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Sample records for stability ultramicroelectrode voltammetric

  1. On the use of voltammetric methods to determine electrochemical stability limits for lithium battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georén, Peter; Lindbergh, Göran

    In previous studies a novel amphiphilic co-polymer was developed for use in lithium-ion batteries. In order to evaluate the electrochemical stability of that electrolyte and compare it with others, a voltammetric method was applied on a set of electrolytes with different salts, solvents and polymers. However, initially the voltammetric methodology was studied. Platinum was found to be the most suited electrode material, experiencing no significant interfering reactions and a proper diffusion-controlled kinetic behaviour when sweep rate was varied. Furthermore, the influence on the voltammograms of adding water traces to the electrolytes was studied. It could be established that the oxidation peak around 3.8 V versus Li was related to water reactions. It was concluded that quantitative voltage values of the stability limits were difficult to assess using voltammetry. On the other hand, the method seemed well suited for comparison of electrolytes and to investigate the influences of electrolyte components on the stability. The voltammetric results varied little between the different electrolytes evaluated and the anodic and cathodic limits, as defined here, were in the range of 1 and 4.5 V vs. Li, respectively. Although the novel polymer did not affect the stability limit significantly it seemed to promote the breakdown reaction rate in all electrolytes tested. Furthermore, the use of LiTFSI salt reduced the stability window.

  2. Micro-Drilling of Polymer Tubular Ultramicroelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels B. Larsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT, a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM.

  3. Use of Hg-Electroplated-Pt Ultramicroelectrode for Determining Elemental Sulphur in Naphtha Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the applicability of a Hg-electroplated-Pt ultramicroelectrode in the quantification of elemental sulphur in naphtha samples by square-wave voltammetry. A reproducible deposition methodology was studied and is reported in this paper. This methodology is innovative and relies on the quality of the mercury stock solution to obtain reproducible surfaces required for the analytical methodology. All analyses were performed using a Hg-electroplated-Pt ultramicroelectrode (Hg-Pt UME due to the low sensibility of such devices to ohmic drops in resistive solutions. The responses of the peak areas in voltammetric experiments were linear in all of the range studied. The method developed here is accurate and reproducible, with a detection limit of 0.010 mg L−1 and a good recovery range for both standard solutions of elemental sulphur (85 to 99% and real naphtha sample (79%. These results attest to the potential for the application of this electroanalytical methodology in determining elemental sulphur in naphtha samples containing mercaptans and disulphides.

  4. Carbon fiber on polyimide ultra-microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Winthrop F.; Lissandrello, Charles A.; Shen, Jun; Pearre, Ben W.; Mertiri, Alket; Deku, Felix; Cogan, Stuart; Holinski, Bradley J.; Chew, Daniel J.; White, Alice E.; Otchy, Timothy M.; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Most preparations for making neural recordings degrade over time and eventually fail due to insertion trauma and reactive tissue response. The magnitudes of these responses are thought to be related to the electrode size (specifically, the cross-sectional area), the relative stiffness of the electrode, and the degree of tissue tolerance for the material. Flexible carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes have a much smaller cross-section than traditional electrodes and low tissue reactivity, and thus may enable improved longevity of neural recordings in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Only two carbon fiber array designs have been described previously, each with limited channel densities due to limitations of the fabrication processes or interconnect strategies. Here, we describe a method for assembling carbon fiber electrodes on a flexible polyimide substrate that is expected to facilitate the construction of high-density recording and stimulating arrays. Approach. Individual carbon fibers were aligned using an alignment tool that was 3D-printed with sub-micron resolution using direct laser writing. Indium deposition on the carbon fibers, followed by low-temperature microsoldering, provided a robust and reliable method of electrical connection to the polyimide interconnect. Main results. Spontaneous multiunit activity and stimulation-evoked compound responses with SNR  >10 and  >120, respectively, were recorded from a small (125 µm) peripheral nerve. We also improved the typically poor charge injection capacity of small diameter carbon fibers by electrodepositing 100 nm-thick iridium oxide films, making the carbon fiber arrays usable for electrical stimulation as well as recording. Significance. Our innovations in fabrication technique pave the way for further miniaturization of carbon fiber ultra-microelectrode arrays. We believe these advances to be key steps to enable a shift from labor intensive, manual assembly to a more automated

  5. Fabrication of a Polyaniline Ultramicroelectrode via a Self Assembled Monolayer Modified Gold Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Gulcin; Kuralay, Filiz; Eroglu, Gunes; Abaci, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive way for the fabrication of an ultramicroelectrode and present its characterization by electrochemical techniques. The fabrication of polyaniline UME involves only two steps: modification of a gold (Au) electrode by self assembled monolayers (SAM) and then electrodeposition of polyaniline film on this thiol-coated Au electrode by using cyclic voltammetry and constant potential electrolysis methods. Two types of self-assembled monolayers (4-mercapto-1-butanol, MB, and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, MUA) were used, respectively, to see the effect of chain length on microelectrode formation. Microelectrode fabrication and utility of the surface was investigated by cyclic voltammetric measurements in a redox probe. The thus prepared polyaniline microelectrode was then used for DNA immobilization. Discrimination between double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was obtained with enhanced electrochemical signals compared to a polyaniline-coated Au electrode. Different modifications on the electrode surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:23797740

  6. Ultramicroelectrode studies of oxygen reduction in polyelectrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdcroft, S.; Abdou, M.S.; Beattie, P.; Basura, V. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    A study on the oxygen reduction reaction in a solid state electrochemical cell was presented. The oxygen reduction reaction is a rate limiting reaction in the operation of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells which use H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Interest in the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum electrodes in contact with Nafion electrolytes stems from its role in fuel cell technology. The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction in different polyelectrolyte membranes, such as Nafion and non-Nafion membranes, were compared. The electrode kinetics and mass transport parameters of the oxygen reduction reaction in polyelectrolyte membranes were measured by ultramicroelectrode techniques. The major difference found between these two classes of membrane was the percentage of water, which is suggestive of superior electrochemical mass transport properties of the non-Nafion membranes. 2 refs. 1 fig.

