This study on supplementation of income from farm enterprises with income from craft (mat-weaving) was conducted in Uturu in Abia state, Nigeria. Primary objective was to compare farm income with income from non-farm activities, especially from mat weaving; and determine factors that influenced decisions to use income ...
Ashok K. Mishra; Barry K. Goodwin
If farmers are risk averse, greater farm income variability should increase off-farm labor supply. This effect is confirmed for a sample of Kansas farmers. Off-farm employment of farmers and their spouses is also found to be significantly influenced by farm experience, off-farm work experience, farm size, leverage, efficiency, and farm-specific education. In addition, farm operators and spouses who receive significant income support through government farm programs are less likely to work off...
Kan, Iddo; Kimhi, Ayal; Lerman, Zvi
This article examines the decision of farmers to sell part of their farm output on the market, using data from the Republic of Georgia. A two-level empirical model is used, in which endowments and resource allocation decisions determine farm output and non-farm income, and these in turn determine market participation. We found, as expected, that farm output affects market participation positively, while non-farm income affects it negatively. Landholdings have an indirect positive effect on ma...
, Farm Income,. Regression, Small-Scale .... food production and income and reduced youth out-migration from their communities. Banson et al. (2014) ...... Oromia National Regional State Ethiopia. International Journal of ...
Arayama, Yuko; Kim, Jong Moo; Kimhi, Ayal
We extend the existing regression-based inequality decomposition methods to account for different income sources and different income regimes, and adequately correct for selectivity into the different income regimes. We apply these extensions to data on Korean farm households, and find that they lead to different and more informative conclusions. We also find that the correction for selectivity is essential. In particular, our results show that much of the inequality in farm household income ...
Full Text Available This paper analyses the production costs and income of eight groups of farms: five private farms and three belonging to the Andean rural community. These farms are located in Peru and Bolivia and breed alpacas and llama for both meat and fibre. The research is based on case studies. Each case study includes several farms, grouped according to similar characteristics: available resources; breeding techniques and geographical location. A farm economic data analysis was undertaken by determining economic budget income. Statistics and data from 2003 were analysed to determine farm resources and farm production costs, per animal head and net farm income per labour unit and livestock head. This paper is relevant as regards economic data for production systems which are more often analysed for sociological and cultural aspects and less often for economic data and identification of real productive economic data which are not generally market driven.
Andersson, Hans; Ramaswami, Bharat; Moss, Charles B.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Hallahan, Charles B.; Nehring, Richard F.
Off-farm work improves and reduces the riskiness of household income. Theoretical analyses reveal that the level and riskiness of off-farm income affect demand for farm/nonfarm investments. A two-limit Tobit model is estimated using ARMS data for 1996-2003. The impact on investment behaviour is evaluated.
... January 1, 2003, rental income based on a share of a tenant's production determined under an unwritten... the Collection of Income Tax at Source on Wages (Federal income tax withholding), or the amount of net... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Averaging of farm income. 1.1301-1 Section 1...
Full Text Available This papertests thehypothesis that off-farm income relaxes the liquidityconstraints of farm households usingsurvey data derived from 734 householdsfrom eight villages, drawn from the three agro-climatic zones of northernEthiopia.The results of the econometric models show that off-farm incomepositively affects agricultural input expenditure but negatively affects livestockinvestment. This may be explained by the higher per capita land holdings ofhouseholds who invest in improved agricultural inputs compared to those whoinvest in livestock. Our results show the complementarities between off-farmactivities and productivity enhancing investment for agricultural inputs. However,off-farm activities may be competing for labor resources for landless and nearlandless households (those who invest in livestock.
This paper investigates the effect of smallholder livestock production on income among farm households in northern Ghana. Questionnaires were administered to 300 household heads and ordinary least squares estimation technique was applied to the dataset. The dependent variable was income and measured by total ...
Shawon, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman
Renewable energy has been playing an important role to meet power demand and 'Green Energy' market is getting bigger platform all over the world in the last few years. Due to massive increase in the prices of fossil fuels along with global warming issues, energy harvesting from renewable energy sources has received considerable interest, nowadays, where extensive researches are going on to ensure optimum use of renewable sources. In order to meet the increasing demand of electricity and power, integration of renewable energy is getting highest priorities around the world. Wind is one of the most top growing renewable energy resources and wind power market penetration is expected to reach 3.35 percent by 2013 from its present market of about 240 GW. A wind energy system is the most environmental friendly, cost effective and safe among all renewable energy resources available. Another promising form of renewable energy is ocean energy which covers 70 % of the earth. Ocean energy can be tapped from waves, tides and thermal elements. Offshore Wind farm (OWF) has already become very popular for large scale wind power integration with the onshore grid. Recently, marine current farm (MCF) is also showing good potential to become mainstream energy sources and already successfully commissioned in United Kingdom. However, squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) has the stability problem similar to synchronous generator especially during fault location to restore the electromagnetic torque. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) has been known as a useful mean to stabilize fixed speed wind generator system. On the other hand, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has the capability of coupling the control of active and reactive power and to provide necessary reactive power demand during grid fault conditions. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) can also be employed with DFIG to limit the rotor over current. An integration of wind and tidal energy represents a new
Findeis, Jill L.; Reddy, Venkateshwar K.
Rural development programmes may facilitate the off-farm employment of low-income farm families and provide additional public suppon beyond traditional US farm income and price support programmes. To examine the implications of alternative rural development strategies for low-income farmers, joint off-farm labour participation models are developed for farm operators and spouses. Univariate and bivariate probit models are estimated. based on 1985 Current Population Survey farm household data. ...
This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the socio-economic characteristics of maize farmers in the study area, evaluate the costs and returns of maize production in the study area, and evaluate factors affecting ...
Nelson, R.; Kokic, P.; Meinke, H.B.
Australian drought policy is focussed on providing relief from the immediate effects of drought on farm incomes, while enhancing the longer term resilience of rural livelihoods. Despite the socioeconomic nature of these objectives, the information systems created to support the policy have focussed
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0095] Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income, VA...
Lim, Pilar C.
This article is part of the seminar-workshop on the “Consequences of Small Farm Mechanization on Production, Employment and Incomes in the Philippines” sponsored jointly by the Ministry of Agriculture, the National Economic and Development Authority, the Philippine Institute for Development Studies and the International Rice Research Institute held on December 1-2, 1983 at Tagaytay City. Utilizing cross-section results from a survey conducted, this article measures the importance of mechaniza...
Full Text Available Agrotourist movement in rural areas is influenced by several factors of economic, psychological, demographic, natural or circumstantial nature. Along with increasing of the incomes and exceeding the critical level of satisfaction only of consume requirements intensifies the agrotourist circulation and regarding tariffs practiced, they can have an inhibiting effect if they increase or will promote tourist flows if they decrease. The agrotourist motivation has a major influence, being the one that determines the tourist to move from his place of residence, this referring to the demands, impulses, desires, with personal character and intentions to spend their holidays in the country. Farm agrotourism is an activity of which raw material is represented by the environment surrounding and from the farm, their attractiveness, elements that develop a wide range of shapes, capable of responding to various reasons to spend a holiday in rural area. Through the diversification of agrotourist activities it will improuve the economic activity of the farms with specific and will increase the incomes additional obtained in farms at a time when the main activity is not so intense.
Full Text Available The agricultural sector in Pakistan is not well-established to provide full employment opportunities and sufficient income for needed living standard to the rural population. Stagnant agricultural productivity and low returns in farming have led rural residents to look for alternative livelihoods, especially non-farm employment. With this background, the present study is an endeavor to empirically determine the factors of non-farm income diversification of rural farm households in Peshawar district of Pakistan. The study was undertaken in four villages and data was amassed from 196 small farming households by using the multi-stage sampling technique. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistical measures, the mean of income shares approach and the ordinary least squares regression analysis. The results indicate that in all the selected villages, the pattern of non-farm employment was more or less the same; however, the income from non-farm employment activities had an important contribution towards incrementing the absolute income of farm households. Non-farm income diversification is hence crucial for sustaining livelihoods and an integral dimension for invigorating rural economies. Therefore, the study recommends the promotion of non-farm employment as a good strategy for supplementing the income of small farmers without shifting attention from agriculture.
Full Text Available The objetive of this research were conducted in Kulon Progo Regency were to know how far utilization of farm technology (hand tracctor, tresher, benguk arver, and cassava rapier will inreasing income farmer and works diversification on different topography and accesibility. The data included primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected from respondents by filling questionnaires, while the seondary data were collected from the governmental officer. Region samples are Lendah sub regency which low land plain area, Sentolo sub regency which hilly area, and Kalibawang sub regency which mountain range area. Respondents sample was taken by snow ball sampling, who utilized of farm technology and they are 58 respondents from low land plain area, 38 respondents from hilly area, and 38 respondents from mountai range area. The data were processed by using computer, while hypothesis was tested by crosstab and hi quadrate to compare result of research in the three different topography areas. The result of the research shows that there are difference significant utilization of farm technology aording to the topography bakground. Hand tractors and tresher are much utilized in the hilly areas, benguk carvers are much utilized in the low land plain areas, and cassava raspiers are much utilized in the mountain range areas. They aren’t difference signifiant the utilization of farm technology aording to accesibility. The low land plain areas and the hilly areas produce same activities, while the mountain range areas produce only four kind of same ativities. Diversification of works in the hilly areas absorbed a lot of manpower than those and the rest areas. Income generating from the utilization of farm technology in the hilly areas is more than that in the rest areas.
Khanal, Aditya R.; Mishra, Ashok K.
With increased focus on survival strategies for small farm businesses, we investigate the impact of Internet access on income and farm expenses of small farm business and households. Using a nation-wide farm-level data in the U.S. and non-parametric matching estimators, the study finds a significant positive impact of Internet access on total household and off-farm income.
Non-farm diversification and its impacts on income inequality and poverty: evidence from rural Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Development Research ... This research investigated whether non-farm income diversification increases overall income equality and decreases poverty in rural Ethiopia or not. It used a four-wave ...
Gedikoglu, Haluk; Parcell, Joseph L.
Sustainable agriculture requires farmers’ adoption of new technologies and practices that sustain the environmental quality, while providing the agricultural output. Off-farm income has been analyzed in technology adoption studies, due to its increasing share in agricultural household income. The objective of current study is to analyze the impact of earned and unearned off-farm income of both the farm operator and spouse on adoption of new technologies. The results of the current study shows...
Najafi, Hamid Reza; Robinson, Francis; Dastyar, Farshad; Samadi, Ali Asghar
The progress of wind-energy generation around the world in recent years has been consistently impressive. As more and more attention is paid to the increase of wind-turbine farms, a number of problems should be investigated in more detail. Among these problems, the transient stability of wind farms implemented with induction generators becomes necessary, especially when operating into a weak connection. The transient behavior and stability of wind farms with induction generators have been stu...
Msinde, John Victor; Urassa, Justin K.; Nathan, Iben
Income poverty in Tanzania as elsewhere in developing countries is predominantly a rural phenomenon and affects largely households relying on subsistence farming. This is despite the fact that poverty reduction strategies have devoted increasing attention on the role farm employment in enhancing...... household income. This paper argues that, off-farm employment may have potential to contribute to reduction of rural households’ income poverty. Hence the main objective of the paper is set to examine effects of off-farm employment on income poverty. Data was collected from a random sample of 309 households...... in the first quarter of 2014 in five villages of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Income poverty was analysed using the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index and two stage least square (2SLS) regression. Households with off-farm employment income were found to be less poor...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0095] Agency Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... INFORMATION: Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income, VA Form 21- 4165. OMB Control Number: 2900...
Babatunde, Raphael O.
Farming as a primary source of income has failed to guarantee sufficient livelihood for most farming households in developing countries, and agricultural development policies have largely produced little improvement, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Diversification into off-farm activities has
Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans; Nielsen, Arne Hejde
by a physical model of grid-connected windmills. The windmill generators ate conventional induction generators and the wind farm is ac-connected to the power system. Improvements-of short-term voltage stability in case of failure events in the external power system are treated with use of conventional generator...... technology. This subject is treated as a parameter study with respect to the windmill electrical and mechanical parameters and with use of control strategies within the conventional generator technology. Stability improvements on the wind farm side of the connection point lead to significant reduction......The paper is dealing-with modelling and short-term Voltage stability considerations of large wind farms. A physical model of a large offshore wind farm consisting of a large number of windmills is implemented in the dynamic simulation tool PSS/E. Each windmill in the wind farm is represented...
R. K. Uppal
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to study the trends in non-interest income which is a vital source of stability in bank income. For this, the study takes some parameters like interest and non-interest income as a percentage to total income, share of non-interest income components like exchange & brokerage, sale in investment and exchange transaction. On the basis of these parameters the study concludes that interest income is continuously declining due to deregulation in interest rates and non-interest income is rising. Among the non-interest income components, commodity exchange & brokerage witnessed a large share while exchange transaction witnessed a meager part. The paper also gives some ways and means to bring stability in the total income.
Irma Potočnik Slavič
Full Text Available The issue on supplementary activities on farms as also their impact on farm income does not represent a new phenomena in Slovenia, but a new fluorishing wave is to be seen in the last decade in the area of diversification and extent. The article analyses the motives of accelerated development of supplementary activities, reveals the newest legislation and through the case study of farms in Ljubljana basin indicates the geographical aspect of supplementary activities on farms.
Mateja JEŽ ROGELJ
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify farmers' attitudes towards the impact of state aid on business decisions and financial stability of farms. It will also identify the share of agricultural support in the total income of farms and the reasons for certain agricultural branches having unequal economic dependence on the support. Furthermore, it will investigate which of the two pillars of the CAP farmers consider being more important for their business and which factors would mostly contribute to the increase of production on their farms. The research involved 184 holders of family farms from all Croatian counties and the City of Zagreb. The data were analyzed using the univariate (frequency and two-variate (chi-square test method. The main production on the farms has a statistically significant (P<0.05 effect on the share of state support in the total income of the farm as well as on the influence of the amount of state support to business decisions. Most of the respondents engaged in animal husbandry and farming declared that their farms would not be financially viable in the case of state support abolition, while the situation is different in fruit growing, vegetable growing and floriculture. The paper also demonstrates the extent to which selected motivators (satisfactory state aid, higher purchase prices, less bureaucracy, lower taxes, assured market, cheap loans and availability of agricultural land are important to farmers when deciding whether to increase the agricultural production on their farms. Overall, the two pillars of the CAP are equally important for the farmers but there is a statistically significant difference in the importance of each pillar of the CAP in regard to the prevailing production on the farm. The results of the study demonstrate both the importance of state support for the business of certain agricultural producers, especially herders, and the difference in sensitivity to possible changes in support policy.
Full Text Available This study explores the determinants of income diversification using a sample of 200 farm-level data collected from households in the Garu-Tampane district, Ghana. The Simpson Index of Diversification was used to determine the extent of income diversification while Fractional Response Model, particularly Generalized Linear Model (GLM was employed to identify the determinants of income diversification. Results from the Simpson Index of Diversification showed that the average income diversification index was 0.65 with the minimum and maximum of 0.13 and 0.83, respectively. No farm household was found to depend solely on a single source of income for its survival. The results from the Generalized Linear Model revealed that extension services, attendance to demonstration fields, membership of Farmer-based Organizations (FBOs, farmer accessibility to credit, the number of days spent on on-farm activities per month and the number of years in maize farming significantly influence income diversification. The study, therefore, concludes that farm-level policies geared towards alternative sources of income for the rural farm household should focus on improving extension services, the formation of farmer-based organizations, use of demonstration fields as well as ensuring farmers’ accessibility to credit.
Full Text Available The paper develops a farm producer behavior type model to analyze the impact of a input productivity and price change on farm incomes. The theoretical analysis shows the consequences of the balance between the increase of production factor prices and their productivity improvement in the condition of stable procurement price for the farm producers income. The cost effect of the production factors price increment and its neutralization by productivity (TFP-type growth is examined as well as some aspects of the inputs shares (returns and costs in the produce value. The article argues that labor input productivity as an endogenous factor, is an essential for farm incomes growth assuming the specified type of the farm producer utility function (its equations and variables as well as no the compensative procurement price change conditions. Some empirical evidence is attached however more work in that respect is foreseen.
Shi, J.; Tang, Y. J.; Ren, L.; Li, J. D.; Chen, S. J.
For the wind farms introducing doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), voltage stability is an essential issue which influences their widely integration into the power grid. This paper proposes the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the power system integrated with wind farms. SMES can control the active and reactive power flow, realizing the operation in four quadrants independently. The introducing of SMES can smooth the output power flow of the wind farms, and supply dynamic voltage support. Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, the models of the DFIG, the power grid connected and the SMES are created. Simulation results show that the voltage stability of the power system integrated with wind farms can be improved considerably.
Shi, J.; Tang, Y.J.; Ren, L.; Li, J.D.; Chen, S.J.
For the wind farms introducing doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), voltage stability is an essential issue which influences their widely integration into the power grid. This paper proposes the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the power system integrated with wind farms. SMES can control the active and reactive power flow, realizing the operation in four quadrants independently. The introducing of SMES can smooth the output power flow of the wind farms, and supply dynamic voltage support. Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, the models of the DFIG, the power grid connected and the SMES are created. Simulation results show that the voltage stability of the power system integrated with wind farms can be improved considerably
... income (temporary). (a) Overview. An individual engaged in a farming or fishing business may make a farm... averaging, over the prior three-year period (base years), all or a portion of the individual's current year... guidance, see § 1.1301-1(d)(1) through (3)(i). (ii) Example. The rules of this paragraph (d)(3) are...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0095] Proposed Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm...
Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu
Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double...... fed induction generator has been established. Wind penetration variation and multiple stochastic factors of power systems have been considered. The process of transient stability risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method has been described and a comprehensive risk indicator has been proposed....... An investigation has been conducted into an improved 10-generator 39-bus system with a wind farm incorporated to verify the validity and feasibility of the risk assessment method proposed....
longer agriculture based, however there willingness to diversify was significantly influenced by their socioeconomic characteristics. Key words: Income, Crop, Diversification, Rural area, Households. INTRODUCTION. Income diversification refers to an increase in the number of sources of income or the balance among the ...
Full Text Available In this article an attempt was made to analyse the output, incomes as well as other components of assets and sources that provided their financing in Polish individual farms, in comparison with farms from other EU countries. A special emphasis was put on examination of the interrelations between income, output and stocks observed within individual farms. Research was based on the FADN database that included basic information about average individual farms in years 2004-2006. The research showed, that (among other things the average output and family farm income were three times lower in Poland than the average in the Union. Also the increase of income was possible only thanks to the subsidies from the Union. According to the regression models, in Poland the positive influence on the increase of family farm income had stocks, crops and livestock output. While in the EU positive influence had crops and livestock production and negative influence had the stocks on an income’s growth.
Full Text Available This research purpose to analyze the effect of the input use in rice farming on the income of farmers and analyze the efficiency of input in the production of rice farming to know farmers income at Kota Utara Subdistrict. The data obtained and analyzed used Cobb-Douglas analysis production function and efficiency analysis using input (allocative efficiency. The results showed that the use of production inputs together affect to the rice farming of farmers income. The results of efficiency indicate that the use of each input such as land, labor, seeds, fertilizers Phonska, urea, spontaneous drugs, score score are inefficient in the use of production input. Therefore, it is necessary to be reduced to achieve efficient use of production inputs. Keywords: Rice Farming, Production Input, Production Efficiency
The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems’ deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional powerplants. Therefore, wind turbines also have ...
Mouron, Patrik; Scholz, Roland W.; Weber, Olaf [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute for Human-Environment Systems, ETH Zentrum, HAD, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Nemecek, Thomas [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station of Agroecology and Agriculture, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)
Integrated fruit production (IFP) has been practiced in Switzerland on a large scale basis since the late 1980s, with the aim of improving sustainable farming. The guidelines of IFP emphasise an ecosystem approach that is based on scientific knowledge about self-regulatory mechanisms at the tree and orchard level. Empirical studies at the farm level are rare. An understanding of the relationship between income and environmental impacts at the farm level is a prerequisite for devising a robust system for orchard portfolio management. An income analysis based on full cost principle and environmental life cycle assessment were applied to 445 annual data sets of apple orchards, recorded on 12 specialised fruit farms over a period of 4 years. The main result was that environmental impacts such as ecotoxicity, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use did not necessarily increase when farms increased their income. A higher input level of pesticides, fertilisers and machinery did not lead to increased yields and receipts. In contrast, the choice of apple cultivars and high investment in pre-harvest labour hours were significantly correlated with high eco-efficiency and high farm income. The results of this study were summarised in a pyramid-shaped management model, providing key issues of successful orchard farming and attributing management rules to master them. The management pyramid indicates that cognitive competences such as distributional, conditional and non-linear thinking are crucial when knowledge from tree and orchard management is integrated at the farm level. A main recommendation is that more attention should be paid to improving management competence in order to contribute to sustainable farming. (author)
Hotopp, Henning; Mußhoff, Oliver
Risk management is gaining importance in agriculture. In addition to traditional instruments, new risk management instruments are increasingly being proposed. These proposals include the rent adjustment clauses (RACs), which seem to be an unusual instrument at first sight. In contrast with conventional instruments, RACs intentionally allow fixed-cost â€˜rent paymentsâ€™ to fluctuate. We investigate the whole-farm risk reduction potential of different types of RACs via a historical simulation....
Both strategies were analyzed based on empirical data collected from rural households. The analysis was done using the Simpson Index of Diversity (SID) and Ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis. The results revealed that diversification into a number of income sources and crops grown were very high.
The project builds on previous research testing homestead food production with vegetable gardens in combination with fish ponds to grow nutrient-dense small fish for household consumption and large fish for sale. The earlier research found that nutritional quality was enhanced, incomes improved, and women had a ...
Conflicting views on the relevance of economic theory, as developed in the West, to low-income peasant societies had been advanced ever since Boeke's time.Recent literature pointed out that available economic theories did not seem to fit the behavioral motivation, assumed in economic logic. The
Full Text Available In this article an attempt was made to analyse the stock, output, and incomes in individual agricultural farms in Poland, in comparison with farms from the other EU countries in the year 2006. Research was based on the FADN database. The research showed, that (among other things the Polish average individual farm had a four time lower the balance’s sum than the medium one in the EU, and the average output and family farm income were about three times lower in Poland than the average in the Union. The highest share of stock in the balance’s sum in Poland three direction of production had: permanent crops combined, specialist other field crops and specialist orchards – fruits. While in the Union the highest stock had the specialist wine. According to the regression’s models, in Poland the positive influence on the increase of family farm income had stock, crops and livestock output. In the Union positive influence on an income’s growth had crops and livestock production and negative influence had the stock.
Yam is an important tuber crop in Nigeria. However, its availability is affected by rate of deterioration arising from poor postharvest handling. Hence, farmers use various techniques to minimize the loss. Therefore, this study examined the effect of the usage of various yam storage techniques on farm income in Kwara State, ...
The present study assesses the contribution of farm supplementary activities to rural livelihoods in low-income regions that are characterised by economic stagnation. Through analysing the complete household portfolio of economic activities the study identifies specific aspects of individual and
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0095] Agency Information Collection (Pension Claim Questionnaire for Farm Income) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0095.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Pension Claim...
Enokela, O. S.; P. O, Alada
Investigation of the strength characteristic of soil from alluvial deposit of River Benue in makurdi stabilized with coconut fiber as a stabilizer was carried as local building material for farm structure. Processed coconut fibers were mixed with the soil at four different mix ratios of 1% fiber, 2% fiber, 3% fiber and 4% fiber by percentage weight with 0% fiber as control. Compaction test and compressive strength were carried out on the various stabilizing ratio. From the compaction test, the correlation between the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content is a second order polynomial with a coefficient of 63% obtained at1.91kg/m3and 20.0% respectively while the compressive strength test shows an optimum failure load of 8.62N/mm2 at 2%fibre:100% soil mix ratio at 2.16 maximum dry density.
Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor
Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.
Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina; Bertoni, Danilo; Cavicchioli, Daniele
The inter-sectoral migration of agricultural labour is a complex but fundamental process of economic development largely affected by the growth of agricultural productivity and the evolution of the agricultural relative income gap. Theory and some recent anecdotal evidence suggest that as an effect of large fixed and sunk costs of out-farm migration, the productivity gap between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors should behave non-monotonically or following a U-shaped evolution dur...
Full Text Available The main aim of this article was to identify trends regarding income changes in the period of 2004-2008 in Poland between the regions of FADN. In 2004-2008 we noticed the processes of convergence in range of income situation of farms among the FADN regions. It was noticed that the convergence of beta type and the sigma were in place. This situation appears for general group of farms, as well as in farms with mixed production. Although, exclusion of the subsidies would initiate the divergence processes. This means that direct payments make up a kind of catalytic situation in range of levelling incomes situation in farms among these regions. We could initially signal that instruments of the CAP favour getting differences of incomes smaller in spatial range, what would indicate some kind of strategy in the aims of the EU policy with reference to sustainable growth in spatial range.
The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have...... to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered...... that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development...
Sunday B. Akpan
Full Text Available The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is a sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyses poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross-sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions to analyse information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female-headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for the female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in the social organisation, a level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, the social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. The government of the region should also improve educational
Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E
The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day
Kapa, M. M. J.; Henuk, Y. L.; Hasnudi; Suyadi
Study on contribution of local beef cattle enterprise on income of dryland farmers in Kupang Regency was conducted from September to December 2016. The study aimed to: (1) determine composition of farm household income in the dry land area of Kupang Regency, Indonesia, (2) analyze contribution of income from local beef cattle enterprise to farm household income. A survey was done on 56 beef cattle farmers who were purposively selected as respondents. All respondents were interviewed using structured questioners with focus on farm household activities and their income. The results showed that total net income of farm household was Rp 14,854,550 per year, out of this Rp3,246,550 to Rp 5,404,750 equals to 21.85 to 36.38% was from local beef cattle enterprise. To enhance the role of beef cattle enterprise, the owner should improve cattle husbandry management through providing good quality and quantity of feed continuously, as well as empowering livestock extension workers to deliver proper information and technology on beef cattle husbandry to the farmer.
Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth
that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability. The same wind turbine converter control strategy...
Fang, Jiakun; Miao, Lu; Wen, Jinyu
Large scale renewable power generation brings great challenges to the power system operation and stabilization. Energy storage is one of the most important technologies to face the challenges. This paper proposes a method for transient stability probability evaluation of power system with wind farm...... and SMES. Firstly, a modified 11-bus test system with both wind farm and SMES has been implemented. The wind farm is represented as a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Then a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system is presented. Uncertain...... the probability indices. With the proposed method based on Monte-Carlo simulation and bisection method, system stability is "measured". Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve...
K. E Okedu
Full Text Available Recently, the grid codes require taking into account the reactive power of the wind farm in order to contribute to the networkstability, thus operating the wind farm as active compensator devices. This paper presents a comparative study of stabilizinga wind farm using (Doubly Fed Induction Generators DFIGs or using a (Static Synchronous Compensator STATCOM duringwind speed change and grid fault. Simulation results show that the wind farm could be effectively stabilized with bothsystems, but at a reduced cost with the DFIGs system because it can provide reactive power through its frequency converterswithout an external reactive power compensation unit like the STATCOM system significant.
Offshore wind farms tend towards larger capacity to make good use of the stronger winds and allow improved fixed cost allocation. An offshore wind farm could be sized at hundreds of MWs, which is competitive with conventional power plants. Consequently, grid integration of such size offshore wind...... farms could seriously impact the operation and stability of their interconnected power system. To assist in maintaining the power system stability when large disturbances occur in the grid, modern offshore wind farms consisting of variable-speed wind turbines are required to provide ancillary services...... such as voltage and frequency control. The greater distance to shore makes commonly used high voltage AC (HVAC) connection unsuitable economically and technically for large offshore wind farms. Alternatively, voltage source converter (VSC)-based high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission becomes more attractive...
The Ph.D. project 'Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered in this project is limited to active-stall turbines and variable speed, variable pitch turbines with gearboxes and full-scale converter-connected synchronous generators. As a basis for the project, a study into the state of the art is conducted at the beginning of the project. Grid connection requirements that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose the Nordic power system model, which was available prior to the project, is extended with a realistic feeder configuration. It is commonly demanded from modern wind turbines, that they must not disconnect in case of transient faults. Therefore, controllers are designed that enable the two turbine types to ride through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is
Su, Ye; Brown, Scott; Cook, Michael L.
The organic milk pay price is more stable year round and increases every year. However, the conventional milk price varies within the year and from year to year. As an emerging segment of the milk industry, consumer demand for organic milk is increasing rapidly. The growth in demand relative to supply provides organic milk producers and processors large premiums over the conventional milk price. Many conventional dairy farms have converted to organic operations for the more stable price. The ...
Perez, Angel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob
This paper proposes a method to consider the impactof the wind farms maximum current limits on real-time voltagestability assessment. The approach is based in a multi-portequivalent of the system which makes possible to assess theeffect of each wind farm limit on the stability boundary, theapproach...... indicates the distance to the limit activation and theeffect of each load in such a limit. The wind farm control schemesincludes voltage control and it is represented as a constantcurrent at its limit. A criteria to select the critical bus bar, basedon the generator transformation coefficients, is presented...
