WorldWideScience

Sample records for stabilized aqueous foams

  1. A review of aqueous foam in microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazadehsayed, Abdolhamid; Rezaee, Nastaran; Naser, Jamal; Nguyen, Anh V

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in the study of aqueous foams. Having said this, a better understanding of foam physics requires a deeper and profound study of foam elements. This paper reviews the studies in the microscale of aqueous foams. The elements of aqueous foams are interior Plateau borders, exterior Plateau borders, nodes, and films. Furthermore, these elements' contribution to the drainage of foam and hydraulic resistance are studied. The Marangoni phenomena that can happen in aqueous foams are listed as Marangoni recirculation in the transition region, Marangoni-driven flow from Plateau border towards the film in the foam fractionation process, and Marangoni flow caused by exposure of foam containing photosurfactants under UV. Then, the flow analysis of combined elements of foam such as PB-film along with Marangoni flow and PB-node are studied. Next, we contrast the behavior of foams in different conditions. These various conditions can be perturbation in the foam structure caused by injected water droplets or waves or using a non-Newtonian fluid to make the foam. Further review is about the effect of oil droplets and particles on the characteristics of foam such as drainage, stability and interfacial mobility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blast wave protection of aqueous foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britan, Alexander; Ben-Dor, M. Liverts G. [Shock tube Laboratory of Protective Technologies R and D Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2011-07-01

    The primary intention of the present study is to present new contribution of shock tube tests to the problem of particle related stabilization and enhanced mitigation action of the wet particulate foams. The experiments reported were designed to examine (i) the reflection of a shock wave from an air/foam face, (ii) the transmission of the shock wave through the air/foam face and (iii) propagation and dispersion of the transmitted shock wave inside the foam column. Because wet aqueous foam of desired specification is difficult to reproduce, handle and quantitatively characterize the fact that experiments on all the above aspects were conducted in a single facility is a potentially important consideration. Moreover vertical position of shock tube simplified the issues since the gradient of the liquid fraction in draining foam coincides with the shock wave propagation. Under these, much simplified test conditions resulted flows could be treated as one-dimensional and the shock wave mitigation depends on three parameters: the intensity of the incident shock wave, s M , the duration of the foam decay, ∆t and on the particle concentration, n.

  3. RAFT Dispersion Alternating Copolymerization of Styrene with N-Phenylmaleimide: Morphology Control and Application as an Aqueous Foam Stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report a new nonaqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) formulation based on the reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion alternating copolymerization of styrene with N-phenylmaleimide using a nonionic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) stabilizer in a 50/50 w/w ethanol/methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) mixture. The MEK cosolvent is significantly less toxic than the 1,4-dioxane cosolvent reported previously [YangP.; Macromolecules2013, 46, 8545−8556]. The core-forming alternating copolymer block has a relatively high glass transition temperature (Tg), which leads to vesicular morphologies being observed during PISA, as well as the more typical sphere and worm phases. Each of these copolymer morphologies has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. TEM studies reveal micrometer-sized elliptical particles with internal structure, with SAXS analysis suggesting an oligolamellar vesicle morphology. This structure differs from that previously reported for a closely related PISA formulation utilizing a poly(methacrylic acid) stabilizer block for which unilamellar platelet-like particles are observed by TEM and SAXS. This suggests that interlamellar interactions are governed by the nature of the steric stabilizer layer. Moreover, using the MEK cosolvent also enables access to a unilamellar vesicular morphology, despite the high Tg of the alternating copolymer core-forming block. This was achieved by simply conducting the PISA synthesis at a higher temperature for a longer reaction time (80 °C for 24 h). Presumably, MEK solvates the core-forming block more than the previously utilized 1,4-dioxane cosolvent, which leads to greater chain mobility. Finally, preliminary experiments indicate that the worms are much more efficient stabilizers for aqueous foams than either the spheres or the oligolamellar elliptical vesicles. PMID:27708458

  4. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  5. Foams Stabilized with Nanoparticles for Gas Well Deliquification

    OpenAIRE

    Knapik Ewa; Stopa Jerzy; Marzec Anna

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interaction of solid nanoparticles and anionic and non-ionic surfactant at an air–water interface. Aqueous foams stabilized by silica nanoparticles in water with different levels of salinity were studied in detail. The stability of solid/surfactant dispersion was evaluated visually. Nanoparticles content impact and concentration of surfactant on the foamability, deliquification of foams and structure of wet foams were studied. It was found that the foamability of dispe...

  6. The effect of nanoparticle aggregation on surfactant foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlYousef, Zuhair A; Almobarky, Mohammed A; Schechter, David S

    2018-02-01

    The combination of nanoparticles (NPs) and surfactant may offer a novel technique of generating stronger foams for gas mobility control. This study evaluates the potential of silica NPs to enhance the foam stability of three nonionic surfactants. Results showed that the concentration of surfactant and NPs is a crucial parameter for foam stability and that there is certain concentrations for strong foam generation. A balance in concentration between the nonionic surfactants and the NPs can enhance the foam stability as a result of forming flocs in solutions. At fixed surfactant concentration, the addition of NPs at low to intermediate concentrations can produce a more stable foam compared to the surfactant. The production of small population of flocs as a result of mixing the surfactant and NPs can enhance the foam stability by providing a barrier between the gas bubbles and delaying the coalescence of bubbles. Moreover, these flocs can increase the solution viscosity and, therefore, slow the drainage rate of thin aqueous film (lamellae). The measurements of foam half-life, bubble size, and mobility tests confirmed this conclusion. However, the addition of more solid particles or surfactant might have a negative impact on foam stability and reduce the maximum capillary pressure of coalescence as a result of forming extensive aggregates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability of metallic foams studied under microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Wuebben, T; Banhart, J; Odenbach, S

    2003-01-01

    Metal foams are prepared by mixing a metal powder and a gas-releasing blowing agent, by densifying the mix to a dense precursor and finally foaming by melting the powder compact. The foaming process of aluminium foams is monitored in situ by x-ray radioscopy. One observes that foam evolution is accompanied by film rupture processes which lead to foam coalescence. In order to elucidate the importance of oxides for foam stability, lead foams were manufactured from lead powders having two different oxide contents. The two foam types were generated on Earth and under weightlessness during parabolic flights. The measurements show that the main function of oxide particles is to prevent coalescence, while their influence on bulk viscosity of the melt is of secondary importance.

  8. Sonochemical degradation of perfluorooctanesulfonate in aqueous film-forming foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecitis, Chad D; Wang, Yajuan; Cheng, Jie; Park, Hyunwoong; Mader, Brian T; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are fire extinguishing agents developed by the Navy to quickly and effectively combat fires occurring close to explosive materials and are utilized today at car races, airports, oil refineries, and military locations. Fluorochemical (FC) surfactants represent 1-5% of the AFFF composition, which impart properties such as high spreadability, negligible fuel diffusion, and thermal stability to the foam. FC's are oxidatively recalcitrant, persistent in the environment, and have been detected in groundwater at AFFF training sites. Ultrasonic irradiation of aqueous FCs has been reported to degrade and subsequently mineralize the FC surfactants perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Here we present results of the sonochemical degradation of aqueous dilutions of FC-600, a mixture of hydrocarbon (HC) and fluorochemical components including cosolvents, anionic hydrocarbon surfactants, fluorinated amphiphilic surfactants, anionic fluorinated surfactants, and thickeners such as starch. The primary FC surfactant in FC-600, PFOS, was sonolytically degraded over a range of FC-600 aqueous dilutions, 65 ppb or = 1, indicating that bubble-water interfacial pyrolytic cleavage of the C-S bond in PFOS is the initial degradation step, in agreement with previous studies done in Milli-Q water. Sonochemical fluoride production is significantly below quantitative expectations, delta[F-]/delta[PFOS] 4 vs 17, suggesting that in the AFFF matrix, PFOS' fluorochemical tail is not completely degraded, whereas Milli-Q studies yielded quantitative F- production. Measurements of time-dependent methylene blue active substances and total organic carbon indicate that the other FC-600 components were also sonolytically decomposed.

  9. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  10. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOOLSBY, TOMMY D.; SCOTT, STEVEN H.

    1999-01-01

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might be

  11. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOOLSBY,TOMMY D.; SCOTT,STEVEN H.

    1999-09-15

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might

  12. Measurement of Aqueous Foam Rheology by Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, J. Gregory; Holt, R. Glynn; Rogers, Rich (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An experimental technique is demonstrated for acoustically levitating aqueous foam drops and exciting their spheroidal modes. This allows fundamental studies of foam-drop dynamics that provide an alternative means of estimating the viscoelastic properties of the foam. One unique advantage of the technique is the lack of interactions between the foam and container surfaces, which must be accounted for in other techniques. Results are presented in which a foam drop with gas volume fraction phi = 0.77 is levitated at 30 kHz and excited into its first quadrupole resonance at 63 +/- 3 Hz. By modeling the drop as an elastic sphere, the shear modulus of the foam was estimated at 75 +/- 3 Pa.

  13. Foam stabilization by solid particle aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France); Pitois, O. [UniversiteParis-Est Marne-La-Valle, Lab. Physique des Materiaux Divises et des Interfaces (LPMDI), 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)

    2008-07-01

    During the dismantling of nuclear facilities, radioactive deposits on exposed areas are removed and solubilized by successive rinses of reactive liquid. Using this liquid in a foam state reduces the amount of resulting wastes. During the required decontamination time (1 to 5 hours) the foam has to be sufficiently wet (1). In the Laboratory of Advanced Processes for Decontamination, new formulations are currently studied to slow down the drainage kinetics of these foams, by adding colloidal particles of hydrophilic fumed silica into the classical mixtures of well-defined non ionic foaming surfactants previously used (2). The objective of our study is to shed light on the foam surprising stability induced by these particles. The study focuses on drainage of foams generated by air sparging through a suspension lying on a porous glass. The foaming suspensions contain between 0 and 70 g.L-1 of a fumed silica (Aerosil 380) which is well-known to form gels for concentrations above 200 g.L{sup -1}. In the studied solutions this silica builds up into aggregates of dozens of microns, whose volume-averaged mean diameter after sonication is centred around 300 nm. Under gentle stirring, they display no sign of re-aggregation during 24 h. On a free drainage configuration, a foam that contains particles keeps a significant amount of its initial liquid: up to 60 % during up to 5 hours, in contrast to classical foams that drain out all of their liquid in about 20 minutes. From a rheological point of view, the most concentrated suspensions display a yield stress behaviour. This evidences the structuring of the aggregates into a coherent network that might explain the incomplete drainage of the solutions. For the lowest concentrated solutions, such rheological properties have not been observed although the corresponding foams can retain large amount of solution. This suggests that local concentrations of aggregates can rise owing to their retention by foam channels, until they form

  14. Foaming of aqueous piperazine and monoethanolamine for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Freeman, S.A.; Rochelle, G.T. [University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-03-15

    The cause of foaming in aqueous amines used for CO{sub 2} absorption was investigated in this study. The effect on foaming of amine concentration and various additives, including electrolytes, liquid hydrocarbon, and degradation products, was measured by a standard method. Both aqueous piperazine (PZ) with 0.3 mole CO{sub 2}/mole alkalinity {alpha} and 7 m monoethanolamine (MEA, {alpha} = 0.4)) were studied. Formaldehyde at 270 mM substantially increases foaming in PZ. PZ foamed after 163 h of oxidative degradation, but this effect was greatly mitigated with an oxidation inhibitor. Silicone antifoam of 1 ppm reduced the foaminess by 20 times. The tendency of 8 m PZ to foam was increased by 40% with the addition of iron (II) up to a concentration of 1.5 mM, but dissolved iron had no significant effect on 7 in MEA. The tendency to foam and foam stability of 8 m PZ solutions was only slightly affected by 1 mM iron (III), 0.1% heptane in water, 5 mM of copper sulfate, or 100 mM of an oxidation inhibitor.

  15. Stability of minoxidil in Espumil foam base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Christine M; Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Minoxidil is a drug used to stimulate hair growth and to slow balding. It is marketed under a number of trade names, including Rogaine, and is available in varying strength dose forms from a number of generic manufacturers. Minoxidil is available in oral and topical forms. In topical form, it can be applied by a metered-spray or rub-on applicator. A hydroalcoholic compounding vehicle can minimize greasiness, itching, burning, and contact dermatitis where low concentrations of ethanol and propylene glycol are present. Espumil Foam Base contains low concentrations of these ingredients and also can form a foam on topical application. Espumil's unique delivery by foam-activating packaging assures simple application to difficult-to-treat areas, and it vanishes quickly after application, keeping it in place and avoiding health skin areas. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of minoxidil in Espumil Foam Base. The studied sample was compounded into a 50-mg/mL solution and stored in a plastic foam-activating bottle at room temperature conditions. Three samples were assayed at each time point out to 90 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The beyond-use-date is at least 90 days, based on data collected when this formulation was stored at room temperature, protected from light.

  16. pH stability and comparative evaluation of ranaspumin-2 foam for application in biochemical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick; Ebersbacher, Charles F; Quan, Fu-Shi; Montemagno, Carlo D

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous channels of foam represent a simplified, natural bioreactor on the micro-/nano-scale. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility and potential application of foams in replicating cellular process in vitro, but no research has been performed to establish a basis for designing stable and biocompatible foam formulations. Our research has been directed specifically to the evaluation of ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), a frog foam nest protein. The strong surfactant activity of RSN-2 enabled us to produce foams using low protein concentration (1 mg ml −1 ) over a wide pH range (pH ≥ 3). Importantly, the RSN-2 formulation exhibited the best foam stability at a near neutral pH condition, which shows a potential for application to various biosynthesis applications. Model cellular systems such as liposomes and inactivated A/PR/8/34 influenza virus maintained their physicochemical stability and full hemagglutination activity, indicating biocompatibility of RSN-2 with both cellular membranes and proteins both in bulk solution and in foam. Moreover, the addition of RSN-2 did not exert any deteriorative effects on bacterial cell growth kinetics. In contrast, Tween 20, Triton X-100, and BSA did not show satisfactory performance in terms of foamability, foam stability, physicochemcial stability, and biochemical stability. Although our study has been limited to representative formulations composed of only surfactant molecules, a number of unique advantages make RSN-2 a promising candidate for in vitro foam biosynthesis. (paper)

  17. Preparation and Stability of Inorganic Solidified Foam for Preventing Coal Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic solidified foam (ISF is a novel material for preventing coal fires. This paper presents the preparation process and working principle of main installations. Besides, aqueous foam with expansion ratio of 28 and 30 min drainage rate of 13% was prepared. Stability of foam fluid was studied in terms of stability coefficient, by varying water-slurry ratio, fly ash replacement ratio of cement, and aqueous foam volume alternatively. Light microscope was utilized to analyze the dynamic change of bubble wall of foam fluid and stability principle was proposed. In order to further enhance the stability of ISF, different dosage of calcium fluoroaluminate was added to ISF specimens whose stability coefficient was tested and change of hydration products was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The outcomes indicated that calcium fluoroaluminate could enhance the stability coefficient of ISF and compact hydration products formed in cell wall of ISF; naturally, the stability principle of ISF was proved right. Based on above-mentioned experimental contents, ISF with stability coefficient of 95% and foam expansion ratio of 5 was prepared, which could sufficiently satisfy field process requirements on plugging air leakage and thermal insulation.

  18. USING BIOPOLYMERS TO STABILIZE THE PROTEIN OXYGEN FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nepovinnyh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cottage cheese whey as an oxygen cocktail foaming base and natural juices as a flavoring ingredient are analyzed. The lifetime of foam generated by the serum proteins is not long: foam falls off rapidly; because from the foam liquid is released (syneresis. The effects of plant polysaccharides on the stabilization of the protein foam oxygen cocktail is studied. It was shown that the use of plant polysaccharides (guar gum, high methoxyl citrus pectin, locust been gum prolong the life of the foam up to 20 times, compared with conventional blowing agents. It was found that oxygen foam properties depend on the molecular weight of guar gum.

  19. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for CO₂ EOR application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Lee, Robert [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Yu, Jianjia [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Li, Liangxiong [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Bustamante, Elizabeth [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Khalil, Munawar [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Mo, Di [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Jia, Bao [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Wang, Sai [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); San, Jingshan [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); An, Cheng [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The purpose of this project was to develop nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for CO₂ -EOR application, in which nanoparticles instead of surfactants are used for stabilizing CO₂ foam to improve the CO₂ sweep efficiency and increase oil recovery. The studies included: (1) investigation of CO₂ foam generation nanoparticles, such as silica nanoparticles, and the effects of particle concentration and surface properties, CO₂/brine ratio, brine salinity, pressure, and temperature on foam generation and foam stability; (2) coreflooding tests to understand the nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for waterflooded residual oil recovery, which include: oil-free coreflooding experiments with nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam to understand the transportation of nanoparticles through the core; measurements of foam stability and CO₂ sweep efficiency under reservoir conditions to investigate temperature and pressure effects on the foam performance and oil recovery as well as the sweep efficiency in different core samples with different rock properties; and (3) long-term coreflooding experiments with the nanoparticle- stabilized CO₂ foam for residual oil recovery. Finally, the technical and economical feasibility of this technology was evaluated.

  20. Nanoparticle Stabilized Foam in Carbonate and Sandstone Reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebroeks, J.; Eftekhari, A.A.; Farajzadeh, R.; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Foam flooding as a mechanism to enhance oil recovery has been intensively studied and is the subject of multiple research groups. However, limited stability of surfactant-generated foam in presence of oil and low chemical stability of surfactants in the high temperature and high salinity of an oil

  1. Violent flows in aqueous foams III: physical multi-phase model comparison with aqueous foam shock tube experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, J. A.; Ghidaglia, J.-M.; Faure, S.

    2018-06-01

    Mitigation of blast waves in aqueous foams is a problem that has a strong dependence on multi-phase effects. Here, a simplified model is developed from the previous articles treating violent flows (D'Alesio et al. in Eur J Mech B Fluids 54:105-124, 2015; Faure and Ghidaglia in Eur J Mech B Fluids 30:341-359, 2011) to capture the essential phenomena. The key is to have two fluids with separate velocities to represent the liquid and gas phases. This allows for the interaction between the two phases, which may include terms for drag, heat transfer, mass transfer due to phase change, added mass effects, to be included explicitly in the model. A good test for the proposed model is provided by two experimental data sets that use a specially designed shock tube. The first experiment has a test section filled with spray droplets, and the second has a range of aqueous foams in the test section. A substantial attenuation of the shock wave is seen in both cases, but a large difference is observed in the sound speeds. The droplets cause no observable change from the air sound speed, while the foams have a reduced sound speed of approximately 50-75 m/s . In the model given here, an added mass term is introduced in the governing equations to capture the low sound speed. The match between simulation and experiment is found to be satisfactory for both droplets and the foam. This is especially good when considering the complexity of the physics and the effects that are unaccounted for, such as three-dimensionality and droplet atomisation. The resulting statistics illuminate the processes occurring in such flows.

  2. Improvement of stability of polidocanol foam for nonsurgical permanent contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian Xin; Lucchesi, Lisa; Gregory, Kenton W

    2015-08-01

    Polidocanol foam (PF), used clinically as a venous sclerosant, has recently been studied as a safe and inexpensive means for permanent contraception. Delivering the sclerosant to the fallopian tubes as a foam rather than a liquid increases the surface areas and thus enhances the desired epithelial disrupting activity of the agent. However, the foam is inherently unstable and degrades with time. Therefore, increasing foam stability and thus duration of the agent exposure time could increase epithelial effect while allowing reduction in agent concentration and potential toxicity. We studied methods to improve foam properties that might improve safety and efficacy of PF for intrauterine application. Several types of microporous filters adapted to a syringe-based foaming device were used to study the effect of pore structures on the formation of PF. The foam drainage time and bubble size were characterized. The addition of benzalkonium chloride (BZK) to polidocanol was also investigated for its effects on foam characteristics. A syringe-based foaming device adapted with an inline filter produced smaller bubble PF with a longer foam drainage time. PF generated with a circular pore filter lasts longer than with a noncircular pore filter. The addition of 0.01% of BZK also improved the stability of PF. The stability of PF is affected by the pore characteristics of the filter used for foam generation and enhanced by the presence of a small amount of BZK. The improved foam, if shown to be efficacious in animal models of contraception, could lead to a safe, simple and inexpensive method alternative to surgical contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Class B Fire-Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of a Compressed Air Foam System at Different Air-to-Aqueous Foam Solution Mixing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Rie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fire-extinguishing performance of a compressed air foam system at different mixing ratios of pressurized air. In this system, compressed air is injected into an aqueous solution of foam and then discharged. The experimental device uses an exclusive fire-extinguishing technology with compressed air foam that is produced based on the Canada National Laboratory and UL (Underwriters Laboratories 162 standards, with a 20-unit oil fire model (Class B applied as the fire extinguisher. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture, and results with different air-to-aqueous solution foam ratios of 1:4, 1:7, and 1:10 are studied. In addition, comparison experiments between synthetic surfactant foam and a foam type which forms an aqueous film are carried out at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:4. From the experimental results, at identical discharging flows, it was found that the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam is greatest at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:7 and weakest at 1:10. Moreover, the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam in the comparison experiments between the aqueous film-forming foam and the synthetic surfactant foam is greatest.

  4. Polyurethane foam for roadway stabilization NH route 129, Loudon, NH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the performance of polyurethane foam as a method of roadway : stabilization for a rural roadway experiencing substantial frost heaving. : NHDOT is responsible for many roads which have evolved from gravel road...

  5. Removal of trace Cd2+ from aqueous solution by foam fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Li, Ying; Zhang, Sen; Sun, Yange

    2015-04-09

    In recent years, aqueous foam was known as an efficient technique with high potential on being used to remove heavy metal ions from the polluted water, not only because of the low cost, simple operation, but also ascribed to the high removal efficiency of trace heavy metal ions and would not cause secondary pollution to the environment. In this paper, the removal of Cd(2+) from aqueous solution by aqueous foam stabilized by a kind of novel anionic-nonionic surfactant sodium trideceth-4 carboxylate (AEC) was investigated. The effect of conditions such as surfactant/metal ions molar ratio, surfactant concentration on the removal efficiency was studied. In large concentration range of surfactant, the removal rate was higher than 90%, and could reach up to 99.8% under the optimum conditions. The Zeta potential of gas bubbles in the AEC solutions was determined to verify the combination between the negative charged group heads of surfactant molecules and heavy metal ions, and isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) determination was utilized to demonstrate the interaction, which helped to understand the mechanisms more clearly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Nanoparticle-Stabilized Foams to Improve Performance of Water-less Hydraulic Fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodanovic, Masa [The University of Texas at Austin; Johnston, Keith P. [The University of Texas at Austin

    2017-12-29

    We have successfully created ultra dry carbon-dioxide-in-water and nitrogen-in-water foams (with water content down to 2-5% range), that are remarkably stable at high temperatures (up to 120 deg, C) and pressures (up to 3000psi) and viscous enough (100-200 cP tunable range) to carry proppant. Two generations of these ultra-dry foams have been developed; they are stabilized either with a synergy of surfactants and nanoparticle, or just with viscoelastic surfactants that viscosify the aqueous phase. Not only does this reduce water utilization and disposal, but it minimizes fluid blocking of hydrocarbon production. Further, the most recent development shows successful use of environmentally friendly surfactants at high temperature and pressure. We pay special attention to the role of nanoparticles in stabilization of the foams, specifically for high salinity brines. The preliminary numerical simulation for which shows they open wider fractures with shorter half-length and require less clean-up due to minimal water use. We also tested the stability and sand carrying properties of these foams at high pressure, room temperature conditions in sapphire cell. We performed on a preliminary numerical investigation of applicability for improved oil recovery applications. The applicability was evaluated by running multiphase flow injection simulations in a case-study oil reservoir. The results of this research thus expand the options available to operators for hydraulic fracturing and can simplify the design and field implementation of foamed fracturing fluids.

  7. Synthesis of Various Silica Nanoparticles for Foam Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Yoon, Inho; Jung, Chonghun; Kim, Chorong; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of the non-porous silica nanoparticles with uniform sizes has been reported through the Sto ber method, the synthesis of meso porous silica nanoparticles with a specific morphology such as core-shell, rod-like, and hexagonal shapes is not so common. As a synthetic strategy for controlling the particle size, shape, and porosity, the synthesis of core-shell silicas with meso porous shells formed on silica particle cores through the self-assembly of silica precursor and organic templates or spherical meso porous silicas using modified Sto ber method was also reported. Recently, in an effort to reduce the amount of radioactive waste and enhance the decontamination efficiency during the decontamination process of nuclear facilities contaminated with radionuclides, a few research for the preparation of the decontamination foam containing solid nanoparticles has been reported. In this work, the silica nanoparticles with various sizes, shapes, and structures were synthesized based on the previous literatures. The resulting silica nanoparticles were used to investigate the effect of the nanoparticles on the foam stability. In a study on the foam stability using various silica nanoparticles, the results showed that the foam volume and liquid volume in foam was enhanced when using a smaller size and lower density of the silica nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles with various sizes, shapes, and structures such as a non-porous, meso porous core-shell, and meso porous silica were synthesized to investigate the effect of the foam stability. The sizes and structural properties of the silica nanoparticles were easily controlled by varying the amount of silica precursor, surfactant, and ammonia solution as a basic catalyst. The foam prepared using various silica nanoparticles showed that foam the volume and liquid volume in the foam were enhanced when using a smaller size and lower density of the silica nanoparticles

  8. Determination of aromatic amines in aqueous extracts of polyurethane foam using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddar Johnson, Jakob; Karlsson, Daniel; Dalene, Marianne; Skarping, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of aromatic amines in aqueous extracts of polyurethane (PUR) foam. The method is based on the extraction of PUR foam using aqueous acetic acid (0.1%, w/v) followed by determination of extracted aromatic amines using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with positive electrospray ionisation. The injections of volumes up to 5 μL of aqueous solutions were made possible by on-column focusing with partially filled loop injections. The fragmentation patterns for 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diamine (TDA) and 4,4'-methylene dianiline (MDA) were clarified by performing a hydrogen-deuterium exchange study. TDA and MDA were determined using trideuterated 2,4- and 2,6-TDA and dideuterated 4,4'-MDA as internal standards. Linear calibration graphs were obtained over the range 0.025-0.5 μg mL -1 with correlation coefficients >0.996 and the instrumental detection limit for each compound was <50 fmol. The stability of the amines was influenced by the matrix, so their concentrations decreased over time. Agreement was observed between the results of analyses of PUR foam extracts by HILIC-MS/MS and results obtained by ethyl chloroformate derivatisation and reversed phase (RP) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). TDA was observed to be unstable in extracts of foam but not in pure solutions.

  9. Anionic Polyelectrolyte-Cationic Surfactant Interactions in Aqueous Solutions and Foam Films Stability Interactions entre polyélectrolytes anioniques et tensioactifs cationiques en solutions aqueuses et stabilité des films de mousses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langevin D.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study polymer/surfactant interactions in aqueous solution and at the air/water interface. These interations are involved in many physicochemical phenomena, such as colloidal stabilization and wettability which are of major importance in oil application as for exemple drilling muds. More precisely, we have attempted to characterize interactions between a non surface active anionic copolymer (acrylamide/acrylamide sulfonate and an oppositely charged cationic surfactant (C12 TAB. Our results show a synergestic surface tension lowering (coadsorption at extremely low surfactant concentrations (10 to the power of (-3 to 10 to the power of (-1 CMC. At higher concentrations, namely above the so called Critical Aggregation Concentration (CAC, polymer-surfactant complexes form in the bulk and the macromolecules precipitate out of the solution. Foam films made from these mixed solutions are stable while C12TAB films are unstable. Disjoining pressure measurements on mixed films with surfactant concentration two orders of magnitude below the CAC show the existence of long range repulsive forces and a discrete film thickness transition. At the CAC, we obtain mixed films with gel-like networks that are strongly affected by the film thinning rate. L'objectif de cette étude est d'étudier les interactions polymère/tensioactif en solution aqueuse et à l'interface eau/air. Ces interactions interviennent dans de nombreux phénomènes physico-chimiques tels que la stabilisation de suspensions colloïdales et la mouillabilité qui sont d'une importance majeure dans les applications pétrolières comme, par exemple, les boues de forage. Plus précisément, nous avons essayé de caractériser les interactions entre un copolymère anionique n'ayant pas d'activité de surface (acrylamide/acrylamide sulfoné avec un tensioactif de charge opposée cationique (C12TAB. Nos résultats montrent une diminution synergique de la tension

  10. The effect of betaine on the foam stability: Molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fengfeng [Chemistry Engineering Department, Zibo Vocational Institute, Zibo 255314 (China); Key laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Guokui [Key laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yuan, Shiling, E-mail: shilingyuan@sdu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The reasons of betaine to enhance the stability of foam films are investigated by molecular simulation. • An electrostatic structure is formed at the air/water interface due to the electrostatic interaction. • The electrostatic structure becomes denser with the increasing concentration of betaine. - Abstract: Zwitterionic betaines are widely used as foam boosters due to these can enhance the stability of foam films. In this paper, mechanistic insights of betaine to improve the stability of alkyl-polyoxyethylene carboxylate (AEC) foam are provided by molecular simulation. In the simulation, we observe the electropositive nitrogen atoms in betaine interact with the electronegative sulfur atoms, an electrostatic structure is formed at the air/water interface. Interaction energies of the mixed surfactants are calculated by the quantum chemistry methods. The calculations show betaine-AEC and betaine–betaine possess attractive interaction, and that AEC–AEC has repulsion to each other. In the other words, the repulsion between the headgroups of anionic surfactants is relaxed by betaine. Additionally, the influence of concentration of betaine on the stability of foam films is also simulated. The RDF and coordination numbers show that the electrostatic structures become denser with the increasing concentration of betaine. Therefore, entry barrier is enhanced accordingly. The SMD simulation also demonstrates the same variation tendency of entry barrier. The simulation details provide vital supplements to experiments.

  11. Efficient removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate from aqueous film-forming foam solution by aeration-foam collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Pingping; Deng, Shubo; Maimaiti, Ayiguli; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Wang, Yujue; Cousins, Ian T; Yu, Gang

    2018-07-01

    Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) used in fire-fighting are one of the main contamination sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to the subterranean environment, requiring high costs for remediation. In this study, a method that combined aeration and foam collection was presented to remove PFOS from a commercially available AFFF solution. The method utilized the strong surfactant properties of PFOS that cause it to be highly enriched at air-water interfaces. With an aeration flow rate of 75 mL/min, PFOS removal percent reached 96% after 2 h, and the PFOS concentration in the collected foam was up to 6.5 mmol/L, beneficial for PFOS recovery and reuse. Increasing the aeration flow rate, ionic strength and concentration of co-existing surfactant, as well as decreasing the initial PFOS concentration, increased the removal percents of PFOS by increasing the foam volume, but reduced the enrichment of PFOS in the foams. With the assistance of a co-existing hydrocarbon surfactant, PFOS removal percent was above 99.9% after aeration-foam collection for 2 h and the enrichment factor exceeded 8400. Aeration-foam collection was less effective for short-chain perfluoroalkyl substances due to their relatively lower surface activity. Aeration-foam collection was found to be effective for the removal of high concentrations of PFOS from AFFF-contaminated wastewater, and the concentrated PFOS in the collected foam can be reused. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on Foam Decay Trend and Influence of Temperature Jump on Foam Stability in Sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taoping; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Wentao; Yan, Fei; Fan, Yubo

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the influence of temperature jump and liquid-gas ratio on foam stability to derive the foam-decay law. The experimental group conditions were as follows: mutation temperatures (10°C, 16°C, 20°C, 23°C, 25°C, and 27°C to >37°C) and liquid-gas ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4). The control group conditions were as follows: temperatures (10°C, 16°C, 20°C, 23°C, 25°C and 27°C) and liquid-gas ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4). A homemade device manufactured using the Tessari DSS method was used to prepare the foam. The decay process was videotape recorded. In the drainage rate curve, the temperature rose, and the liquid-gas ratio varied from 1:1 to 1:4, causing faster decay. In the entire process, the foam volume decreased with increasing drainage rate. The relationships were almost linear. Comparison of the experimental and control groups shows that the temperature jump results in a drainage time range of 1 to 15 seconds. The half-life ranges from 10 to 30 seconds. The maximum rate is 18.85%. Changes in the preparation temperature yields a drainage time range of 3 to 30 seconds. The half-life varies from 20 to 60 seconds. Decreasing the temperature jump range and liquid-gas ratio gradually enhances the foam stability. The foam decay time and drainage rate exhibit an exponential function distribution.

  13. Estimation of surface elasticity by the thickness change of liquid film and its correlation with foam stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jung Ryoul; Park, Jai Koo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-30

    The relationship between foam stability and surface elasticity by the thickness change of liquid film was investigated. Foam stability was measured by draining liquid volume and decreasing gas volume as a function of time. Foam was formed by the fixed gas-injection the surfactant aqueous solution of different concentration. The used surfactants were sodium lauryl sulfate, hexadecane sulfonic acid sodium salt, and octane sulfonic acid sodium salt. Thickness of liquid film was estimated by using the volume ratio of liquid to gas in foam and surface elasticity of lamella was calculated by the surface tension and adsorbed amount. The thinning of liquid film is due to the combined effects of gravity and capillary suction, it would be ruptured at the minimum of lamella thickness which is called critical thickness. The lamella thickness of bubble which was formed at CMC(critical micelle concentration) was very thin. In the case of sodium lauryl sulfate, the thinning of lamella was continued in the range of measurement. The critical thicknesses of octane sulfonic acid sodium salt solution, hexadecane sulfonic acid sodium salt solution were determined to 0.479{approx}0.316, 0.209{approx}0.200 {mu}m, respectively. It was found that the tendency for foam stability was similar to that of lamella thickness. It was considered that foam which was formed at CMC has very high stability, and the order of foam stability for surfactant aqueous solution was sodium lauryl sulfate > hexadecane sulfonic acid sodium salt > octane sulfonic acid sodium salt. These results was considered that the lamella-rupturing was retarded by the relatively high surface elasticity of lamella. The saturated adsorption of surfactant was determined to 3.25{approx}3.04 * 10{sup -6} mol/m{sup 2} and the surface elasticity of lamella was also determined to 3{approx}56 mN/m. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  14. Advances of Researches on Improving the Stability of Foams by Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Wang, K. L.; Lu, C. J.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, nano-tech made a change of traditional oil-gas exploration. Considering that foam fluid had a poor stability, investigators proposed to add nanoparticles to stabilize the foam fluid system. This paper described the mechanism of particles to improve the stability of the foam fluid in detail; and emphasized the synergistic effect between nanoparticles and surfactants and its effect on the foaming and foam stability of dispersions; and reviewed the latest applications of foam fluid that was stabilized by nanoparticle in enhancing oil-gas recovery, in which there are analysis that showed that the nanoparticles not only greatly increase the stability of the foam fluid, but also improve the efficiency of foam fluid; and lastly, forecasted the development of nanotechnology in petroleum areas.

  15. Stability analysis of uniform equilibrium foam states for EOR processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.; Marchesin, D.; Rossen, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of foam for mobility control is a promising mean to improve sweep efficiency in EOR. Experimental studies discovered that foam exhibits three different states (weak foam, intermediate foam, and strong foam). The intermediate-foam state is found to be unstable in the lab whereas the weak- and

  16. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B.L.

    1978-08-29

    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  17. Hydraulic Properties of Porous Media Saturated with Nanoparticle-Stabilized Air-Water Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglei Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The foam generated by the mixture of air and water has a much higher viscosity and lower mobility than those of pure water or gas that constitutes the air-water foam. The possibility of using the air-water foam as a flow barrier for the purpose of groundwater and soil remediation is explored in this paper. A nanoparticle-stabilized air-water foam was fabricated by vigorously stirring the nano-fluid in pressurized condition. The foam bubble size distribution was analyzed with a microscope. The viscosities of foams generated with the solutions with several nanoparticle concentrations were measured as a function of time. The breakthrough pressure of foam-saturated microfluidic chips and sand columns were obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of a foam-filled sand column was measured after foam breakthrough. The results show that: (1 bubble coalescence and the Ostwald ripening are believed to be the reason of bubble size distribution change; (2 the viscosity of nanoparticle-stabilized foam and the breakthrough pressures decreased with time once the foam was generated; (3 the hydraulic conductivity of the foam-filled sand column was almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of a water-saturated sand column even after the foam-breakthrough. Based on the results in this study, the nanoparticle-stabilized air-water foam could be injected into contaminated soils to generate vertical barriers for temporary hydraulic conductivity reduction.

  18. Study of a flowing aqueous decontamination foam drainage mechanisms and hydrodynamic behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, G.

    1998-01-01

    For the decontamination of nuclear facilities, the use of foams has a great potentiality. This work deals with the study of a flowing aqueous foam regarding two aspects: the structure and the drainage on one hand, the hydrodynamic behaviour on the other hand. The foam has been studied from a photograph of a plexiglass column wall, in which the foam flows vertically. Image processing and analysis have been used to measure the foam structure parameters and demonstrate that the smaller the average diameter of the bubbles is, the more stable the foam is. The competition between the gravity and the interfacial forces has been showed by two types of fluid flow in the inter-bubble channels: one where the gravity is preponderant, the other where the two forces exist. Two drainage models based on the Darcy law and the Weaire model have been elaborated. From an hydrodynamic behaviour point of view, the sliding of a shear core in the liquid film on wall, has been demonstrated. A Ostwald De Weale type behaviour appears concerning the whole flow; a Herschel Bulkley type behaviour of the foam core appears when the shearing and the sliding are dissociated. The sliding speed is 5 to 95% of the global speed according to the experiment conditions. A method to forecast the pressure losses, based on the Moody diagram has been established. (A.L.B.)

  19. Performance on Water Stability of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junxiao; Fu Wei; Zang Hechao

    2018-01-01

    Through designing the mixture proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, it shows that the addition of cement can obviously improve foamed asphalt mixture’s water stability and the best cement admixture is between 1% ~ 2%; Using digital imaging microscope and SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by adding cement was analyzed. It revealed that the cement hydration products ...

  20. Study of the relationships between nuclear decontamination foams stability and their physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dame, C.

    2006-03-01

    The LPAD (French Atomic Energy Commission) develops innovative processes in the frame of the future dismantling of nuclear facilities. Formulations were developed using high viscosified foams stabilized by biodegradable nonionic surfactants: alkyl poly-glucosides and viscosifiers (xanthan gum), which allow us to increase the foam lifetime and thus contact time of chemical reactants with the facility walls. We have considered the relationships between physicochemical properties and foam stability through the exploration of the foam at three different scales: from the molecular range (micelles, surface tension and visco-elasticity), to the film and Plateau border range (XR reflectivity, surface shear viscosity) and to macroscopic range, meaning the whole foam (foaminess, liquid fraction and wall film thickness evolution). Finally, exploratory study is presented concerning simultaneous foam three scales characterisation by small angle neutron scattering. (author)

  1. Influence of Syringe Volume on Foam Stability in Sclerotherapy for Varicose Vein Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taoping; Jiang, Wentao; Fan, Yubo

    2018-05-01

    Despite the popularity of sclerotherapy for treating varicose veins, it still exhibits various problems, such as pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis, phlebitis, and visual disorders. To investigate syringe volume influence on foam stability, obtain the foam decay rule, and provide a reference for clinics. Five types of syringes are used to prepare foam at room temperature with various liquid-gas ratios. Foam decay process experiments were performed 5 times and recorded by video. The stability indices used include drainage time, half-life, bubble diameter, bubble surface density, and drainage rate. The 30 and 2-mL syringes, respectively, recorded the highest and lowest drainage speeds. Foam drainage time and half-life, differences varied between 15 and 70 seconds, and 20 and 100 seconds, respectively. Foam bubble diameters were distributed over 0.1 to 2.0 mm with roughly 200 to 700 bubbles per square centimeter. Increased syringe volume causes the bubble diameter to increase. Thus, foam dispersion increases and foam half-life decreases; hence, foam becomes unstable. It is, thus, better to use a small syringe several times to prepare foam in clinics using segmented injections.

  2. Foam capacity and stability of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) on the presence of contaminant coffee and Cd ions in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Chang, C. H.; Kuo, A. T.; Siswarni, M. Z.; Sinaga, T. M. A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of the coffee colloidal particle and Cd ion contaminant on the foam capacity and stability of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution was investigated. The foam was generated by using a foam generator. The foam capacity of SDS was first evaluated at different concentrations. After the foam capacity reaching a constant value, the foam stability was then measured by flowing to a column. The results showed that the presence the coffee colloidal particles or Cd ions in the solution would decrease the foam capacity and stability of SDS. In addition, the decreased foam capacity and stability was more pronounced in the presence of coffee colloidal particles than Cd ions. The colloidal particles may have stronger interaction with SDS and thus reduce the formation of the foam.

  3. Performance on Water Stability of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junxiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through designing the mixture proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, it shows that the addition of cement can obviously improve foamed asphalt mixture’s water stability and the best cement admixture is between 1% ~ 2%; Using digital imaging microscope and SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by adding cement was analyzed. It revealed that the cement hydration products contained in the foamed asphalt mixture hydrolyzed into space mesh structure and wrapped up the aggregate particle, this is the main reason that the cement can enhance the mixture’s intensity as well as the water stability. This research provides reference for cement admixture’s formulation in the designing of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture.

  4. Role of surface properties for the kinetics of bubble Ostwald ripening in saponin-stabilized foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tcholakova, Slavka; Mustan, Fatmegul; Pagureva, Nevena; Golemanov, Konstantin; Denkov, Nikolai D.; Pelan, Edward G.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.

    2017-01-01

    Bubble Ostwald ripening (OR) leads to a gradual increase of the mean bubble size in foams with time. The rate of OR can be reduced significantly or even arrested completely using appropriate solid particles and/or surfactants as foam stabilizers. In the current paper, we show that saponins, a

  5. Size-dependent properties of silica nanoparticles for Pickering stabilization of emulsions and foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ijung, E-mail: ijungkim@utexas.edu [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Worthen, Andrew J.; Johnston, Keith P. [The University of Texas at Austin, McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); DiCarlo, David A.; Huh, Chun [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Nanoparticles are a promising alternative to surfactants to stabilize emulsions or foams in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes due to their effectiveness in very harsh environments found in many of the oilfields around the world. While the size-dependent properties of nanoparticles have been extensively studied in the area of optics or cellular uptake, little is known on the effects of nanoparticle size on emulsion/foam generation, especially for EOR applications. In this study, silica nanoparticles with four different sizes (5, 12, 25, and 80 nm nominal diameter) but with the same surface treatment were employed to test their emulsion or foam generation behavior in high-salinity conditions. The decane-in-brine emulsion generated by sonication or flowing through sandpack showed smaller droplet size and higher apparent viscosity as the nanoparticle size decreased. Similarly, the CO{sub 2}-in-brine foam generation in sandstone or sandpacks was also significantly affected by the nanoparticle size, exhibiting higher apparent foam viscosity as the nanoparticle size decreased. In case of foam generation in sandstone cores with 5 nm nanoparticles, a noticeable hysteresis occurred when the flow velocity was initially increased and then decreased, implying a strong foam generation initially; and then the trapping of the generated foam in the rock pores, as the flow velocity decreased. On the other hand, weak foams stabilized with larger nanoparticles indicated a rapid coalescence of bubbles which prevented foam generation. Overall, stable emulsions/foams were achievable by the smaller particles as a result of greater diffusivity and/or higher number concentration, thus allowing more nanoparticles with higher surface area to volume ratio to be adsorbed at the fluid/fluid interfaces of the emulsion/foam dispersion.Graphical abstract.

  6. Effect of Stabilization on Morphology Polystyrene and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Thermoplastic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Mokhtari Motameni Shirvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular thermoplastic foams can be usually produced in a one-step batch system using a physical foaming agent which is dissolved in a polymer system under specific pressure and temperature, higher than the critical condition of solvent and the glass transition temperature of polymer and solvent mixture. By application of a sudden pressure drop the foam structure is formed through stages of nucleation, growth and coalescence. After pressure drop, if the foam temperature is reduced below the glass transition of the gas-polymer mixture, the cells stop growing which results in a foam with stabilized morphology. This stabilization stage has not been thoroughly focused in previous studies. In this work, polystyrene as a polymer system and supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent were used at 18.5 MPa pressure and different temperatures. The stabilization process took place within milliseconds and helped to a better understanding of cellular structure in thermoplastic foams. In this mechanism, the nucleation takes place in the phase transition of solvent molecules at supercritical state to the gas state and the formation of very small nuclei containing gas molecules between polymer chains. The energy originated from the nuclei growth is in competition with the elastic energy of polymer chains, and the predominance of one type of energy over another determines the final cell size. The results showed that the effect of stabilization process on the structure of the foam depended on the foaming temperature. Stabilization at 110°C resulted in a 50% cell size reduction and a 60% cell density promotion, while at lower temperatures, the stabilization led to greater cell size and reduced cell density.

  7. Complete dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous solution on palladium/polymeric pyrrole-cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide/foam-nickel composite electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhirong, E-mail: zrsun@bjut.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wei, Xuefeng; Han, Yanbo; Tong, Shan [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Hu, Xiang, E-mail: huxiang99@163.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode with high surface area and low Pd content was prepared. ► The composite electrode was applied to dechlorination of 2,4-DCP in aqueous solution. ► Complete dechlorination of 2,4-DCP was achieved with higher current efficiency. ► Removal efficiency kept 100% after 10 times dechlorination on the stable electrode. ► The electrochemically reductive activation energy was 25.8 kJ mol{sup −1} in this system. -- Abstract: The electrochemically reductive dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aqueous solution on palladium/polymeric pyrrole-cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide/foam-nickel electrode (Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode) was investigated in this paper. Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode was prepared and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) adsorption and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The influences of some experimental factors such as the dechlorination current, dechlorination time and the initial pH on the removal efficiency and the current efficiency of 2,4-DCP dechlorination on Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode were studied. Complete removal of 2,4-DCP was achieved and the current efficiency of 47.4% could be obtained under the conditions of the initial pH of 2.2, the dechlorination current of 5 mA and the dechlorination time of 50 min when the initial 2,4-DCP concentration was 100 mg L{sup −1}. The analysis of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identified that the intermediate products were 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The final products were mainly phenol. Its further reduction product cyclohexanone was also detected. The electrocatalytic dechlorination pathways of 2,4-DCP on Pd/PPy-CTAB/foam-Ni electrode were discussed. The stability of the electrode was favorable that it could keep dechlorination efficiency at 100% after having been reused

  8. Stabilization of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines by Freeze Drying, Spray Drying, and Foam Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovalenti, Phillip M; Anderl, Jeff; Yee, Luisa; Nguyen, Van; Ghavami, Behnaz; Ohtake, Satoshi; Saxena, Atul; Voss, Thomas; Truong-Le, Vu

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this research is to develop stable formulations for live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by employing the drying methods freeze drying, spray drying, and foam drying. Formulated live attenuated Type-A H1N1 and B-strain influenza vaccines with a variety of excipient combinations were dried using one of the three drying methods. Process and storage stability at 4, 25 and 37°C of the LAIV in these formulations was monitored using a TCID50 potency assay. Their immunogenicity was also evaluated in a ferret model. The thermal stability of H1N1 vaccine was significantly enhanced through application of unique formulation combinations and drying processes. Foam dried formulations were as much as an order of magnitude more stable than either spray dried or freeze dried formulations, while exhibiting low process loss and full retention of immunogenicity. Based on long-term stability data, foam dried formulations exhibited a shelf life at 4, 25 and 37°C of >2, 1.5 years and 4.5 months, respectively. Foam dried LAIV Type-B manufactured using the same formulation and process parameters as H1N1 were imparted with a similar level of stability. Foam drying processing methods with appropriate selection of formulation components can produce an order of magnitude improvement in LAIV stability over other drying methods.

  9. High-Potential Metalless Nanocarbon Foam Supercapacitors Operating in Aqueous Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chueh; Li, Changling; Ahmed, Kazi; Mutlu, Zafer; Lee, Ilkeun; Zaera, Francisco; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2018-04-01

    Light-weight graphite foam decorated with carbon nanotubes (dia. 20-50 nm) is utilized as an effective electrode without binders, conductive additives, or metallic current collectors for supercapacitors in aqueous electrolyte. Facile nitric acid treatment renders wide operating potentials, high specific capacitances and energy densities, and long lifespan over 10 000 cycles manifested as 164.5 and 111.8 F g -1 , 22.85 and 12.58 Wh kg -1 , 74.6% and 95.6% capacitance retention for 2 and 1.8 V, respectively. Overcharge protection is demonstrated by repetitive cycling between 2 and 2.5 V for 2000 cycles without catastrophic structural demolition or severe capacity fading. Graphite foam without metallic strut possessing low density (≈0.4-0.45 g cm -3 ) further reduces the total weight of the electrode. The thorough investigation of the specific capacitances and coulombic efficiencies versus potential windows and current densities provides insights into the selection of operation conditions for future practical devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Foam separation of Cu (II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions and simulated wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, K.; Beheir, Sh.G.; Aziz, M.

    2003-01-01

    Batch experiments on the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions were performed through two foam separation techniques: precipitate flotation (PTF) an adsorbing colloid flotation (ACF). In ACF, Fe(III), oxyhydroxide was used as co precipitant and/or adsorbing colloid and sodium lauryl sulfate was used as a collector. ACF required a lower collector concentration than PTF. foreign ions were found to decrease the percent removal, the extent of decrease being higher by divalent ions than that by monovalent ones. However, the percent removal could be improved, even in presence of foreign ions, by addition of Al(II) as an activator. High removals could be attained for Cu(II) and Ni(II) from simulated wastewaters containing different concentrations of both metal ions. The addition of concentrations below the limits recommended by the egyptian regulations for environmental discharge

  11. Reconsidering the importance of interfacial properties in foam stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, P.A.; Norel, van L.; Basheva, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    In food industry, protein isolates are often used to help in the formation and stabilisation of food foams. Subsequently there is great interest in (1) understanding the effect of processing parameters on the functional properties of the isolate, and (2) methods and techniques that can help to

  12. Chemical compounds and mechanisms involved in the formation and stabilization of foam in sparkling wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Condé, Bruna; Jégou, Sandrine; Howell, Kate; Vasserot, Yann; Marchal, Richard

    2018-02-08

    The visual properties of sparkling wine including foam and bubbles are an indicator of sparkling wine quality. Foam properties, particularly foam height (FH) and foam stability (TS), are significantly influenced by the chemical composition of the wine. This review investigates our current knowledge of specific chemical compounds and, the mechanisms by which they influence the foam properties of sparkling wines. Grape and yeast proteins, amino acids, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, organic acids, fatty acids, ethanol and sugar are examined with respect to their contribution to foam characteristics in sparkling wines made with the Traditional, Transfer, and Charmat and carbonation methods. Contradictory results have been identified that appear to be due to the analytical methods used to measure and quantify compounds and foam. Biopolymer complexes are discussed and absent knowledge with regards to thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs), polysaccharides, amino acids, oak-derived phenolic compounds and organic acids are identified. Future research is also likely to concentrate on visual analysis of sparkling wines by in-depth imaging analysis and specific sensory analysis techniques.

  13. Method of denitrification and stabilization of radioactive aqueous solutions of radioisotope nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecak, V.; Matous, V.

    1983-01-01

    The method is solved of denitrification and of the stabilization of aqueous solutions of radioactive isotopes produced during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The aqueous solution is first mixed with the vitreous component, most frequently phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphate or boric acid and if needed with the addition of alkalis, possibly with clarifying or anti-foam components, e.g., arsenic trioxide, antimony or cerium oxide. The mixture is further adjusted with ammonia to pH 5 - 9. The liquid mixture is then thermally and pyrolytically processed, e.g., by calcinator or fluid-bed reactor or by pot melting at temperatures of 3O0 to 900 degC while of a powder product or glass melt is formed in the presence of gaseous emissions composed of nitrous oxide - nitrogen. The resulting product is further processed by containerization or is sealed in a metal matrix. (B.S.)

  14. Foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography and wet granular matter

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-04-23

    Evaporative lithography using latex particle templates is a novel approach for the self-assembly of suspension-dispersed nanoparticles into ordered microwire networks. The phenomenon that drives the self-assembly process is the propagation of a network of interconnected liquid bridges between the template particles and the underlying substrate. With the aid of video microscopy, we demonstrate that these liquid bridges are in fact the border zone between the underlying substrate and foam films vertical to the substrate, which are formed during the evaporation of the liquid from the suspension. The stability of the foam films and thus the liquid bridge network stability are due to the presence of a small amount of surfactant in the evaporating solution. We show that the same type of foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge network can also propagate in 3D clusters of spherical particles, which has important implications for the understanding of wet granular matter. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Self-assembly, foaming, and emulsifying properties of sodium alkyl carboxylate/guanidine hydrochloride aqueous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameau, Anne-Laure; Houinsou-Houssou, Bérénice; Ventureira, Jorge Luis; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric; Novales, Bruno; Douliez, Jean-Paul

    2011-04-19

    Unsaturated fatty acids may be extracted from various agricultural resources and are widely used as soaps in the industry. However, there also exist a large variety of saturated and hydroxy fatty acids in nature, but their metal salts crystallize at room temperature in water, hampering their use in biological and chemical studies or for industrial applications. Addition of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) to sodium salt of myristic acid has been shown to prevent its crystallization in water, forming stable flat bilayers at room temperature. Herein, we extend this finding to two other saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) and two hydroxyl fatty acids (juniperic and 12 hydroxy stearic acids) and study more deeply (by using small angle neutron scattering) the supramolecular assemblies formed in both saturated and hydroxyl fatty acid systems. In addition, we take the advantage that crystallization no longer occurs at room temperature in the presence of GuHCl to study the foaming and emulsifying properties of those fatty acid dispersions. Briefly, our results show that all fatty acids, even juniperic acid, which is a bola lipid, are arranged in a bilayer structure that may be interdigitated. Depending on the nature of the fatty acid, the systems exhibit good foamability and foam stability (except for juniperic acid), and emulsion stability was good. Those findings should be of interest for using saturated long chain (and hydroxyl) fatty acids as surfactants for detergency or even materials chemistry. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Utilization of power plant bottom-ash particles as stabilizer in aluminum foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asavavisithchai, Seksak; Prapajaraswong, Attanadol [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Aluminum foams, produced via powder metallurgical (PM) process, normally require the addition of ceramic particles in compaction stage, in order to increase both foamability of precursors and mechanical properties of the final foam products. Bottom ash particles are a by-product waste obtained from thermoelectric power plants which are commonly found to be used in landfill facilities. The major chemical constituent, approximately between 30 wt.-% and 60 wt.-%, of bottom ash particles is SiO{sub 2}, depending on chemical composition in coal, sintering condition and environment, and other process parameters. In this study, we explore the feasibility of utilizing bottom ash particles of thermoelectric power plant wastes as stabilizer in aluminum foams. A small amount of two-size bottom ash particles (mean size of 78 {mu}m and 186 {mu}m), between 1 wt.-% and 5 wt.-%, have been added to aluminum foams. Foam expansion, macro- and microstructures as well as mechanical properties, such as compressive strength and microhardness, were investigated. The results from the present study suggest that bottom ash particles can be used as a stabilizing material which can improve both cellular structure and mechanical properties of aluminum foams. (orig.)

  17. Investigations of foam formation and its stabilization in the extraction systems: TBP in kerosene-nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is devoted to studies of foam formation and its stabilization in TBP - kerosene - nitric acid solutions extracting systems. It was experimentally found, that TBP acts as a stabilizator of thin, liquid foam films as well as an emulgator in forming dispersions. The stabilizing effect of fine emulsions w/o on formed foams column was observed. Relevant references on the subject are also reviewed. (author)

  18. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  19. Extraction of uranium from aqueous solution by phosphonic acid-imbedded polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katragadda, S.; Gesser, H.D.; Chow, A.