  7. Micro-drilling of polymer tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays for electrochemical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert; Skaarup, Steen; Geschke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 μm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 μm were...... were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM....

  8. Sensing oxygen at the millisecond time-scale using an ultra-microelectrode array (UMEA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, F.; Bomer, Johan G.; de Boer, Hans L.; Abbas, Yawar; de Weerd, Eddy; van den Berg, Albert; Le Gac, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    We report a novel sensing protocol based on ultra-short (< 5 ms) measurements, which is using a dedicated sensor consisting of an ultra-microelectrode array (UMEA) for monitoring the concentration in dissolved oxygen concentrations in solution. The UMEA sensor is fabricated from Pt and

  9. The effect of concentration on the electrocrystallization mechanism for copper on platinum ultramicroelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barin Cláudia S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of copper electrocrystallization on Pt ultramicroelectrode surfaces has been studied by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and ex situ atomic force microscopy in acid solutions containing different Cu2+ concentrations. To analyze the potentiostatic transients a new model developed in our laboratories that takes into account spherical diffusion towards a disc-shaped ultramicroelectrode was used. A mechanistic change from progressive to instantaneous nucleation was observed when the Cu2+ concentration was increased from 0.01 to 0.1 mol dm-3. The shape and distribution of the nuclei formed on the surface were investigated by AFM. The dependence of the nucleation rate with potential was analyzed in terms of the atomistic theory of electrocrystallization and the results suggest the presence of only one copper atom in the critical nucleus.

  10. Ultramicroelectrode Array Based Sensors: A Promising Analytical Tool for Environmental Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco, Jahir; Fern?ndez-S?nchez, C?sar; Jim?nez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The particular analytical performance of ultramicroelectrode arrays (UMEAs) has attracted a high interest by the research community and has led to the development of a variety of electroanalytical applications. UMEA-based approaches have demonstrated to be powerful, simple, rapid and cost-effective analytical tools for environmental analysis compared to available conventional electrodes and standardised analytical techniques. An overview of the fabrication processes of UMEAs, their characteri...

  11. VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TINIDAZOLE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical behavior of tinidazole at carbon paste electrode. Tinidazole showed an irreversible reduction peak at about -440 mV. The differential pulse voltammetric peak current of tinidazole showed linear dependence on concentration in the range 5.0-200 μM with ...

  12. Ultramicroelectrode Array Based Sensors: A Promising Analytical Tool for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Jiménez-Jorquera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The particular analytical performance of ultramicroelectrode arrays (UMEAs has attracted a high interest by the research community and has led to the development of a variety of electroanalytical applications. UMEA-based approaches have demonstrated to be powerful, simple, rapid and cost-effective analytical tools for environmental analysis compared to available conventional electrodes and standardised analytical techniques. An overview of the fabrication processes of UMEAs, their characterization and applications carried out by the Spanish scientific community is presented. A brief explanation of theoretical aspects that highlight their electrochemical behavior is also given. Finally, the applications of this transducer platform in the environmental field are discussed.

  13. Ultramicroelectrode array based sensors: a promising analytical tool for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Jahir; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The particular analytical performance of ultramicroelectrode arrays (UMEAs) has attracted a high interest by the research community and has led to the development of a variety of electroanalytical applications. UMEA-based approaches have demonstrated to be powerful, simple, rapid and cost-effective analytical tools for environmental analysis compared to available conventional electrodes and standardised analytical techniques. An overview of the fabrication processes of UMEAs, their characterization and applications carried out by the Spanish scientific community is presented. A brief explanation of theoretical aspects that highlight their electrochemical behavior is also given. Finally, the applications of this transducer platform in the environmental field are discussed.

  14. VOLTAMMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VOLTAMMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROXO-, CHLORO-, EDTA AND CARBOHYDRATE COMPLEXES OF LEAD, CHROMIUM, ZINC, CADMIUM AND COPPER: POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO METAL SPECIATION STUDIES IN BREWERY WASTEWATER.

  15. Estudo eletroanalítico do herbicida paraquat em soluções aquosas por voltametria de onda quadrada utilizando ultramicroeletrodos Electroanalytical study of the paraquat herbicide in aqueous solution by square wave voltammetry using ultramicroelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djenaine de Souza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of paraquat on Pt, Au and carbon fiber ultramicroelectrodes were studied in laboratory samples by square wave voltammetry at high frequencies. The results showed two reversible peaks for paraquat reduction, in agreement to the literature data. The first peak was associated to the reduction of paraquat molecule in solution, with the further adsorption of the intermediate on the electrode surface. This adsorbed species undergoes to electroreduction in a reaction associated to the second voltammetric peak. The variation in pH and square wave parameters showed the best conditions to reduce paraquat as pH 5.0, frequency as high as 1000 s-1, scan increment of 2 mV and square wave amplitude of 50 mV. At such conditions, a variation of paraquat concentrations from 4.3 x 10-6 to 1.66 x 10-4 mol L-1 presented values for the detection limit equal to 3.9, 6.2 and 20.3 ppb on Pt, Au and carbon, respectively, at 1000 s-1. These values are quite below17 the allowed limit of paraquat in drinking water.

