatic extraction, amino, and wet reduction. After storage at 4 °C for 33 days, the aldehyde content in oil extracted by the enzymatic extraction and wet reduction methods was twice as high as that obtained by the other methods. There was a significant reduction in the content of total acids in oils extracted by the enzymatic extraction and wet reduction methods (poil extracted by the amino method. The oil extracted by SFE exhibited higher UFA and lower SFA. Significant diffidence among PUFA with C above 20 was observed in oil extracted with SFE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of pretreatment on the proximate composition, physicochemical characteristics and stability of Moringa peregrina oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Sulaiman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research work was intended to study the influence of roasting and germination of the kernel seeds of Sudanese Moringa peregrina on the physicochemical characteristics and the oxidative stability of the extracted oil. Roasting was carried out at 180 ˚C for 25 minutes, whereas germination was done at ambient conditions in a wet jute bag for 5–7 days. The oil was extracted using n-hexane in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The results show that the oil contains α-tocopherols (152mg/kg and oleic acid (above 70% as the major tocols and fatty acids, respectively. Germination reduced the peroxide value and increased the acid value in a significant way (p < 0.05 whereas the opposite trend was noticed in the case of roasting. It is crucial to note that, with the exception of the acid value of the germinated sample, peroxide and acid values remained below one meq O2/Kg of oil and one mg KOH/g of oil, respectively. The oxidative stability of the oil from the roasted sample was increased almost by 80% compared to the raw one. Roasting of the kernels prior to oil extraction is imperative for improving its oxidation resistance and the physicochemical characteristics.

  18. Effect of pretreatment on the proximate composition, physicochemical characteristics and stability of Moringa peregrina oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, H.A.; Ahmad, E. E.M.; Mariod, A.A.; Mathäus, B.; Salaheldeen, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present research work was intended to study the influence of roasting and germination of the kernel seeds of Sudanese Moringa peregrina on the physicochemical characteristics and the oxidative stability of the extracted oil. Roasting was carried out at 180 °C for 25 minutes, whereas germination was done at ambient conditions in a wet jute bag for 5–7 days. The oil was extracted using n-hexane in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The results show that the oil contains α-tocopherols (152mg/kg) and oleic acid (above 70%) as the major tocols and fatty acids, respectively. Germination reduced the peroxide value and increased the acid value in a significant way (p < 0.05) whereas the opposite trend was noticed in the case of roasting. It is crucial to note that, with the exception of the acid value of the germinated sample, peroxide and acid values remained below one meq O2/Kg of oil and one mg KOH/g of oil, respectively. The oxidative stability of the oil from the roasted sample was increased almost by 80% compared to the raw one. Roasting of the kernels prior to oil extraction is imperative for improving its oxidation resistance and the physicochemical characteristics. [es

  19. Prenatal Fish Oil Supplementation and Allergy: 6-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Karen P; Sullivan, Thomas; Palmer, Debra; Gold, Michael; Kennedy, Declan John; Martin, James; Makrides, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from randomized controlled trials in early infancy suggest that prenatal supplementation with Ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) reduces the incidence of allergic disease characterized by an immunoglobulin E (IgE) response. We aimed to determine whether protective effects were evident in the 6-year-old offspring of women supplemented with n-3 rich fish oil during pregnancy. Six-year follow-up of children (n = 706) with a family history of allergic disease from the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) trial. Women were randomly allocated to receive n-3 LCPUFA-rich fish oil capsules (800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid DHA and 100mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) or vegetable oil capsules (without n-3 LCPUFA). Allergic disease symptoms including eczema, wheeze, rhinitis, and rhino-conjunctivitis, were assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and sensitization to allergens was measured by skin prick test. There was no difference in the percentage of children with any IgE-associated allergic disease between the n-3 LCPUFA and control groups (116/367 [31.5%] vs 106/336 [31.5%]; adjusted relative risk, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.33; P = .73). There was a reduction in the percentage of children sensitized to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (49/367 [13.4%] vs 68/336 [20.3%]; adjusted relative risk, 0.67, 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.00; P = .0495). Prenatal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not reduce IgE-associated allergic disease at 6 years of age. Secondary outcomes were suggestive of a protective effect of the intervention on the incidence of D. farinae sensitization. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Differential Impacts of Soybean and Fish Oils on Hepatocyte Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Primary Rabbit Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xueping; Xiao, Zhihui; Xu, Yumin; Zhao, Xingli; Cheng, Ping; Cui, Ningxun; Cui, Mingling; Li, Jie; Zhu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a severe ailment associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions (SOLE) are thought to promote PNALD development, whereas fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLE) are thought to protect against PNALD. This study aimed to investigate the effects of SOLE and FOLE on primary rabbit hepatocytes. The results reveal that SOLE caused significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial damage, ultimately resu...