    1997-01-01

    Phenylphosphonic acid was imbedded into the matrix of the polyurethane foam during the fabrication process of the polymer. The extraction of uranium by phosphonic acid-imbedded polyurethane foam and blank polyurethane (i.e., foam without phosphonic acid functional groups) was investigated. Phosphonic acid-imbedded foam showed superior extractability of uranium from solutions with pH = 7.0 ± 1.5 over a wide range of temperatures. (author)

  20. Sorption of Fluorotelomer Sulfonates, Fluorotelomer Sulfonamido Betaines, and a Fluorotelomer Sulfonamido Amine in National Foam Aqueous Film-Forming Foam to Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzen-Hanson, Krista A; Davis, Shannon E; Kleber, Markus; Field, Jennifer A

    2017-11-07

    During fire-fighter training, equipment testing, and emergency responses with aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs), milligrams per liter concentrations of anionic, zwitterionic, and cationic per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) enter the environment. Because the behavior of zwitterionic and cationic PFASs in the subsurface is unknown, batch sorption experiments were conducted using National Foam AFFF, which contains anionic fluorotelomer sulfonates (FtSs), zwitterionic fluorotelomer sulfonamido betaines (FtSaBs), and cationic 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamido amine (FtSaAm). Sorption of the FtSs, FtSaBs, and 6:2 FtSaAm to six soils with varying organic carbon, effective cation-exchange capacity, and anion-exchange capacity was evaluated to determine sorption mechanisms. Due to the poor recovery of the FtSaBs and 6:2 FtSaAm with published PFAS soil extraction methods, a new soil extraction method was developed to achieve good (90-100%) recoveries. The 6:2 FtSaAm was depleted from the aqueous phase in all but one soil, which is attributed to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Sorption of the FtSs was driven by hydrophobic interactions, while the FtSaBs behave more like cations that strongly associate with the solid phase relative to groundwater. Thus, the sorption mechanisms of the FtSs, FtSaBs, and 6:2 FtSaAm are more complex than expected and cannot be predicted by bulk soil properties.

  1. Sorption of Perfluorochemicals to Matrices Relevant to Sites Impacted by Aqueous Film-Forming Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulvado, J.; Higgins, C.

    2011-12-01

    Perfluorochemicals are a class of emerging contaminants consisting of fluorinated surfactants that are chemically and thermally stable and which contain a fluorocarbon tail that is both hydro- and oleophobic. Because of these unique properties, PFCs have a wide variety of uses including food paper packaging products, stain repellants, nonstick coatings, and aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF). At fire-training facilities, repeated application of AFFF is used to extinguish hydrocarbon fuel fires ignited for training purposes. The presence of perfluochemicals (PFCs) in groundwater as a result of repeated AFFF application at these facilities has been documented. Due to factors such as the recent push towards regulation of PFCs in drinking water, concerns have arisen about the fate of these compounds in the subsurface. Groundwater plumes containing PFC subclasses such as perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFAS), and fluorotelomer sulfonates (FtSs) in the μg/L to mg/L range have been detected. These plumes also may contain co-contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuel components and chlorinated solvents, some of which may exist as nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL). This study examined the sorption of PFCs to soil and aquifer material across the concentration range applicable to AFFF-impacted sites (μg/L - mg/L) and looked at the impact of co-contaminants, including NAPL, on PFC sorption. PFC sorption was variable and indicated that similar to previous work on PFC sorption to sediment, subsurface PFC transport will depend on factors such as the sorbent organic carbon content, PFC subclass, solution chemistry, and PFC chain length.

  2. Experimental measurements of U60 nanocluster stability in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Shannon L.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E. S.; Gao, Yunyi; Liu, Tianbo; Burns, Peter C.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the aqueous behavior of isolated U60 nanoclusters (K16Li25[UO2(O2)OH]60)-19 was studied under several pH conditions and nanocluster concentrations to determine if the nanoclusters exhibit solid phase buffering behavior or if they exhibit behavior more like aqueous complexes. U60 is a cage cluster consisting of 60 (UO2)(O2)2(OH)2 uranyl polyhedral which share OH and O2 groups with their neighboring uranyl polyhedral, resulting in negatively charged cage clusters whose charge is at least partially offset by K+ and Li+ in the aqueous phase. Batch experiments to monitor nanocluster stability were conducted for 16 days at pH 7.5, 8.0 and 8.5 at nanocluster suspension concentrations of 1.4, 2.8 and 6.0 g/L. The aqueous concentrations of U, Li, and K, determined after 10 kDa molecular weight filtration, achieved steady-state with the nanoclusters within 24 h. The steady-state aqueous U, Li, and K concentrations were independent of solution pH, however they increased with increasing nanocluster concentration, indicating that the nanoclusters do not buffer the aqueous activities as a bulk solid phase would, but exhibit behavior that is more characteristic of dissolved aqueous complexes. The ion activity product (I.A.P.) value was calculated using two approaches: (1) treating the nanoclusters as a solid phase with an activity of one, and (2) treating the nanoclusters as aqueous complexes with a non-unit activity equal to their concentration in solution. The I.A.P. values that were calculated with non-unit activity for the nanoclusters exhibited significantly less variation as a function of nanocluster concentration compared to the I.A.P. values calculated with a nanocluster activity of one. The results yield a calculated log dissociation constant for the U60 nanoclusters of 9.2 + 0.2/-0.3 (1σ). Our findings provide a better understanding of the thermodynamic stability and behavior of U60 nanoclusters in aqueous systems, and can be used to estimate the

  3. The influence of polyol type on cell geometry and the thermal stability of polyurethane foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prendžov Slobodan J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the influence of substituting defined amounts of polyol Voranol 3322 by polyol Voranol CP 1055 on the cell geometry and thermal stability of the synthesized flexible polyurethane foams. The influence of the amount of antipyrene on the cell geometry and their thermal stability was also investigated. The following components were used in the synthesis of the polyurethanes: a mixture of two polyols (Voranol 3322 with the hydroxyl number 47 mg KOH/g, mean molecular mass 3400 and Voranol CP 1055 with the hydroxyl number 156 mg KOH/g, mean molecular mass 1000, toluene discarnate as the isocyanate component, a combination of an organic-metallic compound and a tertiary amine as catalysts, surfactant and water as the coreactant. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (in a nitrogen atmosphere. The cell geometry was analyzed by optical microscopy. Examination of the cell geometry revealed different cell shapes. The form factor as an indicator of cell deviation from spherical shape increased (more round forms were observed with increasing amount of Voranol CP 1055. The TG examination showed that specimens with 6 and 8 g of Voranol 3322 substituted by Voranol CP 1055 completely degraded at 350 °C, while foams with 10 and 12 g of Voranol 3322 substituted by Voranol CP 1055 displayed lower mass loss at higher temperatures and had residual masses of 46 % and 43 % at 600°C respectively. The addition of antipyrene in an amount of 1% (based on the amount of polyol contributed to improved thermal stability, no visible color change of the specimen tested at 210°C for 40 minutes, and to rounder cell forms. Considering the obtained results it can be concluded that an increase in the amount of Voranol CP 1055 yielded more spherically shaped cells and better thermal stability of the synthesized flexible polyurethane foams. The addition of antipyrene improves the thermal stability and the cell geometry.

  4. Stability of Medium-Bridged Twisted Amides in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Michal; Yao, Lei; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    “Twisted” amides containing non-standard dihedral angles are typically hypersensitive to hydrolysis, a feature that has stringently limited their utility in water. We have synthesized a series of bridged lactams that contain a twisted amide linkage but which exhibit enhanced stability in aqueous environments. Many of these compounds were extracted unchanged from aqueous mixtures ranging from the strongly basic to the strongly acidic. NMR experiments showed that tricyclic lactams undergo reversible hydrolysis at extreme pH ranges, but that a number of compounds in this structure class are indefinitely stable under physiologically relevant pH conditions; one bicyclic example was additionally water-soluble. We examined the effect of structure on the reversibility of amide bond hydrolysis, which we attributed to the transannular nature of the amino acid analogs. These data suggest that medium-bridged lactams of these types should provide useful platforms for studying the behavior of twisted amides in aqueous systems. PMID:19178141

  5. Use of open-cell resilient polyurethane foam loaded with crown ether for the preconcentration of uranium from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Mesalam, M.M.; El-Naggar, I.M.; Abdel-Hai, M.S.; El-Shahawi, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The preconcentration of uranium from aqueous solutions on open-cell resilient polyurethane foams (PUF) impregnated with crown ether as an organic extractant in different conditions was investigated. The data showed that 50 minutes is a sufficient time to attain equilibrium with a maximum extraction percentage for uranium ion on polyurethane foams loaded with crown ether. Also the extraction percentage of uranium is increased markedly with increasing the pH values up to pH ∼ 6 and displayed the lowest extraction at 8 > pH > 6. The different isotherms of uranium sorption have shown that the sorption followed a Freundlich isotherm. Column studies have been carried out in order to extend these studies to the plant scale. From the data of column sorption and breakthrough curves, the height equivalent of theoretical plates (HETP), and breakthrough capacity which affect the efficiency of the column have been calculated and found to be 1.03 mm/plate, 64 ± 5 and 58.3 mg uranium/gram polyurethane foam impregnated with crown ether, respectively. (author)

  6. MODIFICATION OF FOAMED CEMENT-CLAY MORTARS BY STABILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilova Marina Ivanovna

    2012-10-01

    by-product generated in the course of combustion of crossties, and reduction of the cement consumption rate. The authors have identified that ash added into the injection does not cause any deterioration of the mortar strength; rather, it assures its structural stability and prevents any leaching of heavy metals that it contains. The authors have identified that adding 20 to 26 % of flue ash into the injection reduces the mortar hardening time by 30 %, while the strength of the mortar that has 20 % of ash is almost equal to the one of the benchmark sample. However, any higher ash content causes deterioration of the hardening strength of the mortar. Therefore, the authors have discovered that 20 % of the cement may be replaced by the ash generated in the course of combustion of waste crossties. This replacement is to be performed in the course of preparation of mortars, and it is aimed at the strengthening of the soil. This operation is to be performed in the incinerator to preserve the solution properties. This technology reduces the amount of hazardous by-products through their recycling.

  7. Conductivity and electrochemical stability of concentrated aqueous choline chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. P.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2017-10-01

    The conductivity and electrochemical stability of choline chloride (ChCl) solutions with water contents ranging from 20 to 39 wt % are studied. Exposing ChCl to moist ambient air yields a highly concentrated aqueous solution that, as an electrolyte, exhibits the properties and variations in conductivity with temperature and concentration characteristic of other similar systems. Its electrochemical stability window, determined by cyclic voltammetry, is comparable to that of ChCl-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Products of the electrolysis of ChCl‒H2O mixtures seem to be less toxic than those of Reline, Ethaline, and Maline.

  8. Polyurethane foam loaded with sodium dodecylsulfate for the extraction of 'quat' pesticides from aqueous medium: Optimization of loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-09-01

    The cationic herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat are largely used in different cultures worldwide. With this, there is an intrinsic risk of environmental contamination when these herbicides achieve natural waters. The goal of this work was to propose a novel and low-cost sorbent for the removal of the cited herbicides from aqueous medium. The proposed sorbent was prepared by loading polyurethane foam with sodium dodecylsulfate. The influence of several parameters (SDS concentration, HCl concentration and shaking time) on the loading process was investigated. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that all studied variables influenced the loading process, having significant effect on the extraction efficiency of the resulted PUF-SDS. At optimized conditions, the PUF was loaded by shaking 200mg of crushed foam with 200mL of a solution containing 5.0×10(-3)molL(-1) SDS and 0.25molL(-1) HCl, for 30min. The obtained PUF-SDS was efficient for removing the three herbicides from aqueous medium, achieving extraction percentages higher than 90%. The sorption process followed a pseudo second-order kinetics, which presented excellent predictive capacity of the amount of herbicide retained with time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Destabilization, Propagation, and Generation of Surfactant-Stabilized Foam during Crude Oil Displacement in Heterogeneous Model Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Siyang; Zeng, Yongchao; Vavra, Eric D; He, Peng; Puerto, Maura; Hirasaki, George J; Biswal, Sibani L

    2018-01-23

    Foam flooding in porous media is of increasing interest due to its numerous applications such as enhanced oil recovery, aquifer remediation, and hydraulic fracturing. However, the mechanisms of oil-foam interactions have yet to be fully understood at the pore level. Here, we present three characteristic zones identified in experiments involving the displacement of crude oil from model porous media via surfactant-stabilized foam, and we describe a series of pore-level dynamics in these zones which were not observed in experiments involving paraffin oil. In the displacement front zone, foam coalesces upon initial contact with crude oil, which is known to destabilize the liquid lamellae of the foam. Directly upstream, a transition zone occurs where surface wettability is altered from oil-wet to water-wet. After this transition takes place, a strong foam bank zone exists where foam is generated within the porous media. We visualized each zone using a microfluidic platform, and we discuss the unique physicochemical phenomena that define each zone. In our analysis, we also provide an updated mechanistic understanding of the "smart rheology" of foam which builds upon simple "phase separation" observations in the literature.

  10. Synergistic effect of casein glycomacropeptide on sodium caseinate foaming properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, R; Martinez, M J; Pilosof, A M R

    2017-11-01

    Several strategies to improve the interfacial properties and foaming properties of proteins may be developed; among them, the use of mixtures of biopolymers that exhibit synergistic interactions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) on foaming and surface properties of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and to establish the role of protein interactions in the aqueous phase. To this end particles size, interfacial and foaming properties of CMP, NaCas and NaCas-CMP mixtures at pH 5.5 and 7 were determined. At both pH, the interaction between CMP and NaCas induced a decrease in the aggregation state of NaCas. Single CMP foams showed the highest and NaCas the lowest foam overrun (FO) and the mixture exhibited intermediate values. CMP foam quickly drained. The drainage profile of mixed foams was closer to NaCas foams; at pH 5.5, mixed foams drained even slower than NaCas foam, exhibiting a synergistic performance. Additionally, a strong synergism was observed on the collapse of mixed foams at pH 5.5. Finally, a model to explain the synergistic effect observed on foaming properties in CMP-NaCas mixtures has been proposed; the reduced aggregation state of NaCas in the presence of CMP, made it more efficient for foam stabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Highly photoactive anatase foams prepared from lyophilized aqueous colloids of peroxo-polytitanic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pližingrová, Eva; Volfová, Lenka; Svora, Petr; Labhsetwar, N.; Klementová, Mariana; Szatmáry, Lórant; Šubrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 240, FEB (2015), s. 107-113 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20744S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Anatase * Lyophilization * Photocatalysis * Hydroxyl radical * Peroxo-polytitanic acid foams Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.312, year: 2015

  12. Partitioning of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorohexanesulfonate in the aquatic environment after an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, an accidental release of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) took place at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport (The Netherlands). After the release, water, fish and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSA). In situ perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

  13. Protein adsorption at the electrified air-water interface: implications on foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kathrin; Rumpel, Armin; Walter, Johannes; Dombrowski, Jannika; Kulozik, Ulrich; Braunschweig, Björn; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2012-05-22

    The surface chemistry of ions, water molecules, and proteins as well as their ability to form stable networks in foams can influence and control macroscopic properties such as taste and texture of dairy products considerably. Despite the significant relevance of protein adsorption at liquid interfaces, a molecular level understanding on the arrangement of proteins at interfaces and their interactions has been elusive. Therefore, we have addressed the adsorption of the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) at the air-water interface with vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) and ellipsometry. SFG provides specific information on the composition and average orientation of molecules at interfaces, while complementary information on the thickness of the adsorbed layer can be obtained with ellipsometry. Adsorption of charged BSA proteins at the water surface leads to an electrified interface, pH dependent charging, and electric field-induced polar ordering of interfacial H(2)O and BSA. Varying the bulk pH of protein solutions changes the intensities of the protein related vibrational bands substantially, while dramatic changes in vibrational bands of interfacial H(2)O are simultaneously observed. These observations have allowed us to determine the isoelectric point of BSA directly at the electrolyte-air interface for the first time. BSA covered air-water interfaces with a pH near the isoelectric point form an amorphous network of possibly agglomerated BSA proteins. Finally, we provide a direct correlation of the molecular structure of BSA interfaces with foam stability and new information on the link between microscopic properties of BSA at water surfaces and macroscopic properties such as the stability of protein foams.

  14. Bioremediation of aqueous pollutants using biomass embedded in hydrophilic foam. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Radway, J.C.; Santo Domingo, J.; Zingmark, R.G.; Whitaker, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to examine the potential of a novel hydrophilic polyurethane foam as an immobilization medium for algal, bacteria, and other types of biomass, and to test the resulting foam/biomass aggregates for their use in cleaning up waters contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides and toxic organic compounds. Initial investigations focused on the bioremoval of heavy metals from wastewaters at SRS using immobilized algal biomass. This effort met with limited success for reasons which included interference in the binding of biomass and target metals by various non-target constituents in the wastewater, lack of an appropriate wastewater at SRS for testing, and the unavailability of bioreactor systems capable of optimizing contact of target pollutants with sufficient biomass binding sites. Subsequent studies comparing algal, bacterial, fungal, and higher plant biomass demonstrated that other biomass sources were also ineffective for metal bioremoval under the test conditions. Radionuclide bioremoval using a Tc-99 source provided more promising results than the metal removal studies with the various types of biomass, and indicated that the alga Cyanidium was the best of the tested sources of biomass for this application. However, all of the biomass/foam aggregates tested were substantially inferior to a TEVA resin for removing Tc-99 in comparative testing. The authors also explored the use of hydrophilic polyurethane foam to embed Burkholderia cepacia, which is an efficient degrader of trichloroethylene (TCE), a contaminant of considerable concern at SRS and elsewhere. The embedded population proved to be incapable of growth on nutrient media, but retained respiratory activity. Lastly, the degradative capabilities of embedded G4 were examined. Phenol- or benzene-induced bacteria retained the ability to degrade TCE and benzene. The authors were successful in inducing enzyme activity after the organisms had already been embedded

  15. Bioremediation of aqueous pollutants using biomass embedded in hydrophilic foam. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Radway, J.C.; Santo Domingo, J.; Zingmark, R.G.; Whitaker, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The major objective of this project was to examine the potential of a novel hydrophilic polyurethane foam as an immobilization medium for algal, bacteria, and other types of biomass, and to test the resulting foam/biomass aggregates for their use in cleaning up waters contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides and toxic organic compounds. Initial investigations focused on the bioremoval of heavy metals from wastewaters at SRS using immobilized algal biomass. This effort met with limited success for reasons which included interference in the binding of biomass and target metals by various non-target constituents in the wastewater, lack of an appropriate wastewater at SRS for testing, and the unavailability of bioreactor systems capable of optimizing contact of target pollutants with sufficient biomass binding sites. Subsequent studies comparing algal, bacterial, fungal, and higher plant biomass demonstrated that other biomass sources were also ineffective for metal bioremoval under the test conditions. Radionuclide bioremoval using a Tc-99 source provided more promising results than the metal removal studies with the various types of biomass, and indicated that the alga Cyanidium was the best of the tested sources of biomass for this application. However, all of the biomass/foam aggregates tested were substantially inferior to a TEVA resin for removing Tc-99 in comparative testing. The authors also explored the use of hydrophilic polyurethane foam to embed Burkholderia cepacia, which is an efficient degrader of trichloroethylene (TCE), a contaminant of considerable concern at SRS and elsewhere. The embedded population proved to be incapable of growth on nutrient media, but retained respiratory activity. Lastly, the degradative capabilities of embedded G4 were examined. Phenol- or benzene-induced bacteria retained the ability to degrade TCE and benzene. The authors were successful in inducing enzyme activity after the organisms had already been embedded.

  16. Structure and coarsening at the surface of a dry three-dimensional aqueous foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, A E; Chen, B G; Durian, D J

    2013-12-01

    We utilize total-internal reflection to isolate the two-dimensional surface foam formed at the planar boundary of a three-dimensional sample. The resulting images of surface Plateau borders are consistent with Plateau's laws for a truly two-dimensional foam. Samples are allowed to coarsen into a self-similar scaling state where statistical distributions appear independent of time, except for an overall scale factor. There we find that statistical measures of side number distributions, size-topology correlations, and bubble shapes are all very similar to those for two-dimensional foams. However, the size number distribution is slightly broader, and the shapes are slightly more elongated. A more obvious difference is that T2 processes now include the creation of surface bubbles, due to rearrangement in the bulk, and von Neumann's law is dramatically violated for individual bubbles. But nevertheless, our most striking finding is that von Neumann's law appears to holds on average, namely, the average rate of area change for surface bubbles appears to be proportional to the number of sides minus six, but with individual bubbles showing a wide distribution of deviations from this average behavior.

  17. Impact of lysozyme on stability mechanism of nanozirconia aqueous suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk-Karpisz, Katarzyna, E-mail: k.szewczuk-karpisz@wp.pl; Wiśniewska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Adsorption and stabilization-destabilization properties of lysozyme (LSZ) in the nanozirconia-biopolymer solution system were determined. • The stability measurements were performed using turbidimetric method. • Lysozyme macromolecules undergo adsorption on the ZrO{sub 2} surface under electrostatic adsorbent-adsorbate attraction, i.e. at pH 6 and 9. • The biopolymer adsorption impact on the zirconia stability varies at different pH values. - Abstract: The effect of lysozyme (LSZ) presence on the zirconium(IV) oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) aqueous suspension stability was examined. The applied zirconia contains mesopores (with a diameter about 30 nm) and its mean particle size is about 100 nm. To determine the stability mechanism of ZrO{sub 2} suspension in the biopolymer presence, the adsorption and electrokinetic (surface charge density and zeta potential) measurements were performed in the pH range 3–10. The lysozyme adsorption on the nanozirconia surface proceeds mainly through electrostatic forces. Under solid-polymer repulsion conditions, there is no adsorption of lysozyme (pH < 6, C{sub NaCl} 0.01 mol/dm{sup 3}). The increase of solution ionic strength to 0.2 mol/dm{sup 3} causes screening of unfavourable forces and biopolymer adsorption becomes possible. The LSZ addition to the ZrO{sub 2} suspension influences its stability. At pH 3, 4.6 and 7.6, slight improvement of the system stability was obtained. In turn, at pH 9 considerable destabilization of nanozirconia particles covered by polymeric layers occurs.

  18. Systematic Phase Behaviour Study and Foam Stability Analysis for Optimal Alkaline/Surfactant/Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline-Surfactant-Foam (ASF) flooding is a recently introduced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. This paper presents laboratory study of this ASF to better understand its mechanisms. The focus is on the interaction of ASF chemical agents with oil and in the presence and absence of naphthenic

  19. Purification of barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) from beer and their impact on beer foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro; Ogushi, Kensuke

    2015-04-01

    Foam stability is a key factor of beer quality for consumers and brewers. Recent beer proteome analyses have suggested that barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and avenin-like protein-a (ALP) derived from barley are important for beer foam stability. In this study, BDAI-1 and ALP were purified from a Japanese commercial beer sample using salt precipitation and column chromatography. The purification level was verified using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and database searches. Purified BDAI-1 and ALP were added to a beer sample to compare the foam stability to that of a control beer sample. As a result, beer foam stability was significantly improved by BDAI-1 but not by ALP, thereby suggesting that BDAI-1 affects beer foam stability whereas ALP does not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flexible and Lightweight Pressure Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Thermoplastic Polyurethane-Aligned Conductive Foam with Superior Compressibility and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenju; Dai, Kun; Zhai, Yue; Liu, Hu; Zhan, Pengfei; Gao, Jiachen; Zheng, Guoqiang; Liu, Chuntai; Shen, Changyu

    2017-12-06

    Flexible and lightweight carbon nanotube (CNT)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) conductive foam with a novel aligned porous structure was fabricated. The density of the aligned porous material was as low as 0.123 g·cm -3 . Homogeneous dispersion of CNTs was achieved through the skeleton of the foam, and an ultralow percolation threshold of 0.0023 vol % was obtained. Compared with the disordered foam, mechanical properties of the aligned foam were enhanced and the piezoresistive stability of the flexible foam was improved significantly. The compression strength of the aligned TPU foam increases by 30.7% at the strain of 50%, and the stress of the aligned foam is 22 times that of the disordered foam at the strain of 90%. Importantly, the resistance variation of the aligned foam shows a fascinating linear characteristic under the applied strain until 77%, which would benefit the application of the foam as a desired pressure sensor. During multiple cyclic compression-release measurements, the aligned conductive CNT/TPU foam represents excellent reversibility and reproducibility in terms of resistance. This nice capability benefits from the aligned porous structure composed of ladderlike cells along the orientation direction. Simultaneously, the human motion detections, such as walk, jump, squat, etc. were demonstrated by using our flexible pressure sensor. Because of the lightweight, flexibility, high compressibility, excellent reversibility, and reproducibility of the conductive aligned foam, the present study is capable of providing new insights into the fabrication of a high-performance pressure sensor.

  1. Polyurethane foam loaded with SDS for the adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous medium: Multivariate optimization of the loading process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina, Nicolle F; Soriano, Silvio; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2009-08-15

    This paper reports the development of a new procedure for the adsorption of four cationic dyes (Rhodamine B, Methylene Blue, Crystal Violet and Malachite Green) from aqueous medium employing polyurethane foam (PUF) loaded with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as solid phase. PUF loading process was based on the stirring of 200mg PUF cylinders with acidic solutions containing SDS. The conditions for loading were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a Doehlert design with three variables that were SDS and HCl concentrations and stirring time. Results obtained in the optimization process showed that the stirring time is not a relevant parameter in the PUF loading, evidencing that the transport of SDS from solution to PUF surface is fast. On the other hand, both SDS and HCl concentrations were important parameters causing significant variation in the efficiency of the resulting solid phase for the removal of dyes from solution. At optimized conditions, SDS and HCl concentrations were 4.0 x 10(-4) and 0.90 mol L(-1), respectively. The influence of stirring time was evaluated by univariate methodology. A 20 min stirring time was established in order to make the PUF loading process fast and robust without losing efficiency. The procedure was tested for the removal of the four cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and removal efficiencies always better than 90% were achieved for the two concentrations tested (2.0 x 10(-5) and 1.0 x 10(-4)mol L(-1)).

  2. Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhong, Lirong

    2009-11-11

    Amendment solutions with or without surfactants have been used to remove contaminants from soil. However, it has drawbacks such that the amendment solution often mobilizes the plume, and its movement is controlled by gravity and preferential flow paths. Foam is an emulsion-like, two-phase system in which gas cells are dispersed in a liquid and separated by thin liquid films called lamellae. Potential advantages of using foams in sub-surface remediation include providing better control on the volume of fluids injected, uniformity of contact, and the ability to contain the migration of contaminant laden liquids. It is expected that foam can serve as a carrier of amendments for vadose zone remediation, e.g., at the Hanford Site. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s EM-20 program, a numerical simulation capability will be added to the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) flow simulator. The primary purpose of this document is to review the modeling approaches of foam transport in porous media. However, as an aid to understanding the simulation approaches, some experiments under unsaturated conditions and the processes of foam transport are also reviewed. Foam may be formed when the surfactant concentration is above the critical micelle concentration. There are two main types of foams – the ball foam (microfoam) and the polyhedral foam. The characteristics of bulk foam are described by the properties such as foam quality, texture, stability, density, surface tension, disjoining pressure, etc. Foam has been used to flush contaminants such as metals, organics, and nonaqueous phase liquids from unsaturated soil. Ball foam, or colloidal gas aphrons, reportedly have been used for soil flushing in contaminated site remediation and was found to be more efficient than surfactant solutions on the basis of weight of contaminant removed per gram of surfactant. Experiments also indicate that the polyhedral foam can be used to enhance soil remediation. The

  3. Edible foam based on Pickering effect of probiotic bacteria and milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, Cigdem; Geng, Xiaolu; Cárdenas, Marité

    2017-01-01

    We report the preparation and characterization of aqueous Pickering foams using bio-particles constituted by lactic acid bacteria surface modified by oppositely charged milk proteins. Cell surface modification was shown by zeta potential measurements. Foams stabilized by bacterial Pickering bio-p...

  4. Formation and Stability of Foams Made with Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Foam properties of a sunflower isolate (SI), as well as those of helianthinin and sunflower albumins (SFAs), were studied at various pH values and ionic strengths and after heat treatment. Less foam could be formed from helianthinin than from SFAs, but foam prepared with helianthinin was more stable

  5. Stability of sonicated aqueous suspensions of phospholipids under air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, R; Forward, R; Samsonoff, C

    1991-12-01

    The stability of phospholipids in liposomal aqueous suspension against oxidative degradation in air was investigated using spectrophotometric indices, glutathione peroxidase reactivity and thin layer chromatography. Zwitterionic phospholipid was found to be susceptible to degradation via oxidation of polyunsaturated hydrocarbon chains and ester hydrolysis, producing oxidized lysophosphatide and free fatty acid derivatives. These products were characterized as hydroperoxides based on their reactivity with the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase isolated from human erythrocytes. Lecithin in Tris buffer was more resistant to hydrolysis than in water. The sonication of 8.0 mM of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SB-PC) suspension in 0.1 M Tris (pH 7.5) in the presence of air produced relatively high concentration of conjugated diene hydroperoxide, but a small amount of hydrolyzed products. Anionic phospholipids, such as egg-phosphatidylglycerol (egg-PG), demonstrated higher resistance to air oxidation than the zwitterionic lecithin, but its oxidation was promoted by sonication.

  6. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  7. Monitoring foam coarsening using a computer optical mouse as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Aqueous foam; optical flow sensor; dynamic laser speckle; computer optical mouse. ... Aqueous foams are colloidal systems with high concentration of gas bubbles in a liquid matrix. ... and complex behaviour of the foams. However ...

  8. Highly enhanced electrochemical activity of Ni foam electrodes decorated with nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for non-aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungkuk; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ki Jae

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) are directly grown on the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) Ni foam substrate by floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD). The electrochemical properties of the 3D NCNT-Ni foam are thoroughly examined as a potential electrode for non-aqueous redox flow batteries (RFBs). During synthesis, nitrogen atoms can be successfully doped onto the carbon nanotube (CNT) lattices by forming an abundance of nitrogen-based functional groups. The 3D NCNT-Ni foam electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical activities toward the redox reactions of [Fe (bpy)3]2+/3+ (in anolyte) and [Co(bpy)3]+/2+ (in catholyte), which are mainly attributed to the hierarchical 3D structure of the NCNT-Ni foam electrode and the catalytic effect of nitrogen atoms doped onto the CNTs; this leads to faster mass transfer and charge transfer during operation. As a result, the RFB cell assembled with 3D NCNT-Ni foam electrodes exhibits a high energy efficiency of 80.4% in the first cycle; this performance is maintained up to the 50th cycle without efficiency loss.

  9. Hydrothermal growth of hierarchical Ni3S2 and Co3S4 on a reduced graphene oxide hydrogel@Ni foam: a high-energy-density aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2015-01-21

    Ni foam@reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hydrogel-Ni3S2 and Ni foam@rGO hydrogel-Co3S4 composites have been successfully synthesized with the aid of a two-step hydrothermal protocol, where the rGO hydrogel is sandwiched between the metal sulfide and Ni foam substrate. Sonochemical deposition of exfoliated rGO on Ni foam with subsequent hydrothermal treatment results in the formation of a rGO-hydrogel-coated Ni foam. Then second-time hydrothermal treatment of the dried Ni@rGO substrate with corresponding metal nitrate and sodium sulfide results in individual uniform growth of porous Ni3S2 nanorods and a Co3S4 self-assembled nanosheet on a Ni@rGO substrate. Both Ni@rGO-Ni3S2 and Ni@rGO-Co3S4 have been electrochemically characterized in a 6 M KOH electrolyte, exhibiting high specific capacitance values of 987.8 and 1369 F/g, respectively, at 1.5 A/g accompanied by the respective outstanding cycle stability of 97.9% and 96.6% at 12 A/g over 3000 charge-discharge cycles. An advanced aqueous asymmetric (AAS) supercapacitor has been fabricated by exploiting the as-prepared Ni@rGO-Co3S4 as a positive electrode and Ni@rGO-Ni3S2 as a negative electrode. The as-fabricated AAS has shown promising energy densities of 55.16 and 24.84 Wh/kg at high power densities of 975 and 13000 W/kg, respectively, along with an excellent cycle stability of 96.2% specific capacitance retention over 3000 charge-discharge cycles at 12 A/g. The enhanced specific capacitance, stupendous cycle stability, elevated energy density, and a power density as an AAS of these electrode materials indicate that it could be a potential candidate in the field of supercapacitors.

  10. Effects of Aqueous Film-Forming Foams (AFFFs) on Trichloroethene (TCE) Dechlorination by a Dehalococcoides mccartyi-Containing Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding-Marjanovic, Katie C; Yi, Shan; Weathers, Tess S; Sharp, Jonathan O; Sedlak, David L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2016-04-05

    The application of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) to extinguish chlorinated solvent-fueled fires has led to the co-contamination of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater and soil. Although reductive dechlorination of TCE by Dehalococcoides mccartyi is a frequently used remediation strategy, the effects of AFFF and PFASs on TCE dechlorination are not well-understood. Various AFFF formulations, PFASs, and ethylene glycols were amended to the growth medium of a D. mccartyi-containing enrichment culture to determine the impact on dechlorination, fermentation, and methanogenesis. The community was capable of fermenting organics (e.g., diethylene glycol butyl ether) in all AFFF formulations to hydrogen and acetate, but the product concentrations varied significantly according to formulation. TCE was dechlorinated in the presence of an AFFF formulation manufactured by 3M but was not dechlorinated in the presence of formulations from two other manufacturers. Experiments amended with AFFF-derived PFASs and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) indicated that dechlorination could be inhibited by PFASs but that the inhibition depends on surfactant concentration and structure. This study revealed that the fermentable components of AFFF can stimulate TCE dechlorination, while some of the fluorinated compounds in certain AFFF formulations can inhibit dechlorination.

  11. Environmental Fate and Transport of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances at Aqueous Film-Forming Foam Impacted Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C.

    2017-12-01

    Poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are constituents in aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) used to extinguish fuel fires. Substantially elevated PFAS groundwater concentrations have been observed at firefighter protection training areas, where co-contaminants such as chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons are also commonly present. Research into the fate and transport potential of PFASs at AFFF-impacted sites will be presented, with a particular focus on how co-contaminants and co-contaminant remediation technologies may alter the composition and transport behavior of PFASs at these sites. A detailed analysis of data collected from a U.S. Air Force site (Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota) indicates that that conversion of polyfluoroalkyl chemicals to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in situ due to natural and enhanced remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons. In addition, bench-scale studies examining the effects of various chemical oxidants, typically employed via in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), indicates that oxidation-based remediation technologies have the potential to alter the release and composition of PFASs in AFFF-impacted source zones. Future challenges in addressing PFAS contamination will be discussed, particularly with respect to closing the mass balance on PFAAs and their precursors at AFFF-impacted sites.

  12. The removal of radioactive strontium from aqueous solutions by foam separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, K.; Aziz, M.; Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo

    1979-01-01

    The flotation of strontium ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, potassium laurate, sodium lauryl sulphate or Aeroslo 18 as collector. Aerosol 18 proved to be the most suitable. With this reagent strontium removals of about 97.5% - 99% could be achieved for metal ion concentrations ranging from 1 x 10 -7 M (or probably less) to 1.3 x 10 -4 M. The effects of pH, collector concentration, ionic strength, gas flow rate and period of bubbling were determined and the optimum flotation conditions have been established. (orig.) [de

  13. The role of colloidal particles in the stability of decontamination foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignot, S.

    2008-12-01

    Illustrating an effort in the design of more controllable foams, therefore better adapted to decontamination, this research aims at highlighting the reciprocal interaction mechanisms between foam and a population of hydrophilic of hydrophobic particles. This study aims at identifying the particle system model for these both cases, hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Then, in the case of partially hydrophobic particles, the author tries to identify the viscoelastic properties of a water-air interface bearing the particles, and then to characterize the corresponding foams. In the case of hydrophilic particles, he investigated the influence of confinement on flow properties of suspensions, using a stack of spherical balls as a foam model. The obtained results are compared to those obtained in a free drainage configuration which is more representative of the use of a decontamination foam

  14. Nickel-foam-supported ruthenium oxide/graphene sandwich composite constructed via one-step electrodeposition route for high-performance aqueous supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; He, Hanwei

    2018-05-01

    A high-performance supercapacitor both considered high power and high energy density is needed for its applications such as portable electronics and electric vehicles. Herein, we construct a high-performance ruthenium oxide/graphene (RuO2-ERG) composite directly grown on Ni foam through cyclic voltammetric deposition process. The RuO2-ERG composite with sandwich structure is achieved effectively from a mixed solution of graphene oxide and ruthenium trichloride in the -1.4 V to 1.0 V potential range at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. The electrochemical performance is optimized by tuning the concentration of the ruthenium trichloride. This integrative RuO2-ERG composite electrode can effectively maintains the accessible surface for redox reaction and stable channels for electrolyte penetration, leading to an improved electrochemical performance. Symmetrical aqueous supercapacitors based on RuO2-ERG electrodes exhibit a wider operational voltage window of 1.5 V. The optimized RuO2-ERG electrode displays a superior specific capacitance with 89% capacitance retention upon increasing the current density by 50 times. A high energy density of 43.8 W h kg-1 at a power density of 0.75 kW kg-1 is also obtained, and as high as 39.1 W h kg-1 can be retained at a power density of 37.5 kW kg-1. In addition, the capacitance retention is still maintained at 92.8% even after 10,000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance, long-term cycle stability, and the ease of preparation demonstrate that this typical RuO2-ERG electrode has great potentialities to develop high-performance supercapacitors.

  15. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  16. Preparation and properties of a novel macro porous Ni2+-imprinted chitosan foam adsorbents for adsorption of nickel ions from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Su, Shi-Jun; Liao, Bing; Ding, Sang-Lan; Sun, Wei-Yi

    2017-06-01

    In this study, novel macro porous Ni 2+ -imprinted chitosan foam adsorbents (F-IIP) were prepared using sodium bicarbonate and glycerine to obtain a porogen for adsorbing nickel ions from aqueous solutions. The use of the ion-imprinting technique for adsorbents preparation improved the nickel ion selectivity and adsorption capacity. We characterised the imprinted porous foam adsorbents in terms of the effects of the initial pH value, initial metal ion concentration, and contact time on the adsorption of nickel ions. The adsorption process was described best by Langmuir monolayer adsorption models, and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir equation was 69.93mgg -1 . The kinetic data could be fitted to a pseudo-second-order equation. Our analysis of selective adsorption demonstrated the excellent preference of the F-IIP foams for nickel ions compared with other coexisting metal ions. Furthermore, tests over five cycle runs suggested that the F-IIP foam adsorbents had good durability and efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of foamed matrix components on foamed concrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of the matrix foam structure by means of foam stabilizing additives is aimed at solving the technology-oriented problems as well as at the further improvement of physical and mechanical properties of cellular-concrete composites. The dry foam mineralization is the mainstream of this research. Adding the concrete densifiers, foam stabilizers and mineral powders reduces the drying shrinkage, which makes the foam concrete products technologically effective.

  18. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed in...

  19. Aqueous Stability of Alkali Superionic Conductors from First-Principles Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Balachandran; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic alkali superionic conductor solid electrolytes (SICEs) play a prominent role in the development of rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, ranging from replacement of organic electrolytes to being used as separators in aqueous batteries. The aqueous stability of SICEs is an important property in determining their applicability in various roles. In this work, we analyze the aqueous stability of twelve well-known Li-ion and Na-ion SICEs using Pourbaix diagrams constructed from first-principles calculations. We also introduce a quantitative free-energy measure to compare the aqueous stability of SICEs under different environments. Our results show that though oxides are, in general, more stable in aqueous environments than sulfides and halide-containing chemistries, the cations present play a crucial role in determining whether solid phases are formed within the voltage and pH ranges of interest.

  20. Area 2. Use Of Engineered Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO2 Foams To Improve Volumetric Sweep Of CO2 EOR Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCarlo, David [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Huh, Chun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnston, Keith P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The goal of this project was to develop a new CO2 injection enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process using engineered nanoparticles with optimized surface coatings that has better volumetric sweep efficiency and a wider application range than conventional CO2-EOR processes. The main objectives of this project were to (1) identify the characteristics of the optimal nanoparticles that generate extremely stable CO2 foams in situ in reservoir regions without oil; (2) develop a novel method of mobility control using “self-guiding” foams with smart nanoparticles; and (3) extend the applicability of the new method to reservoirs having a wide range of salinity, temperatures, and heterogeneity. Concurrent with our experimental effort to understand the foam generation and transport processes and foam-induced mobility reduction, we also developed mathematical models to explain the underlying processes and mechanisms that govern the fate of nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foams in porous media and applied these models to (1) simulate the results of foam generation and transport experiments conducted in beadpack and sandstone core systems, (2) analyze CO2 injection data received from a field operator, and (3) aid with the design of a foam injection pilot test. Our simulator is applicable to near-injection well field-scale foam injection problems and accounts for the effects due to layered heterogeneity in permeability field, foam stabilizing agents effects, oil presence, and shear-thinning on the generation and transport of nanoparticle-stabilized C/W foams. This report presents the details of our experimental and numerical modeling work and outlines the highlights of our findings.

  1. Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; Ruffο, Riccardo; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The electrolytic stability windows of several aqueous electrolytes were investigated by a constant current method. The electrode potential range depended upon the value of the imposed current. The magnitude of this behavior varied with the salt

  2. Drainage and Stratification Kinetics of Foam Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2014-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Foam lifetime, drainage kinetics and stability are strongly influenced by surfactant type (ionic vs non-ionic), and added proteins, particles or polymers modify typical responses. The rate at which fluid drains out from a foam film, i.e. drainage kinetics, is determined in the last stages primarily by molecular interactions and capillarity. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, colloids and polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures, a layered ordering of molecules, micelles or particles inside the foam films leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. Though stratification is observed in many confined systems including foam films containing particles or polyelectrolytes, films containing globular proteins seem not to show this behavior. Using a Scheludko-type cell, we experimentally study the drainage and stratification kinetics of horizontal foam films formed by protein-surfactant mixtures, and carefully determine how the presence of proteins influences the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of foam films.

  3. Foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography and wet granular matter

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Marston, Jeremy; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    network of interconnected liquid bridges between the template particles and the underlying substrate. With the aid of video microscopy, we demonstrate that these liquid bridges are in fact the border zone between the underlying substrate and foam films

  4. Aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Botao; Ma, Dong; Li, Fanglei; Li, Yong

    2017-11-01

    We have developed aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels (AFG) for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control. Specially, this study aimed to characterize the effect of AFG on the microstructure, static and dynamic stability, and coal fire inhibition performances of the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions. Compared with aqueous clay suspensions, the AFG-stabilized clay suspensions manifest high static and dynamic stability, which can be ascribed to the formation of a robust three-dimensional gel network by AFG. The coal acceleration oxidation experimental results show that the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions can improve the coal thermal stability and effectively inhibit the coal spontaneous oxidation process by increasing crossing point temperature (CPT) and reducing CO emission. The prepared low-cost and nontoxic AFG-stabilized clay suspensions, exhibiting excellent coal fire extinguishing performances, indicate great application potentials in coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.

  5. On the imprint of surfactant-driven stabilization of laboratory breaking wave foam with comparison to oceanic whitecaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, A. H.; Deane, G. B.; Stokes, M. D.

    2017-08-01

    Surfactants are ubiquitous in the global oceans: they help form the materially-distinct sea surface microlayer (SML) across which global ocean-atmosphere exchanges take place, and they reside on the surfaces of bubbles and whitecap foam cells prolonging their lifetime thus altering ocean albedo. Despite their importance, the occurrence, spatial distribution, and composition of surfactants within the upper ocean and the SML remains under-characterized during conditions of vigorous wave breaking when in-situ sampling methods are difficult to implement. Additionally, no quantitative framework exists to evaluate the importance of surfactant activity on ocean whitecap foam coverage estimates. Here we use individual laboratory breaking waves generated in filtered seawater and seawater with added soluble surfactant to identify the imprint of surfactant activity in whitecap foam evolution. The data show a distinct surfactant imprint in the decay phase of foam evolution. The area-time-integral of foam evolution is used to develop a time-varying stabilization function, ϕ>(t>) and a stabilization factor, Θ, which can be used to identify and quantify the extent of this surfactant imprint for individual breaking waves. The approach is then applied to wind-driven oceanic whitecaps, and the laboratory and ocean Θ distributions overlap. It is proposed that whitecap foam evolution may be used to determine the occurrence and extent of oceanic surfactant activity to complement traditional in-situ techniques and extend measurement capabilities to more severe sea states occurring at wind speeds in excess of about 10 m/s. The analysis procedure also provides a framework to assess surfactant-driven variability within and between whitecap coverage data sets.Plain Language SummaryThe foam patches made by breaking waves, also known as "whitecaps", are an important source of marine sea spray, which impacts weather and climate through the formation of cloud drops and ice. Sea spray

  6. Theoretical calculations of the thermodynamic stability of ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite under an aqueous solution environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Murata, Hidenobu; Shitara, Kazuki

    2010-01-01

    Defect formation energies in materials generally depend on chemical potentials determined by a chemical equilibrium condition. In particular, an aqueous solution environment is important for biomaterials such as hydroxyapatite studied here. Therefore, a methodology to obtain ionic chemical potentials under chemical equilibrium between solid and aqueous solution was introduced, and was applied to substitutional divalent cations formed via ion exchange with Ca 2+ in hydroxyapatite. The calculated ranking of the stability of substitutional cations in HAp was in good agreement with the experimentally observed trend. The present theoretical approach would be useful to explore the thermodynamic stability of defects in materials subjected to an aqueous solution environment.

  7. Estimating the number of airports potentially contaminated with perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances from aqueous film forming foam: A Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milley, Shawn A; Koch, Iris; Fortin, Patricia; Archer, Jeremy; Reynolds, David; Weber, Kela P

    2018-09-15

    Assessing the extent to which emerging contaminants (ECs) such as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been released into the environment is one of the foundations for developing effective management and remediation strategies for impacted sites. PFAS are known to have caused the contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water as a result of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) being accidentally or intentionally released into the environment. To date, the scope of the issue has not been evaluated in Canada. In this study we developed a framework, in the form of a decision tree, to estimate the number of potentially PFAS impacted airport sites in Canada as a result of AFFF releases. The screening process was completed using publicly available resources including airport websites, the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association website, Sky Vector, Transport Safety Board of Canada aviation investigation reports, the Aviation Safety Network website, and Google maps. The methodology presented in this study could be used to identify additional PFAS impacted sites in Canada or other jurisdictions worldwide. 2071 airport/heliport sites in Canada were investigated with indications that 152 (7%) of these sites likely have PFAS contamination as a result of the use of AFFF at firefighter training areas (FFTAs) and/or accidents where fires occurred. In addition, another 268 sites (13%) were identified as possibly impacted with PFASs primarily as a result of the location having the ability to store and dispense petroleum products, and therefore having AFFF systems onsite. Surficial geology was also identified for all sites determined to likely have PFAS contamination. An estimated 42.8% had surficial geology composed of sand, 27% had clay, 19.7% organic-based, with the remaining sites found on cryosols or rock. Methodological validation was also completed. The procedure used in this study successfully predicted occurrences of PFAS contamination at 25 sites

  8. Kinetics of the decomposition and the estimation of the stability of 10% aqueous and non-aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zun Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stability of 10% hydrogen peroxide aqueous and non-aqueous solutions with the addition of 6% (w/w of urea was evaluated. The solutions were stored at 20°C, 30°C and 40°C, and the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide proceeded according to first-order kinetics. With the addition of the urea in the solutions, the decomposition rate constant increased and the activation energy decreased. The temperature of storage also affected the decomposition of substance, however, 10% hydrogen peroxide solutions prepared in PEG-300, and stabilized with the addition of 6% (w/w of urea had the best constancy.

  9. Characterization of Ti6Al7Nb alloy foams surface treated in aqueous NaOH and CaCl2 solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütev, Ezgi; Esen, Ziya; Bor, Şakir

    2016-07-01

    Ti6Al7Nb alloy foams having 53-73% porosity were manufactured via evaporation of magnesium space holders. A bioactive 1µm thick sodium hydrogel titanate layer, NaxH2-xTiyO2y+1, formed after 5M NaOH treatment, was converted to crystalline sodium titanate, Na2TiyO2y+1, as a result of post-heat treatment. On the other hand, subsequent CaCl2 treatment of NaOH treated specimens induced calcium titanate formation. However, heat treatment of NaOH-CaCl2 treated specimens led to the loss of calcium and disappearance of the titanate phase. All of the aforementioned surface treatments reduced yield strengths due to the oxidation of the cell walls of the foams, while elastic moduli remained mostly unchanged. Accordingly, equiaxed dimples seen on the fracture surfaces of as-manufactured foams turned into relatively flat and featureless fracture surfaces after surface treatments. On the other hand, Ca- and Na-rich coating preserved their mechanical stabilities and did not spall during fracture. The relation between mechanical properties of foams and macro-porosity fraction were found to obey a power law. The foams with 63 and 73% porosity met the desired biocompatibility requirements with fully open pore structures and elastic moduli similar to that of bone. In vitro tests conducted in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that NaOH-heat treated surfaces exhibit the highest bioactivity and allow the formation of Ca-P rich phases having Ca/P ratio of 1.3 to form within 5 days. Although Ca-P rich phases formed only after 15 days on NaOH-CaCl2 treated specimens, the Ca/P ratio was closer to that of apatite found in bone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal stability of α-amylase in aqueous cosolvent systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    The activity and thermal stability of α-amylase were studied in the presence of different concentrations of ... 2.1 Materials ..... unfavourable free energy of transfer of amino acid side ..... folded protein with a hydrophobic dye: evidence that molten.

  11. Thermal stability of α-amylase in aqueous cosolvent systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Department of Protein Chemistry and Technology, Central Food Technological Research ... Keywords. α-Amylase; cosolvents; preferential interaction parameters; thermal stability ...... simulations of trehalose as a 'dynamic reducer' for solvent.

  12. Dissecting the structure of surface stabilizer on the dispersion of inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yong; Yu, Zongzhi; Zheng, Junping, E-mail: jpzheng@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2017-03-15

    Dispersing inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous solutions is a key requirement for a great variety of products and processes, including carriers in drug delivery or fillers in polymers. To be highly functional in the final product, inorganic particles are required to be finely dispersed in nanoscale. In this study, silica was selected as a representative inorganic particle. Surface stabilizers with different chain length and charged group were designed to reveal the influence of electrostatic and van der Waals forces between silica and stabilizer on the dispersion of silica particles in aqueous medium. Results showed surface stabilizer with longer alkyl chain and charged group exerted best ability to deaggregate silica, leading to a hydrodynamic size of 51.1 nm. Surface stabilizer designing with rational structure is a promising solution for deagglomerating and reducing process time and energy. Giving the designability and adaptability of surface stabilizer, this method is of potential for dispersion of other inorganic nanoparticles.

  13. Dissecting the structure of surface stabilizer on the dispersion of inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Yu, Zongzhi; Zheng, Junping

    2017-03-01

    Dispersing inorganic nanoparticles in aqueous solutions is a key requirement for a great variety of products and processes, including carriers in drug delivery or fillers in polymers. To be highly functional in the final product, inorganic particles are required to be finely dispersed in nanoscale. In this study, silica was selected as a representative inorganic particle. Surface stabilizers with different chain length and charged group were designed to reveal the influence of electrostatic and van der Waals forces between silica and stabilizer on the dispersion of silica particles in aqueous medium. Results showed surface stabilizer with longer alkyl chain and charged group exerted best ability to deaggregate silica, leading to a hydrodynamic size of 51.1 nm. Surface stabilizer designing with rational structure is a promising solution for deagglomerating and reducing process time and energy. Giving the designability and adaptability of surface stabilizer, this method is of potential for dispersion of other inorganic nanoparticles.

  14. Enzyme Stability and Activity in Non-Aqueous Reaction Systems: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Enormous interest in biocatalysis in non-aqueous phase has recently been triggered due to the merits of good enantioselectivity, reverse thermodynamic equilibrium, and no water-dependent side reactions. It has been demonstrated that enzyme has high activity and stability in non-aqueous media, and the variation of enzyme activity is attributed to its conformational modifications. This review comprehensively addresses the stability and activity of the intact enzymes in various non-aqueous systems, such as organic solvents, ionic liquids, sub-/super-critical fluids and their combined mixtures. It has been revealed that critical factors such as Log P, functional groups and the molecular structures of the solvents define the microenvironment surrounding the enzyme molecule and affect enzyme tertiary and secondary structure, influencing enzyme catalytic properties. Therefore, it is of high importance for biocatalysis in non-aqueous media to elucidate the links between the microenvironment surrounding enzyme surface and its stability and activity. In fact, a better understanding of the correlation between different non-aqueous environments and enzyme structure, stability and activity can contribute to identifying the most suitable reaction medium for a given biotransformation.

  15. Construction of Hierarchical CNT/rGO-Supported MnMoO4 Nanosheets on Ni Foam for High-Performance Aqueous Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xuemei; Du, Jingwei; Zhang, Yaxiong; Liang, Zhilin; Wang, Huan; Huang, Baoyu; Zhou, Jinyuan; Pan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhenxing; Xie, Erqing

    2017-10-18

    Rationally designed conductive hierarchical nanostructures are highly desirable for supporting pseudocapacitive materials to achieve high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors. Herein, manganese molybdate nanosheets were hydrothermally grown with graphene oxide (GO) on three-dimensional nickel foam-supported carbon nanotube structures. Under the optimal graphene oxide concentration, the obtained carbon nanotubes/reduced graphene oxide/MnMoO 4 composites (CNT/rGO/MnMoO 4 ) as binder-free supercapacitor cathodes perform with a high specific capacitance of 2374.9 F g -1 at the scan rate of 2 mV s -1 and good long-term stability (97.1% of the initial specific capacitance can be maintained after 3000 charge/discharge cycles). The asymmetric device with CNT/rGO/MnMoO 4 as the cathode electrode and the carbon nanotubes/activated carbon on nickel foam (CNT-AC) as the anode electrode can deliver an energy density of 59.4 Wh kg -1 at the power density of 1367.9 W kg -1 . These superior performances can be attributed to the synergistic effects from each component of the composite electrodes: highly pseudocapacitive MnMoO 4 nanosheets and three-dimensional conductive Ni foam/CNTs/rGO networks. These results suggest that the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor can be a promising candidate for energy storage devices.

  16. Stability of aqueous-alkaline sodium borohydride formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkina, V.G.; Shabunya, S.I.; Kalinin, V.I.; Martynenko, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Stability of sodium borohydride in the form of concentrated solutions and suspensions and solids corresponding to a crystal hydrate in composition was studied. The effects of temperature, concentrations of sodium borohydride and alkali, and nature of alkali metal cation on the rate of sodium borohydride hydrolysis were studied [ru

  17. Aqueous solutions of acidic ionic liquids for enhanced stability of polyoxometalate-carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenchen; Zhao, Enbo; Nitta, Naoki; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-09-01

    Nanocomposites based on polyoxometalates (POMs) nanoconfined in microporous carbons have been synthesized and used as electrodes for supercapacitors. The addition of the pseudocapacitance from highly reversible redox reaction of POMs to the electric double-layer capacitance of carbon lead to an increase in specific capacitance of ∼90% at 1 mV s-1. However, high solubility of POM in traditional aqueous electrolytes leads to rapid capacity fading. Here we demonstrate that the use of aqueous solutions of protic ionic liquids (P-IL) as electrolyte instead of aqueous sulfuric acid solutions offers an opportunity to significantly improve POM cycling stability. Virtually no degradation in capacitance was observed in POM-based positive electrode after 10,000 cycles in an asymmetric capacitor with P-IL aqueous electrolyte. As such, POM-based carbon composites may now present a viable solution for enhancing energy density of electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC) based on pure carbon electrodes.

  18. Valency stabilization of polyvalent ions during gamma irradiation of their aqueous solutions by sacrificial protection. I- Valency stabilization of Fe (II) ions by sulphate ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barakat, M F [Nuclear chemistry department, hot lab. center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt); Abdel-Hamid, M M [Arab Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 402 El-Manzah-1004 Tunis, (Tunisia)

    1995-10-01

    Polyvalent ions are very sensitive to gamma irradiation in aqueous solutions. The present work is a part of a more comprehensive study dealing with the stabilization or protection of certain oxidation states of some polyvalent ions during their gamma irradiation in aqueous systems. The behaviour of aqueous acidic Fe (II) solutions during gamma irradiation, in presence the prevailing protection mechanism. The conditions and stabilization limits in the studied case has been found out. 9 figs.