  16. Amorphous silicon carbide ultramicroelectrode arrays for neural stimulation and recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deku, Felix; Cohen, Yarden; Joshi-Imre, Alexandra; Kanneganti, Aswini; Gardner, Timothy J.; Cogan, Stuart F.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Foreign body response to indwelling cortical microelectrodes limits the reliability of neural stimulation and recording, particularly for extended chronic applications in behaving animals. The extent to which this response compromises the chronic stability of neural devices depends on many factors including the materials used in the electrode construction, the size, and geometry of the indwelling structure. Here, we report on the development of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) based on amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC). Approach. This technology utilizes a-SiC for its chronic stability and employs semiconductor manufacturing processes to create MEAs with small shank dimensions. The a-SiC films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and patterned by thin-film photolithographic techniques. To improve stimulation and recording capabilities with small contact areas, we investigated low impedance coatings on the electrode sites. The assembled devices were characterized in phosphate buffered saline for their electrochemical properties. Main results. MEAs utilizing a-SiC as both the primary structural element and encapsulation were fabricated successfully. These a-SiC MEAs had 16 penetrating shanks. Each shank has a cross-sectional area less than 60 µm2 and electrode sites with a geometric surface area varying from 20 to 200 µm2. Electrode coatings of TiN and SIROF reduced 1 kHz electrode impedance to less than 100 kΩ from ~2.8 MΩ for 100 µm2 Au electrode sites and increased the charge injection capacities to values greater than 3 mC cm-2. Finally, we demonstrated functionality by recording neural activity from basal ganglia nucleus of Zebra Finches and motor cortex of rat. Significance. The a-SiC MEAs provide a significant advancement in the development of microelectrodes that over the years has relied on silicon platforms for device manufacture. These flexible a-SiC MEAs have the potential for decreased tissue damage and reduced

  17. New molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor for determination of ochratoxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yola, Mehmet Lütfi, E-mail: mehmetyola@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey); Gupta, Vinod Kumar, E-mail: vinodfcy@iitr.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa); Atar, Necip [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey)

    2016-04-01

    In this report, a novel molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) involved in a polyoxometalate (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, POM) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was presented for determination of ochrattoxin A (OCH). The developed surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. OCH imprinted GCE was prepared via electropolymerization process of 100 mM phenol as monomer in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) containing 25 mM OCH. The linearity range and the detection limit of the method were calculated as 5.0 × 10{sup −11} − 1.5 × 10{sup −9} M and 1.6 × 10{sup −11} M, respectively. The voltammetric sensor was applied to grape juice and wine samples with good selectivity and recovery. The stability of the voltammetric sensor was also reported. - Highlights: • Ochratoxin A-imprinted electrochemical sensor is developed for the sensitive detection of ochratoxin A • The nanomaterial and ochratoxin A-imprinted surfaces were characterized by several methods • Ochratoxin A-imprinted electrochemical sensor is sensitive and selective in analysis of food • Ochratoxin A-imprinted electrochemical sensor is preferred to the other methods.

  18. Comparison of nanostructured silver-modified silver and carbon ultramicroelectrodes for electrochemical detection of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi Zadeh Zhad, Hamid R; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2015-09-10

    We report the use of silver (Ag)-modified carbon and Ag ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) for electrochemical detection of nitrate. We investigated several methods for electrodeposition of Ag; our results show that the addition of a complexation agent (ammonium sulfate) in the Ag deposition solution is necessary for electrodeposition of nanostructured Ag that adheres well to the electrode. The electrodeposited Ag on both types of electrodes has branch-like structures that are well-suited for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate. The use of UMEs is advantageous; the sigmoidal-shaped cyclic voltammogram allows for sensitive detection of nitrate by reducing the capacitive current, as well as enabling easy quantification of the nitrate reduction current. Both cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to characterize the electrodes; and independent of the electrochemical interrogation technique, both UMEs were found to have a wide linear dynamic range (4-1000 μM) and a low limit of detection (3.2-5.1 μM). More importantly, they are reusable up to ∼100 interrogation cycles and are selective enough to be used for direct detection of nitrate in a synthetic aquifer sample without any sample pretreatment and/or pH adjustment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of forced convection on the collision and interaction between nanoparticles and ultramicroelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Huang, Xinjian; Wang, Lishi

    2016-04-01

    Detection of nanoparticle (NP) collision events at ultramicroelectrode (UME) has emerged as a new methodology for the investigation of single NP in recent years. Although the method was widely employed, some fundamental knowledge such as how the NP moves to and interacts with the UME remain less understood. It was generally recognized that the recorded rate of collision was determined by diffusion that should follow Fick's first law. However, significant lower collision frequency compared with that of predicted by theory were frequently reported. Experiments carried out by us suggest that the collision frequency will increase dramatically if forced convection (stir or flow injection) is applied during detection. Furthermore, the collision frequency gradually increases to a maximum and then decreases, along with the increase of the convection intensity. This phenomenon is interpreted as follows: (a) there are two steps for a freely moving NP to generate a detectable collision signal. The first step is the move of NP from bulk solution to the surface of the UME which is mass transfer limited; the second step is the landing of NP on the surface of UME which is affected by many factors and is the critical step; (b) there is a barrier that must be overcame before the contact between freely moving NP and UME. Forced convection with moderate intensity can not only increase the mass transfer rate but also help to overcome this barrier and thus enhance the collision frequency; (c) the landing of NP on the surface of UME can be suppressed by stronger convections, because NP will be swept away by hydrodynamic force. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. voltammetric investigation of the distribution of hydroxo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preliminary studies of this work as a starting point for the voltammetric experiments on metal- inorganic and metal-organic complex formation reactions. Other metal ions studied were Cu“,. C (12+, Zn2+ and Cry/5+. Background on brewery effluent. Brewery wastewater samples were obtained from Kgalagadi Breweries plant ...