McConnell, T. Eric
Forest-based production on U.S. farms totaled $653.2 million in 2012, admittedly a small portion of total farm wealth. However, despite the effects of the recent economic downturn, on-farm forest product revenues still approached the gate value of North Carolina timber in 2012, which was $730.6 million. Providing the research-based information,…
Lutz, Salla; Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole
The article sheds light on, how actors can cope with stability and change in business networks. By applying theoretical elements from the industrial network approach, and the organizational ambidexterity the phenomenon was studied in the context of operation and maintenance in offshore wind farms...
Peña, Alfredo; Rathmann, Ole
We extend the infinite wind-farm boundary-layer (IWFBL) model of Frandsen to take into account atmospheric static stability effects. This extended model is compared with the IWFBL model of Emeis and to the Park wake model used inWind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP), which is computed for an infinite wind farm. The models show similar behavior for the wind-speed reduction when accounting for a number of surface roughness lengths, turbine to turbine separations and wind speeds und...
Tellegen, N.; Verstrate, L.; Foeken, D.W.J.
This study, carried out in 1989, is a support study for a larger survey of the nutritional situation in the households of labourers on large farms in Trans Nzoia, Kenya. Three categories were distinguished: permanent labourers, casual labourers living on the farm and casual labourers living off the
Taruvinga, Amon; Mushunje, Abbyssinia
This paper explores the role of buffer zones in household welfare in Zimbabwe by using primary household level data collected between November and December 2010 from communities that share boundaries with Nyatana Game Park. The descriptive statistics suggest that the contribution of buffer zone activities to household income may be significant, with a positive correlation to household agricultural income for communities that reside inside or close to the Park. Using the Gini decomposition app...
Guan-yang, Li; Hongzhao, Wang; Guanglei, Li; Yamei, Cheng; Hong-zheng, Liu; Yi, Sun
With the increasing share of the wind power in the power system, wind power fluctuations will cause obvious negative impacts on weak local grid. This paper firstly establish electromechanical transient simulation model for doubly fed induction wind turbine, then use Matlab/Simulink to achieve power flow calculation and transient simulation of power system including wind farms, the local synchronous generator, load, etc, finally analyze wind power on the impact of the local power grid under typical circumstances. The actual calculated results indicate that wind mutation causes little effect on the power grid, but when the three-phase short circuit fault happens, active power of wind power decreases sharply and the voltage of location of wind power into the grid also drop sharply, finally wind farm split from power system. This situation is not conducive to security and stability of the local power grid. It is necessary to develop security and stability measures in the future.
Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Rathmann, Ole
We evaluate a modified version of the Park wake model against power data from a west-east row in the middle of the Horns Rev I offshore wind farm. The evaluation is performed on data classified in four different atmospheric stability conditions, for a narrow wind speed range, and a wide range...... turbines on the row and those using the WAsP recommended value closer to the data for the first turbines. It is generally seen that under stable and unstable atmospheric conditions the power deficits are the highest and lowest, respectively, but the wind conditions under both stability regimes...
Peña, Alfredo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Rathmann, Ole
Here, we evaluate a modified version of the Park wake model against power data from a west-east row in the middle of the Horns Rev I offshore wind farm. The evaluation is performed on data classified in four different atmospheric stability conditions, for a narrow wind speed range, and a wide range...... turbines and those using the WAsP recommended value closer to the data for the first turbines. It is generally seen that under stable and unstable atmospheric conditions the power deficits are the highest and lowest, respectively, but the wind conditions under both stability regimes are different...
Peña, Alfredo; Rathmann, Ole
We extend the infinite wind-farm boundary-layer (IWFBL) model of Frandsen to take into account atmospheric static stability effects. This extended model is compared with the IWFBL model of Emeis and to the Park wake model used inWind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP), which is computed......) larger than the adjusted values for a wide range of neutral to stable atmospheric stability conditions, a number of roughness lengths and turbine separations lower than _ 10 rotor diameters and (ii) too large compared with those obtained by a semiempirical formulation (relating the ratio of the friction...
Full Text Available This article is concerned with the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that is increasingly experiencing mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrence of drought, which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice is very important. Through a binary logistic and ordinary least squares regression, this article determines factors that influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on income among smallholder farmers. The results show that off-farm employment, access to irrigation equipment, access to reliable water sources and awareness of water conservation practices, such as rainwater harvesting, have a significant influence on the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming. On the other hand, the farmer’s age, distance travelled to the nearest market and nature of employment negatively influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming decisions. Ordinary least squares regression results showed that the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice has a significant positive influence on agricultural income. We therefore conclude that to empower smallholder farmers to respond quickly to climate variability and change, practices that will enhance the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming in the Chinyanja Triangle are critical, as this will significantly affect agricultural income. In terms of policy, we recommend that the governments of Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, which cover the Chinyanja Triangle, formulate policies that will enhance the adoption of sustainable small scale
Bobojonov, Ihtiyor; Aw-Hassan, Aden
Increased risk due to global warming has already become embedded in agricultural decision making in Central Asia and uncertainties are projected to increase even further. Agro-ecology and economies of Central Asia are heterogenous and very little is known about the impact of climate change at the sub-national levels. The bio-economic farm model (BEFM) is used for ex ante assessment of climate change impacts at sub-national levels in Central Asia. The BEFM is calibrated to 10 farming systems i...
Foeken, D.W.J.; Tellegen, N.
In some areas in sub-Saharan Africa a rural proletariat has emerged, consisting mainly of labourers living and working on plantations and large mixed farms. Besides these fully proletarianized estate workers, there is also a category of workers that can be labelled 'semi-proletarianized'. They live
Imani, Somaye; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin; Abbaspour, Karim C
The economic concerns of low-income farmers are barriers to nutrient abatement policies for eutrophication control in surface waters. This study brings up a perspective that focuses on integrating multiple-pollutant discharge permit markets with farm management practices. This aims to identify a more economically motivated waste load allocation (WLA) for non-point sources (NPS). For this purpose, we chose the small basin of Zrebar Lake in western Iran and used the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) for modeling. The export coefficients (ECs), effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs), and crop yields were calculated by using this software. These variables show that low-income farmers can hardly afford to invest in BMPs in a typical WLA. Conversely, a discharge permit market presents a more cost-effective solution. This method saves 64% in total abatement costs and motivates farmers by offering economic benefits. A market analysis revealed that nitrogen permits mostly cover the trades with the optimal price ranging from $6 to $30 per kilogram. However, phosphorous permits are limited for trading, and their price exceeds $60 per kilogram. This approach also emphasizes the establishment of a regional institution for market monitoring, dynamic pricing, fair fund reallocation, giving information to participants, and ensuring their income. By these sets of strategies, a WLA on the brink of failure can turn into a cost-effective and sustainable policy for eutrophication control in small basins.
Full Text Available The rapid transformation of the livestock sector in recent decades brought concerns on its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, disruptions to nitrogen and phosphorous cycles and on land use change, particularly deforestation for production of feed crops. Animal and human health are increasingly interlinked through emerging infectious diseases, zoonoses, and antimicrobial resistance. In many developing countries, the rapidity of change has also had social impacts with increased risk of marginalisation of smallholder farmers. However, both the impacts and benefits of livestock farming often differ between extensive (backyard farming mostly for home-consumption and intensive, commercial production systems (larger herd or flock size, higher investments in inputs, a tendency towards market-orientation. A density of 10,000 chickens per km2 has different environmental, epidemiological and societal implications if these birds are raised by 1,000 individual households or in a single industrial unit. Here, we introduce a novel relationship that links the national proportion of extensively raised animals to the gross domestic product (GDP per capita (in purchasing power parity. This relationship is modelled and used together with the global distribution of rural population to disaggregate existing 10 km resolution global maps of chicken and pig distributions into extensive and intensive systems. Our results highlight countries and regions where extensive and intensive chicken and pig production systems are most important. We discuss the sources of uncertainties, the modelling assumptions and ways in which this approach could be developed to forecast future trajectories of intensification.
Mohammadpour, Hossein Ali
network, and the frequency of the exchanged energy is below the fundamental frequency of the system. This phenomenon may cause severe damage in the wind farm, if not prevented. Therefore, this dissertation deals with the SSR phenomena in a capacitive series compensated wind farm. A DFIG-based wind farm, which is connected to a series compensated transmission line, is considered as a case study. The small-signal stability analysis of the system is presented, and the eigenvalues of the system are obtained. Using both modal analysis and time-domain simulation, it is shown that the system is potentially unstable due to the SSR mode. Then, three different possibilities for the addition of SSR damping controller (SSRDC) are investigated. The SSRDC can be added to (1) gate-controlled series capacitor (GCSC), (2) thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC), or (3) DFIG rotor-side converter (RSC) and grid-side converter (GSC) controllers. The first and second cases are related to the series flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) family, and the third case uses the DFIG back-to-back converters to damp the SSR. The SSRDC is designed using residue-based analysis and root locus diagrams. Using residue-based analysis, the optimal input control signal (ICS) to the SSRDC is identified that can damp the SSR mode without destabilizing other modes, and using root-locus analysis, the required gain for the SSRDC is determined. Moreover, two methods are discussed in order to estimate the optimum input signal to the SSRDC, without measuring it directly. In this dissertation, MATLAB/Simulink is used as a tool for modeling and design of the SSRDC, and PSCAD/EMTDC is used to perform time-domain simulation in order to verify the design process.
Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.
Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports,"…
Kokic, P.; Nelson, R.; Meinke, H.B.; Potgieter, A.; Carter, J.
In this paper we report the development of a bioeconomic modelling system, AgFIRM, designed to help close a relevance gap between climate science and policy in Australia. We do this by making a simple econometric farm income model responsive to seasonal forecasts of crop and pasture growth for the
Gudzune, Kimberly A; Welsh, Claire; Lane, Elisa; Chissell, Zach; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Gittelsohn, Joel
Our objective was to pilot collaborations between two urban farms with two corner stores to increase access to fresh produce in low-income neighbourhoods. We conducted a pre-post evaluation of two farm-store collaborations using quantitative distribution and sales data. Using semi-structured interviews, we qualitatively assessed feasibility of implementation and collaboration acceptability to farmers and storeowners. Low-income urban neighbourhoods in Baltimore, MD, USA in 2012. Pair #1 included a 0·25 acre (0·1 ha) urban farm with a store serving local residents and was promoted by the neighbourhood association. Pair #2 included a 2 acre (0·8 ha) urban farm with a store serving bus commuters. Produce was delivered all nine intervention weeks in both pairs. Pair #1 produced a significant increase in the mean number of produce varieties carried in the store by 11·3 (Plow-income urban neighbourhoods. For future programmes to be successful, strong community backing may be vital to support produce sales.
Toulabi, Mohammadreza; Bahrami, Shahab; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad
In most of the existing studies, the frequency response in the variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) is simply realized by changing the torque set-point via appropriate inputs such as frequency deviations signal. However, effective dynamics and systematic process design have not been comprehensively discussed yet. Accordingly, this paper proposes a proportional-derivative frequency controller and investigates its performance in a wind farm consisting of several VSWTs. A band-pass filter is deployed before the proposed controller to avoid responding to either steady state frequency deviations or high rate of change of frequency. To design the controller, the frequency model of the wind farm is first characterized. The proposed controller is then designed based on the obtained open loop system. The stability region associated with the controller parameters is analytically determined by decomposing the closed-loop system's characteristic polynomial into the odd and even parts. The performance of the proposed controller is evaluated through extensive simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment in a power system comprising a high penetration of VSWTs equipped with the proposed controller. Finally, based on the obtained feasible area and appropriate objective function, the optimal values associated with the controller parameters are determined using the genetic algorithm (GA). Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Object: the level and evolution of income inequality among adults in Brazil between 2006 and 2012.Objectives: to calculate the level of inequality, its trend over the years and the share of income growth appropriated by different social groups.Methodology: We combined tax data from the Annual Personal Income Tax Returns (Declaração Anual de Ajuste do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Física - DIRPF and the Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD to construct a complete distribution of total income among adults in Brazil. We applied Pareto interpolations to income tax tabulations to arrive at the distribution within income groups. We tested the results, comparing the PNAD to the Brazilian Consumption and Expenditure Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF and to data from the Census Subsample Survey (Census.Results: We found evidence that income inequality in Brazil is higher than previously thought and that it remained stable between 2006 and 2012; in making these findings, we thus diverged from most studies on the dynamics of inequality in Brazil.. There was income growth, but the top incomes have appropriated most of this growth.
Medeiros, Marcelo; de Souza, Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira; de Castro, Fábio Ávila
the level and evolution of income inequality among adults in Brazil between 2006 and 2012. to calculate the level of inequality, its trend over the years and the share of income growth appropriated by different social groups. We combined tax data from the Annual Personal Income Tax Returns (Declaração Anual de Ajuste do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Física - DIRPF) and the Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD) to construct a complete distribution of total income among adults in Brazil. We applied Pareto interpolations to income tax tabulations to arrive at the distribution within income groups. We tested the results, comparing the PNAD to the Brazilian Consumption and Expenditure Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF) and to data from the Census Subsample Survey (Census. We found evidence that income inequality in Brazil is higher than previously thought and that it remained stable between 2006 and 2012; in making these findings, we thus diverged from most studies on the dynamics of inequality in Brazil.. There was income growth, but the top incomes have appropriated most of this growth.
Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Beck, Ashley D; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O
During the last two decades, researchers have devoted considerable attention to the role of maternal feeding behaviors, practices, and styles in the development of obesity in young children. Little is known, however, about the consistency of maternal feeding across settings and time. The purpose of this paper was to provide data on this issue by examining the consistency of observed maternal feeding behavior across multiple eating occasions, as well as examine the consistency of observed and self-reported maternal feeding behavior across 18 months. Videotapes from two studies of low-income mothers and their preschool children were coded for feeding practices, dimensions, and styles: a study of 137 low-income, African American and Latina mothers and their children observed during three meals in their homes over a two to three week period, and a study of 138 low-income, Latina mothers observed during a buffet meal in a laboratory setting on two separate occasions 18 months apart. Videotapes from both studies were coded for a wide range of maternal feeding behaviors and strategies. Mothers in the second study also completed three validated, self-report questionnaires on their feeding practices and styles. Overall, both observed and self-reported feeding practices and styles showed only moderate levels of stability across meals and over time. Maternal attempts to regulate children's eating showed more stability across meals and over time than the content of general mealtime conversation. Also, greater stability was found in what mothers were trying to get their children to do during the meals than in the strategies they used to influence child behavior. Self-reports of feeding showed greater stability over time than observational measures. Across meals and across 18 months, the stability of general feeding styles was between 40% and 50%. The findings demonstrate that maternal feeding behavior was only moderately stable across meals and over time-that is, feeding
Nyoman Ngurah Arya
Full Text Available Various efforts to increase rice production have been done in order to achieve rice self-sufficiency and food security, one of which is the creation of some New Superior Varieties (NSVs of paddy. This study aimed to analyze the productivity, income, and efficiency of rice farming of New Superior Varieties, including Inpari 29, Inpari 31, and Inpari 32. This research was conducted on December 2014 until April 2015 in Subak Gubug I, Gubug village, as one of the centers of rice production in Tabanan Regency. The study involved 30 farmers who planted those three new superior varieties in 9.38 hectares of wet land area. Each farmer used as replicates. Data were collected using interview and direct observation. Data was analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The results showed that Inpari 31 variety have the highest productivity, the highest revenue, the most efficient, and significantly different from the Inpari 29 and 32. Multiplication and dissemination of Inpari 31 variety to farmers can be done as soon as possible to increase rice production, achieve rice self-sufficiency and food security.
Dogliotti Moro, S.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.
Rapid changes in the social and economic environment in which agriculture is developing, together with the deterioration of the natural resource base threatens sustainability of farm systems in many areas of the world. For vegetable farms in South Uruguay, survival in the long term depends upon the
Huang, Wen-Yuan; Hyberg, Bengt; Segarra, Eduardo
This paper analyzes a variable price support program (VPS) as an alternative to the current farm income support program. The VPS program can control U.S. agricultural production while protecting income of small farmers. The VPS is designed to alter farm level production decisions by reducing commodity support prices for each additional unit of production produced. This will serve to discourage excess aggregate production. The VPS program can be a mechanism to stabilize income of efficient sma...
Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Elangovan, Satheesh
The objective of this study is to examine the associations between country level factors (such as human development, economic productivity, and political stability) and their dental research productivity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus search engine. Human Development Index (HDI), Gross National Income per capita (GNI), and Failed State Index measures were the independent variables. Outcomes were "Total number of publications (articles or articles in press) in the field of dentistry" and "Total number of publications in the field of dentistry per million population." Non-parametric tests were used to examine the association between the independent and outcome variables. During the year 2013, a total of 11,952 dental research articles were published across the world. The top 5 publishing countries were United States, Brazil, India, Japan, and United Kingdom. "Very High" HDI countries had significantly higher number of total dental research articles and dental research articles per million population when compared to the "High HDI," "Medium HDI," and "Low HDI" countries (p income levels and outcome metrics (p ≤ 0.007). Countries which were highly politically stable were associated with significantly higher dental research productivity (p < 0.0001). There appears to be a regional concentration of articles with just five countries contributing to over 50% of all articles. The human development and economic development of a country are linearly correlated with dental research productivity. Dental research productivity also increases with increasing political stability of a country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M
Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fernandez, R.D. [Laboratorio de Electronica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Ciudad Universitaria, Km. 4, 9000, Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina); Mantz, R.J. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900, La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, CICpBA, La Plata (Argentina); Battaiotto, P.E. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900, La Plata (Argentina)
This paper deals with linear and non-linear control of wind farms equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG). Both, active and reactive wind farm powers are employed in two independent control laws in order to increase the damping of the oscillation modes of a power system. In this way, it presented a general strategy where two correction terms are added, one by each independent control, to the normal operating condition of a wind farm. The proposed control laws are derived from the Lyapunov approach. Meanwhile for the reactive power a non-linear correction is presented, for the wind farm active power it is demonstrated that the classical proportional and inertial laws can be considered via the Lyapunov approach if wind farms are considered as real power plants, i.e. equivalent to conventional synchronous generation. Finally, some simulations are presented in order to support the theoretical considerations demonstrating the potential contributions of both control laws. (author)
Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of extreme gust wind as a case of wind speed variation on a wind farm interconnected electrical grid. The impact of extreme gust wind speed variation on active and reactive power of the wind farms is studied for variable speed wind farm equipped with Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs. A simulation model of the under implementation 120 MW wind farm at Gulf El-Zayt region, Red Sea, Egypt, is simulated as a case study. A detailed model of extreme gust wind speed variation is implemented and simulated, using MATLAB/Simulink toolbox, based on International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61400-1 and climate characteristic of Gulf El-Zayt site. The simulation results show the influence of different extreme gust wind speed variations on the fluctuation of active power and reactive power at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC of the studied wind farm.
Schrama, M.; De Haan, J.; Kroonen, M.; Verstegen, H.; Van der Putten, W.H.
Abstract A key challenge for sustainable intensification of agriculture is to produce increasing amounts of food and feed with minimal biodiversity loss, nutrient leaching, and greenhouse gas emissions. Organic farming is considered more sustainable, however, less productive than conventional
Volker, Patrick; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete
We use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and SCADA measurements and mesoscale model simulations from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to analyse the flow conditions at the Danish offshore wind farm at Anholt. The first Danish oshore wind farms have been installed in the North Sea...... measurements and WRF simulations, also Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) measurements from the westerly most wind turbines. The SCADA measurements have been kindly provided by DONG Energy and partners....
Wang, Li; Chen, Shiang-Shong; Lee, Wei-Jen
be concluded from the simulated results that the proposed SMES unit combined with the designed damping controller is very effective to stabilize the studied combined WF and MCF under various wind speeds. The inherent fluctuations of the injected active power and reactive power of the WF and MCF to the power......This paper presents a control scheme based on a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to achieve both power flow control and damping enhancement of a novel hybrid wind and marine-current farm (MCF) connected to a large power grid. The performance of the studied wind farm (WF...... under different operating conditions. A frequency-domain approach based on a linearized system model using eigen techniques and a time-domain scheme based on a nonlinear system model subject to disturbance conditions are both employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. It can...
Fernandez, R.D. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Electronica. Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Ciudad Universitaria, Km. 4, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina); Battaiotto, P.E.; Mantz, R.J. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
As it is well known, different kinds of wind farms can contribute to frequency and voltage regulation by means of active and reactive powers, respectively. This paper analyzes how the wind farm reactive power loop, which contribute to voltage regulation, modifies the location of the eigenvalues of a selected power system when the wind power penetration is increased. Previous to this analysis, aspects of the modeling of double fed induction generators in wind energy generation and power systems are discussed. Finally, simulations, which verify the theoretical results are presented. (author)
Ström, G; Boqvist, S; Albihn, A; Fernström, L-L; Andersson Djurfeldt, A; Sokerya, S; Sothyra, T; Magnusson, U
Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production. Commensal Escherichia coli was isolated from three healthy pigs from each farm ( n = 261) and susceptibility testing was performed against 14 antimicrobials, using broth microdilution. Univariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate potential associations between farm characteristics, management factors and resistance to different types of antimicrobials. We found a widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials, often based on the farmer's own judgment. Around 66% of the farmers reported frequently self-adjusting treatment duration and dosage, and 45% had not heard about the term 'antimicrobial resistance'. The antimicrobials most commonly mentioned or kept by the farmers were amoxicillin, tylosin, gentamicin and colistin. Around 37% used a feed concentrate that contained antimicrobials, while antimicrobials for humans were used as a last-line treatment by 10% of the farmers. Commensal E. coli exhibited high prevalence of resistance to several antimicrobials considered to be of critical importance for human medicine, including ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and colistin, and multidrug-resistance was found in 79% of the samples. Higher prevalence of resistance was observed on farms that administered prophylactic antimicrobials and on farms that treated the entire group or herd in the event of disease. The widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials in pig farming in Cambodia is highly worrisome
Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Verelst, David Robert; Bertagnolio, Franck
to blow up with a factor equal to the number of representative stability bin classes. The research question to be answered in this paper is: Can an ABL stability probability distribution in a meaningful way be collapsed into a representative design stability class as based on a (predefined) confidence...
Okedu, Kenneth Eloghene; Muyeen, S. M.; Takahashi, Rion; Tamura, Junji
Recent wind farm grid codes require wind generators to ride through voltage sags, which means that normal power production should be re-initiated once the nominal grid voltage is recovered. However, fixed speed wind turbine generator system using induction generator (IG) has the stability problem similar to the step-out phenomenon of a synchronous generator. On the other hand, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) can control its real and reactive powers independently while being operated in variable speed mode. This paper proposes a new control strategy using DFIGs for stabilizing a wind farm composed of DFIGs and IGs, without incorporating additional FACTS devices. A new current controlled voltage source converter (CC-VSC) scheme is proposed to control the converters of DFIG and the performance is verified by comparing the results with those of voltage controlled voltage source converter (VC-VSC) scheme. Another salient feature of this study is to reduce the number of proportionate integral (PI) controllers used in the rotor side converter without degrading dynamic and transient performances. Moreover, DC-link protection scheme during grid fault can be omitted in the proposed scheme which reduces overall cost of the system. Extensive simulation analyses by using PSCAD/EMTDC are carried out to clarify the effectiveness of the proposed CC-VSC based control scheme of DFIGs.
Schenk, J.; Hellegers, P.; Asseldonk, van Marcel; Davidson, B.
A risk farmers have to cope with is annual changes in the availability of irrigation water. In this paper the relationship between irrigation water allocated to farmers and the incomes they derive in the Coleambally Irrigation Areas (CIA) in Australia is quantified. It is shown empirically that
Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei
Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.
J.L. Chamberlain; D. Mitchell; T. Brigham; T. Hobby; L. Zabek; J. Davis
Forest farming in North America is becoming popular as a way for landowners to diversify income opportunities, improve management of forest resources, and increase biological diversity. People have been informally "farming the forests" for generations. However, in recent years, attention has been directed at formalizing forest farming and improving it...
Povarova Anna Ivanovna
Full Text Available The reason for writing this article was a statement of the First Deputy Finance Minister Tatyana Nesterenko who claimed that in 2017 the government would run out of money to pay salaries to budgetary sphere employees . Indeed, the reserves accumulated in the fat years are running out. The Government of the Russian Federation finds the following sources to cover the growing budget deficit: first, privatization of the remnants of state property, which will create a momentary effect and will not become a stable channel for filling the treasury; and second, major cuts on spending that on the eve of the electoral cycle can aggravate protest moods of Russians caused by a sharp deterioration of the standard of living. The majority of representatives of the expert and scientific community, including ISEDT RAS employees, consider the urgent need to reform the system for taxation of individual income tax by introducing a progressive tax scale as one of the main solutions to the growing imbalance of the budgetary system. This scale is applied successfully in all the countries of the OECD, G20 and BRICS. The goal of the present paper is to substantiate the need for reformation of individual income tax as a driving force of sustainable mobilization of budget funds. As a hypothesis, an assumption is made concerning the existence of a direct link between the redistribution of income through progressive taxation and an increase in the resource potential of the budgetary system. Research findings presented in the paper confirm that the current mechanisms for taxation of people’s incomes do not correspond to the constitutional principles of equality, social orientation and economic viability. As a result, judging by the most important indicators of socioeconomic development, Russia lags behind developed countries and some comparable developing countries. Excessive income polarization brings to the fore the issue concerning individual income tax modification
Projected Cropping Patterns, Livestock Enterprises, Processing Activities, Capital Requirements, Employment, Income, and Training Needs for Alternative Farm Organizational Structures for the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. A Special Report to the Four Corners Regional Commission.
Gorman, William D.; And Others
Information on the expected cropping patterns, livestock enterprises, processing and related activities, income and employment opportunities, capital needs, and training requirements for alternative farm organizational structures that could be selected for development of the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project is presented in this report. The major…
Reichard, M.L. [GE Energy (United States); Finney, D. [GE Multilin, Markham, ON (Canada); Garrity, J.T. [GE Multilin (United States)
Various aspects of a windfarm's configuration need consideration during the design of protective systems. Grid tie and wind turbine generators provide multiple sources of fault currents as collector feeders become isolated ungrounded systems during faults due to separation from the centralized collector bus reference ground. Ground faults on feeders can result in unfaulted phase voltages rising to line levels. Severe transient overvoltages can be produced which can degrade insulation and result in equipment failure. This paper outlined overall requirements for comprehensive windfarm protection, with a particular emphasis on feeder ground faults. A novel protection method was presented that makes use of peer-to-peer (GOOSE) messaging via the IEC61850 protocol. The characteristics of the GOOSE messaging system were discussed and a communications architecture was presented. The system considers a wind farm as a total system as opposed to a collection of individual components. The electrical protective devices communicate to each other via an open, widely supported protocol. Examples of the system included control commands between devices for issuing of trip commands, commands to preclude a device from otherwise tripping, event and diagnostic information and analogue information. The IEC GOOSE messages carries a user-defined dataset which can be configured with modeled data items. Full-duplex switch technology is used to prevent the occurrence of Ethernet collisions. The performance of the protection scheme was evaluated for use with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). Radial, bifurcated radial, feeder-subfeeder, and looped topologies were described. A wind farm communications network topology was presented. Each wind turbine had a multi-faction digital protective relay (IED) that provides electrical fault protection for the generator and tower cable. The physical arrangement of the components of the windfarm was used to create a fibre network arranged in a
Md. Rifat Hazari
Full Text Available Wind farm (WF grid codes require wind generators to have low voltage ride through (LVRT capability, which means that normal power production should be resumed quickly once the nominal grid voltage has been recovered. However, WFs with fixed-speed wind turbines with squirrel cage induction generators (FSWT-SCIGs have failed to fulfill the LVRT requirement, which has a significant impact on power system stability. On the other hand, variable-speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators (VSWT-DFIGs have sufficient LVRT augmentation capability and can control the active and reactive power delivered to the grid. However, the DFIG is more expensive than the SCIG due to its AC/DC/AC converter. Therefore, the combined use of SCIGs and DFIGs in a WF could be an effective solution. The design of the rotor-side converter (RSC controller is crucial because the RSC controller contributes to the system stability. The cascaded control strategy based on four conventional PI controllers is widely used to control the RSC of the DFIG, which can inject only a small amount of reactive power during fault conditions. Therefore, the conventional strategy can stabilize the lower rating of the SCIG. In the present paper, a new control strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed in the RSC controller of the DFIG in order to enhance the LVRT capability of the SCIG in a WF. The proposed fuzzy logic controller (FLC is used to control the reactive power delivered to the grid during fault conditions. Moreover, reactive power injection can be increased in the proposed control strategy. Extensive simulations executed in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment for both the proposed and conventional PI controllers of the RSC of the DFIG reveal that the proposed control strategy can stabilize the higher rating of the SCIG.
Varma, Rajiv; Arifur Rahman, Shah; Seethapathy, Ravi
This paper presents a novel control of a solar farm inverter to improve grid power transfer limits. In the night, when the solar farm is completely idle, this new control technique makes the solar farm inverter behave like a FACTS device. The solar farm inverter provides voltage regulation at the point of common coupling and improves the power transfer limits, significantly. During the day time also, when solar farm is producing real power, this new control strategy makes the solar farm inverter provide voltage control with the remaining inverter MVA capacity and thereby increases power transfer capacity substantially.
Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe
to detailed modelling that models every wind turbines individually and the interconnections among them. In this paper, three aggregated modelling techniques, namely, multi-machine equivalent aggregation, full aggregation and semi-aggregation are presented for power system transient stability studies based...
Bidadfar, Ali; Saborío-Romano, Oscar; Altin, Müfit
feedback control system (FCS) model is proposed to represent the dynamic characteristics of HVDC grids and their controllers. The FCS model can be used for different dynamic analyses in time and frequency domains. Moreover, using the FCS model the system stability is analyzed in both open- and closed...... OWPPs and two AC grids is used for simulations and verification of the proposed FCS model....
Hernan, Mateus [AGCERT, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
The Mexican Farming Sector has a great potential to help solve the worldwide problems caused by greenhouse effect gases (GEI). The Kyoto Protocol is an instrument created to reduce the greenhouse effect gases (GEI) and it also is the fundament of the AgCert project -which consists in applying own financial resources to develop technological options that contribute to the reduction of greenhouse effect gases in cattle productive facilities and to use the income to economically support the producers. In this document it is described the way in which the biodigestor was installed, demonstrating that the MDL for farming projects is a tool to reduce the discharges of greenhouse effect gases. It also demonstrates that technologies and processes can be applied systematically to reduce the emissions of the GEI, bringing along environmental and economic benefits. [Spanish] El Sector Agropecuario Mexicano tiene un gran potencial para ayudar a resolver los problemas mundiales causados por los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI). El protocolo de Kyoto es un instrumento creado para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y tambien es el fundamento del proyecto AgCert, el cual consiste en aplicar recursos financieros propios para desarrollar opciones tecnologicas que contribuyan a la reduccion de gases efecto invernadero en instalaciones productivas pecuarias y emplear los ingresos para apoyar economicamente a los productores. En este documento se describe la manera en que se llevo acabo la instalacion del biodigestor, demostrando que el MDL para proyectos agropecuarios es una herramienta para reducir emisiones de gases efecto invernadero, y que se pueden aplicar sistematicamente tecnologias y procesos que reduzcan las emisiones de los GEI, trayendo consigo beneficios ambientales y economico.
the National Root Crops Research Institution (NRCRI) Umudike has empowered rural women to become ... means to increase and stabilize farm incomes and to rejuvenate primary agriculture and the rural economy. ... migration in search of white collar jobs, certain tasks that were traditionally performed by men are now left ...
Berton, Pauline; Normand, Valérie; Martineau, Guy-Pierre; Bouchet, Franck; Lebret, Arnaud; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for reproductive disorders in sows and respiratory problems in pigs, and has a major economic impact. Controlling PRRSV is therefore a priority for the swine industry. Stabilization of a herd, defined as the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning from seropositive sows, is a common method of control, and different protocols have been described in the literature to achieve this stabilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate wether the combination of mass vaccination of sows and their piglets with a Genotype I modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, with temporal closure to the introduction of replacement animals and unidirectional pig and human flow can result in the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning. The study took place in French farrow-to-finish farms located in a high-density swine area where the disease concerns over 60% of farms and only closely related strains of genotype I have been reported. Twenty-three 100-to-700 sow farrow-to-finish farms were selected prospectively between 2005 and 2014, regardless of their biosecurity level. Those farms adopted a stabilization protocol characterized by the following standardized measures: vaccination of sows, gilts, and piglets with the Genotype I MLV vaccine PORCILIS®PRRS, temporary herd closure, and strict internal biosecurity measures. Monitoring of herd status was then performed using a combination of 3 diagnostic tools: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Open reading frame (ORF) 5 and ORF7 sequencing. The status of finishing units (either active or inactive, meaning PRRSV-positive or PRRSV-negative, respectively) was not considered in this study. At the end of the monitoring period, considering the results of all the analyses, clinical signs, and epidemiology, 19 farms were considered stable and 1 remained unstable. In 3 farms it was commonly agreed to extend
Badger, J.; Giebel, G.; Guo Larsen, X.; Skov Nielsen, T.; Aalborg Nielsen, H.; Madsen, Henrik; Toefting, J.
In this report investigations using atmospheric stability measures to improve wind speed predictions at wind farm sites are described. Various stability measures have been calculated based on numerical weather prediction model output. Their ability to improve the wind speed predictions is assessed at three locations. One of the locations is in complex terrain. Mesoscale modelling has been carried out using KAMM at this location. The characteristics of the measured winds are captured well by the mesoscale modelling. It can be seen that the atmospheric stability plays an important role in determining how the flow is influence by the terrain. A prediction system employing a look-up table approach based on wind class simulations is presented. The mesoscale modelling results produced by KAMM were validated using an alternative mesoscale model called WRF. A good agreement in the results of KAMM and WRF was found. It is shown that including a stability parameter in physical and/or statistical modelling can improve the wind speed predictions at a wind farm site. A concept for the inclusion of a stability measure in the WPPT prediction system is presented, and the testing of the concept is outlined. (au)
A demonstration of As Low As Reasonably Achievable Control Technology (ALARACT) was performed for the existing Double Shell Tank (DST) farm primary ventilation systems in support of the Single Shell Tanks (SSTs) Interim Stabilization Project. The primary ventilation systems evaluated in this ALARACT are located at the 241-AW, AN, AP, and SY tank farms. Of these farms, only the AP and SY farms are scheduled to receive SST waste prior to new ventilation systems being installed at the farms. As a result, full evaluations were performed for the 241-AP and SY systems, whereas only partial evaluations were performed for the 241-AN and AW systems. The full evaluation included the evaluation of the stack sampling system, whereas the partial evaluation did not. Also, 241-AY and AZ are not scheduled to receive SST waste so they were both excluded completely from the evaluation. This ALARACT demonstration evaluated the ability of the abatement and control technologies in the DST ventilation systems identified above to function during SST waste transfers as part of the SST Interim Stabilization Project. Where available, field data (waste temperatures) gathered during actual saltwell pumping activities, were used to support this demonstration. Also used were other process data and equipment capacities associated with the system evaluation. Where actual field data were not available, conservative assumptions, based upon process knowledge and standard engineering calculation methodologies, were used. The DST ventilation systems were also evaluated for compliance against the technology standards identified in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radioactive Air Emissions, as well as other governing codes and standards
Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John
Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…
Nguyen Tuong Mien; Le Ngoc Trieu; Le Tien Thanh; Pham Van Nhi; Huynh Thi Trung
The objects of radiation breeding were chosen, collected and in vitro propagated. The suitable modalities for acute and chronic irradiation the materials were determined. Two acute and one chronic irradiation series were executed. Thus, the irradiated materials were achieved to screening for the mutants. In this study, on farm, through screening 18 phenotypic mutants of both chrysanthemums were recorded and collected including 6 potential mutants that selected for next research based on their phenotypic differences to the originals, their aesthetic and low mosaic. These 6 potential mutants together with their original varieties were micro-propagated to induce the potential mutant lines for estimation on farm of mutant characteristic segregation rates. Six potential mutant lines of E2a, E2c, E28, E29, I7, I8 are morphologically and genetically different to their original varieties, possess the identification markers and aestheticism. They were morphologically stable on farm through 3 series of growing on farm at M1V3, M1V5 and M1V7 generations. In the genetic respect, they possessed the high stabilities through in vitro generations. All of these criteria show that, these mutant lines were already to be registered as temporary cultivars/varieties. (author)
Khanal, Aditya R.; Mishra, Ashok; Koirala, Krishna H.
Small farms face significant challenges using conventional crop production methods. They seek methods of generating alternative income both on- and off the farm. The literature considers these opportunities individually; however recent evidence shows that small farms engage in both activities simultaneously. This study analyzes factors influencing such choice decisions and their impact on farm and total household incomes. Using a large nation-wide farm survey data and selectivity based multin...
Wang, Li; Chen, Shiang-Shong; Lee, Wei-Jen
This paper presents a control scheme based on a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to achieve both power flow control and damping enhancement of a novel hybrid wind and marine-current farm (MCF) connected to a large power grid. The performance of the studied wind farm (WF......) is simulated by an equivalent 80-MW induction generator (IG) while an equivalent 60-MW IG is employed to simulate the characteristics of theMCF. A damping controller for the SMES unit is designed by using modal control theory to contribute effective damping characteristics to the studied combined WF and MCF...
Sano, Yoshie; Manoogian, Margaret M.; Ontai, Lenna L.
This qualitative study examined the nature of partnerships among 28 rural low-income mothers who experienced partnership transitions across three waves of annual interviews. Guided by "lens of uncertainty" and "boundary ambiguity theory," the authors specifically explored (a) how low-income mothers in rural communities experience partnership…
Gripp, Sharon I.; Ford, Stephen A.
A survey of more than 1200 Pennsylvania dairy farm managers showed that almost 20% of those managers do not have health insurance. Of those farm managers with health insurance, 67% had insurance acquired through the farm business. Farm characteristics and demographic information were used to determine indicators of health insurance coverage. Age, education, net farm income, off-farm income, milk marketing cooperative membership, and intensity of hired labor use all had significant effects on ...
Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J.; McKeen, R.G.
A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option
Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McKeen, R.G. [Alliance for Transportation Research, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option.
... disposition of property used in farming where farm losses offset nonfarm income. 1.1251-1 Section 1.1251-1... of gain from disposition of property used in farming where farm losses offset nonfarm income. (a..., certain farming property (other than section 1250 property) described in paragraph (1), (3), or (4) of...
Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
Farm production rose 6 percent in 1985 due to record high yields in corn, soybeans, cotton, and several other crops. While United States consumption increased slightly, exports of farm products fell 23 percent in value and 19 percent in volume. Net cash income increased 12 percent due to increased output, lower cash expenses, and unusually high…
Stallmann, Judith I.; Nelson, James H.
Employment history affects subsequent choices. Based on their original job choice, operators are divided into farmers and workers. Equations are estimated to determine their probabilities of working off-the-farm. Education increased the probability that workers work off-the-farm, whereas vocational training increases farmers' probability. The probability of working off-the-farm decreases as unearned income increases, and its impact on workers is larger than on farmers. An employed spouse incr...
This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding.
Wallace, Michael T.; Jack, Claire G.
This paper estimates returns to education for a sample of farm operators in Northern Ireland. The analysis examines the relationship between education and on-farm and off-farm labour incomes. Human capital earnings functions are estimated to identify the marginal return to education measured as years of schooling as well as the qualification level attained. Extending to a structural model, the methodology controls for the endogeneity of education in the earnings function and potential selecti...
Seguin, Rebecca A; Morgan, Emily H; Hanson, Karla L; Ammerman, Alice S; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Kolodinsky, Jane; Sitaker, Marilyn; Becot, Florence A; Connor, Leah M; Garner, Jennifer A; McGuirt, Jared T
Childhood obesity persists in the United States and is associated with serious health problems. Higher rates of obesity among children from disadvantaged households may be, in part, attributable to disparities in access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Community supported agriculture can improve access to and consumption of fresh produce, but the upfront payment structure, logistical barriers, and unfamiliarity with produce items may inhibit participation by low-income families. The aim of this project is to assess the impact of subsidized, or "cost-offset," community supported agriculture participation coupled with tailored nutrition education for low-income families with children. The Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids community-based, randomized intervention trial will build on formative and longitudinal research to examine the impact of cost-offset community supported agriculture on diet and other health behaviors as well as the economic impacts on local economies. The intervention will involve reduced-price community supported agriculture shares which can be paid for on a weekly basis, nine skill-based and seasonally-tailored healthy eating classes, and the provision of basic kitchen tools. Low income families with at least one child aged 2-12 years will be recruited to join existing community supported agriculture programs in New York, North Carolina, Vermont, and Washington. In each program, families will be randomized 1:1 to intervention or delayed intervention groups. Data will be collected at baseline, and in the fall and spring for 3 years. The primary outcomes are children's intake of fruits and vegetables and foods high in sugar and/or (solid) fat, as well as diet quality; secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental variables. Cost-effectiveness and economic impact at the farm and community levels also will be assessed. This integrated project will provide important information and contribute to the
Rebecca A. Seguin
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity persists in the United States and is associated with serious health problems. Higher rates of obesity among children from disadvantaged households may be, in part, attributable to disparities in access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Community supported agriculture can improve access to and consumption of fresh produce, but the upfront payment structure, logistical barriers, and unfamiliarity with produce items may inhibit participation by low-income families. The aim of this project is to assess the impact of subsidized, or “cost-offset,” community supported agriculture participation coupled with tailored nutrition education for low-income families with children. Methods/design The Farm Fresh Foods for Healthy Kids community-based, randomized intervention trial will build on formative and longitudinal research to examine the impact of cost-offset community supported agriculture on diet and other health behaviors as well as the economic impacts on local economies. The intervention will involve reduced-price community supported agriculture shares which can be paid for on a weekly basis, nine skill-based and seasonally-tailored healthy eating classes, and the provision of basic kitchen tools. Low income families with at least one child aged 2–12 years will be recruited to join existing community supported agriculture programs in New York, North Carolina, Vermont, and Washington. In each program, families will be randomized 1:1 to intervention or delayed intervention groups. Data will be collected at baseline, and in the fall and spring for 3 years. The primary outcomes are children’s intake of fruits and vegetables and foods high in sugar and/or (solid fat, as well as diet quality; secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental variables. Cost-effectiveness and economic impact at the farm and community levels also will be assessed. Discussion This
Polman, N.B.P.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Slangen, L.H.G.
The upcoming reform of the Common Agricultural Policy will put pressure on agricultural incomes and will cause more price volatility and income risk for farms in the EU. This raises the question if and how farms will survive these disturbances. Farms are able to survive only if they respond
Numerous studies have analysed farm planning decisions focusing on producer risk preferences. Few studies have focussed on the farm planning decisions in an integrated croplivestock farm context. Income variability and means of managing risk continues to receive much attention in farm planning research. Different risk ...
Abstract. Numerous studies have analysed farm planning decisions focusing on producer risk prefer- ences. Few studies have focussed on the farm planning decisions in an integrated crop- livestock farm context. Income variability and means of managing risk continues to re- ceive much attention in farm planning research.
Ahearn, Mary; And Others
The financial well-being of farmers varies with the local economy's dependence on farming. Farming-dependent counties (where farming contributes at least 20 percent of the county's total earnings in 1980-84), offer limited nonfarm employment opportunities. These operators earn high farm incomes but face large debts. Declining land values have…
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to define, based on a theoretical identification, the significance of production diversification in ensuring financial security of agricultural farms and a presentation of the specificity of multi-directional farms in Poland. The entities included in the research were the ones conducting agricultural activity of a mixed type: mixed cropping and mixed crops-livestock in the years 2007-2013. The analysis was carried out based on data obtained from the statistical publications of the Central Statistical Office. On the basis of an analysis of the structure and dynamics. The size of utilised agriculturally area and their use, economicsize, the type and structure of plantation as well as the species and number of farm animals were all taken into consideration in the analysis. Based on the theoretical considerations presented it is evident that production diversification plays an important role in the reduction of the agricultural activity risk, and thus it contributes to maintaining stability and thereby preserving the financial security of farms. The results of empirical research prove that those farms that diversify their production are mainly farms of small economic size, producing for their own use. Diversification acts as a safety buffer in the case of these farms. It ensures self-sufficiency in terms of consumption and fodder production as well as small income. In the case of farms with bigger UAA it ensures proper functioning and survival on the market.
Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping
How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no
Muhammad H. Al-Malack
Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.
African Review of Economics and Finance. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
... Federal income tax purposes. (iv) Any withdrawal of cash or assets from the operation of a farm, business... inheritances; capital gains; insurance payments from health, accident, hazard, or worker's compensation...
household income in Isoko land? •. Is there any significant difference in the quality of life of rural households based on non-farm activities as their main sources of income? •. What policy measures are germane in poverty reduction in the Niger-delta region of Nigeria that will enhance rural non-farm activities? Goal of the ...
Full Text Available This paper aims to assess sustainable farmlands management in the Malekan County. The target population consisted of wheat growers among which 162 farmers were selected according to the multistage cluster selection method. The research tool used was a questionnaire whose face validity was confirmed by comments from faculty members and experts in the Malekan Agri- Jihad and its reliability was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha (average 0.71. Sustainability was measured by establishing composite index for six components of sustainable land management. The results of assessing sustainable land management revealed that 19.1% of the farmers were in an unsustainable situation, 34% of them were in a fairly unsustainable situation, 26.5% of them were in a fairly sustainable situation and 20.4% of them were in a sustainable situation. The results of correlation coefficient showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between age and farming experience with “stability and acceptability”, land size and farm income with “stability, acceptability and technical knowledge”, wheat yield and consumed fertilizer with “security”, land plots with “acceptability” and using farm machinery with “productivity, stability, acceptability and technical knowledge”. There is also a negative and significant relationship between non-farm income and “productivity” and consumed fertilizers and “security”.
Calker, van K.J.; Hooch Antink, R.H.J.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Mauser, A.
Interest in the concept of sustainability in dairy farming has grown as a result of the continuous pressure on farm incomes, occurrence of animal diseases with a major impact on the image of dairy farming, concerns about animal welfare, and environmental problems caused by agriculture. There are,
Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae
This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...
The central item of this research is the impact of off-farm employment and income on farm households and agricultural production. The interaction between farm and non-farm activities, the adjustment of labor demand and supply, the performance of the labor market, and wage determination are
Full Text Available Off-farm employment is an important strategy for complementing farm household income and maintaining rural livelihoods. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to investigate the effect of farm-level and regional-level factors on off-farm employment in Cyprus during the recent economic crisis period. The performance of nonfarm sectors positively affects off-farm employment; a one-percent increase in the share of the secondary and tertiary sector employment increases the likelihood of off-farm work by 9.5 times. The importance of location was also identified. Farm households located in rural areas are 70% less likely to engage in off-farm work than households located in urban areas. The positive effect of educational attainment and the negative effect of farm training confirmed the importance of human capital characteristics on off-farm labour participation. Farm structural factors are also significant determinants of off-farm employment. A one-hectare increase in the farm size decreases the odds of off-farm labour participation by 50%. Operators of crop farming holdings are 4.2 times more likely to work off the farm than operators of livestock and mixed-farming holdings. The results reveal the importance of adopting a multilevel and integrated approach for the analysis of off-farm employment.
manage the non-farm sub-sector to ensure sustainable source of income to farming households, agricultural ... migration and the attendant urban poverty ..... Rural Non- farm Employment in India: Access, Income and Poverty Impact. National Council of. Applied Economic Research Working Paper. Series No. 81 pp. 1 – 56.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous income. 322.8 Section 322.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT.... Income from services performed by an individual on a farm which he owns or rents, or in his own...
Full Text Available Objective of this work is to investigate the structural change and economic dynamics of farms pursuing diversification and differentiation strategies in Italy. The analysis was performed on a panel of data built on the basis of information collected by the Italian FADN between 2003-2009. For the purpose of the analysis, we divided the population of commercial Italian farms into a five-fold farm typology based on size and the extent of diversification and differentiation strategies adopted by the farms. In detail, farms are defined as differentiated when they make use of a system of quality certification, while they are defined as diversified when they take up non farming activities (agritourism, social farms etc.. The findings show that conventional farms remain by far the largest category within the population of Italian commercial farms, while only 13% of the total commercial farms are classified as differentiated and/or diversified. Farms adopting product differentiation strategies are found to have an income growth path similar to that of conventional farms. Yet the category of diversified farms is the only one showing an upward trend with regard to income per worker in the observed years, while farms relying entirely on agricultural products appear to perform poorly in terms of labour productivity.
Wang, Li; Wang, Kuo-Hua; Lee, Wei-Jen
This paper presents an effective control scheme using a line-commutated high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) link with a designed rectifier current regulator (RCR) to simultaneously perform both power-fluctuation mitigation and damping improvement of four parallel-operated 80-MW offshore wind farms...... delivering generated power to a large utility grid. The proposed RCR of the HVDC link is designed by using modal control theory to contribute adequate damping to the studied four offshore wind farms under various wind speeds. A systematic analysis using a frequency-domain approach based on eigenvalue...... analysis and a time-domain scheme based on nonlinear model simulations is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. It can be concluded from the simulation results that the proposed HVDC link combined with the designed RCR can not only render adequate damping...
Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, H.
. Because the shaft system gives a soft coupling between the rotating wind turbine and the induction generator, the large-scale wind farm cannot always be reduced to one-machine equivalent and use of multi-machine equivalents will be necessary for reaching accuracy of the investigation results....... This will be in cases with irregular wind distribution over the wind farm area. The torsion mode of the shaft systems of large wind turbines is commonly in the range of 1-2 Hz and close to typical values of the electric power grid eigenfrequencies why there is a risk of oscillation between the wind turbines...... and the entire network. All these phenomena are different compared to previous experiences with modelling of conventional power plants with synchronous generators and stiff shaft systems....
Sathe, Ameya; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo
that represent long marine fetch are considered. It was observed that within a long marine fetch, the conditions in the North Sea are dominated by unstable [41% at Egmond aan Zee Offshore Wind Farm (OWEZ) and 33% at HR] and near-neutral conditions (49% at OWEZ and 47% at HR), and stable conditions (10% at OWEZ...... was not noticeable. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Heijden, van der P.G.M.; Nasr-Alla, A.; Kenawy, D.; El-Naggar, G.; Beveridge, M.
This report describes a study done in 2010 by researchers of the WorldFish Center on water use in Egyptian farms that apply aquaculture – agriculture integration. Two of the four farms that were monitored derived the main income from farming and selling fish, the two other farms were mainly
At the smallscale farmers level income poverty results from low productivity of agricultural enterprises. hence low sales of products. On the other ... In 2000/01 about 62% of households in Tanzania succumbed to income poverty. ... Keywords: On-farm research, income poverty, poverty reduction, and technology transfer
... H7 infections among visitors to a dairy farm . New England Journal of Medicine . 2002; 347:555–560. Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak at a Summer Camp – North Carolina, 2009 . Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . 2011 ... in Humans – New York, Illinois, California, and Tennessee, 2004-2005 . Morbidity ...
Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente
natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...
Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.
Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the
The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a significant component of household income. For these households, labour is the main input in both farm and off-farm activities. This study was motivated by three reasons: Firstly, there are contra...
Kuiper, Marijke H.; Meijerink, Gerdien W.; Eaton, Derek J.F.
A concentration of poor in rural areas has resulted in a research and policy focus on agricultural technologies and (poor) households impact on soil productivity. But farm households do not live of farming alone, non-farm activities play a principal role even in remote areas. With a unique household-level dataset covering seven regions in Africa and two in Asia we analyze (1) the importance of non-farm income in different geographical zones; (2) the role of geographical factors in determining...
Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices
M. S. Abubakar
Full Text Available Farm records are mostly manually kept on paper notebooks and folders where similar records are organized in one folder or spread sheet. These records are usually kept for many years therefore they becomes bulky and less organized. Consequently, it becomes difficult to search, update and tedious and time consuming to manage these records. This study was carried-out to overcome these problems associated with manual farm records keeping by developing user-friendly, easily accessible, reliable and secured software. The software was limited records keeping in crop production, livestock production, poultry production, employees, income and expenditure. The system was implemented using Java Server Faces (JSF for designing Graphical User Interface (GUI, Enterprises Java Beans (EJB for logic tier and MySQL database for storing farm records.
Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Larsen, Torben J.; Chougule, A.
The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the capability of medium fidelity modelling of wind turbine component fatigue loading, when the wind turbines are subjected to wake affected non-stationary flow fields under non-neutral atmospheric stability conditions. To accomplish this we combine...... the classical Dynamic Wake Meandering model with a fundamental conjecture stating: Atmospheric boundary layer stability affects primary wake meandering dynamics driven by large turbulent scales, whereas wake expansion in the meandering frame of reference is hardly affected. Inclusion of stability (i.e. buoyancy......) in description of both large- and small scale atmospheric boundary layer turbulence is facilitated by a generalization of the classical Mann spectral tensor, which consistently includes buoyancy effects. With non-stationary wind turbine inflow fields modelled as described above, fatigue loads are obtained using...
Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Jensen, L.E.
be quantified, albeit with relatively large uncertainty due to stochastic effects in the data. There is evidence of the ‘deep array effect’ in that wake losses in the centre of the wind farm are under-estimated by the wind farm model WAsP, although overall efficiency of the wind farm is well predicted due......Here, we quantify relationships between wind farm efficiency and wind speed, direction, turbulence and atmospheric stability using power output from the large offshore wind farm at Nysted in Denmark. Wake losses are, as expected, most strongly related to wind speed variations through the turbine...... thrust coefficient; with direction, atmospheric stability and turbulence as important second order effects. While the wind farm efficiency is highly dependent on the distribution of wind speeds and wind direction, it is shown that the impact of turbine spacing on wake losses and turbine efficiency can...
Full Text Available Precision Farming is one of the many advanced farming practices that make production more efficient by better resource management and reducing wastage. TN-IAMWARM is a world bank funded project aims to improve the farm productivity and income through better water management. The present study was carried out in Kambainallur sub basin of Dharmapuri district with 120 TN-IAMWARM beneficiaries as respondents. The result indicated that more than three fourth (76.67 % of the respondents had high level of knowledge on precision farming technologies which was made possible by the implementation of TN-IAMWARM project. The study further revealed that educational status, occupational status and exposure to agricultural messages had a positive and significant contribution to the knowledge level of the respondents at 0.01 level of probability whereas experience in precision farming and social participation had a positive and significant contribution at 0.05 level of probability.
Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge
inves- tigated for a full polar (i.e. as function of mean inflow wind direction). This investigation relates to a mean wind speed bin defined as 8m=s±1m=s. The impact of ambient turbu- lence intensity and turbine inter spacing on the production of a wind turbine operating under full wake conditions...... is investi- gated. Four different turbine inter spacings, ranging between 3.8 and 10.4 rotor diameters, are analyzed for ambient turbu- lence intensities varying between 2% and 20%. This analysis is based on full scale production data from three other wind farms Wieringermeer , Horns Rev  and Nysted [5......]. A very satisfactory agreement between experimental data and predictions is observed. This paper finally includes additionally an analysis of the production impact caused by atmospheric stability effects. For this study, atmospheric stability conditions are defined in terms of the Monin-Obukhov length...
Wu, Ka Ling; Porté-Agel, Fernando
Due to the increasing number and the growing size of wind farms, the distance among them continues to decrease. Thus, it is necessary to understand how these large finite-size wind farms and their wakes could interfere the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and adjacent wind farms. Fully-developed flow inside wind farms has been extensively studied through numerical simulations of infinite wind farms. The transportation of momentum and energy is only vertical and the advection of them is neglected in these infinite wind farms. However, less attention has been paid to examine the length of wind farms required to reach such asymptotic regime and the ABL dynamics in the leading and trailing edges of the large finite-size wind farms. Large eddy simulations are performed in this study to investigate the flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms in conventionally-neutral boundary layer with the effect of Coriolis force and free-atmosphere stratification from 1 to 5 K/km. For the large finite-size wind farms considered in the present work, when the potential temperature lapse rate is 5 K/km, the wind farms exceed the height of the ABL by two orders of magnitude for the incoming flow inside the farms to approach the fully-developed regime. An entrance fetch of approximately 40 times of the ABL height is also required for such flow adjustment. At the fully-developed flow regime of the large finite-size wind farms, the flow characteristics match those of infinite wind farms even though they have different adjustment length scales. The role of advection at the entrance and exit regions of the large finite-size wind farms is also examined. The interaction between the internal boundary layer developed above the large finite-size wind farms and the ABL under different potential temperature lapse rates are compared. It is shown that the potential temperature lapse rate plays a role in whether the flow inside the large finite-size wind farms adjusts to the fully
Full Text Available Many wind turbine generations have been installed into power systems around the world, where in recent years doubly fed induction generator (DFIG attracts a lot of attentions because of its efficiency and controllability. However, the DFIG is connected to the power system through inverters and originally does not have an ability to release the kinetic energy of the rotor or resorb the surplus power of the power system as the kinetic energy. Therefore, it has not been made clear how the DFIGs have an influence on small-signal stability in power systems. In this paper, we propose a control scheme of the DFIG and analyse its effect on the small-signal stability of the power system by eigenvalue calculations and time-domain simulations.
Morais, Duarte; Jakes, Susan; Bowen, Becky; Lelekacs, Joanna Massey
A team of economic development, local foods, and tourism specialists from North Carolina Cooperative Extension is pursuing an initiative titled Fork2Farmer. The goal is to increase visits to local farms and diversify farm income by leveraging the high visibility of well-known farm-to-table chefs who support local small farms. To do this, those…
Narcis Eduard Mitu
Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.
Given the average household land size, labour and capital of 2.236 hectares, 271.57 man-day and N15,677.30 respectively, optimal resources allocation will yield the highest annual farm income of N110,473.50. To improve the food security status of farming households in the study area, farmers should allocate their ...