  19. Valency stabilization of polyvalent ions during gamma irradiation of their aqueous solutions by sacrificial protection. I- Valency stabilization of Fe (II) ions by sulphate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.F.; Abdel-Hamid, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polyvalent ions are very sensitive to gamma irradiation in aqueous solutions. The present work is a part of a more comprehensive study dealing with the stabilization or protection of certain oxidation states of some polyvalent ions during their gamma irradiation in aqueous systems. The behaviour of aqueous acidic Fe (II) solutions during gamma irradiation, in presence the prevailing protection mechanism. The conditions and stabilization limits in the studied case has been found out. 9 figs

  20. Bi-liquid foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneville, Odile

    1997-01-01

    Concentrated emulsions have structures similar to foams; for this reason they are also called 'bi-liquid foams'. For oil in water emulsions, they are made of polyhedral oil cells separated by aqueous surfactant films. The limited stability of these Systems is a major nuisance in their applications. In this work, we tried to understand and to control the mechanisms through which bi-liquid foams can loose their stability. In a first stage, we characterized the states of surfactant films in bi-liquid foams submitted to different pressures. We determined their hydration, the surfactant density at interfaces as well as their thicknesses. The bi-liquid foams were made by concentrating hexadecane-in-water emulsions through centrifugation. The initial emulsions contained submicron oil droplets that were completely covered with surfactant. We measured the resistance of the films to dehydration, and we represented it by pressure-film thickness curves or pressure-film hydration curves. We also obtained evidence that the interfacial surfactant density increases when the film thickness is decreased (SDS case). The Newton Black Film state is the most dehydrated metastable state that can be reached. In this state, the films can be described as surfactant bilayers that only contain the hydration water of the surfactant polar heads. Two different processes are involved the destabilization of bi-liquid foams: Ostwald ripening (oil transfer from small cells to large cells) and coalescence (films rupture). The first mechanism can be controlled by choosing oils that are very insoluble in water, avoiding ethoxylated nonionic surfactants of low molecular weight, and making emulsions that are not too fine. The second mechanism is responsible for the catastrophic destabilization of bi-liquid foams made of droplets above one micron or with a low coverage in surfactant. In these cases, destabilization occurs in the early stages of concentration, when the films are still thick. It is caused

  1. Salt dependent stability of stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett films exposed to aqueous electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Naveen; Wang, Lei; Sîretanu, Igor; Duits, Michael H.G.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2013-01-01

    We use contact angle goniometry, imaging ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy to study the stability and wettability of Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers of stearic acid on silica substrates, upon drying and exposure to aqueous solutions of varying salinity. The influences of Ca2+ and Na+ ions

  2. Stability of metal ions in aqueous environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattonetti, A.

    1976-01-01

    The time lapse between the collection of aqueous environmental samples and the analysis affects the original ionic concentration. Studies have proven the nonionic species in a water sample have more of an effect on the veracity of an analysis than the ''container wall'' effect, and that adjustment to a pH of 2 at sample collection time is a ''Pyrrhic victory.'' Lead, for example, will commonly increase an order of magnitude when unfiltered samples are adjusted to a pH of 2 upon collection. This effect is greatest when elemental ions are present in the ng ml -1 range and lessens as the original ionic concentration increases. Data are presented that behooves filtration of stream water and rainwater samples prior to any acidification step. The need to acidify the resulting filtrate is also discussed. Lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, manganese, iron, copper, silver, zinc, cadmium, aluminum, indium, and lead are examined. The insoluble phase retained on the filter can be digested with acid and also analyzed. The separate analysis of the filtrate and filter will give a true representation of the occurrence of these metals in nature. Flame and flameless atomic aborption and emission are used to perform the trace analyses

  3. Time scales of foam stability in shallow conduits: Insights from analogue experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, L.; Scheu, B.; Cimarelli, C.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-10-01

    Volcanic systems can exhibit periodical trends in degassing activity, characterized by a wide range of time scales. Understanding the dynamics that control such periodic behavior can provide a picture of the processes occurring in the feeding system. Toward this end, we analyzed the periodicity of outgassing in a series of decompression experiments performed on analogue material (argon-saturated silicone oil plus glass beads/fibers) scaled to serve as models of basaltic magma. To define the effects of liquid viscosity and crystal content on the time scale of outgassing, we investigated both: (1) pure liquid systems, at differing viscosities (100 and 1000 Pa s), and (2) particle-bearing suspensions (diluted and semidiluted). The results indicate that under dynamic conditions (e.g., decompressive bubble growth and fluid ascent within the conduit), the periodicity of foam disruption may be up to several orders of magnitude less than estimates based on the analysis of static conditions. This difference in foam disruption time scale is inferred to result from the contribution of bubble shear and bubble growth to inter-bubble film thinning. The presence of particles in the semidiluted regime is further linked to shorter bubble bursting times, likely resulting from contributions of the presence of a solid network and coalescence processes to the relative increase in bubble breakup rates. Finally, it is argued that these experiments represent a good analogue of gas-piston activity (i.e., the periodical rise-and-fall of a basaltic lava lake surface), implying a dominant role for shallow foam accumulation as a source process for these phenomena.

  4. Polyurethane Foam Wound Dressing Technique for Areola Skin Graft Stabilization and Nipple Protection After Nipple-Areola Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Toshihiko; Muto, Mayu; Nagashima, Yu; Haga, Shoko; Homma, Yuki; Nakasone, Reiko; Kadokura, Marina; Kou, Seiko; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Jiro

    2018-04-01

    We describe a new wound management technique using a soft dressing material to stabilize the areola skin graft and protect the nipple after nipple-areola reconstruction at the final stage of breast reconstruction. We introduced a center-fenestrated multilayered hydrocellular polyurethane foam dressing material that provides adequate pressure and retains a moist environment for a smooth skin graft "take." Moreover, the reconstructed nipple can be monitored at any time through the fenestrated window for adequate blood circulation. Altogether, this simple and inexpensive wound dressing technique improves the clinical outcome. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  5. Study of the relationships between nuclear decontamination foams stability and their physicochemical properties; Etude des relations entre la stabilite des mousses de decontamination nucleaire et leurs proprietes physico-chimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dame, C

    2006-03-15

    The LPAD (French Atomic Energy Commission) develops innovative processes in the frame of the future dismantling of nuclear facilities. Formulations were developed using high viscosified foams stabilized by biodegradable nonionic surfactants: alkyl poly-glucosides and viscosifiers (xanthan gum), which allow us to increase the foam lifetime and thus contact time of chemical reactants with the facility walls. We have considered the relationships between physicochemical properties and foam stability through the exploration of the foam at three different scales: from the molecular range (micelles, surface tension and visco-elasticity), to the film and Plateau border range (XR reflectivity, surface shear viscosity) and to macroscopic range, meaning the whole foam (foaminess, liquid fraction and wall film thickness evolution). Finally, exploratory study is presented concerning simultaneous foam three scales characterisation by small angle neutron scattering. (author)

  6. Enhancing the stability and performance of a battery cathode using a non-aqueous electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Yeol [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sen, Sujat [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Song, Hyun-Kon [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy and School of Nano-Biotechnology and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Banyeon-ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea); Palmore, G. Tayhas R. [Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    For conductive polymers to be considered materials for energy storage, both their electroactivity and stability must be optimized. In this study, a non-aqueous electrolyte (0.2 M LiClO{sub 4} in acetonitrile) was studied for its effect on the charge storage capacity and stability of two materials used in batteries developed in our laboratory, polypyrrole (pPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiaxoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)). The results are compared to the performance of these materials in an aqueous electrolyte (0.2 M HCl/aq). Loss of ABTS dopant was eliminated principally due to the low solubility of ABTS in acetonitrile, resulting in cathode materials with improved stability in terms of load cycling and performance. (author)

  7. Radiation stability of colloidal metals in aqueous solutions: silver and other metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of accelerated electrons and γ-rays of 60N i on the stability of aqueous solutions of colloidal silver was studied. The threshold of absorbed dose, at which the stability dramatically decreases and coagulation of the metal occurs, was found. This critical dose corresponds to the reduction of silver ions determining the electrical potential of the sols. Radiation neutralization was also found for cadmium was not observed in the case of thallium, copper and platinum. A mechanism of the effect of radiation, taking into account the electrostatic factor in the stability of metal sols, was considered. (author)

  8. Viscoelastic diamine surfactant for stable carbon dioxide/water foams over a wide range in salinity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhag, Amro S; Da, Chang; Chen, Yunshen; Mukherjee, Nayan; Noguera, Jose A; Alzobaidi, Shehab; Reddy, Prathima P; AlSumaiti, Ali M; Hirasaki, George J; Biswal, Sibani L; Nguyen, Quoc P; Johnston, Keith P

    2018-07-15

    The viscosity and stability of CO 2 /water foams at elevated temperature can be increased significantly with highly viscoelastic aqueous lamellae. The slow thinning of these viscoelastic lamellae leads to greater foam stability upon slowing down Ostwald ripening and coalescence. In the aqueous phase, the viscoelasticity may be increased by increasing the surfactant tail length to form more entangled micelles even at high temperatures and salinity. Systematic measurements of the steady state shear viscosity of aqueous solutions of the diamine surfactant (C 16-18 N(CH 3 )C 3 N(CH 3 ) 2 ) were conducted at varying surfactant concentrations and salinity to determine the parameters for formation of entangled wormlike micelles. The apparent viscosity and stability of CO 2 /water foams were compared for systems with viscoelastic entangled micellar aqueous phases relative to those with much less viscous spherical micelles. We demonstrated for the first time stable CO 2 /water foams at temperatures up to 120 °C and CO 2 volumetric fractions up to 0.98 with a single diamine surfactant, C 16-18 N(CH 3 )C 3 N(CH 3 ) 2 . The foam stability was increased by increasing the packing parameter of the surfactant with a long tail and methyl substitution on the amine to form entangled viscoelastic wormlike micelles in the aqueous phase. The foam was more viscous and stable compared to foams with spherical micelles in the aqueous lamellae as seen with C 12-14 N(EO) 2 and C 16-18 N(EO)C 3 N(EO) 2 . Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Physical stability and moisture sorption of aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with polyols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Karjalainen, Milja; Airaksinen, Sari

    2004-01-01

    The short-term stability and the water sorption of films prepared from binary mixtures of chitosan and native amylose maize starch (Hylon VII) were evaluated using free films. The aqueous polymer solutions of the free films contained 2% (w/w) film formers, glycerol, or erythritol as a plasticizer...... in the crystallinity of the films are evident within a 3-month period of storage, and the changes in the solid state are dependent on the plasticizer and storage conditions. When stored at ambient conditions for 3 months, the aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with erythritol exhibited a partly...

  10. Uranium (VI) complexing by macrocyclic or chelating ligands in aqueous solutions stability, formation kinetics, polarographic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brighli, M.

    1984-07-01

    Stability of chelates (with EDTA,N,N ethylenediamine diacetic acid EDDA nitrilotriacetic acid NTA and iminodiacetic acid) of UO 2 2+ and UO 4 species of uranium VI is studied in aqueous solution (NaClO 4 3M at 25 deg celcius). Structure in solution are proposed and discussed for mononuclear species. Only complexing kinetics (formation and acid hydrolysis) of UO 4 with EDDA and NTA are studied by spectrophotometry (other reactions are too fast). Besides UO 2 2+ complexes are formed with crown ethers I5C5 and I8C6 in aqueous solution (TEA ClO 4 M/10 at 25 deg celcius. Complexes are probably stabilized by solvation. Results are confirmed by voltametry and reduction mechanisms of UO 2 2+ and its complexes on mercury drop are proposed. 143 refs [fr

  11. Aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes: surface oxidation, colloidal stability and uranium sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierz, A; Zänker, H

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain information on the behaviour of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as potential carriers of pollutants in the case of accidental CNT release to the environment and on the properties of CNTs as a potential adsorbent material in water purification. The effects of acid treatment of CNTs on (i) the surface properties, (ii) the colloidal stability and (iii) heavy metal sorption are investigated, the latter being exemplified by uranium(VI) sorption. There is a pronounced influence of surface treatment on the behaviour of the CNTs in aqueous suspension. Results showed that acid treatment increases the amount of acidic surface groups on the CNTs. Therefore, acid treatment has an increasing effect on the colloidal stability of the CNTs and on their adsorption capacity for U(VI). Another way to stabilise colloids of pristine CNTs in aqueous suspension is the addition of humic acid.

  12. Estimation of stability constants of metal monoacidocomplexes in aqueous solutions (1:2) of electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of the model of isoactive solutions it is shown that osmosis pressure of aqueous solutions (1:2) of electrolytes is well described by the Van-der-Vaals model for ideal associated gas. Stabilisty constants were calculated using osmosis mole parts of interacting particles as a concentrational scale. Stability constants in the scale of osmosis mole parts are equal to thermodynamic contstants, rated for an infinitely diluted solution

  13. Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Wedege; Emil Dražević; Denes Konya; Anders Bentien

    2016-01-01

    Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined ...

  14. Intertwined nanocarbon and manganese oxide hybrid foam for high-energy supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Shirui; Bozhilov, Krassimir N; Yan, Dong; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2013-11-11

    Rapid charging and discharging supercapacitors are promising alternative energy storage systems for applications such as portable electronics and electric vehicles. Integration of pseudocapacitive metal oxides with single-structured materials has received a lot of attention recently due to their superior electrochemical performance. In order to realize high energy-density supercapacitors, a simple and scalable method is developed to fabricate a graphene/MWNT/MnO2 nanowire (GMM) hybrid nanostructured foam, via a two-step process. The 3D few-layer graphene/MWNT (GM) architecture is grown on foamed metal foils (nickel foam) via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. Hydrothermally synthesized α-MnO2 nanowires are conformally coated onto the GM foam by a simple bath deposition. The as-prepared hierarchical GMM foam yields a monographical graphene foam conformally covered with an intertwined, densely packed CNT/MnO2 nanowire nanocomposite network. Symmetrical electrochemical capacitors (ECs) based on GMM foam electrodes show an extended operational voltage window of 1.6 V in aqueous electrolyte. A superior energy density of 391.7 Wh kg(-1) is obtained for the supercapacitor based on the GMM foam, which is much higher than ECs based on GM foam only (39.72 Wh kg(-1) ). A high specific capacitance (1108.79 F g(-1) ) and power density (799.84 kW kg(-1) ) are also achieved. Moreover, the great capacitance retention (97.94%) after 13 000 charge-discharge cycles and high current handability demonstrate the high stability of the electrodes of the supercapacitor. These excellent performances enable the innovative 3D hierarchical GMM foam to serve as EC electrodes, resulting in energy-storage devices with high stability and power density in neutral aqueous electrolyte. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Dispersion and Stabilization of Photocatalytic TiO2 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspension for Coatings Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle coatings, it is desirable that the nanoparticles are dispersed into a liquid solution and remain stable for a certain period of time. Controlling the dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles is crucial to exploit the advantages of the nanometer-sized TiO2 particles. In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed and stabilized in aqueous suspensions using two common dispersants which were polyacrylic acid (PAA and ammonium polymethacrylate (Darvan C. The effect of parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude and type and amount of dispersants on the dispersibility and stability of the TiO2 aqueous suspensions were examined. Rupture followed by erosion was determined to be the main break up mechanisms when ultrasonication was employed. The addition of dispersant was found to produce more dispersed and more stabilized aqueous suspension. 3 wt.% of PAA with average molecular weight (Mw of 2000 g/mol (PAA 2000 was determined to produce the best and most stable dispersion. The suspensions were then coated on quartz glass, whereby the photocatalytic activity of the coatings was studied via the degradation of formaldehyde gas under UV light. The coatings were demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.

  16. Formation and stabilization of anionic metal complexes in concentrated aqueous quaternary ammonium salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, F.L.; Hwang, L.L.Y.; Ronca, N.; Solomon, N.A.; Steigman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Anionic complexes of transition metals were stabilized in aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of various short-chain quaternary ammonium salts. Compounds with longer paraffin chains were effective in much less concentrated solution. Complex ions were detected spectrophotometrically. FeCl 4 - , which is usually formed in concentrated HCl, was the predominant Fe(III) complex in 30 m choline chloride containing only 0.12 M HCl. A yellow transitory Tc(VII) chloro-addition intermediate, formed in the reduction of TcO 4 - by concentrated HCl, was stabilized when the solution also contained 25 m choline chloride. Its spectrum, as well as the isolation of an already known Tc(VII) bipyridyl complex, is reported. Concentrated organic electrolytes also stabilized Tc(V) oxide halides against disproportionation and Tc(IV) hexahalides against hydrolysis. Halochromates of Cr(VI) were formed and stabilized in dilute acid containing quaternary ammonium salts. Their UV spectra showed the well-resolved vibronic fine structure associated with the symmetric chromium-to-oxygen charge-transfer band. It is known that these progressions are resolved in aprotic solvents, but not in aqueous acidic solution alone, and that the loss of fine structure in aqueous media is due to hydrogen bonding. The stabilization of anionic metal complexes and the resolution of vibronic structure in halochromates are probably consequences of water-structure-enforced ion paring. The present work suggests that the water molecules in immediate contact with the complex anions are more strongly hydrogen bonded to each other than to the complex. 21 references, 4 figures

  17. Stability of silver nanoparticles (nAg) in aqueous solution: the role of particle size and water ionic strength

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Radebe, N

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available biota which can arise from the particulates, dissolved species or both forms. However, there is limited and contradicting information on how the nanoparticle and aqueous solution characteristics influence nanoparticle stability and toxicity. This study...

  18. Stability and enzyme inhibition activities of au nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of clove as a reducing and stabilizing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, A.; Khan, I.; Naz, S.S.; Islam, N.U.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized in one pot using aqueous extract of clove buds (CB) to reduce HAuCl/sub 4/ and stabilize gold in its atomic form at room temperature. To determine the potential of gold nanoparticles with clove buds (AuCB) for in vivo applications, the stability of the nanoparticles was explored as a function of temperature, pH and salt concentration. The suspensions were found to be stable for salt concentrations up to 1 mol/L, temperatures of up to 100 degree C and a pH range of 2-13. Our results indicate that CB exhibited comparable activities to standards of urease and carbonic anhydrase, but its conjugation to Au knocks out the enzyme inhibition activity by about two times. In case of xanthine oxidase activity, CB and its gold Au bio-conjugates (AuCB) are found to be absolutely inactive. (author)

  19. Preparation of Gelatin coated hydroxyapatite nanorods and the stability of its aqueous colloidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Minfang; Tan Junjun; Lian Yuying; Liu Debao

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel process for preparing Gelatin coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods to improve the stability of its aqueous colloid. As Gelatin is a typical protein with abundant hydroxyls, carboxys and imines, it is a very effective functional group to attach onto the surfaces of the HAp particles. Our data show that the Gelatin layer firmly coated on the hydroxyapatite nanorods, and their structure and interfacial chemical bonding have been studied using various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The reaction temperature, pH, amount of Gelatin, and Ca/P molar ratio in the material determine the quality of Gelatin coating and the stability of the HAp in aqueous solution. Moreover, an interesting phenomenon was found that the Gelatin coated HAp sediment separated by centrifugal was easily dispersed in water and forms HAp aqueous suspension. The suspension was stable for more than 24 h

  20. Sorption of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) Relevant to Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF)-Impacted Groundwater by Biochars and Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Ulrich, Bridget A; Chen, Baoliang; Higgins, Christopher P

    2017-06-06

    Despite growing concerns about human exposure to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), other poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) derived from aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) have garnered little attention. While these other PFASs may also be present in AFFF-impacted drinking water, their removal by conventional drinking-water treatment is poorly understood. This study compared the removal of 30 PFASs, including 13 recently discovered PFASs, from an AFFF-impacted drinking water using carbonaceous sorbents (i.e., granular activated carbon, GAC). The approach combined laboratory batch experiments and modeling: batch sorption data were used to determine partition coefficients (K d ) and calibrate a transport model based on intraparticle diffusion-limited sorption kinetics, which was used to make forward predictions of PFAS breakthrough during GAC adsorption. While strong retention was predicted for PFOS and PFOA, nearly all of the recently discovered polyfluorinated chemicals and PFOS-like PFASs detected in the AFFF-impacted drinking water were predicted to break through GAC systems before both PFOS and PFOA. These model breakthrough results were used to evaluate a simplified approach to predicting PFAS removal by GAC using compound-specific retention times on a C18 column (RT C18 ). Overall, this study reveals that GAC systems for the treatment of AFFF-impacted sources of water for PFOA and PFOS likely achieve poor removal, when operated only for the treatment of PFOS and PFOA, of many unmonitored PFASs of unknown toxicity.

  1. Gummic acid stabilized γ-Fe2O3 aqueous suspensions for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaefthymiou, G. C.; Rabias, I.; Fardis, M.; Devlin, E.; Boukos, N.; Tsitrouli, D.; Papavassiliou, G.

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles depend critically on their preparation as aqueous colloidal suspensions, or ferrofluids, with long term stability under physiological conditions. Dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles is generally achieved by the use of protein cages, polysaccharide, polypeptide and charged macromolecular coatings, which minimize interparticle magnetic interactions, particle agglomeration and precipitation. The synthesis and characterization of gummic-acid stabilized maghemite ferrofluids is reported. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering measurements give a γ-Fe 2 O 3 magnetic core diameter of 8 nm and a nanocomposite particle hydrodynamic diameter of 50 nm. Moessbauer and magnetization measurements indicate the presence of isolated, sterically stabilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles resistant to aging, and thus, promising agents for the production of novel magneto-pharmaceuticals.

  2. The effect of gamma-radiation on biodegradability of natural FIBER/PP-HMSPP foams: A study of thermal stability and biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate how gamma-radiation affected PP/HMSPP structural foams reinforced with sugarcane bagasse, in terms of thermal properties, biodegradability and infrared spectrum. Polymers are used in various applications and in different industrial areas providing enormous quantities of wastes in environment, contributing with 20 to 30% of total volume of solid residues. Besides, shortage of plastics resins obtained from oil and natural gas is addressing research and development toward alternative materials; environmental concerning in litter reduction is being directed to renewable polymers for manufacturing of polymeric foams. Biodegradable polymers, a new generation of polymers produced from various natural resources, environmentally safe and friendly, can contribute for pollution reduction, at a low cost. High density structural foams are specially used in civil construction, in replacement of metals, woods and concrete, but contribute for environmental pollution, due to components nature. In this study, it was incorporated sugarcane bagasse in PP/HMSPP polymeric matrix blends. Gamma radiation applied at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 kGy doses showed effective for biodegradability induction. TGA analyses pointed toward stability around 205 deg C; decomposition of both cellulose and hemicellulose took place at 310 deg C and above, whereas the degradation of reinforced fibers composites took place above 430 deg C. Infrared spectrum of foams were studied using FTIR, showing no sensitivity to the presence of C = C and C =O functional groups. (author)

  3. The effect of gamma-radiation on biodegradability of natural FIBER/PP-HMSPP foams: A study of thermal stability and biodegradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: eclcardo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate how gamma-radiation affected PP/HMSPP structural foams reinforced with sugarcane bagasse, in terms of thermal properties, biodegradability and infrared spectrum. Polymers are used in various applications and in different industrial areas providing enormous quantities of wastes in environment, contributing with 20 to 30% of total volume of solid residues. Besides, shortage of plastics resins obtained from oil and natural gas is addressing research and development toward alternative materials; environmental concerning in litter reduction is being directed to renewable polymers for manufacturing of polymeric foams. Biodegradable polymers, a new generation of polymers produced from various natural resources, environmentally safe and friendly, can contribute for pollution reduction, at a low cost. High density structural foams are specially used in civil construction, in replacement of metals, woods and concrete, but contribute for environmental pollution, due to components nature. In this study, it was incorporated sugarcane bagasse in PP/HMSPP polymeric matrix blends. Gamma radiation applied at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 kGy doses showed effective for biodegradability induction. TGA analyses pointed toward stability around 205 deg C; decomposition of both cellulose and hemicellulose took place at 310 deg C and above, whereas the degradation of reinforced fibers composites took place above 430 deg C. Infrared spectrum of foams were studied using FTIR, showing no sensitivity to the presence of C = C and C =O functional groups. (author)

  4. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with improved aqueous colloidal stability and electrophoretic mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munjal, Sandeep; Khare, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized CoFe 2 O 4 (CFO) nanoparticles of size ∼ 12.2 nm by hydrothermal synthesis method. To control the size of these CFO nanoparticles, oleic acid was used as a surfactant. The inverse spinel phase of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction method. As synthesized oleic acid coated CFO (OA@CFO) nanoparticles has very less electrophoretic mobility in the water and are not water dispersible. These OA@CFO nanoparticles were successfully turned into water soluble phase with a better colloidal aqueous stability, through a chemical treatment using citric acid. The modified citric acid coated CFO (CA@CFO) nanoparticles were dispersible in water and form a stable aqueous solution with high electrophoretic mobility.

  5. Study of two-phase foam flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R S; Guliev, B B; Mekhtiev, K G; Kerimov, R G

    1970-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine characteristics of aqueous foam flow through porous media and to estimate the depth of foam penetration into a formation. Foam was generated by mixing air and 1% solution of surfactant PO-1. Foam density was maintained at 0.14 g/cc in all experiments. The foam was passed through sand columns (800 mm long x 30 mm diam) of permeabilities 26, 39, 80, 111, and 133 darcys. Flow rates were measured at various pressure drops and the relationship between system parameters was expressed analytically and graphically. From the data, distance of foam penetration into a formation as a function of pressure drop and permeability was calculated. The data indicate that under most conditions, foam will penetrate the formation to a negligible distance. This study indicates that when foam is used to remove sand from a well, a negligible loss of foam to the formation occurs.

  6. The search for alternative aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) with a low environmental impact: physiological and transcriptomic effects of two Forafac(®) fluorosurfactants in turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, A; Meyer, I J; Herzke, D; Pardo, B G; Martinez, P; Pabon, M; De Coen, W; Knapen, D

    2011-08-01

    Fluorosurfactants are the key components in aqueous film forming foams (AFFF). They provide these fire fighting agents with the required low surface tension and they enable film formation on top of lighter fuels to prevent burn back. Development of effective and environmentally acceptable PFOS alternatives is one of the most important priorities in the fire fighting foam industry. DuPont™ offers the fluorosurfactant mixtures Forafac(®)1157 and Forafac(®)1157N for the formulation of AFFFs which are alternatives to the persistent and toxic perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS). Ecotoxicological testing of these inadequately documented mixtures is necessary to include them in AFFF hazard and risk assessment. Juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed for 14 days to 0.1; 0.5 and 1.5mg/L of the fluorosurfactant mixtures used in Forafac(®)1157 and Forafac(®)1157N. In an initial transcriptomics experiment, microarray analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of genes which were mainly involved in digestion and in the immune system. This discovery-driven screening approach offered the basis for new hypotheses that were tested in two subsequent experiments in which food intake, energy reserves, growth and a set of haematological parameters were examined. Additionally, effects of the two mixtures were compared to those of PFOS. Based on the results of this study, the mode of action of Forafac(®)1157N was the activation of the acute phase reaction resulting in increased leukocyte concentrations and the inhibition of growth due to the high energetic cost of toxicant exposure. For Forafac(®)1157, evidences of immunosuppression were found on the transcriptional level and the altered differential leukocyte profiles indicated that stress was induced in these fish. However, food intake, energy reserves and growth were not compromised, even at high exposure concentrations, which was in contrast to the effects seen after PFOS exposure. Taking into account

  7. Improved radical stability of viologen anolytes in aqueous organic redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Tang, Yijie; Luo, Jian; Grove, Grant; Guo, Yisong; Liu, T Leo

    2018-05-09

    A high voltage (1.38 V) total organic aqueous redox flow battery is reported using 1,1'-bis[3-(trimethylammonio)propyl]-4,4'-bipyridinium tetrachloride ((NPr)2V) as an anolyte and 4-trimethylammonium-TEMPO chloride (NMe-TEMPO) as a catholyte. The exceptional radical stability of [(NPr)2V]+˙ enabled the flow battery in achieving 97.48% capacity retention for 500 cycles and a power density of 128.2 mW cm-2.

  8. Foam-Delivery of Remedial Amendments for Enhanced Vadose Zone Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, L.; Szecsody, J.E.; Dresel, P.E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Qafoku, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    The remediation of metals and radionuclides contamination, such as Cr(VI), Tc-99, and Sr-90 in the U.S. DOE Hanford Site vadose zone is a critical need. Water-based remedial amendments delivery to the deep vadose zone is facing significant technical challenges. Water-based delivery will easily leach out the highly mobile pollutants therefore contaminate the underlying aquifer. Preferential flow of the amendment-laden solution in the vadose zone due to the formation heterogeneity is difficult to overcome, resulting in bypassing of the less permeable zones. Foam has unique transport properties in the vadose zone that enable mitigation on the mobilization of mobile contaminants and enhance the sweeping over heterogeneous systems. Calcium polysulfide (CPS) is a remedial amendment that can be used to reduce and immobilize hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and other redox-sensitive radionuclides/metals in the vadose zone. The delivery of CPS to the vadose zone using foam and the immobilization of Cr(VI) via reduction by the foam-delivered CPS was investigated in this study. Batch tests were conducted to select the foam-generating CPS-surfactant solutions, to determine the solution foamability and the reducing potential of CPS-containing foams, and to study the influence of foam quality, surfactant concentration, and CPS concentration on foam stability. Column experiments were performed to test the foam delivery of CPS to sediments under conditions similar to field vadose zone, to study the foam transport and interaction with sediments, and to determine the extent of Cr(VI) immobilization using this novel delivery approach. CPS-containing foams with high reducing potential were prepared based on the batch tests. Sediment reduction by foam-delivered CPS was observed in the column studies. Significant mobilization of Cr(VI) from sediments occurred when CPS was delivered in aqueous solution. The Cr(VI) mobilization was minimized when CPS was delivered by foams, resulting in

  9. Air, aqueous and thermal stabilities of Ce3+ ions in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers with substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    Abundant oxygen vacancies coexisting with Ce3+ ions in fluorite cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have the potential to enhance catalytic ability, but the ratio of unstable Ce3+ ions in CNPs is typically low. Our recent work, however, demonstrated that the abundant Ce3+ ions created in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers (CNPLs) by Ar ion irradiation were stable in air at room temperature. Ce valence states in CNPs correlate with the catalytic ability that involves redox reactions between Ce3+ and Ce4+ ions in given application environments (e.g. high temperature in carbon monoxide gas conversion and immersion conditions in biomedical applications). To better understand the mechanism by which Ce3+ ions achieve stability in CNPLs, we examined (i) extra-long air-stability, (ii) thermal stability up to 500 °C, and (iii) aqueous stability of Ce 3+ ions in water, buffer solution and cell culture medium. It is noteworthy that air-stability of Ce3+ ions in CNPLs persisted for more than 1 year. Thermal stability results showed that oxidation of Ce 3+ to Ce4+ occurred at 350 °C in air. Highly concentrated Ce3+ ions in ultra-thin CNPLs slowly oxidized in water within 1 day, but stability was improved in the cell culture medium. Ce 3+ stability of CNPLs immersed in the medium was associated with phosphorus adsorption on the Ce3+ sites. This study also illuminates the potential interaction mechanisms of stable Ce3+ ions in CNPLs. These findings could be utilized to understand catalytic mechanisms of CNPs with abundant oxygen vacancies in their application environments. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  10. Synergistic effects from graphene and carbon nanotubes endow ordered hierarchical structure foams with a combination of compressibility, super-elasticity and stability and potential application as pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Liu, Luqi; Yang, Zhou; Jin, Ming; Zhang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured carbon material based three-dimensional porous architectures have been increasingly developed for various applications, e.g. sensors, elastomer conductors, and energy storage devices. Maintaining architectures with good mechanical performance, including elasticity, load-bearing capacity, fatigue resistance and mechanical stability, is prerequisite for realizing these functions. Though graphene and CNT offer opportunities as nanoscale building blocks, it still remains a great challenge to achieve good mechanical performance in their microarchitectures because of the need to precisely control the structure at different scales. Herein, we fabricate a hierarchical honeycomb-like structured hybrid foam based on both graphene and CNT. The resulting materials possess excellent properties of combined high specific strength, elasticity and mechanical stability, which cannot be achieved in neat CNT and graphene foams. The improved mechanical properties are attributed to the synergistic-effect-induced highly organized, multi-scaled hierarchical architectures. Moreover, with their excellent electrical conductivity, we demonstrated that the hybrid foams could be used as pressure sensors in the fields related to artificial skin.

  11. Performance, stability and operation voltage optimization of screen-printed aqueous supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Suvi; Railanmaa, Anna; Keskinen, Jari; Kujala, Manu; Tuukkanen, Sampo; Lupo, Donald

    2017-04-06

    Harvesting micropower energy from the ambient environment requires an intermediate energy storage, for which printed aqueous supercapacitors are well suited due to their low cost and environmental friendliness. In this work, a systematic study of a large set of devices is used to investigate the effect of process variability and operating voltage on the performance and stability of screen printed aqueous supercapacitors. The current collectors and active layers are printed with graphite and activated carbon inks, respectively, and aqueous NaCl used as the electrolyte. The devices are characterized through galvanostatic discharge measurements for quantitative determination of capacitance and equivalent series resistance (ESR), as well as impedance spectroscopy for a detailed study of the factors contributing to ESR. The capacitances are 200-360 mF and the ESRs 7.9-12.7 Ω, depending on the layer thicknesses. The ESR is found to be dominated by the resistance of the graphite current collectors and is compatible with applications in low-power distributed electronics. The effects of different operating voltages on the capacitance, leakage and aging rate of the supercapacitors are tested, and 1.0 V found to be the optimal choice for using the devices in energy harvesting applications.

  12. Effect of passivation on the sensitivity and stability of pentacene transistor sensors in aqueous media

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Hadayat Ullah

    2011-06-01

    Charge-detecting biosensors have recently become the focal point of biosensor research, especially research onto organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), which combine compactness, a low cost, and fast and label-free detection to realize simple and stable in vivo diagnostic systems. We fabricated organic pentacene-based bottom-contact thin-film transistors with an ultra-thin insulating layer of a cyclized perfluoro polymer called CYTOP (Asahi Glass Co., Tokyo, Japan) on SiO2 for operation in aqueous media. The stability and sensitivity of these transistor sensors were examined in aqueous buffer media with solutions of variable pH levels after the passivation of perfluoro polymers with thicknesses ranging from 50 to 300nm. These transistor sensors were further modified with an ultra-thin film (5nm) functional layer for selective BSA/antiBSA detection in aqueous buffer media, demonstrating a detection capability as low as 500nM of concentrated antiBSA. The dissociation constant from the antiBSA detection results was 2.1×10-6M. Thus, this study represents a significant step forward in the development of organic electronics for a disposable and versatile chemical and bio-sensing platform. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Influence of the type of aqueous sodium silicate on the stabilization and rheology of kaolin clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izak, Piotr; Ogłaza, Longin; Mozgawa, Włodzimierz; Mastalska-Popławska, Joanna; Stempkowska, Agata

    2018-05-01

    To avoid agglomeration and sedimentation of grains, ceramic slurries should be modified by stabilizers in order to increase the electrostatic interactions between the dispersed particles. In this study we present the spectral analysis of aqueous sodium silicates obtained by different synthesis methods and their influence on the rheological properties of kaolin based slurries. Infrared and Raman spectra can be used to describe the structure of silicate structural units present in aqueous sodium silicates. It was confirmed that the best stabilization results possess aqueous sodium silicates of the silicate moduli of about 2 and the optimal concentration of the used fluidizer is 0.3 wt% to the kaolin clay dry mass. One of the most important conclusions is that the synthesis method of the fluidizer has no significant effect on its stabilization properties but used medium does create adequate stabilization mechanism depending on the silicate structures present in the sodium silicate solution.

  14. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, J.A.; Moffett, J.R.; Arun, P.; Lam, D.; Todorov, T.I.; Brothers, A.B.; Anick, D.J.; Centeno, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.A.; Jonas, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the solutes leaching from glass containers into aqueous solutions, and to show that these solutes have enzyme activity stabilizing effects in very dilute solutions. Methods: Enzyme assays with acetylcholine esterase were used to analyze serially succussed and diluted (SSD) solutions prepared in glass and plastic containers. Aqueous SSD preparations starting with various solutes, or water alone, were prepared under several conditions, and tested for their solute content and their ability to affect enzyme stability in dilute solution. Results: We confirm that water acts to dissolve constituents from glass vials, and show that the solutes derived from the glass have effects on enzymes in the resultant solutions. Enzyme assays demonstrated that enzyme stability in purified and deionized water was enhanced in SSD solutions that were prepared in glass containers, but not those prepared in plastic. The increased enzyme stability could be mimicked in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of silicates to the purified, deionized water that enzymes were dissolved in. Elemental analyses of SSD water preparations made in glass vials showed that boron, silicon, and sodium were present at micromolar concentrations. Conclusions: These results show that silicates and other solutes are present at micromolar levels in all glass-exposed solutions, whether pharmaceutical or homeopathic in nature. Even though silicates are known to have biological activity at higher concentrations, the silicate concentrations we measured in homeopathic preparations were too low to account for any purported in vivo efficacy, but could potentially influence in vitro biological assays reporting homeopathic effects. ?? 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  15. Biomembrane stabilization and antiulcerogenic properties of aqueous leaf extract of Gossypium barbadense L. (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sabiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium spp. belong to a class of botanicals with global therapeutic applications against a number of disorders including ulcers. This study evaluated the membrane stabilization and detoxification potential of aqueous leaf extract of Gossypium barbadense L. (Malvaceae in indomethacin-induced oxidative gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. The ulcerated rats were orally pretreated with the extract and esomeprazole for 4 weeks. Gastric function and antioxidative parameters were thereafter evaluated. The indomethacin-mediated significant elevations in the ulcer index, gastric volume, pepsin activity and mucosal level of malondialdehyde were dosedependently attenuated in the extract-treated animals. The extract also significantly modulated and improved the pH, mucin content, glutathione (reduced as well as gastric activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the ulcerated rats. These improvements may be ascribed to the antioxidant and membrane stabilization activities of the extract which are attributable to its active metabolites as revealed by the analytical chromatogram. The observed effects compared favorably with that of esomeprazole and are suggestive of the capability of the extract to prevent mucosal damage and preserve gastric functions as evidently supported by the macroscopical appearance of the stomachs and the % ulcer inhibitory values. Conclusively, the overall data from the present findings suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of G. barbadense could prevent indomethacin-mediated oxidative gastric ulceration via fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Keywords: Esomeprazole, Gossypium barbadense, Indomethacin, Mucosal damage, Oxidative stress

  16. Aqueous Dispersions of Silica Stabilized with Oleic Acid Obtained by Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Cristina Lavinia; Ianchis, Raluca; Ghiurea, Marius; Nicolae, Cristian-Andi; Spataru, Catalin-Ilie; Culita, Daniela Cristina; Pandele Cusu, Jeanina; Fruth, Victor; Oancea, Florin; Donescu, Dan

    2016-01-05

    The present study describes for the first time the synthesis of silica nanoparticles starting from sodium silicate and oleic acid (OLA). The interactions between OLA and sodium silicate require an optimal OLA/OLANa molar ratio able to generate vesicles that can stabilize silica particles obtained by the sol-gel process of sodium silicate. The optimal molar ratio of OLA/OLANa can be ensured by a proper selection of OLA and respectively of sodium silicate concentration. The titration of sodium silicate with OLA revealed a stabilization phenomenon of silica/OLA vesicles and the dependence between their average size and reagent's molar ratio. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements emphasized the successful synthesis of silica nanoparticles starting from renewable materials, in mild condition of green chemistry. By grafting octadecyltrimethoxysilane on the initial silica particles, an increased interaction between silica particles and the OLA/OLANa complex was achieved. This interaction between the oleyl and octadecyl chains resulted in the formation of stable gel-like aqueous systems. Subsequently, olive oil and an oleophylic red dye were solubilized in these stable aqueous systems. This great dispersing capacity of oleosoluble compounds opens new perspectives for future green chemistry applications. After the removal of water and of the organic chains by thermal treatment, mesoporous silica was obtained.

  17. Aqueous Dispersions of Silica Stabilized with Oleic Acid Obtained by Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lavinia Nistor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes for the first time the synthesis of silica nanoparticles starting from sodium silicate and oleic acid (OLA. The interactions between OLA and sodium silicate require an optimal OLA/OLANa molar ratio able to generate vesicles that can stabilize silica particles obtained by the sol-gel process of sodium silicate. The optimal molar ratio of OLA/OLANa can be ensured by a proper selection of OLA and respectively of sodium silicate concentration. The titration of sodium silicate with OLA revealed a stabilization phenomenon of silica/OLA vesicles and the dependence between their average size and reagent’s molar ratio. Dynamic light scattering (DLS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM measurements emphasized the successful synthesis of silica nanoparticles starting from renewable materials, in mild condition of green chemistry. By grafting octadecyltrimethoxysilane on the initial silica particles, an increased interaction between silica particles and the OLA/OLANa complex was achieved. This interaction between the oleyl and octadecyl chains resulted in the formation of stable gel-like aqueous systems. Subsequently, olive oil and an oleophylic red dye were solubilized in these stable aqueous systems. This great dispersing capacity of oleosoluble compounds opens new perspectives for future green chemistry applications. After the removal of water and of the organic chains by thermal treatment, mesoporous silica was obtained.

  18. A Novel, Aqueous Surface Treatment To Thermally Stabilize High Resolution Positive Photoresist Images*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, John J.; Spencer, Allen C.

    1986-07-01

    The paper describes a new approach to thermally stabilize the already imaged profile of high resolution positive photoresists such as ULTRAMAC" PR-914. ***XD-4000, an aqueous emulsion of a blend of fluorine-bearing compounds is spun on top of the developed, positive photoresist-imaged wafer, and baked. This allows the photoresist to withstand temperatures up to at least 175 deg. C. while essentially maintaining vertical edge profiles. Also, adverse effects of "outgassing" in harsh environments, ie., plasma and ion implant are greatly minimized by allowing the high resolution imaged photoresist to be post-baked at "elevated" temperatures. Another type of product that accomplishes the same effect is ***XD-4005, an aqueous emulsion of a high temperature-resistant polymer. While the exact mechanism is yet to be identified, it is postulated that absorption of the "polymeric" species into the "skin" of the imaged resist forms a temperature resistant "envelope", thereby allowing high resolution photoresists to also serve in a "high temperature" mode, without reticulation, or other adverse effects due to thermal degradation. SEM's are presented showing imaged ULTRAMAC" PR-914 and ULTRAMAC" **EPA-914 geometries coated with XD-4000 or XD-4005 and followed by plasma etched oxide,polysilicon and aluminum. Selectivity ratios are compared with and without the novel treatment and are shown to be significantly better with the treatment. The surface-treated photoresist for thermal resistance remains easily strippable in solvent-based or plasma media, unlike photoresists that have undergone "PRIST" or other gaseous thermal stabilization methods.

  19. Modeling foam delivery mechanisms in deep vadose-zone remediation using method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roostapour, A.; Kam, S.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new mathematical framework established for vadose-zone foam remediation. ► Graphical solutions presented by Method of Characteristics quantitatively. ► Effects of design parameters in the field applications thoroughly investigated. ► Implication of modeling study for successful field treatment discussed. - Abstract: This study investigates foam delivery mechanisms in vadose-zone remediation by using Method of Characteristics (MoC), a mathematical tool long been used for the analysis of miscible and immiscible flooding in porous media in petroleum industry. MoC converts the governing material-balance partial differential equations into a series of ordinary differential equations, and the resulting solutions are in a form of wave propagation (more specifically, for chemical species and phase saturations) through the system as a function of time and space. Deep vadose-zone remediation has special features compared to other conventional remediation applications. They include, not limited to, a high level of heterogeneity, a very dry initial condition with low water saturation (S w ), pollutants such as metals and radionuclides fully dissolved in groundwater, and a serious concern about downward migration during the remediation treatments. For the vadose-zone remediation processes to be successful, the injected aqueous phase should carry chemicals to react with pollutants and precipitate them for immobilization and stabilization purposes. As a result, foams are believed to be an effective means, and understanding foam flow mechanism in situ is a key to the optimal design of field applications. Results show that foam delivery mechanism is indeed very complicated, making the optimum injection condition field-specific. The five major parameters selected (i.e., initial saturation of the medium, injection foam quality, surfactant adsorption, foam strength, and foam stability) are shown to be all important, interacting with each other. Results also

  20. Long-Term Stability Testing Results Using Surrogates And Sorbents For Savannah River Site Organic And Aqueous Wastestreams - 10016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate wastestreams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic surrogate with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous surrogate, and an aqueous surrogate with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) Legacy and F-Canyon plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste surrogates constituted the volatile organic surrogates, and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic surrogates. The aqueous surrogates included a rainwater surrogate and an aqueous organic surrogate. MSE also evaluated the PUREX surrogate with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous type sorbent materials. Solidification of the various surrogate wastestreams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE Test Facility located in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release test (LRT) values with LRT results obtained during subsequent sampling events in an attempt to understand and define the long-term stability characteristics for the solidified wastestreams.

  1. Evaluation of the stability of linezolid in aqueous solution and commonly used intravenous fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor R

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Taylor, Bruce Sunderland, Giuseppe Luna, Petra Czarniak School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, WA, Australia Purpose: The aim was to evaluate the stability of linezolid in commonly used intravenous fluids and in aqueous solution to determine the kinetics of degradation and shelf-life values at alkaline pH values. Methods: Forced degradation studies were performed on linezolid in solution to develop a validated high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Sodium chloride 0.9%, sodium lactate, and glucose 5% and glucose 10% solution containing 2.0 mg/mL linezolid were stored at 25.0°C (±0.1°C for 34 days. The effect of temperature on the stability of linezolid in 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution was investigated to determine the activation energy. The degradation rates of linezolid at selected pH values at 70.0°C and the influence of ionic strength were also examined. Activation energy data were applied to determine the shelf-life values at selected pH values, and a pH rate profile was constructed over the pH range of 8.7–11.4. The stability of intravenous linezolid (Zyvox® solution was evaluated by storing at 70.0°C for 72 hours. Results: Linezolid was found to maintain >95.0% of its initial concentration after storage at 25.0°C for 34 days in sodium lactate, 0.9% in sodium chloride, and 5% and 10% in glucose solutions. Linezolid was degraded at alkaline pH values by first-order kinetics. Activation energy data showed that temperature, but not ionic strength, influenced the degradation rate significantly. An activation energy of 58.22 kJ/mol was determined for linezolid in 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution. Linezolid was least stable at high pH values and at elevated temperatures. It was determined that linezolid has adequate stability for the preparation of intravenous fluids for clinical administration. Conclusion: Linezolid was found to have a shelf life of 34 days at 25°C when added to

  2. Foam-oil interaction in porous media: implications for foam assisted enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Andrianov, A; Krastev, R; Hirasaki, G J; Rossen, W R

    2012-11-15

    The efficiency of a foam displacement process in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends largely on the stability of foam films in the presence of oil. Experimental studies have demonstrated the detrimental impact of oil on foam stability. This paper reviews the mechanisms and theories (disjoining pressure, coalescence and drainage, entering and spreading of oil, oil emulsification, pinch-off, etc.) suggested in the literature to explain the impact of oil on foam stability in the bulk and porous media. Moreover, we describe the existing approaches to foam modeling in porous media and the ways these models describe the oil effect on foam propagation in porous media. Further, we present various ideas on an improvement of foam stability and longevity in the presence of oil. The outstanding questions regarding foam-oil interactions and modeling of these interactions are pointed out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigoghossian, Karina; Santos, Molíria V. dos; Barud, Hernane S.; Silva, Robson R. da; Rocha, Lucas A.; Caiut, José M.A.; Assunção, Rosana M.N. de; Spanhel, Lubomir; Poulain, Marcel; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pectin from orange was used as stabilizer of Ag, Au and Ag–Au nanoparticles. • Sodium citrate, oxalic acid or pectin were used as reducing agents. • Colloids spanning all visible region were obtained depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH. • Pectin is a highly efficient stabilizer of nanocolloidal solutions for years. - Abstract: The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver–gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO 3 and HAuCl 4 in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years

  4. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigoghossian, Karina; Santos, Molíria V. dos; Barud, Hernane S.; Silva, Robson R. da [Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University – UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Lucas A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP (Brazil); Caiut, José M.A. [Departamento de Química, FFCLRP, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Assunção, Rosana M.N. de [Faculdade de Ciências Integradas do Pontal, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38302-000 Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil); Spanhel, Lubomir [CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Rennes 1, Campus Beaulieu, 35 042 Rennes (France); Poulain, Marcel [Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Rennes 1, Campus Beaulieu, 35 042 Rennes (France); Messaddeq, Younes [Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University – UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney J.L., E-mail: sidney@iq.unesp.br [Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University – UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pectin from orange was used as stabilizer of Ag, Au and Ag–Au nanoparticles. • Sodium citrate, oxalic acid or pectin were used as reducing agents. • Colloids spanning all visible region were obtained depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH. • Pectin is a highly efficient stabilizer of nanocolloidal solutions for years. - Abstract: The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver–gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO{sub 3} and HAuCl{sub 4} in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years.

  5. Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedege, Kristina; Dražević, Emil; Konya, Denes; Bentien, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined with single cell battery RFB tests on selected redox pairs. Data shows that both the solubility and redox potential are determined by the position of the side groups and only to a small extent by the number of side groups. Additionally, the chemical stability and possible degradation mechanisms leading to capacity loss over time are discussed. The main challenge for the development of all-organic RFBs is to identify a redox pair for the positive side with sufficiently high stability and redox potential that enables battery cell potentials above 1 V. PMID:27966605

  6. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigoghossian, Karina; dos Santos, Molíria V.; Barud, Hernane S.; da Silva, Robson R.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Caiut, José M. A.; de Assunção, Rosana M. N.; Spanhel, Lubomir; Poulain, Marcel; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.

    2015-06-01

    The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver-gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO3 and HAuCl4 in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years.

  7. Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedege, Kristina; Dražević, Emil; Konya, Denes; Bentien, Anders

    2016-12-01

    Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined with single cell battery RFB tests on selected redox pairs. Data shows that both the solubility and redox potential are determined by the position of the side groups and only to a small extent by the number of side groups. Additionally, the chemical stability and possible degradation mechanisms leading to capacity loss over time are discussed. The main challenge for the development of all-organic RFBs is to identify a redox pair for the positive side with sufficiently high stability and redox potential that enables battery cell potentials above 1 V.

  8. Design and evaluation of foamed asphalt base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Foamed asphalt stabilized base (FASB) combines reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycled : concrete (RC), and/or graded aggregate base (GAB) with a foamed asphalt binder to produce a : partially stabilized base material. The objectives of this study...

  9. Conjugation of curcumin onto alginate enhances aqueous solubility and stability of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Soma; Sreenivasan, K

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin is a potential drug for various diseases including cancer. Prime limitations associated with curcumin are low water solubility, rapid hydrolytic degradation and poor bioavailability. In order to redress these issues we developed Alginate-Curcumin (Alg-Ccm) conjugate which was characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The conjugate self-assembled in aqueous solution forming micelles with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 459 ± 0.32 nm and negative zeta potential. The spherical micelles were visualized by TEM. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Alg-Ccm conjugate was determined. A significant enhancement in the aqueous solubility of curcumin was observed upon conjugation with alginate. Formation of micelles improved the stability of curcumin in water at physiological pH. The cytotoxic activity of Alg-Ccm was quantified by MTT assay using L-929 fibroblast cells and it was found to be potentially cytotoxic. Hence, Alg-Ccm could be a promising drug conjugate as well as a nanosized delivery vehicle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma Creatine Kinetics After Ingestion of Microencapsulated Creatine Monohydrate with Enhanced Stability in Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Michelle; Kent, Robert M; Scotto di Palumbo, Alessandro; Bleiel, Sinead B; De Vito, Giuseppe; Egan, Brendan

    2017-07-04

    Creatine monohydrate represents one of the largest sports supplement markets. Enhancing creatine (CRE) stability in aqueous solutions, such as with microencapsulation, represents innovation potential. Ten physically active male volunteers were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to either placebo (PLA) (3-g maltodextrin; n = 5) or microencapsulated CRE (3-g creatine monohydrate; n = 5) conditions. Experimental conditions involved ingestion of the samples in a 70-mL ready-to-drink format. CRE was delivered in a novel microencapsulation matrix material consisting entirely of hydrolyzed milk protein. Three hours after ingestion, plasma creatine concentrations were unchanged during PLA, and averaged ∼45 μM. During CRE, plasma creatine concentration peaked after 30 min at 101.6 ± 14.9 μM (p creatine concentration gradually trended downwards but remained significantly elevated (∼50% above resting levels) 3 hr after ingestion. These results demonstrate that the microencapsulated form of creatine monohydrate reported herein remains bioavailable when delivered in aqueous conditions, and has potential utility in ready-to-drink formulations for creatine supplementation.

  11. Foam rheology at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  12. The stability of halloysite nanotubes in acidic and alkaline aqueous suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Rachel D; Bavykin, Dmitry V; Walsh, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    The long term stability of natural halloysite nanotubes was studied at room temperature (22 ± 2 °C) in pure water, acidic and basic aqueous suspensions. The structural and morphological transformations of nanotubes were studied by TEM, SEM, nitrogen adsorption, XRD Raman and FTIR spectroscopy accompanied by monitoring the concentration of dissolved Si(IV) and Al(III) in solution. It has been revealed that, in 1 mol dm −3 H 2 SO 4 solution, the dissolution of halloysite is initiated on the inner surface of nanotubes, leading to the formation of amorphous spheroidal nanoparticles of SiO 2 whereas, in 1 mol dm −3 NaOH solution, dissolution of the inner surface of nanotubes is accompanied by the formation of Al(OH) 3 nanosheets. (paper)

  13. Structural aspects of magnetic fluid stabilization in aqueous agarose solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagornyi, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv (Ukraine); Petrenko, V.I., E-mail: vip@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv (Ukraine); Avdeev, M.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Yelenich, O.V.; Solopan, S.O.; Belous, A.G. [V.I.Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Ukrainian NAS, Kyiv (Ukraine); Gruzinov, A.Yu. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivankov, O.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants of the Ukrainian NAS, Kyiv (Ukraine); Bulavin, L.A. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv (Ukraine); Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants of the Ukrainian NAS, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2017-06-01

    Structure characterization of magnetic fluids (MFs) synthesized by three different methods in aqueous solutions of agarose was done by means of small-angle neutron (SANS) and synchrotron X-ray scattering (SAXS). The differences in the complex aggregation observed in the studied magnetic fluids were related to different stabilizing procedures of the three kinds of MFs. The results of the analysis of the scattering (mean size of single polydisperse magnetic particles, fractal dimensions of the aggregates) are consistent with the data of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). - Highlights: • MFs synthesized by three different methods in agarose solution were studied. • all MFs are agglomerated colloidal systems whose structures are nevertheless stable in time. • differences in the complex aggregation were observed in the studied magnetic fluids. • results of the SAXS and SANS analysis are consistent with TEM data.

  14. Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The electrolytic stability windows of several aqueous electrolytes were investigated by a constant current method. The electrode potential range depended upon the value of the imposed current. The magnitude of this behavior varied with the salt solution, its concentration, and pH of the electrolyte. At a leakage current density of 50 μA/cm2, a 5 M solution of LiNO3 had an electrolytic window of 2.3 V, spanning from -0.55 to 1.75 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode. These results demonstrate the feasibility of operating lithium batteries at voltages appreciably above the theoretical decomposition voltage of water. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  15. Enhanced stability and dissolution of CuO nanoparticles by extracellular polymeric substances in aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Li, Yi; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Stability of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic environment is an essential parameter to evaluate their fate, bioavailability, and potential toxic effects toward living organisms. As CuO NPs enter the wastewater systems, they will encounter extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from microbial community before directly interacting with bacterial cells. EPS may play an important role in affecting the stability and the toxicity of CuO NPs in aquatic environment. In this study, the influences of flocculent sludge-derived EPS, as well as model protein (BSA) and natural polysaccharides (alginate) on the dissolution kinetics and colloidal stability of CuO NPs were investigated. Results showed that the presence of NOMs strongly suppressed CuO NPs aggregation, confirmed by DLS, zeta potentials, and TEM analysis. The enhanced stability of CuO NPs in the presence of EPS and alginate were attributed to the electrostatic combined with steric repulsion, while the steric-hindrance effect may be the predominant mechanism retarding nano-CuO aggregation for BSA. Higher degrees of copper release were achieved with the increasing concentrations of NOMs. EPS are more effective than alginate and BSA in releasing copper, probably due to the abundant functional groups and the excellent metal-binding capacity. The ratio of free-Cu 2+ /total dissolved Cu significantly decreased in the presence of EPS, indicating that EPS may affect the speciation and Cu bioavailability in aqueous environment. These results may be important for assessing the fate and transport behaviors of CuO NPs in the environment as well as for setting up usage regulation and treatment strategy.