  1. VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NICOTINE IN CIGARETTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT. The electrochemical behavior of nicotine was investigated using cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques. Electrochemical activation of glassy carbon electrode significantly increased the oxidation peak current of nicotine compared to the bare glassy carbon. At the activated glassy carbon electrode,.

  2. SQUARE WAVE VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF LEAD IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-31

    Dec 31, 2011 ... electrode working electrode (radiometer analytical SAS), a Pt wire counter electrode, and an Hg/Hg2Cl2 reference electrode (saturated with KCl). The parameters for square wave voltammetric measurements were: the potential step was 15 mV, the square wave amplitude was 50 mV, and the scan rate was ...

  3. SQUARE WAVE VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF LEAD IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-31

    Dec 31, 2011 ... ABSTRACT. A simple sensitive square wave voltammetric method for the determination of lead contamination of several kohl samples purchased from Algeria retail stores was developed using glassy carbon electrode. The peak current response of 5 standards aqueous solution of lead in NaNO3 as ...

  4. Voltammetric determination of zirconium using azo compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orshulyak, O.O.; Levitskaya, G.D.

    2008-01-01

    The optimum conditions for zirconium complexation with azo compounds are found. The applicability of Eriochrome Red B, Calcon, and Calcion to the voltammetric determination of zirconium, total Zr(IV) and Hf(IV), and Zr(IV) in the presence of Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), or Ti(IV) is demonstrated. The developed procedures are used to determine zirconium in a terbium alloy and in an alloy for airplane wheel drums [ru

  5. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    1998-12-11

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical ''signatures'' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration, the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can

  6. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael C.; Skubal, Laura R.

    1999-02-01

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical 'signatures' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration; the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can detect, recognize, and

  7. STUDY OF ELECTROPOLIMERIZATION PROCESSES OF PYRROLE BY CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRIC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitasari Suratman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Electropolymerization processes and electrochemical properties of polypyrrole as electroactive polymer have been studied by cyclic voltammetric technique. Pyrrole was electropolymerized to form polypyrrole in water-based solvent containing sodium perchlorate as supporting electrolyte in several pH values. The pH of the solutions were varied by using Britton Robinson buffer. The results showed that oxidation potential limit of electropolymerization processes of pyrrole was 1220 mV vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. It can be seen that cyclic voltammetric respon of polypyrrole membrane that was prepared by electropolymerization processes of pyrrole at the scanning rate of 100 mV/s was stable. While the processes of pyrrole electropolymerization carried out at the variation of pH showed that the best condition was at the pH range of 2 - 6.   Keywords: polypyrolle, electropolymer, voltammetric technique

  8. Voltammetric oxidation of dipyridamole in aqueous acid solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castilho Marilza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of dipyridamole (DIP has been studied in acidified aqueous solutions at platinum electrodes employing cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential electrolysis. The progress of the anodic oxidation as a function of time was monitored by cyclic voltammetry with platinum ultramicroelectrodes, absorption and fluorescence optical spectroscopies, the resulting integrated charge being indicative of a two electron process. The cyclic voltammograms registered for low scan speeds are characterized by a single irreversible diffusion controlled anodic wave, the related cathodic wave being also observable for scan speeds higher than 1 V s-1. Oxidation reaction stoichiommetric parameters were obtained through Tafel slopes resulting in unitary reaction orders for DIP and H+.

  9. Microscopic and voltammetric properties of lustrous bismuth deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Krolicka, Agnieszka; Bobrowski, Andrzej; Pamuła, Elżbieta

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of lustrous bismuth films, plated at glassy carbon, platinum and gold supports, is presented. The voltammetric performance of preplated bismuth film electrodes was tested using 50 μg/L In(III) and 50 μg/L Pb(II) solutions in 0.1 M acetic buffer in square wave and differential pulse modes. The influence of support material, plating solution concentration and storing conditions on the voltammetric response of BiFEs is discussed. The results of microscopic examination...

  10. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric measurements of trace beryllium at the mercury film electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joseph [Biodesign Institute, Departments of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)]. E-mail: joseph.wang@asu.edu; Thongngamdee, Sompong [Biodesign Institute, Departments of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Lu Donglai [Biodesign Institute, Departments of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2006-04-06

    A highly sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetric protocol for measuring trace beryllium, in which the preconcentration is achieved by adsorption of the beryllium-arsenazo-I complex at a preplated mercury-coated carbon-fiber electrode, is described. Optimal conditions were found to be a 0.05 M ammonium buffer (pH 9.7) containing 5 {mu}M arsenazo-I, an accumulation potential of 0.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl) and a square-wave voltammetric scan. The new procedure obviates the need for renewable mercury-drop electrodes used in early stripping protocols for beryllium. A linear response is observed over the 10-60 {mu}g l{sup -1} concentration range (90 s accumulation), along with a detection limit of 0.25 {mu}g l{sup -1} beryllium (10 min accumulation). A 15-s electrochemical cleaning enables the same mercury film to be used for a prolonged operation. High stability is thus indicated from the reproducible response of a 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} beryllium solution (n = 60; RSD = 3.3%) over a 2.5-h operation. Applicability to a seawater sample is illustrated. The attractive behavior of the new sensor holds great promise for on-site environmental and industrial monitoring of beryllium. Preliminary data in this direction using mercury-coated screen-printed electrodes are encouraging.