The data were analysed using diverse econometric methods. Results indicated that savings at home was a very common practice among the farm-households that constituted the study sample. The level of savings was influenced positively by the size of the working members of the farm-household. Income and interest rates ...
food security status based on Dietary Energy Consumed (DEC) per Adult Equivalent (AE) per day, identifies households' food ... recommended that, farming households adopt drought resistant food crops, diversify into off-farm income generating activities .... households (MHHs) possess more resources than female-headed ...
Heterogeneous Boundary Layers through the Diurnal Cycle: Evaluation of the WRF Wind Farm Parameterization using Scanning Lidar Observations and Wind Turbine Power Measurements during a Range of Stability Conditions
Lundquist, J. K.
As wind energy deployment increases, questions arise regarding impacts on local climates and how these impacts evolve with the diurnal cycle of the boundary layer. Satellite observations suggest nocturnal increases of surface temperatures, and measurements of turbine wakes document stronger and more persistent reductions of wind speed and increases in turbulence downwind of turbines during stable conditions. Validations of mesoscale parameterizations of these effects have been constrained to idealized conditions defined by neutrally-stratified conditions and/or limited wind directions and wind speeds, or by comparison to idealized large-eddy simulations. Synthesis of conventional meteorological measurements and unconventional measurements can offer unique insights for validating models over a large heterogeneous domain. The CWEX-13 field experiment provides an extensive dataset for such validation at spatial scales on the order of 10 km in a range of atmospheric stability and wind conditions. CWEX-13 took place within a 300 MW wind farm in central Iowa during summer 2013 and featured strong diurnal cycles. The wind turbines are sited irregularly, creating a heterogenous "canopy". Three profiling lidars, numerous surface flux stations, and a scanning lidar sampled wakes from multiple turbines. Further, the wind farm owner/operator has provided access to turbine power production and wind speed measurement data for model validation, providing ~ 200 measurements of proxies that integrate the wind profile over the rotor disk, from 40 m to 120 m above the surface. Building on previous work that identified optimal physics options, grid configurations, and boundary condition data sets by comparison to lidar wind profile measurements, we execute simulations with the WRF Wind Farm Parameterization for a ten-day period featuring moderate winds and strong diurnal cycles. We evaluate simulations with different modeling choices (e.g., vertical resolution, approaches to
... ROPS Rebate Skin Cancer Screening Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm Medicine Center was established in 1981 in response to occupational health problems seen in farm patients coming to Marshfield Clinic. The center continues ...
Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente
farmers cultivating amaranth. This paper ddresses possibilities and limitations that Mexican small-scale farmers are facing to enhance sustainable livelihoods in the amaranth value chain. The study reveals that amaranth, as an alternative crop and livelihood, is perhaps one of the most complete endogenous......Though amaranth has been studied intensively for its exceptional nutritional properties, little has been reported about its capacity for fighting poverty, securing food supplies, turning migrations, or its impact on the environment and the prospect for mprovement of living conditions of those...... natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...
Nott, Sherrill B.
This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on dairy farms during 1998; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information on the trends in resource use, income and costs during the last few years.
Prof. Adipala Ekwamu
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is an economic crop in Nigeria grown in small plantations in almost every State because of the ease of cultivation and need for minimum attention. Cashew apple wastes on planta- tions and this reduces cashew farming household incomes. This study examined value addition ...
Aug 27, 1991 ... there is the need to shift attention to non-farm entrepreneurship, as income made in this sector could be .... newspapers, magazines, annual reports of some agricultural establishments, textbooks and the internet. Analytical Tools. Objectives (i and iii) were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as means, ...
Marjuki,; Zemmelink, G.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.
A survey on feeding practices was conducted with thirty-one cattle farmers belonging to three categories: households without land and no income from agricultural labour (Class 100;10 farms), households without land but deriving considerable income from agricultural labour (Class 101;10 farms), and
To be sustainable, livestock production systems not only have to meet environmental objectives, as described in EU directives, but they also have to provide adequate income to the farmer. A dairy farming system is complex with regard to nutrient flows. Results of an experimental farm and pilot farms
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average net earnings of business or farm. 700.173 Section... or farm. (a) Computing net earnings. For purposes of this subpart, the average annual net earnings of a business or farm operation is one-half of its net earnings before Federal, State and local income...
The study recommends that Extension Agents should encourage rural women to form co-operatives which will enable them obtain loans from financial firms, this will increase their investment abilities into non- farm and off- farm ventures which supplement income from farming thereby reducing poverty mostly in the study ...
Full Text Available Value addition in agriculture predominantly offers a means to increase, rejuvenate and stabilize farm income. Value addition specifically to fruits and vegetables not only enhance the shelf life of the produce but also make it available in the off- season and reduces seasonal peak production loss. As the farm women are mostly involved in post harvest operation they need to be trained in this sector. Krishi Vigyan Kendra Nayagarh in its training programme always tried to aware and educate the farm women in this value addition sector.The study reported here explored, to what extent the training programmes of value addition specifically in fruits and vegetable had been changing the farm women’s perceived knowledge ,acquisition of skills and level of adoption of value addition practices. The results exemplified the impact of value addition trainings in instilling positive orientation in terms of the magnitude of perceived knowledge, acquisition of skills and adoption levels. Moreover, the findings of the study revealed significant positive correlation between the demographic characteristics with the perceived knowledge, skill acquisition and adoption level of value addition practices of the rural women of the sampled area.
Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Hanboonsong, Yupa
, their peers and institutions play in insect farming as a livelihood strategy are even less well understood. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand. Fortynine cricket farmers participated in in-depth interviews designed to gain insight into how...... cricket farming contributes to rural livelihoods. This exploratory study investigates the following research questions: What are the characteristics of Thai cricket farmers and their farms? How do crickets contribute to the lives of rural farmers in Thailand? What role has social and human capital played...... in cricket farming communities? And what can be learned from the experience of cricket farming in Thailand? Findings suggest that cricket farming has improved the lives of many rural farmers in Thailand not only through the provision of an alternative income source, but through strengthening human and social...
Yigezu A. Yigezu
Aug 5, 2012 ... In the face of large seasonal price swings of cereal staples, resource- poor farmers with limited liquidity often sell most ... better access to land, animal power and off farm incomes was taken. Detailed household and plot ... function with a trade-off between expected income and risk. Risk is proxied by some.
Paola Ovando; Pablo Campos; Jose L. Oviedo; Alejandro Caparrós
We apply an ecosystem accounting system to estimate the total social income accrued from private and public products in a group of agroforestry farms in Andalusia (Spain). We provide bio-physical and economic indicators for two contrasting farm types, a sub-group of 15 publicly owned coniferous forests and a sub-group of 24 privately owned dehesa farms. Total social...
SALTER, RICHARD H.
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…
Vogl, C. R.; Heß, J.
During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...
Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca; Ott, Søren
The purpose of this paper is to present a power deficit analysis based on offshore wind farm measurements with respect to the atmospheric stability classification. The result is used to validate wind farm prediction models under different inflow and atmospheric stability conditions......The purpose of this paper is to present a power deficit analysis based on offshore wind farm measurements with respect to the atmospheric stability classification. The result is used to validate wind farm prediction models under different inflow and atmospheric stability conditions...
Yao, Jun; Liu, Ruikuo; Zhou, Te
This paper investigates the coordinated control strategy for a hybrid wind farm with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based and direct-driven permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based wind farms during network unbalance. The negative-sequence current output capabilities of DFIG...... to the controllable operating regions, a targets selection scheme for each control unit is proposed to improve the stability of the hybrid wind farms containing both DFIG-based and PMSG-based wind farms during network unbalance, especially to avoid DFIG-based wind farm tripping from connected power grid under severe...
Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.
Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.
Giæver Tande, John Olav
This article gives an overview of grid integration of wind farms with respect to impact on voltage quality and power system stability. The recommended procedure for assessing the impact of wind turbines on voltage quality in distribution grids is presented. The procedure uses the power quality characteristic data of wind turbines to determine the impact on slow voltage variations, flicker, voltage dips and harmonics. The detailed assessment allows for substantially more wind power in distribution grids compared with previously used rule-of-thumb guidelines. Power system stability is a concern in conjunction with large wind farms or very weak grids. Assessment requires the use of power system simulation tools, and wind farm models for inclusion in such tools are presently being developed. A fixed-speed wind turbine model is described. The model may be considered a good starting point for development of more advanced models, hereunder the concept of variable-speed wind turbines with a doubly fed induction generator is briefly explained. The use of dynamic wind farm models as part of power system simulation tools allows for detailed studies and development of innovative grid integration techniques. It is demonstrated that the use of reactive compensation may relax the short-term voltage stability limit and allow integration of significantly more wind power, and that application of automatic generation control technology may be an efficient means to circumvent thermal transmission capacity constraints. The continuous development of analysis tools and technology for cost-effective and secure grid integration is an important aid to ensure the increasing use of wind energy. A key factor for success, however, is the communication of results and gained experience, and in this regard it is hoped that this article may contribute.
Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael
The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...
Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.
Modelling approach for rain fed farm household systems in the Central Rif Valley of Ethiopia to assess the possible effects of intensification of cereal-based cropping systems to farm income, mitigation of GHG emissions and other household indicators
Full Text Available Numerous studies have analysed farm planning decisions focusing on producer risk preferences. Few studies have focussed on the farm planning decisions in an integrated croplivestock farm context. Income variability and means of managing risk continues to receive much attention in farm planning research. Different risk programming models have attempted to focus on minimising the income variability of farm activities. This study attempts to identify the optimal mix of crops and the number of animals the farm needs to keep in the presence of crop production risk for a range of risk levels. A mixed integer linear programming model was developed to model the decision environment faced by an integrated crop-livestock farmer. The deviation of income from the expected value was used as a measure of risk. A case study is presented with representative data from a farm in the Swartland area. An investigation of the results of the model under different constraints shows that, in general, strategies that depend on crop rotation principles are preferred to strategies that follow mono-crop production practices.
Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik
The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation....
Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit
The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...
Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth
in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...
Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; David T. Butry
Our article considers the economic contributions of forest ecosystem services, using a case study from Flores, Indonesia, in which forest protection in upstream watersheds stabilize soil and hydrological flows in downstream farms. We focus on the demand for a weak complement to the ecosystem services--farm labor-- and account for spatial dependence due to economic...
Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei
In large power electronic systems like a wind farm, the mutual interactions between the control systems of the power converters can lead to various stability and power quality problems. In order to predict the system dynamic behavior, this paper presents an approach to model a wind farm as a Multi......-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic system, where the current control loops with Phase-Locked Loops (PLLs) are linearized around an operating point. Each sub-module of the wind farm is modeled as a 2×2 admittance matrix in dq-domain and all are combined together by using a dq nodal admittance matrix....... The frequency and damping of the oscillatory modes are calculated by finding the poles of the introduced MIMO matrix. Time-domain simulation results obtained from a 400-MW wind farm are used to verify the effectiveness of the presented model....
This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.
This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms
Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Terzi, Ludovico; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Rodrigo, Javier Sanz
Actual performances of onshore wind farms are deeply affected both by wake interactions and terrain complexity: therefore monitoring how the efficiency varies with the wind direction is a crucial task. Polar efficiency plot is therefore a useful tool for monitoring wind farm performances. The approach deserves careful discussion for onshore wind farms, where orography and layout commonly affect performance assessment. The present work deals with three modern wind farms, owned by Sorgenia Green, located on hilly terrains with slopes from gentle to rough. Further, onshore wind farm of Nprrekffir Enge has been analysed as a reference case: its layout is similar to offshore wind farms and the efficiency is mainly driven by wakes. It is shown and justified that terrain complexity imposes a novel and more consistent way for defining polar efficiency. Dependency of efficiency on wind direction, farm layout and orography is analysed and discussed. Effects of atmospheric stability have been also investigated through MERRA reanalysis data from NASA satellites. Monin-Obukhov Length has been used to discriminate climate regimes
Peerlings, J.H.M.; Ooms, D.L.
This paper develops a non-separable household production model capable of analyzing the effects of the 2003 CAP reform, and especially EU farm payments, on individual Dutch dairy farms. Model results show that the 2003 CAP reform farm payments do not fully compensate the income loss caused by the
Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy
This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market.
Filipe de Morais Cangussu Pessoa
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the determinings of farm work allocation in Brazilian regions, based on micro data of National Household Sample Survey 2009. For that, the empirical procedure consisted in the use of two models: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Logit Model. The model Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed good fit and defined two latent variables: qualification and income. As to the Logit Model, the results showed that the fact of a man living in rural areas increases the likelihood of being allocated in farm work, however if he is white this probability decrease. Besides, the variables qualification and income have a negative relation with farm work allocation, being the Midwest region that contributed most for people being allocated in farm work.
Nott, Sherrill B.
This report is a summary of the financial and production records kept by fruit farmers enrolled in the Telfarm/MicroTel record program through Michigan State University Extension. This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on fruit farms during 1998; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information on the trends in resource use, income and costs during the last few years.
Nott, Sherrill B.
This report is a summary of the financial and production records kept by swine farmers enrolled in the Telfarm/MicroTel record program through Michigan State University Extension. This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on swine farms during 1997; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information on the trends in resource use, income and costs during the last few years.
Chenais, Erika; Sternberg-Lewerin, Susanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Liu, Lihong; LeBlanc, Neil; Aliro, Tonny; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl
In Uganda, a low-income country in east Africa, African swine fever (ASF) is endemic with yearly outbreaks. In the prevailing smallholder subsistence farming systems, farm biosecurity is largely non-existent. Outbreaks of ASF, particularly in smallholder farms, often go unreported, creating significant epidemiological knowledge gaps. The continuous circulation of ASF in smallholder settings also creates biosecurity challenges for larger farms. In this study, an on-going outbreak of ASF in an endemic area was investigated on farm level, including analyses of on-farm environmental virus contamination. The study was carried out on a medium-sized pig farm with 35 adult pigs and 103 piglets or growers at the onset of the outbreak. Within 3 months, all pigs had died or were slaughtered. The study included interviews with farm representatives as well as biological and environmental sampling. ASF was confirmed by the presence of ASF virus (ASFV) genomic material in biological (blood, serum) and environmental (soil, water, feed, manure) samples by real-time PCR. The ASFV-positive biological samples confirmed the clinical assessment and were consistent with known virus characteristics. Most environmental samples were found to be positive. Assessment of farm biosecurity, interviews, and the results from the biological and environmental samples revealed that breaches and non-compliance with biosecurity protocols most likely led to the introduction and within-farm spread of the virus. The information derived from this study provides valuable insight regarding the implementation of biosecurity measures, particularly in endemic areas.
Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.
Transaction costs and other market failures are widely present in the agricultural sector of emerging economies and negatively affect to low-income smallholders, making difficult their integration into dynamic agri-food supply chains. Earlier literature mentions contract farming as an economic institution with the potential to incorporate smallholders into more advanced markets and strength supply chain integration. However, the application of contract farming in some countries of Latin Ameri...
Zubia, I.; Ostolaza, X.; Susperregui, A.; Tapia, G.
This paper presents a modelling methodology to analyse the impact of wind farms in surrounding networks. Based on the transient modelling of the asynchronous generator, the multi-machine model of a wind farm composed of N generators is developed. The model incorporates step-up power transformers, distribution lines and surrounding loads up to their connection to the power network. This model allows the simulation of symmetric and asymmetric short-circuits located in the distribution network and the analysis of transient stability of wind farms. It can be also used to study the islanding operation of wind farms
Full Text Available The research aimed to analyze livelihoods, household income and indigenous technology in South Sumatra wetlands. The research method used field survey and interviews with respondents by using questionnaires. Respondents were determined with stratified random sampling method. The research data are classified into two parts, i.e. primary data and secondary data. The research showed that three main farmer’s groups settling in wetlands are spontaneous migration (Buginese and Banjarnese, new comers (transmigration and indigenous people (local people from South Sumatra. All these tribes running the different farming systems, new comers and indigenous farmers implement farms with rice monoculture, while spontaneous migration applied multi commodities. The average land ownership of farm households is 1.95 ha which is intended for rice fields (0.94 ha, estate (0.85 ha, and livestock and fisheries (0.16 ha. Indigenous farmers have the minimum land (0.75 ha, however the spontaneous migration has the largest lands (3.10 ha. The larger the land ownership by farmers, thus the farmer’s income will increase if the land is cultivated by farmers. Household income structure of farmers is dominated by food crop farming and this has led to the vulnerability of farmer’s income due to the uncertainty of agricultural activities. The more varied sources of farmer’s income, the income of farmers will increase also. The learning process of spontaneous migration indicates that the farm should follow the nature, so the coercion of nature means to increase operational costs of farming.
Li, Xin; Paulson, Nicholas
Farm management skills can affect farm managers' performance. In this article, farm management performance is analyzed based on yearly Illinois Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) panel data across 6,760 farms from 1996 through 2011. Two out-of-sample measures of skill are used to analyze the ability of farm managers that consistently perform well over yearly and longer time horizons. Persistence tests show management skills are consistent and predictable. Results also suggest that the most ...
Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Fuglsang, Peter; Larsen, Gunner Chr.
A wind farm layout optimization framework based on a multi-fidelity optimization approach is applied to the offshore test case of Middelgrunden, Denmark as well as to the onshore test case of Stag Holt – Coldham wind farm, UK. While aesthetic considerations have heavily influenced the famous curved...... design of the Middelgrunden wind farm, this work focuses on demonstrating a method that optimizes the profit of wind farms over their lifetime based on a balance of the energy production income, the electrical grid costs, the foundations cost, and the cost of wake turbulence induced fatigue degradation...... a simple stationary wind farm wake model to estimate the Annual Energy Production (AEP), a foundations cost model depending on the water depth and an electrical grid cost function dictated by cable length. The second level calculates the AEP and adds a wake-induced fatigue degradation cost function...
Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H
During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of specialised dairy farming among the EU regions. In the most of European regions, there is a relatively high significance of small specialised farms including dairy farms. The DEAVRS method (data envelopment analysis with variable returns to scale reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test determines differences of economic and structural indicators between efficient and inefficient regions. The research reveals that substitution of labour by capital/contract work explains the variability of the farm net value added per AWU (annual work unit income indicator by more than 30%. The significant economic determinants of production efficiency in specialised dairy farming are farm size, herd size, crop output per hectare, productivity of energy, and capital (at α=0.01. Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have significantly higher farm net value added per AWU than inefficient regions. Agricultural enterprises in inefficient regions have a more extensive structure and produce more noncommodity output (public goods. Specialised dairy farms in efficient regions have a slightly higher milk yield, specific livestock costs of feed, bedding, and veterinary services per livestock unit.
The incidence of poverty, poverty gap and the severity of poverty for the nine agro-climatic zones of the country (rice/wheat Punjab, mixed Punjab, cotton/wheat Punjab, low intensity Punjab, Barani Punjab, cotton/wheat Sindh, rice other Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan) were calculated for farming and non-farming households. The indices of poverty were also measured for households that only did farming, undertook farming and non-farm activities and those that did no farming in the various agro-climatic zones. Finally, incidence and severity of poverty as well as the spread of income among the poor for non-farm wage earners, farm wage earners, non-farm self-employed and the crop cultivators in the nine agro-climatic zones of rural Pakistan was also carried out. The relationship between incidence of poverty and non-farm activities is ambivalent with non-farm households being better off in regions that are less fertile. The incidence of poverty was highest amongst farm wage workers, followed by non-farm wage workers, non-farm self-employed and lastly crop cultivators. (author)
By optimum allocation of the water to the farms with different areas and crop types, and considering the deficit irrigation method, the general income of the entire area can be improved substantially.
Dechow, C D
The objectives of this study are to describe dairy farm demographic and socioeconomic conditions in the top 100 counties in the United States for dairy sales in 2007, and to describe the association of dairy farm demographics with socioeconomic conditions. The top 100 counties were responsible for 56% of all US dairy sales in 2007 with a median growth rate of 78% compared with 1997. Counties varied widely for farm demographics with as few as 5 very large dairy farms that averaged $17,924,000 in dairy sales per farm to as many as 1,730 dairy farms with less than $250,000 in dairy sales per farm. Most of the top 100 dairy counties had higher illiteracy rates, a higher proportion of residents without a high school degree, and lower median incomes than state averages, but unemployment rates were similar to the state average. The socioeconomic measures were from public records and not collected specifically for this research. Nevertheless, the top dairy counties in the western states tended to have poorer socioeconomic conditions than the top dairy counties in other regions, and significant associations were observed between dairy farm demographics and socioeconomic conditions. Having many dairy farms was associated more favorably with county socioeconomic conditions than having high dairy sales. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Domínguez García, José Luís; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol; Bianchi, Fernando Daniel; Sumper, Andreas
The paper presents a small signal stability analysis for power systems with wind farm interaction. Power systems have damping oscillation modes that can be excited by disturbance or fault in the grid. The power converters of the wind farms can be used to reduce these oscillations and make the system more stable. These ideas are explored to design a power system stabilized (PSS) for a network with conventional generators and a wind farm in order to increase the damping of the oscillation...
Full Text Available The study was conducted in two districts of Bangladesh to determine the factors affecting the participation in off-farm activity. A total of 150 sample farmers were selected for interview through random sampling technique. The results showed that the average annual income was higher for service holders (Tk.1,83,696 compared to business (Tk. 1,69,215 and off-farm labour activities (Tk.1,09,373. Participations in activities like business and services were positively influenced by the farm size and education respectively. On the other hand, farm size and education were inversely related with participation in off-farm labour activities. Farmers in the study areas mentioned low income from agriculture as a reason for participating in off-farm activity.
Morris, Michael C
The link between nonhuman animal welfare, income, and income inequality (Gini coefficient) was tested using consumption of animal products, laws protecting animals on the farm from the worst abuses, and animals used in experimentation as indicators. Experimentation on all animals and on rodents significantly increased in high-income European countries, although there was some evidence that the increase in experimentation on cats and dogs started to flatten out for the highest income countries. Consumption of all flesh products in high-income countries declined in more equal societies. More equal high-income countries also had stricter regulations protecting animals, although the same correlation was not seen between U.S. states. In New Zealand, there was some evidence that testing on cats and dogs declined during years when equality was improving. The results provide little evidence for a Kuznets effect of income on animal welfare, with the possible exception of companion animal treatment. They do, however, suggest that greater equality can be a predictor for better treatment of animals. Previous research has strongly suggested that social conditions for humans improve with greater equality. The same may be true for nonhuman animals. Alternatively, conditions conducive to improving human income equality may also lead to better animal welfare outcomes.
Middelaar, van C.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.
The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the
Materials and methods. Sixty small-scale cattle farming households were selected for this study out of a total of 120 .... Income from non-farm sources enables these farmers to meet the cost of hired labour. In operating at a loss, ... Range Management Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Maseru, Lesotho. Meissner, H.H., 1982.
The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a
Joerger, Richard M.
A survey of farmers in the Minnesota Farm Business Management Education program (n=569) indicated the following: most continued enrollment beyond the 6-year diploma program; average net income increased $5,000; individualized instruction was the most popular and effective method; and farm recordkeeping was the most needed topic and most improved…
Access to farm inputs is difficult for most small farmers across sub-Saharan Africa. The region has poorly developed distribution and retail networks. Quality control is weak. This project aims to increase the productivity, food security, and incomes of smallholder farming households in Kenya. Serving farmers at the retail level ...
Ruis, M.A.W.; Pinxterhuis, J.B.; Vrolijk, M.
Organic farming intends to farm in a socially responsible manner, with attention for, among others, environment, climate, nature and landscape, food quality, income and animal welfare. This report focuses on animal welfare, as one of the sustainability themes. The existing knowledge about the
The paper evaluates the impact of the health status of farm households with respect to HIV/AIDS on their cropping patterns, incomes and technical efficiencies in Benue State of Nigeria. Primary data was collected from 155 farm households made up of 55 HIV/AIDS and related sicknesses infected households and 100 non- ...
The income contribution of child work is undoubtedly a key factor influencing child work and schooling decisions. Yet, few studies have attempted to directly measure this contribution. This is particularly the case for work performed on the household farm, as is the case for the vast majority of child workers, rather than for wages. In this study, we estimate a household income function with child labour included as an input. Results using a variety of functional forms and alternative child l...
Benni, El Nadja; Finger, Robert; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.
We extend the existing literature on the income stabilisation tool (IST) by investigating the influence of farm and farmers' characteristics on potential indemnification applying double-hurdle models on a rich panel data set on Swiss farms. We find more likely and higher indemnifications for
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of payments and income recognition on nonaccrual loans. 621.8 Section 621.8 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT... established that reasonably demonstrates future repayment capacity. (c) The institution shall employ the...
Nott, Sherrill B.; Hampton, Jonathon C.
This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on dairy farms during 1998; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information on the trends in resource use, income and costs during the last few years.
82%). The results further showed that variable costs were the most important costs accounting for 88.41% of the total cost and the net farm income per respondent was N48, 745.58 per annum. The linear regression result revealed that cost of ...
ABSTRACT. Yam is an important tuber crop in Nigeria. However, its availability is affected by rate of deterioration arising from poor postharvest handling. Hence, farmers use various techniques to minimize the loss. Therefore, this study examined the effect of the usage of various yam storage techniques on farm income in ...
It also showed that adoption of risk management techniques, marketing strategies, souring of microcredit and improving information sources simultaneously, ensured higher income. Recommendations include encouraging farmers to adopt the most profitable farming systems and informal insurance measures as well as ...
of 10-50 birds. The major source of investment capital of the enterprise was personal savings (82%). The results further showed that variable costs were the most important costs accounting for 88.41% of the total cost and the net farm income per respondent was N48, 745.58 per annum. The linear regression result revealed ...
Transaction costs and other market failures are widely present in the agricultural sector of emerging economies and negatively affect to low-income smallholders, making difficult their integration into dynamic agri-food supply chains. Earlier literature mentions contract farming as an economic
Dec 20, 2010 ... Quito's Farms Produce Food, Enterprise, and Hope The urban agriculture program the municipality of Quito first designed to ensure food security is now ... The gardeners on Itchimbía are fast exploring income generating options, encouraged by their first tomato harvest, which sold extremely well and at a ...
Recent years have witnessed numerous Government efforts to boost agricultural production in Nigeria. A key input to achieve this is credit. In the face of formal credit acquisition bottlenecks, there is the need to shift attention to non-farm entrepreneurship, as income made in this sector could be invested in agriculture.
Ashfaq, M.; Hassan, S.; Naseer, M.Z.; Baig, I.A.; Asma, J.
The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...
Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF
The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...
Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Rathmann, Ole
It was the goal of the project – by means of data from the demonstration wind farms Horns Rev and Nysted, analyses of these data and modelling – to facilitate prediction of the power losses from a wind farm should a new wind farm be built upwind relative to the prevailing wind direction......: • Measurements were carried out at the Nysted and Horns Rev demonstration wind farms for several years. Doing so included design, installation and operation of the measurement system • A data base was built from the incoming data. The data have been organized to facilitate verification of the models developed....... Or conversely, predict with adequate accuracy the production of a new wind farm built downwind of an existing wind farm. The project should be seen in the perspective of the two existing demonstration wind farms that extend 5-10 km in each direction. In order to e.g. use the existing electrical infrastructure...
Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, A.D.
Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...... are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...
Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca Daniela
Nowadays, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly-fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...... are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...
Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sorensen, Poul
Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmISSIon system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly-fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...... are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...
Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.
We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does earned income include? 20.308 Section 20.308 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND..., the sale of farm crops, livestock, or professional artists producing art work); and (b) With regard to...
Efforts to fight against the problem included farming, livestock and beekeeping with less success to get income to live on. The constraints to their success included disability, social exclusion, and lack of education. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should provide social welfare services, evaluate the options ...
It was found that 86.7% of respondents undertake subsistence farming. Illegal harvesting of forest products from RNFR is not uncommon. On average, people in Miswe use more firewood followed by Msangani, Kiromo and Mwendapole hamlets. Income realized from domestic IGAs ranged from TZS 170,000 to 262,000 per ...
Increasing rural household income is a primary objective for achieving many development goals, including reducing poverty, hunger, and food insecurity. Despite worries such as, intensive cultivation, bigger farms, deforestation, and less area for growing food, the production of biofuels (i.e from maize, cassava, Jatropha or ...
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.
This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…
Atkinson, Tony B.; Søgaard, Jakob Egholt
We use historical publications and micro data from the tax returns to construct internationally comparable estimates of the development in income inequality in Denmark over the last 140 years. The study shows that income inequality and top income shares have declined during several distinct phases...... in between periods of stability. Furthermore the quality of the Danish data allows us to analyse not only the development in top income shares but also broader inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient. These analyses show that top income shares are a good proxy for the underlying development...