  16. Aqueous starch as a stabilizer in zinc oxide nanoparticle synthesis via laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Ahangar, Hossein Abbastabar; Darroudi, Majid; Zak, Ali Khorsand; Drummen, Gregor P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized via LASiS in aqueous starch solution. ► Nanoparticles of ±15 nm are produced with a narrow size distribution. ► Starch can be used as a template to control nanoparticle size. ► Starch stabilizes zinc oxide nanoparticles in solution through steric hindrance. - Abstract: Zinc oxide is a semiconductor with exceptional thermal, luminescent and electrical properties, even compared with other semiconducting nanoparticles. Its potential for advanced applications in lasers and light emitting diodes, as bio-imaging agent, in biosensors and as drug delivery vehicles, in ointments, coatings and pigments has pulled zinc oxide into the focus of various scientific and engineering research fields. Recently we started investigating if nanoparticle synthesis via laser ablation in the presence of natural stabilizers allows control over size and shape and constitutes a useful, uncomplicated alternative over conventional synthesis methods. In the current paper, we determined the ability of natural starch to act as a size controller and stabilizer in the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles via ablation of a ZnO plate in a starch solution with a nanosecond Q-Switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser at its original wavelength (λ = 1064 nm). Our results show that the particle diameter decreases with increasing laser irradiation time to a mean nanoparticle size of approximately 15 nm with a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the obtained particle size in starch solution is considerably smaller compared with analogous ZnO nanoparticle synthesis in distilled water. The synthesized and capped nanoparticles retained their photoluminescent properties, but showed blue emission rather than the often reported green luminescence. Evaluation of old preparations compared with freshly made samples showed no agglomeration or flocculation, which was reflected in no significant change in the ZnO nanoparticle size and size distribution. Overall

  17. Enhanced stability and dissolution of CuO nanoparticles by extracellular polymeric substances in aqueous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun, E-mail: hhuhjyhj@126.com; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Li, Yi; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi [Hohai University, Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education (China)

    2015-10-15

    Stability of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic environment is an essential parameter to evaluate their fate, bioavailability, and potential toxic effects toward living organisms. As CuO NPs enter the wastewater systems, they will encounter extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from microbial community before directly interacting with bacterial cells. EPS may play an important role in affecting the stability and the toxicity of CuO NPs in aquatic environment. In this study, the influences of flocculent sludge-derived EPS, as well as model protein (BSA) and natural polysaccharides (alginate) on the dissolution kinetics and colloidal stability of CuO NPs were investigated. Results showed that the presence of NOMs strongly suppressed CuO NPs aggregation, confirmed by DLS, zeta potentials, and TEM analysis. The enhanced stability of CuO NPs in the presence of EPS and alginate were attributed to the electrostatic combined with steric repulsion, while the steric-hindrance effect may be the predominant mechanism retarding nano-CuO aggregation for BSA. Higher degrees of copper release were achieved with the increasing concentrations of NOMs. EPS are more effective than alginate and BSA in releasing copper, probably due to the abundant functional groups and the excellent metal-binding capacity. The ratio of free-Cu{sup 2+}/total dissolved Cu significantly decreased in the presence of EPS, indicating that EPS may affect the speciation and Cu bioavailability in aqueous environment. These results may be important for assessing the fate and transport behaviors of CuO NPs in the environment as well as for setting up usage regulation and treatment strategy.

  18. Novel biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite foams for removing heavy-metals from polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M.; Sanchez-Salcedo, S.; Cicuendez, M.; Izquierdo-Barba, I.; Vallet-Regi, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → 3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams as potential devices for the treatment of heavy metal ions. → HA stable foams coated with biopolymers. → Feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods. - Abstract: 3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams have been developed as potential devices for the treatment of lead, cadmium and copper contamination of consumable waters. These foams have exhibited a fast and effective ion metal immobilization into the HA structure after an in vitro treatment mimicking a serious water contamination case. To improve HA foam stability at contaminated aqueous solutions pH, as well as its handling and shape integrity the 3D-macroporous foams have been coated with biopolymers polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatine cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (G/Glu). Metal ion immobilization tests have shown higher and fast heavy metals captured as function of hydrophilicity rate of biopolymer used. After an in vitro treatment, foam morphology integrity is guaranteed and the uptake of heavy metal ions rises up to 405 μmol/g in the case of Pb 2+ , 378 μmol/g of Cu 2+ and 316 μmol/g of Cd 2+ . These novel materials promise a feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL AND AQUEOUS SUSPENSION STABILITIES OF CHITOSAN BASED NANOENCAPSULATED VITAMINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Britto

    Full Text Available The food nutritional content is reduced as result of vitamins degradation. In order to minimize such losses, the encapsulation technique into polymeric nanoparticles (NPs could offer an additional protection, extending the stability. The crosslinking formed by the ionic gelation process of chitosan and tripolyphosphate (Chi-TPP has been widely used as an encapsulating matrix for several chemical compounds. In this way, Chi-TPP was used for encapsulation of C, B9 and B12 vitamins. The stability of the vitamins in NPs was evaluated in aqueous suspension by UV-Visible spectroscopy under different conditions: stored in dark, light exposure and effect of oxygen bubbling. The results indicated that encapsulation had a positive effect in preserving the vitamins, mainly vitamin C. The encapsulation preserved 47% of the initial concentration of vitamin C by the tenth day and around 28% after 17 days. Conversely, in non-encapsulated controls (neutral and acidic medium the losses were higher, reaching 13% by the tenth day and almost 3% after 17 days of storage in both medium. When exposed to light and O2 the protection provided by the encapsulation was even greater. By thermogravimetric analysis, the pure and the encapsulated vitamins showed distinct thermal behavior confirming Chi-TPP as a potential encapsulation material.

  20. Suzuki coupling reactions catalyzed by poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available InIn this work, it was investigated to use of poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in the Suzuki reaction between phenylboronic acid and aryl halides in aqueous solution. The nanoparticles were isolated and re-used several times with low loss of activity.

  1. Long-Term Charge/Discharge Cycling Stability of MnO2 Aqueous Supercapacitor under Positive Polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Ataherian, Fatemeh; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2011-01-01

    The long-term charge/discharge cycling stability of MnO 2 electrode under positive polarization in aqueous KCl electrolyte has been studied over different potential windows spanning from the open circuit potential to varied higher-end potential

  2. Aqueous Synthesis of PEGylated Quantum Dots with Increased Colloidal Stability and Reduced Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Mehriban; Jonczyk, Rebecca; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Springer, Sergej; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Stahl, Frank; Green, Mark; Scheper, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    Ligands used on the surface of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) have a significant impact on physiochemical properties of NPs and their interaction in biological environments. In this study, we report a one-pot aqueous synthesis of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-functionalized CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (Qdots) in the presence of thiol-terminated methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) molecules as a surface coordinating ligand. The resulting mPEG-Qdots were characterized by using ζ potential, FTIR, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and microscale thermophoresis (MST) studies. We investigated the effect of mPEG molecules and their grafting density on the Qdots photophysical properties, colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, and in vitro cellular toxicity. Moreover, cellular binding features of the resulting Qdots were examined by using three-dimensional (3D) tumor-like spheroids, and the results were discussed in detail. Promisingly, mPEG ligands were found to increase colloidal stability of Qdots, reduce adsorption of proteins to the Qdot surface, and mitigate Qdot-induced side effects to a great extent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that PEGylated Qdots exhibited distinctive cellular interactions with respect to their mPEG grafting density. As a result, mPEG molecules demonstrated a minimal effect on the ZnS shell deposition and the Qdot fluorescence efficiency at a low mPEG density, whereas they showed pronounced effect on Qdot colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, cytotoxicity, and nonspecific binding at a higher mPEG grafting amount.

  3. Influence of electric field on the properties of the polymer stabilized luminescent quantum dots in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zharkova, Irina S.; Markina, Natalia E. [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Markin, Alexey V., E-mail: av_markin@mail.ru [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Drozd, Daniil D.; Speranskaya, Elena S. [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Goryacheva, Irina Yu. [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Saint-Petersburg State University, Universitetskii pr. 26, 198504 Petrodvorets, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The application of external electric field for verification of quantum dots (QDs) stability in aqueous medium was proposed. Hydrophilic CdSe core-shell nanocrystals were synthesized and used with three polymer-based organic stabilizers, two of which contain PEG chains. An increasing of the stability under applied electric field (EF) was shown for stabilizer containing higher amount of PEG chains and terminal amino-groups: introduction of additional PEG chains allowed reducing degradation of luminescence intensity for about 60%. The changes of QDs solutions after EF treatment were examined by dynamic light scattering measurements, luminescence and absorbance spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements and explained by decreasing of quantum yield of the samples due to degradation of stabilizer coating. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic QDs with three types of stabilizer coatings were prepared and treated by electric field in water environment. • Permanent QDs luminescence quenching in aqueous medium under low electric field strength was observed. • Luminescence stability to EF treatment increases by stabilizer with higher PEG content. • Redox mechanism of luminescence quenching was proved via conductivity, DLS, and UV-visible absorbance measurements.

  4. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles under oxidizing environment and their stabilization in aqueous and non-aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, D.; Agrawal, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles under oxidizing environment by precipitation from aqueous media is not straightforward because Fe 2+ gets oxidized to Fe 3+ and thus the ratio of Fe 3+ :Fe 2+ =2:1 is not maintained during the precipitation. A molar ratio of Fe 3+ :Fe 2+ smaller than 2:1 has been used by many to compensate for the oxidation of Fe 2+ during the preparation. In this work, we have prepared iron oxide nanoparticles in air environment by the precipitation technique using initial molar ratios Fe 3+ :Fe 2+ ≤2:1. The phases of the resulting powders have been determined by several techniques. It is found that the particles consist mainly of maghemite with little or no magnetite phase. The particles have been suspended in non-aqueous and aqueous media by coating the particles with a single layer and a bilayer of oleic acid, respectively. The particle sizes, morphology and the magnetic properties of the particles and the ferrofulids prepared from these particles are reported. The average particle sizes obtained from the TEM micrographs are 14, 10 and 9 nm for the water, kerosene and dodecane-based ferrofluids, respectively, indicating a better dispersion in the non-aqueous media. The specific saturation magnetization (σ s ) value of the oleic-acid-coated particles (∼53 emu/g) is found to be lower than that for the uncoated particles (∼63 emu/g). Magnetization σ s of the dodecane-based ferrofluid is found to be 10.1 emu/g for a volume fraction of particles φ=0.019. Zero coercivity and zero remanance on the magnetization curves indicate that the particles are superparamagnetic (SPM) in nature

  5. The survey of biological absorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Wastewater stabilization pond algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nourisepehr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of aquatic habitats due to toxicity and accumulation of heavy metals leading to serious damage to organisms and their advance to the food chain. Chrome is one of these heavy metals for the three and six-valence oxides used in industry. Health risks such as carcinogenic hexavalent chromium have been For this reason, removal and reduction of environment is essential. Target of this study hexavalent chromium biosorption by waste stabilization pond algae is of the aquatic environment. Methods: This study was a fundamental applied; In this batch reactor, variables Was investigated pH(3,5,7,9,11, Contact time(30,60,120,180,240,300min, The concentration of hexavalent chromium(0.5,1,5mg And the concentration of algae(0.25, 0.5, 1, 3g. Liquid mixed municipal wastewater treatment stabilization pond was used for insemination. For the investigate the effects of variables pH, contact time, the concentration of hexavalent chromium values in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask prepared and various amounts of dried algae (0.25-0.5-1- 3 g were added to it. Then became the shakers. After mixing, the filter paper was passed. The lab temperature was centrifuged for min10-5 rpm 2700 rpm. Then it was read at a wavelength absorbed by 540 nm. . Then collected was data to Excel and SPSS software. Finally was used for hexavalent chromium adsorption isotherm model equation of Langmuir and Freundlich. Results: This study shows that PH, contact time, the concentration of hexavalent chromium and chromium concentrations of algae optimal absorption by algae concentrations, respectively, in5 mg / l, min 120, 0.5 mg / l and is 1gr. Average maximum absorption of chromium Wastewater stabilization ponds by algae 97/2%, respectively. Correlation coefficients absorption curves of these models showed that Cr (VI adsorption isotherm on wastewater stabilization pond algae follows (= R.  Conclusion: The results showed that wastewater stabilization pond algae as a

  6. Investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous standard solutions of psilocin and psilocybin using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastos, N; Barnett, N W; Pfeffer, F M; Lewis, S W

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous solutions of psilocin and psilocybin reference drug standards over a period of fourteen days. This study was performed using high performance liquid chromatography utilising a (95:5% v/v) methanol: 10 mM ammonium formate, pH 3.5 mobile phase and absorption detection at 269 nm. It was found that the exclusion of light significantly prolonged the useful life of standards, with aqueous solutions of both psilocin and psilocybin being stable over a period of seven days.

  7. Aqueous starch as a stabilizer in zinc oxide nanoparticle synthesis via laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahangar, Hossein Abbastabar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Darroudi, Majid [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zak, Ali Khorsand [Low Dimensional Material Research Center, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Drummen, Gregor P.C., E-mail: gpcdrummen@bionano-solutions.de [Bionanoscience and Bio-Imaging Program, Cellular Stress and Ageing Program, Bio and Nano-Solutions, D-40472 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-03-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized via LASiS in aqueous starch solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles of {+-}15 nm are produced with a narrow size distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Starch can be used as a template to control nanoparticle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Starch stabilizes zinc oxide nanoparticles in solution through steric hindrance. - Abstract: Zinc oxide is a semiconductor with exceptional thermal, luminescent and electrical properties, even compared with other semiconducting nanoparticles. Its potential for advanced applications in lasers and light emitting diodes, as bio-imaging agent, in biosensors and as drug delivery vehicles, in ointments, coatings and pigments has pulled zinc oxide into the focus of various scientific and engineering research fields. Recently we started investigating if nanoparticle synthesis via laser ablation in the presence of natural stabilizers allows control over size and shape and constitutes a useful, uncomplicated alternative over conventional synthesis methods. In the current paper, we determined the ability of natural starch to act as a size controller and stabilizer in the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles via ablation of a ZnO plate in a starch solution with a nanosecond Q-Switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser at its original wavelength ({lambda} = 1064 nm). Our results show that the particle diameter decreases with increasing laser irradiation time to a mean nanoparticle size of approximately 15 nm with a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the obtained particle size in starch solution is considerably smaller compared with analogous ZnO nanoparticle synthesis in distilled water. The synthesized and capped nanoparticles retained their photoluminescent properties, but showed blue emission rather than the often reported green luminescence. Evaluation of old preparations compared with freshly made samples showed no agglomeration or

  8. Surface adsorption of oppositely charged C14TAB-PAMPS mixtures at the air/water interface and the impact on foam film stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, Heiko; von Klitzing, Regine; Campbell, Richard A

    2015-01-08

    We have studied the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixture of poly(acrylamidomethylpropanesulfonate) sodium salt (PAMPS) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C14TAB) using a combination of neutron reflectivity and ellipsometry measurements. The interfacial composition was determined using three different analysis methods involving the two techniques for the first time. The bulk surfactant concentration was fixed at a modest value while the bulk polyelectrolyte concentration was varied over a wide range. We reveal complex changes in the surface adsorption behavior. Mixtures with low bulk PAMPS concentrations result in the components interacting synergistically in charge neutral layers at the air/water interface. At the bulk composition where PAMPS and C14TAB are mixed in an equimolar charge ratio in the bulk, we observe a dramatic drop in the surfactant surface excess to leave a large excess of polyelectrolyte at the interface, which we infer to have loops in its interfacial structure. Further increase of the bulk PAMPS concentration leads to a more pronounced depletion of material from the surface. Mixtures containing a large excess of PAMPS in the bulk showed enhanced adsorption, which is attributed to the large increase in total ionic strength of the system and screening of the surfactant headgroup charges. The data are compared to our former results on PAMPS/C14TAB mixtures [Kristen et al. J. Phys. Chem. B, 2009, 23, 7986]. A peak in the surface tension is rationalized in terms of the changing surface adsorption and, unlike in more concentrated systems, is unrelated to bulk precipitation. Also, a comparison between the determined interfacial composition with zeta potential and foam film stability data shows that the highest film stability occurs when there is enhanced synergistic adsorption of both components at the interface due to charge screening when the total ionic strength of the system is highest. The additional contribution to the

  9. Aqueous phase transfer of InP/ZnS nanocrystals conserving fluorescence and high colloidal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Sudarsan; Beaune, Grégory; Texier, Isabelle; Reiss, Peter

    2011-12-27

    Small thiol-containing amino acids such as cysteine are appealing surface ligands for transferring semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) from organic solvents to the aqueous phase. They provide a compact hydrodynamic diameter and low nonspecific binding in biological environment. However, cysteine-capped QDs generally exhibit modest colloidal stability in water and their fluorescence quantum yield (QY) is significantly reduced as compared to organics. We demonstrate that during phase transfer the deprotonation of the thiol group by carefully adjusting the pH is of crucial importance for increasing the binding strength of cysteine to the QD surface. As a result, the colloidal stability of cysteine-capped InP/ZnS core/shell QDs is extended from less than one day to several months. The developed method is of very general character and can be used also with other hydrophilic thiols and various other types of QDs, e.g., CdSe/CdS/ZnS and CuInS(2)/ZnS QDs as well as CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanorods. We show that the observed decrease of QY upon phase transfer with cysteine is related to the generation of cysteine dimer, cystine. This side-reaction implies the formation of disulfide bonds, which efficiently trap photogenerated holes and inhibit radiative recombination. On the other hand, this process is not irreversible. By addition of an appropriate reducing agent, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP), the QY can be partially recovered. When TCEP is already added during the phase transfer, the QY of cysteine-capped InP/ZnS QDs can be maintained almost quantitatively. Finally, we show that penicillamine is a promising alternative to cysteine for the phase transfer of QDs, as it is much less prone to disulfide formation.

  10. Reverse Stability Kinetics of Meat Pigment Oxidation in Aqueous Extract from Fresh Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelka, John C; Phinney, David M; Wick, Macdonald P; Heldman, Dennis R

    2017-12-01

    The use of kinetic models is an evolving approach to describing quality changes in foods during processes, including storage. Previous studies indicate that the oxidation rate of myoglobin is accelerated under frozen storage conditions, a phenomenon termed reverse stability. The goal of this study was to develop a model for meat pigment oxidation to incorporate the phenomenon of reverse stability. In this investigation, the model system was an aqueous extract from beef which was stored under a range of temperatures, both unfrozen and frozen. The kinetic analysis showed that in unfrozen solutions, the temperature dependence of oxidation rate followed Arrhenius kinetics. However, under in frozen solutions the rate of oxidation increased with decreasing temperature until reaching a local maximum around -20 °C. The addition of NaCl to the model system increased oxidation rates at all temperatures, even above the initial freezing temperature. This observation suggests that this reaction is dependent on the ionic strength of the solution as well as temperature. The mechanism of this deviant kinetic behavior is not fully understood, but this study shows that the interplay of temperature and composition on the rate of oxidation of meat pigments is complicated and may involve multiple mechanisms. A better understanding of the kinetics of quality loss in a meat system allows for a re-examination of the current recommendations for frozen storage. The deviant kinetic behavior observed in this study indicates that the relationship between quality loss and temperature in a frozen food is not as simple as once thought. Product-specific recommendations could be implemented in the future that would allow for a decrease in energy consumption without a significant loss of quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Processing and characterization of yttrium-stabilized zirconia thin films on polyimide from aqueous polymeric precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, B.P.; Anderson, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    Low-temperature deposition of dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films on polyimide (PI) substrates is illustrated using an aqueous polymeric precursor spin-coating technique. The polymeric precursor uses low-cost materials, is water-soluble and the viscosity and cation concentrations can be easily adjusted in order to vary the film thickness from 0.02 to 0.3 μm. Due to the use of water as the solvent in the YSZ precursor and the hydrophobic nature of the PI surface, surface modification processes were utilized in order to improve the wetting characteristics. Surface modification of PI substrates using wet chemical and oxygen plasma techniques led to a decrease in the precursor contact angle, and ultimately allowed for uniform film formation on both bulk and thin film PI substrates. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV/Vis absorption illustrate that near full-density nanocrystalline thin films of YSZ can be produced at temperatures as low as 350 deg. C. Thermogravimetric analyses illustrate that the PI substrate does not undergo any weight loss up to these temperatures

  12. Small core flood experiments for foam EOR: Screening surfactant applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, S.A.; Van der Bent, V.; Farajzadeh, R.; Rossen, W.R.; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous foams are a means of increasing the sweep efficiency of enhanced oil recovery processes. An understanding of how a foam behaves in the presence of oil is therefore of great importance when selecting suitable surfactants for EOR processes. The consensus is currently that the most reliable method for determining the foam behavior in the presence of oil is to inject foam through a rock core. Coreflood tests, however, are typically carried out using large rock cores (e.g. diameter = 4 cm,...

  13. Formation and thermodynamic stability of (polymer + porphyrin) supramolecular structures in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Viviana C.P. da; Hwang, Barrington J.; Eggen, Spencer E.; Wallace, Megan J.; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic stability of a (polymer + porphyrin) supramolecular structure was characterized. • Isothermal titration calorimetry provided two ways to determine reaction enthalpies. • Exothermic (polymer + porphyrin) binding competes with porphyrin self-association. • (Polymer + porphyrin) binding is entropically favored with respect to porphyrin self-association. • Spectral shifts show importance of porphyrin central hydrogens in polymer binding. - Abstract: Optical properties of porphyrins can be tuned through (polymer + porphyrin) (host + guest) binding in solution. This gives rise to the formation of supramolecular structures. In this paper, the formation, thermodynamic stability and spectroscopic properties of (polymer + porphyrin) supramolecular structures and their competition with porphyrin self-association were investigated by both isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and absorption spectroscopy. Specifically, reaction enthalpies and equilibrium constants were measured for meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TPPS) self-association and TPPS binding to the polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP, 40 kg/mol) in aqueous solutions at pH 7 and three different temperatures (12, 25 and 37 °C). ITC, compared to spectroscopic techniques, provides two independent means to determine reaction enthalpies: direct measurements and Van’t Hoff plot. This was used as a criterion to assess that (1) self-association of TPPS is limited to the formation of dimers and (2) TPPS binds to PVP in its monomeric state only. The formation of TPPS dimers and (PVP + TPPS) supramolecular structures are both enthalpically driven. However, (polymer + porphyrin) binding was found to be entropically favored compared to dimerization. Furthermore, the reaction enthalpies of these two processes significantly depend on temperature. This behavior was attributed to hydrophobic interactions. Finally, the limiting absorption spectra of monomeric, dimeric and polymer

  14. Synthesis of nanoparticles with frog foam nest proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick; Ebersbacher, Charles F.; Myung, Nosang V.; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2012-01-01

    Microemulsions provide an efficient means of synthesizing monodispersed nanoparticles. Recent studies have demonstrated potential problems of surfactant due to the interaction with nanoparticles/precursors. To solve the problems, various types of chemical surfactants have been tested, but natural biosurfactants have not received a great deal of attention in engineering application. Here, we report the formation of microemulsions using frog foam nest protein, ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), based on the hypothesis that RSN-2 assembles at the water–oil interface as a result of conformational change into an extended form. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed that RSN-2 undergoes a reversible transition between extended and globular conformation in foams/microemulsions and aqueous solution, respectively. Microemulsions were formulated with RSN-2 to synthesize 8–10 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by mixing precursor-containing microemulsions with base-containing microemulsions. RSN-2 proteins were recovered from microemulsions and found to be recycled to make foams and microemulsions. Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses showed that RSN-2 maintained its mechanical agitation-induced amphiphilicity throughout multiple foaming/defoaming processes. These results suggest that conformational flexibility and structural stability of RSN-2 in aggressive environments enable the recycled use of RSN-2, elucidating the cost-effective advantage.

  15. Synthesis of nanoparticles with frog foam nest proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick, E-mail: choihc@ucmail.uc.edu; Ebersbacher, Charles F. [University of Cincinnati, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering (United States); Myung, Nosang V. [University of California, Riverside, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (United States); Montemagno, Carlo D., E-mail: montemcd@ucmail.uc.edu [University of Cincinnati, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Microemulsions provide an efficient means of synthesizing monodispersed nanoparticles. Recent studies have demonstrated potential problems of surfactant due to the interaction with nanoparticles/precursors. To solve the problems, various types of chemical surfactants have been tested, but natural biosurfactants have not received a great deal of attention in engineering application. Here, we report the formation of microemulsions using frog foam nest protein, ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), based on the hypothesis that RSN-2 assembles at the water-oil interface as a result of conformational change into an extended form. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed that RSN-2 undergoes a reversible transition between extended and globular conformation in foams/microemulsions and aqueous solution, respectively. Microemulsions were formulated with RSN-2 to synthesize 8-10 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by mixing precursor-containing microemulsions with base-containing microemulsions. RSN-2 proteins were recovered from microemulsions and found to be recycled to make foams and microemulsions. Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses showed that RSN-2 maintained its mechanical agitation-induced amphiphilicity throughout multiple foaming/defoaming processes. These results suggest that conformational flexibility and structural stability of RSN-2 in aggressive environments enable the recycled use of RSN-2, elucidating the cost-effective advantage.

  16. Synthesis of nanoparticles with frog foam nest proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick; Ebersbacher, Charles F.; Myung, Nosang V.; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2012-09-01

    Microemulsions provide an efficient means of synthesizing monodispersed nanoparticles. Recent studies have demonstrated potential problems of surfactant due to the interaction with nanoparticles/precursors. To solve the problems, various types of chemical surfactants have been tested, but natural biosurfactants have not received a great deal of attention in engineering application. Here, we report the formation of microemulsions using frog foam nest protein, ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), based on the hypothesis that RSN-2 assembles at the water-oil interface as a result of conformational change into an extended form. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed that RSN-2 undergoes a reversible transition between extended and globular conformation in foams/microemulsions and aqueous solution, respectively. Microemulsions were formulated with RSN-2 to synthesize 8-10 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by mixing precursor-containing microemulsions with base-containing microemulsions. RSN-2 proteins were recovered from microemulsions and found to be recycled to make foams and microemulsions. Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses showed that RSN-2 maintained its mechanical agitation-induced amphiphilicity throughout multiple foaming/defoaming processes. These results suggest that conformational flexibility and structural stability of RSN-2 in aggressive environments enable the recycled use of RSN-2, elucidating the cost-effective advantage.

  17. Effect of the Polymeric Stabilizer in the Aqueous Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalyzed by Colloidal Cobalt Nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Delgado

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of small and well defined cobalt nanoparticles were synthesized by the chemical reduction of cobalt salts in water using NaBH4 as a reducing agent and using various polymeric stabilizers. The obtained nanocatalysts of similar mean diameters (ca. 2.6 nm were fully characterized and tested in the aqueous phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (AFTS. Interestingly, the nature and structure of the stabilizers used during the synthesis of the CoNPs affected the reduction degree of cobalt and the B-doping of these NPs and consequently, influenced the performance of these nanocatalysts in AFTS.

  18. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  19. Enhanced removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by novel stabilized nano-amorphous calcium phosphate: Behaviors and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Li, Yiming; Shao, Yi; Zhang, Yong; Han, Ruiming; Li, Shiyin; Wei, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Stabilized nano-amorphous calcium phosphate (nACP) was prepared using polyethylene glycol as stabilizer to obtain a nanosized amorphous adsorbent. The produced nACP was evaluated by using XRD, FTIR, SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sedimentation test demonstrated that nACP exhibited better stability than crystallized hydroxyapatite. The adsorption efficiency of the nACP material for aqueous humic acid (HA) was evaluated from the point of view of medium pH, adsorption time, temperature, and ionic strength, as well as the presences of metal ions. The results of the study showed very good adsorption performance towards aqueous HA. The Sips modeling results revealed that the stabilized nACP adsorbent had a considerably high adsorption capacity (248.3 mg/g) for HA at 298 K. The adsorption data fitted well into pseudo-second order and Elovich kinetic models. XPS analyses indicated that HA retention on nACP material might be due to the surface complexation reaction between oxygen-containing group and calcium of HA and nACP, respectively. Moreover, the HA adsorption capacity of nACP could still keep more than 86% after four adsorption-desorption cycles. By taking into account all results it was concluded that the nACP adsorbent leveraged its stability in combination with its high uptake capacity to offer a great promise for HA adsorption from water.

  20. Forming foam structures with carbon foam substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Coronado, Paul R.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2012-11-06

    The invention provides foams of desired cell sizes formed from metal or ceramic materials that coat the surfaces of carbon foams which are subsequently removed. For example, metal is located over a sol-gel foam monolith. The metal is melted to produce a metal/sol-gel composition. The sol-gel foam monolith is removed, leaving a metal foam.

  1. Thermodynamic stability of binary systems involving metal ions and the 4-methoxy benzylidenepyruvate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redigolo, H.

    1989-01-01

    A review on studies previously carried out in this laboratory involving metal ions and benzylidene-pyruvate, in aqueous solutions, is presented; emphasis is mainly placed on complexes comprising 4-Dimethyl-amino-benzylidene-pyruvate (DMBP, p K a 3.79) and 2-Chloro-4-Dimethyl-amino-benzylidene-pyruvate (2 Cl-DMBP, p k a = 3.08). In an endeavour to extend the previous work, the dissociation constant of 4-methoxy-benzylidene-pyruvic acid (H-4-Me O-BP) was determined spectrophotometrically at 25.0 +- 0.1 0 C and ionic strength 0.500 M, held with sodium perchlorate (p k a = 1.473). The complex formation equilibria in M-4-Me O-BP systems, where M = Cu(II), La(III), Pr(III), Sm(III), Lu(III), Sc (III), In(III), Ga(III) or Th(IV) were investigated, also spectrophotometrically, in the above mentioned experimental conditions. In addition, the system involving Sm(III) was reinvestigated at ionic strengths 0.100 and 2.00 M, the remaining experimental conditions being maintained. The study is mostly concerned with the determination of formation constants of 1:1 complex species (β 1 ) and spectrophotometric parameters associated with these species. The investigation of possible higher binary complexes (ML n , n > 1) was prevented by solubility limitations. For all considered metal ions, log β 1 (DMBP) > log β 1 (4-Me O-BP) indicating that the stability is governed, at least in part, by ligand basicity. (author). 121 refs, 36 figs, 20 tabs

  2. Theoretical Investigation of the Structural Stabilities of Ceria Surfaces and Supported Metal Nanocluster in Vapor and Aqueous Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhibo [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China; Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Liu, Ning [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China; Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Chen, Biaohua [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China; Li, Jianwei [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China; Mei, Donghai [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

    2018-01-25

    Understanding the structural stability and dynamics at the interface between the solid metal oxide and aqueous phase is significant in a variety of industrial applications including heterogeneous catalysis and environmental remediation. In the present work, the stabilities of three low-index ceria (CeO2) surfaces, i.e., (111), (110) and (100) in vapor and aqueous phases were studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Gibbs surface free energies as a function of temperature, water partial pressure, and water coverages were calculated using DFT based atomistic thermodynamic approach. On the basis of surface free energies, the morphology and exposed surface structures of the CeO2 nanoparticle were predicted using Wulff construction principle. It is found that the partially hydroxylated (111) and (100) are two major surface structures of CeO2 nanoparticles in vapor phase at ambient temperature (300 K). As the temperature increases, the fully dehydrated (111) surface gradually becomes the most dominant surface structure. While in aqueous phase, the exposed surface of the CeO2 nanoparticle is dominated by the hydroxylated (110) structure at 393 K. Finally, the morphology and stability of a cuboctahedron Pt13 nanocluster supported on CeO2 surfaces in both gas and aqueous phases were investigated. In gas phase, the supported Pt13 nanocluster has the tendency to wetting the CeO2 surface due to the strong metal-support interaction. The calculated interaction energies suggest the CeO2(110) surface provides the best stability for the Pt13 nanocluster. The CeO2 supported Pt13 nanoclusters are oxidized. Compared to the gas phase, the morphology of the CeO2 supported Pt13 nanocluster is less distorted due to the solvation effect provided by surrounding water molecules in aqueous phase. More electrons are transferred from the Pt13 nanocluster to the CeO2 support, implying the supported Pt13 nanocluster is further

  3. Foam Microrheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRAYNIK, ANDREW M.; LOEWENBERG, MICHAEL; REINELT, DOUGLAS A.

    1999-01-01

    The microrheology of liquid foams is discussed for two different regimes: static equilibrium where the capillary number Ca is zero, and the viscous regime where viscosity and surface tension are important and Ca is finite. The Surface Evolver is used to calculate the equilibrium structure of wet Kelvin foams and dry soap froths with random structure, i.e., topological disorder. The distributions of polyhedra and faces are compared with the experimental data of Matzke. Simple shearing flow of a random foam under quasistatic conditions is also described. Viscous phenomena are explored in the context of uniform expansion of 2D and 3D foams at low Reynolds number. Boundary integral methods are used to calculate the influence of Ca on the evolution of foam microstructure, which includes bubble shape and the distribution of liquid between films, Plateau borders, and (in 3D) the nodes where Plateau borders meet. The micromechanical point of view guides the development of structure-property-processing relationships for foams

  4. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  5. Stabilizers of edaravone aqueous solution and their action mechanisms. 2. Glutathione

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Masahiko; Motomiya, Satsuki; Fujisawa, Akio; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

    2017-01-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) has garnered attention since its approval for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Japan (2015) and the United States (2017). Edaravone is administered intravenously, and as such, is distributed in the form of an aqueous solution. However, aqueous solutions of edaravone are very unstable because they present as edaravone anions, which become edaravone radicals when the anion donates an electron to free radicals including oxygen. In this study, gluta...

  6. Stabilizers of edaravone aqueous solution and their action mechanisms. 1. Sodium bisulfite

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Masahiko; Sugimura, Natsuhiko; Fujisawa, Akio; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

    2017-01-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) has been used as a free radical scavenging drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in Japan since 2001. Edaravone is given to patients intravenously; therefore, it is distributed in the form of an aqueous solution. However, aqueous solutions of edaravone are very unstable because it is present as edaravone anion, which is capable of transferring an electron to free radicals including oxygen, and becomes edaravone radical. We observed the...

  7. Foams structure and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat, Isabelle; Graner, François; Pitois, Olivier; Höhler, Reinard; Elias, Florence; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Rouyer, Florence

    2013-01-01

    This book is the first to provide a thorough description of all aspects of the physico-chemical properties of foams. It sets out what is known about their structure, their stability, and their rheology. Engineers, researchers and students will find descriptions of all the key concepts, illustrated by numerous applications, as well as experiments and exercises for the reader. A solutions manual for lecturers is available via the publisher's web site.

  8. Pourable Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James A.; Butler, John M.; Chartoff, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes search for polyisocyanurate/polyurethane foam insulation with superior characteristics. Discusses chemistry of current formulations. Tests of formulations, of individual ingredients and or alternative new formulations described. Search revealed commercially available formulations exhibiting increased thermal stability at temperatures up to 600 degree C, pours readily before curing, presents good appearance after curing, and remains securely bonded to aluminum at cryogenic temperatures. Total of 42 different formulations investigated, 10 found to meet requirements.

  9. The insertion torque-depth curve integral as a measure of implant primary stability: An in vitro study on polyurethane foam blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Arosio, Paolo; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico

    2017-07-08

    Recent research has shown that dynamic parameters correlate with insertion energy-that is, the total work needed to place an implant into its site-might convey more reliable information concerning immediate implant primary stability at insertion than the commonly used insertion torque (IT), the reverse torque (RT), or the implant stability quotient (ISQ). Yet knowledge on these dynamic parameters is still limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether an energy-related parameter, the torque-depth curve integral (I), could be a reliable measure of primary stability. This was done by assessing if (I) measurement was operator-independent, by investigating its correlation with other known primary stability parameters (IT, RT, or ISQ) by quantifying the (I) average error and correlating (I), IT, RT, and ISQ variations with bone density. Five operators placed 200 implants in polyurethane foam blocks of different densities using a micromotor that calculated the (I) during implant placement. Primary implant stability was assessed by measuring the ISQ, IT, and RT. ANOVA tests were used to evaluate whether measurements were operator independent (P>.05 in all cases). A correlation analysis was performed between (I) and IT, ISQ, and RT. The (I) average error was calculated and compared with that of the other parameters by ANOVA. (I)-density, IT-density, ISQ-density, and RT-density plots were drawn, and their slopes were compared by ANCOVA. The (I) measurements were operator independent and correlated with IT, ISQ, and RT. The average error of these parameters was not significantly different (P>.05 in all cases). The (I)-density, IT-density, ISQ-density, and RT-density curves were linear in the 0.16 to 0.49 g/cm³ range, with the (I)-density curves having a significantly greater slope than those regarding the other parameters (P≤.001 in all cases). The torque-depth curve integral (I) provides a reliable assessment of primary stability and shows a greater

  10. Bio-based Polymer Foam from Soyoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaillie, Laetitia M.; Wool, Richard P.

    2006-03-01

    The growing bio-based polymeric foam industry is presently lead by plant oil-based polyols for polyurethanes and starch foams. We developed a new resilient, thermosetting foam system with a bio-based content higher than 80%. The acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and its fatty acid monomers is foamed with pressurized carbon dioxide and cured with free-radical initiators. The foam structure and pore dynamics are highly dependent on the temperature, viscosity and extent of reaction. Low-temperature cure hinds the destructive pore coalescence and the application of a controlled vacuum results in foams with lower densities ˜ 0.1 g/cc, but larger cells. We analyze the physics of foam formation and stability, as well as the structure and mechanical properties of the cured foam using rigidity percolation theory. The parameters studied include temperature, vacuum applied, and cross-link density. Additives bring additional improvements: nucleating agents and surfactants help produce foams with a high concentration of small cells and low bulk density. Hard and soft thermosetting foams with a bio content superior to 80% are successfully produced and tested. Potential applications include foam-core composites for hurricane-resistant housing, structural reinforcement for windmill blades, and tissue scaffolds.

  11. Design Method for Proportion of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junxiao; Fu Wei; Zang Hechao

    2018-01-01

    Through foaming experiment of Zhongtai AH-70 asphalt, the best foaming temperature water consumption and influence factors of foamed asphalt’s foaming features are determined; By designing the proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, for this mixture the best foamed asphalt addition is 3%, and proportion of the mixture is RAP: fine aggregate: cement=75:23:2. Using SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of f...

  12. Amorphous microcellular polytetrafluoroethylene foam film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chongzheng

    1991-11-01

    We report herein the preparation of novel low-density ultramicrocellular fluorocarbon foams and their application. These fluorocarbon foams are of interest for the biochemistry arena in numerous applications including foodstuff, pharmacy, wine making, beer brewery, fermentation medical laboratory, and other processing factories. All of those require good quality processing programs in which, after eliminating bacterium and virus, compressed air is needed. Ordinarily, compressed air contains bacterium and virus, its size is 0.01 - 2 micrometers fluorocarbon foam films. Having average porous diameter 0.04 - 0.1 micrometers , these are stable to high temperature (280 degree(s)C) and chemical environments, and generally have good engineering and mechanical properties (e.g., low coefficient of thermal expansion, high modulus, and good dimensional stability). Our new process for preparing low density fluorocarbon foams provides materials with unique properties. As such, they offer the possibility for being superior to earlier materials for a number of the filter applications mentioned.

  13. Photoactivity of Titanium Dioxide Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 foams have been prepared by a simple mechanical stirring method. Short-chain amphiphilic molecules have been used to stabilize colloidal suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 foams were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The photoassisted oxidation of NO in the gas phase according to ISO 22197-1 has been used to compare the photoactivity of the newly prepared TiO2 foams to that of the original powders. The results showed that the photoactivity is increased up to about 135%. Foam structures seem to be a good means of improving the photoactivity of semiconductor materials and can readily be used for applications such as air purification devices.

  14. Stability studies of CdSe nanocrystals in an aqueous environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xi, Lifei; Lek, Jun Yan; Liang, Yen Nan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, CdSe nanocrystal dissolution in an aqueous solution was studied. It was found that light is a key factor affecting the dissolution of nanocrystals. In the presence of light, the electrons generated from CdSe nanocrystals reduce water to hydrogen and hydroxide ions (OH − ) while photo......-generated holes oxidize CdSe to Cd2 + and elemental Se. The dissolution was accelerated in an acidic medium while moderate alkalinity (pH = 10.3) can slow down the dissolution possibly due to precipitation of nanocrystals. This study has strong implications for the use of these crystals in aqueous environments...

  15. Carbon particle induced foaming of molten sucrose for the preparation of carbon foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimman, R.; Vijayan, Sujith; Prabhakaran, K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An easy method for the preparation of carbon foam from sucrose is presented. • Wood derived activated carbon particles are used to stabilize the molten sucrose foam. • The carbon foams show relatively good mechanical strength. • The carbon foams show excellent CO 2 adsorption and oil absorption properties. • The process could be scaled up for the preparation of large foam bodies. - Abstract: Activated carbon powder was used as a foaming and foam setting agent for the preparation of carbon foams with a hierarchical pore structure from molten sucrose. The rheological measurements revealed the interruption of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in molten sucrose by the carbon particles. The carbon particles stabilized the bubbles in molten sucrose by adsorbing on the molten sucrose–gas interface. The carbon foams obtained at the activated carbon powder to sucrose weight ratios in the range of 0–0.25 had a compressive strength in the range of 1.35–0.31 MPa. The produced carbon foams adsorb 2.59–3.04 mmol/g of CO 2 at 760 mmHg at 273 K and absorb oil from oil–water mixtures and surfactant stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with very good selectivity and recyclability

  16. Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Moradi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require adjustments of water chemistry, mainly by lowering the ionic strength of the solution or by decreasing hardness. The decreased ionic strength of EOR solutions can give rise to more stable water-in-oil emulsions, which are speculated to improve mobility ratio between the injectant and the displaced oil. The first step toward understanding the connection between the emulsions and EOR mechanisms is to show that EOR conditions, such as salinity and hardness requirements, among others, are conducive to stabilizing emulsions. In order to do this, adequate stability proxies are required. This paper reviews commonly used emulsion stability proxies and explains the advantages and disadvantage of methods reviewed. This paper also reviews aqueous-based EOR processes with focus on heavy oil to contextualize in-situ emulsion stabilization conditions. This context sets the basis for comparison of emulsion stability proxies.

  17. Silylated Zeolites With Enhanced Hydrothermal Stability for the Aqueous-Phase Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue-Tong Vu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A systematic silylation approach using mono-, di-, and trichlorosilanes with different alkyl chain lengths was employed to enhance the hydrothermal stability of zeolite Y. DRIFT spectra of the silylated zeolites indicate that the attachment of the silanes takes place at surface silanol groups. Regarding hydrothermal stability under aqueous-phase processing (APP conditions, i.e., pH ≈ 2, 473 K and autogenous pressure, the selective silylation of the zeolite surface using monochlorosilanes has no considerable influence. By using trichlorosilanes, the hydrothermal stability of zeolite Y can be improved significantly as proven by a stability test in an aqueous solution of 0.2 M levulinic acid (LA and 0.6 M formic acid (FA at 473 K. However, the silylation with trichlorosilanes results in a significant loss of total specific pore volume and total specific surface area, e.g., 0.35 cm3 g−1 and 507 m2 g−1 for the silylated zeolite Y functionalized with n-octadecyltrichlorosilane compared to 0.51 cm3 g−1 and 788 m2 g−1 for the parent zeolite Y. The hydrogenation of LA to γ-valerolactone (GVL was conducted over 3 wt.-% Pt on zeolite Y (3PtY silylated with either n-octadecyltrichlorosilane or methyltrichlorosilane using different reducing agents, e.g., FA or H2. While in the stability test an enhanced hydrothermal stability was found for zeolite Y silylated with n-octadecyltrichlorosilane, its stability in the hydrogenation of LA was far less pronounced. Only by applying an excess amount of methyltrichlorosilane, i.e., 10 mmol per 1 g of zeolite Y, presumably resulting in a high degree of polymerization among the silanes, a recognizable improvement of the stability of the 3 PtY catalyst could be achieved. Nonetheless, the pore blockage found for zeolite Y silylated with an excess amount of methyltrichlorosilane was reflected in a drastically lower GVL yield at 493 K using FA as reducing agent, i.e., 12 vs. 34% for 3PtY after 24 h.

  18. Silylated Zeolites with Enhanced Hydrothermal Stability for the Aqueous-Phase Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hue-Tong; Harth, Florian M.; Wilde, Nicole

    2018-05-01

    A systematic silylation approach using mono-, di- and trichlorosilanes with different alkyl chain lengths was employed to enhance the hydrothermal stability of zeolite Y. DRIFT spectra of the silylated zeolites indicate that the attachment of the silanes takes place at surface silanol groups. Regarding hydrothermal stability under aqueous-phase processing conditions, i.e., pH ≈ 2, 473 K and autogenous pressure, the selective silylation of the zeolite surface using monochlorosilanes has no considerable influence. By using trichlorosilanes, the hydrothermal stability of zeolite Y can be improved significantly as proven by a stability test in an aqueous solution of 0.6 M levulinic acid (LA) and 0.2 M formic acid (FA) at 473 K. However, the silylation with trichlorosilanes results in a significant loss of total specific pore volume and total specific surface area, e.g., 0.35 cm3 g-1 and 507 m2 g 1 for the silylated zeolite Y functionalized with n octadecyltrichlorosilane compared to 0.51 cm3 g 1 and 788 m2 g-1 for the parent zeolite Y. The hydrogenation of LA to γ valerolactone (GVL) was conducted over 3 wt.-% Pt on zeolite Y (3PtY) silylated with either n octadecyltrichlorosilane or methyltrichlorosilane using different reducing agents, e.g., FA or H2. While in the stability test an enhanced hydrothermal stability was found for zeolite Y silylated with n octadecyltrichlorosilane, its stability in the hydrogenation of LA was far less pronounced. Only by applying an excess amount of methyltrichlorosilane, i.e., 10 mmol per 1 g of zeolite Y, presumably resulting in a high degree of polymerization among the silanes, a recognizable improvement of the stability of the 3 PtY catalyst could be achieved. Nonetheless, the pore blockage found for zeolite Y silylated with an excess amount of methyltrichlorosilane was reflected in a drastically lower GVL yield at 493 K using FA as reducing agent, i.e., 12% vs. 34% for 3PtY after 24 h.

  19. Modeling foam delivery mechanisms in deep vadose-zone remediation using method of characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roostapour, A. [Craft and Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Kam, S.I., E-mail: kam@lsu.edu [Craft and Hawkins Department of Petroleum Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new mathematical framework established for vadose-zone foam remediation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphical solutions presented by Method of Characteristics quantitatively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of design parameters in the field applications thoroughly investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implication of modeling study for successful field treatment discussed. - Abstract: This study investigates foam delivery mechanisms in vadose-zone remediation by using Method of Characteristics (MoC), a mathematical tool long been used for the analysis of miscible and immiscible flooding in porous media in petroleum industry. MoC converts the governing material-balance partial differential equations into a series of ordinary differential equations, and the resulting solutions are in a form of wave propagation (more specifically, for chemical species and phase saturations) through the system as a function of time and space. Deep vadose-zone remediation has special features compared to other conventional remediation applications. They include, not limited to, a high level of heterogeneity, a very dry initial condition with low water saturation (S{sub w}), pollutants such as metals and radionuclides fully dissolved in groundwater, and a serious concern about downward migration during the remediation treatments. For the vadose-zone remediation processes to be successful, the injected aqueous phase should carry chemicals to react with pollutants and precipitate them for immobilization and stabilization purposes. As a result, foams are believed to be an effective means, and understanding foam flow mechanism in situ is a key to the optimal design of field applications. Results show that foam delivery mechanism is indeed very complicated, making the optimum injection condition field-specific. The five major parameters selected (i.e., initial saturation of the medium, injection foam quality, surfactant adsorption, foam

  20. Effects of antifreezes and bundled material on the stability and optical limiting in aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, Andrey Yu.; Venediktova, Anastasia V.; Sokolova, Ekaterina P. [Department of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetsky Pr. 26, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Videnichev, Dmitry A. [S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, Birzhevaya line 12, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg National Research University ITMO, Kronverksky pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Lasers and Optical Systems JSC, Birzhevaya line 12, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Kislyakov, Ivan M. [S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, Birzhevaya line 12, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg National Research University ITMO, Kronverksky pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Obraztsova, Elena D. [A.M. Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    This work gives data on the stability of dispersions of single wall carbon nanotubes stabilized by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate in binary polar solvents ''water + antifreeze'' (glycerol, polyethyleneglycole) with eutectic compositions. The absorption spectra of the suspensions demonstrate no changes during 1-year storage with temperature spanning from -40 to +40 C. The systems provide relevant optical power limiting properties, the one with glycerol showing good resistance to optical bleaching effects. We also demonstrate that aqueous dispersions of nanotubes exhibit considerable enhancement of optical limiting parameters alongside an increase of the bundled material populace. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Green synthesis of stabilized spherical shaped gold nanoparticles using novel aqueous Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tausif; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Irfan, Muhammad; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Anwaar Asghar, Hafiz Muhammad; Bhattacharjee, Sekhar

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, development of bioinspired protocols to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using plants and their extracts have been dealt by researchers due to their low cost, renewability and non-toxic features. A simple, cheap and ecofriendly method is reported to synthesize stabilized AuNPs of size 35-75 nm at room temperature using aqueous Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) leaves extract without addition of any external agent. Oil palm leaves mediated AuNPs were characterized using FTIR, UV-vis spectrophotometer, EDAX, XPS, FESEM, TEM, DLS and TGA. FTIR spectra results revealed contribution of phenolic, carboxylic, amines and amides in reduction of trivalent gold ions and stabilization of formed gold atoms. Reaction solution color change and UV-vis spectra confirmed reduction of gold ions to generate gold atoms. Reaction mechanism explained the role of phenolic compounds in reduction reaction using FTIR and UV-vis spectra results. EDAX and XPS results further validated the formation of metallic gold particles through bioreduction of gold ions. Crystal structure of metallic gold particles was confirmed through XRD peaks indexing to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. TEM and FESEM particles size measurements exhibited the formation of nanostructured AuNPs. Synthesis of well scattered and spherical shaped AuNPs was revealed through FESEM and TEM images. The excellent stability of AuNPs was shown through high negative zeta potential value (-14.7 ± 4.68 mV) and uniform dispersion in aqueous media. Our results disclosed the excellent potential of Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) leaves as reducing and stabilizing agents in green synthesis of well scattered spherical shaped AuNPs, which can be employed as strong candidates in medical drug delivery and industrial applications.

  2. Ultrathin mesoporous Co3O4 nanosheets on Ni foam for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Kangwen; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Jinbing; Yan, Hailong; Hou, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Deyang; Lu, Min; Liu, Xianming; Luo, Yongsong

    2015-01-01

    Ultrathin Co 3 O 4 nanosheets with a mesoporous structure and a large surface area are hydrothermally grown on a three dimensional nickel foam. The ultrathin mesoporous Co 3 O 4 nanosheets are grown on Ni foam with robust adhesion, which endows fast ion and electron transport, large electroactive surface area, and excellent structural stability. Such unique nanoarchitecture exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance with high capacitance and desirable cycle life. When evaluate as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the Co 3 O 4 nanosheets electrode is able to deliver high specific capacitance of 2194 F g −1 at a current density of 1 A g −1 in 1 M KOH aqueous solution. The electrode also exhibits excellent cycling stability by retaining 93.1% of the maximum capacitance after 5000 charge-discharge cycles. The fabrication strategy presented here is facile, cost-effective, and can offer a way for energy storage device applications

  3. A propofol microemulsion with low free propofol in the aqueous phase: formulation, physicochemical characterization, stability and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, WeiHui; Deng, WanDing; Yang, HuiHui; Chen, XiaoPing; Jin, Fang

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a propofol microemulsion with a low concentration of free propofol in the aqueous phase. Propofol microemulsions were prepared based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal design. The optimal microemulsion was evaluated for pH, osmolarity, particle size, zeta potential, morphology, free propofol in the aqueous phase, stability, and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs, and comparisons made with the commercial emulsion, Diprivan(®). The pH and osmolarity of the microemulsion were similar to those of Diprivan(®). The average particle size was 22.6±0.2 nm, and TEM imaging indicated that the microemulsion particles were spherical in appearance. The concentration of free propofol in the microemulsion was 21.3% lower than that of Diprivan(®). Storage stability tests suggested that the microemulsion was stable long-term under room temperature conditions. The pharmacokinetic profile for the microemulsion showed rapid distribution and elimination compared to Diprivan(®). We conclude that the prepared microemulsion may be clinically useful as a potential carrier for propofol delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of mannose, fructose, and fucose on the structure, stability, and hydration of lysozyme in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahim, Abdoul; Peters, Günther H.J.; Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    The bio-protective properties of monosaccharaides, namely mannose, fructose and fucose, on the stability and dynamical properties of the NMR determined hen egg-white lysozyme structure have been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature in aqueous solution and in...... of the solvent and sugar distributions around lysozyme was used to investigate the interfacial solvent and sugar structure near the protein surface.......The bio-protective properties of monosaccharaides, namely mannose, fructose and fucose, on the stability and dynamical properties of the NMR determined hen egg-white lysozyme structure have been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature in aqueous solution and in 7...... and 13 wt % concentrations of the three sugars. Results are discussed in the framework of the bio-protective phenomena. The three sugars show similar bio-protective behaviours at room temperature (300 K) in the concentration range studied as shown by the small RMSDs of the resulting MD structures from...

  5. Stability studies of CdSe nanocrystals in an aqueous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Lifei; Lek, Jun Yan; Liang, Yen Nan; Zhou Wenwen; Yan Qingyu; Hu Xiao; Chiang, Freddy Boey Yin; Lam, Yeng Ming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Boothroyd, Chris, E-mail: ymlam@ntu.edu.sg [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-07-08

    In this paper, CdSe nanocrystal dissolution in an aqueous solution was studied. It was found that light is a key factor affecting the dissolution of nanocrystals. In the presence of light, the electrons generated from CdSe nanocrystals reduce water to hydrogen and hydroxide ions (OH{sup -}) while photo-generated holes oxidize CdSe to Cd{sup 2+} and elemental Se. The dissolution was accelerated in an acidic medium while moderate alkalinity (pH = 10.3) can slow down the dissolution possibly due to precipitation of nanocrystals. This study has strong implications for the use of these crystals in aqueous environments (bioimaging and dye-sensitized solar cells).

  6. Stabilization of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Aqueous Waste by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2004-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in Aiken, South Carolina. Research and development programs have been conducted at SRNL for ∼50 years generating non-radioactive (hazardous and non-hazardous) and radioactive aqueous wastes. Typically the aqueous effluents from the R and D activities are disposed of from each laboratory module via the High Activity Drains (HAD) or the Low Activity Drains (LAD) depending on whether they are radioactive or not. The aqueous effluents are collected in holding tanks, analyzed and shipped to either H-Area (HAD waste) or the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) (LAD waste) for volume reduction. Because collection, analysis, and transport of LAD and HAD waste is cumbersome and since future treatment of this waste may be curtailed as the F/H-Area evaporators and waste tanks are decommissioned, SRNL laboratory operations requested several proof of principle demonstrations of alternate technologies that would define an alternative disposal path for the aqueous wastes. Proof of principle for the disposal of SRNL HAD waste using a technology known as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is the focus of the current study. The FBSR technology can be performed either as a batch process, e.g. in each laboratory module in small furnaces with an 8'' by 8'' footprint, or in a semi-continuous Bench Scale Reformer (BSR). The proof of principle experiments described in this study cover the use of the FBSR technology at any scale (pilot or full scale). The proof of principle experiments described in this study used a non-radioactive HAD simulant

  7. Hot-melt sub- and outercoating combined with enteric aqueous coating to improve the stability of aspirin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin is apt to hydrolyze. In order to improve its stability, a new method has been developed involving the application of hot-melt sub- and outercoating combined with enteric aqueous coating. The main aim was to investigate the influence of these factors on the stability of ASA and understand how they work. Satisfactory storage stability were obtained when the aspirin tablet core coated with Eudragit L30D55 film was combined with glycerin monostearate (GMS as an outercoat. Hygroscopicity testing indicated that the moisture penetrating into the tablet may result in a significant change in the physical properties of the coating film observed by scanning electron microscopy. Investigation of the compatibility between the drug and film excipients shows that the talc and methacrylic acid had a significant catalytic effect on ASA. A hypothesis was proposed that the hydrolysis of ASA enteric coated tablets (ASA-ECT was mostly concentrated in the internal film and the interfaces between the film and tablet core. In conclusion, hot-melt coating technology is an alternative to subcoating or outercoating. Also, GMS sub-coating was a better choice for forming a stable barrier between the tablet core and the polymer coating layer, and increases the structure and chemical stability.