  11. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric measurements of trace beryllium at the mercury film electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Joseph; Thongngamdee, Sompong; Lu Donglai

    2006-01-01

    A highly sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetric protocol for measuring trace beryllium, in which the preconcentration is achieved by adsorption of the beryllium-arsenazo-I complex at a preplated mercury-coated carbon-fiber electrode, is described. Optimal conditions were found to be a 0.05 M ammonium buffer (pH 9.7) containing 5 μM arsenazo-I, an accumulation potential of 0.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl) and a square-wave voltammetric scan. The new procedure obviates the need for renewable mercury-drop electrodes used in early stripping protocols for beryllium. A linear response is observed over the 10-60 μg l -1 concentration range (90 s accumulation), along with a detection limit of 0.25 μg l -1 beryllium (10 min accumulation). A 15-s electrochemical cleaning enables the same mercury film to be used for a prolonged operation. High stability is thus indicated from the reproducible response of a 100 μg l -1 beryllium solution (n = 60; RSD = 3.3%) over a 2.5-h operation. Applicability to a seawater sample is illustrated. The attractive behavior of the new sensor holds great promise for on-site environmental and industrial monitoring of beryllium. Preliminary data in this direction using mercury-coated screen-printed electrodes are encouraging

  12. Development of Conductive Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode: A microscopic, Spectroscopic, and Voltammetric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Bennet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on diamond characteristics such as hardness, chemical inertness and low electron emission threshold voltage, the current microscopic, spectroscopic and voltammetric investigations are directed towards improving the properties of electrode coating materials for their future use in clinical studies of deep brain stimulation via fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV. In this study we combine the capabilities of confocal Raman mapping in providing detailed and accurate analysis of local distributions of material constituents in a series of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films grown by chemical vapor deposition, with information from the more conventional techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Although SEM images show a uniform distribution of film crystallites, they have the limitation of being unable to differentiate the distribution of boron in the diamond. Values of 1018–1021 atoms/cm3 of boron content have been estimated from the absorption coefficient of the 1290 cm−1 infrared absorption band and from the 500 cm−1 Raman vibration. The observed accumulation of boron atoms and carbon sp2 impurities at the grain boundaries suggests that very high doping levels do not necessarily contribute to improvement of the material’s conductivity, corroborating with voltammetric data. FSCV results also indicate an enhanced stability of analyte detection.

  13. Voltammetric determination of nicotine in cigarette tobacco at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrochemical behavior of nicotine was investigated using cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques. Electrochemical activation of glassy carbon electrode significantly increased the oxidation peak current of nicotine compared to the bare glassy carbon. At the activated glassy carbon electrode, the square ...

  14. Drop amalgam voltammetric study of lead complexation by natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drop amalgam voltammetric study of lead complexation by natural inorganic ligands in a salt lake. ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... The results obtained indicate that in Lake Katwe water (25 oC, carbonate alkalinity = 0.11 M, pH 11) approximately 0.00% of total inorganic lead exists as the free ion, and at ...

  15. Square wave voltammetric determination of lead in commercial kohl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple sensitive square wave voltammetric method for the determination of lead contamination of several kohl samples purchased from Algeria retail stores was developed using glassy carbon electrode. The peak current response of 5 standards aqueous solution of lead in NaNO3 as supporting electrolyte was observed ...

  16. Linear sweep voltammetric studies on the supramolecular complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 2. Linear sweep voltammetric studies on the supramolecular complex of alizarin red S with lysozyme and determination of lysozyme. Wei Sun Na Zhao Xueliang Niu Yan Wang Kui Jiao. Full Papers Volume 121 Issue 2 March 2009 pp 217-223 ...

  17. Linear sweep voltammetric studies on the supramolecular complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Linear sweep voltammetric studies on the supramolecular complex of alizarin red S with lysozyme and determination of lysozyme. WEI SUN*, NA ZHAO, XUELIANG NIU, YAN WANG and KUI JIAO. Key Laboratory of Eco-Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and. Molecular Engineering ...

  18. Voltammetric sensor for caffeine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, F.; Wang, F.; Zhao, W.; Zhou, J.; Liu, Y.; Zou, L.; Ye, B.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a voltammetric sensor for caffeine that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and graphene oxide (GO). It exhibits a good affinity for caffeine (resulting from the presence of Nafion), and excellent electrochemical response (resulting from the pressence of GO) for the oxidation of caffeine. The electrode enables the determination of caffeine in the range from 4.0 x 10 -7 to 8.0 x 10 -5 mol L -1 , with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10 -7 mol L -1 . The sensor displays good stability, reproducibility, and high sensitivity. It was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of caffeine in beverages. (author)

  19. Voltammetric estimation of the content of antibiotics in veterinary preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slepchenko Galina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The voltammetric method for determination of tylosin tartrate, gentamicin sulfate, and cefalexin in veterinary preparations was for the first time developed. Electrochemical behavior of these antibiotics on the mercury film electrode was studied, and the working conditions (background electrolyte, deposition potential were defined for getting analytical signals using the voltammetry. The methods of real objects preparation for determination of tylosin tartrate, gentamicin sulfate, and cefalexin were offered. The techniques for the voltammetric determination of antibiotics in the veterinary preparations may be used in cefalexin ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 g/dm3, tylosin tartrate in the range from 0.1 to 1.7 g/dm3, and gentamicin sulfate from 0.1 to 1.5 g/dm3 (Sr is not more than 25 %

  20. Voltammetric quantitation of nitazoxanide by glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports voltammetric reduction of nitazoxanide in Britton–Robinson (B–R buffer by cyclic and square-wave voltammetry at glassy carbon electrode. A versatile fully validated voltammetric method for quantitative determination of nitazoxanide in pharmaceutical formulation has been proposed. A squrewave peak current was linear over the nitazoxanide concentration in the range of 20–140 µg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ was calculated to be 5.23 μg/mL and 17.45 μg/mL, respectively. Keywords: Nitazoxanide, Squarewave voltammetry, Glassy carbon electrode, Pharmaceutical formulation