Marais, S; Kritzinger, A
An exploratory and descriptive study to obtain basic data on the extent, nature, sources and severity of injuries sustained on fruit farms was conducted. The possibility of utilizing lay health workers (LHWs) on farms to document routine information on injuries was also investigated. Descriptive information of all injuries occurring on selected farms, both occupational and other, needing some form of treatment, were documented over a one-year period from June 1999 to May 2000. A purposive non-probability sampling method was used. Forty-eight fruit farms with a history of trained LHWs were purposefully selected. Injuries were documented using a one-page questionnaire. A total of 500 injuries were recorded, giving an average of 10.4 injuries per farm per year. Half of these injuries were work-related. Workers aged 20-39 were most at risk. Injuries sustained were related to routine activities of fruit farming, occurred mostly in the orchards and involved cuts, bruises and abrasions to the hands, including the fingers, and the eyes. Most of the non-work related injuries occurred in and around the home. A third of these injuries were sustained by persons injuries were violence- and alcohol related. Most of the injuries required basic primary health care that could be managed by the LHW. Injury severity caused people to take time off for one third of the cases. A relatively high occupational injury rate in comparison to high-income countries. Occupational Health and Safety legislation needs to be institutionalized and adhered to. Alcohol and violence on farms is a serious public health problem. LHWs could potentially play an important role in documenting injury data.
Sørensen, Peter Birch
This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...
Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.
New, Michael B; Tacon, Albert G. J; Csavas, I
.... Five other working papers are on economics, the selection of equipment, feed ingredients, formulation and on-farm management and supplementary feeding in semi-intensive aquaculture, all directed...
Cerdà, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Di Prima, Simone; Brevik, Erik; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Tarolli, Paolo
Soil erosion, land degradation, lack of organic matter, erodible soils, rock outcrops… are a consequence of the human abuse and misuse of the soil resources. And this is a worldwide environmental issue (Novara et al., 2011; Vanlauwe et al., 2015; Musinguzi et al., 2015; Pereira et al., 2015; Mwagno et al., 2016). Agriculture terraces are a strategy to reduce the soil erosion, improve the soil fertility and allow the ploughing (Cerdà et al., 2010; Li et al., 2014). Although this idea is well accepted there are few scientific evidences that demonstrate that soils in the terraced areas are more stable, fertile and sustainable that the soil in non terraced areas. In fact, the ploughing in comparison to the abandoned or not ploughed land results in the soil degradation (Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Gao et al., 2015; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2014). This is mainly due to the lack of vegetation that increase the surface runoff (Cerdà et al., 1998; Keesstra et al., 2007). And why is necessary to develop also in terraced landscapes soil erosion control strategies (Mekonnen et al., 2015a; Mekonnen et al., 2015b; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Our objective was to assess the soil organic matter content (Walkley and Black, 1934), the soil bulk density (ring method), the aggregate stabilility (drop impact) and the water repellency (Water Drop Penetration Time test) in four study sites in the Sierra de Enguera. Two sites were terraced: one abandoned 40 years before the measurements and the other still active with olive crops. And two control sites non-terraced. We used the paired plot strategy to compare the impact of terracing and abandonment. At each site we collected randomly 50 soil samples at 0-2 cm, 4-6 and 8-10 cm depth. At each sampling point 100 WDPT measurements where carried out, and one sample for the bulk density, and one for the organic matter, and one for the soil aggregate stability were collected. The soil surface samples shown the largest differences. The
Shideler, James H.
Explores the family farm as an economic institution and cultural symbol in U.S. history. Explains how farms worked as economic units. Contrasts the idyllic family farm against realities of business failures and family problems. Examines the family farm's role in shaping the U.S. character and asks what its essential demise will mean. (CH)
... or rent in lieu of wages; (2) Receipts from self-employment or from a farm or business after... household; (4) Government employee pensions, private pensions, and regular insurance or annuity payments; and (5) Income from dividends, interest, net rents, royalties, or income from estates and trusts. (b...
... or rent in lieu of wages; (2) Receipts from self-employment or from a farm or business after... household; (4) Government employee pensions, private pensions, and regular insurance or annuity payments; and (5) Income from dividends, interest, net rents, royalties, or income from estates and trusts. (b...
Mboganie-Mwangi, A.; Foeken, D.W.J.
This article considers the extent to which farming activities undertaken by low-income dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, play a role in the food security and nutritional status of the households involved. It compares three low-income groups - two in Korogocho, viz. those who practise urban agriculture and
Kousa, T.; Heinonen, M.; Suoniitty, T.; Peltonen, K.
Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently be...
Seaweed farming is the top foreign exchange earner for the Philippines. Kappaphycus constitutes 80% of the Philippine seaweed export. It is sold in both fresh and dried forms; although dried seaweed has a greater demand, fresh seaweed is highly prices in restaurants. The 3 main seaweed products marketed are agar, alginate and carrageenan. A brief outline is given of farming operations and investment costs and returns.
Full Text Available Data Farming is a process that has been developed to support decision-makers by answering questions that are not currently addressed. Data farming uses an inter-disciplinary approach that includes modeling and simulation, high performance computing, and statistical analysis to examine questions of interest with a large number of alternatives. Data farming allows for the examination of uncertain events with numerous possible outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that both overall and unexpected results may be captured and examined for insights. Harnessing the power of data farming to apply it to our questions is essential to providing support not currently available to decision-makers. This support is critically needed in answering questions inherent in the scenarios we expect to confront in the future as the challenges our forces face become more complex and uncertain. This article was created on the basis of work conducted by Task Group MSG-088 “Data Farming in Support of NATO”, which is being applied in MSG-124 “Developing Actionable Data Farming Decision Support for NATO” of the Science and Technology Organization, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (STO NATO.
Arkesteijn, L.; Havinga, R.; Benner, J.H.B.
The siting of wind farms is becoming an increasingly important issue in the Netherlands. This paper gives an overview of the current situation concerning the planning of wind farms. We will pay attention to: Wind energy in official Dutch planning policy. To select the optimal sites, the government has made an administrative agreement with the 7 windy provinces. Nevertheless, wind energy is still fighting for a rightful position in physical planning policy. Some examples will illustrate this. Studies on siting and siting problems in the Netherlands. In order to gain more insight into aspects of wind farming several studies have been executed. In this paper special attention will be paid to the results of a study on the potential impact of large windturbine clusters on an existing agricutural area. Experiences with siting of wind farms in the Netherlands. Based on experiences with the planning and realization of farms, this paper gives the main problems. In the final part of the paper we present some general conclusions. Generally speaking, the knowledge is available for selecting optimal sites in the Netherlands. The basic problems for wind farming nowadays seem to be the visual impact and actually obtaining the ground. Nevertheless, there do seem to be enough sites for realizing the goals in the Netherlands. (au)
Elkhalil Elnour Briema Ahmed
Full Text Available This study was designed to test and identify the impact of improved seeds on small farmers' productivity, income and livelihood in Bara locality. Sixty households participants were randomly selected through a field survey during 2011 for 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons. The study applied Multi-stage random sample technique. Based on existing farm situation and price level, the sampled farmers were obtained SDG 8604 as gross margin to cover all expenses. Results of this study also depicted that the required net income and off-farm income were 16293 and 11378 SDG, respectively. With respect to Linear Programming (LP results, a total of SDG 8890 were obtained and all crops were entered and solved. The optimal plan and existing farm situation were changed by 3.3 and 5.6% for gross margin and cash income, respectively. Results of LP also indicated a positive change in production patterns of resource use; 3.3, 6.2, 3.5, 3.3 and 9.1% for land, cash income, labour, seeds supply and productivity, respectively under existing and optimal plan. Partial crop budgeting revealed that, all treatments were financially gave positive returns. Dominance analysis showed that cowpea ainelgazal, okra, roselle and sesame herhri crops were dominated by crops of millet ashana, watermelon, groundnut and guar, respectively. Marginal analysis exposed that, for every SDG 1.00 invested in improved seeds cultivation, farmer can expect to cover the SDG 1.00 and obtain an additional SDG 1.345; then, additional seed rate implies a further marginal rate of SDG 43.9. Sensitivity analysis for cost over run and benefit reduction by 10% indicated highly stability with MRR of 1.22, 3.991 and 1.21 and 3.951% for watermelon and guar, respectively. The productivity of improved seeds compared to local ones was increased in some varieties and decreased among others. This study reached to some recommendations for improving crop productivity, production and livelihood of
Full Text Available Aim: Cows on smallholder dairy farms (SDF in developing countries such as Kenya typically produce volumes of milk that are well below their genetic potential. An epidemiological study was conducted to determine reasons for this low milk production, including limited use of best management practices, such as suboptimal nutritional management. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study of 111 SDF was performed in Nyeri County, Kenya in June of 2013 determining the effect of cow factors, farmer demographics and farm management practices on the volume of milk sold per cow per year (kg milk sold/cow. In particular, the effect of feeding high protein fodder trees and other nutritional management practices were examined. Results: Approximately 38% of farmers fed fodder trees, but such feeding was not associated with volume of milk sold per cow, likely due to the low number of fodder trees per farm. Volume of milk sold per cow was positively associated with feeding dairy meal during the month prior to calving, feeding purchased hay during the past year, deworming cows every 4 or more months (as opposed to more regularly, and having dairy farming as the main source of family income. Volume of milk sold per cow was negatively associated with a household size of >5 people and feeding Napier grass at >2 meters in height during the dry season. An interaction between gender of the principal farmer and feed shortages was noted; volume of milk sold per cow was lower when female farmers experienced feed shortages whereas milk sold per cow was unaffected when male farmers experienced feed shortages. Conclusions: These demographic and management risk factors should be considered by smallholder dairy farmers and their advisors when developing strategies to improve income from milk sales and animal-source food availability for the farming families.
Organic sheep and goat farming is on the rise in Germany and the EU. Many consumers see organic farms as an example of the "intact world" of farming and rural living. Agrienvironmental schemes support conversion from conventional towards organic farming. Only few know how difficult organic sheep and goat farming is from animal welfare, ecological and economic perspective. Newcomers particularly overestimate the production and marketing potential of the field, and underestimate the associated ...
L. V. Demina
Full Text Available Tax on income of physical persons according to the method of establishing refers to federal taxes, however, is the establishment of a regional peculiarities. Currently, in accordance with the distribution of taxes between the budgets of the order, the share of this tax in the regional budgets is directly dependent on the level and income level received by the population, to carry on activity in a particular area of the country. The article discusses the possibility of impact on the taxation of income of different categories of individuals from the regions. Since the tax on personal income has expressed toms-social orientation, in the Tax Code of the Russian Federation provided for the regions eligible for the establishment of a number of benefits for certain categories of taxpayers. This article describes the possible impact on the taxation of income of different categories of individuals from the regions by establishing incentives. The issues of granting tariff preferences income owners of private farms on the example of the Moscow region. An important social task of the state related to the support of family and birth rate increase, which is be implemented in the Russian Federation in the framework of the tax on personal income, is exemption from personal income tax funds regional maternal (family capital. The regional legislation can be traced virtually the same position on the determination of the number of children in the case of birth (adoption of which the inhabitants of the region there is a right to additional measures of state support and tax benefits. The data on the size of the analysis of the results of the regional maternity capital and the terms of its provision. We describe the benefits that the regions were able to provide 2016 individuals - payers of personal income tax on income from the sale of real estate. We consider the benefits that are currently install or may be establish by laws of subjects of federation in the
Carmen Diana Deere; Rosa Luz Durán; Merrilee Mardon; Tom Masterson
This paper explores the determinants of female land rights and their impact on household income levels among owner-operated farms in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. Previous studies in Latin America suggest that the gender of the household head is not a significant predictor of household income, not unsurprising given the ambiguities with which self-declared headship is associated. We hypothesize that female land rights, by increasing women's options, are a positive determinant of household income...
Kumilachew Alamerie Melesse
Full Text Available Irrigation development has been considered as one of the viable strategies for achieving food security. Accordingly, the government of Ethiopia has been increasing water resource development and utilization. However, to what extent the irrigation users are better off than rainfall dependent counterparts on their technical effi ciency (TE and variability in productivity among the farmers is not well known. Therefore, this study compared the technical effi ciency of farmers who are producing potato under irrigation and through rainfall in Eastern Ethiopia. Propensity Score Matching was applied to select irrigated farms with comparable attributes to rain-fed farms to see the true effi ciency diff erences between the two groups. Cobb-Douglas production function was fi tted using the stochastic production frontier for both irrigated and rain fed farming. The result indicated that irrigated farms have high ineffi ciencies compared with the rain-fed farms. This indicates the existence of considerable potential for increasing output by improving the effi ciency of irrigated farms than rain-fed farms. Among the factors hypothesized to determine the level of TE, landholding, family size and extension contact were found to have a signifi cant eff ect on irrigated farms whereas, landholding, non/off income, farm income, livestock size and extension contact were the determinants in rain-fed farms. This indicates that factors that aff ect technical effi - ciency in irrigated farms are not necessarily the same as rain fed farms. Therefore, it is important to consider both farms groups in evaluating strategies aimed at improving technical effi ciency of smallholder farmers
McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B
A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science
Othman, N.; Mohamad, M.; Latip, R. A.; Ariffin, M. H.
In Malaysia, urban farming is viewed as a catalyst towards achieving the well-being of urban dwellers and natural environment. Urban farming is a strategy for Malaysia’s food and economic security, and as one of the foci in the agriculture transformation whereby urban dwellers are encouraged to participate in this activity. Previous study proved that urban farming can help to address social problems of food security, urban poverty and high living cost, also provides leisure and recreation among urban dwellers. Thus, this study investigates the best urban farming practices suitable for urban setting, environment and culture of urban dwellers. Data collection was done via questionnaire survey to urban farmers of a selected community garden in Subang Jaya, Selangor. Meanwhile, on-site observations were carried out on gardening activities and the gardens’ physical attributes. The study sample encompasses of 131 urban farmers of 22 community gardens in Subang Jaya. It was found that most of the community gardens practiced crops planting on the ground or soil base planting and dwellers in the lower income group with monthly low household income constitutes the majority (83.2%) of the respondents. Social and health benefits are the highest motivating factors for urban farmers. This study provides unprecedented insights on urban farming practices and motivations in a Malaysian setting.
Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara; Baert, Stijn
Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income.
Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland
We find that cognitive abilities, educational attainment, and some personality traits indirectly affect ideological preferences through changes in income. The effects of changes in personality traits on ideology directly and indirectly through income are in the same direction. However, the indirect...... effects are in some cases sizeable relative to direct effects. The indirect effects of cognitive abilities through income overwhelm the direct effects such that increasing IQ increases rightwing preferences. For ideological preferences over economic policy the indirect effects of advanced education also...
Full Text Available We contribute to the entrepreneurial intentions literature by applying the theory of planned behaviour and resource-based views to the model of active entrepreneurs’ intention to develop their pluriactive usinesses. Using our 2012 survey data from farm firms in Finland, we address the limited focus on active ntrepreneurs and their intentions to develop on-going income-generating, off-farm related business activities. We found that attitudinal proxy antecedents such as innovation, cooperation and growth for pluriactivity differ for active and non-active entrepreneurs and with respect to the entrepreneurs’ age and production line and innovation behaviour.
Hoppe, Robert A.; Banker, David E.; Korb, Penelope J.; O'Donoghue, Erik J.; MacDonald, James M.
American farms encompass a wide range of sizes, ownership structures, and business types, but most farms are still family farms. Family farms account for 98 percent of farms and 85 percent of production. Although most farms are small and own most of the farmland, production has shifted to very large farms. Farms with sales of $1 million or more make up less than 2 percent of all farms, but they account for 48 percent of farm product sales. Most of these million-dollar farms are family farms. ...
Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted
of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly......, it provides a theory of functional differentiation and structural couplings that opens up for a new approach to look at sustainability by way of decoupling, recoupling and new forms of coupling.......In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...
Balafoutis, Athanasios T.; Beck, Bert; Tsiropoulos, Zisis
Precision Agriculture is a cyclic optimization process where data have to be collected from the field, analysed and evaluated and finally used for decision making for site-specific management of the field. Smart farming technologies (SFT ) cover all these aspects of precision agriculture and can...... comprise the delineation of management zones, decision support systems and farm management information system s. Finally, precision application technologies embrace variable-rate application technologies, precision irrigation and weeding and machine guidance. In this chapter, the reader can find...... a technical description of the technologies included in each category accompanied by a taxonomy of all SFT in terms of farming system type, cropping system, availability, level of investment and farmers’ motives to adopt them. Finally, the economic impact that each SFT has compared to conventional...
Jongeneel, R.A.; Polman, N.B.P.; Slangen, L.H.G.
Although the family farm remains the dominant organisational form for farms there are changes in the legal mode of organisation. Applying the new institutional economics and economic organisation theory the different organisation modes are explained, mainly in terms of control and income rights.
Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong
To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies
Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick
together to investigate the atmospheric conditions at the time of the photos by analysing local meteorological observations and wind turbine information, satellite remote sensing and nearby radiosonde data. Two wake models and one mesoscale model were used to model the case and explain what was seen.......On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...
Kledal, Paul Rye
The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...... is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...
The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.
Argyll and Bute District Council, having received a number of planning applications for the erection of wind farms, seeks, in this document, to set out its environmental policy on these installations in line with national government guidelines and those from Strathclyde Regional Council. District Council policy on thirteen environmental issues connected with wind farm construction is set out, covering issues such as environmental impacts on wild-life, noise pollution, access for construction, maintenance and decommissioning vehicles as well as planning consent issues. Recommendations are made to four interested bodies, Strathclyde Regional Council, the Forestry Authority and Scottish Natural Heritage and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. (UK)
Full Text Available In Japan, greenhouse gas emissions from rice production, especially CH4 emissions in rice paddy fields, are the primary contributors to global warming from agriculture. When prolonged midseason drainage for mitigating CH4 emissions from rice paddy fields is practiced with environmentally friendly rice production based on reduced use of synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers, Japanese rice farmers can receive an agri-environmental direct payment. This paper examines the economic and environmental effects of the agri-environmental direct payment on the adoption of a measure to mitigate global warming in Japanese rice farms using a combined application of linear programming and life cycle assessment at the farm scale. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as net farm income divided by global warming potential, is used as an integrated indicator for assessing the economic and environmental feasibilities. The results show that under the current direct payment level, the prolonged midseason drainage technique does not improve the eco-efficiency of Japanese rice farms because the practice of this technique in environmentally friendly rice production causes large economic disadvantages in exchange for small environmental advantages. The direct payment rates for agri-environmental measures should be determined based on the condition that environmentally friendly agricultural practices improve eco-efficiency compared with conventional agriculture.
Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke
During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...
J. Tinbergen (Jan)
textabstractSince the phrase income distribution covers a large number of different concepts, it is necessary to define these and to indicate the choice made in this article. Income for a given recipient may cover lists of items which are not always the same. Apart from popular misunderstandings
between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...
F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)
textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems
Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn
to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....
The main objective of this paper is to review the progress that has been made in South Africa with respect to whole-farm economic modelling over the past 2 decades. Farming systems are complex and careful consideration to the stochastic dynamic nature of irrigation farming processes and their linkages with the larger ...
The Russian agricultural sector has experienced many problems since the beginning of the 1990s that resulted in a fall in farm output. Employing a production function approach and, unlike other studies, farm-level data on more than 20,000 Russian large-scale farms for the period 1995-2000, this
Sammartino, Frank J.
This report identifies overall tax burdens faced by low income families, explaining how those burdens would change if certain types of federal income tax cuts were enacted. Using detailed household-level data on incomes and taxes, the report shows how federal income and payroll taxes differ for low income families and how these families benefit…
The Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook (this document) provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture.
Tran Quang Tuyen
Full Text Available This paper investigates both commune and household determinants of household income among ethnic minorities in the North-West Mountains – the poorest region of Vietnam. The findings show that the vast majority of the sample households heavily depend on agricultural activities. Factors affecting household income per capita are examined using multiple regression models and the findings confirm the important role of education, non-farm employment and fixed assets in improving household income. In addition, some commune variables such as the presence of the means of transportation, post offices and non-farm job opportunities are found to have an increasing impact on household income. The findings suggest that policies for poverty reduction should aim at both commune and household levels. Policies that focus on improving the access of ethnic minorities to education and non-farm employment are expected to be effective ways of enhancing their income.
Full Text Available The study revealed that majority (45.83% of the Farm women had medium training need and 30.83 per cent of them had high training need in case of homestead vegetable production. In term of training need in nursery establishment, about 45.00 per cent of the Farm women fell under medium training need category while 35.00 per cent of them fell under high training need category. As regards to their training needs in livestock & poultry rearing, the majority (49.17% of the Farm women had high training needs compared to 35.00 per cent of them having medium training needs. A big share (40.83% of the Farm women had high training needs in food processing, while 33.33 per cent of them had medium training needs. Farmers’ education, farm size, annual income, organizational participation and agricultural knowledge showed negative significant correlation, while fatalism had significant positive association with the training needs. The major problems faced by the Farm women in carrying out their EDPs were: lack of capital/credit, lack of irrigation water, lack of land, lack of knowledge about insect/disease control, marketing & communication facilities and attack of birds/animals, etc.
Lee, Barbara C; Salzwedel, Marsha A; Chyou, Po-Huang; Liebman, Amy K
The goal of this project was to protect children while parents work in agriculture by improving off-farm services for children of migrant and seasonal farm workers. Large agricultural enterprises have policies forbidding children in the worksite. At the same time, their employees, who are trying to generate income, seek as many work hours as possible but often lack viable options for childcare services. As employers strive to increase their labor pool, and workers seek off-farm childcare, there is mutual interest in improving access to childcare services in agricultural regions dependent on large numbers of full-time and seasonal workers. This report describes the employers' perspectives on childcare needs of hired farm workers' families and their barriers and motivators to facilitating off-farm childcare services. Using descriptive survey research methodology, data were collected from a convenience sample of 102 agribusiness owners and Human Resource directors attending an agricultural conference regarding labor laws or personnel management. Results revealed significant differences for those companies employing more than 25 workers compared to their counterparts. Primary motivators for offering childcare as an employment benefit were improved employee morale, enhanced company reputation, and a more stable workforce. A major barrier was that half of large-scale enterprises lack guidance on how to provide childcare options for their workers. Survey results are being used to facilitate collaboration among employers, farm workers, and childcare providers to offer a safe, nurturing environment for children while their parents work in agriculture.
Full Text Available In this paper, the risk profile of two pastoral production systems in New Zealand are examined. All farmers must manage and mitigate a multitude of risks. Traditionally, a farm budget is solely undertaken to satisfy a lending institution. Limited variance analysis takes place, usually for output prices and inputs such as: interest rates, energy costs, and fertiliser. The authors of this paper use “@Risk”, a risk profiling plug-in tool for Microsoft Excel to demonstrate how farm budgets can be more relevant to farmers. Many risk factors that affect farm financial performance, such as climate and commodity prices, are not controlled by the farmer. Wet summers help hill country sheep and beef pastoral farmers, as more grass growth occurs, which thereby reduces the cost of production and increases revenue, as more stock is finished. Whereas in drought years income falls as stock must be sold prior to finishing, in severe droughts capital stock may also be sold. Input costs also rise as pasture weed invasion occurs; health issues such as rye grass staggers may also add cost. Monte Carlo simulations on model farm budgets for a North Island sheep and beef property and a Canterbury dairy farm help demonstrate the risk profile of each farm type.
Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus
Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...
Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.
Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411
Terraces are earthen embankments constructed across the prevailing field land slope. They have been used in differing forms for thousands of years in an attempt to protect steep land slopes from runoff induced erosion. Contour farming, where tillage and planting create ridges and furrows at nearly...
The report provides a summation of the status of safety issues associated with interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs (organic, ferrocyanide, and flammable gas), as extracted from recent safety analyses, including the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis efforts.
The report provides a summation of the status of safety issues associated with interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs (organic, ferrocyanide, and flammable gas), as extracted from recent safety analyses, including the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis efforts
Ploeg, van der J.D.
Even in the International Year of Family Farming there is confusion about family farming. What is it, and what distinguishes it from entrepreneurial farming or family agribusiness? The confusion tends to be highest in places where the modernisation of agriculture has led society further away from
Benjamin, Catherine; Kimhi, Ayal
We estimate jointly three types of discrete-choice labor decisions of farm couples: farm work, off-farm work, and hired farm labor. Using a 16-choice multinomial logit model, we find that operators' and spouses' farm labor are substitutes. Hired farm labor increases with farmers' qualifications, perhaps substituting for the couples' labor inputs. Other adults in the households substitute for the farm labor input of the farm couple and hired workers.
Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun
inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live......In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...
Raluca Andreea MIHALACHE
Taxpayers who carried out individually or in a form of association income from self-employment, income from the lease of property, income from agricultural activities determined in real system are required to file a statement of income received from the competent tax authority for each fiscal year no later than 15 May of the year following that of income. The statement of income (tax declaration) must be completed for each source and category of income. For the income obtained in a form of As...
Surböck, Andreas; Gollner, Gabriele; Klik, Andreas; Freyer, Bernhard; Friedel, Jürgen K.
A continuous investment in soil fertility is necessary to achieve sustainable yields in organic arable farming. Crucial factors here besides the crop rotation are organic fertilization and the soil tillage system. On this topic, an operational group (Project BIOBO*) was established in the frame of an European Innovation Partnership in 2016 consisting of organic farmers, consultants and scientists in the farming region of eastern Austria. The aim of this group is the development and testing of innovative, reduced soil cultivation, green manure and organic fertilization systems under on-farm and on-station conditions to facilitate the sharing and transfer of experience and knowledge within and outside the group. Possibilities for optimization of the farm-specific reduced soil tillage system in combination with green manuring are being studied in field trials on six organic farms. The aim is to determine, how these measures contribute to an increase in soil organic matter contents, yields and income, to an improved nitrogen and nutrient supply to the crops, as well as support soil fertility in general. Within a long-term monitoring project (MUBIL), the effects of different organic fertilization systems on plant and soil traits have been investigated since 2003, when the farm was converted to organic management. The examined organic fertilization systems, i.e. four treatments representing stockless and livestock keeping systems, differ in lucerne management and the supply of organic manure (communal compost, farmyard manure, digestate from a biogas plant). Previous results of this on-station experiment have shown an improvement of some soil properties, especially soil physical properties, since 2003 in all fertilization systems and without differences between them. The infiltration rate of rainwater has increased because of higher hydraulic conductivity. The aggregate stability has shown also positive trends, which reduces the susceptibility to soil erosion by wind and
Oli, B.N.; Treue, Thorsten; Larsen, Helle Overgaard
study surveyed 304 randomly sampled households in ten community forestry user groups in Nepal, eliciting data on demographics, income and consumption of tree products. All trees on households’ farm land were registered by species. Farmers had on average 65 trees per hectare and a total of 92 species......On-farm tree growing is potentially important for livelihood strategies and forest conservation, and varies greatly according to local contexts. A detailed knowledge base is therefore needed, requiring, inter alia, the documentation of factors associated with growing trees on farms. The present...... holdings, education and firewood consumption, while income, ethnicity and sex of household head were not significant. Households’ network and distance between household dwellings and the forest were negatively related with on-farm tree growing. Findings indicate that community forestry practices work...
This report will be revised upon completion of current testing investigating the radiolytic stability of additional energetic materials and the analysis of tank farm samples for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds
This report will be revised upon completion of current testing investigating the radiolytic stability of additional energetic materials and the analysis of tank farm samples for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds.
Lehmann, N.; Finger, R.
In this study, we evaluate the impact of an increased volumetric water price and the implementation of a water quota on management decisions, income, income risk and utility of an arable farmer in the Broye River Basin, western Switzerland. We develop a bio-economic whole-farm model, which couples
Full Text Available The informational system for aquaculture activities provide a financial planning and analysis tool.The software can also be of assistance to land-based farmers who want to more thoroughly utilizetheir water resources by developing small-scale fish farm systems to provide supplementary income.Informational model has been enhanced to produce a comprehensive software package foraquaculture feasibility modeling, financial planning, sales and harvesting planning and managementinformation tools.
Full Text Available This paper shows the economic situation of economically weak farms in 8 countries of Central and Eastern Europe(CEE in 2010. The data were obtained from the survey on EU farms carried out under the FADN system. The studyincluded countries in which economically weak farms were the dominant farm type (i.e. Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary,Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. The aim of the study was to assess the economic performance ofthose farms and indicate advantages of the competing farm types. The analysis was performed in terms of totalfactor productivity, income levels, assets and debt level. The influence of CAP instruments on managementefficiency was also demonstrated. The study found a high diversity in terms of production potential as well asfinancial condition of farms in particular countries, whereas one point of correspondence between farms is theprevalence of fixed assets, i.e. an excessive assets-to-area ratio, and the dominance of own capital in financingthose assets. Romanian, Polish and Bulgarian farms are characterised by the highest efficiency of use of currentoutlays and, in turn, a lower cost of the production unit, which accounted for 66%, 86% and 87% of the outputvalue respectively. In Latvia, Estonia and Slovenia, the costs exceeded the output value by 6%, 7% and 23%respectively and, as a result, the income of those farms was generated exclusively due to subsidies.