  8. Foam pad of appropriate thickness can improve diagnostic value of foam posturography in detecting postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Leng, Yangming; Zhou, Renhong; Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Dongdong; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Su-Lin; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of foam thickness on postural stability in patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) during foam posturography. Static and foam posturography were performed in 33 patients (UVH group) and 30 healthy subjects (control group) with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC) on firm surface and on 1-5 foam pad(s). Sway velocity (SV) of center of pressure, standing time before falling (STBF) and falls reaction were recorded and analyzed. (1) SVs had an increasing tendency in both groups as the foam pads were added under EO and EC conditions. (2) STBFs, only in UVH group with EC, decreased with foam thickness increasing. (3) Significant differences in SV were found between the control and UVH group with EO (except for standing on firm surface, on 1 and 2 foam pad(s)) and with EC (all surface conditions). (4) Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the SV could better reflect the difference in postural stability between the two groups while standing on the 4 foam pads with EC. Our study showed that diagnostic value of foam posturography in detecting postural instability might be enhanced by using foam pad of right thickness.

  9. Design and Synthesis of Hybrid Ceramic Foams with Tailored Porosity

    OpenAIRE

    Capasso, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Alkali activated ceramic foams have been produced by using metakaolin and/or diatomite as aluminosilicate source, an aqueous sodium silicate solution as alkali activator and Na2SiF6 as a catalyst that promotes the gelification of the entire system. Two different techniques of direct foaming have been coupled, one based on chemical reactions with gas production and the other one based on a mechanical foaming. Then, other levels of hierarchical porosity (nanometric and macrometric scale) have b...

  10. Polidocanol concentration and time affect the properties of foam used for sclerotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurzen, van H.J.M.; Ceulen, R.P.; Tellings, S.S.; Geld, van der C.W.M.; Nijsten, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND How foam is created for sclerotherapy varies and is not standardized. Moreover, the effect of several factors on the quality of the foam is not well studied. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of different parameters on foam stability and bubble size. METHODS As a measure of foam

  11. INFLUENCE OF THE CEMENT TYPE ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MINERAL FOAM APPLICABLE IN FOAMED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the influence of the type of Portland cement, as well as the nature and concentration of additives that represent electrolytes and polymers, onto the foam stability. The project is implemented within the framework of the research of foamed ceramic. Detailed explanation of the influence pattern is provided. The research performed by the authors has generated the following findings. Besides the rheological properties of the solution, chemical interaction between the mix components must be taken into account in the course of development of the best foamed ceramic mix composition, as chemical processes produce a substantial influence onto the foam stability. Polymer additives based on liquid carbamyde-formaldehyde and polyacrylamide substantially improve the quality of the foam mineralized by the particles of the cement binder. They also assure the foam stability rate sufficient for the formation of a high-quality foamed material.

  12. Zwitterionic, cationic, and anionic fluorinated chemicals in aqueous film forming foam formulations and groundwater from U.S. military bases by nonaqueous large-volume injection HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Will J; Day, Thomas C; Field, Jennifer A

    2013-05-21

    A new analytical method was developed to quantify 26 newly-identified and 21 legacy (e.g. perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and fluorotelomer sulfonates) per and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwater and aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) formulations. Prior to analysis, AFFF formulations were diluted into methanol and PFAS in groundwater were micro liquid-liquid extracted. Methanolic dilutions of AFFF formulations and groundwater extracts were analyzed by large-volume injection (900 μL) high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Orthogonal chromatography was performed using cation exchange (silica) and anion exchange (propylamine) guard columns connected in series to a reverse-phase (C18) analytical column. Method detection limits for PFAS in groundwater ranged from 0.71 ng/L to 67 ng/L, and whole-method accuracy ranged from 96% to 106% for analytes for which matched authentic analytical standards were available. For analytes without authentic analytical standards, whole-method accuracy ranged from 78 % to 144 %, and whole-method precision was less than 15 % relative standard deviation for all analytes. A demonstration of the method on groundwater samples from five military bases revealed eight of the 26 newly-identified PFAS present at concentrations up to 6900 ng/L. The newly-identified PFAS represent a minor fraction of the fluorinated chemicals in groundwater relative to legacy PFAS. The profiles of PFAS in groundwater differ from those found in fluorotelomer- and electrofluorination-based AFFF formulations, which potentially indicates environmental transformation of PFAS.

  13. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  14. Colloidal stability of suspended and agglomerate structures of settled carbon nanotubes in different aqueous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwyzer, Irène; Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are often processed in suspended form and therefore a release of CNT-suspensions into the aquatic environment is plausible. In this study, the behaviour of two physico-chemically very different CNT types in the presence of varying, environmentally relevant calcium-containing media was investigated, including the long-term colloidal stability and the sedimentary structures of settled CNTs. Calcium induced CNT flocculation, however, the stability of the CNTs in the medium did not monotonously decrease with increasing calcium concentration. At intermediate calcium concentrations (0.5-1.5 mM Ca) pre-dispersed CNTs were stabilized in humic acid medium to similar, temporarily even to higher degree than in the absence of calcium. Between pH 5 and 8 only at the highest pH an influence on CNT stability was observed by either promoting flocculation or stabilisation depending on the CNT type. Humic acid stabilized CNTs much better than fulvic acid. Generally, the colloidal stability of the long, thick CNTs with higher surface oxygen content was less affected by the media composition. An investigation of the settled CNT material using analytical electron microscopy revealed the presence of spheroidal, bundle-like and net like CNT-agglomerate structures. Calcium possibly acted as bridging agent linking CNTs in a network like manner, temporarily increasing the CNT concentrations stabilized in the supernatants due to the low density of these structures. With increasing settling time the CNTs formed a fluffy sediment layer at the bottom of the reaction vessels. Bundle-like CNT agglomerates were also observed within that layer of settled CNTs, possibly caused by calcium neutralizing the surface charges. Furthermore, the CNT suspensions contained spheroidal CNT agglomerates, most likely residues from the original dry powder that were not disaggregated. The analysis of settled CNT material is a novelty and illustrates CNT agglomerate structures possibly

  15. Temperature-dependent spectroscopic evidences of curcumin in aqueous medium: a mechanistic study of its solubility and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Ramya; Abraham, Priya Mary; Poddar, Pankaj

    2012-12-20

    In curcumin, keto-enol-enolate equilibrium of the heptadiene-dione moiety determines its physiochemical and antioxidant properties. However, its poor solubility in water at neutral pH and room temperature decreases its bioavailability. Potential therapeutic applications have triggered an interest in manipulating the solubility of curcumin in water as its stability and solubility in water remains poorly understood. Here, the mechanism behind its solubility at various temperatures and the influence of interplay of temperature, intramolecular H-bonding, and intermolecular forces is reported, which leads to aggregation-disaggregation at various temperatures. Remarkable change is observed in temperature-dependent electronic transition behavior of curcumin, however, the absorption spectra after cooling and heating cycles remain unchanged, hinting much better thermal stability of curcumin in water than previously thought. This study indicates that it is perhaps the breaking of intramolecular hydrogen bonding which leads to exposure of polar groups and hence responsible for the dissolution of curcumin at higher temperature. The formation of intermolecular aggregates might be responsible behind a better room temperature stability of the molecules after cooling its aqueous suspension from 90 to 25 °C. These curcumin solubility studies have great application in biological research with reference to bioavailability and to understand target oriented mode of action of curcumin.

  16. Room temperature synthesis of PbSe quantum dots in aqueous solution: Stabilization by interactions with ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Arslan, Zikri; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    An aqueous route of synthesis is described for rapid synthesis of lead selenide quantum dots (PbSe QDs) at room temperature in an attempt to produce water-soluble and stable nanocrystals. Several thiol-ligands, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), thioglycerol (TGC), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 2-mercaptoethyleamine hydrochloride (MEA), 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA), and L-cysteine (L-cys), were used for capping/stabilization of PbSe QDs. The effects of the ligands on the stability of PbSe QDs were evaluated for a period of two months at room temperature under normal light conditions and at 4 °C in dark. The TGA- and MEA-capped QDs exhibited the highest stability prior to purification, almost two months when kept in dark at 4 °C. However, the stability of TGA-capped QDs was reduced substantially after purification to about 5 days under same conditions, while MEA-capped QDs did not show any significant instability. The stabilization energies of Pb-thiolate complexes determined by theoretical DFT simulations supported the experimental results. The PbSe QDs capped with TGA, MPA and MEA were successfully purified and re-dispersed in water, while those stabilized with TGC, MHA and L-cys aggregated during purification attempts. The purified PbSe QDs possess very susceptible surface resulting in poor stability for about 30 – 45 min after re-dispersion in water. In the presence of an excess of free ligand, the stability increased up to 5 days for TGA-capped QDs at pH 7.19, 9 –12 days for MPA-capped QDs at pH 7.3–7.5 and 45–47 days for MEA-capped QDs at pH 7.35. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that the QDs possess a cubic rock salt structure with the most intense peaks located at 2θ = 25.3° (200) and 2θ = 29.2° (100). TEM images showed that the size of the QDs ranges between 5 and 10 nm. ICP-MS results revealed that Pb:Se ratio was 1.26, 1.28, 3.85, 1.18, and 1.31 for the QDs capped with TGA, MPA, MEA, L-Cys, and TGC, respectively. The proposed method

  17. Corneal sensitivity, ocular surface health and tear film stability after punctal plug therapy of aqueous deficient dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Mohamed Ahmed Said

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of punctal occlusion using thermosensitive (smart plug versus silicone plug for management of aqueous deficient dry eye on corneal sensitivity, ocular surface health and tear film stability. METHODS: A comparative prospective interventional case study included 45 patients with bilateral severe form of aqueous deficient dry eye. In each patient, the smart plug was inserted in the lower punctum of the right eye which was considered as study group 1 and silicone plug was inserted in the lower punctum of the left eye of the same patient which was considered as study group 2. All patients were subjected to careful history taking and questionnaire for subjective assessment of severity of symptoms. Corneal sensitivity, corneal fluorescein, rose bengal staining, Schirmer’s I test, tear film break up time and conjunctival impression cytology were performed pre and 1, 3 and 6mo post plug insertion. RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement in subjective and objective manifestations occurred following treatment with both types of plugs (P<0.01. The thermosensitive plug caused significant overall improvement, decrease in frequency of application of tear substitutes and improvement of conjunctival impression cytology parameters in the inserted side (P<0.01. Canaliculitis was reported in two eyes (4.4% following punctal occlusion using thermosensitive plug (study group 1. Spontaneous plug loss occurred in 21 eyes (46.6% in the silicone plug group (study group 2. CONCLUSION: Improvement of subjective and objective manifestations of aqueous deficient dry eye occurs following punctal plug occlusion. Thermosensitive plug has good patient's compliance with fewer complications and lower rates of loss compared to the silicone plug.

  18. A model for the linear stability of the interface between aqueous humor and vitreous substitutes after vitreoretinal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Krystyna; Pralits, Jan O.; Repetto, Rodolfo; Romano, Mario R.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the motion of two immiscible viscous fluids induced by periodic oscillations of a flat solid surface along its plane. The interface between the two fluids is parallel to the solid wall; one fluid occupies the region between the wall and the interface and the other extends from the interface to infinity. We study numerically the linear stability of the interface with respect to two-dimensional perturbations using the normal mode analysis and assuming quasi-steady flow conditions. The analysis is motivated by the need of understanding the behavior of vitreous substitutes inserted in the vitreous chamber of the eye after vitrectomy. This is a common surgical procedure adopted to treat retinal detachments, whereby the vitreous humor is removed from the eye and replaced by fluids immiscible with water. Owing to their hydrophobic nature, vitreous substitutes coexist in the vitreous chamber with a certain amount of aqueous humor (the fluid produced in the anterior part of the eye) and, typically, a thin layer of aqueous separates the tamponade fluid from the retina. A common problem with this treatment is that, in some cases, the interface between the two fluids breaks down and this might eventually lead to the generation of an emulsion. It is believed that mechanics plays an important role in this process but the problem remains very poorly understood. We find that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters that is relevant for the problem that motivated the present analysis. This suggests that shear instability is likely a possible mechanism triggering the onset of vitreous substitutes-aqueous interface instability.

  19. EFFECT OF STABILIZERS ON THE CHEMICAL AND PHOTODEGRADATION OF ASCORBIC ACID IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (vitamin C is susceptible to light and air and forms various degradation products. A number of stabilizers have been used to study their effect on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH2 in dark and light at pH 4.0 and 6.0 alone and in combination with citric and tartaric acids. The assay of AH2 in degraded solutions was performed by a specific UV spectrometric method. The degradation product of AH2 at pH 4.0 and 6.0 was identified as dehydroascorbic acid. The degradation of AH2 has been found to follow first-order kinetics. The apparent first-order rate constants, t90 and percent inhibition in rate in the presence of stabilizers and the second-order rate constants for the interaction of stabilizers with AH2 have been determined. The highest stabilizing effect on AH2 was found by sodium metabisulfite, followed by sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfate, sodium thiosulfate and thiourea. The pH of the solutions has also been found to influence the degradation of AH2 as the rates are higher at pH 6.0 compared to those of pH 4.0, probably due to the ionization of AH2. A synergistic effect has been observed when citric or tartaric acid was added to the solutions containing stabilizers where citric acid showed comparatively better effect.

  20. Long-Term Charge/Discharge Cycling Stability of MnO2 Aqueous Supercapacitor under Positive Polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Ataherian, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    The long-term charge/discharge cycling stability of MnO 2 electrode under positive polarization in aqueous KCl electrolyte has been studied over different potential windows spanning from the open circuit potential to varied higher-end potential limited by O 2 evolution. Cycling up to 1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl (aq)) causes partial (35) capacitance fading to a plateau value within the initial cycles, accompanied by morphological reconstruction, reduction of surface Mn ions and oxygen evolution. The surface Mn-ion reduction has been attributed to a two-step oxidation-reduction mechanism involving OH oxidation in electrolyte, based on electrochemical analysis. When cycling potential extends to 1.4 V, extensive oxygen evolution takes place. The combination of surface passivation of current collector and extensive gas bubbling, which deteriorates electrical contact among the constituent particles within the electrode, results in further monotonic capacitance reduction. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  1. Regional Differences in Tear Film Stability and Meibomian Glands in Patients With Aqueous-Deficient Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shizuka; Ikeda, Chikako; Fujimoto, Hisataka; Oie, Yoshinori; Soma, Takeshi; Maeda, Naoyuki; Nishida, Kohji

    2016-07-01

    To noninvasively investigate regional differences in tear film stability and meibomian glands in patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye. Forty-nine dry eyes and 31 normal eyes were analyzed. A corneal topographer with a tear film scanning function was used for noninvasive tear film break-up time (NI-TFBUT) measurements and meibomian gland observations. The NI-TFBUT values and location of the first tear film break-up point were recorded in four quadrants. Meibomian gland loss was graded for each eyelid using meiboscores. Lid margin abnormality was scored from zero to four according to the number of existing abnormalities. The NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were compared between two groups, and regional differences in NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were analyzed. Also, the correlation between the NI-TFBUT and ocular surface examination results were investigated. The NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were significantly lower and higher, respectively, for the dry eye group than for the normal group. In the dry eye group, the occurrence rate for first tear film break-up was the highest in the inferior nasal quadrant, and the mean meiboscore was significantly higher for the upper eyelids than for the lower eyelids. The NI-TFBUT and lid margin abnormality scores showed a weak negative correlation, and the NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores showed no correlation. Compared to normal eyes, aqueous-deficient dry eyes show significant regional differences in tear film stability and meibomian glands. Considering these regional differences, the overall observation of the ocular surface, including both upper and lower eyelids, will aid clinicians in understanding this condition better.

  2. One-step synthesis and applications of fluorescent Cu nanoclusters stabilized by L-cysteine in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoming; Feng, Yuanjiao; Zhu, Shanshan; Luo, Yawen; Zhuo, Yan; Dou, Yao

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An innovative and simple strategy for synthesizing high-fluorescent Cu nanoclusters stabilized with L-cysteine has been successfully established in aqueous solution. Significantly, the Cu nanoclusters were employed for sensitive and selective detections of Hg 2+ , coding and fluorescent staining, suggesting their potential toward various applications. - Highlights: • A novel, one-step strategy for synthesizing water-soluble CuNCs was established. • A simple, selective, and cost-effective assay for Hg 2+ was developed. • CuNCs may broaden ways for fluorescent staining and coding. - Abstract: Herein, an innovative and simple strategy for synthesizing high fluorescent Cu nanoclusters was successfully established while L-cysteine played a role as the stabilizer. Meaningfully, the current Cu nanoclusters together with a quantum yield of 14.3% were prepared in aqueous solution, indicating their extensive applications. Subsequently, the possible fluorescence mechanism was elucidated by fluorescence, UV–vis, HR-TEM, FTIR, XPS, and MS. Additionally, the CuNCs were employed for assaying Hg 2+ on the basis of the interactions between Hg 2+ and L-cysteine; thus facilitating the quenching of their fluorescence. The proposed analytical strategy permitted detections of Hg 2+ in a linear range of 1.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 × 10 −3 mol L −1 , with a detection limit of 2.4 × 10 −8 mol L −1 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Significantly, this CuNCs described here were further applied for coding and fluorescent staining, suggesting may broaden avenues toward diverse applications

  3. One-step synthesis and applications of fluorescent Cu nanoclusters stabilized by L-cysteine in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoming, E-mail: ming4444@swu.edu.cn; Feng, Yuanjiao; Zhu, Shanshan; Luo, Yawen; Zhuo, Yan; Dou, Yao

    2014-10-17

    Graphical abstract: An innovative and simple strategy for synthesizing high-fluorescent Cu nanoclusters stabilized with L-cysteine has been successfully established in aqueous solution. Significantly, the Cu nanoclusters were employed for sensitive and selective detections of Hg{sup 2+}, coding and fluorescent staining, suggesting their potential toward various applications. - Highlights: • A novel, one-step strategy for synthesizing water-soluble CuNCs was established. • A simple, selective, and cost-effective assay for Hg{sup 2+} was developed. • CuNCs may broaden ways for fluorescent staining and coding. - Abstract: Herein, an innovative and simple strategy for synthesizing high fluorescent Cu nanoclusters was successfully established while L-cysteine played a role as the stabilizer. Meaningfully, the current Cu nanoclusters together with a quantum yield of 14.3% were prepared in aqueous solution, indicating their extensive applications. Subsequently, the possible fluorescence mechanism was elucidated by fluorescence, UV–vis, HR-TEM, FTIR, XPS, and MS. Additionally, the CuNCs were employed for assaying Hg{sup 2+} on the basis of the interactions between Hg{sup 2+} and L-cysteine; thus facilitating the quenching of their fluorescence. The proposed analytical strategy permitted detections of Hg{sup 2+} in a linear range of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1}, with a detection limit of 2.4 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Significantly, this CuNCs described here were further applied for coding and fluorescent staining, suggesting may broaden avenues toward diverse applications.

  4. Factors affecting emulsion stability and quality of oil recovered from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S; Maurer, D; Johnson, L A

    2009-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess how the stability of the emulsion recovered from aqueous extraction processing of soybeans was affected by characteristics of the starting material and extraction and demulsification conditions. Adding endopeptidase Protex 6L during enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of extruded soybean flakes was vital to obtaining emulsions that were easily demulsified with enzymes. Adding salt (up to 1.5 mM NaCl or MgCl(2)) during extraction and storing extruded flakes before extraction at 4 and 30 degrees C for up to 3 months did not affect the stabilities of emulsions recovered from EAEP of soy flour, flakes and extruded flakes. After demulsification, highest free oil yield was obtained with EAEP of extruded flakes, followed by flour and then flakes. The same protease used for the extraction step was used to demulsify the EAEP cream emulsion from extruded full-fat soy flakes at concentrations ranging from 0.03% to 2.50% w/w, incubation times ranging from 2 to 90 min, and temperatures of 25, 50 or 65 degrees C. Highest free oil recoveries were achieved at high enzyme concentrations, mild temperatures, and short incubation times. Both the nature of enzyme (i.e., protease and phospholipase), added alone or as a cocktail, concentration of enzymes (0.5% vs. 2.5%) and incubation time (1 vs. 3 h), use during the extraction step, and nature of enzyme added for demulsifying affected free oil yield. The free oil recovered from EAEP of extruded flakes contained less phosphorus compared with conventional hexane-extracted oil. The present study identified conditions rendering the emulsion less stable, which is critical to increasing free oil yield recovered during EAEP of soybeans, an environmentally friendly alternative processing method to hexane extraction.

  5. The stability of polyaniline in strongly alkaline and acidic aqueous media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožová, Libuše; Holler, Petr; Kovářová, Jana; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2008), s. 592-600 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA2/098; GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * stability * conducting polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2008

  6. Air, aqueous and thermal stabilities of Ce3+ ions in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers with substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki; Traversa, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    in given application environments (e.g. high temperature in carbon monoxide gas conversion and immersion conditions in biomedical applications). To better understand the mechanism by which Ce3+ ions achieve stability in CNPLs, we examined (i) extra-long air

  7. Premixed combustion on ceramic foam burners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, P.H.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion of a lean premixed methane–air mixture stabilized on a ceramic foam burner has been studied. The stabilization of the flame in the radiant mode has been simulated using a one-dimensional numerical model for a burner stabilized flat-flame, taking into account the heat transfer between the

  8. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  9. Aqueous gold nanosols stabilized by electrostatic protection generated by X-ray irradiation assisted radical reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-H.; Hua, Tzu-En; Chien, C.-C.; Yu, Y.-L.; Yang, T.-Y.; Liu, C.-J.; Leng, W.-H.; Hwu, Y.; Yang, Y.-C.; Kim, Chong-Cook; Je, Jung-Ho; Chen, C.-H.; Lin, H.-M.; Margaritondo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Reductant, stabilizer-free colloidal gold solutions were fabricated by a new room-temperature synchrotron X-ray irradiation method. The influence of process parameters such as the pH value and the exposure time on the structure of gold nanoparticles was investigated. The mechanisms underlying the X-ray-triggered reduction of gold ions and the formation of gold clusters are discussed in detail. The X-ray irradiation derived highly concentrated gold nanoparticles are readily to be re-dispersed and possess suitable colloidal stability within cellular environment. The characterization included a study of the possible cytotoxicity for the EMT-6 tumor cell line: the negative results indicate that the gold clusters produced with our approach are biocompatible

  10. Stability studies of lincomycin hydrochloride in aqueous solution and intravenous infusion fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarniak, Petra; Boddy, Michael; Sunderland, Bruce; Hughes, Jeff D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of Lincocin(®) (lincomycin hydrochloride) in commonly used intravenous fluids at room temperature (25°C), at accelerated-degradation temperatures and in selected buffer solutions. The stability of Lincocin(®) injection (containing lincomycin 600 mg/2 mL as the hydrochloride) stored at 25°C±0.1°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann's), 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% glucose, and 10% glucose solutions was investigated over 31 days. Forced degradation of Lincocin(®) in hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide was performed at 60°C. The effect of pH on the degradation rate of lincomycin hydrochloride stored at 80°C was determined. Lincomycin hydrochloride w as found to maintain its shelf life at 25°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann's) solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution, with less than 5% lincomycin degradation occurring in all intravenous solutions over a 31-day period. Lincomycin hydrochloride showed less rapid degradation at 60°C in acid than in basic solution, but degraded rapidly in hydrogen peroxide. At all pH values tested, lincomycin followed first-order kinetics. It had the greatest stability near pH 4 when stored at 80°C (calculated shelf life of 4.59 days), and was least stable at pH 2 (calculated shelf life of 0.38 days). Lincocin(®) injection was chemically found to have a shelf life of at least 31 days at 25°C when added to sodium lactate (Hartmann's) solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution. Solutions prepared at approximately pH 4 are likely to have optimum stability.

  11. High pressure homogenization to improve the stability of casein - hydroxypropyl cellulose aqueous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ran; Harte, Federico

    2014-03-01

    The effect of high pressure homogenization on the improvement of the stability hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and micellar casein was investigated. HPC with two molecular weights (80 and 1150 kDa) and micellar casein were mixed in water to a concentration leading to phase separation (0.45% w/v HPC and 3% w/v casein) and immediately subjected to high pressure homogenization ranging from 0 to 300 MPa, in 100 MPa increments. The various dispersions were evaluated for stability, particle size, turbidity, protein content, and viscosity over a period of two weeks and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) at the end of the storage period. The stability of casein-HPC complexes was enhanced with the increasing homogenization pressure, especially for the complex containing high molecular weight HPC. The apparent particle size of complexes was reduced from ~200nm to ~130nm when using 300 MPa, corresponding to the sharp decrease of absorbance when compared to the non-homogenized controls. High pressure homogenization reduced the viscosity of HPC-casein complexes regardless of the molecular weight of HPC and STEM imagines revealed aggregates consistent with nano-scale protein polysaccharide interactions.

  12. Stability studies of lincomycin hydrochloride in aqueous solution and intravenous infusion fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarniak P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petra Czarniak, Michael Boddy, Bruce Sunderland, Jeff D Hughes School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of Lincocin® (lincomycin hydrochloride in commonly used intravenous fluids at room temperature (25°C, at accelerated-degradation temperatures and in selected buffer solutions.Materials and methods: The stability of Lincocin® injection (containing lincomycin 600 mg/2 mL as the hydrochloride stored at 25°C±0.1°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s, 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% glucose, and 10% glucose solutions was investigated over 31 days. Forced degradation of Lincocin® in hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide was performed at 60°C. The effect of pH on the degradation rate of lincomycin hydrochloride stored at 80°C was determined.Results: Lincomycin hydrochloride was found to maintain its shelf life at 25°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution, with less than 5% lincomycin degradation occurring in all intravenous solutions over a 31-day period. Lincomycin hydrochloride showed less rapid degradation at 60°C in acid than in basic solution, but degraded rapidly in hydrogen peroxide. At all pH values tested, lincomycin followed first-order kinetics. It had the greatest stability near pH 4 when stored at 80°C (calculated shelf life of 4.59 days, and was least stable at pH 2 (calculated shelf life of 0.38 days.Conclusion: Lincocin® injection was chemically found to have a shelf life of at least 31 days at 25°C when added to sodium lactate (Hartmann’s solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution. Solutions prepared at approximately pH 4 are likely to have optimum stability. Keywords: lincomycin, stability, pH, intravenous fluids, IV additives

  13. The Improvement of Foam Concrete Geoecoprotective Properties in Transport Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatovskaya, Larisa; Kabanov, Alexander; Sychov, Maxim

    2017-10-01

    The article analyses 2 kinds of properties of silica sol foam concrete: technical and geoecoprotective ones. Foam concrete stabilized with silica sol foam has lower heat conductivity resulting in fuel saving. Foam concrete obtained according to sol absorption technology has lower water absorption and is good enough for blocking to prevent the environment pollution. Pollution blocking can be achieved by two methods. The first method is saturation of an article affected by oil products with silica sol. The second method is to create a special preventive protection using silica sol screen. The article shows geoecoprotective properties of protein foam soil systems.

  14. Potentiometric titration for determining the composition and stability of metal(II) alginates and pectinates in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisheva, N. Sh.; Kaishev, A. Sh.

    2015-07-01

    The compositions and stabilities of Cu2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ alginates and pectinates are determined in aqueous solutions via titrimetry and potentiometry with calculations performed using Bjerrum's method, the curve intersection technique, and the equilibrium shift method. It is found that the interaction between Cu2+ and polyuronides is a stepwise process and, depending on the ligand concentration and the method of determination, Cu2+ alginate can be characterized by its ML, ML2, and ML3 compositions (where M is the metal ion and L is the structural unit of polyuronide) and stability constants logβ = 2.65, 5.00-5.70, and 7.18-7.80, respectively. The compositions of Cu2+ pectinates are ML and ML2 with logβ = 3.00 and 7.64-7.94, respectively. It is concluded that Pb2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ ions form only alginates and pectinates of ML2 composition with logβ values of 3.45 (Pb2+ alginate), 2.20 (Ca2+ alginate), 1.06 (Mn2+ alginate), 3.51 (Pb2+ pectinate), 2.35 (Ca2+ pectinate), and 1.24 (Mn2+ pectinate). The pectinates are shown to be more stable than the alginates, the most stable compounds being those formed by polyuronides and Cu2+. The least stable are those with Mn2+.

  15. Effects of pH on the stability of cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Violeta P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour variation, colour intensity and stability at various pH values (2.0, 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 of cyanidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (Cy3Glc and its aglycone cyanidin was investigated during a period of 8 hours storage at 25ºC. Our data showed that pH of aqueous solution had impact on spectroscopic profile of cyanidin and Cy3Glc. Beginning with the most acidic solutions, increasing the pH induce bathochromic shifts of absorbance maximum in the visible range for all examined pH values (with the exception pH 4.0 for cyanidin, while the presence of the 3-glucosidic substitution induce hypsochromic shift. Compared to cyanidin, Cy3Glc has higher colour intensity and higher stability in the whole pH range, except at pH 7.0. The 3-glucosidic substitution influences on the colour intensity of Cy3Glc in the alkaline region. After 8-hour incubation of Cy3Glc and cyanidin at pH 2.0 and 25 ºC, 99% of Cy3Glc and only 27% of cyanidin remained unchanged.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of dextran stabilized silver nanoparticles in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankura, K P; Maity, D; Mollick, M M R; Mondal, D; Bhowmick, B; Bain, M K; Chakraborty, A; Sarkar, J; Acharya, K; Chattopadhyay, D

    2012-08-01

    A simple one-step rapid synthetic route is described for the preparation of silver nanoparticles by reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) using aqueous dextran solution which acts as both reducing and capping agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles is assured by characterization with UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The absorbance of the silver nanoparticles is observed at 423 nm. The AFM image clearly shows the surface morphology of the well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with size range of 10-60 nm. TEM images show that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape with ∼5-10 nm dimensions. The crystallinity of Ag nanoparticles is assured by XRD analysis. The antimicrobial activity of as synthesized silver nanoparticles is tested against the bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial growth is inhibited by gradual reduction of the concentration of the silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydration interactions and stability of soluble microbial products in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Long-Fei; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-10-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) are organic compounds excreted by microorganisms in their metabolism and decay and the main constituents in effluent from biological wastewater treatment systems. They also have an important contribution to the dissolved organic matters in natural aqueous systems. So far the interactions between SMP colloids have not been well explored. In this work, the interactions between SMP colloids in water and salt solutions were studied by using a combination of static and dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Zeta potential and acid-base titration techniques. The second osmotic virial coefficient had a larger value in a 750-mM salt solution than that in a 50-mM solution, indicating that repulsion between SMP colloids increased with an increase in salt concentration, which is contrary with the classic Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Such a repulsion was attributed to water structuring and enhanced by the accumulation of hydrophilic counter ions around SMP colloids and the formed hydration force. The repulsion and hydration effect led to the dispersing and deeper draining structure, accompanied by a decreased hydrodynamic radius and increased diffusion coefficient. This hydration force was related to so-called ion specific effect, and electrolyte sodium chloride had a more substantial effect on hydration force than KCl, CsCl, NaBr and NaI. Our results provide an experimental approach to explore the SMP structures, inter-colloid interactions and confirm the non-DLVO forces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rosemary and Pitanga Aqueous Leaf Extracts On Beef Patties Stability under Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Carolina Vargas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because processing and storage conditions affect several beef quality attributes, the food industry uses a variety of synthetic antioxidants. However, some synthetic antioxidants have been questioned regarding its safety, and thus the interest in using natural antioxidants in food products is increasing. This paper aimed at assessing leaf aqueous extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus as antioxidants in beef cold storage. After 48h storage, patties added of Rosemary leaf extracts showed increased pH. Patties added of Pitanga extracts had the lowest a* color values. Oxymyoglobin levels were significantly higher for Negative control, than for Pitanga treatment. The 10% extract addition increased lipid oxidation of beef patties. Correlation coefficients between lipid and myoglobin oxidations were all above 0.85. Pitanga leaf extracts negatively influenced beef color, probably because of its higher chlorophyll content. Lipid oxidation of beef patties was increased with the addition of leaf extracts. The inclusion of 10% leaf extract into beef patties seems not suitable, because it may enhance the amount of prooxidant compounds, as well as the amount of substances capable of reacting with lipid secondary products. Correlations between lipid and myoglobin oxidations demonstrated strong relationship.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of the drainage of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunke, O; Hamann, A; Cox, S J; Odenbach, S

    2005-01-01

    Drainage is one of the driving forces for the temporal instability of molten metal foams. For usual aqueous foams this phenomenon is well examined and understood on both the experimental and the theoretical side. The situation is different for metallic foams. Due to their opaque nature, the observation of drainage is only possible by either measuring the density distribution of solidified samples ex situ or by x-ray or neutron radioscopy. Up to now there exists just one theoretical study describing the drainage behaviour of metallic foams incorporating the drainage equation, the temperature dependence of the viscosity and thermal transport. This paper will present results on the drainage behaviour of aluminium foams grown by a powder-metallurgical production route. For this purpose an experiment which allows the observation of drainage in cylindrical metal foam columns has been developed. Experimental density profiles after different drainage times are measured ex situ and compared to numerical results of the standard drainage equation for aqueous foams. This first comparison between the density redistribution of metallic aluminium foams and numerical solutions shows that the standard drainage equation can be used to explain the drainage behaviour of metallic foams

  20. Brightly luminescent colloidal Ag–In–S nanoparticles stabilized in aqueous solutions by branched polyethyleneimine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raevskaya, Alexandra E.; Ivanchenko, Maria V.; Skoryk, Mykola A.; Stroyuk, Oleksandr L., E-mail: alstroyuk@ukr.net

    2016-10-15

    Silver indium sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized in water by branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) were produced by a mild and direct synthesis. The Ag–In–S NPs exhibit relatively bright photoluminescence (PL) in the visible spectral range. The key parameters influencing color and intensity of PL are the Ag:In and Ag:S molar ratios and duration of the post-synthesis thermal treatment at ~100 °C. A maximal PL quantum yield, 20%, was observed for the Ag–In–S–PEI NPs produced at a molar Ag:In:S ratio of 1:5:5 and a thermal treatment at ~100 °C for 2 h. Such NPs are characterized by an average hydrodynamic size of around 100 nm. According to SEM each 100-nm globule comprises many smaller Ag–In–S NPs. Reasonably high PL quantum yield, variability of the emission color and self-aggregation of Ag–In–S–PEI NPs into polymer globules that do not scatter light makes such NPs promising for the luminescent bio-labeling applications. The PL band maximum energy of the Ag–In–S–PEI NPs produced in optimal conditions is very close to the band gap derived from the absorption spectra of colloidal solutions indicating that PL originates from the radiative recombination of delocalized or shallowly trapped charge carriers. - Highlights: • Ag–In–S nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized by polyethyleneimine in water were synthesized. • Ag–In–S NPs emit bright visible photoluminescence varying in color from green to red. • Maximal quantum yield of emission, ~20%, is observed at a Ag:In:S ratio of 1:5:5. • Separate Ag–In–S NPs are assembled into ~100-nm polyethyleneimine globules.

  1. New decontamination process using foams containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S.

    2008-01-01

    One key point in the dismantling of nuclear facilities is the thorough cleaning of radiation- exposed surfaces on which radioactive deposits have formed. This cleaning step is often achieved by successive liquid rinses with specific solutions containing alkaline, acidic, or even oxidizing species depending on whether the aim is to dissolve greasy deposits (like ter-butylphosphate) or to corrode surfaces on micrometric thicknesses. An alternative process to reduce the amount of chemicals and the volume of the resulting nuclear wastes consists in using the same but foamed solutions (1). Carrying less liquid, the resulting foams still display similar kinetics of dissolution rates and their efficiency is determined by their ability to hold sufficient wetnesses during the time required for the decontamination. Classical foam decontamination process illustrated by foam pulverization or circulation in the 90 turned five years ago into a specific static process using high-lifetime viscosified foam at a steady state. One way to slow down the liquid drainage is to raise liquid viscosity by adding organic viscosifiers like xanthan gum (2). In 2005, new studies started on an innovative process proposed by S. Faure and based on triphasic foams containing particles [3]. The aim is to generate new decontamination foams containing less quantities of organics materials (surfactants and viscosifiers). Silica particles are obviously known to stabilize or destabilize foams (4). In the frame of S. Guignot Ph.D., new fundamental studies are initiated in order to clarify the role of silica solid microparticles in these foams. Our final goal is to determine whether this kind of new foam can be stable for several hours for a decontamination process. The results we will report focus on wet foams used for nuclear decontamination and incorporating fumed silica. The study is conducted on a vertical foam column in a pseudo-free drainage configuration, and aims at investigating the influence of

  2. Effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming in manure digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Kougias, Panagiotis; Pacheco, F.

    2012-01-01

    Manure contains several compounds that can potentially cause foaming during anaerobic digestion. Understanding the effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming tendency and stability could facilitate strategies for foaming prevention and recovery of the process. In this study...... potential to create foam in a manure digester. Moreover, high organic loading of lipids and protein, and high concentrations of acetic and butyric acids also showed a strong tendency to create foaming during anaerobic digestion. Due to their great ability to stabilize foam, high organic loadings of Na...

  3. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  4. Determination of stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complex with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedova, T.G.; Ponomareva, A.V.; Zagorets, P.A.; Filippov, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Total stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complexes with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions were determined by the method of low-frequency contact conductometry. Clearly defined K/Cs selectivity is observed for the system with dibenzo-18-crown-6. It is shown that lgβ depends on permittivity of the solvent. The decrease of permittivity of isopropanol aqueous solutions results in reduction of K/Cs selectivity of DB18C6

  5. Determination of stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complex with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedova, T G; Ponomareva, A V; Zagorets, P A; Filippov, E A [Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1984-08-01

    Total stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complexes with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions were determined by the method of low-frequency contact conductometry. Clearly defined K/Cs selectivity is observed for the system with dibenzo-18-crown-6. It is shown that lg..beta.. depends on permittivity of the solvent. The decrease of permittivity of isopropanol aqueous solutions results in reduction of K/Cs selectivity of DB18C6.

  6. Chitosan-stabilized Silver Nanoparticles for Colorimetric Assay of Mercury (II) Ions in aqueous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarlaida, Fitri; Adlim, M.; Syukri Surbakti, M.; Fairuz Omar, Ahmad

    2018-05-01

    Mercury is considered as dangerous pollutant. Among the many form of mercury, the most stable and soluble in water is mercury (II) ions which it cause threat to human health and surroundings. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) used in this method were prepared by chitosan (chi) which act as stabilizing agent. The Chi-AgNPs has good dispersity with size ranging from 2.50 to 6.00 nm as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and it is stable for 3 months. Color of Chi-AgNPs fades from brownish-yellow to colorless only with Hg2+ ions, but it shows no significant changes upon addition of other metal ions such as Al3+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Co2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, K+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+. The detection limit for Hg2+ ions by bare-eye is estimated to be ∼1µM. This method can be used for sensing mercury(II) ions in numerous water samples.

  7. Foams theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Saad A

    1996-01-01

    This volume discusses the physics and physical processes of foam and foaming. It delineates various measurement techniques for characterizing foams and foam properties as well as the chemistry and application of foams. The use of foams in the textile industry, personal care products, enhanced oil recovery, firefighting and mineral floatation are highlighted, and the connection between the microstructure and physical properties of foam are detailed. Coverage includes nonaqueous foams and silicone antifoams, and more.

  8. Molecular complexation of curcumin with pH sensitive cationic copolymer enhances the aqueous solubility, stability and bioavailability of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunny; Kesharwani, Siddharth S; Mathur, Himanshi; Tyagi, Mohit; Bhat, G Jayarama; Tummala, Hemachand

    2016-01-20

    Curcumin is a natural dietary compound with demonstrated potential in preventing/treating several chronic diseases in animal models. However, this success is yet to be translated to humans mainly because of its poor oral bioavailability caused by extremely low water solubility. This manuscript demonstrates that water insoluble curcumin (~1μg/ml) forms highly aqueous soluble complexes (>2mg/ml) with a safe pH sensitive polymer, poly(butyl-methacrylate-co-(2-dimethylaminoethyl) methacrylate-co-methyl-methacrylate) when precipitated together in water. The complexation process was optimized to enhance curcumin loading by varying several formulation factors. Acetone as a solvent and polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizer with 1:2 ratio of drug to polymer yielded complexes with relatively high loading (~280μg/ml) and enhanced solubility (>2mg/ml). The complexes were amorphous in solid and were soluble only in buffers with pHs less than 5.0. Hydrogen bond formation and hydrophobic interactions between curcumin and the polymer were recorded by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Molecular complexes of curcumin were more stable at various pHs compared to unformulated curcumin. In mice, these complexes increased peak plasma concentration of curcumin by 6 times and oral bioavailability by ~20 times. This is a simple, economic and safer strategy of enhancing the oral bioavailability of curcumin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. One-step synthesis and applications of fluorescent Cu nanoclusters stabilized by L-cysteine in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoming; Feng, Yuanjiao; Zhu, Shanshan; Luo, Yawen; Zhuo, Yan; Dou, Yao

    2014-10-17

    Herein, an innovative and simple strategy for synthesizing high fluorescent Cu nanoclusters was successfully established while L-cysteine played a role as the stabilizer. Meaningfully, the current Cu nanoclusters together with a quantum yield of 14.3% were prepared in aqueous solution, indicating their extensive applications. Subsequently, the possible fluorescence mechanism was elucidated by fluorescence, UV-vis, HR-TEM, FTIR, XPS, and MS. Additionally, the CuNCs were employed for assaying Hg(2+) on the basis of the interactions between Hg(2+) and L-cysteine; thus facilitating the quenching of their fluorescence. The proposed analytical strategy permitted detections of Hg(2+) in a linear range of 1.0×10(-7) mol L(-1)×10(-3) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 2.4×10(-8) mol L(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Significantly, this CuNCs described here were further applied for coding and fluorescent staining, suggesting may broaden avenues toward diverse applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ternary system of dihydroartemisinin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and lecithin: simultaneous enhancement of drug solubility and stability in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Haiyan; Gu, Jingkai; Guo, Tao; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Xueju; Zhu, Weifeng; Zhang, Jiwen

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously improve the solubility and stability of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in aqueous solutions by a ternary cyclodextrin system comprised of DHA, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and a third auxiliary substance. Solubility and phase solubility studies were carried out to evaluate the solubilizing efficiency of HP-β-CD in association with various auxiliary substances. Then, the solid binary (DHA-HP-β-CD or DHA-lecithin) and ternary systems were prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and power X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The effect of the ternary system on the solubility, dissolution and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions was also investigated. As a result, the soybean lecithin was found to be the most promising third component in terms of solubility enhancement. For the solid characterization, the disappearance of the drug crystallinity indicated the formation of new solid phases, implicating the formation of the ternary system. The dissolution rate of the solid ternary system was much faster than that of the drug alone and binary systems. Importantly, compared with binary systems, the ternary system showed a significant improvement in the stability of DHA in Hank's balanced salt solutions (pH 7.4). The solubility and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions were simultaneously enhanced by the ternary system, which might be attributed to the possible formation of a ternary complex. For the ternary interactions, results of molecular docking studies further indicated that the lecithin covered the top of the wide rim of HP-β-CD and surrounded around the peroxide bridging of DHA, providing the possibility for the ternary complex formation. In summary, the ternary system prepared in our study, with simultaneous enhancement of DHA solubility and stability in aqueous solutions, might have an important pharmaceutical potential in the development of a better

  11. Liquid foam templating - A route to tailor-made polymer foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Sébastien; Quell, Aggeliki; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Drenckhan, Wiebke

    2018-06-01

    Solid foams with pore sizes between a few micrometres and a few millimetres are heavily exploited in a wide range of established and emerging applications. While the optimisation of foam applications requires a fine control over their structural properties (pore size distribution, pore opening, foam density, …), the great complexity of most foaming processes still defies a sound scientific understanding and therefore explicit control and prediction of these parameters. We therefore need to improve our understanding of existing processes and also develop new fabrication routes which we understand and which we can exploit to tailor-make new porous materials. One of these new routes is liquid templating in general and liquid foam templating in particular, to which this review article is dedicated. While all solid foams are generated from an initially liquid(-like) state, the particular notion of liquid foam templating implies the specific condition that the liquid foam has time to find its "equilibrium structure" before it is solidified. In other words, the characteristic time scales of the liquid foam's stability and its solidification are well separated, allowing to build on the vast know-how on liquid foams established over the last 20 years. The dispersed phase of the liquid foam determines the final pore size and pore size distribution, while the continuous phase contains the precursors of the desired porous scaffold. We review here the three key challenges which need to be addressed by this approach: (1) the control of the structure of the liquid template, (2) the matching of the time scales between the stability of the liquid template and solidification, and (3) the preservation of the structure of the template throughout the process. Focusing on the field of polymer foams, this review gives an overview of recent research on the properties of liquid foam templates and summarises a key set of studies in the emerging field of liquid foam templating. It

  12. Foam film permeability: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Krastev, R; Zitha, Pacelli L J

    2008-02-28

    The mass transfer of gas through foam films is a prototype of various industrial and biological processes. The aim of this paper is to give a perspective and critical overview of studies carried out to date on the mass transfer of gas through foam films. Contemporary experimental data are summarized, and a comprehensive overview of the theoretical models used to explain the observed effects is given. A detailed description of the processes that occur when a gas molecule passes through each layer that forms a foam film is shown. The permeability of the film-building surfactant monolayers plays an important role for the whole permeability process. It can be successfully described by the models used to explain the permeability of surfactant monolayers on aqueous sub-phase. For this reason, the present paper briefly discusses the surfactant-induced resistance to mass transfer of gases through gas-liquid interface. One part of the paper discusses the experimental and theoretical aspects of the foam film permeability in a train of foam films in a matrix or a cylinder. This special case is important to explain the gas transfer in porous media or in foams. Finally, this paper will highlight the gaps and challenges and sketch possible directions for future research.

  13. Study on a Novel Gelled Foam for Conformance Control in High Temperature and High Salinity Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel gelled foam for conformance control was investigated for its ability to enhance oil recovery (EOR in high temperature and high salinity reservoirs. The formulation optimization, foaming performance, and core flooding performance of the gelled foam were systematically evaluated under harsh reservoir conditions. The gelled foam formulation was optimized with 0.4% polymer (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide; HPAM, 0.06% cross-linker (phenolic and 0.2% foaming agent (sulphobetaine; SB. The addition of the gel improved the stability of the foam system by 3.8 times that of traditional foam. A stabilization mechanism in the gelled foam was proposed to describe the stabilization process of the foam film. The uniformly distributed three-dimensional network structure of the gel provided a thick protective layer for the foam system that maintained the stability of the foam and improved the strength and thickness of the liquid film. The gelled foam exhibited good formation adaptability, profile control, and EOR performance. The foam flowed into the high permeability layer, plugged the dominant channel, and increased the swept volume. Oil recovery was enhanced by 29.4% under harsh high -temperature and high salinity conditions.

  14. Polyurethane-Foam Maskant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemeijer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Brown wax previously used to mask hardware replaced with polyurethane foam in electroplating and electroforming operations. Foam easier to apply and remove than wax and does not contaminate electrolytes.

  15. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  16. Flexible ITO-free organic solar cells applying aqueous solution-processed V2O5 hole transport layer: An outdoor stability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Anderson S. Lima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solution processable semiconductor oxides have opened a new paradigm for the enhancement of the lifetime of thin film solar cells. Their fabrication by low-cost and environmentally friendly solution-processable methods makes them ideal barrier (hole and electron transport layers. In this work, we fabricate flexible ITO-free organic solar cells (OPV by printing methods applying an aqueous solution-processed V2O5 as the hole transport layer (HTL and compared them to devices applying PEDOT:PSS. The transparent conducting electrode was PET/Ag/PEDOT/ZnO, and the OPV configuration was PET/Ag/PEDOT/ZnO/P3HT:PC60BM/HTL/Ag. Outdoor stability analyses carried out for more than 900 h revealed higher stability for devices fabricated with the aqueous solution-processed V2O5.

  17. Naturally cured foamed concrete with improved thermal insulation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashkin Nikolay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to investigation on improvement of thermal insulation properties of non-autoclaved concrete by increasing aggregate stability of foamed concrete mixture. The study demonstrates influence of mineral admixtures on the foam stability index in the mortar mixture and on decrease of foamed concrete density and thermal conductivity. The effect of mineral admixtures on thermal conductivity properties of non-autoclaved concrete was assessed through different ways of their addition: to the foam and to the mortar mixture. The admixtures were milled up to the specific surface area of 300 and 600 m2/kg using an AГO-9 centrifugal attrition mill with continuous operation mode (Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk. Laboratory turbulent foam concrete mixer was used to prepare foamed concrete. Thermal conductivity coefficient was defined by a quick method using “ИTП-MГ 4 “Zond” thermal conductivity meter in accordance with the regulatory documents. The impact of modifiers on the foam structure stability was defined using the foam stability index for the mortar mixture. The research demonstrated the increase in stability of porous structure of non-autoclaved concrete when adding wollastonite and diopside. Improvement of thermal and physical properties was demonstrated, the decrease of thermal conductivity coefficient reaches 0.069 W/(m×°C

  18. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  19. Growth kinetics and long-term stability of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous solution under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M.; Luther, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquity of naturally occurring nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is now widely accepted, but a better understanding of the conditions that promote their formation and persistence is needed. Using cadmium sulfide (CdS) as a model metal sulfide species, thiolate-capped CdS nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory to evaluate how aquatic conditions influence metal sulfide nanoparticle growth and stability. This work examines CdS nanoparticle growth directly in aqueous solution at room temperature by utilizing the size-dependent spectroscopic properties of semiconductors detectable by UV/vis. CdS nanoparticle growth was governed by oriented attachment, a non-classical mechanism of crystallization in which small precursor nanoparticles coalesce to form larger nanoparticle products. Nanoparticle growth was slowed with increasing capping agent and decreasing ionic strength. In addition to examining the short-term (hours) growth of the nanoparticles, a long-term study was conducted in which cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were monitored over 3 weeks in solutions of various ionic strengths. The long-term study revealed an apparent shift from small nanoparticles to nanoparticles twice their original size, suggesting nanoparticle growth may continue through oriented attachment over longer time scales. High-ionic strength solutions resulted in salt-induced aggregation and eventual settling of nanoparticles within days, whereas low-ionic strength solutions were stable against settling over the course of the experiment. Sulfide recovery from cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles as acid volatile sulfide was nearly quantitative after 2 weeks in fully oxygenated water, demonstrating significantly slowed oxidation of sulfide when complexed to Cd(II) within CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were also shown to be resistant to oxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxide. This study illustrates that aggregation, rather than chemical oxidation, is likely more important to the

  20. Domain growth kinetics in stratifying foam films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-11-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness characteristic scaling laws. Though several studies have focused on the expansion dynamics of isolated domains that exhibit a diffusion-like scaling, the change in expansion kinetics observed after domains contact with the Plateau border has not been reported and analyzed before.

  1. Investigation of Chemical-Foam Design as a Novel Approach toward Immiscible Foam Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Nasab, S M; Zitha, P L J

    2017-10-19

    Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil. Moreover, strong foam could create a large pressure gradient, which may cause fractures in the reservoir. This study presents a novel chemical-foam flooding process for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from water-flooded reservoirs. The presented method involved the use of chemically designed foam to mobilize the remaining oil after water flooding and then to displace the mobilized oil to the production well. A blend of two anionic surfactant formulations was formulated for this method: (a) IOS, for achieving ultralow interfacial tension (IFT), and (b) AOS, for generating a strong foam. Experiments were performed using Bentheimer sandstone cores, where X-ray CT images were taken during foam generation to find the stability of the advancing front of foam propagation and to map the gas saturation for both the transient and the steady-state flow regimes. Then the proposed chemical-foam strategy for incremental oil recovery was tested through the coinjection of immiscible nitrogen gas and surfactant solutions with three different formulation properties in terms of IFT reduction and foaming strength capability. The discovered optimal formulation contains a foaming agent surfactant, a low IFT surfactant, and a cosolvent, which has a high foam stability and a considerably low IFT (1.6 × 10 -2 mN/m). Coinjection resulted in higher oil recovery and much less MRF than the same process with only using a foaming agent. The oil displacement experiment revealed that coinjection of gas with a blend of surfactants, containing a cosolvent, can recover a significant amount of oil (33% OIIP) over water flooding with a larger amount of clean oil and less emulsion.

  2. Foam - novel delivery technology for remediation of vadose zone environments - 59019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansik, Danielle; Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Zhang, Fred; Foote, Martin; Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Deep vadose zone environments can be a primary source and pathway for contaminant migration to groundwater. These environments present unique characterization and remediation challenges that necessitate scrutiny and research. The thickness, depth, and intricacies of the deep vadose zone, combined with a lack of understanding of the key subsurface processes (e.g., biogeochemical and hydrologic) affecting contaminant migration, make it difficult to create validated conceptual and predictive models of subsurface flow dynamics and contaminant behavior across multiple scales. These factors also make it difficult to design and deploy sustainable remedial approaches and monitor long-term contaminant behavior after remedial actions. Functionally, methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in the arid western United States where the vadose zone is hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous deep vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges that limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones that frequently contain the majority of contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to the underlying aquifer prior to stabilization. Development of innovative in-situ technologies may be the only means to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Surfactants can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams, which

  3. Studies of obtaining and stability in aqueous medium of new complex compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) used in ecological leather tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, Marian; Sibiescu, Doina; Rosca, Ioan; Sutiman, Daniel; Vizitiu, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the study of obtaining new coordination compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) using as ligand: D,L-β-iso-butyric acid, is presented. Also, the stability of these compounds in aqueous medium is studied. The studies of obtaining and of stability of the new compounds were accomplished in aqueous solutions using methods characteristic for coordination compounds: conductance and pH measurements. The combination ratios and the stability were determined with methods characteristic for studies in solutions. From experimental data resulted that the combination ratio of central metallic atoms with the ligand derived from D,L-β-iso-butyric acid was 1:2. From experimental data resulted that in strong acid and strong basic mediums, the coordination compounds could not be obtained. The optimal stability of the studied compounds is limited between 3-6, pH - values. This fact is in accordance with the conditions of using these compounds in ecological leather tanning. Of great importance is that these compounds were used with very good results in tanning processes of different types of leather. This fact evidenced that the ecological alternative of tanning is better than non-ecological tanning using chrome compounds. The importance of this paper consists in obtaining new coordination compounds that can be used in ecological leather tanning.

  4. The Influence of pH and Temperature on the Stability of N-[(Piperidinemethylene]daunorubicin Hydrochloride and a Comparison of the Stability of Daunorubicin and Its Four New Amidine Derivatives in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Piekarski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pH and temperature on the stability of N-[(piperidinemethylene]daunorubicin hydrochloride (PPD was investigated. Degradation was studied using an HPLC method. Specific acid-base catalysis of PPD involves hydrolysis of protonated molecules of PPD catalyzed by hydrogen ions and spontaneous hydrolysis under the influence of water zwitterions, unprotonated molecules, and monoanions of PPD. The thermodynamic parameters of these reactions, energy, enthalpy, and entropy, were calculated. Also, the stability of daunorubicin and its new amidine derivatives (piperidine, morpholine, pyrrolidine, and hexahydroazepin-1-yl in aqueous solutions was compared and discussed.