  1. Voltammetric Behaviour of Sulfamethoxazole on Electropolymerized-Molecularly Imprinted Overoxidized Polypyrrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Sahin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, preparation of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP film and its recognition properties for sulfamethoxazolewere investigated. The overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy film was prepared by the cyclic voltammetric deposition of pyrrole (Py in the presence of supporting electrolyte (tetrabutylammonium perchlorate-TBAP with and without a template molecule (sulfamethoxazole on a pencil graphite electrode (PGE. The voltammetric behaviour of sulfamethoxazole on imprinted and non-imprinted (NIP films was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV in Britton-Robinson (BR buffer solutions prepared in different ratio of acetonitrile-water binary mixture, between the pH 1.5 and 7.0. The effect of the acetonitrile-water ratio and pH, monomer and template concentrations, electropolymerization cycles on the performance of the MIP electrode was investigated and optimized. The MIP electrode exhibited the best reproducibility and highest sensitivity. The results showed that changing acetonitrile-water ratio and pH of BR buffer solution changes the oxidation peak current values. The highest anodic signal of sulfamethoxazole was obtained in BR buffer solution prepared in 50% (v/v acetonitrile-water at pH 2.5. The calibration curve for sulfamethoxazole at MIP electrode has linear region for a concentration range of 25.10-3 to 0.75 mM (R2=0.9993. The detection limit of sulfamethoxazole was found as 3.59.10-4 mM (S/N=3. The same method was also applied to determination of sulfamethoxazole in commercial pharmaceutical samples. Method precision (RSD87% were satisfactory. The proposed method is simple and quick. The polypyrrole (PPy electrodes have low response time, good mechanical stability and are disposable simple to construct.

  2. Voltammetric behavior of ketoconazole and its determination in cosmetic preparation using a β-cyclodextrin modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. El Ries

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A voltammetric determination of ketoconazole (KCZ at a beta-cyclo-dextrin modified glassy carbon (CDMGC is described. A large increase in the peak currents was observed in cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV of KCZ. This increase in the big current were attributed to the complex formation of the KCZ with β-cyclodextrin. CV studies indicate that the process is irreversible and adsorption-controlled. The effect of pH, scan rate, cyclodextrin concentration and stability of electrodes on the current responses of KCZ was studied. The linearity was obeyed over the concentration range (1–8 × 10−5 mole/l with a common correlation coefficient and limit of detection of 0.9996 and 10.54 × 10−8, respectively, in pH 9 Britton–Robinson (BR buffer. The modified electrode exhibited good sensitivity, and stability. The voltammetric method was successfully applied for the determination of KCZ in pure solution and in cosmetic preparation under batch condition.

  3. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Monitoring of the Cyclic Voltammetric Deposition of Polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingji; Li, Zhili; Deng, Chunyan; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Shaoxi; Xiao, Xiaoming; Yin, Dulin; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2007-01-01

    A real-time, labeled-free and nanogram-sensitive mass sensor, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) is used to monitor a cyclic voltammetric deposition of polyaniline (PANI). The results determined that the efficiency for PANI deposition and the anion-doping ratio is calculated in one single cyclic voltammetric.

  4. Voltammetric Investigation Of Hydrothermal Iron Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eKleint

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vent fluids are highly enriched in iron (Fe compared to ambient seawater, and organic ligands may play a role in facilitating the transport of some hydrothermal Fe into the open ocean. This is important since Fe is a limiting micronutrient for primary production in large parts of the world`s surface ocean. We have investigated the concentration and speciation of Fe in several vent fluid and plume samples from the Nifonea vent field, Coriolis Troughs, New Hebrides Island Arc, South Pacific Ocean using competitive ligand exchange - adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE - AdCSV with salicylaldoxime (SA as the artificial ligand. Our results for total dissolved Fe (dFe in the buoyant hydrothermal plume samples showed concentrations up to 3.86 µM dFe with only a small fraction between 1.1% and 11.8% being chemically labile. Iron binding ligand concentrations ([L] were found in µM level with strong conditional stability constants up to log K[L],Fe3+ of 22.9. Within the non-buoyant hydrothermal plume above the Nifonea vent field, up to 84.7% of the available Fe is chemically labile and [L] concentrations up to 97 nM were measured. [L] was consistently in excess of Felab, indicating that all available Fe is being complexed, which in combination with high Felab values in the non-buoyant plume, signifies that a high fraction of hydrothermal dFe is potentially being transported away from the plume into the surrounding waters, contributing to the global oceanic Fe budget.

  5. Voltammetric reduction of 4-nitroimidazole derivatives: Influence of the N-1 substitution in protic and aprotic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollo, S.; Jara-Ulloa, P.; Zapata-Torres, G.; Cutino, E.; Sturm, J.C.; Nunez-Vergara, L.J.; Squella, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The voltammetric reduction of 1-methyl- and 1-H- 4-nitroimidazole derivatives was studied in different protic and aprotic media to investigate the influence of the N-1 substitution in the mechanism of reduction, the susceptibility of the nitro group to reduction, and the stability of the nitro radical anion. The elucidation of their voltammetric behavior was carried out using differential pulse polarography and cyclic voltammetry with two different mixed media (Britton-Robinson/ethanol: 70/30 and DMF/citrate: 60/40) and an aprotic media (DMF) at the mercury electrode. In addition, we used UV-vis spectroscopy for the study of their chemistry in solution and quantum-chemical calculations to evaluate LUMO energies, HOMO and LUMO energy gaps, dipole moments and electron affinity, using water and DMF as solvents. The mechanism of reduction was strongly dependent on both the substitution at the N-1 position and the nature of the media. In all media, the methyl-substituted derivative (M-4-NImOH) was always more easily reduced than the demethylated species (H-4-NImOH). On the other hand, the nitro radical anion from M-4-NImOH was more stable than the nitro radical anion from H-4-NImOH.