Kiefer, Lukas; Menzel, Friederike; Bahrs, Enno
The reduction of product-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in milk production appears to be necessary. The reduction of emissions on an individual farm might be highly accepted by farm owners if it were accompanied by an increase in profitability. Using life cycle assessments to determine the product carbon footprints (PCF) and farm-level evaluations to record profitability, we explored opportunities for optimization based on analysis of 81 organic and conventional pasture-based dairy farms in southern Germany. The objective of the present study was to detect common determining factors for low PCF and high management incomes (MI) to achieve GHG reductions at the lowest possible operational cost. In our sample, organic farms, which performed economically better than conventional farms, produced PCF that were significantly higher than those produced by conventional farms [1.61 ± 0.29 vs. 1.45 ± 0.28 kg of CO₂ equivalents (CO₂eq) per kg of milk; means ± SD)]. A multiple linear regression analysis of the sample demonstrated that low feed demand per kilogram of milk, high grassland yield, and low forage area requirements per cow are the main factors that decrease PCF. These factors are also useful for improving a farm's profitability in principle. For organic farms, a reduction of feed demand of 100 g/kg of milk resulted in a PCF reduction of 105 g of CO₂eq/kg of milk and an increase in MI of approximately 2.1 euro cents (c)/kg of milk. For conventional farms, a decrease of feed demand of 100 g/kg of milk corresponded to a reduction in PCF of 117 g of CO₂eq/kg of milk and an increase in MI of approximately 3.1 c/kg of milk. Accordingly, farmers could achieve higher profits while reducing GHG emissions. Improved education and training of farmers and consultants regarding GHG mitigation and farm profitability appear to be the best methods of improving efficiency under traditional and organic farming practices.
Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile
In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...
The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....
Thomas J. Kniesner; James P. Ziliak
October 2001 (Revised from July 2001). Abstract: By supplementing income explicitly through payments or implicitly through taxes collected, income-based taxes and transfers make disposable income less variable. Because disposable income determines consumption, policies that smooth disposable income also create welfare improving consumption insurance. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics we find that annual consumption variation is reduced by almost 20 percent due to explicit and ...
Liu, Haitao; Meng, Jie; Bo, Wenjing; Cheng, Da; Li, Yong; Guo, Liyue; Li, Caihong; Zheng, Yanhai; Liu, Meizhen; Ning, Tangyuan; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Feng, Sufei; Wuyun, Tana; Li, Jing; Li, Lijun; Zeng, Yan; Liu, Shi V.; Jiang, Gaoming
Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes comparative analysis of crop yield, soil organic matter and economic benefits within the practice on Biodiversity Management of Organic Farming (BMOF) at Hongyi Organic Farm (HOF) over eight years and between BMOF and CF. Linking crop production with livestock to maximal uses of by-products from each production and avoid xenobiotic chemicals, we have achieved beneficial improvement in soil properties, effective pest and weed control, and increased crop yields. After eight years experiment, we have obtained a gradual but stable increase in crop yields with a 9.6-fold increase of net income. The net income of HOF was 258,827 dollars and 24,423 dollars in 2014 and 2007 respectively. Thus, BMOF can not only feed more population, but also increase adaptive capacity of agriculture ecosystems and gain much higher economic benefits.
Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael
This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... turbine farm based on a dynamic programming type of method....
Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.
Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.
Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.
Mazurek, Jacek M; White, Gretchen E; Rodman, Chad; Schleiff, Patricia L
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm among primary farm operators. The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data were used to produce estimates and prevalence odds ratios. An estimated 5.1% of farm operators had asthma. Of these, 15.4% had farm work-related asthma. Among operators with farm work-related asthma, 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8%-68.2%) had an asthma attack in the prior 12 months and 33.3% (95% CI: 21.2%-45.4%) had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work. Of those who had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work, 65.0% associated their asthma attack with plant/tree materials. This study provides updated information on asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm and identifies certain groups of farm operators that might benefit from workplace asthma prevention intervention.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection with...
Full Text Available Large-scale offshore wind farms are integrated with onshore ac grids through the voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC transmission system. The impact on the stability of the ac grids will be significant. The small signal model of a wind farm connected with voltage source converter based dc transmission system is studied in this paper. A suitable model for small signal stability analysis is presented. The control system of wind generator and the HVDC system has also been modeled in this model for small signal stability analysis. The impact of the control parameters on the network stability is investigated.
Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten
To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors.......To analyse the association between area income inequality and mortality after adjustment for individual income and other established risk factors....
Arega Shumetie Ademe
Full Text Available Ethiopian agriculture is a vulnerable sector from effects of climate variability. This study identified how strong is the effect of climate variability on smallholders’ crop income in Central highlands and Arssi grain plough farming systems of the country. The unbalanced panel data (1994-2014 of the study collected for eight rounds analysed through fixed effect regression. The model result shows that successive increment of crop season rainfall keeping the temperature constant has negative and significant effect on households’ crop income in the study area. The crop income responds similarly for temperature increment if the rainfall remains constant. Given this, simultaneous increment of the two climate related inputs has positive and significant effect on crop income. Other variables like flood, frost, storm, and rainfall inconsistency in the onset and cessation time affected households’ crop income negatively and significantly. Similarly, draught power and human labour, which are critical inputs in the crop production of Ethiopian smallholders, have positive and significant effect on crop income as to the model result. Thus, this study recommended that there should be supplementing the rainfall through irrigation, check dam and other activities to have consistent water supply for the crop production that enable smallholders to collect better income. Additionally, negative effect of temperature increment should be curved through adopting long lasting strategies like afforestation.
Kempen, Markus; Elbersen, Berien S.; Staritsky, Igor
In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all...... sample farms making it possible to aggregate farm types both to natural and to lower scale administrative regions. This spatial flexibility allows providing input data to economic or bio-physical models at their desired resolution. The allocation approach is implemented as a constrained optimization...... model searching for an optimal match between farm attributes and spatial characteristics subject to consistency constraints. The objective functions are derived from a Bayesian highest posterior density framework. The allocation procedure recovers the spatial farm type distributions satisfactorilly...
This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary
Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz
of feed that contains maize meal and soy meal. In Thailand, results from a study (Paper IV) of 49 cricket farms in three provinces found that farmers took up cricket farming to diversify their existing agricultural livelihood strategies and provide significant income to rural households. Social and human......Background: Over the past five years, a growing amount of attention has been placed on the potential of edible insect species to address the global challenge of food and nutrition security. Even greater attention has been put on the handful of insect species which can be easily domesticated...... capital also played a role in the adoption and perpetuation of cricket farming and helped farmers negotiate market access. Overall, cricket farming had a positive impact on rural livelihoods in Thailand. In Paper V, 42 cricket farmers and 317 farmers who have not adopted cricket farming were interviewed...
Mohamed Taher Sraïri
Full Text Available This research aims to characterize the ways crop-livestock farms adapt themselves to work constraints. A follow-up of work activities was achieved in a sample of 14 family farms. Work times in each agricultural activity (livestock and crops were quantified, distinguishing the contributions of family members and that of the off-farm workers. Results showed that the annual working time averaged 1030 days per year per farm. It increased with multiple activities within farms. Work devoted to livestock averaged 581 days a year, mainly achieved by family members, while crops necessitated 449 days of work, mostly assumed by off farm workers. Farms with limited arable land devoted significant time to livestock. The results also revealed that the gross incomes from one day of work in livestock were almost 50-times less than those from the same duration in cash crops. Altogether, the results confirm the necessity to consider work as a crucial variable determining farming systems’ performances and the use efficiency of this input. As a consequence, in many developing countries, the assumption of plenty of family workers availability may not be valid anymore to justify agricultural policies mainly based on intense on-farm work uses.
Damanhuri; Setyohadi, D. P. S.; Utami, M. M. D.; Kurnianto, M. F.; Hariono, B.
Wetland farm diversification program in the district of Bojonegoro, Tulungagung, and Ponorogo can not provide an optimal contribution to the income of farmers caused because farmers are not able to cultivate high value-added commodities due to limited capital. This study aims to identify the characteristics of farming, capital pattern, stakeholder role, to analyze farming to know the pattern of planting suggestions and prospects, and to formulate capital facilitation strategy. Farming capital is obtained through loans in financial institutions with different patterns. Small farmers tend to utilize savings and credit cooperatives, microcredit, and loan sharks, while farmers with large wetland holdings tend to utilize commercial banks. P enelitian using descriptive method of farming profit analysis, and SWOT. The government through the banking institutions have provided much facilitation in the form of low-interest loans with flexible payment method. The generic strategy of selected capital facilitation is to empower farmers through farmer groups who have the capability in managing the capital needs of their members.
Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.
Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.
This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,
Temidayo Gabriel Apata
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship process has been argued as opportunity-driven, creative, and resource-efficient, that could influence income generation of small farmers that adopted entrepreneurial skills and innovation into their farming operations. This study examines entrepreneurship process strategies employed to income increase by small farmers, evidence from southwest of Nigeria. The sampling procedures entail three stages of samples selection of 240 farmers but only 200 data was useful. Descriptive statistical and inferential statistics were used to analyze and describe the data. Respondents’ age ranges from 16 to 65 years old, mean age was 36.16 years. The study found out that 5 % of the samples had modest communication skills that aid adoption of effective entrepreneurial processes and about 83% have a strong belief in one’s self to succeed. Successful farmers had multiple sources of related income generation business ventures. Targeting the entrepreneurs for support could make them even more effective.
Walelign, Solomon Zena
Since the last few decades, there is an increasing recognition of the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty. Using data from two rural villages in Mozambique, this study aimed to assess the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty incidence......, depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities......-poor sample households respectively. With regard to the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty, dramatic increase in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty were observed when forest and environmental income was excluded from sample households' total income accounting...
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Lassen, David Dreyer
Much empirical work in the social sciences relies on the accuracy of survey responses. Of all the questions answered by survey respondents, few are as common as those concerning income: Income is a crucial determinant of an individual’s attitudes and behaviors and a standard correlate in political...... in a given context, survey researchers should take into account social desirability bias and the pattern of income misreporting in that context....... the presence of social desirability bias. Further, this leads to biased estimates and distorted conclusions in a number of common applications in political science, but a simple logarithmic transformation eliminates the bias. More broadly, our results indicate that to understand the income–attitudes nexus...
Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca Daniela
Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Therefore the power system becomes more vulnerable and dependent on the wind energy production. At the same time requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power...... quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly-fed induction generators. Using power electronics...... the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid does not have such control capabilities. They produce maximum possible power...
Iov, Florin; Sorensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela
Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Therefore the power system becomes more vulnerable and dependent on the wind energy production. At the same time requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power...... quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modem wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly-fed induction generators. Using power electronics...... the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid does not have such control capabilities. They produce maximum possible power...
In the large fabric of society, the energy system interacts with many other things, and these in turn are interdependent. A solution to the energy problem can therefore not be found in isolation. The proposal made in this book is that the best future mainstay of energy supply in the United States is methanol, eventually to be produced entirely from biomass. This will solve not only the problems of energy supply and vulnerable oil imports but also the farm problems of surplus production, low prices, and soil erosion and the ecological ones of air pollution and eventual overheating of the atmosphere
Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain
Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...
Fishman, Arthur; Simhon, Avi
This paper explores the relationship between income distribution, prices, production efficiency and aggregate output in a decentralized search economy. We show that income distribution determines how competitive the market is, and thereby affects production efficiency and aggregate output. It is shown that it is generally possible to engineer a judicious transfer of income from high to low income individuals which simultaneously increases income equality, competitiveness, and aggregate output.
HOUNGBONON , Georges Vivien; Liang , Julienne
Policy makers are aiming for a large coverage of high-speed broadband Internet. However , there is still a lack of evidence about its effects on income distribution. In this paper, we investigate the effects of fixed broadband Internet on mean income and income inequality using a unique town-level data on broadband adoption and quality in France. We find that broadband adoption and quality raise mean income and lower income inequality. These results are robust to initial conditions, and yield...
Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe
the impacts of integrating a large-scale offshore wind farm into the transmission system of a power grid through VSC-HVDC connection. The concerns are focused on steady-state voltage stability, dynamic voltage stability and transient angle stability. Simulation results based on an exemplary power system......, an offshore wind farm could have a capacity rating to hundreds of MWs or even GWs that is large enough to compete with conventional power plants. Thus the impacts of a large offshore wind farm on power system operation and security should be thoroughly studied and understood. This paper investigates......The potential of offshore wind energy has been commonly recognized and explored globally. Many countries have implemented and planned offshore wind farms to meet their increasing electricity demands and public environmental appeals, especially in Europe. With relatively less space limitation...
Castro, Ruben; Fajnzylber, Eduardo
: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999). Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.
Full Text Available Abstract: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999. Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.
Full Text Available The study has investigated the growth in income of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to analysing distributional consequences in the post-liberalisation era. Using data from secondary sources, it has applied a quintile-growth approach by dividing each group of households into five income clusters (quintiles to analyse the incidence of growth in real income. It has found that although all groups of rural households experienced a moderate to high increase in real income, non-farm households experienced a larger increase than farm households due to a large reduction in consumer price. Farm households gained from the increase in productivity but experienced losses from producer price reduction. The two opposite forces – increase in productivity and reduction in producer price – offset the effects of each other, thereby affecting the income growth of farm households. Amongst the farm households, large and medium farmers gained the most and small farmers gained the least from the growth in real income, indicating that rich households experienced a much higher increase in real income than poor households – thereby adversely affecting the distribution of income and widening the income gap between rich and poor households. These findings demonstrated that while agricultural trade liberalisation benefited rural households generally, the benefits were not distributed equally and in fact, inequality increased amongst rural households. This study argues that the growth in real income of rural household was not pro-poor during 1985- 86 to 2005. This study suggests that agricultural trade liberalisation contributed to higher growth in the rural economy but it contributed to greater inequality in income distribution amongst the rich and poor income groups (quintiles. Government should reduce inequality through policy interventions with income transfer from the rich to the poor.
Full Text Available Most Wave Energy Converters (WECs produce highly distorted power due to thereciprocal motion induced by ocean waves. Some WEC systems have integrated energystorage that overcomes this limitation, but add significant expenses to an already costlysystem. As an alternative approach, this article investigates the direct export option thatrelies on aggregate smoothing among several WECs. By optimizing the positioning of theWEC devices with respect to the incoming waves, fluctuations may be mutually canceledout between the devices. This work is based on Fred. Olsen’s WEC system Lifesaver, anda WEC farm consisting of 48 devices is designed in detail and simulated. The major costdriver for the electrical export system is the required oversize factor necessary for transferof the average power output. Due to the low power quality, this number can be as high as20 at the entry point of the electrical system, and it is thus crucial to quickly improve thepower quality so that the downstream power system is efficiently utilized. The simulationsundertaken in this work indicate that a high quality power output can be achieved at the farmlevel, but that a significant oversize factor will be required in the intermediate power systemwithin the farm.
Full Text Available Intensive agriculture, industrial type, contributed to environmental degradation and pollution. Thus, on the one hand, makes intensive use of chemicals has led to neglect of duty to maintain the natural fertility of the soil organic matter through proper fattening. On the other hand, organizing specialized industrial environments, high animal breeders, considered the only marketable livestock production, neglecting the production of manure, thus representing a break with the brutal nature of biological circuits Following the experience accumulated over two centuries, mankind has drawn valuable education obligation to safeguard the habitat of nature as a collaborator. In this respect, the main task of our times is to develop appropriate technologies humanist ideal, so that man can become a being as fully integrated into the social and cosmic environment. In the present period as a peasant household current form, is typical of developing countries. It is generated by the result of families who received income from farming and increase farm animalelor.Gospodaria organizational structure is the basic economic and agricultural economy. On the basis of the idea that organic production is the main cause of degradation of the biological quality of products is inadequate human intervention at various structural levels of the biosphere, and the most severe effects on humans resulting from the cumulation of errors relating to soil, plants and animals. Organic farming places emphasis on quality natural products, the quantity and productivity issues as a peripheral level. A balanced rural development policy for the future is not an option but a necessity, especially considering the fact that the issue of agriculture and rural development has important national connotations and is a very complex and timely in Romania Regional development is a concept that aims at stimulating and diversifying economic activities, encouraging private sector investment, helping
Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach
A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange...
Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management based on Farmer Field Schools (IPM/FFS is a program aimed to guide farmers toward managing agricultural pests in an environmentally responsible manner. This program has been in practice during the recent decade in the north of Iran. A study was conducted to evaluate the overall impacts of IPM/FFS program on energy balance and economic revenue of paddy (Oryza sativa L. farms compared with conventional farms (no IPM. The data of inputs, management practices, and output (yield of 238 paddy farms (135 IPM farms and 103 conventional farms located in a semi-Mediterranean climate were collected in 2010 and 2011. Total energy input, energy output, energy efficiency, and energy productivity were determined as indicators of energy balance. The total energy requirement for paddy production in IPM system was 48756 MJ ha−1, indicating that 8% more energy was used in IPM farms than that in conventional farms. It was noticed that IPM program in this region failed to reduce the consumption of chemical pesticides in paddy farms and the conventional system was more energy efficient than IPM system. Although paddy yield of the two systems was similar, the economic net return in IPM system was almost 20% higher than the conventional system due to the higher price of paddy produced in IPM system.
Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.
Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…
Nyambati, R.O; Koech, C.K; Muok, G
Tinderet forest is one of the most important catchment areas of lake victoria. It is the main source of numerous springs, streams, and rivers that flow into the lake. The forest is also an important habitat for wide variety of water plants and animal species. Although the forest is gazetted as a forest reserve, it has undergone different levels of degradation due to over exploitation of timber, posts, firewood, charcoal and honey by the community living next to the forest. Resource from the forest supplement the communities' meagre income from subsistence farming. A survey was conducted in four Divisions (Chichila, Kipkelion, Fort-Tanan and Tinderet) around the forest to evaluate the status of farm forestry development and underlying reasons for encroachment in the forest. The results showed that, 61% of the people around Tinderet forest were settlers, whose duration of settlement is between 30-40 years. Most farmers were involved in various forms of farming (livestock or crop production) but forestry was not reported as a major activity. Clearing for livestock and crop production, timber for construction and firewood are the main causes of vegetation depletion on farms. Upto 60% of the households were not self reliant on wood products mainly timber and firewood and Fort-Tana (78%) and Kipkelion (70%) were the most affected. Forestry extension services were mainly provided by the Ministry of Agriculture and East African Wildlife Society (EAWS) and were found to be poor on the ground. Other issues that hampered forest development are inadequate provision of germplasm (seed and seedlings). There is therefore a need to build the capacity of the community in the farm forestry through establishment of nurseries and provision of adequate extension services. This would contribute to enhancement of self-reliance in wood products and increased income reducing encroachment into the gazetted forest
Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans
, past partners, upbringing) and household characteristics (household income, duration of marriage, location of residence and the existence of public goods, including children). However, when all variables are evaluated in a common model, only the duration of marriage and the existence of children...
Brown, Darryl Lee
Every year at this time millions of Americans scramble to file or extend their income tax returns. This article explores some of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) sections that might affect (or relate to) the taxation of parents of disabled or special healthcare needs children. Many of these tax provisions also apply to parents with adult children…
Methorst, R.; Roep, D.; Verhees, F.; Verstegen, Jos
Nature and landscape are increasingly appreciated as public goods and community assets in need of protection. Policy schemes aiming to protect vulnerable nature and landscape assets affect options for farm development and thus the opportunities for farm income strategies. Farmers as small business
Sampath, Rajan K.
In the majority of lesser developed countries (LDC's) there is acute inequality in income distribution in the rural sector, particularly between large and small farms on the one hand and between land owners and the landless on the other. Irrigation water distribution policy of the government is both an economic and political problem. It has both equity and efficiency implications. It has effects on both the level and distribution of income. This paper deals with the conditions under which using water redistribution as an effective governmental policy variable can reduce inequality in the distribution of income. This paper also deals with the relationship between the objectives of equity and efficiency in water distribution under different objective realities, such as dualistic versus nondualistic conditions, two-sector versus three-sector modeling, optimum versus equal water distribution, specifically to derive the conditions under which promotion of equity promotes efficiency and vice versa and the conditions under which it does not.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the “secondary...
Taofeeq A. AMUSA
Full Text Available This study provided empirical information on determinants of climate change adaptation among farming households in Southwest Nigeria using Heckman’s double stage selection approach. Three states were randomly selected across southwest Nigeria: Ekiti, Ogun and Oyo States. Data were collected in two phases. The first phase was rapid rural appraisal of the selected states while the second phase was detailed survey using a structured questionnaire administered to 360 randomly sampled farm units. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and Heckman’s double stage selection model. The result of the analysis showed that there was relatively high level of awareness of climate change among the farmers. Major sources of information about climate change among the farmers include personal observation and extension agents. From the result of the Heckman double stage selection model, variables that significantly influenced the first decision of whether or not to adapt to climate change include: gender, experience, extension visits, farm size, income, credit access, number of farm labourers and dependency ratio. On the other hand, variables that significantly influenced extent of adaptation to climate change include: gender, experience, education, extension visits, farm size, income, credit access, number of farm labourers and dependency ratio. Based on the findings, the study therefore recommends farmers’ sensitization programmes on indicators of climate most especially those indicators with low indices. Effort should be made by government at all levels towards capacity building of the farmers through improved education, extension visits, increased farm size, increase in income and improved access to credit.
Full Text Available While the expansion of smallholder rubber farming in southwest China has contributed to the local rural economy, it has also had negative environmental consequences. The economics and potential risks of smallholder rubber farming remain unclear due to the lack of quantitative evidence. Based on data collected in a comprehensive survey of 612 smallholder rubber farmers in Xishuangbanna, this paper quantifies economic aspects of rubber farming including land use, inputs and outputs, household income composition, and risks. In particular, we compare differences in these parameters associated with ethnicity and elevation. Our results suggest that rubber has taken over the rural economy in the rubber-planting region of Xishuangbanna, where almost 80% of agricultural land is devoted to rubber. On average, rubber farming provides over 40% of smallholder incomes. While smallholder rubber farming is generally highly profitable, it is also highly vulnerable to price fluctuations. Rubber expansion has also reduced diversification and thereby increased household income risk. Most importantly, our analysis shows that the economic performance of smallholder rubber farming differs for different ethnic groups and at different elevations. The results of this study provide important quantitative information on smallholder rubber farming that can inform policymaking and guide future research.
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section
Popular myth has it that visiting a farm can be dangerous, but there are only a few occasions when children have become ill during a school visit to a farm. Simple, sensible precautions, including wearing appropriate clothing, such as trousers and wellington boots (if wet) or sensible shoes, and careful hand-washing, are all that is required. The…
Zeller, Simon H.
Reviews impact of recent agricultural trends in South Dakota. Outlines Kubler-Ross' stages of grief/adaptation that farm families must negotiate as they cope with the trauma of the loss of their farms. Indicates service providers must overcome farmers' mistrust for human welfare services and reach out to this vulnerable population. (NEC)
This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...... that polarization has increased over time, regardless of the applied measure, when the last part of the period is compared to the first part of the period; primary causes being increased inequality (alienation) and faster income growth among high incomes relative to those in the middle of the distribution...
Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J; Azar, G
Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Hu, Weihao
is focused on optimization of offshore wind farm repowering, which is one option for the wind farm owner at end of life for the offshore wind farm. The LCoE is used as the evaluation index to identify whether it is economical to invest in such a way. In an optimized repowering strategy, different types...... of wind turbines are selected to replace the original wind turbines to reconstruct the wind farm, which is demonstrated to be better than the refurbishment approach which replaces the old wind turbines with the same type. The simulations performed in this research reveal that the reconstructed wind farm......, which consists of multiple types of wind turbine, has a smaller LCoE (10.43%) than the refurbishment approach, which shows the superiority of the proposed method. This research contributes an optimization tool to the wind industry, which consequently drives down the cost of energy produced by offshore...
is minimized. The controller is practically feasible. Yet, the results on load reduction in this approach are not very significant. In the second strategy, the wind farm control problem has been divided into below rated and above rated wind speed conditions. In the above rated wind speed pitch angle and power....... Distributed controller design commences with formulating the problem, where a structured matrix approach has been put in to practice. Afterwards, an H2 control problem is implemented to obtain the controller dynamics for a wind farm such that the structural loads on wind turbines are minimized.......The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage...
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob
In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are dealt...... with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...
Peter J. Morgan; Victor Pontines
Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion, i.e., greater access to financial services for low-income households and firms, as part of their overall strategies for economic and financial development. This raises the question of whether financial stability and financial inclusion are, broadly speaking, substitutes or complements. In other words, does the move toward greater financial inclusion tend to increase or decrease financial stability? A number of studies have sugge...
Irene Kartika Eka Wijayanti
Full Text Available Banyumas has great potential as a producer of organic lettuce in term of condition of natural, human resources and availability of market. The centre producer of organic lettuce is located in district of Kedungbanteng, and managed by farmers group "abdi tani". The aim of this study is to analyze: 1. The cost and income farming of organic lettuce; 2. Financial feasibility of organic lettuce farm; 3. The channel and structure of organic lettuce market. Processing and data analysis performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The data used is to the production and marketing of organic lettuce in period of June-July 2016. Quantitative analysis performed using analysis of cost, farm income, and R/C. Qualitative analysis was conducted to determine the channel and structure of organic lettuce market. The results showed that organic lettuce farm income generating positive value and the value of R/C is greater than one (R/C >1, the farming is profitable and feasible. Organic lettuce marketing channels through the use of one channel, such farmers, traders, retailers (supermarket. Farmers faced monopsony market structure, while traders and retailers deal with oligopoly one
Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.
The Peigan Nation of southwest Alberta will have four one-MW Nordex wind turbines installed on its land by October 1998, as the first step in a $200 million 101 MW grid-connected wind farm. The installation is a joint venture between Peigan Utilities Inc., Advanced Thermodynamics, the licencees to market the Nordex turbines, and the Sault Ste. Marie`s Batchawana Band. The joint venture is named `Weather-Dancer`. The test turbine is scheduled to be installed in August, with three more planned in October. Each turbine has a rotor of 54 metres in diameter, atop a 60-metre tower. Initially, the power will be used on the reserve through a Peigan-administered rural electrification association. The remainder of the turbines will be added as purchase contracts are signed with the Alberta Power Pool.
Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)
(pollution) and consequences for human health. Broader ideas about ecosystems and the recycling of nutrients between the agricultural sector and the urban population are notably absent. On the basis of these findings the paper concludes by discussing the relationship between the consumers’ values that guide...... to phase out their use of conventional manure before 2021. This, however, raises a number of questions about consumers’ acceptance of the alternative technologies that have been proposed to close the nutrient gap. Drawing on qualitative interviews with Danish organic consumers, this paper first discusses...... what, from a consumers perspective, characterizes the technologies consumers associate with organic production. This part of the analysis shows that by and large consumers regard organic technologies as the opposite of conventional farming. Second, consumers’ perceptions of solutions suggested to close...
Cassidy, David C.
It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.
Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.
, there was a positive link between moral intensity/moral imperative associated with an issue and people’s stated wtp for policy to address the issue. The paper discusses the relevance of the findings of the survey in the context of the debate concerning the relationship between moral and economic values and the use......An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...... issues were chosen for comparison and the contingent valuation method was used to elicit people’s wtp. The findings of the survey suggest that increases in moral characteristics do appear to result in an increase in moral intensity and the degree of moral imperative associated with an issue. Moreover...
Liana Fatma Leslie Pratiwi
Full Text Available It takes into account in potato farming sustainability, since it was recognised as a holticultural commodity for farmers’ subsistence in Wonosobo Regency. For the reason that farming land was being degraded by errossion, the potato productivity apparently continued to decline. Potato farming sustainability can be deliberated from economic (profitability and environmental (conservation efforts points of view in order to remain profitable in a long term sustainable environment. This study is aimed to (1 to analyse the profitability of potato farming; (2 to analyse farmers’ effort on soil conservation and factors which affected sustainability of potato farming. The method used in this study was basic descriptive analysis. The study site was in Kejajar District, Wonosobo Regency, subsequently 50 random farmers as respondences was obtained. Gross Margin, Return on Invested Capital, and Operating Ratio were used to measure the profitability of potato farming. Conservation Activity Index (CAI was used to measure farmers’ effort on soil conservation, while paired liner regression model with Ordinary Least Square (OLS method was used to understand the factors which affected the conservation efforts of test sites. The study results revealed that the potato farming was profitable. Farmers conservation efforts mostly was in average category (74%, and only view in high category (16% and low category (10%. Factors affected the farmers conservation efforts i.e. land area, potato products, potato price, the off-farm income, number of family members, farmers ages, and village dummy.
Philip Robertson, G; Gross, Katherine L; Hamilton, Stephen K; Landis, Douglas A; Schmidt, Thomas M; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Swinton, Scott M
A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other biodiversity benefits, climate stabilization, and long-term soil fertility, thereby helping meet society's need for agriculture that is economically and environmentally sustainable. Midwest farmers-especially those with large farms-appear willing to adopt practices that deliver these services in exchange for payments scaled to management complexity and farmstead benefit. Surveyed citizens appear willing to pay farmers for the delivery of specific services, such as cleaner lakes. A new farming for services paradigm in US agriculture seems feasible and could be environmentally significant.
... Title IV Conservators, Receivers, and Voluntary Liquidations; Technical Changes AGENCY: Farm Credit..., Receivers, and Voluntary Liquidations In each of the above-listed sections, the direct final rule eliminates... the evaluation of the income-earning and debt-servicing capacity for real property. C. Sections 614...
This project aims to increase the productivity, food security, and incomes of smallholder farming households in Kenya. ... Le CRDI et le Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, ont conclu un accord en vue d'un nouvel investissement de 25 millions de dollars canadiens à l'occasion du lancement de la.
Fermont, van A.M.
Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap.
Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid
Perennial cellulosic biomass and food crop residues are important on-farm resources, which have become potential valuable sources of income as a harvestable commodity contributing to biofuel production demands. Inputs of carbon embedded in above-ground plant biomass are a key biological energy sourc...
Falconnier, Gatien N.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Mourik, Van Thomas A.; Adam, Myriam; Sogoba, Bougouna; Giller, Ken E.
Farm systems were re-designed together with farmers during three years (2013–2015) in Southern Mali with the aim to improve income without compromising food self-sufficiency. A cyclical learning model with three steps was used: Step 1 was the co-design of a set of crop/livestock technical
Conway, Alice E; McClune, Amy J; Nosel, Patricia
Agriculture continues to rank as the most dangerous industry in the United States. The objectives of this pilot study were to identify the incidence of care provided to children involved in farm accidents, examine barriers to utilization of farm safety materiaJs by primary health care practitioners (PHCPs), and determine the percentage of PHCPs who provide anticipatory guidance related to farm safety. Pender's revised Health Promotion Model (2006) was used. A survey was developed and mailed to 110 PHCPs of all levels in North West Pennsylvania. The return rate was 20%. Types of injuries identified by the PHCPs included lacerations and musculosketal injuries caused by animals and farm equipment. Forty-five percent of the PHCPs reporting asked new patients/families if their children lived or worked on a farm. Eighteen percent specifically focused on farm-related injury prevention. Fourteen percent were aware of farm injury prevention materials and 73% were interested in receiving such materials. A larger study needs to be conducted to validate these findings.
Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke
During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....
Lanyasunya, T.P.; Wekesa, F.W.; Sinkeet, S.N.O.; Jong, R.; Udo, H.; Mukisira, E.A.
A Calf rearing package of Individual (mobile) pens , milk and fodder feeding was introduced on smallholder farms of Bahati Division, Nakuru District, Kenya. The study investigated the effects of changes in Calf rearing practices on calf performance and the responses of the production systems to the investigations. 46 farmers were selected on the basis of their willingness to participate in the study and were allocated to Control (23 and Test (23). both types of farmers were trained but only test farms received building materials and forage seeds. Socio-economic and calf performance data were collected. Calves were supplemented with sweet potato vines (SPV) + Green leaf desmodium (DES) and/or fodder shrubs (FOD) Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models and Chi-square test were applied on the data collected. The study revealed that there were variations in off-farm, livestock and crop incomes. The gross Margins (GM) were higher (P < 0.01) for the test than the Control farmers. Calves raised in Test farms Demonstrated higher (P < 0.05) growth rates than those in Control farms (370 versus 307 g/d). Female calves gained (P < 0.05) 57 g/d more than mal calves.Those with assorted farm grown legumes (SPV + FOD) performed better (375 and 417 g/d, respectively) compared to those supplemented with SPV alone or not supplemented (345 and 321 g/d, respectively). Improved calf performance in Test farms suggests that, farm grown forage legumes, could be used as a cheap alternative protein supplement by resource-poor farmers. Calf mortality rates for Control farms (33%) were higher (P < 0.05) than those for Test farms (12.5%). The study concluded that the interventions/measures taken improve the overall performance of calves on-farm
Juliana Nascimento da Costa
Full Text Available Passion fruit is a fruit originating in the American tropics, is cultivated in countries with tropical and subtropical climates and belongs to the Passifloraceae family and Passiflora gender. One of the methods of cultivation of passion fruit is the organic system, a practice increasingly common in order to combine quality of food products with environmental preservation. Considering the current trends for nutritious foods and fast preparation, the use of dehydrated passion fruit offers an interesting alternative to reduce losses, add value to the product and provide other ways to consume fruit. Based on this information, the objective was to evaluate the stability and the quality of the organic passion fruit powder, obtained by spray drying, during 360 days of storage under room temperature (25 ± 2°C. The passion fruit powder was evaluated every 30 days during the 360 days of storage, for the chemical, physic-chemical and microbiological parameters. The organic passion fruit powder remained stable during the 360 days of storage at room temperature, offering great potential for use due to present adequate retention of ascorbic acid (15.86 mg/100 g, desired hygroscopicity (22.48 g of absorbed water/100 g, low water activity (0.46, stable acid pH (4.1, high levels of ash (4.7%, total sugar (36.93%, total extractable polyphenols (196.18 mg GAE/100 g and satisfactory microbiological results with absence of coliforms at 35°C and 45°C, Salmonella sp/25 g, mesophilic and Staphylococcus coagulase positive values were less than 10 CFU/g. O maracujá é um fruto originário da América Tropical, sendo cultivado em países de climas tropical e subtropical, pertencente à família Passifloraceae, gênero Passiflora. Dentre os métodos de cultivo do maracujá, tem-se a produção pelo sistema orgânico, uma prática cada vez mais comum, visando aliar qualidade de produtos alimentícios com a preservação ambiental. Considerando as tendências atuais por
ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper based on a conference paper on models for analysis of interrelationships between labour mobility of migrant workers (migration) and income distribution in developing countries - includes a literature survey of empirical research, and covers labour market absorption of migrant rural workers, effects of rural areas-urban areas wage differentials on migration, impact of migration on wages, etc. References. Conference held in Ahmedabad 1981 Jan.
Mst. Esmat Ara Begum
Full Text Available This paper estimates a translog stochastic production function to examine the determinants of technical efficiency of freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh. Primary data has been collected using random sampling from 90 farmers of three villages in southwestern Bangladesh. Prawn farming displayed much variability in technical efficiency ranging from 9.50 to 99.94% with mean technical efficiency of 65%, which suggested a substantial 35% of potential output can be recovered by removing inefficiency. For a land scarce country like Bangladesh this gain could help increase income and ensure better livelihood for the farmers. Based on the translog production function specification, farmers could be made scale efficient by providing more input to produce more output. The results suggest that farmers’ education and non-farm income significantly improve efficiency whilst farmers’ training, farm distance from the water canal and involvement in fish farm associations reduces efficiency. Hence, the study proposes strategies such as less involvement in farming-related associations and raising the effective training facilities of the farmers as beneficial adjustments for reducing inefficiency. Moreover, the key policy implication of the analysis is that investment in primary education would greatly improve technical efficiency.
Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...
Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...
With middle-income jobs in decline, entrepreneurship offers an increasingly promising pathway out of poverty; but few low-income New Yorkers are currently taking this route to economic self-sufficiency. This report provides the most comprehensive examination of low-income entrepreneurship in New York. The report documents current self-employment…
Angelsen, Arild; Jagger, Pamela; Babigumira, Ronnie
This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR’s Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which ...
Ellsworth, Devin; Ernst, Jenny; Snelling, Anastasia
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a nutrition-education intervention delivered at low-income middle schools in Washington, DC in the USA, using a mobile farmers' market to bring hands-on lessons to schools. The program was a partnership between a local farm and university and was funded by the United States Department…
Sibhatu, Kibrom T.; Krishna, Vijesh V.; Qaim, Matin
Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition remain problems of significant magnitude in large parts of the developing world. Improved nutrition requires not only better access to food for poor population segments, but also higher dietary quality and diversity. Because many of the poor and undernourished people are smallholder farmers, diversifying production on these smallholder farms is widely perceived as a useful approach to improve dietary diversity. However, empirical evidence on the link between production and consumption diversity is scarce. Here, this issue is addressed with household-level data from Indonesia, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi. Regression models show that on-farm production diversity is positively associated with dietary diversity in some situations, but not in all. When production diversity is already high, the association is not significant or even turns negative, because of foregone income benefits from specialization. Analysis of other factors reveals that market access has positive effects on dietary diversity, which are larger than those of increased production diversity. Market transactions also tend to reduce the role of farm diversity for household nutrition. These results suggest that increasing on-farm diversity is not always the most effective way to improve dietary diversity in smallholder households and should not be considered a goal in itself. Additional research is needed to better understand how agriculture and food systems can be made more nutrition-sensitive in particular situations. PMID:26261342
Kasamatsu, Hiroki; Jahja, Mohamad; Sakakibara, Masayuki
As a solution to economic poverty, we investigated the possibility of developing pearl farming in Kabupaten Gorontalo Utara region of Indonesia. The approximate income of farmers is 15 - 28 million rupiah/year, and that of fishers is 51 million rupiah/year. As these incomes are low and unreliable, it is important that food processing and other industries are developed and that agriculture and fisheries are promoted. Pearl farming minimize environmental load. The coastal environmental conditions are good for pearl shell growth. From 2001 till 2013, pearl farming was undertaken by a Japanese company in Kabupaten Gorontalo Utara, but the operation caused because of conflict with local people and issues with the actions of manager. To establish successful pearl farming businesses it is more important to address social issues than environmental factors.
Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.
Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo
Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...... in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87...
Denton, Frank T; Finnie, Ross; Spencer, Byron G
Applying an employment-income-based procedure for determining retirement, we analysed a large longitudinal data file of Canadian personal income tax returns for individuals to determine who has retired and to assess how successful they are in maintaining their incomes after retirement. The methodological approach may be of interest for possible application in other countries that have suitable data. Our main conclusions are as follows. First, in the two years immediately after retirement, the after-tax income replacement ratios average about two thirds when calculated across all ages of retirement. Second, the ratios tend to increase with the age of retirement. Third, the ratios increase with years in retirement, at least in the first few years. Finally, income replacement ratios are highest in the lowest income quartile and generally decline as income increases; within each quartile, the replacement ratios are higher for those who retired later than for those who retired earlier.
Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan,
We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.
Afolabi Monisola TUNDE
Full Text Available Fish farming is known as one of the ways of ensuring food security and alleviating poverty through income generation. It is very common in the urban areas of Nigeria because of great demand for fish. This study determines motivations for involvement in urban catfish farming and sustainable food security in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identifies fish farmers and their socio-demographic characteristics in the study area; it examines motives of fish farming; examines the contributions of fish farming to household food security; and assesses the challenges faced by fish farmers for increased production. Both primary and secondary sources of information were employed and a total of 120 fish farmers were sampled randomly with copies of structured questionnaire. Frequency counts, percentages, tabulations and matrix ranking were employed to analyze the gathered data. The findings revealed that catfish production has actually contributed immensely to sustainable food security by making fish available, accessible and stable within the study area. The main motive for involvement in fish farming by the farmers includes food security (with a mean value of 3.80. This was followed by income supplement (x = 3.50, source of employment (x = 3.42 and increase in price of meat (x = 3.37. It can therefore be concluded that catfish farming in the study area has not only improve practitioners’ food security but has also contributed immensely to their income. The paper recommends the need to include fish farming in urban planning and that it should be encouraged in both rural and urban areas so as to have sustainable food security in the country as a whole.
William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier
In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of
Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter
Animal welfare is typically assessed on farms by external observers making systematic observations of animals and/or the environment. External observers are costly, and efforts to minimize the time spent by external observers are giving rise to a delicate discussion of priorities of costs, validity...... and reliability. In this situation, it is worthwhile to consider the option of systems for assessing the animal welfare without having an external observer visiting the farm....
Klootwijk, C W; Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; de Boer, I J M
The abolition of the Dutch milk quota system has been accompanied by the introduction of a new manure policy to limit phosphate production (i.e., excretion via manure) on expanding dairy farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these recent policy changes on the farm structure, management, labor income, nitrogen and phosphate surpluses, and greenhouse gas emissions of an average Dutch dairy farm. The new manure policy requires that any increase in phosphate production be partly processed and partly applied to additional farmland. In addition, phosphate quotas have been introduced. Herein, we used a whole-farm optimization model to simulate an average farm before and after quota abolition and introduction of the new manure policy. The objective function of the model maximized labor income. We combined the model with a farm nutrient balance and life-cycle assessment to determine environmental impact. Based on current prices, increasing the number of cows after quota abolition was profitable until manure processing or additional land was required to comply with the new manure policy. Manure processing involved treatment so that phosphate was removed from the national manure market. Farm intensity in terms of milk per hectare increased by about 4%, from 13,578kg before quota abolition to 14,130kg after quota abolition. Labor income increased by €505/yr. When costs of manure processing decreased from €13 to €8/t of manure or land costs decreased from €1,187 to €573/ha, farm intensity could increase up to 20% until the phosphate quota became limiting. Farms that had already increased their barn capacity to prepare for expansion after milk quota abolition could benefit from purchasing extra phosphate quota to use their full barn capacity. If milk prices increased from €355 to €420/t, farms could grow unlimited, provided that the availability of external inputs such as labor, land, barn capacity, feed, and phosphate quota at current
Donata Melaku Canu
According to the System Approach Framework (SAF, based on previous studies and stakeholder interactions, we developed a model integrating ecological, social, and economic (ESE aspects. We chose the aspects necessary to represent the essential dynamics of major ecological, social, and economic clam farming system components to project the consequences of implementing alternative management policies and to address the ecological and social carrying capacity. Results of the simulations suggest that a properly managed farming system can sustain an acceptable income and support the local community, while reducing negative environmental impacts, social conflicts, and consumer health risks and improving system resilience. The results highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary, participatory, and adaptive approach in planning the management of this important renewable resource.
Full Text Available The issue of poverty alleviation for the people of less developed nations of the world has currently assumed the status of a recurring decimal. This is particularly critical for sub-Saharan Africa, because, the region contains a growing share of the world's absolute poor, with most of these found among rural farm households. High variability in crop yield and thus income variability arising from the vagaries of weather makes income diversification important for these households in order to improve their economic status. This paper, based on primary data collected as part of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa, identified factors that drive cash income diversification decisions among rural farm households of Nigeria. Using Heckman's two-stage model, it separates the first discrete decision of whether or not to engage in noncrop income activities from the continuous decision of how much non-crop income is needed by the household. While the level of formal education of the household head, good market access conditions and availability of initial liquidity stimulate the first decision to start non-crop income activities, only household characteristics (also including the level of formal education of the household head drive the extent of non-crop cash income earned by the household. These observations further underscore the need for investing in people – education, and in infrastructure – improving market access, as potent tools for economic empowerment.
The consequences of modern farming methods on both industrialized and developing countries are examined, and the continued transfer of agricultural technology is challenged as inappropriate and counterproductive. Private business and government have both supported the export of mechanization, resource exploitation at the expense of farm land, and the use of chemicals to Third World countries. The victims in this country have been small farmers, consumers, and the land as the cost of productivity gains became the loss of farm income and soil fertility. Modern agriculture introduced energy-intensive techniques for economic reasons, ignoring environmental and human considerations. These considerations must be granted to the developing countries which are not able to bear the costs of technological farming. Appropriate husbandry indicates a need to separate economic forces from agricultural development. 1102 references, 10 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)
Cramp, Lucy J E; Evershed, Richard P; Lavento, Mika; Halinen, Petri; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Oinonen, Markku; Kettunen, Johannes; Perola, Markus; Onkamo, Päivi; Heyd, Volker
The conventional 'Neolithic package' comprised animals and plants originally domesticated in the Near East. As farming spread on a generally northwest trajectory across Europe, early pastoralists would have been faced with the challenge of making farming viable in regions in which the organisms were poorly adapted to providing optimal yields or even surviving. Hence, it has long been debated whether Neolithic economies were ever established at the modern limits of agriculture. Here, we examine food residues in pottery, testing a hypothesis that Neolithic farming was practiced beyond the 60th parallel north. Our findings, based on diagnostic biomarker lipids and δ(13)C values of preserved fatty acids, reveal a transition at ca 2500 BC from the exploitation of aquatic organisms to processing of ruminant products, specifically milk, confirming farming was practiced at high latitudes. Combining this with genetic, environmental and archaeological information, we demonstrate the origins of dairying probably accompanied an incoming, genetically distinct, population successfully establishing this new subsistence 'package'.
Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of economic efficiency of dairyproduction on a family farm with 14 dairy cows in the breeding stock, and with average production from 3.206 to 3.407 lit. of milk annually. On the basis of survey data for three-year period from 1998 to 2000, economic indicators were calculated, as well as the cost price of milk, income and the revenue of total production and per production head. In the family farm with an average annual sale from 2.827 to 2.972 lit. of milk per head, total revenue has been realized from 44.884 to 47.695 kuna and the profit from 606 to 8.515 kuna. Revenues per production head were from 5.655 to 6.495 kuna and the profitfrom 177 to 726 kuna. The milk cost price in the analyzed period was 1.71, 1.66 and 1.69 kn. per lit, and the profit per liter of milk was 0.06, and 0.21 kn. Basic economic indicators point out on efficiency of dairy production for the investigated farm on the stated production level. The biggest influence on the dairy production efficiency on the farm, regarding the cost price structure, has been registered from the costs of fodder production, while the favorable parity of the cost price and producer-sale price of milk determines the increase in dairy production efficiency and income from dairy production in the analyzed period.
M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA
Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.
Lu, Q.; Shi, L.; Chen, N.
A method for calculating reactive power limit of wind farm comprised of doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) is proposed. The reactive power limit of wind farm is the sum of reactive power limit of DFIGs which is calculated by the method considering static stability margin. Based on this, reactive power control of wind farm is discussed and proposed. The proposed reactive power control is divided into different control modes according to power factor of high voltage side in wind farm substation and voltage of low voltage side in point of interconnection(POI). In different control modes, different control objects are applied on reactive power regulation. After reactive power regulation is finished, some reactive power of wind farm should be released. At last, numerical test system is established, the result shows that the proposed method is effective to support voltage of POI
Hasanien, Hany M.; Al-Ammar, Essam A.
Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farm is today the most widely used concept. This paper presents dynamic response enhancement of DFIG based wind farm under remote fault conditions using the fuzzy logic controller. The goal of the work is to improve the dynamic response of DFIG based wind farm during and after the clearance of fault using the proposed controller. The stability of wind farm during and after the clearance of fault is investigated. The effectiveness of the fuzzy logic controller is then compared with that of a PI controller. The validity of the controllers in restoring the wind farms normal operation after the clearance of fault is illustrated by the simulation results which are carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation results are analyzed under different fault conditions.
Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe
with the wind farm makes the grid more vulnerable. The communication technologies have been considered as a solution to solve the problems according to the IEC 61400-25 series protocols. This paper presents the significance of communication technologies in wind farm system by the simulations on some practical......Since the renewable energy is popularly applied in power industry, especially the smart grid is fast developing all over the world during these years, the reliable connection between a wind farm and the main grid has been focused on. Due to the difficult control on the wind energy, the connection...... scenarios. By delivering the signals among WTs (wind turbines) and control centers, they both are able to recognize another side’s operation situation and to adjust its own state to realize the optimization. A scenario is designed in this paper, in which a fault occurs in wind farm; then the protection...
Tybirk, Knud; Alrøe, Hugo; Frederiksen, Pia
will explore how criteria for nature quality based on the Ecologist View can be developed and thereby feed into the ongoing discussion of the development of the organic farming practices. We suggest additional criteria for nature quality based on an Ecologist View of Nature: biodiversity, habitat diversity......Nature quality in relation to farming is a complex field. It involves different traditions and interests, different views of what nature is, and different ways of valuing nature. Furthermore there is a general lack of empirical data on many aspects of nature quality in the farmed landscape....... In this paper we discuss nature quality from the perspective of organic farming, which has its own values and goals in relation to nature – the Ecologist View of Nature. This is in contrast to the Culturist View characteristic of much conventional agriculture and the Naturalist View characteristic...
Precision farming: Feeding a Growing Population Enables Those Who Feed the World. Immediate and Ongoing Needs - population growth (more to feed) - urbanization (decrease in arable land) Double food production by 2050 to meet world demand. To meet thi...
The TSRs define the acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and controls to ensure safe operation during authorized activities, for facilities within the scope of the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), in parallel with the DSA.
Sibuea, M. B.; Sibuea, F. A.
One of the government and private efforts to improve people’s welfare particularly to improve farmer’s income is to activate the Village Cooperation Unit (KUD). The objective of research was to know the efficiency level of farming organized by farmers together with cooperative. Theoretically some social economic variables have been known influences the rate of farmer’s income, therefore three social variables, such us the level of cooperation services, members participation and friendship among farmers with cooperation were studied. List of questions divided into forty family’s leader members of KUD which become samples. Analysis models were used production function of Cob-Douglass and Output Input Ratio models. It was concluded that level of participation and friendship partially were significantly to the income’s rate meanwhile variable of cooperation services level were not significant. Simultaneously, three factors gave very significant contribution, where R-square was 0.97 so that very significant. It’s also concluded that the biggest contribution given by the friendship level. Efficiency level or farming efforts of the farmers is very well and feasible with the average of OIR rate 19.23. This research recommended that this effort could be improved from friendship process among institution since the contribution was significantly improving the farmer’s income.
Hasnudi; Berutu, I. S.; Daulay, A. H.; Ginting, N.; Sembiring, I.
Beef cattle breeding is a business of the majority people in South Kualuh Subdistrict among others business. Therefore it is necessary to know the people income of beef cattle farms in the district. This research was conducted in South Kualuh Subdistrict of Labuhan Batu Utara Regency of North Sumatera Province from October to December 2016. This research used survey method with family respondent unit that raising beef cattle. The sample was obtained through Proportional Stratified Random Sampling method and obtained by 97 farmers such as, from Tanjung Pasir village, 64 respondents, Simangalam village was 24 respondents and Lobu Huala village was 9 respondents. Data was analysed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that scale of business, education of farmers positively affect the income of beef cattle farms while the age, breeding experience and the number of family dependents negatively affect to the income of beef cattle farms.
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom farming is the performance of services on a farm such as land preparation, seeding, cultivating, applying...
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kristensen, Inge Toft
The objective of the paper is to demonstrate a methodology to establish data for analysing the geographical patterns in the economic performance of farms. The methodology combines population-based agricultural register data on physical activity levels with sample-based farm economic accounts data...... as an illustrative example. Furthermore, the paper identifies some geographical patterns in some of the likely upcoming challenges for agriculture, based on the established dataset....
Bharadwaj, Latika; Findeis, Jill L.
One of the most important changes affecting the agricultural sector in the U.S. has been the increase in off-farm employment and multiple job-holding, especially among women on U.S. farms. This paper examines motivations for off-farm work among farm women in different farm production regions in the U.S. Further, the determinants of off-farm earnings of farm women (and their spouses) are analyzed as well as the receipt of employee benefits by either (or both) the farm woman and farm man. The p...
Full Text Available Complying with the carrying capacity of local and global ecosystems is a prerequisite to ensure environmental sustainability. Based on the example of Swiss mountain dairy farms, the goal of our research was firstly to investigate the relationship between farm global and local environmental performance. Secondly, we aimed to analyse the relationship between farm environmental and economic performance. The analysis relied on a sample of 56 Swiss alpine dairy farms. For each farm, the cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment was calculated, and the quantified environmental impacts were decomposed into their on- and off-farm parts. We measured global environmental performance as the digestible energy produced by the farm per unit of global environmental impact generated from cradle-to-farm-gate. We assessed local environmental performance by dividing farm-usable agricultural area by on-farm environmental impact generation. Farm economic performance was measured by work income per family work unit, return on equity and output/input ratio. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed no significant relationship, trade-offs or synergies between global and local environmental performance indicators. Interestingly, trade-offs were observed far more frequently than synergies. Furthermore, we found synergies between global environmental and economic performance and mostly no significant relationship between local environmental and economic performance. The observed trade-offs between global and local environmental performance mean that, for several environmental issues, any improvement in global environmental performance will result in deterioration of local environmental performance and vice versa. This finding calls for systematic consideration of both dimensions when carrying out farm environmental performance assessments.
Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the socio-economic characteristics of dairy farmers in Antalya, in Turkey, calculate the gross income, variable costs and gross margin of dairy farms, determine the probability distributions of consequences for alternative decisions to enable dairy farmers as decision makers to make a good and well-informed choice, to determine cross effects of milk prices variations on the productive strategy of dairy farms. The data were gathered via face to face interviews in Korkuteli, Dosemealtı, Elmalı, Manavgat and Serik counties of Antalya province in Turkey. The survey study was conducted with 80 farmers, who were member of Dairy Cow Breaders Union, in the 2011 production period. In this study, on the basis of previous experience, dairy farmers assigned minimum, maximum and most likely values of milk price and yield over the next period of 5 years. Then, triangular and cumulative distributions were defined by using these values. Moreover, Monte Carlo Stochastic Simulation model was developed to obtain distribution of expected gross margin per cow. The model and triangular and cumulative distributions were built in Excel with @Risk add-in software. The relationship of mean risk aversion coefficient, calculated by using negative exponential function, with both average gross margin and gross margin standard deviation values determined for each farm was examined. The results show that the relation between average gross margin and mean risk aversion coefficient was negative and significant at 5% level. But, although the relation between gross margin standard deviation and mean risk aversion coefficient was found to be negative, it was not significant at 5% level.
Full Text Available Integrating perennial plant, such as Falcataria moluccana, in farming system can provide economic and environmental benefits, especially in marginal areas. Indonesian governments at all levels have been employing a number of efforts to speed-up adoption of tree planting on farm. However, the establishment of farm forestry on private land in Indonesia, especially in Java, is widely varied. While the farm forestry in some locations has been well adopted, the farmers or land users in other location are reluctant to adopt them, although the traits of farmers and farm land in both locations are similar. Most adoption studies have employed cross-sectional data in a static discrete choice modeling framework to analyze why some farmers adopt at a certain point in time. The static approach does not consider the dynamic environment in which the adoption decision is made and thus does not incorporate speed of adoption. The information of adoption speed of an innovation is important in designing extension policies as well as reengineering innovations in order to align with socio-economic conditions of the farmers. Based on data from a survey of a random sample of 117 smallholder households in Wonosobo Regency, Central Java, Indonesia, this study investigated determinants of time to adoption of farm forestry using duration analysis. Results revealed that factors that accelerate the adoption varied include age of household head, level of education of household head, off-farm employment and output price. Older farmers tend to adopt faster than the younger farmers. The other interesting findings are that off-farm employment and membership to farmers group are two most influential factors in speeding-up adoption of Falcataria-based farm forestry. The policy implications of this research are that government should design policies that promote farmers’ participation in off-farm income activities and strengthening farmer groups in addition to extension
Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng
The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming systems (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems) of sea cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming system were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming system. Yet in the extensive farming system, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming systems, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming system was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming systems. However, the extensive farming system was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming system in the present study.
Zhang Jie; Chowdhury, Souma; Messac, Achille; Castillo, Luciano
A Response Surface-Based Wind Farm Cost (RS-WFC) model is developed for the engineering planning of wind farms. The RS-WFC model is developed using Extended Radial Basis Functions (E-RBF) for onshore wind farms in the U.S. This model is then used to explore the influences of different design and economic parameters, including number of turbines, rotor diameter and labor cost, on the cost of a wind farm. The RS-WFC model is composed of three components that estimate the effects of engineering and economic factors on (i) the installation cost, (ii) the annual Operation and Maintenance (O and M) cost, and (iii) the total annual cost of a wind farm. The accuracy of the cost model is favorably established through comparison with pertinent commercial data. The final RS-WFC model provided interesting insights into cost variation with respect to critical engineering and economic parameters. In addition, a newly developed analytical wind farm engineering model is used to determine the power generated by the farm, and the subsequent Cost of Energy (COE). This COE is optimized for a unidirectional uniform “incoming wind speed” scenario using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). We found that the COE could be appreciably minimized through layout optimization, thereby yielding significant cost savings. - Highlights: ► We present a Response Surface-Based Wind Farm Cost (RS-WFC) model for wind farm design. ► The model could estimate installation cost, Operation and Maintenance cost, and total annual cost of a wind farm. ► The Cost of Energy is optimized using Particle Swarm Optimization. ► Layout optimization could yield significant cost savings.
Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...
O'Brien, D; Hennessy, T; Moran, B; Shalloo, L
Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of milk or the carbon footprint (CF) of milk is a key issue for the European dairy sector given rising concerns over the potential adverse effects of climate change. Several strategies are available to mitigate GHG emissions, but producing milk with a low CF does not necessarily imply that a dairy farm is economically viable. Therefore, to understand the relationship between the CF of milk and dairy farm economic performance, the farm accountancy network database of a European Union nation (Ireland) was applied to a GHG emission model. The method used to quantify GHG emissions was life cycle assessment (LCA), which was independently certified to comply with the British standard for LCA. The model calculated annual on- and off-farm GHG emissions from imported inputs (e.g., electricity) up to the point milk was sold from the farm in CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq). Annual GHG emissions computed using LCA were allocated to milk based on the economic value of dairy farm products and expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The results showed for a nationally representative sample of 221 grass-based Irish dairy farms in 2012 that gross profit averaged € 0.18/L of milk and € 1,758/ha and gross income was € 40,899/labor unit. Net profit averaged € 0.08/L of milk and € 750/ha and net income averaged € 18,125/labor unit. However, significant variability was noted in farm performance across each financial output measure. For instance, net margin per hectare of the top one-third of farms was 6.5 times higher than the bottom third. Financial performance measures were inversely correlated with the CF of milk, which averaged 1.20 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM but ranged from 0.60 to 2.13 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM. Partial least squares regression analysis of correlations between financial and environmental performance indicated that extending the length of the grazing season and increasing milk production
Kristensen, Erik Steen; Knudsen, Marie Trydemann
The effects of conversion to organic farming on N leaching are discussed in the presentation. Problems in European aquatic environment are presented along with the development of organic farming in Denmark and the rest of Europe. Recent Danish studies on the N leaching effects by conversion of mixed dairy and arable farms are presented. The studies estimate that N leaching is lower from organic compared to conventional mixed dairy farms, whereas N leaching at organic arable farms are comparab...
Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria
A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described
Miller, Douglas L; Paxson, Christina
This paper examines the relationship between relative income and mortality. Our research is motivated by recent literature that posits that, holding individual income fixed, those whose income are low relative to the incomes of those in a reference group will have worse health. We develop an empirical model in which an individual's health is a function of his or her own income and the incomes of those who live in the same geographical area. We show how this individual-level model can be estimated using semi-aggregated data on the mortality rates of people categorized by age, race, gender, and place of residence. The model is estimated using mortality data from the 1980 and 1990 Compressed Mortality Files, merged with income data from the 1980 and 1990 5% Public Use samples of the US Census. We find no evidence that having relatively wealthy neighbors, holding own income fixed, is associated with higher mortality. Instead, we find evidence that among some demographic and age groups--in particular working-aged black males--having relatively wealthy neighbors is associated with lower mortality. For example, among younger (aged 25-64) black men, an increase in the income of others is estimated to have a beneficial effect on mortality that is 40% as large as an equivalent increase in own income.
Li, David X; Guindon, G Emmanuel
To examine the relationships between income, income inequality and current smoking among youth in low- and middle-income countries. Pooled cross-sectional data from the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys, conducted in low- and middle-income countries, were used to conduct multi-level logistic analyses that accounted for the nesting of students in schools and of schools in countries. A total of 169 283 students aged 13-15 from 63 low- and middle-income countries. Current smoking was defined as having smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was our measure of absolute income. Contemporaneous and lagged (10-year) Gini coefficients, as well as the income share ratio of the top decile of incomes to the bottom decile, were our measures of income inequality. Our analyses reveal a significant positive association between levels of income and youth smoking. We find that a 10% increase in GDP per capita increases the odds of being a current smoker by at least 2.5%, and potentially considerably more. Our analyses also suggest a relationship between the distribution of incomes and youth smoking: youth from countries with more unequal distributions of income tend to have higher odds of currently smoking. There is a positive association between gross domestic product and the odds of a young person in a low- and middle-income country being a current smoker. Given the causal links between smoking and a wide range of youth morbidities, the association between smoking and income inequality may underlie a substantial portion of the health disparities observed that are currently experiencing rapid economic growth. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Borchers, Allison M.; Xiarchos, Irene; Beckman, Jayson
This article offers the first national examination of the determinants of adoption of wind and solar energy generation on U.S. farming operations. The inclusion of state policies and characteristics in a multilevel modeling approach distinguishes this study from past research utilizing logit models of technology adoption which focus only on the characteristics of the farm operation. Results suggest the propensity to adopt is higher for livestock operations, larger farms, operators with internet access, organic operations, and newer farmers. The results find state characteristics such as solar resources, per capita income levels, and predominantly democratic voting increasing the odds of farm adoption. This research suggests the relevance of state policy variables in explaining farm level outcomes is limited, although in combination best practice net metering and interconnection policies—policies designed to encourage the development of small scale distributed applications—are shown to increase the likelihood of farm solar and wind adoption. The prevalence of electric cooperatives—which are often not subject to state renewable energy policies and often service farms—is negatively related with the propensity to adopt and suggests that policy design may be a factor. - Highlights: • This is the first national examination of wind and solar energy adoption on U.S. farms. • Controlling for state policies distinguishes this study from past research of technology adoption. • We find net metering and interconnection policies increase the likelihood of farm adoption. • Results suggest that the design of renewable energy policies may limit their impact on farms
Full Text Available Researchers measure regime stability in autocratic contexts using a variety of data sources that capture distinct concepts. Often this research uses concepts developed for the study of democratic politics, such as leadership change or institutionalized authority, to construct measures of regime breakdown in non-democratic contexts. This article assesses whether the measure a researcher chooses influences the results they obtain by examining data on executive leadership, political authority, and autocratic regimes. We illustrate the conceptual differences between these variables by extending recent studies in the literature on the political consequences of non-tax revenue and unearned foreign income.
Maria Cecília Sobral
Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.
G. Stacy Sirmans; Philip G. Swicegood
This article examines the determinants of real estate licensee income using a 1997 survey of Texas real estate licensees. The factors having a positive effect on licensee income include: (1) number of hours worked; (2) work experience; (3) being a male; (4) using computer technology; (5) being involved in more transactions; (6) holding professional designations; (7) being associated with a larger firm; and (8) having access to personal assistants. Variables that negatively affect income inclu...
This paper examines the effect of counterfeit goods in a world where consumers are differentiated by level of income and innovation is quality enhancing. Counterfeit goods are defined as products with the same characteristics as “originals”, but of lower quality. The effect of imitation on firms’ profits and consumer welfare depends on the distribution of income within the country. In particular, the greater the level of income inequality the larger the increase in consumer welfare due to the...
Galiano, Aida (UNIR); Romero, José Gabriel
In a context in which increased income inequality has raised much concern, and skilled workers move easily across countries, an important question arises: how does the brain drain affect income distribution in the source economy? We address this question and introduce two contributions to the literature on brain drain. First, we present and solve a simple stylized model to study whether and, if so, how the brain drain affects the distribution of income, in a context in which higher education ...
In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: Landsat bands 4,3 and 2
Anwar, S.; Setyohadi, D. P. S.; Utami, M. M. D.; Damanhuri; Hariono, B.
Bojonegoro, Tulungagung, and Ponorogo districts are an agrarian area and become one of the leading food crops producers in East Java Province. Diversification of farming in this region is done by applying season-based cropping pattern, which is cultivating various commodities in rotation. Farmers need diversification programs wetland cannot provide an optimal contribution to the income of farmers caused because farmers are not able to cultivate high value-added commodities due to limited capital. This research is to identify the characteristics of farming and to analyse the farming system to know the pattern of planting suggestion and prospect. The research used descriptive method, profit farming analysis, and SWOT. The results showed that each region has a specific planting pattern with rice as the main commodity grown in the rainy season followed by crops and horticultural crops and a suggested planting pattern that needs to be implemented by farmers to increase their income. The prospect of diversification of farming development through the implementation of the proposed planting pattern is very suitable with the character of the region and the market demand.
.... The NEP aimed to promote national unity by pursuing the twin objectives of the eradication of poverty and the restructuring of society to eliminate identification of race with economic functions...
Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Frelat, Romain; van Wijk, Mark T; Valbuena, Diego; Krupnik, Timothy J; Jat, M L
One of the great challenges in agricultural development and sustainable intensification is the assurance of social equity in food security oriented interventions. Development practitioners, researchers, and policy makers alike could benefit from prior insight into what interventions or environmental shocks might differentially affect farmers' food security status, in order to move towards more informed and equitable development. We examined the food security status and livelihood activities of 269 smallholder farm households (HHs) in Bihar, India. Proceeding with a four-step analysis, we first applied a multivariate statistical methodology to differentiate five primary farming system types. We next applied an indicator of food security in the form of HH potential food availability (PFA), and examined the contribution of crop, livestock, and on- and off-farm income generation to PFA within each farm HH type. Lastly, we applied scenario analysis to examine the potential impact of the adoption of 'climate smart' agricultural (CSA) practices in the form of conservation agriculture (CA) and improved livestock husbandry, and environmental shocks on HH PFA. Our results indicate that compared to livestock interventions, CA may hold considerable potential to boost HH PFA, though primarily for wealthier and medium-scale cereal farmers. These farm HH types were however considerably more vulnerable to food insecurity risks resulting from simulated drought, while part-time farmers and resource-poor agricultural laborers generating income from off-farm pursuits were comparatively less vulnerable, due in part to their more diversified income sources and potential to migrate in search of work. Our results underscore the importance of prior planning for development initiatives aimed at increasing smallholder food security while maintaining social equity, while providing a robust methodology to vet the implications of agricultural interventions on an ex ante basis.
Rethore, P.-E.; Fuglsang, P.; Larsen, Torben J.; Buhl, T.; Larsen, Gunner C.
A wind farm optimization framework is presented in detail and demonstrated on two test cases: 1) Middelgrunden and 2) Stags Holt/Coldham. A detailed flow model describing the instationary flow within a wind farm is used together with an aeroelastic model to determine production and fatigue loading of wind farm wind turbines. Based on generic load cases, the wind farm production and fatigue evaluations are subsequently condensed in a large pre-calculated database for rapid calculation of lifetime equivalent loads and energy production in the optimization loop. The objective function defining the optimization problem includes elements as energy production, turbine degradation, operation and maintenance costs, electrical grid costs and foundation costs. The objective function is optimized using a dedicated multi fidelity approach with the locations of individual turbines in the wind farm spanning the design space. The results are over all satisfying and are giving some interesting insights on the pros and cons of the design choices. They show in particular that the inclusion of the fatigue loads costs give rise to some additional details in comparison with pure power based optimization. The Middelgrunden test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 2.1 M Euro originating from a very large increase in the energy production value of 9.3 M Euro mainly counterbalanced by increased electrical grid costs. The Stags Holt/Coldham test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 3.1 M Euro. (Author)
Lecours, Natacha; Almeida, Guilherme E G; Abdallah, Jumanne M; Novotny, Thomas E
To review the literature on environmental health impacts of tobacco farming and to summarise the findings and research gaps in this field. A standard literature search was performed using multiple electronic databases for identification of peer-reviewed articles. The internet and organisational databases were also used to find other types of documents (eg, books and reports). The reference lists of identified relevant documents were reviewed to find additional sources. The selected studies documented many negative environmental impacts of tobacco production at the local level, often linking them with associated social and health problems. The common agricultural practices related to tobacco farming, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, lead to deforestation and soil degradation. Agrochemical pollution and deforestation in turn lead to ecological disruptions that cause a loss of ecosystem services, including land resources, biodiversity and food sources, which negatively impact human health. Multinational tobacco companies' policies and practices contribute to environmental problems related to tobacco leaf production. Development and implementation of interventions against the negative environmental impacts of tobacco production worldwide are necessary to protect the health of farmers, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Transitioning these farmers out of tobacco production is ultimately the resolution to this environmental health problem. In order to inform policy, however, further research is needed to better quantify the health impacts of tobacco farming and evaluate the potential alternative livelihoods that may be possible for tobacco farmers globally.
Hauge Madsen, P.; Lundsager, P.
Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigues, wakes, noise and control. (AB)
Hauge Madsen, P.; Lundsager, P.
Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigus, wakes, noise and control. (AB)
Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin
in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine......In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...
Horne, Gary; Meyer, Ted
.Data farm,ing uses simulation modeling, high performance computing, experimental design and analysis to examine questions of interest with large possibility spaces. This methodology allows for the examination of whole landscapes of potential outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that outliers might be captured and examined for insights. It can be used to conduct sensitivity studies, to support validation and verification of models, to iteratively optimize outputs using heuristic search and discovery, and as an aid to decision-makers in understanding complex relationships of factors. In this paper we describe efforts at the Naval Postgraduate School in developing these new and emerging tools. We also discuss data farming in the context of application to questions inherent in military decision-making. The particular application we illustrate here is social network modeling to support the countering of improvised explosive devices.
Moreira, Víctor H; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E
Despite the importance of productivity growth, many studies carried out at the farm level focus primarily on the technical efficiency (TE) component of farm productivity. Therefore, the general purpose of this paper is to measure total factor productivity change and then to decompose this change into several distinct elements. The data were an unbalanced panel for the period from 2005 to 2010 containing 477 farms and 1,426 observations obtained from TODOAGRO, a farm-management center created in 1996 in the southern part of Chile. The region where the data come from accounts for 20% of the total milk processed in the country. Stochastic production frontiers along with the translog functional form were used to analyze total factor productivity change. The econometric evidence indicates that farms exhibit decreasing returns to size implying that costs of production rise as farm size increases, which suggests that the motivation for farm growth stems from the search for income rather than from lowering costs. The main results indicated that productivity gains through TE improvements are limited, with an average TE for the whole sample of 91.0%, and average technical efficiency change of 0.05% per year. By contrast, average technological progress at the sample mean was rather high at 1.90%, which suggests that additional investments in research and subsequent adoption of improved technologies would have a positive effect on productivity growth. The findings also revealed that farm size is not associated with productivity growth for the dairy farms in the sample. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tian, Xiuchun Cindy
The mouse is the first species in which genomic imprinting was studied. Imprinting research in farm species has lagged behind owing to a lack of sequencing and genetic background information, as well as long generation intervals and high costs in tissue collection. Since the creation of Dolly, the first cloned mammal from an adult sheep, studies on genomic imprinting in domestic species have accelerated because animals from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies exhibit phenotypes of imprinting disruptions. Although this review focuses on new developments in farm animals, most of the imprinting mechanism information was derived from the mouse.
Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan
Which social insects rear their own food? Growing fungi for food has evolved twice in social insects: once in new-world ants about 50 million years ago; and once in old-world termites between 24 and 34 million years ago  and  . The termites domesticated a single fungal lineage - the extant...... the farming insects with most of their food ( Figure 1 ). No secondary reversals to the ancestral life style are known in either group, which suggests that the transitions to farming were as drastically innovative and irreversible as when humans made this step about 10,000 years ago....
Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.
Cudzewicz, R., Giacchetti, L., Leininger, M., Levshina, T., Pasetes, R., Schweitzer, M., Wolbers, S.
The current generation of UNIX farms at Fermilab are rapidly approaching the end of their useful life. The workstations were purchased during the years 1991-1992 and represented the most cost-effective computing available at that time. Acquisition of new workstations is being made to upgrade the UNIX farms for the purpose of providing large amounts of computing for reconstruction of data being collected at the 1996-1997 fixed-target run, as well as to provide simulation computing for CMS, the Auger project, accelerator calculations and other projects that require massive amounts of CPU. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs
Larsen, Gunner Chr.
for the wind turbine modeling, where aeroelastic models are required, and for the wind farm flow field description, where in-stationary flow field modeling is needed to capture the complicated mixture of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows and upstream emitted meandering wind turbine wakes, which together...... dictates the fatigue loading of the individual wind turbines. Within an optimization context, the basic challenge in describing the in-stationary wind farm flow field is computational speed. The Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model includes the basic features of a CFD Large Eddy Simulation approach...
Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; Van Arendonk, J A M; De Boer, I J M
Breeding has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farming. Evaluating the effect of a 1-unit change (i.e., 1 genetic standard deviation improvement) in genetic traits on GHG emissions along the chain provides insight into the relative importance of genetic traits to reduce GHG emissions. Relative GHG values of genetic traits, however, might depend on feed-related farm characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed-related farm characteristics on GHG values by comparing the values of milk yield and longevity for an efficient farm and a less efficient farm. The less efficient farm did not apply precision feeding and had lower feed production per hectare than the efficient farm. Greenhouse gas values of milk yield and longevity were calculated by using a whole-farm model and 2 different optimization methods. Method 1 optimized farm management before and after a change in genetic trait by maximizing labor income; the effect on GHG emissions (i.e., from production of farm inputs up to the farm gate) was considered a side effect. Method 2 optimized farm management after a change in genetic trait by minimizing GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and milk production at least at the level before the change in trait; the effect on labor income was considered a side effect. Based on maximizing labor income (method 1), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 279 and 143kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 247 and 210kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Based on minimizing GHG emissions (method 2), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 538 and 563kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 453 and 441kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Sensitivity analysis showed that, for both methods, the absolute effect of a
This author provided a conceptual overview of income trusts and limited partnerships that are designed to pass operating cash flow directly to investors without the imposition of corporate taxes, discussed the evolution of the market, the mechanism used to price income funds, past and present performance of the sector, and made some predictions concerning the sector's future performance. 13 figs
This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income
Due to the impracticability of simulating complete natural communities, the answer for economic optimization seems to lie in supplementing stock farming systems with compatible wild ungulates, rather than expecting economic superiority from wild multi-species systems . African Journal of Range and Forage Science Vol.
Sorenson, Douglas D.
To counter elementary school children's ignorance about farming, a 1981 Agriculture in the Classroom Task Force recommended that states create their own groups and awareness programs. This article describes cooperative efforts between private and public sector organizations in Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Iowa, Oregon, and Virginia. An address and…
Rusni Fitri Y. Rusman
Full Text Available Seaweed is one of the marine production that authentically potential to be increased its production in quantity and quality. In economic side, it is not only for country’s foreign exchange earnings but also for a source of income to the seaweed farmers. The aims of research were to elaborate the influencing use of seed, number of labor, and farming experience on seaweed production in Bantaeng Regency and to analyze the influencing production to the farmers’ income. The research was conducted in Bantaeng Regency and the data were obtained through observation and structured interview. The samples were selected purposively consisting of 94 seaweed farmers using cobb-douglas and simple linear regression analysis. The results of the research indicated that; (a regression coefficient variable in use of seed had influence to the increased of seaweed production but regression coefficient variable number of labor didn’t have to influence to increased seaweed production. For regression coefficient variable of farming experience also had influence to the increased seaweed production.Cobb-Douglas analysis indicated that production function in factors use of seed, number of labor and farming experience had significantly affected to the seaweed production. In simple linear regression analysis, regression coefficient of seaweed production variable explained if seaweed production increases, farmers’ income would be increase too. Keywords : Seaweed, Cobb-Douglas, Production, Farmers’ Income.
Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain; David, Christophe
Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios. (letter)
Full Text Available Research aim was to see variability, feasibility, and mustard farm income cultivated in Jayapura . The experiment was conducted in Kampung Yobeh, District of Sentani, Jayapura regency, on November to December 2013, using data growing season in October 2013, in form of a survey involving 30 mustard farmers as respondents . Determination of respondent using simple random method by getting farmers planting mustard continuously. Results: average mustard farmers area of 0,099 ha, seed expenses of IDR 37,400, the use of 9.20 kg Urea, NPK 2.80 kg, 526 kg manure , and cost of medicines IDR 26.366, male workers 2.66 HOK and women 2.03 HOK , and other expenses (shrinkage values and land tax .The level of productivity of mustard is 538.6 kg/0.99 ha/cropping season. Total revenue mustard farming with land size 0,099 ha/growing season is IDR 1.615.800, total spending is IDR 562 18. Benefit of farmers is IDR 1,053,618 with value of R/C ratio of 2.87. Analysis shows that mustard farming in Yobeh village, Sentani, Jayapura profitable, it is advisable for further development. Need guidance from Field Extension so that increased production increased.
Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the declaration of income for 2007. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Regulations (see Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05). ...
The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers....
Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.
Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)
Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB
In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...
D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.
In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...
Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.
Generally people are more positive towards offshore wind farms compared to on-land wind farms. However, the attitudes are commonly assumed to be independent of experience with wind farms. Important relations between attitude and experience might therefore be disregarded. The present paper gives...... a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind...... farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more...
Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole
Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...
... Do > Keeping Noise Down on the Farm Keeping Noise Down on the Farm SHARE Some people may ... risks permanent hearing damage. Take steps to reduce noise from machinery. Keep machinery running smoothly by replacing ...
Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan
Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa.
Kimberly M Fornace
Full Text Available Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa.
E James Hehre
Full Text Available Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar, or the Western Pacific (Fiji. In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.
Dzingirayi, Garikayi; Korsten, Lise
Growing global consumer concern over food safety in the fresh produce industry requires producers to implement necessary quality assurance systems. Varying effectiveness has been noted in how countries and food companies interpret and implement food safety standards. A diagnostic instrument (DI) for global fresh produce industries was developed to measure the compliancy of companies with implemented food safety standards. The DI is made up of indicators and descriptive grids for context factors and control and assurance activities to measure food safety output. The instrument can be used in primary production to assess food safety performance. This study applied the DI to measure food safety standard compliancy of mushroom farming in South Africa. Ten farms representing almost half of the industry farms and more than 80% of production were independently assessed for their horticultural safety management system (HSMS) compliance via in-depth interviews with each farm's quality assurance personnel. The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and are represented in frequency tables. The diagnosis revealed that the mushroom farming industry had an average food safety output. The farms were implementing an average-toadvanced HSMS and operating in a medium-risk context. Insufficient performance areas in HSMSs included inadequate hazard analysis and analysis of control points, low specificity of pesticide assessment, and inadequate control of suppliers and incoming materials. Recommendations to the industry and current shortcomings are suggested for realization of an improved industry-wide food safety assurance system.
Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, Jessica J
Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.
Trung Thanh Nguyen
Full Text Available Facing widespread poverty and land degradation, Vietnam started a land reform in 1993 as part of its renovation policy package known as “Doi Moi”. This paper examines the impacts of improved land tenure security, via this land reform, on manure use by farm households. As manure potentially improves soil fertility by adding organic matter and nutrients to the soil surface, it might contribute to improving soil productive capacity and reversing land degradation. Random effect regression models are applied to a panel dataset of 133 farm households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam collected in 1993, 1998, and 2006. The results confirm that land tenure security has positive effects on manure use, but the levels of influence differ depending on whether the land has been privatized or whether the land title has already been issued. In addition, manure use is also influenced by the number of cattle and pigs, the education level and ethnicity of household heads, farm land size and non-farm income. The findings suggest that speeding up land privatization and titling, encouraging cattle and pig rearing, and improving education would promote manure use in farm production. However, careful interpretation of our research findings is required as land privatization, together with economic growth and population pressure, might lead to overuse of farm inputs.
Full Text Available This article examines the implementation of fish farming as an innovative and economic strategy for promoting food security and dietary diversities among vulnerable households in drought risk areas of Zimbabwe. The declining climatic conditions and lack of economic opportunities in Mwenezi district of Zimbabwe attracted the attention of three nongovernmental organisations (NGOs to implement fish farming as an innovative mechanism to stimulate food security and generate employment in the district. The article used a qualitative research approach that includes semi-structured interviews and secondary data. The purposive sampling technique was adopted to interview participants in Mwenezi district who were involved in fish farming to assess and explore the experiences and benefits they derive from such development projects. Results for the article revealed that fish farming was well embraced by local communities as it led to improvements in food security, household income and employment regeneration. The local government including traditional leadership (Chiefs and Headmen’s supported the NGO activities as they benefited local communities. The article concludes that although fish farming was instrumental in regenerating employment, some participants still fail to participate because of laziness and desire to maintain dependency syndrome. The article recommends the NGOs to launch awareness campaigns in rural communities and increase networking with the donor community which is fundamental in attracting sustainable funding. The government can also promote fish farming in vulnerable rural communities by providing funding and capacity building programmes.
Haile Abraha, N.
Keywords: rainfall risk, ex-ante risk management, ex-post risk coping strategies, off-farm labor supply, fertilizer adoption, Northern Ethiopia, Tigray. Rural households in semi-arid areas often experience rainfall-related shocks that result in low and uncertain income. Household’s survival depends
Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G
Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schaefer, Barbara E.
The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in…
Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed fish products. Design/methodology/approach: Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category involvement,
Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup
In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...
Kallioniemi, Marja Kristiina; Simola, Ahti Jarkko Kalervo; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Vesala, Hannu Tapio; Louhelainen, Jarmo Kyösti
The aims were to examine the prevalence of stress among Finnish full-time farm entrepreneurs in 2004 (n = 1,182) and to compare the results with those for the general working population in 2003. The second aim was to analyze which factors were associated with the prevalence of stress. A stratified random sample of farm entrepreneurs gathered from the farm register was surveyed using computer-assisted telephone interviews. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the association with background factors. One third (34 %) of the examined farmers had experienced stress. This amount was lower than among the general working population (44 %). The most common factors associated with farmers' stress were problems in social family relationships and mental support. Physical factors such as the strenuousness of agricultural work, illness and a low estimation of their own working ability, were also related to stress. Increased stress was also associated with economic problems. Health and extension services should pay special attention to encouraging farm entrepreneurs to maintain their social relationships. The relatively low level of stress observed may indicate that those who have continued within the agricultural sector have the psychological capacity to deal with stressful situations.
Gandhi, A.; Harchol-Balter, M.; Adan, I.
In this paper we consider server farms with a setup cost. This model is common in manufacturing systems and data centers, where there is a cost to turn servers on. Setup costs always take the form of a time delay, and sometimes there is additionally a power penalty, as in the case of data centers.
Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Karakiewicz, Beata; Kassolik, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Waldemar
Wind power is employed worldwide as an alternative source of energy. At the same time, however, the health effects of wind turbines have become a matter of discussion. The purpose of this study is a critical review of available reports providing arguments both for and against the construction of wind farms. The authors also attempt to propose recommendations in accordance with the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) guidelines. In the case of exposure to wind farms, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is impossible. To obtain the highest-level recommendations, analysis of case-control studies or cohort studies with control groups should be performed. Preferably, it should include geostatistical analysis conducted with the use of variograms and the kriging technique. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge (SM) and the Internet search engine Google. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF STATE OF THE ART: The nuisance caused by wind turbines is stereotypically linked with the noise that they produce. Nevertheless, the visual aspect of wind farms, opinions about them, and sensitivity to sound seem to be of the greater importance. To date, the direct correlations between the vicinity of modern wind farms, the noise that wind turbines make, and possible consequences to health have not been described in peer reviewed articles. Health effects are more probably associated with some environmental factors leading to annoyance or frustration. All types of studies share the same conclusion: wind turbines can provoke annoyance. As with any project involving changes in the local environment, a certain level of irritation among the population can be expected. There are elected officials and government representatives who should decide what level of social annoyance is acceptable, and whether wind power advantages outweigh its potential drawbacks. The influence of wind turbines on human emotional and physical health is a relatively new field of research. Further
Davis-Brown, Karen; Salamon, Sonya
Integrates family stress theory with empirical farm family research. Using the integration of theory and empirical findings, produces the Farm Family Assessment Instrument, a practical assessment instrument for use by farm crisis counselors who work with families who have lost or are losing their farms. (Author/NB)
Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.
Whole farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating the impact of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified by simulating the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. Technology such as a
Sterk, B.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leeuwis, C.; Wijnands, F.G.
Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level.
Tarafdar hagh, M.; Roshan Milani, A.; Lafzi, A.
In recent years, induction generators used in wind farms have found a great importance. Self exciting induction generators main problem is its requirement to a reactive power in order to generate output voltage. In order to provide the mentioned reactive power, using fixed capacitors connected to generator terminals is one of the usual methods. Using variable and switchable capacitor banks is one of the methods to generate reactive power for induction generators and to keep voltage stability since induction generators requirement to reactive power varies by load changes and wind speed. In this paper transient condition accrue by capacitor banks switching in wind farm are simulated by MATLAB and methods are suggested to optimize mentioned conditions.
Berinde, Ioan; Bălan, Horia; Oros, Teodora Susana
Voltage, frequency, active power and reactive power are very important parameters in terms of power quality. These parameters are followed when connecting any power plant, the more the connection of wind farms. Connecting wind farms to the electricity system must not cause interference outside the limits set by regulations. Modern solutions for fast and automatic voltage control and power fluctuations using electronic control systems of reactive power flows. FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmision System) systems, established on the basis of power electronic circuits ensure control of electrical status quantities to achieve the necessary transfer of power to the power grid. FACTS devices can quickly control parameters and sizes of state power lines, such as impedance line voltages and phase angles of the voltages of the two ends of the line. Their use can lead to improvement in power system operation by increasing the transmission capacity of power lines, power flow control lines, improved static and transient stability reserve
Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding (from November 2003 to May 2004. In this paper the nutritive value of corn silage on 19 dairy family farms from 5 counties was investigated. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500. Scottish calibration models had been applied and determined: dry matter corrected (DM, organic matter (OM crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy (ME, pH value, fermented ME in ME (FME/ME, starch and digestibility of OM in DM (D-value. The results show high DM (391.78 g kg-1, starch (335.13 g kg-1ST and NDF (425.33 g kg-1ST content. In average the silage was stabile (pH 3.7, had suitable FME/ME content (0.81 and good digestibility (D-value 71.6%, but of low CP content (65.19 g kg-1. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were observed for DM, OM, CP, NDF, pH, starch and FME/ME.
Jalal, Sabeena; Khan, Najib Ullah; Younis, Mustafa Z
Global disparities in health form a complex issue adversely affecting much of the world's population. What has been found is that national income and other general socio-economic factors are strong determinants of population health (Houweling, 2005 & Schell, 2007). In countries where resources are less, people are much less healthy than people living in rich countries. In wealthier countries that have made immense progress in health indicators, the resulting change in age structure and morbidity and mortality patterns portends even greater financial demands on the health sector. This study noted the trends in several health indicators versus economic indicators and related it to low income, lower middle income, upper middle income and high income countries. We noted that there is improvement in all health indicators along with an increasing GNI per Capita and GDP. In low income regions though, the rate of improvement is slower as opposed to high income countries. However, there is progress, which is leading to an increase in aging population.
Zhao, Menghua; Blåbjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe
In this paper, a new reliability index - Loss Of Generation Ratio Probability (LOGRP) is proposed for evaluating the reliability of an electrical system for offshore wind farms, which emphasizes the design of wind farms rather than the adequacy for specific load demand. A practical method...... to calculate LOGRP of offshore wind farms is proposed and evaluated....