  5. Operator spin foam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kaminski, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin

  6. Biomass derived novel functional foamy materials - BIO-FOAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurnaekki, A.; Boer, H.; Forssell, P. (and others) (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: anna.suurnakki@vtt.fi

    2010-10-15

    BIO-FOAM has aimed at exploiting the potential of biomaterials in replacing synthetic polymers in solid foamy materials. The target applications have been various, including food, packaging, construction and insulation. The project activities during the second project year have focused on characterisation of the solid model foams and on modeling the behaviour of polymers at liquid- liquid interfaces. In the modelling study the intrinsic consistence of the applied thermodynamic approach was confirmed. The experimentally obtained solubility parameters of polymers were in good agreement with the calculated solubility parameters. The polymers were, however, found to posses too little surface activity to alone provide stable foams, but they were able to act as co-surfactants. In the model polymer foam work both expanded polymer foams and wood fibre based foams were prepared. Supercritical CO{sub 2}-gas chamber was found to be a useful tool to prepare expanded polymer foams in small scale. Only partial replacement of synthetic polymers could, however, be obtained with native biomaterials indicating the need of tailoring of biopolymer properties and suitable formulations including surfactants or stabilizing particles. In wood fibre-based foams both nanocellulose and lignin showed potential as additives or reinforcing components.The outcome of the extruded food snacks study was that the processing parameters were related with the equipmentvariables. Furthermore, glycerol was shown to facilitate greatly extrusion processing. In foam concrete work concrete pore structure was shown to correlate with its strength and stability. At optimum concentration wood fibres affected positively the concrete processing performance. (orig.)

  7. Alkylarylnitrosoureas--stability in aqueous solution, partition coefficient, alkylating activity and its relationship to SCE induction in Chinese hamster V 79-E cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, J; Thust, R; Schwarz, H

    1982-01-01

    The alkylating activity, chemical stability in aqueous solution (pH 7.0; 37 degrees C), and partition coefficient (octanol/water) of the following compounds were determined: 1-methyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea (MPNU), 1-ethyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea (EPNU), 1-isopropyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea (i-PrPNU), 1-methyl-3-(p-fluorophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (F-MPNU), 1-methyl-3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Cl-MPNU), 1-methyl-3-(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU), 1,3-dimethyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea (DMPNU), and 1-methyl-3-naphthyl-1-nitrosocarbamate (NCA). 1-Methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) and 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) were used for the comparison. THe rate of decomposition in aqueous solution is discussed concerning the influences of the substituents at the 1- and 3-N-atom. The mono- and disubstituted N-nitrosoureas showed a coarse correlation between alkylating activity and SCE induction in Chinese hamster V 79-E cells. On the other hand, this correlation is missing in the case of NCA, which is a potent SCE inducer despite relatively low alkylating activity. DMPNU is the strongest SCE inducer, but this compound shows a high stability in aqueous solution and, consequently, we were not able to detect an alkylating activity.

  8. Determination of stability constants for thallium(III) cyanide complexes in aqueous solution by means of 13C and 205Ti NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blixt, J.; Gyori, B.; Glaser, J.

    1989-01-01

    In contrast to what is usually assumed, we have found and proved that thallium(III) forms very strong cyanide complexes in aqueous solution. The authors have investigated this system using 205 Tl, 13 C, and 14 N NMR and potentiometry and established the existence of four thallium(III)-cyanide complexes of the composition Tl(CN) n 3-n , n = 1-4. We have measured their chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants and determined their formation constants at 25 degree C in dilute (0.05 M) aqueous solution in the ionic medium ([Na + ] = 1 M, [Li + ] + [H + ] = 3 M, [ClO 4 - ] = 4 M). We have also determined the stability constant for HCN in the same ionic medium, log K a = 10.11 (5)

  9. The stability of poly(2,2′-(m-phenylene)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole) membranes in aqueous potassium hydroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    25wt%. This work is devoted to a comprehensive stability study of mPBI in aqueous KOH of different concentrations for up to 200 days under conditions relevant for electrochemical energy conversion technologies. The polymer membranes were kept at 88°C in aqueous KOH with concentrations ranging from 0...... to 50wt%, and the chemical and physicochemical changes were monitored. The degradation was connected to the hydrolysis of the polymer backbone and the degradation rate increased with increasing KOH concentration. In the lower concentration range mPBI proved to be stable but exhibited low ionic...... conductivity (10−4Scm−1). The preparation of a porous mPBI matrix was demonstrated as an effective approach to increase the ionic conductivity in the lower KOH concentration range, with great potential for further improvement through optimization of the porous structure....

  10. Applications of Polymer Matrix Syntactic Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Zeltmann, Steven E.; Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Pinisetty, Dinesh

    2013-11-01

    A collection of applications of polymer matrix syntactic foams is presented in this article. Syntactic foams are lightweight porous composites that found their early applications in marine structures due to their naturally buoyant behavior and low moisture absorption. Their light weight has been beneficial in weight sensitive aerospace structures. Syntactic foams have pushed the performance boundaries for composites and have enabled the development of vehicles for traveling to the deepest parts of the ocean and to other planets. The high volume fraction of porosity in syntactic foams also enabled their applications in thermal insulation of pipelines in oil and gas industry. The possibility of tailoring the mechanical and thermal properties of syntactic foams through a combination of material selection, hollow particle volume fraction, and hollow particle wall thickness has helped in rapidly growing these applications. The low coefficient of thermal expansion and dimensional stability at high temperatures are now leading their use in electronic packaging, composite tooling, and thermoforming plug assists. Methods have been developed to tailor the mechanical and thermal properties of syntactic foams independent of each other over a wide range, which is a significant advantage over other traditional particulate and fibrous composites.

  11. Radiation effects on polyethylene foam of open cell type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Beilin; Kanako Kaji; Iwao Yoshizawa; Choji Kohara; Motoyoshi Hatada

    1991-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on polyethylene foam of open cell type have been studied. Experiments for determining of gel fraction and physical-mechanical properties of irradiated polyethylene foam of open cell type as a function of dose, respectively, were carried out. The dimensional stability of irradiated specimens at elevated temperatures was measured. It was found that tensile strength did not change and gel fraction increased when the specimen was irradiated in nitrogen atmosphere with increasing dose up to 300 kGy. The result shows that dimensional stability of polyethylene foam of open cell type after being kept in an oven at 70 deg C and 110 deg C for 22 h is improved by irradiation in nitrogen atmosphere. The similar results of irradiated EVA foam of open cell type irradiated foam of open cell type were obtained

  12. Nanocellular foam with solid flame retardant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Kelly-Rowley, Anne M.; Bunker, Shana P.; Costeux, Stephane

    2017-11-21

    Prepare nanofoam by (a) providing an aqueous solution of a flame retardant dissolved in an aqueous solvent, wherein the flame retardant is a solid at 23.degree. C. and 101 kiloPascals pressure when in neat form; (b) providing a fluid polymer composition selected from a solution of polymer dissolved in a water-miscible solvent or a latex of polymer particles in a continuous aqueous phase; (c) mixing the aqueous solution of flame retardant with the fluid polymer composition to form a mixture; (d) removing water and, if present, solvent from the mixture to produce a polymeric composition having less than 74 weight-percent flame retardant based on total polymeric composition weight; (e) compound the polymeric composition with a matrix polymer to form a matrix polymer composition; and (f) foam the matrix polymer composition into nanofoam having a porosity of at least 60 percent.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  14. Thermosetting Fluoropolymer Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng Yen

    1987-01-01

    New process makes fluoropolymer foams with controllable amounts of inert-gas fillings in foam cells. Thermosetting fluoropolymers do not require foaming additives leaving undesirable residues and do not have to be molded and sintered at temperatures of about 240 to 400 degree C. Consequently, better for use with electronic or other parts sensitive to high temperatures or residues. Uses include coatings, electrical insulation, and structural parts.

  15. High performance polymeric foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy

  16. Fire-retardant foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  17. Stability indicating HPLC-DAD method for analysis of Ketorolac binary and ternary mixtures in eye drops: Quantitative analysis in rabbit aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazbi, Fawzy A; Hassan, Ekram M; Khamis, Essam F; Ragab, Marwa A A; Hamdy, Mohamed M A

    2017-11-15

    Ketorolac tromethamine (KTC) with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) binary mixture (mixture 1) and their ternary mixture with chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) (mixture 2) were analyzed using a validated HPLC-DAD method. The developed method was suitable for the in vitro as well as quantitative analysis of the targeted mixtures in rabbit aqueous humor. The analysis in dosage form (eye drops) was a stability indicating one at which drugs were separated from possible degradation products arising from different stress conditions (in vitro analysis). For analysis in aqueous humor, Guaifenesin (GUF) was used as internal standard and the method was validated according to FDA regulation for analysis in biological fluids. Agilent 5 HC-C18(2) 150×4.6mm was used as stationary phase with a gradient eluting solvent of 20mM phosphate buffer pH 4.6 containing 0.2% triethylamine and acetonitrile. The drugs were resolved with retention times of 2.41, 5.26, 7.92 and 9.64min for PHE, GUF, KTC and CPM, respectively. The method was sensitive and selective to analyze simultaneously the three drugs in presence of possible forced degradation products and dosage form excipients (in vitro analysis) and also with the internal standard, in presence of aqueous humor interferences (analysis in biological fluid), at a single wavelength (261nm). No extraction procedure was required for analysis in aqueous humor. The simplicity of the method emphasizes its capability to analyze the drugs in vivo (in rabbit aqueous humor) and in vitro (in pharmaceutical formulations). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Flexible Foam Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Werner, Brian T.; Scherzinger, William M.; Lo, Chi S.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of a 15 pcf flexible polyurethane foam to large deformation at different strain rates and temperatures. Results from these experiments indicated that at room temperature, flexible polyurethane foams exhibit significant nonlinear elastic deformation and nearly return to their original undeformed shape when unloaded. However, when these foams are cooled to temperatures below their glass transition temperature of approximately -35 o C, they behave like rigid polyurethane foams and exhibit significant permanent deformation when compressed. Thus, a new model which captures this dramatic change in behavior with temperature was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Flex_Foam to describe the mechanical response of both flexible and rigid foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments. Next, development of the Flex Foam model for flexible polyurethane and other flexible foams is described. Selection of material parameters are discussed and finite element simulations with the new Flex Foam model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this new model.

  19. Design and synthesis of dimethylaminomethyl-substituted curcumin derivatives/analogues: potent antitumor and antioxidant activity, improved stability and aqueous solubility compared with curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xubin; Fang, Lei; Gou, Shaohua; Cheng, Lin

    2013-03-01

    A series of dimethylaminomethyl-substituted curcumin derivatives/analogues were designed and synthesized. All compounds effectively inhibited HepG2, SGC-7901, A549 and HCT-116 tumor cell lines proliferation in MTT assay. Particularly, compounds 2a and 3d showed much better activity than curcumin against all of the four tumor cell lines. Antioxidant test revealed that these compounds had higher free radical scavenging activity than curcumin towards both DPPH and galvinoxyl radicals. Furthermore, the aqueous solubility and stability of the target compounds were also significantly improved compared with curcumin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Foam Glass for Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund

    2016-01-01

    Foaming is commonly achieved by adding foaming agents such as metal oxides or metal carbonates to glass powder. At elevated temperature, the glass melt becomes viscous and the foaming agents decompose or react to form gas, causing a foamy glass melt. Subsequent cooling to room temperature, result...... in a solid foam glass. The foam glass industry employs a range of different melt precursors and foaming agents. Recycle glass is key melt precursors. Many parameters influence the foaming process and optimising the foaming conditions is very time consuming. The most challenging and attractive goal is to make...... low density foam glass for thermal insulation applications. In this thesis, it is argued that the use of metal carbonates as foaming agents is not suitable for low density foam glass. A reaction mechanism is proposed to justify this result. Furthermore, an in situ method is developed to optimise...

  1. Beer foam physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and

  2. Design Method for Proportion of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junxiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through foaming experiment of Zhongtai AH-70 asphalt, the best foaming temperature water consumption and influence factors of foamed asphalt’s foaming features are determined; By designing the proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, for this mixture the best foamed asphalt addition is 3%, and proportion of the mixture is RAP: fine aggregate: cement=75:23:2. Using SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by the addition of cement was analysed. This research provides reference for cement admixture’s formulation in the designing of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture.

  3. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment processes usually involve concentration of radionuclides before waste can be immobilized by storing it in stable solid form. Foaming is observed at various stages of waste processing like sludge chemical processing and melter operations. Hence, the objective of this research was to study the mechanisms that produce foaming during nuclear waste treatment, to identify key parameters which aggravate foaming, and to identify effective ways to eliminate or mitigate foaming. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomenon, suspension rheology, and bubble generation and interactions that lead to the formation of foam during waste processing were pursued under this EMSP project. Advanced experimental techniques including a novel capillary force balance in conjunction with the combined differential and common interferometry were developed to characterize particle-particle interactions at the foam lamella surfaces as well as inside the foam lamella. Laboratory tests were conducted using a non-radioactive simulant slurry containing high levels of noble metals and mercury similar to the High-Level Waste. We concluded that foaminess of the simulant sludge was due to the presence of colloidal particles such as aluminum, iron, and manganese. We have established the two major mechanisms of formation and stabilization of foams containing such colloidal particles: (1) structural and depletion forces; and (2) steric stabilization due to the adsorbed particles at the surfaces of the foam lamella. Based on this mechanistic understanding of foam generation and stability, an improved antifoam agent was developed by us, since commercial antifoam agents were found to be ineffective in the aggressive physical and chemical environment present in the sludge processing. The improved antifoamer was subsequently tested in a pilot plant at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and was found to be effective. Also, in the SRTC experiment, the irradiated

  4. The Modification of Polyurethane Foams Using New Boroorganic Polyols (II) Polyurethane Foams from Boron-Modified Hydroxypropyl Urea Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The work focuses on research related to determination of application possibility of new, ecofriendly boroorganic polyols in rigid polyurethane foams production. Polyols were obtained from hydroxypropyl urea derivatives esterified with boric acid and propylene carbonate. The influence of esterification type on properties of polyols and next on polyurethane foams properties was determined. Nitrogen and boron impacts on the foams' properties were discussed, for instance, on their physical, mechanical, and electric properties. Boron presence causes improvement of dimensional stability and thermal stability of polyurethane foams. They can be applied even at temperature 150°C. Unfortunately, introducing boron in polyurethanes foams affects deterioration of their water absorption, which increases as compared to the foams that do not contain boron. However, presence of both boron and nitrogen determines the decrease of the foams combustibility. Main impact on the decrease combustibility of the obtained foams has nitrogen presence, but in case of proper boron and nitrogen ratio their synergic activity on the combustibility decrease can be easily seen. PMID:24587721

  5. Technological parameters influence on the non-autoclaved foam concrete characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartenjeva, Ekaterina; Mashkin, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Foam concretes are used as effective heat-insulating materials. The porous structure of foam concrete provides good insulating and strength properties that make them possible to be used as heat-insulating structural materials. Optimal structure of non-autoclaved foam concrete depends on both technological factors and properties of technical foam. In this connection, the possibility to manufacture heat-insulation structural foam concrete on a high-speed cavity plant with the usage of protein and synthetic foamers was estimated. This experiment was carried out using mathematical planning method, and in this case mathematical models were developed that demonstrated the dependence of operating performance of foam concrete on foaming and rotation speed of laboratory plant. The following material properties were selected for the investigation: average density, compressive strength, bending strength and thermal conductivity. The influence of laboratory equipment technological parameters on technical foam strength and foam stability coefficient in the cement paste was investigated, physical and mechanical properties of non-autoclaved foam concrete were defined based on investigated foam. As a result of investigation, foam concrete samples were developed with performance parameters ensuring their use in production. The mathematical data gathered demonstrated the dependence of foam concrete performance on the technological regime.

  6. Crystalline phase, microstructure, and aqueous stability of zirconolite-barium borosilicate glass-ceramics for immobilization of simulated sulfate bearing high-level liquid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lang; Xiao, Jizong; Wang, Xin; Teng, Yuancheng; Li, Yuxiang; Liao, Qilong

    2018-01-01

    The crystalline phase, microstructure, and aqueous stability of zirconolite-barium borosilicate glass-ceramics with different content (0-30 wt %) of simulated sulfate bearing high-level liquid waste (HLLW) were evaluated. The sulfate phase segregation in vitrification process was also investigated. The results show that the glass-ceramics with 0-20 wt% of HLLW possess mainly zirconolite phase along with a small amount baddeleyite phase. The amount of perovskite crystals increases while the amount of zirconolite crystals decreases when the HLLW content increases from 20 to 30 wt%. For the samples with 20-30 wt% HLLW, yellow phase was observed during the vitrification process and it disappeared after melting at 1150 °C for 2 h. The viscosity of the sample with 16 wt% HLLW (HLLW-16) is about 27 dPa·s at 1150 °C. The addition of a certain amount (≤20 wt %) of HLLW has no significant change on the aqueous stability of glass-ceramic waste forms. After 28 days, the 90 °C PCT-type normalized leaching rates of Na, B, Si, and La of the sample HLLW-16 are 7.23 × 10-3, 1.57 × 10-3, 8.06 × 10-4, and 1.23 × 10-4 g·m-2·d-1, respectively.

  7. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kotlyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products. Introduction

  8. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products.

  9. Foams prepared from whey protein isolate and egg white protein: 2. Changes associated with angel food cake functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tristan K; Yang, Xin; Foegeding, E Allen

    2009-06-01

    The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality.

  10. Hemoglobin bioconjugates with surface-protected gold nanoparticles in aqueous media: The stability depends on solution pH and protein properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Caño, Rafael; Mateus, Lucia; Sánchez-Obrero, Guadalupe; Sevilla, José Manuel; Madueño, Rafael; Blázquez, Manuel; Pineda, Teresa

    2017-11-01

    The identification of the factors that dictate the formation and physicochemical properties of protein-nanomaterial bioconjugates are important to understand their behavior in biological systems. The present work deals with the formation and characterization of bioconjugates made of the protein hemoglobin (Hb) and gold nanoparticles (AuNP) capped with three different molecular layers (citrate anions (c), 6-mercaptopurine (MP) and ω-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA)). The main focus is on the behavior of the bioconjugates in aqueous buffered solutions in a wide pH range. The stability of the bioconjugates have been studied by UV-visible spectroscopy by following the changes in the localized surface resonance plasmon band (LSRP), Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta-potential pH titrations. It has been found that they are stable in neutral and alkaline solutions and, at pH lower than the protein isoelectric point, aggregation takes place. Although the surface chemical properties of the AuNPs confer different properties in respect to colloidal stability, once the bioconjugates are formed their properties are dictated by the Hb protein corona. The protein secondary structure, as analyzed by Attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, seems to be maintained under the conditions of colloidal stability but some small changes in protein conformation take place when the bioconjugates aggregate. These findings highlight the importance to keep the protein structure upon interaction with nanomaterials to drive the stability of the bioconjugates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological comparison of PVA scaffolds obtained by gas foaming and microfluidic foaming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosi, Cristina; Costantini, Marco; Barbetta, Andrea; Pecci, Raffaella; Bedini, Rossella; Dentini, Mariella

    2013-01-08

    In this article, we have exploited a microfluidic foaming technique for the generation of highly monodisperse gas-in-liquid bubbles as a templating system for scaffolds characterized by an ordered and homogeneous porous texture. An aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution (containing a surfactant) and a gas (argon) are injected simultaneously at constant flow rates in a flow-focusing device (FFD), in which the gas thread breaks up to form monodisperse bubbles. Immediately after its formation, the foam is collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried, and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In order to highlight the superior morphological quality of the obtained porous material, a comparison between this scaffold and another one, also constituted of PVA but obtained with a traditional gas foaming technique, was carried out. Such a comparison has been conducted by analyzing electron microscopy and X-ray microtomographic images of the two samples. It turned out that the microfluidic produced scaffold was characterized by much more uniform porous texture than the gas-foaming one as witnessed by narrower pore size, interconnection, and wall thickness distributions. On the other side, scarce pore interconnectivity, relatively low pore volume, and limited production rate represent, by now, the principal disadvantages of microfluidic foaming as scaffold fabrication method, emphasizing the kind of improvement that this technique needs to undergo.

  12. Extraction behavior of uranium(VI) with polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingchia Huang; Donghwang Chen; Muchang Shieh; Chingtsven Huang

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution with polyether-based polyurethane (PU) foam was studied. The effects of the kinds and concentrations of nitrate salts, uranium(VI) concentration, temperature, nitric acid concentration, pH, the content of poly(ethylene oxide) in the polyurethane foam, and the ratio of PU foam weight and solution volume on the extraction of uranium(VI) were investigated. The interferences of fluoride and carbonate ions on the extraction of uranium(VI) were also examined, and methods to overcome both interferences were suggested. It was found that no uranium was extracted in the absence of a nitrate salting-out agent, and the extraction behaviors of uranium(IV) with polyurethane foam could be explained in terms of an etherlike solvent extraction mechanism. In addition, the percentage extraction of a multiple stage was also estimated theoretically

  13. Experimental study and modeling of the rheology and hydraulics in the foam drilling; Estudos experimentais e modelagem da reologia e da hidraulica na perfuracao com espuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Andre L.; Sa, Carlos H.M. de; Lourenco, Affonso M.F.; S. Junior, Valter [PETROBRAS, S.A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mails: aleibsohn@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; chsa@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; affonso-lourenco@utulsa.edu; vsj@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This article describes the extense experimental effort for analyzing the foam stability and rheological properties for application as light drilling fluid. The study considered the influence of the foaming and concentration on the foam rheology and the gas volumetric fraction on the foam rheological properties. Simple correlations were proposed for quantification of the experimental behaviour. Field tests were performed to evaluate one of the foaming agents analyzed in laboratory by using 16 combinations of the gas-fluid flow.

  14. Elaboration of recycled polyethylene foams reticulated by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia M, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work some obtained results are presented to make irradiation tests on recycled polymeric material (polyethylene) as well as mixtures of this with certain additive classes (foaming and reticulating agents) which will be used for the foams elaboration, objective of this work. Two types of foaming basically exist which are elaborated with low density polyethylene base. They are: a) the extruded and, b) the reticulated through ionizing radiation and chemically. Some of the properties that the expanded or foamed polyethylene are: flexibility, resistance, thermal stability, inter medium mechanical properties between the highly flexible foams and rigid among others. All of them determined by the cell type which conform them. Also was carried out the characterization of the obtained material contributing of this manner to diminish the quantity of solid wastes generated. (Author)

  15. An investigation on the chemical stability and a novel strategy for long-term stabilization of diphenylalanine nanostructures in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nezammahalleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of diphenylalanine (FF microwires and microtubes in phosphate buffer solution was investigated and a novel strategy was developed for their chemical stabilization. This stability investigation was carried out by optical microscopy and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. These microstructures dissolve in the solution depending upon their degree of FF saturation. The dissolution mechanisms of the structures in kinetically limited processes were found by accurately fitting the experimental dissolution data to a theoretical kinetic equation. The dissolution data were well fitted to the particular Avrami-Erofe’ev kinetic expression (R2 > 0.98. These findings suggest that the structures can be stabilized by a decrease in the hydration of the constituent molecules thorough a chemical conformational induced transition upon heat treatment. The stable microtubes were fabricated in a novel three step procedure consisting of the reduction of silver ions in unstable FF microtubes by a citrate reductant, the stabilization by chemical conformational induced transition upon heat treatment, and the consequent oxidation of the reduced silver by a persulfate oxidant. These materials were characterized by electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The long-term stability of both structures was also confirmed by optical microscopy and HPLC.

  16. Effect of fluid elasticity on the numerical stability of high-resolution schemes for high shearing contraction flows using OpenFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chourushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscoelastic fluids due to their non-linear nature play an important role in process and polymer industries. These non-linear characteristics of fluid, influence final outcome of the product. Such processes though look simple are numerically challenging to study, due to the loss of numerical stability. Over the years, various methodologies have been developed to overcome this numerical limitation. In spite of this, numerical solutions are considered distant from accuracy, as first-order upwind-differencing scheme (UDS is often employed for improving the stability of algorithm. To elude this effect, some works been reported in the past, where high-resolution-schemes (HRS were employed and Deborah number was varied. However, these works are limited to creeping flows and do not detail any information on the numerical stability of HRS. Hence, this article presents the numerical study of high shearing contraction flows, where stability of HRS are addressed in reference to fluid elasticity. Results suggest that all HRS show some order of undue oscillations in flow variable profiles, measured along vertical lines placed near contraction region in the upstream section of domain, at varied elasticity number E≈5. Furthermore, by E, a clear relationship between numerical stability of HRS and E was obtained, which states that the order of undue oscillations in flow variable profiles is directly proportional to E.

  17. The impact of packaging materials on the antioxidant phytochemical stability of aqueous infusions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Welt, Bruce A; Talcott, Stephen T

    2011-05-11

    Ready to drink (RTD) teas are a growing segment in the beverage category, brought about by improvements in the flavor of these products and healthy market trends driven by consumers. The presented results evaluated the antioxidant phytochemical stability of RTD teas from aqueous infusions of traditional green tea (Camellia sinensis) and a botanical tea from yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) as influenced by packaging materials during cold storage. Two common packaging materials for RTD products are glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and have been compared to a retortable pouch (RP), an emerging packaging material for various types of food since it is durable, inexpensive, lightweight, and easy to sterilize. Storage stability was then evaluated for each aqueous infusion prepared at 10 g/L at 90 °C for 10 min and evaluated at 3 °C in the absence of light over 12 weeks. Analyses included quantification and characterization of individual polyphenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry as well as changes in total antioxidant capacity. For green tea, concentrations of the three major flavan-3-ols, epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin gallate were better retained in glass bottles as compared to other packages over 12 weeks. In yaupon holly, chlorogenic acid and its isomers that were the predominant compounds were generally stable in each packaging material, and a 20.6-fold higher amount of saponin was found as compared to green tea, which caused higher stability of flavonol glycosides present in yaupon holly during storage. The antioxidant capacity of green tea was better retained in glass and PET versus RP, whereas no differences were again observed for yaupon holly. Results highlight the superiority of oxygen-impervious glass packaging, but viable alternatives may be utilizable for RTD teas with variable phytochemical compositions.

  18. Technology of foamed propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnlein-Mauss, Jutta; Kroeber, Hartmut [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Foamed propellants are based on crystalline explosives bonded in energetic reaction polymers. Due to their porous structures they are distinguished by high burning rates. Energy content and material characteristics can be varied by using different energetic fillers, energetic polymers and porous structures. Foamed charges can be produced easily by the reaction injection moulding process. For the manufacturing of foamed propellants a semi-continuous remote controlled production plant in pilot scale was set up and a modified reaction injection moulding process was applied. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Development and validation of UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS for carteolol in aqueous humour: Stability, stress degradation and application in pharmacokinetics of nanoformulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameeduzzafar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carteolol (CRT is currently under development as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of open angle glaucoma. The purpose of the present work is to develop and validate a stability indicating assay method and its application to estimate CRT in aqueous humour and study the pharmacokinetic parameters. An ultra performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC–MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of CRT in rabbit aqueous humour, using propranolol as the internal standard (I.S.. Aqueous humour samples were prepared by a simple liquid–liquid extraction technique (LLE. The analyte and internal standard were separated by an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100.0 × 2.1 mm; 1.7 μm column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile – 2 mM (milli mole ammonium acetate (90/10, v/v over 3 min of retention time. Detection was based on the multiple reactions monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 293.2 → 237.12 for CRT and m/z 260.09 → 183.04 for I.S. The method was validated according to FDA guidelines on the bio-analytical method validation. The method developed was linear (r2 = 0.999 over the concentration range of 1–1000 ng/mL. The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, and stability were within the acceptable ranges. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of CRT as per ICH prescribed stress conditions, such as acid, base, oxidative and photolytic to show the forced of the method. Significant degradation was observed during basic stress condition. The pharmacokinetic study of CRT solution and nanoparticles in aqueous humour of rabbit eye was performed and results showed that CRT nanoparticles enhance the ocular bioavailability by 5.61-fold as compared to CRT-solution.

  20. Curcuma oil attenuates accelerated atherosclerosis and macrophage foam-cell formation by modulating genes involved in plaque stability, lipid homeostasis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Rana, Minakshi; Jain, Manish; Singh, Niharika; Naqvi, Arshi; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-14

    In the present study, the anti-atherosclerotic effect and the underlying mechanism of curcuma oil (C. oil), a lipophilic fraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), was evaluated in a hamster model of accelerated atherosclerosis and in THP-1 macrophages. Male golden Syrian hamsters were subjected to partial carotid ligation (PCL) or FeCl3-induced arterial oxidative injury (Ox-injury) after 1 week of treatment with a high-cholesterol (HC) diet or HC diet plus C. oil (100 and 300 mg/kg, orally). Hamsters fed with the HC diet were analysed at 1, 3 and 5 weeks following carotid injury. The HC diet plus C. oil-fed group was analysed at 5 weeks. In hyperlipidaemic hamsters with PCL or Ox-injury, C. oil (300 mg/kg) reduced elevated plasma and aortic lipid levels, arterial macrophage accumulation, and stenosis when compared with those subjected to arterial injury alone. Similarly, elevated mRNA transcripts of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45), TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β and IL-6 were reduced in atherosclerotic arteries, while those of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and IL-10 were increased after the C. oil treatment (300 mg/kg). The treatment with C. oil prevented HC diet- and oxidised LDL (OxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression of CD68 and CD36, and increased the mRNA expression of PPARα, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in both hyperlipidaemic hamster-derived peritoneal and THP-1 macrophages. The administration of C. oil suppressed the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ and increased the expression of TGF-β in peritoneal macrophages. In THP-1 macrophages, C. oil supplementation prevented OxLDL-induced production of TNF-α and IL-1β and increased the levels of TGF-β. The present study shows that C. oil attenuates arterial injury-induced accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and macrophage foam-cell formation.

  1. Dynamics of poroelastic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Yoel; Sobac, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    Soft poroelastic structures are widespread in biological tissues such as cartilaginous joints in bones, blood-filled placentae or plant organs. Here we investigate the dynamics of open elastic foams immersed in viscous fluids, as model soft poroelastic materials. The experiment consists in slowly compacting blocs of polyurethane solid foam embedded in silicon oil-tanks and studying their relaxation to equilibrium when the confining stress is suddenly released. Measurements of the local fluid pressure and foam velocity field are compared with a simple two-phase flow approach. For small initial compactions, the results show quantitative agreement with the classical diffusion theory of soil consolidation (Terzaghi, Biot). On the other hand, for large initial compactions, the dynamics exhibits long relaxation times and decompaction fronts, which are mainly controlled by the highly non-linear mechanical response of the foam. The analogy between this process and the evaporation of a polymer melt close to the glass transition will be briefly discussed.

  2. Human Lactoferricin Is Partially Folded in Aqueous Solution and Is Better Stabilized in a Membrane Mimetic Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Howard N.; Demcoe, A. Ross; Jenssen, Håvard; Gutteberg, Tore J.; Vogel, Hans J.

    2005-01-01

    Lactoferricins are highly basic bioactive peptides that are released in the stomach through proteolytic cleavage of various lactoferrin proteins. Here we have determined the solution structure of human lactoferricin (LfcinH) by conventional two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods in both aqueous solution and a membrane mimetic solvent. Unlike the 25-residue bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB), which adopts a somewhat distorted antiparallel β sheet, the longer LfcinH peptide shows a helical content from Gln14 to Lys29 in the membrane mimetic solvent but a nonexistent β-sheet character in either the N- or C-terminal regions of the peptide. The helical characteristic of the LfcinH peptide resembles the conformation that this region adopts in the crystal structure of the intact protein. The LfcinH structure determined in aqueous solution displays a nascent helix in the form of a coiled conformation in the region from Gln14 to Lys29. Numerous hydrophobic interactions create the basis for the better-defined overall structure observed in the membrane mimetic solvent. The 49-residue LfcinH peptide isolated for these studies was found to be slightly longer than previously reported peptide preparations and was found to have an intact peptide bond between residues Ala11 and Val12. The distinct solution structures of LfcinH and LfcinB represent a novel difference in the physical properties of these two peptides, which contributes to their unique physiological activities. PMID:16048952

  3. Structural applications of metal foams considering material and geometrical uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mohammadreza

    the composite tube, including the sensitivity of the strength to input parameters such as the foam density, tube wall thickness, steel properties etc. Monte Carlo simulation is performed on aluminum foam filled tubes under three point bending conditions. The simulation method is nonlinear finite element analysis. Results show that the steel foam properties have a greater effect on ductility of the steel foam filled tube than its strength. Moreover, flexural strength is more sensitive to steel properties than to aluminum foam properties. Finally, the properties of hypothetical structural steel foam C-channels foamed are investigated via simulations. In thin-walled structural members, stability of the walls is the primary driver of structural limit states. Moreover, having a light weight is one of the main advantages of the thin-walled structural members. Therefore, thin-walled structural members made of steel foam exhibit improved strength while maintaining their low weight. Linear eigenvalue, finite strip method (FSM) and plastic collapse FE analysis is used to evaluate the strength and ductility of steel foam C-channels under uniform compression and bending. It is found that replacing steel walls of the C-channel with steel foam walls increases the local buckling resistance and decreases the global buckling resistance of the C-channel. By using the Sobol' decomposition, an optimum configuration for the variable density steel foam C-channel can be found. For high relative density, replacing solid steel of the lips and flange elements with steel foam increases the buckling strength. On the other hand, for low relative density replacing solid steel of the lips and flange elements with steel foam deceases the buckling strength. Moreover, it is shown that buckling strength of the steel foam C-channel is sensitive to the second order Sobol' indices. In summary, it is shown in this research that the metal foams have a great potential to improve different types of structural

  4. Stability constants of the fluoride complexes of actinides in aqueous solution and their correlation with fundamental properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, N.K.; Sawant, R.M.

    1997-09-01

    Stability constants of the fluoride complexes of the actinides in different oxidation states measured by potentiometric method using fluoride ion selective electrode have been presented. Procedure and precautions required to overcome certain difficulties particular to actinide ions have been discussed. Literature data from various sources have been compiled. In order to have a reasonable comparison the stability constant (β 1 ) values obtained in diverse ionic strength media are converted to thermodynamic stability constant, β 1 0 , using Davies equation (a modification of Debye-Huckel equation). A correlation of the β 1 0 values with the fundamental properties of the actinide ions using various models available in the literature has been attempted. A semiempirical relation recently developed by Brown, Sylva and Ellis (BSE equation) appears to be most suitable. Using the values of ionic radii and best available values of the stability constants of a large number of metal ions from recent compilations a comparative study of the various models or relations available in the literature has been tried. For metal ions in general, the best correlation is obtained with the BSE equation. In an attempt to accommodate the unusual trend in the stability constants of the tetravalent actinides a modification in a parameter of the BSE equation has been proposed. Good agreement between the theoretically calculated and experimentally determined values for actinides in different oxidation states is then obtained in most of the cases. (author)

  5. Effect of fluid elasticity on the numerical stability of high-resolution schemes for high shearing contraction flows using OpenFOAM

    OpenAIRE

    Chourushi, T.

    2017-01-01

    Viscoelastic fluids due to their non-linear nature play an important role in process and polymer industries. These non-linear characteristics of fluid, influence final outcome of the product. Such processes though look simple are numerically challenging to study, due to the loss of numerical stability. Over the years, various methodologies have been developed to overcome this numerical limitation. In spite of this, numerical solutions are considered distant from accuracy, as first-order upwin...

  6. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  7. A comparative study on the solubility and stability of p-phenylenediamine-based organic redox couples for non-aqueous flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-seung; Lee, Keon-Joon; Han, Young-Kyu; Ryu, Ji Heon; Oh, Seung M.

    2017-04-01

    A methyl-substituted p-phenylenediamine (PD), N,N,N‧,N‧-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), is examined as a positive redox couple with high energy density for non-aqueous Li-flow batteries. Methyl substitution affects the solubility of the redox couple, as the solubility is increased by a factor of ten, to a maximum solubility of 5.0 M in 1.0 M lithium tetrafluoroborate-propylene carbonate supporting electrolyte due to elimination of the hydrogen bonding between the solute molecules. The methyl substitution also enhances the chemical stability of the cation radical and di-cation being generated from PD, as the redox center is shielded by the methyl groups. Furthermore, this organic redox couple demonstrate two-electron redox reactions at 3.2 and 3.8 V (vs. Li/Li+); therefore, the volumetric capacity is twice higher compared to conventional one-electron involved redox couples. In a non-flowing Li/TMPD coin-cell, this organic redox couple demonstrates very stable cycleability as a positive redox couple for non-aqueous flow batteries.

  8. Ternary rare earth sulfide CaCe2S4: Synthesis and characterization of stability, structure, and photoelectrochemical properties in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Paola; Orr, Melissa; Galante, Miguel Tayar; Hossain, Mohammad Kabir; Firouzan, Farinaz; Vali, Abbas; Li, Jun; Subramanian, Mas; Longo, Claudia; Rajeshwar, Krishnan; Macaluso, Robin T.

    2018-06-01

    A red-orange rare earth ternary chalcogenide, CaCe2S4, was prepared in powder form by solid-state synthesis. The structural details of this compound were determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The optical band gap of CaCe2S4 was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) to be 2.1 eV, consistent with the observed red-orange color. Quantitative colorimetry measurements also support the observed color and band gap of CaCe2S4. Both direct and indirect optical transitions were gleaned from Tauc analyses of the DRS data. Photoelectrochemistry experiments on CaCe2S4 films showed n-type semiconductor behavior. Analyses of these data via the Butler-Gärtner model afforded a flat-band potential of - 0.33 V (vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl 4 M) in pH 9 aqueous sulfite electrolyte. The potential and limitations of this material for solar water splitting and photocatalytic environmental remediation (e.g., dye photodegradation) are finally presented against the backdrop of its photoelectrochemical stability and surface hole transfer kinetics in aqueous electrolytes.

  9. Foaming and emulsifying properties of pectin isolated from different plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancheva, Nikoleta; Markova, Daniela; Murdzheva, Dilyana; Vasileva, Ivelina; Slavov, Anton

    2016-03-01

    The foaming and emulsifying properties of pectins obtained from waste rose petals, citrus pressings, grapefruit peels and celery were studied. It was found that the highest foaming capacity showed pectin derived from celery. The effect of pectin concentration on the foaming capacity of pectin solutions was investigated. For all the investigated pectins increasing the concentration led to increase of the foaming capacity. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of model emulsion systems (50 % oil phase) with 0.6 % pectic solutions were determined. The highest emulsifying activity and stability showed pectin isolated by dilute acid extraction from waste rose petals.

  10. Foaming and emulsifying properties of pectin isolated from different plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancheva Nikoleta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The foaming and emulsifying properties of pectins obtained from waste rose petals, citrus pressings, grapefruit peels and celery were studied. It was found that the highest foaming capacity showed pectin derived from celery. The effect of pectin concentration on the foaming capacity of pectin solutions was investigated. For all the investigated pectins increasing the concentration led to increase of the foaming capacity. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of model emulsion systems (50 % oil phase with 0.6 % pectic solutions were determined. The highest emulsifying activity and stability showed pectin isolated by dilute acid extraction from waste rose petals.

  11. Assessment of Pb (II Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ascorbic Acid-stabilized Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddeseh Savasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing pollution of water resources and the limited availability of water supplies have led to a growing interest by researchers to develop novel methods of water remediation and reuse. One such method is the use of ascorbic acid-stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles (AAS-ZVIN for the removal of lead (Pb from aqueous solutions. Using zero-valent iron nanoparticles stabilized with acid ascorbic under aerobic conditions, the present study was conducted to assess the efficiency of Pb removal from aqueous solutions and its optimization by the response surface methodology (RSM. For this purpose, use was made of the central composite design and the response surface methodology with the four input variables of ASS- ZVIN dose (0.5, 1, and 2 g L-1, pH (2, 5, and 7, contact time (5, 20, and 60 min, and initial Pb concentration (5, 10, and 20 mg L-1 to determine the optimal conditions for the process. Numerical optimization revealed that the optimum conditions for Pb removal (97.93% included an ASS-ZVIN dose of 2 g L-1, an initial Pb (II concentration of 25 mg L-1, a contact time of 60 min, and an initial solution pH of 7. The results also imply that not only does ASS-ZVIN offer a good potential for the remediation of water bodies contaminated with Pb, given its high reactivity for Pb removal, but that  the RSM optimization process can be successfully employed for the optimization of the process in question.

  12. mdFoam+: Advanced molecular dynamics in OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshaw, S. M.; Borg, M. K.; Ramisetti, S. B.; Zhang, J.; Lockerby, D. A.; Emerson, D. R.; Reese, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces mdFoam+, which is an MPI parallelised molecular dynamics (MD) solver implemented entirely within the OpenFOAM software framework. It is open-source and released under the same GNU General Public License (GPL) as OpenFOAM. The source code is released as a publicly open software repository that includes detailed documentation and tutorial cases. Since mdFoam+ is designed entirely within the OpenFOAM C++ object-oriented framework, it inherits a number of key features. The code is designed for extensibility and flexibility, so it is aimed first and foremost as an MD research tool, in which new models and test cases can be developed and tested rapidly. Implementing mdFoam+ in OpenFOAM also enables easier development of hybrid methods that couple MD with continuum-based solvers. Setting up MD cases follows the standard OpenFOAM format, as mdFoam+ also relies upon the OpenFOAM dictionary-based directory structure. This ensures that useful pre- and post-processing capabilities provided by OpenFOAM remain available even though the fully Lagrangian nature of an MD simulation is not typical of most OpenFOAM applications. Results show that mdFoam+ compares well to another well-known MD code (e.g. LAMMPS) in terms of benchmark problems, although it also has additional functionality that does not exist in other open-source MD codes.

  13. Enhanced dispersion stability and mobility of carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions through strong hydrogen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; He, Xu; Gitsis, Emmanouil; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Kim, Nayoung; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion of carbon nanotubes has been heavily studied due to its importance for their technical applications, toxic effects, and environmental impacts. Common electrolytes, such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride, promote agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. On the contrary, we discovered that acetic electrolytes enhanced the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with carboxyl functional group through the strong hydrogen bond, which was confirmed by UV–Vis spectrometry, dispersion observations and aerosolization-quantification method. When concentrations of acetate electrolytes such as ammonium acetate (CH 3 CO 2 NH 4 ) and sodium acetate (CH 3 CO 2 Na) were lower than 0.03 mol per liter, MWCNT suspensions showed better dispersion and had higher mobility in porous media. The effects by the acetic environment are also applicable to other nanoparticles with the carboxyl functional group, which was demonstrated with polystyrene latex particles as an example

  14. Enhanced dispersion stability and mobility of carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions through strong hydrogen bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; He, Xu; Gitsis, Emmanouil; Kuo, Yu-Ying [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering (Switzerland); Kim, Nayoung [EMPA, Building Energy Materials and Components (Switzerland); Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@ifu.baug.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    Dispersion of carbon nanotubes has been heavily studied due to its importance for their technical applications, toxic effects, and environmental impacts. Common electrolytes, such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride, promote agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. On the contrary, we discovered that acetic electrolytes enhanced the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with carboxyl functional group through the strong hydrogen bond, which was confirmed by UV–Vis spectrometry, dispersion observations and aerosolization-quantification method. When concentrations of acetate electrolytes such as ammonium acetate (CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}NH{sub 4}) and sodium acetate (CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}Na) were lower than 0.03 mol per liter, MWCNT suspensions showed better dispersion and had higher mobility in porous media. The effects by the acetic environment are also applicable to other nanoparticles with the carboxyl functional group, which was demonstrated with polystyrene latex particles as an example.

  15. Using polyfurfuryl alcohol to improve the hydrothermal stability of mesoporous oxides for reactions in the aqueous phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of bio-oils derived from the pyrolysis of woody biomass is required to improve the stability and heating value of the liquid hydrocarbon products. Since pyrolysis produces bio-oils having up to 30 vol% water, HDO catalysts must not only be active and selective, but also sta...

  16. Transport of particles in liquid foams: a multi-scale approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, N.

    2009-11-01

    Foam is used for the decontamination of radioactive tanks since foam is a system that has a large surface for a low amount of liquid and as a consequence requires less water to be decontaminated. We study experimentally different particle transport configurations in fluid micro-channels network (Plateau borders) of aqueous foam. At first, foam permeability is measured at the scale of a single channel and of the whole foam network for 2 soap solutions known for their significant different interface mobility. Experimental data are well described by a model that takes into account the real geometry of the foam and by considering a constant value of the Boussinesq number of each soap solutions. Secondly, the velocity of one particle convected in a single foam channel is measured for different particle/channel aspect ratio. For small aspect ratio, a counterflow that is taking place at the channel's corners slows down the particle. A recirculation model in the channel foam films is developed to describe this effect. To do this, the Gibbs elasticity is introduced. Then, the threshold between trapped and released of one particle in liquid foam are carried out. This threshold is deduced from hydrodynamic and capillary forces equilibrium. Finally, the case of a clog foam node is addressed. (author)

  17. Extraction of Mo, W and Tc with polyurethane foam and with cyclic polyether from SCN-/HC1 medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caletka, R.; Hausbeck, R.; Krivan, V.

    1986-01-01

    The extraction of molybdenum, tungsten and technetium by polyether-based polyurethane foam and by a cyclic polyether from aqueous thiocyanate solutions is described. The influence of the reductants stannous chloride and ascorbic acid has also been studied. The possibilites of the polyurethane foam for preconcentration and determination of molybdenum are discussed. (author)

  18. Surfactant selection for a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoska, Agnes; Vázquez, María; Janssen, Marcel; Wijffels, René H; Cuaresma, María; Vílchez, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    A novel liquid foam-bed photobioreactor has been shown to hold potential as an innovative technology for microalgae production. In this study, a foam stabilizing agent has been selected which fits the requirements of use in a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor. Four criteria were used for an optimal surfactant: the surfactant should have good foaming properties, should not be rapidly biodegradable, should drag up microalgae in the foam formed, and it should not be toxic for microalgae. Ten different surfactants (nonionic, cationic, and anionic) and two microalgae genera (Chlorella and Scenedesmus) were compared on the above-mentioned criteria. The comparison showed the following facts. Firstly, poloxameric surfactants (Pluronic F68 and Pluronic P84) have acceptable foaming properties described by intermediate foam stability and liquid holdup and small bubble size. Secondly, the natural surfactants (BSA and Saponin) and Tween 20 were easily biodegraded by bacteria within 3 days. Thirdly, for all surfactants tested the microalgae concentration is reduced in the foam phase compared to the liquid phase with exception of the cationic surfactant CTAB. Lastly, only BSA, Saponin, Tween 20, and the two Pluronics were not toxic at concentrations of 10 CMC or higher. The findings of this study indicate that the Pluronics (F68 and P84) are the best surfactants regarding the above-mentioned criteria. Since Pluronic F68 performed slightly better, this surfactant is recommended for application in a liquid foam-bed photobioreactor. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Annulated Dialkoxybenzenes as Catholyte Materials for Non-aqueous Redox Flow Batteries: Achieving High Chemical Stability through Bicyclic Substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Yang, Zheng; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Assary, Rajeev S.

    2017-01-01

    1,4-Dimethoxybenzene derivatives are materials of choice for use as catholytes in nonaqueous redox flow batteries, as they exhibit high open-circuit potentials and excellent electrochemical reversibility. However, chemical stability of these materials in their oxidized form needs to be improved. Disubstitution in the arene ring is used to suppress parasitic reactions of their radical cations, but this does not fully prevent ring-addition reactions. By incorporating bicyclic substitutions and ether chains into the dialkoxybenzenes, a novel catholyte molecule, 9,10-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-1,4:5, 8-dimethanenoanthracene (BODMA), is obtained and exhibits greater solubility and superior chemical stability in the charged state. As a result, a hybrid flow cell containing BODMA is operated for 150 charge–discharge cycles with minimal loss of capacity.

  20. Simple surface foam application enhances bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil in cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Jongshin; Kim, Jaisoo

    2015-04-09

    Landfarming of oil-contaminated soil is ineffective at low temperatures, because the number and activity of micro-organisms declines. This study presents a simple and versatile technique for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil, which involves spraying foam on the soil surface without additional works such as tilling, or supply of water and air. Surfactant foam containing psychrophilic oil-degrading microbes and nutrients was sprayed twice daily over diesel-contaminated soil at 6 °C. Removal efficiencies in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) at 30 days were 46.3% for landfarming and 73.7% for foam-spraying. The first-order kinetic biodegradation rates for landfarming and foam-spraying were calculated as 0.019 d(-1) and 0.044 d(-1), respectively. Foam acted as an insulating medium, keeping the soil 2 °C warmer than ambient air. Sprayed foam was slowly converted to aqueous solution within 10-12h and infiltrated the soil, providing microbes, nutrients, water, and air for bioaugmentation. Furthermore, surfactant present in the aqueous solution accelerated the dissolution of oil from the soil, resulting in readily biodegradable aqueous form. Significant reductions in hydrocarbon concentration were simultaneously observed in both semi-volatile and non-volatile fractions. As the initial soil TPH concentration increased, the TPH removal rate of the foam-spraying method also increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A study of the factors affecting the foaming properties of egg white - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomakina, K.; MÍKOVÁ, K.

    2006-01-01

    Many foods are prepared using egg white, most of them being based on the foaming properties of egg white which are due to albumen proteins ability to encapsulate and retain air. Therefore, many scientists aim to find new methods to improve the volume and the stability of egg white foam. This paper is a review of various factors affecting the foaming ability of egg white

  2. Thermal Properties of Polyurethane-Polyisocyanurate Foams Based on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Irena VITKAUSKIENĖ; Ričardas MAKUŠKA; Uldis STIRNA; Ugis CABULIS

    2011-01-01

    A series of polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PU-PIR) foams synthesized from PET-waste-derived aromatic polyester polyols (APP) was studied using thermogravimetric analysis, Cone calorimeter and burning tests. The effect of chemical structure of the APP containing fragments of glycerol, adipic acid, poly(propylene glycol) or hexanediol on thermal stability and flame resistance of the PU-PIR foams was elucidated. PU-PIR foams prepared from APP containing fragments of glycerol and/or adipic acid h...

  3. Applications of Foamed Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sari Kamarul Aini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of foamed concrete is increasing at present due to high demand on foamed concrete structures with good mechanical and physical properties. This paper discusses on the use of basic raw materials, their characteristics, production process, and their application in foamed lightweight concrete with densities between 300 kg/m3 and 1800 kg/m3. It also discusses the factors that influence the strengths and weaknesses of foamed concrete based on studies that were conducted previously.

  4. Dielectric and Radiative Properties of Sea Foam at Microwave Frequencies: Conceptual Understanding of Foam Emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W. Gaiser; Magdalena D. Anguelova

    2012-01-01

    Foam fraction can be retrieved from space-based microwave radiometric data at frequencies from 1 to 37 GHz. The retrievals require modeling of ocean surface emissivity fully covered with sea foam. To model foam emissivity well, knowledge of foam properties, both mechanical and dielectric, is necessary because these control the radiative processes in foam. We present a physical description of foam dielectric properties obtained from the foam dielectric constant including foam skin depth; foam ...

  5. Effect of silica nanoparticles on polyurethane foaming process and foam properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francés, A B; Bañón, M V Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Flexible polyurethane foams (FPUF) are commonly used as cushioning material in upholstered products made on several industrial sectors: furniture, automotive seating, bedding, etc. Polyurethane is a high molecular weight polymer based on the reaction between a hydroxyl group (polyol) and isocyanate. The density, flowability, compressive, tensile or shearing strength, the thermal and dimensional stability, combustibility, and other properties can be adjusted by the addition of several additives. Nanomaterials offer a wide range of possibilities to obtain nanocomposites with specific properties. The combination of FPUF with silica nanoparticles could develop nanocomposite materials with unique properties: improved mechanical and thermal properties, gas permeability, and fire retardancy. However, as silica particles are at least partially surface-terminated with Si-OH groups, it was suspected that the silica could interfere in the reaction of poyurethane formation.The objective of this study was to investigate the enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of FPUF by the incorporation of different types of silica and determining the influence thereof during the foaming process. Flexible polyurethane foams with different loading mass fraction of silica nanoparticles (0-1% wt) and different types of silica (non treated and modified silica) were synthesized. PU/SiO 2 nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, TGA, and measurements of apparent density, resilience and determination of compression set. Addition of silica nanoparticles influences negatively in the density and compression set of the foams. However, resilience and thermal stability of the foams are improved. Silica nanoparticles do not affect to the chemical structure of the foams although they interfere in the blowing reaction

  6. Removal of Nitrate from Aqueous Solutions by Starch Stabilized nano Zero-Valent Iron(nZVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Yaghmaeian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nitrate is one of the inorganic anions derived as a result of oxidation of elemental nitrogen. Urban and industrial wastewater, animal and vegetable waste products in large cities that have organic nitrogen are excreted along the soil. The primary risk of Nitrate in drinking water occurs when nitrate in the gastrointestinal tract switch to nitrite. Nitrite causes the oxidation of iron in hemoglobin of red blood cells, result in red blood cells could not carry the oxygen, a condition called methemoglobinemia. Therefore, achieving the new technologies for nitrate removal is necessary. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted at laboratory Scale in non-continuous batches. Stabilized adsorbent was produced through reducing Iron sulfate by sodium borohydride (NaBH4 in presence of Starch (0.2W % as a stabilizer. At first, the effect of various parameters such as contact time (10-90min, pH (3-11, adsorbent dose (0.5-3 g/L and initial concentration of arsenate (50-250 mg/L were investigated on process efficiency. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm model equilibrium constant, were calculated. Residual nitrate were measured by using the DR5000 spectrophotometer. Results: The optimum values based on RSM for pH, absorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration of nitrate were 5.87, 2.25 g/L, 55.7 min, and 110.35 mg/L respectively. Langmuir isotherm with R2= 0.9932 for nitrate was the best graph for the experimental data. The maximum amount of nitrate adsorption was 138.88mg/g. Conclusion: Stabilized absorbent due to have numerous absorption sites and Fe0 as a reducing agent could have great potential in nitrate removal from water.

  7. Effect of electrolyte valency, alginate concentration and pH on engineered TiO₂ nanoparticle stability in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Frédéric; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Stoll, Serge

    2015-12-01

    Agglomeration and disagglomeration processes are expected to play a key role on the fate of engineered nanoparticles in natural aquatic systems. These processes are investigated here in detail by studying first the stability of TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of monovalent and divalent electrolytes at different pHs (below and above the point of zero charge of TiO2) and discussing the importance of specific divalent cation adsorption with the help of the DLVO theory as well as the importance of the nature of the counterions. Then the impact of one polysaccharide (alginate) on the stability of agglomerates formed under pH and water hardness representative of Lake Geneva environmental conditions is investigated. In these conditions the large TiO2 agglomerates (diameter>1μm) are positively charged due to Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) specific adsorption and alginate, which is negatively charged, adsorbs onto the agglomerate surface. Our results indicate that the presence of alginate at typical natural organic matter concentration (1-10 mg L(-1)) strongly modifies the TiO2 agglomerate (50 mg L(-1)) stability by inducing their partial and rapid disagglomeration. The importance of disagglomeration is found dependent on the alginate concentration with maximum of disagglomeration obtained for alginate concentration ≥8 mg L(-1) and leading to 400 nm fragments. From an environmental point of view partial restabilization of TiO2 agglomerates in the presence of alginate constitutes an important outcome. Disagglomeration will enhance their transport and residence time in aquatic systems which is an important step in the current knowledge on risk assessment associated to engineered nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Foams in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, S.S.

    1986-07-01

    In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.

  9. Heating Quality and Stability of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Fatty Acid-Balanced Oil in Comparison with Other Blended Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The heating performance of enzyme-assisted aqueous processing-extracted blended oil (EAEPO, hexane-extracted blended oil (HEBO, and three kinds of blended oils was investigated by varying the heating times. Oil degradation was monitored by analysis of the acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, color, and trans-fatty acid composition. The fatty acid ratios of EAEPO, HEBO, and the three kinds of blended oils were very similar (0.27 : 1.03 : 0.96, 0.27 : 1.08 : 1.16, 0.27 : 0.65 : 0.8, 0.27 : 0.6 : 0.84, and 0.27 : 0.61 : 0.79, resp.. The AV and color increased in proportion to the heating time for all the oils. There was a rapid increase in the PV and p-AV of EAEPO and HEBO after heating for only 1 h, whereas the other three blended oils showed a rapid increase after heating for 2 h or 6 h. Despite the highest trans-fatty acid content found for HEBO, this content was relatively low and remained low up to a heating time of 8 h. It was found that after heating, a fatty acid ratio relatively close to its ideal value (0.27 : 0.48 : 0.49 was maintained by EAEPO, which indicates that EAEPO is tolerant to heat treatment and is suitable for maintaining a healthy diet.