  6. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  7. A voltammetric electronic tongue for the quantitative analysis of quality parameters in wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Bisbal, María Carmen; Loeff, Edwin; Olivas, Estela; Carbó Mestre, Noèlia; García Castillo, F. Javier; López Carrero, Javier; Tornos, Isabel; Tejadillos, Francisco José; Berlanga, José Guillermo; Martínez Máñez, Ramón; Alcañiz, Miguel; Soto, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue for the quantitative analysis of quality parameters in influent wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that treats domestic and industrial wastewater is proposed. The electronic voltammetric tongue consists of a set of four noble electrodes (iridium, rhodium, platinum and gold) housed inside a stainless steel cylinder. These noble metals have high durability and are low maintenance-demanding, as required for developing futur...

  8. Mediator-less highly sensitive voltammetric detection of glutamate using glutamate dehydrogenase/vertically aligned CNTs grown on silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Azam; Shahrokhian, Saeed; zad, Azam Iraji; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin; Vosoughi, Manouchehr; Darbari, Sara; Sanaee, Zeinab

    2012-01-15

    A sensitive glutamate biosensor is prepared based on glutamate dehydrogenase/vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (GLDH, VACNTs). Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were grown on a silicon substrate by direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) method. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized VACNTs was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic methods. Glutamate dehydrogenase covalently attached on tip of VACNTs. The electrochemical performance of the electrode for detection of glutamate was investigated by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. Differential pulse voltammetric determinations of glutamate are performed in mediator-less condition and also, in the presence of 1 and 5 μM thionine as electron mediator. The linear calibration curve of the concentration of glutamate versus peak current is investigated in a wide range of 0.1-500 μM. The mediator-less biosensor has a low detection limit of 57 nM and two linear ranges of 0.1-20 μM with a sensitivity of 0.976 mA mM(-1) cm(-2) and 20-300 μM with a sensitivity of 0.182 mA mM(-1) cm(-2). In the presence of 1 μM thionine as an electron mediator, the prepared biosensor shows a low detection limit of 68 nM and two linear ranges of 0.1-20 with a calibration sensitivity of 1.17 mA mM(-1) cm(-2) and 20-500 μM with a sensitivity of 0.153 mA mM(-1) cm(-2). The effects of the other biological compounds on the voltammetric behavior of the prepared biosensor and its response stability are investigated. The results are demonstrated that the GLDH/VACNTs electrode even without electron mediator is a suitable basic electrode for detection of glutamate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thrombin-Binding Aptamer Quadruplex Formation: AFM and Voltammetric Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Constantin Diculescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption and the redox behaviour of thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA and extended TBA (eTBA were studied using atomic force microscopy and voltammetry at highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and glassy carbon. The different adsorption patterns and degree of surface coverage were correlated with the sequence base composition, presence/absence of K+, and voltammetric behaviour of TBA and eTBA. In the presence of K+, only a few single-stranded sequences present adsorption, while the majority of the molecules forms stable and rigid quadruplexes with no adsorption. Both TBA and eTBA are oxidized and the only anodic peak corresponds to guanine oxidation. Upon addition of K+ ions, TBA and eTBA fold into a quadruplex, causing the decrease of guanine oxidation peak and occurrence of a new peak at a higher potential due to the oxidation of G-quartets. The higher oxidation potential of G-quartets is due to the greater difficulty of electron transfer from the inside of the quadruplex to the electrode surface than electron transfer from the more flexible single strands.

  10. Electropolymerized supramolecular tetraruthenated porphyrins applied as a voltammetric sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Monize M. da; Ribeiro, Gabriel H.; Faria, Anizio M. de; Bogado, Andre L.; Dinelli, Luis R., E-mail: dinelli@pontal.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Integradas do Pontal; Batista, Alzir A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-11-15

    Porphyrin 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)manganese(III), [Mn-TPyP(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]PF{sub 6}, and electropolymerized supramolecular porphyrins (ESP), {l_brace}Mn-TPyP(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[RuCl{sub 3}(dppb)]{sub 4}{r_brace}PF{sub 6} (dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphine)butane), were synthesized and characterized. A thin solid film of ESP was obtained on a glass carbon electrode surface by a cyclic voltammetry method. The peak current increased with the number of voltammetric cycles, which shows a typical behavior of the species being adsorbed on the surface of the electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was also employed for acetaminophen quantification using an ESP modified electrode. The modified electrode shows a linear relationship between the anodic peak current and the concentration of acetaminophen (in the rage 0.05 to 0.7 mmol L{sup -1}. The performance of the modified electrode was verified by the determination of acetaminophen in a commercial pharmaceutical product and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by a control HPLC method. (author)

  11. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric methods for determination of aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Aşangil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anodic behavior of aripiprazole (ARP was studied using electrochemical methods. Charge transfer, diffusion and surface coverage coefficients of adsorbed molecules and the number of electrons transferred in electrode mechanisms were calculated for quasi-reversible and adsorption-controlled electrochemical oxidation of ARP at 1.15 V versus Ag/AgCl at pH 4.0 in Britton–Robinson buffer (BR on glassy carbon electrode. Voltammetric methods for direct determination of ARP in pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples were developed. Linearity range is found as from 11.4 μM (5.11 mg/L to 157 μM (70.41 mg/L without stripping mode and it is found as from 0.221 μM (0.10 mg/L to 13.6 μM (6.10 mg/L with stripping mode. Limit of detection (LOD was found to be 0.11 μM (0.05 mg/L in stripping voltammetry. Methods were successfully applied to assay the drug in tablets, human serum and human urine with good recoveries between 95.0% and 104.6% with relative standard deviation less than 10%. Keywords: Adsorptive stripping voltammetry, Aripiprazole, Electrochemical behavior, Human serum and urine, Pharmaceuticals