  10. Facile hydrothermal method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped graphene nanoplatelets using aqueous ammonia: dispersion, stability in solvents and thermophysical performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiah Shazali, Siti; Amiri, Ahmad; Zubir, Mohd. Nashrul Mohd; Rozali, Shaifulazuar; Zakuan Zabri, Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd

    2018-03-01

    A simple and green approach has been developed to synthesize nitrogen-doped graphene nanoplatelets (N-doped GNPs) for mass production with a very high stability in different solvents e.g. water, ethylene glycol, methanol, ethanol, and 1-hexanol. The strategy is based on mild oxidation of GNPs using hydrogen peroxide and doping with nitrogen using hydrothermal process. The modification of N-doped GNPs was demonstrated by FTIR, TGA, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Further study was carried out by using N-doped GNPs as an additive to prepare different colloidal dispersions. Water-based N-doped GNPs, methanol-based N-doped GNPs, ethanol-based N-doped GNPs, ethylene-glycol based N-doped GNPs and 1-hexanol-based N-doped GNPs dispersions at 0.01 wt.% shown great colloidal stabilities, indicating 17%, 29%, 33%, 18%, and 43% sedimentations after a 15-days period, respectively. The thermophysical properties e.g., viscosity and thermal conductivity of water-based N-doped GNP nanofluids were also evaluated for different weight concentrations of 0.100, 0.075, 0.050, and 0.025 wt.%. Through this, it is found that the obtained dispersions have great potential to be used as working fluids for industrial thermal systems.

  11. Non-Aqueous Sol-Gel Synthesis of FePt Nanoparticles in the Absence of In Situ Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Preller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of FePt nanocrystals is typically performed in an organic solvent at rather high temperatures, demanding the addition of the in situ stabilizers oleic acid and oleylamine to produce monomodal particles with well-defined morphologies. Replacing frequently-used solvents with organic media bearing functional moieties, the use of the stabilizers can be completely circumvented. In addition, various morphologies and sizes of the nanocrystals can be achieved by the choice of organic solvent. The kinetics of particle growth and the change in the magnetic behavior of the superparamagnetic FePt nanocrystals during the synthesis with a set of different solvents, as well as the resulting morphologies and stoichiometries of the nanoparticles were determined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID measurements. Furthermore, annealing of the as-prepared FePt nanoparticles led to the ordered L10 phase and, thus, to hard magnetic materials with varying saturation magnetizations and magnetic coercivities.

  12. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  13. Mentha-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles for High-Performance Colorimetric Detection of Al(III) in Aqueous Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rekha; Dhillon, Ankita; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-03-26

    The present paper reports a facile and selective colorimetric method for the detection of potential environmental and health hazardous metal ions using green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Here the organic functional groups present in the plant extract (Mentha arvensis) are used as reductants and stabilizers in the synthesis of AgNPs. They also provide a suitable binding site to the (Al(III)) analyte in the detection mechanism. The leaf extract of Mentha arvensis was used to synthesize AgNPs at room-temperature and at 80 °C. The AgNPs synthesized at 80 °C exhibit excellent selective colorimetric detection of Al(III). The as-synthesized AgNPs have been characterized, and the synthesis, stabilization of NPs and detection mechanism has also been illustrated by using UV-vis, XPS, FTIR, TEM, EDX, SEM, AAS, and TGA analytical tools and techniques. The selectivity of detection probe was supported by the reaction between probe and metal ions followed first-order kinetics having the highest value of the regression coefficient (R 2  = 0.99) for Al(III) and the analysis of thermodynamic parameters. The prepared sensor showed a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 1 nM (S/N = 3.2) in real water samples. The proposed method can be successfully utilized for the detection of Al(III) from both drinking and real water samples at the nanomolar level.

  14. Production of lightweight foam glass (invited talk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass production allows low cost recycling of postconsumer glass and industrial waste materials as foaming agent or as melt resource. Foam glass is commonly produced by utilising milled glass mixed with a foaming agent. The powder mixture is heat-treated to around 10^3.7 – 10^6 Pa s, which...... result in viscous sintering and subsequent foaming of the glass melt. The porous glass melt is cooled down to room temperature to freeze-in the foam structure. The resulting foam glass is applied in constructions as a light weight material to reduce load bearing capacity and as heat insulating material...... in buildings and industry. We foam panel glass from old televisions with different foaming agents. We discuss the foaming ability and the foaming mechanism of different foaming systems. We compare several studies to define a viscous window for preparing low density foam glass. However, preparing foam glass...

  15. Synthesis of three-dimensional mesoporous Cu-Al layered double hydroxide/g-C3N4 nanocomposites on Ni-foam for enhanced supercapacitors with excellent long-term cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Surya Prasad; Awasthi, Ganesh Prasad; Kim, Kyung-Suk; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2018-03-26

    In this study, a novel composite of Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets and g-C3N4-covered Ni-foam was fabricated via a simple and facile two-step process. First, g-C3N4 sheets were deposited on Ni-foam by via electrodeposition method on a three-electrode system (Ni-foam@g-C3N4) and then, Cu-Al LDH nanosheets were grown on the Ni-foam via in situ redox reaction using a hydrothermal process (Ni-foam@Cu-Al LDH/g-C3N4). The FE-SEM image confirmed that the Cu-Al LDH nanosheets arose vertically and were anchored on the surface of electrodeposited g-C3N4 sheets, thus generating unique 3D porous interconnected networks. The electrochemical capacitive performances of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by cyclic volatammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) Nyquist plots. The specific capacitances of the Ni-foam@Cu-Al LDH/g-C3N4 nanocomposite measured from the CV curve (770.98 F g-1 at 50 mV s-1) and the galvanostatic charge/discharge curve (831.871 at 0.4 A g-1) were significantly higher than the others. Moreover, the Ni-foam@Cu-Al LDH/g-C3N4 nanocomposite revealed a remarkable high-current capacitive behavior and the capacitance retention could be maintained at 92.71% even after 5000 cycles of CV. Thus, the obtained results demonstrated that the as-prepared nanocomposite has great potential to be used as a novel supercapacitor electrode.

  16. Low-density carbonized composite foams for direct-drive laser ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Fung-Ming.

    1989-03-01

    The design for a direct-drive, high-gain laser inertial confinement fusion target calls for the use of a low-density, low-atomic-number foam to confine and stabilize liquid deuterium-tritium (DT) in a spherical-shell configuration. Over the past two years, we have successfully developed polystyrene foams (PS) and carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde foams (CRF) for that purpose. Both candidates are promising materials with unique characteristics. PS has superior mechanical strength and machinability, but its relatively large thermal contraction is a significant disadvantage. CRF has outstanding wettability and dimensional stability in liquid DT; yet it is much more fragile than PS. To combine the strengths of both materials, we have recently developed a polymer composite foam which exceeds PS in mechanical strength, but retains the wettability and dimension stability of CRF. This paper will discuss the preparation, structure, and properties of the polymer composite foams. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb aqueous extract down-regulates in vivo expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules in atherogenic rats and inhibits in vitro macrophage differentiation and foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Salunke, Sunita P; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluates efficacy of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) leaves extract in ameliorating experimental atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Atherogenic (ATH) diet fed rats recorded significant increment in the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL), autoantibody against oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), markers of LDL oxidation and decrement in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) along with increment in aortic TC and TG. The ex vivo LDL oxidation assay revealed an increased susceptibility of LDL isolated from ATH rats to undergo copper mediated oxidation. These set of changes were minimized by simultaneous co-supplementation of SR extract to ATH diet fed rats. Histopathology of aorta and immunolocalization studies recorded pronounced atheromatous plaque formation, vascular calcification, significant elastin derangements and higher expression of macrophage surface marker (F4/80), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and p-selectin in ATH rats. Whereas, ATH+SR rats depicted minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, calcium deposition, distortion/defragmentation of elastin and accumulation of macrophages along with lowered expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin compared to ATH rats. Further, monocyte to macrophage differentiation and in vitro foam cell formation were significantly attenuated in presence of SR extract. In conclusion, SR extract has the potency of controlling experimental atherosclerosis and can be used as promising herbal supplement in combating atherosclerosis.

  18. Flexible polyurethane foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide for a method of preparing a polyurethane foam, including reacting least one initiator comprising at least two hydroxyl groups with at least one 12-hydroxystearic acid to form at least one polyester polyol, reacting the at least one polyester polyol with at least

  19. Efficient and Stable Carbon-coated Nickel Foam Cathodes for the Electro-Fenton Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Shuqin; Wu, Mingmei; Liu, Yuhui; Zhu, Qiping; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon-coated nickel foam (C@NF) was prepared by cycle coating carbon process. • Ni leaching can be effectively controlled at C@NF4 (4 cycle coating times) cathode. • C@NF4 exhibits excellent electro-Fenton performance with desirable stability. • C@NF4 exhibits low energy consumption for DMP degradation. - Abstract: Carbon-coated nickel foam (C@NF) electrodes are prepared via a simple and effective method, hydrothermal-carbonization cycle coating process, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and employed as the electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) cathode for degrading dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in aqueous solution. For the sake of comparison, nickel foam (NF) electrode and the conventional E-Fenton cathode (graphite gas diffusion electrode (GDE)) are also tested and compared. Experimental results indicate that nickel leaching can be effectively controlled at C@NF4 cathode (4 times cycle coating process), having great significance for promoting the application of NF in E-Fenton system. Moreover, C@NF4 cathode still presents excellent and effective performance on DMP degradation. DMP can be completely degraded within 2 h at −0.5 V and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal reaches as high as 82.1 %, which is almost 3 times as high as that at graphite GDE. Futhermore, the current efficiency for H 2 O 2 generation at C@NF4 is enhanced by 12 times compared to that at NF, and consequently the energy consumption during DMP degradation at C@NF4 is obvious lower than that at both NF cathode and graphite GDE. From the obtained results it can be deduced that C@NF4 is promising to be an attractive alternative E-Fenton cathode for removing organic pollutants in wastewater

  20. The use of high expansion foam in the control of sodium and other fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.

    1971-01-01

    The uses of high expansion air foam for removing sodium fume and airborne radioactivity is discussed. Experiments are described which indicate that a high rate of removal of air contamination can be expected by encapsulation in a high expansion foam of low stability. (author)

  1. The Ferrocyanide/Stabilized Carbon System, a New Class of High Rate, Long Cycle Life, Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Huggins, R. A.

    2013-02-21

    Transient energy sources, such as wind and solar systems are getting increased attention. Their integration with the energy distribution grid requires methods for energy storage. The required characteristics of this type of storage are quite different from those for energy storage in portable devices. Size and weight are not so important. Instead, matters such as power, cost, calendar life, cycle life, and safety become paramount. A new family of hexacyanoferrate materials with the same open framework crystal structure as Prussian Blue has been recently developed with characteristics ideally suited for this type of application. Several monovalent cations can be rapidly and reversibly inserted into these materials, with very little crystallographic distortion, leading to high rates and long cycle lives. In addition, a new type of composite negative electrode material has been developed that has the rapid kinetics typical of carbon electrodes, but with a potential that varies little with the state of charge. The result is the development of a new battery system, the ferrocyanide/stabilized carbon, MHCF-SC, system. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society.

  2. Voltammetric studies on composition and stabilities of complexes of tetracycline and oxytetracycline with some metal ions in aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandour, M.A.; Azab, H.A.; Hassan, A.; Ali, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The composition and stability of complexes of tetracycline and oxytetracycline with Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and UO 2 (II) have been studied polarographically (direct current and differential pulse polarographic techniques) at 25±0.1 deg C. Differential pulse polarographic studies have been particularly helpful in deciding the nature of metal-drug interactions at low concentrations. The reduction of Cu(II)-tetracycline has been found to be irreversible and diffusion controlled with the presence of an adsorption component. In the system uranyl(II)-tetracycline the complex formed has a stoichiometry of 1:1 and log K ox = 4.04 which is very close to that obtained by potentiometric measurements. The peak half width W 1/2 of the Pb(II)-OTC system is 60-70 mV indicating that the process is reversible and two electrons are consumed. The log β' is 10.30 in 0.1 mol dm -3 NaClO 4 . In the Cu(II)-OTC system two complexes were formed with log β 1 ' = 8.50 and log β 2 ' = 14.10. Cyclic voltammograms were recorded using a hanging dropping mercury electrode for the systems Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and UO 2 (II)-OTC to examine the irregularities in both peak potentials and peak currents during the polarographic investigations. (authors)

  3. Stability of Naturally Relevant Ternary Phases in the Cu–Sn–S system in Contact with an Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giaccherini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A relevant research effort is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of phases belonging to the ternary system Cu–Sn–S, mainly for their possible applications in semiconductor technology. Among all ternary phases, kuramite, Cu3SnS4, mohite, Cu2SnS3, and Cu4Sn7S16 have attracted the highest interest. Numerous studies were carried out claiming for the description of new phases in the ternary compositional field. In this study, we revise the existing literature on this ternary system, with a special focus on the phases stable in a temperature range at 25 °C. The only two ternary phases observed in nature are mohite and kuramite. Their occurrence is described as very rare. A numerical modelling of the stable solid phases in contact with a water solution was underwent to define stability relationships of the relevant phases of the system. The numerical modelling of the Eh-pH diagrams was carried out through the phreeqc software with the lnll.dat thermodynamic database. Owing to the complexity of this task, the subsystems Cu–O–H, Sn–O–H, Cu–S–O–H and Sn–S–O–H were firstly considered. The first Pourbaix diagram for the two naturally relevant ternary phases is then proposed.

  4. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  5. Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    2004-08-24

    A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

  6. Physical stability, centrifugation tests, and entrapment efficiency studies of carnauba wax-decyl oleate nanoparticles used for the dispersion of inorganic sunscreens in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Hernández, J R; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2006-06-01

    Aqueous nanoscale lipid dispersions consisting of carnauba wax-decyl oleate mixtures acting as carriers or accompanying vehicles for inorganic sunscreens such as barium sulfate, strontium carbonate, and titanium dioxide were prepared by high pressure homogenization. For the manufacture of these nanosuspensions, three pigment concentrations (%wt), namely 2, 4, and 6, and two carnauba wax-decyl oleate ratios, 1:1 and 2:1, were used, being some of these combinations chosen for stability studies. Six-month physical stability tests at 4, 20, and 40 degrees C selecting the mean particle size and the polydispersity index of the nanosuspensions as reference parameters were performed. Centrifugation tests of the nanosuspensions assessed by transmission electron microscopy and by the determination of the content of pigments and carnauba wax in the separated fractions were done. The mean particle sizes and the polydispersity indices of the nanosuspensions were not altered after six-month storages at 20 and at 40 degrees C. However, the storage of those at 4 degrees C considerably increased the particle size and polydispersity of the systems, particularly when wax-oil ratios (2:1) were used for the entrapment of the pigments. Transmission electron micrographs of centrifuged samples denoted the presence of three major fractions showing the different types of particles integrated into the nanosuspensions. Furthermore, it was observed that not all the carnauba wax participated in the entrapment of the pigment. Regarding the amount of pigment being encapsulated or bonded by the wax-oil matrices, entrapment efficiencies higher than 85.52% were reported.

  7. Enhanced oxidation stability of quasi core-shell alloyed CdSeS quantum dots prepared through aqueous microwave synthesis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hong-Ju; Zhou, Pei-Jiang; Ma, Rong; Liu, Xi-Jing; He, Yu-Ning; Zhou, Chuan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Quasi core shell alloyed CdSeS quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared through a facile aqueous-phase route employing microwave irradiation technique. The optical spectroscopy and structure characterization evidenced the quasi core shell alloyed structures of CdSeS QDs. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the obtained CdSeS QDs displayed peak positions very close to those of bulk cubic CdS crystal structures and the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data re-confirmed the thick CdS shell on the CdSe core. The TEM images and HRTEM images of the CdSeS QDs ascertained the well-defined spherical particles and a relatively narrow size distribution. On the basis, the stability of the obtained QDs in an oxidative environment was also discussed using etching reaction by H2O2. The experiments result showed the as-prepared QDs present high tolerance towards H2O2, obviously superior to the commonly used CdTe QDs and core-shell CdTe/CdS QDs, which was attributed to the unique quasi core-shell CdSeS crystal structure and the small lattice mismatch between CdSe and CdS semiconductor materials. This assay provided insight to obtain high stable crystal structured semiconductor nanocrystals in the design and synthesis process.

  8. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  9. Utilization of fly ash and ultrafine GGBS for higher strength foam concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, R.; Anand, K. B.

    2018-02-01

    Foam concrete is a widely accepted construction material, which is popular for diverse construction applications such as, thermal insulation in buildings, lightweight concrete blocks, ground stabilization, void filling etc. Currently, foam concrete is being used for structural applications with a density above 1800kg/m3. This study focuses on evolving mix proportions for foam concrete with a material density in the range of 1200 kg/m3 to 1600 kg/m3, so as to obtain strength ranges that will be sufficient to adopt it as a structural material. Foam concrete is made lighter by adding pre-formed foam of a particular density to the mortar mix. The foaming agent used in this study is Sodium Lauryl Sulphate and in order to densify the foam generated, Sodium hydroxide solution at a normality of one is also added. In this study efforts are made to make it a sustainable construction material by incorporating industrial waste products such as ultrafine GGBS as partial replacement of cement and fly ash for replacement of fine aggregate. The fresh state and hardened state properties of foam concrete at varying proportions of cement, sand, water and additives are evaluated. The proportion of ultrafine GGBS and fly ash in the foam concrete mix are varied aiming at higher compressive strength. Studies on air void-strength relationship of foam concrete are also included in this paper.

  10. Enhancing heavy oil recovery using foam injection in applications to cyclic steam stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Yuan, J.Y. [Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) is a widely used heavy oil production technology. However, steam-based processes that are not stabilized can develop conformance as the steam can over-ride and channel past oil-bearing zones. This presentation discussed a refined CSS steam foaming process designed to improve recovery in marginal cycles. Laboratory studies were initially conducted to examine surfactant properties and flow behaviour in porous media. The results of numerical simulations were then applied to the steam-foaming portion of the CSS process. Results of the study showed that during the foam co-injection with steam stage, the steam injection rate did not alter. Improvement to the CSS process varied, indicating that earlier foam forming surfactant co-injection was preferable when steam-foam performance was constant in all cycles. It was concluded that the steam foaming process may improve bitumen production without requiring additional steam. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Studies on the use of surface active agents for the removal of some pollutants from dilute aqueous solutions: foam separation techniques and sorption by sorbents synthesized from Silicious materials and surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elsalam, M.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing concern towards protection of the environment and optimization of a wide range of industrial processes and activities in both nuclear and non-nuclear fields imposes the need for the development of advanced separation processes in particular for treatment of liquid wastes and effluents.The work presented in this thesis will address the above objective with respect to the removal, from aqueous solutions, of two types of hazardous pollutants: chemical (dyes) and radiological (radionuclides) using two relatively modern separation techniques: ion flotation and adsorption onto a synthesized organo-clay. It will also include the results of treatment of dye-contaminated wastewater and mixed radioactive process wastewater, containing a toxic dye in addition to the radionuclides.The thesis comprises four chapters. Literature on dye separation by (i) ion flotation and (II) adsorption onto organo-clays are reviewed in the introductory section of chapter III and of chapter IV, respectively.

  12. Modeling Manufacturing Impacts on Aging and Reliability of Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Johnson, Kyle; Lorenzo, Henry T.

    2016-10-01

    Polyurethane is a complex multiphase material that evolves from a viscous liquid to a system of percolating bubbles, which are created via a CO2 generating reaction. The continuous phase polymerizes to a solid during the foaming process generating heat. Foams introduced into a mold increase their volume up to tenfold, and the dynamics of the expansion process may lead to voids and will produce gradients in density and degree of polymerization. These inhomogeneities can lead to structural stability issues upon aging. For instance, structural components in weapon systems have been shown to change shape as they age depending on their molding history, which can threaten critical tolerances. The purpose of this project is to develop a Cradle-to-Grave multiphysics model, which allows us to predict the material properties of foam from its birth through aging in the stockpile, where its dimensional stability is important.

  13. Polyethoxylated carboxylic surfactant for ion foam flotation: fundamental study from solution to foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheau, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Ion foam flotation allows to concentrate ions in a foam phase formed by a soap. For classical systems, the strong interaction between ions and surfactant generally leads to the formation of precipitates and of froth. When the froth collapses, the solid residue thus recovered requires a recycling or conversion. In order to remedy this, the present work uses as collector a polyethoxylated carboxylic surfactant, AKYPO RO 90 VG, which forms soluble ion/surfactant complexes, even with multi-charge ions. This work presents a detailed study of the fundamental mechanisms that govern the extraction of ions by foaming. In the first part, surface activity and acid/base properties of the surfactant in solution are determined by combining numerous independent techniques which are pH-metric dosage, tensiometry and small angle scattering. The evolution of these properties in the presence of different nitrate salts (Nd, Eu, Ca, Sr, Cu, Li, Na, Cs) coupled with electrophoretic measurements give a first approach to selectivity. Finally, all of these data combined with a study of the formation of surfactant/ion complexes allow us to determine the speciation of Nd/AKYPO system as a function of pH. In the second part, the analysis of the foam by conductivity and neutron scattering provides information on the wetness and foam film thickness, parameters governing foam stability. The pH and the nature of the added ions, their number of charge and also their chemical nature thus appear to be major parameters that governed wetness and foam film thickness. The last part is devoted to the understanding of the ion extraction/separation experiments by flotation based on all previous results. It is shown that the flotation of neodymium is strongly related to its speciation, which could lead to its re-extraction or its flotation in precipitated form. It is shown that, neodymium induces a phenomenon of mono-charge ion depletion in the foam. This ionic specificity allows to consider the studied

  14. Permeability of Aluminium Foams Produced by Replication Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim L. Cherny

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The replication casting process is used for manufacturing open-pore aluminum foams with advanced performances, such as stability and repeatability of foam structure with porosity over 60%. A simple foam structure model based on the interaction between sodium chloride solid particles poorly wetted by melted aluminum, which leads to the formation of air pockets (or “air collars”, is proposed for the permeability of porous material. The equation for the minimum pore radius of replicated aluminum foam is derived. According to the proposed model, the main assumption of the permeability model consists in a concentration of flow resistance in a circular aperture of radius rmin. The permeability of aluminum open-pore foams is measured using transformer oil as the fluid, changing the fractions of initial sodium chloride. Measured values of minimum pore size are close to theoretically predicted ones regardless of the particle shape. The expression for the permeability of replicated aluminum foam derived on the basis of the “bottleneck” model of porous media agrees well with the experimental data. The obtained data can be applied for commercial filter cells and pneumatic silencers.

  15. Aerosol-foam interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, M.H.E.; Luscombe, C.DeM.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1990-03-01

    Foam treatment offers the potential to clean gas streams containing radioactive particles. A large decontamination factor has been claimed for the removal of airborne plutonium dust when spraying a commercially available foam on the walls and horizontal surfaces of an alpha-active room. Experiments have been designed and undertaken to reproduce these conditions with a non-radioactive simulant aerosol. Careful measurements of aerosol concentrations with and without foam treatment failed to provide convincing evidence to support the earlier observation. The foam may not have been as well mixed with the aerosol in the present studies. Further work is required to explore more efficient mixing methods, including systems in which the aerosol steam is passed through the foam, rather than merely spraying foam into the path of the aerosol. (author)

  16. Chaotic bubbling and nonstagnant foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos; Jeandet, Philippe; Liger-Belair, Gerard

    2007-06-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the agglomeration of bubbles obtained from a nozzle working in different bubbling regimes. This experiment consists of a continuous production of bubbles from a nozzle at the bottom of a liquid column, and these bubbles create a two-dimensional (2D) foam (or a bubble raft) at the top of this column. The bubbles can assemble in various dynamically stable arrangement, forming different kinds of foams in a liquid mixture of water and glycerol, with the effect that the bubble formation regimes influence the foam obtained from this agglomeration of bubbles. The average number of bubbles in the foam is related to the bubble formation frequency and the bubble mean lifetime. The periodic bubbling can generate regular or irregular foam, while a chaotic bubbling only generates irregular foam.

  17. Stability of engineered nanomaterials in complex aqueous matrices: Settling behaviour of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles in natural surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Koetsem, Frederik, E-mail: Frederik.VanKoetsem@UGent.be [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent (Belgium); Verstraete, Simon [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent (Belgium); Van der Meeren, Paul [Particle and Interfacial Technology Group, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent (Belgium); Du Laing, Gijs, E-mail: Gijs.DuLaing@UGent.be [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    The stability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in complex aqueous matrices is a key determinant of their fate and potential toxicity towards the aquatic environment and human health. Metal oxide nanoparticles, such as CeO{sub 2} ENPs, are increasingly being incorporated into a wide range of industrial and commercial applications, which will undoubtedly result in their (unintentional) release into the environment. Hereby, the behaviour and fate of CeO{sub 2} ENPs could potentially serve as model for other nanoparticles that possess similar characteristics. The present study examined the stability and settling of CeO{sub 2} ENPs (7.3±1.4 nm) as well as Ce{sup 3+} ions in 10 distinct natural surface waters during 7 d, under stagnant and isothermal experimental conditions. Natural water samples were collected throughout Flanders (Belgium) and were thoroughly characterized. For the majority of the surface waters, a substantial depletion (>95%) of the initially added CeO{sub 2} ENPs was observed just below the liquid surface of the water samples after 7 d. In all cases, the reduction was considerably higher for CeO{sub 2} ENPs than for Ce{sup 3+} ions (<68%). A first-order kinetics model was able to describe the observed time-dependant removal of both CeO{sub 2} ENPs (R{sup 2}≥0.998) and Ce{sup 3+} ions (R{sup 2}≥0.812) from the water column, at least in case notable sedimentation occurred over time. Solution-pH appeared to be a prime parameter governing nanoparticle colloidal stability. Moreover, the suspended solids (TSS) content also seemed to be an important factor affecting the settling rate and residual fraction of CeO{sub 2} ENPs as well as Ce{sup 3+} ions in natural surface waters. Correlation results also suggest potential association and co-precipitation of CeO{sub 2} ENPs with aluminium- and iron-containing natural colloidal material. The CeO{sub 2} ENPs remained stable in dispersion in surface water characterized by a low pH, ionic strength (IS), and

  18. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  19. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  20. Identifying the Imprint of Surfactant Stabilisation in Whitecap Foam Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, A. H.; Deane, G. B.; Stokes, D.

    2016-02-01

    Surfactants are ubiquitous in the world's oceans and can affect climatically-relevant processes such as air-sea gas exchange, sea spray aerosol (SSA) flux, and air-sea momentum transfer. Surfactants are amphiphilic and help form the physically and chemically distinct ocean surface microlayer (SML), however, the spatial distribution, concentration and composition of the SML is not well understood, especially under conditions of vigorous wave breaking. Like the SML, breaking waves also influence physical exchange processes at the air-sea interface, and oceanic whitecap foam coverage is commonly used to quantify bubble-mediated exchange processes. However, surfactants can increase the lifetime of foam over clean water conditions, potentially complicating the use of whitecap coverage to parameterise air-sea gas exchange and SSA production flux. A better understanding of how surfactants affect the evolution of whitecap foam is needed to improve whitecap parameterisations of bubble-mediated processes, and may also provide a remote sensing approach to map the spatial distribution of surfactants at the water surface. Here we present results from a laboratory study that looked at whitecap foam evolution in "clean" and "surfactant-added" seawater regimes. We find that the whitecap foam area growth timescale is largely insensitive to the presence of surfactants, but that surfactant stabilization of whitecap foam becomes important during the whitecap foam area decay phase. The timescale at which this occurs appears to be consistent for breaking waves of different scale and intensity. A simple method is then used to isolate the surfactant signal and derive an equivalent "clean" seawater foam decay time for the whitecaps in the "surfactant-added" regime. The method is applied to oceanic whitecaps and results compared to the laboratory whitecaps from the "clean" and "surfactant-added" regimes.

  1. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  2. Polyurethane Foams with Pyrimidine Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Ewelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligoetherols based on pyrimidine ring were obtained upon reaction of barbituric acid with glycidol and alkylene carbonates. These oligoetherols were then used to obtain polyurethane foams in the reaction of oligoetherols with isocyanates and water. The protocol of foam synthesis was optimized by the choice of proper kind of oligoetherol and synthetic composition. The thermal resistance was studied by dynamic and static methods with concomitant monitoring of compressive strength. The polyurethane foams have similar physical properties as the classic ones except their enhanced thermal resistance. They stand long-time heating even at 200°C. Moreover thermal exposition of foams results generally in increase of their compressive strength.

  3. Nickel foam-supported polyaniline cathode prepared with electrophoresis for improvement of rechargeable Zn battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Zhu, Derong; Si, Shihui; Li, Degeng; Wu, Sen

    2015-06-01

    Porous nickel foam is used as a substrate for the development of rechargeable zinc//polyaniline battery, and the cathode electrophoresis of PANI microparticles in non-aqueous solution is applied to the fabrication of Ni foam supported PANI electrode, in which the corrosion of the nickel foam substrate is prohibited. The Ni foam supported PANI cathode with high loading is prepared by PANI electrophoretic deposition, and followed by PANI slurry casting under vacuum filtration. The electrochemical charge storage performance for PANI material is significantly improved by using nickel foam substrate via the electrophoretic interlayer. The specific capacity of the nickel foam-PANI electrode with the electrophoretic layer is higher than the composite electrode without the electrophoretic layer, and the specific capacity of PANI supported by Ni foam reaches up to 183.28 mAh g-1 at the working current of 2.5 mA cm-2. The present electrophoresis deposition method plays the facile procedure for the immobilization of PANI microparticles onto the surface of non-platinum metals, and it becomes feasible to the use of the Ni foam supported PANI composite cathode for the Zn/PANI battery in weak acidic electrolyte.

  4. Application of an aqueous two-phase micellar system to extract bromelain from pineapple (Ananas comosus) peel waste and analysis of bromelain stability in cosmetic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spir, Lívia Genovez; Ataide, Janaína Artem; De Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Moriel, Patrícia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; De Borba Gurpilhares, Daniela; Silveira, Edgar; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias Basile

    2015-01-01

    Bromelain is a set of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) tissues such as stem, fruit and leaves. Because of its proteolytic activity, bromelain has potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The present study focused on the recovery of bromelain from pineapple peel by liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase micellar systems (ATPMS), using Triton X-114 (TX-114) and McIlvaine buffer, in the absence and presence of electrolytes CaCl2 and KI; the cloud points of the generated extraction systems were studied by plotting binodal curves. Based on the cloud points, three temperatures were selected for extraction: 30, 33, and 36°C for systems in the absence of salts; 40, 43, and 46°C in the presence of KI; 24, 27, and 30°C in the presence of CaCl2 . Total protein and enzymatic activities were analyzed to monitor bromelain. Employing the ATPMS chosen for extraction (0.5 M KI with 3% TX-114, at pH 6.0, at 40°C), the bromelain extract stability was assessed after incorporation into three cosmetic bases: an anhydrous gel, a cream, and a cream-gel formulation. The cream-gel formulation presented as the most appropriate base to convey bromelain, and its optimal storage conditions were found to be 4.0 ± 0.5°C. The selected ATPMS enabled the extraction of a biomolecule with high added value from waste lined-up in a cosmetic formulation, allowing for exploration of further cosmetic potential. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. THIRD-GENERATION FOAM BLOWING AGENTS FOR FOAM INSULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of third-generation blowing agents for foam insulation. (NOTE: the search for third-generation foam blowing agents has led to the realization that, as the number of potential substitutes increases, new concerns, such as their potential to act a...

  6. Mass transfer measurements in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, J.G.; Fournel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:This study participates to the elaboration of a method for decontamination of the inside surfaces of steel structures (pipes, tanks,...). The solution which has been chosen is to attack the surface of the structure by a dipping solution. In order to reduce the quantity of product to be recovered and treated at the end of the cleaning process, the active solution will be introduced as a foam. During its free or forced drainage the foam supplies an active liquid film along the structure surfaces. It was important to know if the transfers of the dipping liquid inside the foam and between foam and wall film are sufficient to allow a correct supplying of the active liquid at the wall and a correct dragging of the dipped products. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical model which simulates the various transfers. However such a modeling cannot be performed without a thorough knowledge of the different transfer parameters in the foam and in the film. The following study has been performed on a model foam (foaming water + air) held in a smooth vertical glass pipe and submitted to a forced drainage by the foaming water (water + surfactants). The liquid transfer involves the dispersion of the drainage liquid inside the foam and the transfer between the foam and the liquid film flowing down at the wall. The different transfers has been analyzed by NMR using a PFGSE-NMR sequence, which allows to determine the propagator, i.e., the probability density of the liquid particle displacements during a given time interval Δt, along a selected direction. This study allowed to measure, firstly, the mean liquid and the liquid dispersion in the foam along the vertical and horizontal direction, and secondly, the vertical mean velocity in the parietal liquid film. (authors)

  7. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  8. FoamVis, A Visualization System for Foam Research: Design and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipsa, Dan; Roberts, Richard; Laramee, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Liquid foams are used in areas such as mineral separation, oil recovery, food and beverage production, sanitation and fire fighting. To improve the quality of products and the efficiency of processes in these areas, foam scientists wish to understand and control foam behaviour. To this end, foam scientists have used foam simulations to model foam behaviour; however, analysing these simulations presents difficult challenges. We describe the main foam research challenges and present the design ...

  9. Foaming behaviour of polymer-surfactant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes-MartInez, Alfredo; Maldonado, Amir

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of a non-ionic amphiphilic polymer (PEG-100 stearate also called Myrj 59) on the foaming behaviour of aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS). The SDS concentration was kept fixed while the Myrj 59 concentration was varied. Measurements of foamability, surface tension and electrical conductivity were carried out. The results show two opposite effects depending on the polymer concentration: foamability is higher when the Myrj 59 concentration is low; however, it decreases considerably when the polymer concentration is increased. This behaviour is due to the polymer adsorption at the air/liquid interface at lower polymer concentrations, and to the formation of a polymer-surfactant complex in the bulk at higher concentrations. The results are confirmed by surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements, which are interpreted in terms of the microstructure of the polymer-surfactant solutions. The observed behaviour is due to the amphiphilic nature of the studied polymer. The increased hydrophobicity of Myrj 59, compared to that of water-soluble polymers like PEG or PEO, increases its 'reactivity' towards SDS, i.e. the strength of its interaction with this anionic surfactant. Our results show that hydrophobically modified polymers have potential applications as additives in order to control the foaming properties of surfactant solutions

  10. Heteropentanuclear Oxalato-Bridged nd–4f (n=4, 5) Metal Complexes with NO Ligand: Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Aqueous Stability and Antiproliferative Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen; Cremer, Laura; Gavriluta, Anatolie; Jovanović, Katarina K.; Filipović, Lana; Hummer, Alfred A.; Bü chel, Gabriel E.; Dojčinović, Biljana P.; Meier, Samuel M.; Rompel, Annette; Radulović, Siniša; Tommasino, Jean Bernard; Luneau, Dominique; Arion, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    A series of heteropentanuclear oxalate-bridged Ru(NO)-Ln (4d–4f) metal complexes of the general formula (nBu4N)5[Ln{RuCl3(μ-ox)(NO)}4], where Ln=Y (2), Gd (3), Tb (4), Dy (5) and ox=oxalate anion, were obtained by treatment of (nBu4N)2[RuCl3(ox)(NO)] (1) with the respective lanthanide salt in 4:1 molar ratio. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, while 1, 2, and 5 were in addition analyzed by X-ray crystallography, 1 by Ru K-edge XAS and 1 and 2 by 13C NMR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that in 2 and 5 four complex anions [RuCl3(ox)(NO)]2− are coordinated to YIII and DyIII, respectively, with formation of [Ln{RuCl3(μ-ox)(NO)}4]5− (Ln=Y, Dy). While YIII is eight-coordinate in 2, DyIII is nine-coordinate in 5, with an additional coordination of an EtOH molecule. The negative charge is counterbalanced by five nBu4N+ ions present in the crystal structure. The stability of complexes 2 and 5 in aqueous medium was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The antiproliferative activity of ruthenium-lanthanide complexes 2–5 were assayed in two human cancer cell lines (HeLa and A549) and in a noncancerous cell line (MRC-5) and compared with those obtained for the previously reported Os(NO)-Ln (5d–4f) analogues (nBu4N)5[Ln{OsCl3(ox)(NO)}4] (Ln=Y (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9)). Complexes 2–5 were found to be slightly more active than 1 in inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa and A549 cells, and significantly more cytotoxic than 5d–4f metal complexes 6–9 in terms of IC50 values. The highest antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 20.0 and 22.4 μM was found for 4 in HeLa and A549 cell lines, respectively. These cytotoxicity results are in accord with the presented ICP-MS data, indicating five- to eightfold greater accumulation of ruthenium versus osmium in human A549 cancer cells.

  11. Heteropentanuclear Oxalato-Bridged nd–4f (n=4, 5) Metal Complexes with NO Ligand: Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Aqueous Stability and Antiproliferative Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen

    2015-08-10

    A series of heteropentanuclear oxalate-bridged Ru(NO)-Ln (4d–4f) metal complexes of the general formula (nBu4N)5[Ln{RuCl3(μ-ox)(NO)}4], where Ln=Y (2), Gd (3), Tb (4), Dy (5) and ox=oxalate anion, were obtained by treatment of (nBu4N)2[RuCl3(ox)(NO)] (1) with the respective lanthanide salt in 4:1 molar ratio. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, while 1, 2, and 5 were in addition analyzed by X-ray crystallography, 1 by Ru K-edge XAS and 1 and 2 by 13C NMR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that in 2 and 5 four complex anions [RuCl3(ox)(NO)]2− are coordinated to YIII and DyIII, respectively, with formation of [Ln{RuCl3(μ-ox)(NO)}4]5− (Ln=Y, Dy). While YIII is eight-coordinate in 2, DyIII is nine-coordinate in 5, with an additional coordination of an EtOH molecule. The negative charge is counterbalanced by five nBu4N+ ions present in the crystal structure. The stability of complexes 2 and 5 in aqueous medium was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The antiproliferative activity of ruthenium-lanthanide complexes 2–5 were assayed in two human cancer cell lines (HeLa and A549) and in a noncancerous cell line (MRC-5) and compared with those obtained for the previously reported Os(NO)-Ln (5d–4f) analogues (nBu4N)5[Ln{OsCl3(ox)(NO)}4] (Ln=Y (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9)). Complexes 2–5 were found to be slightly more active than 1 in inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa and A549 cells, and significantly more cytotoxic than 5d–4f metal complexes 6–9 in terms of IC50 values. The highest antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 20.0 and 22.4 μM was found for 4 in HeLa and A549 cell lines, respectively. These cytotoxicity results are in accord with the presented ICP-MS data, indicating five- to eightfold greater accumulation of ruthenium versus osmium in human A549 cancer cells.

  12. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  13. Foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, R B; Wang, S L

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 mueq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4), CaCl(2), CaSO(4), MgCl(2), or MgSO(4) produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 x 10(5) up to 1.6 x 10(6) to 2.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 x 10(7) to 4.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 mueq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 x 10(4) to about 4.0 x 10(5) cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis.

  14. Effect of gas type on foam film permeability and its implications for foam flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Muruganathan, R M; Rossen, W R; Krastev, R

    2011-10-14

    The aim of this paper is to provide a perspective on the effect of gas type on the permeability of foam films stabilized by different types of surfactant and to present a critical overview of the tracer gas experiments, which is the common approach to determine the trapped fraction of foam in porous media. In these experiments some part of the gas is replaced by a "tracer gas" during the steady-state stage of the experiments and trapped fraction of foam is determined by fitting the effluent data to a capacitance mass-transfer model. We present the experimental results on the measurement of the gas permeability of foam films stabilized with five surfactants (non-ionic, anionic and cationic) and different salt concentrations. The salt concentrations assure formation of either common black (CBF) or Newton black films (NBF). The experiments are performed with different single gasses. The permeability of the CBF is in general higher than that of the NBF. This behavior is explained by the higher density of the surfactant molecules in the NBF compared to that of CBF. It is also observed that the permeability coefficient, K(cm/s), of CBF and NBF for non-ionic and cationic surfactants are similar and K is insensitive to film thickness. Compared to anionic surfactants, the films made by the non-ionic surfactant have much lower permeability while the films made by the cationic surfactant have larger permeability. This conclusion is valid for all gasses. For all types of surfactant the gas permeability of foam film is largely dependent on the dissolution of gas in the surfactant solution and increases with increasing gas solubility in the bulk liquid. The measured values of K are consistent with rapid diffusion of tracer gasses through trapped gas adjacent to flowing gas in porous media, and difficulties in interpreting the results of tracer-foam experiments with conventional capacitance models. The implications of the results for foam flow in porous media and factors leading

  15. Mechanical behaviour of cyclic olefin copolymer/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets nanocomposites foamed through supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Biani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A cycloolefin copolymer matrix was melt mixed with exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP and the resulting nanocomposites were foamed by supercritical carbon dioxide. The density of the obtained foams decreased with the foaming pressure. Moreover, xGnP limited the cell growth during the expansion process thus reducing the cell diameter (from 1.08 to 0.22 mm with an XGnP amount of 10 wt% at 150 bar and increasing the cell density (from 12 to 45 cells/mm2 with a nanofiller content of 10 wt% at 150 bar. Electron microscopy observations of foams evidenced exfoliation and orientation of the nanoplatelets along the cell walls. Quasi-static compressive tests and tensile creep tests on foams clearly indicated that xGnP improved the modulus (up to a factor of 10 for a xGnP content of 10 wt% and the creep stability.

  16. MnO2/multiwall carbon nanotube/Ni-foam hybrid electrode for electrochemical capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. H.; Li, L.; Qian, W. J.; Dong, C. K.

    2018-01-01

    The ternary composites of manganese dioxide/multiwall carbon nanotube/Ni-foam (MnO2/MWNT/Ni-foam) for supercapacitors were fabricated via a hydrothermal method after direct growth of MWNTs on the Ni-foam. The structural properties of the electrodes were characterized by SEM and TEM. The electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical properties from the investigation based on the three-electrode setup. Low contact resistance Rs of about 0.291 Ω between MnO2/MWNT and Ni-foam was reached benefited from the direct growth structure. High capacitance of 355.1 F/g at the current density of 2 A/g was achieved, with good capacitive response at high current density. The MnO2/MWNT/Ni-foam electrode exhibits good stability performance after 2000 cycles at a current of 40 mA.

  17. Fabrication of nickel-foam-supported layered zinc-cobalt hydroxide nanoflakes for high electrochemical performance in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Tao; Chen, Limiao; Liu, Xiaohe; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2014-10-04

    Nickel foam supported Zn-Co hydroxide nanoflakes were fabricated by a facile solvothermal method. Benefited from the unique structure of Zn-Co hydroxide nanoflakes on a nickel foam substrate, the as prepared materials exhibited an excellent specific capacitance of 901 F g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) and remarkable cycling stability as electrode materials in supercapacitors.

  18. Quantifying the retention of foam formulation components to sedimentary phases to enable predictions of mobility and treatment efficacy - 59369

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Rosa; Jansik, Danielle; Wellman, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Deep vadose zone remediation remains the most challenging remediation problem in the DOE Complex. Foam delivery technology is being developed as a method for delivering remedial amendments within vadose zone environments for in situ contaminant stabilization. Thus far, the physical propagation of foam within subsurface media has been evaluated and quantified. However, foam propagation is a product of surfactant sorption which directly impacts foam stability. In order to predict the stability of foam during subsurface transport it is necessary to quantify the sorption of foam components as a function of concentration, competitive sorption, sediment mineralogy, and temperature. This investigation provides the results of standard static batch test quantifying these relationships. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure surfactant concentrations. The results of this investigation provide necessary understanding to predict foam stability during subsurface transport and determination of the remedial radius of influence. This study is part of a multiple step process for demonstrating the feasibility of foam transport to distribute amendments within in the vadose zone. (authors)

  19. Investigation of certain physical–chemical features of oil recovery by an optimized alkali–surfactant–foam (ASF) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to discover a synergistic effect between foam stability in bulk and micro-emulsion phase behaviour to design a high-performance chemical system for an optimized alkaline–surfactant–foam (ASF) flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The focus is on the interaction

  20. Redox reaction and foaming in nuclear waste glass melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and is an attempt to analyze and estimate the effects of feed composition variables and reducing agent variables on the expected chemistry of reactions occurring in the cold cap and in the glass melt in the nuclear waste glass Slurry-fed, joule-heated melters as they might affect foaming during the glass-making process. Numerous redox reactions of waste glass components and potential feed additives, and the effects of other feed variables on these reactions are reviewed with regard to their potential effect on glass foaming. A major emphasis of this report is to examine the potential positive or negative aspects of adjusting feed with formic acid as opposed to other feed modification techniques including but not limited to use of other reducing agents. Feed modification techniques other than the use of reductants that should influence foaming behavior include control of glass melter feed pH through use of nitric acid. They also include partial replacement of sodium salts by lithium salts. This latter action (b) apparently lowers glass viscosity and raises surface tension. This replacement should decrease foaming by decreasing foam stability.

  1. Structure and Compressive Properties of Invar-Cenosphere Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Luong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the mechanical performance of syntactic foams produced by means of the metal powder injection molding process having an Invar (FeNi36 matrix and including cenospheres as hollow particles at weight fractions (wt.% of 5 and 10, respectively, corresponding to approximately 41.6 and 60.0 vol.% in relation to the metal content and at 0.6 g/cm3 hollow particle density. The synthesis process results in survival of cenospheres and provides low density syntactic foams. The microstructure of the materials is investigated as well as the mechanical performance under quasi-static and high strain rate compressive loads. The compressive stress-strain curves of syntactic foams reveal a continuous strain hardening behavior in the plastic region, followed by a densification region. The results reveal a strain rate sensitivity in cenosphere-based Invar matrix syntactic foams. Differences in properties between cenosphere- and glass microsphere-based materials are discussed in relation to the findings of microstructural investigations. Cenospheres present a viable choice as filler material in iron-based syntactic foams due to their higher thermal stability compared to glass microspheres.

  2. PUR-PIR foam produced based on poly(hydroxybutyl citrate foamed founded with different factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liszkowska Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A poly(hydroxybutyl citrate p(HBC was obtained. The product compound produced in the solution during esterification, was added to rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate foams (PUR-PIR. The amount of petrochemical polyol in the foams was decreased in favor of the p(HBC from 0.1 to 0.5 equivalent. The foams were foamed in two ways: with distilled water (W foams and with Solkane 365/227 (S foams. The examination results of both foam series were compared. They showed that the foams foamed with water have higher softening temperature than the foams foamed with solkane. The retention values for both foam series are around 91–95%, and water absorption in the range of 0.7–3.2%. The anisotropy coefficient did not exceed 1.08 (the lowest value being 1.01.

  3. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  4. The separation of silica nanoparticle by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide from decontamination foam waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Man Soo; Yoon, In Ho; Jung, Chong Hun; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Wang Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Decontamination foam has been considered as a potential application for the cleaning of radioactive contaminant in the field of metallic walls, overhead surfaces, and complex components. Moreover, foam decontamination could generate the low secondary waste amount owing to its volume expansion. In order to increase the decontamination efficiency, it is essential to improve the foam stability with low amount of chemical decontamination agent. Yoon et al. reported that the silica nanoparticle containing surfactant increased the foam stability compared to only surfactant solution[3]. Nanoparticle has been used with surfactant, which they adsorb at fluid/fluid interface, to stabilize emulsions or bubbles in foams. Despite of improving foam stability, they still used the surfactant, silica nanoparticle (1 wt%), and viscosifier. In addition, it is difficult to separate silica nanoparticle from decontamination solution. Because nanoparticles differ from classical solid particles due to smaller particle size and their specific properties. Thus, the separation method for nanoparticle should be also developed with high recovery rates. The flocculation of silica nanoparticle added by CTAB could be quickly achieved for only 30 min. The particle size of SiO_2 was larger as CTAB amount increased, and SiO_2 contents in the top solution were decreased after centrifugation

  5. The separation of silica nanoparticle by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide from decontamination foam waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Man Soo; Yoon, In Ho; Jung, Chong Hun; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Wang Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Decontamination foam has been considered as a potential application for the cleaning of radioactive contaminant in the field of metallic walls, overhead surfaces, and complex components. Moreover, foam decontamination could generate the low secondary waste amount owing to its volume expansion. In order to increase the decontamination efficiency, it is essential to improve the foam stability with low amount of chemical decontamination agent. Yoon et al. reported that the silica nanoparticle containing surfactant increased the foam stability compared to only surfactant solution[3]. Nanoparticle has been used with surfactant, which they adsorb at fluid/fluid interface, to stabilize emulsions or bubbles in foams. Despite of improving foam stability, they still used the surfactant, silica nanoparticle (1 wt%), and viscosifier. In addition, it is difficult to separate silica nanoparticle from decontamination solution. Because nanoparticles differ from classical solid particles due to smaller particle size and their specific properties. Thus, the separation method for nanoparticle should be also developed with high recovery rates. The flocculation of silica nanoparticle added by CTAB could be quickly achieved for only 30 min. The particle size of SiO{sub 2} was larger as CTAB amount increased, and SiO{sub 2} contents in the top solution were decreased after centrifugation.

  6. Microcellular foams via phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A study of wide variety of processes for making plastic foams shows that phase separation processes for polymers from solutions offers the most viable methods for obtaining rigid plastic foams which met the physical requirements for fusion target designs. Four general phase separation methods have been shown to give polymer foams with densities less than 0.1 g/cm 3 and cell sizes of 30μm or less. These methods involve the utilization of non-solvent, chemical or thermal cooling processes to achieve a controlled phase separation wherein either two distinct phases are obtained where the polymer phase is a continuous phase or two bicontinuous phases are obtained where both the polymer and solvent are interpenetrating, continuous, labyrinthine phases. Subsequent removal of the solvent gives the final foam structure

  7. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse......, moderate for fluoride gel and very low for acidulated fluoride foam. No conclusions could be drawn on the cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This review, covering the recent decade, has further substantiated the evidence for a caries-preventive effect of fluoride mouth rinse, fluoride gel and foam...

  8. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs...... was increased by the addition of glucose in the feeding substrate. During the 2nd and 4th period the organic loading rate was maintained constant, but instead of glucose, higher concentration of Na-oleate or gelatine was added in the feeding substrate. The results obtained from the above experiment showed...

  9. Extraction kinetics of uranium (VI) with polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ting-Chia; Chen, Dong-Hwang; Huang, Shius-Dong; Huang, Ching-Tsven; Shieh, Mu-Chang.

    1993-01-01

    The extraction kinetics of uranium(VI) from aqueous nitrate solution with polyether-based polyurethane foam was investigated in a batch reactor with automatic squeezing. The extraction curves of uranium(VI) concentration in solution vs. extraction time exhibited a rather rapid exponential decay within the first few minutes, followed by a slower exponential decay during the remaining period. This phenomenon can be attributed to the presence of two-phase structure, hard segment domains and soft segment matrix in the polyurethane foam. A two-stage rate model expressed by a superposition of two exponential curves was proposed, according to which the experimental data were fitted by an optimization method. The extraction rate of uranium (VI) was also found to increase with increasing temperature, nitrate concentration, and hydration of the cation of nitrate salt. (author)

  10. Reinforcement of Recycled Foamed Asphalt Using Short Polypropylene Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of short polypropylene fibers on recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixture. Short polypropylene fibers of 10 mm length with a 0.15% by weight mixing ratio of the fiber to the asphalt binder were used. The Marshall stability test, the indirect tensile strength test, the resilient modulus test, and wheel tracking test of the RFA mixtures were conducted. The test results were compared to find out the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of the fiber and the other mixtures, which included the conventional recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixtures; the cement reinforced recycled foamed asphalt (CRFA mixtures; the semihot recycled foamed asphalt (SRFA mixtures; and recycled hot-mix asphalt (RHMA mixtures. It is found that the FRFA mixture shows higher Marshall stability than the RFA and SRFA mixtures, higher indirect tensile strength than the RFA mixture, and higher rut resistance than the RFA, SRFA, and RHMA mixtures as seen from the wheel tracking test.

  11. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  12. A cement based syntactic foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoqiang; Muthyala, Venkata D.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a cement based syntactic foam core was proposed and experimentally investigated for composite sandwich structures. This was a multi-phase composite material with microballoon dispersed in a rubber latex toughened cement paste matrix. A trace amount of microfiber was also incorporated to increase the number of mechanisms for energy absorption and a small amount of nanoclay was added to improve the crystal structure of the hydrates. Three groups of cement based syntactic foams with varying cement content were investigated. A fourth group of specimens containing pure cement paste were also prepared as control. Each group contained 24 beam specimens. The total number of beam specimens was 96. The dimension of each beam was 30.5 cm x 5.1 cm x 1.5 cm. Twelve foam specimens from each group were wrapped with plain woven 7715 style glass fabric reinforced epoxy to prepare sandwich beams. Twelve cubic foam specimens, three from each group, with a side length of 5.1 cm, were also prepared. Three types of testing, low velocity impact test and four-point bending test on the beam specimens and compression test on the cubic specimens, were conducted to evaluate the impact energy dissipation, stress-strain behavior, and residual strength. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also used to examine the energy dissipation mechanisms in the micro-length scale. It was found that the cement based syntactic foam has a higher capacity for dissipating impact energy with an insignificant reduction in strength as compared to the control cement paste core. When compared to a polymer based foam core having similar compositions, it was found that the cement based foam has a comparable energy dissipation capacity. The developed cement based syntactic foam would be a viable alternative for core materials in impact-tolerant composite sandwich structures

  13. Influence of high power ultrasound on rheological and foaming properties of model ice-cream mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Batur

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research of the high power ultrasound effect on rheological and foaming properties of ice cream model mixtures. Ice cream model mixtures are prepared according to specific recipes, and afterward undergone through different homogenization techniques: mechanical mixing, ultrasound treatment and combination of mechanical and ultrasound treatment. Specific diameter (12.7 mm of ultrasound probe tip has been used for ultrasound treatment that lasted 5 minutes at 100 percent amplitude. Rheological parameters have been determined using rotational rheometer and expressed as flow index, consistency coefficient and apparent viscosity. From the results it can be concluded that all model mixtures have non-newtonian, dilatant type behavior. The highest viscosities have been observed for model mixtures that were homogenizes with mechanical mixing, and significantly lower values of viscosity have been observed for ultrasound treated ones. Foaming properties are expressed as percentage of increase in foam volume, foam stability index and minimal viscosity. It has been determined that ice cream model mixtures treated only with ultrasound had minimal increase in foam volume, while the highest increase in foam volume has been observed for ice cream mixture that has been treated in combination with mechanical and ultrasound treatment. Also, ice cream mixtures having higher amount of proteins in composition had shown higher foam stability. It has been determined that optimal treatment time is 10 minutes.

  14. Estabilización de disoluciones acuosas de riboflavina por solapamiento espectral Stabilization of aqueous solution of Riboflavin by spectral overlapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Gallardo Cabrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la fotoestabilización de la riboflavina en disolución acuosa a través de solapamiento espectral. En estudios previos se determinó que la longitud de onda a 445 nm promueve la degradación de la riboflavina, por eso se escogieron los colorantes que mejor eficiencia de absorción presentaran a esta longitud de onda. El estudio de fotoprotección consistió en determinar y comparar las constantes de velocidad (k0 de las reacciones de fotodegradación de la riboflavina en disoluciones (80 µM en presencia y ausencia de colorantes a diferentes concentraciones: tartrazina (40, 58, 71 y 187 µM, amarillo ocaso (80, 160, 442 y 1 600 µM y amarillo de quinoleína (80,133, 160 y 1 600 µM. Las cinéticas se realizaron irradiando las muestras en una cámara de simulación solar a 250 W.m-2, a diferentes tiempos y cuantificando la riboflavina residual, mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Las constantes de velocidad (k0 se determinaron mediante el método integral. En ausencia de colorantes la fotodegradación de la riboflavina obedece a una cinética de orden cero (k0= 0,0012 mg.mL-1×min-1 con un 79,9 % de degradación tras 20 min de exposición a la luz. En presencia de colorantes la estabilidad de la riboflavina mejora significativamente con el aumento de la concentración del colorante empleado; sin embargo, se encontró que el amarillo de quinoleína a bajas concentraciones (The photostabilization of Riboflavin (RF in aqueous solution was evaluated through spectral overlap. Previous studies established that wavelength at 445nm promoted RF degradation; hence dyes that exhibited high absorption performance at 445 nm were selected. The photoprotection study consisted in determining and comparing the rate constants (k0 of the RF photodegradation reactions in solutions (80 µM, both in presence and absence of dyes at different concentrations: tartrazine (40, 58, 71 y 187 µM, sunset yellow (80, 160, 442 y 1 600 µM and

  15. Foam shell project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 μm thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D 2 or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE

  16. Influence of pH, temperature, and concentration on stabilization of aqueous hornet silk solution and fabrication of salt-free materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori

    2015-01-01

    We found that an aqueous solution of silk from cocoons produced by hornet larvae (hornet silk) can be obtained when the solution is adjusted to basic conditions of pH > 9.2. It is known that native hornet cocoons can be dissolved in concentrated aqueous solution of salts, such as lithium bromide (LiBr) and calcium chloride (CaCl2). Upon the removal of these salts from solution by dialysis, solidification, gelation, or sedimentation of hornet silk is known to occur. In the present study, under basic conditions, however, no such solidification occurred, even after salt removal. In this study, ammonia was used for alkalization of solution because it is volatilized during the casting process and pure hornet silk materials can be obtained after drying. The effects of the concentrations of hornet silk and ammonia, as well as dialysis temperature, on preventing gelation during dialysis were investigated. Dialysis conditions that limit the degradation of hornet silk by hydrolysis in alkali solution were identified. Moreover, casting conditions to prepare flexible and transparent hornet silk film from aqueous ammonia solution were optimized. Molecular structural analysis of hornet silk in aqueous ammonia solution and cast film indicated the formation of α-helix conformations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  18. Transport of particles in liquid foams: a multi-scale approach; Etude multi-echelles du transport de particules dans les mousses liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvet, N.

    2009-11-15

    Foam is used for the decontamination of radioactive tanks since foam is a system that has a large surface for a low amount of liquid and as a consequence requires less water to be decontaminated. We study experimentally different particle transport configurations in fluid micro-channels network (Plateau borders) of aqueous foam. At first, foam permeability is measured at the scale of a single channel and of the whole foam network for 2 soap solutions known for their significant different interface mobility. Experimental data are well described by a model that takes into account the real geometry of the foam and by considering a constant value of the Boussinesq number of each soap solutions. Secondly, the velocity of one particle convected in a single foam channel is measured for different particle/channel aspect ratio. For small aspect ratio, a counterflow that is taking place at the channel's corners slows down the particle. A recirculation model in the channel foam films is developed to describe this effect. To do this, the Gibbs elasticity is introduced. Then, the threshold between trapped and released of one particle in liquid foam are carried out. This threshold is deduced from hydrodynamic and capillary forces equilibrium. Finally, the case of a clog foam node is addressed. (author)

  19. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO 2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  20. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength).

  1. Stability characteristics and structural properties of single- and double-walled boron-nitride nanotubes under physical adsorption of Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in aqueous environment using molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, R.; Ajori, S.; Ameri, A.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Structural properties and stability characteristics of single- and double-walled boron-nitride nanotubes functionalized with Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in aqueous environment are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulations. - Highlights: • Structural and buckling analysis of boron-nitride nanotubes under physical adsorption of Flavin mononucleotide (FMN). • Gyration radius increases linearly as the weight percentage of FMN increases. • Presence of water molecules results in more expansion of FMN around BNNTs. • Critical buckling force of functionalized BNNTs is higher than that of pure BNNTs. • The critical strain of functionalized BNNTs is found to be lower than that of pure ones. - Abstract: The non-cytotoxic properties of Boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and the ability of stable interaction with biomolecules make them so promising for biological applications. In this research, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the structural properties and stability characteristics of single- and double-walled BNNTs under physical adsorption of Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in vacuum and aqueous environments. According to the simulation results, gyration radius increases by rising the weight percentage of FMN. Also, the results demonstrate that critical buckling force of functionalized BNNTs increases in vacuum. Moreover, it is observed that by increasing the weight percentage of FMN, critical force of functionalized BNNTs rises. By contrast, critical strain reduces by functionalization of BNNTs in vacuum. Considering the aqueous environment, it is observed that gyration radius and critical buckling force of functionalized BNNTs increase more considerably than those of functionalized BNNTs in vacuum, whereas the critical strains approximately remain unchanged.

  2. Liquid versus foam sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel-Desnos, C; Allaert, F-A

    2009-12-01

    A systematic review to compare efficacy and safety of foam (F) sclerotherapy versus liquid (L) sclerotherapy for primary varicose veins of the lower limbs. Systematic searches of electronic databases were conducted in April 2009 to identify relevant published studies. Database searches were augmented with abstracts from conference proceedings and electronic and hand searching of journals not consistently indexed in the major databases. For treatment of saphenous veins, six trials (four randomized controlled trials) were considered. Despite containing much less sclerosing agent, F was markedly more effective compared with L, the difference being put at between 20% and 50%. Four studies were included in a meta-analysis showing efficacy of F at 76.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 71-82) versus L at 39.5% (95% CI 33-46), chi(2) = 60.9740; P reticular veins and telangiectases, only two comparative trials were found and do not at present provide any conclusive evidence to support the superiority of efficacy of one form over the other. Statistically, the side-effects reported in all the available comparative trials do not differ between F and L forms, even if visual disturbances seem to be more common with F. In the treatment of varices of the lower limbs, F shows much greater efficacy compared to L. Concerning the side effects, no statistical significant differences were found between L and F.

  3. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  4. Copper ferrocyanide - polyurethane foam as a composite ion exchanger for removal of radioactive cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lal, K.B.; Ahmed, J.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed for the removal of cesium from the aqueous radioactive waste using a composite ion-exchanger consisting of Copper-Ferrocyanide Powder (CFC) and Polyurethane (PU) Foam. Polyvinyl acetate has been used as a binder in the preparation of CFC-PU foam. The physical properties of CFC such as density, surface area, IR stretching frequency and lattice parameters have been evaluated and also its potassium and copper(II) content have been estimated. Optimization of loading of CFC on PU foam has been studied. The CFC-PU was viewed under microscope to find out the homogeneity of distribution. Exchange capacities of the CFC-PU foam in different media have been determined and column studies have been carried out. Studies have been undertaken on extraction of cesium from CFC foam and also on digestion of spent CFC-PU foam and immobilization of digested solution in cement matrix. The cement matrices have been characterized with respect to density, bio-resistance and leaching resistance. (author)

  5. Metal-doped organic foam and method of making same. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinde, J.A.

    Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for producing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

  6. Foam for combating mine fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    The application of foam in dealing with underground fire is well known due to its smothering action by cutting off air feed to burning fuel as well as acting as coolant. Besides plugging air feed to fire, water could be virtually reached to the fire affected areas much beyond the jet range as underground galleries with low roof restrict jet range of water. This method also enables a closer approach of a fire fighting team by isolating the toxic gases and smoke with a foam plug. The paper describes the development of high expansion foam composition and its application technology in order that foam plug method can be suitably utilized for combating mine fires in India. Three compositions were recommended for generation of high expansion foam: (a) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulphate, 0.15 to 0.2% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, 0.1% booster; (b) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.12 to 0.15% alkaline solution of gum arabic, 0.1 to 0.2% ferrous gluconate; and (c) 0.35% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.20% booster, 0.2% xylene sulfonate.

  7. Numerical modeling of foam flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheddadi, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Liquid foam flows are involved in numerous applications, e.g. food and cosmetics industries, oil extraction, nuclear decontamination. Moreover, their study leads to fundamental knowledge: as it is easier to manipulate and analyse, foam is used as a model material to understand the flow of emulsions, polymers, pastes, or cell aggregates, all of which display both solid and liquid behaviour. Systematic experiments performed by Francois Graner et al. provide precise data that emphasize the non Newtonian properties of the foam. Meanwhile, Pierre Saramito proposed a visco-elasto-plastic continuous tensorial model, akin to predict the behaviour of the foam. The goal of this thesis is to understand this complex behaviour, using these two elements. We have built and validated a resolution algorithm based on a bidimensional finite elements methods. The numerical solutions are in excellent agreement with the spatial distribution of all measured quantities, and confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. The dominant parameters have been identified and we evidenced the fact that the viscous, elastic, and plastic contributions to the flow have to be treated simultaneously in a tensorial formalism. We provide a substantial contribution to the understanding of foams and open the path to realistic simulations of complex VEP flows for industrial applications. (author)

  8. A graphite foam reinforced by graphite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.J.; Wang, X.Y.; Guo, L.F.; Wang, Y.M.; Wang, Y.P.; Yu, M.F.; Lau, K.T.T. [DongHua University, Shanghai (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Graphite foam was obtained after carbonization and graphitization of a pitch foam formed by the pyrolysis of coal tar based mesophase pitch mixed with graphite particles in a high pressure and temperature chamber. The graphite foam possessed high mechanical strength and exceptional thermal conductivity after adding the graphite particles. Experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity of modified graphite foam reached 110W/m K, and its compressive strength increased from 3.7 MPa to 12.5 MPa with the addition of 5 wt% graphite particles. Through the microscopic observation, it was also found that fewer micro-cracks were formed in the cell wall of the modified foam as compared with pure graphite foam. The graphitization degree of modified foam reached 84.9% and the ligament of graphite foam exhibited high alignment after carbonization at 1200{sup o}C for 3 h and graphitization at 3000{sup o}C for 10 min.

  9. Some aspects of image processing using foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, A.; Freire, M.V.; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2014-01-01

    We have explored some concepts of chaotic dynamics and wave light transport in foams. Using some experiments, we have obtained the main features of light intensity distribution through foams. We are proposing a model for this phenomenon, based on the combination of two processes: a diffusive process and another one derived from chaotic dynamics. We have presented a short outline of the chaotic dynamics involving light scattering in foams. We also have studied the existence of caustics from scattering of light from foams, with typical patterns observed in the light diffraction in transparent films. The nonlinear geometry of the foam structure was explored in order to create optical elements, such as hyperbolic prisms and filters. - Highlights: • We have obtained the light scattering in foams using experiments. • We model the light transport in foams using a chaotic dynamics and a diffusive process. • An optical filter based on foam is proposed

  10. Graphene hydrogels deposited in nickel foams for high-rate electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Sheng, Kaixuan; Luo, Peihui; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2012-08-28

    Graphene hydrogel/nickel foam composite electrodes for high-rate electrochemical capacitors are produced by reduction of an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide in a nickel foam (upper half of figure). The micropores of the hydrogel are exposed to the electrolyte so that ions can enter and form electrochemical double-layers. The nickel framework shortens the distances of charge transfer. Therefore, the electrochemical capacitor exhibits highrate performance (see plots). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Processing and characterization of titanium dioxide grown on titanium foam for potential use as Li-ion electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyelim; Park, Hyeji [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 20707 (Korea, Republic of); Um, Ji Hyun [Integrated Energy Center for Fostering Global Creative Researcher, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Won-Sub [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Heeman, E-mail: heeman@kookmin.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 20707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Successful formation of anatase TiO{sub 2} on the surface of Ti foam. • Successful application of TiO{sub 2}/Ti foam anode to lithium ion battery. • TiO{sub 2}/Ti foam anode shows remarkably stable capacity retention. - Abstract: This study investigates the processing and potential application of Ti foams to the anode of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Ti foam is successfully synthesized using a water-based freeze-casting process, and anatase titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is formed on the surface of the Ti foam for application to the anode of LIB. The metallic Ti foam acts as a current collector “platform” with increased surface area and the TiO{sub 2} surface coating acts as an active anode material. Coin-cell test results show that the unique combination of the Ti foam and the TiO{sub 2} coating anode has highly stable cycling properties and can thus be considered promising for use as an advanced anode for LIBs that require high safety and stability. It is anticipated that the use of the unique Ti-foam-based electrode design will not only be limited to LIBs but also will be applied to other energy and environmental areas as a catalyst or filter.

  12. FoamVis, A Visualization System for Foam Research: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan R. Lipsa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid foams are used in areas such as mineral separation, oil recovery, food and beverage production, sanitation and fire fighting. To improve the quality of products and the efficiency of processes in these areas, foam scientists wish to understand and control foam behaviour. To this end, foam scientists have used foam simulations to model foam behaviour; however, analysing these simulations presents difficult challenges. We describe the main foam research challenges and present the design of FoamVis, the only existing visualization, exploration and analysis application created to address them. We describe FoamVis’ main features, together with relevant design and implementation notes. Our goal is to provide a global overview and individual feature implementation details that would allow a visualization scientist to extend the FoamVis system with new algorithms and adapt it to new requirements. The result is a detailed presentation of the software that is not provided in previous visualization research papers.

  13. A kinetic approach to modeling the manufacture of high density strucutral foam: Foaming and polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Noble, David R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Brunini, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Celina, Mathias C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Wyatt, Nicholas B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, Kyle R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Tinsley, James

    2015-09-01

    We are studying PMDI polyurethane with a fast catalyst, such that filling and polymerization occur simultaneously. The foam is over-packed to tw ice or more of its free rise density to reach the density of interest. Our approach is to co mbine model development closely with experiments to discover new physics, to parameterize models and to validate the models once they have been developed. The model must be able to repres ent the expansion, filling, curing, and final foam properties. PMDI is chemically blown foam, wh ere carbon dioxide is pr oduced via the reaction of water and isocyanate. The isocyanate also re acts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. A new kinetic model is developed and implemented, which follows a simplified mathematical formalism that decouple s these two reactions. The model predicts the polymerization reaction via condensation chemis try, where vitrification and glass transition temperature evolution must be included to correctly predict this quantity. The foam gas generation kinetics are determined by tracking the molar concentration of both water and carbon dioxide. Understanding the therma l history and loads on the foam due to exothermicity and oven heating is very important to the results, since the kinetics and ma terial properties are all very sensitive to temperature. The conservation eq uations, including the e quations of motion, an energy balance, and thr ee rate equations are solved via a stabilized finite element method. We assume generalized-Newtonian rheology that is dependent on the cure, gas fraction, and temperature. The conservation equations are comb ined with a level set method to determine the location of the free surface over time. Results from the model are compared to experimental flow visualization data and post-te st CT data for the density. Seve ral geometries are investigated including a mock encapsulation part, two configur ations of a mock stru ctural part, and a bar geometry to

  14. Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Induces Multifunctionality in Epoxy Nanocomposites by Simultaneous Improvement in Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrey, Leslie; Nautiyal, Pranjal; Loganathan, Archana; Idowu, Adeyinka; Boesl, Benjamin; Agarwal, Arvind

    2017-11-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) macroporous graphene foam based multifunctional epoxy composites are developed in this study. Facile dip-coating and mold-casting techniques are employed to engineer microstructures with tailorable thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties. These processing techniques allow capillarity-induced equilibrium filling of graphene foam branches, creating epoxy/graphene interfaces with minimal separation. Addition of 2 wt % graphene foam enhances the glass transition temperature of epoxy from 106 to 162 °C, improving the thermal stability of the polymer composite. Graphene foam aids in load-bearing, increasing the ultimate tensile strength by 12% by merely 0.13 wt % graphene foam in an epoxy matrix. Digital image correlation (DIC) analysis revealed that the graphene foam cells restrict and confine the deformation of the polymer matrix, thereby enhancing the load-bearing capability of the composite. Addition of 0.6 wt % graphene foam also enhances the flexural strength of the pure epoxy by 10%. A 3D network of graphene branches is found to suppress and deflect the cracks, arresting mechanical failure. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the composites demonstrated their vibration damping capability, as the loss tangent (tan δ) jumps from 0.1 for the pure epoxy to 0.24 for ∼2 wt % graphene foam-epoxy composite. Graphene foam branches also provide seamless pathways for electron transfer, which induces electrical conductivity exceeding 450 S/m in an otherwise insulator epoxy matrix. The epoxy-graphene foam composite exhibits a gauge factor as high as 4.1, which is twice the typical gauge factor for the most common metals. Simultaneous improvement in thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of epoxy due to 3D graphene foam makes epoxy-graphene foam composite a promising lightweight and multifunctional material for aiding load-bearing, electrical transport, and motion sensing in aerospace, automotive, robotics, and smart device structures.

  15. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  16. Influence of the glass particle size on the foaming process and physical characteristics of foam glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared low-density foam glasses from cathode-ray-tube panel glass using carbon and MnO2 as the foaming agents. The effect of the glass particle size on the foaming process, the apparent density and the pore morphology is revealed. The results show that the foaming is mainly caused...... by the reduction of manganese. Foam glasses with a density of

  17. Modelling of Churn-Annular foam flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westende, J.M.C. van 't; Shoeibi Omrani, P.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Nennie, E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Foam assisted lift is a deliquification method in the oil and gas industry, which aims to prevent or postpone countercurrent gas-liquid flow in maturing gas wells or to assist in removing downhole accumulated liquids. According to Nimwegen, who performed experiments with foam flows, foam

  18. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  19. Pipe Decontamination Involving String-Foam Circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchet, J.P.; Estienne, G.; Fournel, B.

    2002-01-01

    Foam applications number for nuclear decontamination purposes has recently increased. The major advantage of foam decontamination is the reduction of secondary liquid wastes volumes. Among foam applications, we focus on foam circulation in contaminated equipment. Dynamic properties of the system ensures an homogeneous and rapid effect of the foam bed-drifted chemical reagents present in the liquid phase. This paper describes a new approach of foam decontamination for pipes. It is based on an alternated air and foam injections. We called it 'string-foam circulation'. A further reduction of liquid wastes is achieved compared to continuous foam. Secondly, total pressure loss along the pipe is controlled by the total foam length in the pipe. It is thus possible to clean longer pipes keeping the pressure under atmospheric pressure value. This ensures the non dispersion of contamination. This study describes experimental results obtained with a neutral foam as well with an acid foam on a 130 m long loop. Finally, the decontamination of a 44 meters pipe is presented. (authors)

  20. Electricity in foams: from one soapy interface to the macroscopic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biance, Anne-Laure

    2017-11-01

    Liquid foams (a dispersion of gas bubbles in a soapy solution) destabilize with time due to coarsening, coalescence and gravity driven drainage. We propose here to inhibit (or trigger) the foam destabilization by applying an electric field to the material. This effect is investigated at the different scales of the system: one soapy interface, one liquid film, the macroscopic foam. The generation of an electroosmotic flow near a soapy liquid/gas interface raises many issues. How does the flow affect surfactant repartition? Is there a Marangoni stress at the interface? At the scale of one soap film, how the electric field affects the film stability and deformation? In a macroscopic foam, one can wonder whether the electric field can indeed reverse gravity driven drainage and increase foam lifetime? These different issues are considered by developing new experimental techniques allowing us to probe surfactant repartition at liquid interfaces, soap film thicknesses and liquid foam properties when an electric field is applied. The results will be presented together with a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms arising at each scale of the material, to conclude with the potential use of electricity in liquid foams to control destabilization. Collaborators: Baptiste Blanc, Oriane Bonhomme, Laurent Joly, Christophe Ybert.

  1. Influence of cellulose fibers on structure and properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Valeriy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the promising means of foamed concrete quality improvement is micro-reinforcement by adding synthetic and mineral fibers to the base mix. This research is the first to investigate peculiarities of using recycled cellulose fiber extracted from waste paper for obtaining fiber reinforced foam concrete. The paper presents results of experimental research on the influence of cellulose fibers on structure and properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete by using methods of chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The research determines peculiarities of new formations appearance and densification of binder hydration products in the contact zone between fiber and cement matrix, which boost mechanical strength of fiber reinforced foam concrete. Physico-mechanical properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete were defined depending on the amount of recycled cellulose fiber added to the base mix. It was found that the use of recycled cellulose fibers allows obtaining structural thermal insulating fiber reinforced foam concretes of non-autoclaved hardening of brand D600 with regard to mean density with the following improved properties: compressive strength increased by 35% compared to basic samples, higher stability of foamed concrete mix and decreased shrinkage deformation.

  2. Efficient and facile fabrication of hierarchical carbon foams with abundant nanoscale pores for use in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Wei; Yang, Gui Jun; Yang, Tae Hyeon; Jung, Yong Ju [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education (KOREATECH), Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Shan Tang [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2017-03-15

    Hierarchical carbon foams (HCFs) with micro-, meso-, and macropores were successfully synthesized via a two-step process: (1) polymerization in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions without any hard templates and (2) carbonization at 850°C. With the aim of both enhancing the stability of the emulsion and forming a micro- and mesoporous structure during the carbonization process, potassium citrate was introduced in an aqueous solution of resorcinol and formaldehyde. A series of HCFs were fabricated by changing the mass ratio of potassium citrate to total carbon sources from 0.25 to 1.5. The effect of potassium citrate on the porous structure of HCFs was investigated through nitrogen sorption tests. The prepared HCFs exhibited well-developed porous structures of micro-, meso- and macropores and high surface areas. The structural characteristics of the HCFs, including pore size distribution, surface area, and porosity, were significantly dependent on the amount of potassium citrate. It was concluded that potassium citrate greatly contributed to the formation of carbon foams with nano-sized pore structures and high porosity. Interestingly, it was found that when the mass ratio of potassium citrate to total carbon sources was 0.5, the HCFs showed the highest specific surface area (⁓1360 m{sup 2}/g). Furthermore, the capacitive performances of the HCFs were evaluated in a 6.0 M KOH aqueous solution using typical electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The capacitance of the HCFs tended to increase with the increase in surface area. In particular, the HCFs with the highest surface area also exhibited excellent electrochemical properties (high capacitance of 224 F/g at 1.0 A/g, high rate capability of 191 F/g at 10.0 A/g). These features may be attributed to both the resulting interconnected pore structure that is easily accessible to ions and the high surface area. We believe that this synthesis strategy can be easily

  3. Silicone foam for penetration seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Yoshikazu

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants or general buildings, it is very important to form a fire-resistant seal around cables, cable trays and conduits passing through a wall or a floor. Rockwool, asbestos, glasswool and flame-retarded urethane foam have so far been used for these purposes. However, they were not satisfactory in sealing property, workability and safety. The silicone foam newly developed, ''TOSSEAL'' 300, has cleared these defects. It has now come to be used for fire resistant seal in nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  5. Shielding effects of concrete and foam external pipeline coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlo, T.J.; Werner, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The research project began in July, 1986 and was completed in December, 1990. The objectives of the research were: To determine whether concrete and urethane foam-barrier coatings shield the pipe from cathodic-protection current, To determine whether the barrier coatings also effectively shield the pipe from the environment, thus reducing the need for cathodic protection, To determine what levels of cathodic protection will be required to overcome shielding, and To establish what types of barrier coatings are most compatible with obtaining adequate levels of cathodic protection. To achieve these objectives, laboratory experiments were conducted with five barrier coating materials. These materials were (1) 2-lb/ft 3 , closed-cell urethane foam, (2) 3-lb/ft 3 , closed-cell urethane foam, (3) concrete barrier material, (4) glass fiber-reinforced concrete barrier material, and (5) sand. The barrier materials, whole and intentionally cracked, were applied to the bare, FBE-coated, and tape-coated steel specimens. The specimens were tested in aqueous electrolytes at room temperature and 140 degree F with no protection, protection to -0.95 V, and overprotection to -1.2 V (Cu/CuSO 4 )

  6. Biodegradable poly (lactic acid)/Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) composite microcellular foam: Effect of nanofillers on foam cellular morphology, thermal and wettability behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkotoky, Shasanka Sekhar; Dhar, Prodyut; Katiyar, Vimal

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses the elegant and green approach for fabrication of bio-based poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/cellulose nanocrystal (CNCs) bionanocomposite foam (PLA/CNC) with cellular morphology and hydrophobic surface behavior. Highly porous (porosity >80%) structure is obtained with interconnected pores and the effect of CNCs in the cell density (N f ) and cell size of foams are thoroughly investigated by morphological analysis. The thermo-mechanical investigations are performed for the foam samples and almost ∼1.7 and ∼2.2 fold increase in storage modulus is observed for the compressive and tensile mode respectively. PLA/CNC based bionanocomposite foams displayed similar thermal stability as base PLA foam. Detailed investigations of decomposition behavior are studied by using hyphenated thermogravimetric analysis-fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) system. Almost ∼13% increment is observed in crystallinity at highest loading of CNCs compared to neat counterpart. To investigate the splitting and spreading phenomenon of the wettability of the samples, linear model is used to find the Young's contact angle and contact angle hysteresis (CAH). Besides, ∼6.1 folds reduction in the density of PLA and the nanocomposite foams compared to PLA carries much significance in specialized application areas where weight is an important concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development, optimisation and application of polyurethane foams as new polymeric phases for stir bar sorptive extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, N R; Pinto, M L; Pires, J; Marcos, P M; Nogueira, J M F

    2007-11-09

    In this contribution, polyurethane foams are proposed as new polymeric phases for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). Assays performed for polyurethane synthesis demonstrated that four series of formulations (P(1), P(2), P(3) and P(4)) present remarkable stability and excellent mechanical resistance to organic solvents. For polymer clean-up treatment, acetonitrile proved to be the best solvent under sonification, ensuring the reduction of the contamination and interferences. SBSE assays performed on these polyurethane polymers followed by liquid desorption and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LD-HPLC-DAD) or large volume injection-capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LD-LVI-GC-MS), showed that P(2) presents the best recovery yields for atrazine, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol and fluorene, used as model compounds in water samples at a trace level. SBSE(P(2)) assays performed on this polymer mixed up with several adsorbent materials, i.e. activated carbon, a mesoporous material and a calixarene, did not bring any advantages in relation with the polymeric matrix alone. The comparison between assays performed by SBSE(P(2)) and by the conventional SBSE(PDMS) showed much better performance for the former phase on aqueous samples spiked with atrazine, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol and fluorene, in which the foremost two analytes present recovery values 3- and 10-fold higher, respectively. The polyurethanes proposed as new polymeric phases for SBSE provided powerful capabilities for the enrichment of organic compounds from aqueous matrices, showing to be indicated mainly in the case of the more polar analytes.

  8. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board

  9. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  10. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, Alberto [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-13

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Foam Drilling Hydraulics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Baris

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of foam as a drilling fluid was developed to meet a special set of conditions under which other common drilling fluids had failed. Foam drilling is defined as the process of making boreholes by utilizing foam as the circulating fluid. When compared with conventional drilling, underbalanced or foam drilling has several advantages. These advantages include: avoidance of lost circulation problems, minimizing damage to pay zones, higher penetration rates and bit life. Foams are usually characterized by the quality, the ratio of the volume of gas, and the total foam volume. Obtaining dependable pressure profiles for aerated (gasified fluids and foam is more difficult than for single phase fluids, since in the former ones the drilling mud contains a gas phase that is entrained within the fluid system. The primary goal of this study is to expand the knowledge-base of the hydrodynamic phenomena that occur in a foam drilling operation. In order to gain a better understanding of foam drilling operations, a hydrodynamic model is developed and run at different operating conditions. For this purpose, the flow of foam through the drilling system is modeled by invoking the basic principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. The model was designed to allow gas and liquid flow at desired volumetric flow rates through the drillstring and annulus. Parametric studies are conducted in order to identify the most influential variables in the hydrodynamic modeling of foam flow.

  12. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  13. Viscous Control of the Foam Glass Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    The production of foam glass as heat insulating material is an important industrial process because it enables low-cost recycling of glass waste from a variety of chemical compositions. Optimization of the foaming process of new glass waste compositions is time consuming, since many factors affect...... the foaming process such as temperature, particle size, type and concentration of foaming agent. The foaming temperature is one of the key factors, because even small temperature changes can affect the melt viscosity by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, it is important to establish the viscosity range...... in which the foaming process should take place, particularly when the type of recycled cullet is changed or several types of cullet are mixed in one batch. According to recent glass literature, the foaming process should occur at viscosity 103 to 105 Pa s. However, no systematic studies have hitherto been...

  14. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, John C; Christensen, J Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (e iS ) rather than imaginary-time e -S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model

  15. "Grinding" cavities in polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, J. R.; Davey, R. E.; Dixon, W. F.; Robb, P. H.; Zebus, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    Grinding tool installed on conventional milling machine cuts precise cavities in foam blocks. Method is well suited for prototype or midsize production runs and can be adapted to computer control for mass production. Method saves time and materials compared to bonding or hot wire techniques.

  16. Influence of foaming agents on solid thermal conductivity of foam glasses prepared from CRT panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of the thermal transport mechanism of foam glass is still lacking. The contribution of solid- and gas conduction to the total thermal conductivity remains to be reported. In many foam glasses, the solid phase consist of a mix of an amorphous and a crystalline part where foaming...... containing glass and crystalline foaming agents and amorphous samples where the foaming agents are completely dissolved in the glass structure, respectively. Results show that the samples prepared by sintering have a higher thermal conductivity than the samples prepared by melt-quenching. The thermal...... conductivities of the sintered and the melt-quenched samples represent an upper and lower limit of the solid phase thermal conductivity of foam glasses prepared with these foaming agents. The content of foaming agents dissolved in the glass structure has a major impact on the solid thermal conductivity of foam...

  17. Extraction of ruthenium thiocyanate and its separation from rhodium by polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bazi, S.J.; Chow, A.

    1984-01-01

    Conditions for the formation and extraction of the thiocyanate complex of ruthenium are reported. Distribution coefficients of more than 10 4 and a capacity of about 0.24 mole per kg of foam were obtained. The effect of the chloride salts of various univalent cations on the extraction of Ru(SCN) 6 3- indicated that the efficiency of ruthenium extraction depends on how well the cation fits into the polyether segment of the polyurethane foam, which agrees with the 'cation-chelation' mechanism. The separation of ruthenium and rhodium indicated that more than 95% of the rhodium remained in the aqueous phase and about 95% of the ruthenium was retained by the polyurethane foam and could be easily recovered. (author)

  18. Tunable aqueous virtual micropore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Guan, Weihua; Reed, Mark A; Krstić, Predrag S

    2012-03-26

    A charged microparticle can be trapped in an aqueous environment by forming a narrow virtual pore--a cylindrical space region in which the particle motion in the radial direction is limited by forces emerging from dynamical interactions of the particle charge and dipole moment with an external radiofrequency quadrupole electric field. If the particle satisfies the trap stability criteria, its mean motion is reduced exponentially with time due to the viscosity of the aqueous environment; thereafter the long-time motion of particle is subject only to random, Brownian fluctuations, whose magnitude, influenced by the electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic effects and added to the particle size, determines the radius of the virtual pore, which is demonstrated by comparison of computer simulations and experiment. The measured size of the virtual nanopore could be utilized to estimate the charge of a trapped micro-object. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effects of lipid-borne compounds on the activity and stability of lipases in micro-aqueous systems for lipase-catalyzed reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Høy, Carl-Erik; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    , the content of above compounds in commercial edible oil level did not affect the initial activity except for partial glycerides and free fatty acids, but the stability was influenced by most of the compounds. Besides tocopherols and partial glycerides, all the other minor compounds in oils and fats discussed...

  20. Preparation of three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene layers by gas foaming method and its electrochemical capactive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Junnan; Shu, Dong; Guo, Songtao; Gao, Aimei; He, Chun; Zhong, Yayun; Liao, Yuqing; Huang, Yulan; Zhong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A three-dimensional porous graphene layers was prepared via a gas foaming method. • Melamine was the nitrogen source to synthesize the N-doped 3D graphene layers. • The specific surface area of 3D N-doped graphene material is as high as 1196 m 2 g −1 . • The 3D N-doped graphene specific capacitance is 335 F g −1 in three-electrode system. • The energy density of 3D N-doped graphene reaches 58.1 Wh kg −1 in a symmetric cell. - Abstract: A porous graphene layers with a three-dimensional structure (3DG) was prepared via a gas foaming method based on a polymeric predecessor. This intimately interconnected 3DG structure not only significantly increases the specific surface area but also provides more channels to facilitate electron transport. In addition, 3D N-doped (3DNG) layers materials were synthesized using melamine as a nitrogen source. The nitrogen content in the 3DNG layers significantly influenced the electrochemical performance. The sample denoted as 3DNG-2 exhibited a specific capacitance of 335.2 F g −1 at a current density of 1 A g −1 in a three-electrode system. Additionally, 3DNG-2 exhibited excellent electrochemical performance in aqueous and organic electrolytes using a two-electrode symmetric cell. An energy density of 58.1 Wh kg −1 at a power density of 2500 W kg −1 was achieved, which is approximately 3 times that (19.6 Wh kg −1 ) in an aqueous electrolyte in a two-electrode system. After 1000 cycles, the capacity retention in aqueous electrolyte was more than 99.0%, and this retention in organic electrolytes was more than 89.4%, which demonstrated its excellent cycle stability. This performance makes 3DNG-2 a promising candidate as an electrode material in high-power and high-energy supercapacitor applications.

  1. Lithium1.3Aluminum0.3Titanium1.7Phosphate as a solid state Li-ion conductor: Issues with microcracking and stability in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Spencer D.

    Lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP) with formula Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 was analyzed and tested to better understand its applicability as a solid state ion conducting ceramic material for electrochemical applications. Sintered samples were obtained from Ceramatec, Inc. in Salt Lake City and characterized in terms of density, phase-purity, fracture toughness, Young's modulus, thermal expansion behavior, mechanical strength, a.c. and d.c. ionic conductivity, and susceptibility to static and electrochemical corrosion in aqueous Li salt solutions. It was shown that LATP is prone to microcrack generation because of high thermal expansion anisotropy. A.c. impedance spectra of high-purity LATP of varying grain sizes showed that microcracking had a negative impact on the ionic conduction of Li along grain boundaries, with fine-grained (1.7±0.7 µm) LATP having twice the ionic conductivity of the same purity of coarse-grained (4.8±1.9 µm) LATP at 50°C. LATP with detectible secondary phases had lower ionic conductivity for similar grain sizes, as would be expected. The Young's modulus of fine-grained LATP was measured to be 115 GPa, and the highest biaxial strength was 191±11 MPa when tested in mineral oil, 144±13 MPa as measured in air, and 26±7 MPa after exposure to deionized water, suggesting that LATP undergoes stress-corrosion cracking. After exposure to LiOH, the strength was 76±19 MPa. This decrease in strength was observed despite there being no measureable change in a.c. impedance spectra, X-ray diffraction, or sample mass, suggesting phosphate glasses at grain boundaries. The chemical and electrochemical stability of high-purity LATP in aqueous electrochemical cells was evaluated using LiOH, LiCl, LiNO3, and LiCOOCH3 salts as the Li source. LATP was found to be most stable between pH 8-9, with the longest cell operating continuously at 25 mA cm-2 for 625 hours at 40°C in LiCOOCH3. At pH values outside of the 7-10 range, eventual membrane degradation

  2. An efficient route for catalytic activity promotion via hybrid electro-depositional modification on commercial nickel foam for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Guanshui; He, Yongwei; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Fuchun; Tang, Bin [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yingze West Road 79, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Xiaoguang, E-mail: wangxiaog1982@163.com [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yingze West Road 79, Taiyuan 030024 (China); International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), 4715-330 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Mono-Cu surface modification depress the HER activity of Ni-foam. • Hybrid Ni-foam/Cu0.01/Co0.05 exhibits superior HER performance. • Layer-by-layer structure may contribute to a synergistic promoting effect. - Abstract: In this paper, the single- and hybrid-layered Cu, Ni and Co thin films were electrochemically deposited onto the three-dimensional nickel foam as composite cathode catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline water electrolysis. The morphology, structure and chemical composition of the electrodeposited composite catalysts were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Electrochemical measurement depicted that, for the case of the monometallic layered samples, the general activity for hydrogen evolution reaction followed the sequence: Ni-foam/Ni > Ni-foam/Co > bare Ni-foam > Ni-foam/Cu. It is noteworthy that, the hybrid-layered Ni-foam/Cu0.01/Co0.05 exhibited the highest catalytic activity towards hydrogen evolution reaction with the current density as high as 2.82 times that of the bare Ni-foam. Moreover, both excellent electrochemical and physical stabilities can also be acquired on the Ni-foam/Cu0.01/Co0.05, making this hybrid-layered composite structure as a promising HER electro-catalyst.

  3. Preparation of highly stable zeolite-alginate foam composite for strontium(90Sr) removal from seawater and evaluation of Sr adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Kim, Byoung-Gyu; Ryu, Jungho; Park, In-Su; Chung, Kang-Sup; Lee, Sang Moon; Lee, Jin-Bae; Jeong, Hyeon Su; Kim, Hyunchul; Ryu, Taegong

    2018-01-01

    Alginate bead is a promising strontium (Sr) adsorbent in seawater, but highly concentrated Na ions caused over-swelling and damaged the hydrogel bead. To improve the mechanical stability of alginate bead, flexible foam-type zeolite-alginate composite was synthesized and Sr adsorption performance was evaluated in seawater; 1-10% zeolite immobilized alginate foams were prepared by freeze-dry technique. Immobilization of zeolite into alginate foam converted macro-pores to meso-pores which lead to more compact structure. It resulted in less swollen composite in seawater medium and exhibited highly improved mechanical stability compared with alginate bead. Besides, Sr adsorption efficiency and selectivity were enhanced by immobilization of zeolite in alginate foam due to the increase of Sr binding sites (zeolite). In particular, Sr selectivity against Na was highly improved. The 10% zeolite-alginate foam exhibited a higher log K d of 3.3, while the pure alginate foam exhibited 2.7 in the presence of 0.1 M Na. Finally, in the real seawater, the 10% zeolite-alginate foam exhibited 1.5 times higher Sr adsorption efficiency than the pure alginate foam. This result reveals that zeolite-alginate foam composite is appropriate material for Sr removal in seawater due to its swelling resistance as well as improved Sr adsorption performance in complex media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 46 CFR 108.463 - Foam rate: Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foam rate: Protein. 108.463 Section 108.463 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.463 Foam rate: Protein. (a) If the outlets of a protein foam extinguishing system are in a space, the foam rate at each outlet must be at...

  5. Making continuous bubble type polyethylene foam incombustible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Kanako; Hatada, Motoyoshi; Yoshizawa, Iwao; Komai, Kuniaki; Kohara, Choji.

    1989-01-01

    Since continuous bubble type plastic foam has excellent compression characteristics and sound absorption characteristics, it has been widely used as cushion material, sealing material, sound insulating material and so on. However, the most part of plastic foam is taken by air, therefore at the time of fires, it becomes a very dangerous material. At present, the material used mostly as the seat cushions for airliners, railroad coaches, automobiles and others is polyurethane foam, but since it contains C-N couples in its molecules, it is feared to generate cyanic gas according to the condition of combustion. As the plastic foam that does not generate harmful gas at the time of fires, there is continuous bubble type polyethylene which is excellent in its weathering property and chemical resistance. A reactive, phosphorus-containing oligomer has large molecular weight and two or more double couplings in a molecule, therefore, it does not enter the inside of polyethylene, and polymerizes and crosslinks on the surfaces of bubble walls in the foam, accordingly it is expected that the apparent graft polymerization is carried out, and it is very effective for making polyethylene foam incombustible. The method of making graft foam, the properties of graft foam and so on are reported. When the graft polymerization of this oligomer to continuous bubble type polyethylene foam was tried, highly incombustible polyethylene foam was obtained. (K.I.)

  6. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  7. Characterization of Functionalized Polyurethane Foam for Lead Ion Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashini Gunashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane foams functionalized with sulfonic acid groups are used in this study to exchange lead (Pb2+ ions from aqueous solutions. Toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate, 2,6-diisocyanate (TDI was reacted with Polypropylene glycol 1200 (PPG in 2 : 1 molar ratio to form a linear prepolymer. The linear prepolymer was further polymerized using N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES, which acts both as a chain extender and an ion-exchanger for Pb2+ ions. The functionalized polyurethane foam was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The Pb2+ ion exchange capacity was determined using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS. The maximum Pb2+ ion exchange capacity of the foam was found to be 51 ppb/g from a 100 ppb Pb2+ solution over a period of two hours. In addition, pH analysis was carried out on the foam composition with the best Pb2+ ion removal capacity. The pH results based on two-hour exposures showed that the functionalized polyurethane foam performed better at lower pH levels.

  8. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stabilization of aqueous nanoscale zerovalent iron dispersions by anionic polyelectrolytes: adsorbed anionic polyelectrolyte layer properties and their effect on aggregation and sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Saleh, Navid; Sirk, Kevin; Kim, Hye-Jin; Tilton, Robert D.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2008-01-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles are 5-40 nm sized Fe 0 /Fe-oxide particles that rapidly transform many environmental contaminants to benign products and are a promising in situ remediation agent. Rapid aggregation and limited mobility in water-saturated porous media limits the ability to deliver NZVI dispersions in the subsurface. This study prepares stable NZVI dispersions through physisorption of commercially available anionic polyelectrolytes, characterizes the adsorbed polymer layer, and correlates the polymer coating properties with the ability to prevent rapid aggregation and sedimentation of NZVI dispersions. Poly(styrene sulfonate) with molecular weights of 70 k and 1,000 k g/mol (PSS70K and PSS1M), carboxymethyl cellulose with molecular weights of 90 k and 700 k g/mol (CMC90K and CMC700K), and polyaspartate with molecular weights of 2.5 k and 10 k g/mol (PAP2.5K and 10K) were compared. Particle size distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering during aggregation. The order of effectiveness to prevent rapid aggregation and stabilize the dispersions was PSS70K(83%) > ∼PAP10K(82%) > PAP2.5K(72%) > CMC700K(52%), where stability is defined operationally as the volume percent of particles that do not aggregate after 1 h. CMC90K and PSS1M could not stabilize RNIP relative to bare RNIP. A similar trend was observed for their ability to prevent sedimentation, with 40, 34, 32, 20, and 5 wt%, of the PSS70K, PAP10K, PAP2.5K, CMC700K, and CMC90K modified NZVI remaining suspended after 7 h of quiescent settling, respectively. The stable fractions with respect to both aggregation and sedimentation correlate well with the adsorbed polyelectrolyte mass and thickness of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte layers as determined by Oshima's soft particle theory. A fraction of the particles cannot be stabilized by any modifier and rapidly agglomerates to micron sized aggregates, as is also observed for unmodified NZVI. This non-dispersible fraction is

  10. A case for closed-loop recycling of post-consumer PET for automotive foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Matthew; Brown, Matthew; Kiziltas, Alper; Mielewski, Deborah; Mukerjee, Shakti; Tabor, Rick

    2018-01-01

    Striving to utilize sustainable material sources, polyester polyols made via glycolysis and esterification of recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) scrap were used to synthesize flexible polyurethane (PU) foams typically found in automotive interior applications. The objective of this endeavor was to ascertain if a closed-loop model could be established with the discarded PET feedstock. In five separate formulations, up to 50% of the total polyol content (traditionally derived from petroleum-based feedstock) was replaced with the afore-mentioned sustainable recycled polyols. These foams underwent mechanical, thermal, morphological, and physical characterization testing to determine feasibility for use in an automotive interior. Young's modulus, tensile stress at maximum load, tear resistance, and compression modulus all increased by combined averages of 121%, 67%, 32%, and 150% over the control petroleum-based formulation, respectively, in foams possessing 50% rPET polyol content. Thermal stability also increased with sustainable polyol content; thermogravimetric analysis showed that 50% mass loss temperature increased by an average of 20 °C in foams containing 30% recycled polyol. Properties of density and SAG factor remained within 5% of the control petroleum-based reference foams. After comparing these findings to traditional polyols, a compelling argument can be made for the use of post-consumer automotive and industrial feedstocks in developing high-performing interior automotive PU foams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  12. The mechanical behavior of microcellular foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkul, M.H.; Mark, J.E. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA)); Aubert, J.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of microcellular open-cell foams prepared by a thermally induced phase separation process are investigated. The foams studied were prepared from isotactic polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (rigid foams), and polyurethane and Lycra (elastomeric foams). Their densities were in the range 0.04--0.27 g/cm3. Conventional polystyrene foams were used for comparison. The moduli and collapse stresses of these foams were measured in compression and compared with the current constitutive laws which relate mechanical properties to densities. A reinforcement technique based on the in-situ precipitation of silica was used to improve the mechanical properties. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2015-10-05

    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crosslinked polyethylene foams, via eb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, E.C.L.; Lugao, A. B.; Andrade e Silva, L. G.

    1998-01-01

    Polyethylene foams, produced by radio-induced crosslinking, show a smooth and homogeneous surface, when compared to chemical crosslinking method using peroxide as crosslinking agent. This process fosters excellent adhesive and printability properties. Besides that, closed cells, intrinsic to these foams, imparts optimum mechanical, shocks and insulation resistance, indicating these foams to some markets segments as: automotive and transport; buoyancy, flotation and marine; building and insulation; packaging; domestic sports and leisure goods. We were in search of an ideal foam, by adding 5 to 15% of blowing agent in LDPE. A series of preliminary trials defined 203 degree sign C as the right blowing agent decomposition temperature. At a 22.7 kGys/dose ratio, the lowest dose for providing an efficient foam was 30 kGy, for a formulation comprising 10% of azodicarbonamide in LDPE, within a 10 minutes foaming time

  15. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volz, Heather [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veauthier, Jackie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Marius [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  16. Foaming in manure based digesters: Effect of overloading and foam suppression using antifoam agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically created either in the main biogas reactor or/and in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses ...

  17. Shear flow behaviour and emulsion-stabilizing effect of natural polysaccharide-protein gum in aqueous system and oil/water (O/W) emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of the current work was to characterize the shear rheological flow behaviour and emulsifying properties of the natural biopolymer from durian seed. The present study revealed that the extraction condition significantly affected the physical and functional characteristics of the natural biopolymer from durian seed. The dynamic oscillatory test indicated that the biopolymer from durian seed showed more gel (or solid) like behaviour than the viscous (or liquid) like behaviour (G'>G″) at a relatively high concentration (20%) in the fixed frequency (0.1 Hz). This might be explained by the fact that the gum coils disentangle at low frequencies during the long period of oscillation, thus resulting in more gel like behaviour than the viscous like behaviour. The average droplet size of oil in water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by durian seed gum significantly varied from 0.42 to 7.48 μm. The results indicated that O/W emulsions showed significant different stability after 4 months storage. This might be interpreted by the considerable effect of the extraction condition on the chemical and molecular structure of the biopolymer, thus affecting its emulsifying capacity. The biopolymer extracted by using low water to seed (W/S) ratio at the low temperature under the alkaline condition showed a relatively high emulsifying activity in O/W emulsion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sorption of heteropoly acids by polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitreinko, S.G.; Goncharova, L.V.; Runov, V.K.; Zakharov, V.N.; Aslanova, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Sorption of oxidized and reduced forms of molybdosilicic, molybdophosphoric and molybdovanadophosphoric acids by polyurethane foam based on ethers and esters is studied. On the basis of sorption dependence on solution pH, polyurethane foam type and spectral characteristics of sorbates the suggestion has been made that in the polyurethane foam phase there are two main types of sorbent-sorbate interaction: electrostatic (ion-ion) and with hydrogen bond formation: and it is impossible to determine the contribution of every interaction

  19. FoAM Kernow Activity Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Amber; Griffiths, David

    2016-01-01

    This review shows selected projects from the FoAM Kernow studio in 2016. FoAM is a network of transdisciplinary labs at the intersection of art, science, nature and everyday life. FoAM’s members are generalists - people who work across disparate fields in an entangled, speculative culture. Research and creative projects at FoAM combine elements of futurecrafting, citizen science, prototyping, experience design and process facilitation to re-imagine possible futures, and artistic experime...

  20. FoAM Kernow Activity Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Amber; Weatherill, Aidan; Griffiths, David

    2017-01-01

    This review shows selected projects from the FoAM Kernow studio in 2017. FoAM is a network of transdisciplinary labs at the intersection of art, science, nature and everyday life. FoAM’s members are generalists - people who work across disparate fields in an entangled, speculative culture. Research and creative projects at FoAM combine elements of futurecrafting, citizen science, prototyping, experience design and process facilitation to re-imagine possible futures.

  1. B-Plant canyon fire foam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, T.

    1995-01-01

    A new raw water supply was installed for the B-Plant fire foam system. This document details tests to be performed which will demonstrate that the system can function as designed. The tests include: Verification of the operation of the automatic valves at the cells; Measurement of water flow and pressure downstream of the proportioner; Production of foam, and measurement of foam concentration. Included as an appendix is a copy of the work package resolution (J4 ampersand J4a)

  2. System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

  3. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  4. Effect of foam stirrer design on the catalytic performance of rotating foam stirrer reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Matheus, M.A.; Geers, P.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schaaf, van der J.; Schouten, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid–solid mass transfer rate in a rotating foam stirrer reactor and in a slurry reactor is studied using the hydrogenation of styrene as a model reaction. The rotating foam stirrer reactor is a novel type of multi-phase reactor where highly open-celled materials, solid foams, are used as a

  5. Role of foam drainage in producing protein aggregates in foam fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Yuran; Chang, Yunkang; Wu, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yanji; Chen, Xiang'e; Wang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    It is essential to obtain a clear understanding of the foam-induced protein aggregation to reduce the loss of protein functionality in foam fractionation. The major effort of this work is to explore the roles of foam drainage in protein aggregation in the entire process of foam fractionation with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The results show that enhancing foam drainage increased the desorption of BSA molecules from the gas-liquid interface and the local concentration of desorbed molecules in foam. Therefore, it intensified the aggregation of BSA in foam fractionation. Simultaneously, it also accelerated the flow of BSA aggregates from rising foam into the residual solution along with the drained liquid. Because enhancing foam drainage increased the relative content of BSA molecules adsorbed at the gas-liquid interface, it also intensified the aggregation of BSA during both the defoaming process and the storage of the foamate. Furthermore, enhancing foam drainage more readily resulted in the formation of insoluble BSA aggregates. The results are highly important for a better understanding of foam-induced protein aggregation in foam fractionation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal performance enhancement of erythritol/carbon foam composites via surface modification of carbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfeng; Lu, Wu; Luo, Zhengping; Zeng, Yibing

    2017-03-01

    The thermal performance of the erythritol/carbon foam composites, including thermal diffusivity, thermal capacity, thermal conductivity and latent heat, were investigated via surface modification of carbon foam using hydrogen peroxide as oxider. It was found that the surface modification enhanced the wetting ability of carbon foam surface to the liquid erythritol of the carbon foam surface and promoted the increase of erythritol content in the erythritol/carbon foam composites. The dense interfaces were formed between erythritol and carbon foam, which is due to that the formation of oxygen functional groups C=O and C-OH on the carbon surface increased the surface polarity and reduced the interface resistance of carbon foam surface to the liquid erythritol. The latent heat of the erythritol/carbon foam composites increased from 202.0 to 217.2 J/g through surface modification of carbon foam. The thermal conductivity of the erythritol/carbon foam composite before and after surface modification further increased from 40.35 to 51.05 W/(m·K). The supercooling degree of erythritol also had a large decrease from 97 to 54 °C. Additionally, the simple and effective surface modification method of carbon foam provided an extendable way to enhance the thermal performances of the composites composed of carbon foams and PCMs.

  7. Defect generation during solidification of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, M.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Banhart, J.

    2010-01-01

    The reason for the frequent occurrence of cell wall defects in metal foams was investigated. Aluminium foams often expand during solidification, a process which is referred as solidification expansion (SE). The effect of SE on the structure of aluminium foams was studied in situ by X-ray radioscopy and ex situ by X-ray tomography. A direct correlation between the magnitude of SE and the number of cell wall ruptures during SE and finally the number of defects in the solidified foams was found.

  8. New Spin Foam Models of Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miković, A.

    We give a brief and a critical review of the Barret-Crane spin foam models of quantum gravity. Then we describe two new spin foam models which are obtained by direct quantization of General Relativity and do not have some of the drawbacks of the Barret-Crane models. These are the model of spin foam invariants for the embedded spin networks in loop quantum gravity and the spin foam model based on the integration of the tetrads in the path integral for the Palatini action.

  9. AC induction field heating of graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Rios, Orlando; Kisner, Roger

    2017-08-22

    A magneto-energy apparatus includes an electromagnetic field source for generating a time-varying electromagnetic field. A graphite foam conductor is disposed within the electromagnetic field. The graphite foam when exposed to the time-varying electromagnetic field conducts an induced electric current, the electric current heating the graphite foam. An energy conversion device utilizes heat energy from the heated graphite foam to perform a heat energy consuming function. A device for heating a fluid and a method of converting energy are also disclosed.

  10. Foam-like structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.A.; Turaev, D.

    2007-01-01

    On the quantum stage space-time had the foam-like structure. When the Universe cools, the foam structure tempers and does not disappear. We show that effects caused by the foamed structure mimic very well the observed Dark Matter phenomena. Moreover, we show that in a foamed space photons undergo a chaotic scattering and together with every discrete source of radiation we should observe a diffuse halo. We show that the distribution of the diffuse halo of radiation around a point-like source repeats exactly the distribution of dark matter around the same source, i.e., the DM halos are sources of the diffuse radiation

  11. Foam-like structure of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, A.A. [Institute for Applied Mathematics and Cybernetics, 10 Ulyanova str., Nizhny Novgorod 603005 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ka98@mail.ru; Turaev, D. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-11-15

    On the quantum stage space-time had the foam-like structure. When the Universe cools, the foam structure tempers and does not disappear. We show that effects caused by the foamed structure mimic very well the observed Dark Matter phenomena. Moreover, we show that in a foamed space photons undergo a chaotic scattering and together with every discrete source of radiation we should observe a diffuse halo. We show that the distribution of the diffuse halo of radiation around a point-like source repeats exactly the distribution of dark matter around the same source, i.e., the DM halos are sources of the diffuse radiation.

  12. Controlling of density uniformity of polyacrylate foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Wenwen; Yuan Baohe; Wang Yanhong; Xu Jiayun; Zhang Lin

    2010-01-01

    The density non-uniformity existing in most low-density foams will affect performance of the foams. The trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTA) foam targets were prepared and controlling methods of the foams, density uniformity were explored together with its forming mechanism. It has been found that the UV-light with high intensity can improve the distribution uniformity of the free radicals induced by UV photons in the solvents, thus improve the density uniformity of the foams. In addition, container wall would influence the concentration distribution of the solution, which affects the density uniformity of the foams. Thus, the UV-light with high intensity was chosen together with polytetrafluoroethylene molds instead of glass molds to prepare the foams with the density non-uniformity less than 10%. β-ray detection technology was used to measure the density uniformity of the TMPTA foams with the density in the range of 10 to 100 mg · cm -3 , and the results show that the lower the foam density is, the worse the density uniformity is. (authors)

  13. Faraday instability at foam-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfort, A; Caps, H

    2012-12-01

    A nearly two-dimensional foam is generated inside a Hele-shaw cell and left at rest on its liquid bath. The system is then vertically shaken and, above a well-defined acceleration threshold, surface waves appear at the foam-liquid interface. Those waves are shown to be subharmonic. The acceleration threshold is studied and compared to the common liquid-gas case, emphasizing the energy dissipation inside the foam. An empirical model is proposed for this energy loss, accounting for the foam characteristics such as the bubble size but also the excitation parameter, namely the linear velocity.

  14. Use of urethane foam in preparing for decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Portable urethane foam generating equipment has been in use for 15 to 20 years for a large number of applications, such as roof systems, tank insulation, and building insulation. Still another industrial application is its use in the decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive facilities at Mound Facility. The major problems encountered with urethane foams were with the packaging and stabilization procedures. The operation for spraying the foam on interior surfaces and equipment involved getting the gun inside without opening up the interior to the outside environment. A Gusmer FF proportioner and Model D spray gun was used for this operation. The gun was modified so that the trigger could be remotely located to facilitate its entry through a glovebox gloveport opening. The Model D gun has an air cap to blow foam off the tip of the gun. This cap was used to hold a plastic bag in place around the gun. The plastic bag is then put on a glove port and fastened securely. Urethane spray is applied on all exposed surfaces. This assures that all residual material is fixed for shipment. This simplifies cleaning operations as there is no need to remove the last trace of plutonium and results in a considerable shortening of the time required to prepare the gloveboxes. With the interior foamed, the gloveboxes are moved to the loading and packaging areas. Urethane foams are used to fill in the voids in our final shipping container. Radioactive waste materials are segregated according to the level of radioactive material present. One category is low level or low specific activity (LSA) and the other high level or Transuranic (TRU). Foam is used in TRU packages as packaging material to stabilize the loads and to help cushion against shock in transit on truck or railcar

  15. Preparation of High-Grade Powders from Tomato Paste Using a Vacuum Foam Drying Method.</