  12. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of triprolidine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, S I M; Habib, I H I

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of antihistaminic drug, viz. triprolidine hydrochloride (TripCl), at a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) is investigated. Chemical and electrical parameters affecting the adsorptive voltammetric measurements are optimized. Different modes of sweep, viz. direct current DC, normal pulse NP, differential pulse DP and square wave SW modes, over the potential range from -800 to -1400 mV, are used in the presence of 0.04 M Britton-Robinson buffer pH 11, with accumulation time 30 s, scan rate 50 mV/s and pulse amplitude 50 mV. The reduction process is irreversible and involved the transfer of two electrons and two protons. Their responses are linear over the concentration range 15-157 ng/ml with average correlation coefficient 0.9998, while the detection limit is 2.64, 6.24, 8.80 and 2.12 ng/ml for DC, DP, SW and NP mode, respectively. The differential pulse method has been applied successfully for the determination of the drug in Egyptian pharmaceutical preparation with mean recovery 99.55+/-0.67%.

  13. Estudo da eletrocristalização de Ni e Ni-P sobre ultramicroeletrodo de platina Study of electrocrystallization of Ni and Ni-P on platinum ultramicroelectrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katlin Ivon Barrios Eguiluz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a comparative study of the electrocrystallization of Ni and Ni-P on Pt ultramicroelectrodes using chronoamperometric measurements. It was possible to confirm that in all cases a progressive nucleation was the predominant mechanism. Moreover, the application of the Atomistic Theory to the experimental rate of nuclei formation showed that the number of atoms in the critical nucleus was zero, except for Ni-P on Pt at low overpotentials were a value of one was observed. Furthermore, the physical characterisation of the different deposits on Pt by atomic force microscopy allowed observing the coalescence of the hemispherical nuclei of Ni and Ni-P at t max thus confirming the results obtained from the current-time analysis.

  14. Voltammetric method to determine chromium (III) in potable water at level of ultra plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez B, Irene; Alvarado G, Ana L.

    2004-01-01

    It was established an analytical methodology to determine Cr (III) in drinking water using a voltammetric technique of Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry with an Adsorptive Preconcentration of a complex Cr(III)-diethiltriaminpentaceticacid (Cr-DTPA) in a mercury drop. A dissolution of sodium nitrate was used as a supporting electrolyte. The optimized voltammetric parameters were: adsorption time, scan rate, absorption potential, p H, complex agent and sodium nitrate concentration. The linear range of the methodology is between 20 ng/L and 60 ng/L and the detection and quantification limits are 13 ng/L and 20 ng/L respectively. (Author) [es

  15. Comparison of methods for the processing of voltammetric electronic tongues data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetó, X.; Céspedes, F.; Del Valle, M.

    2013-01-01

    We are making a numerical comparison of various preprocessing strategies for dealing with data from voltammetric electronic tongues in order to reduce the high dimensionality of the response matrices. Different modelling tools are presented and briefly described. We then compare combinations of four preprocessing strategies (principal component analysis, fast Fourier transform, discrete wavelet transform, voltammogram-windowed slicing integral) with four modelling alternatives (principal component regression, partial least squares regression, multi-way partial least squares regression, artificial neural networks) by employing data from a voltammetric bioelectronic tongue, an array formed by enzyme-modified biosensors and applied to the discrimination and quantification of phenolic compounds. (author)

  16. Polyurethane Ionophore-Based Thin Layer Membranes for Voltammetric Ion Activity Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, Maria; Crespo, Gaston A; Bakker, Eric

    2016-06-07

    We report on a plasticized polyurethane ionophore-based thin film material (of hundreds of nanometer thickness) for simultaneous voltammetric multianalyte ion activity detection triggered by the oxidation/reduction of an underlying poly(3-octylthiophene) film. This material provides excellent mechanical, physical, and chemical robustness compared to other polymers. Polyurethane films did not exhibit leaching of lipophilic additives after rinsing with a direct water jet and exhibited resistance to detachment from the underlying electrode surface, resulting in a voltammetric current response with less than lithium in undiluted human serum and blood with attractive precision.

  17. Development of a voltammetric technique for monitoring brain dopamine metabolism: compensation for interference caused by DOPAC electrogenerated during homovanillic acid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Ismael A L; Lowry, John P; Serra, Pier Andrea; O'Neill, Robert D

    2009-05-01

    The established stability of carbon-paste electrodes (CPEs) in brain extracellular fluid was exploited to develop a voltammetric technique to monitor the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), at 10 s intervals. At the scan rates needed for this time resolution, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), electrogenerated as a result of HVA oxidation, was observed in the cyclic staircase voltammograms, and this interfered with the straightforward reliable quantification of HVA. However, correction of the HVA signal, recorded in mixtures, with currents from the DOPAC and ascorbate regions of the voltammogram allowed the reproducible construction of well behaved HVA calibration plots. These showed good linearity, LOD values, selectivity and stability during six days of continuous CPE exposure to a lipid medium, which served as an in-vitro model of CPE implantation in brain tissue for future applications.

  18. Thick-film voltammetric pH-sensors with internal indicator and reference species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musa, Arnaud Emmanuel; Alonso-Lomillo, María Asunción; del Campo, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    The following paper describes the development of a screen-printed voltammetric pH-sensor based on graphite electrodes incorporating both internal indicator (i.e., phenanthraquinone) and reference species (i.e., dimethylferrocene). The key advantages of this type of system stem from its simplicity...

  19. Combined Voltammetric-Potentiometric Sensor with the Silver Solid Amalgam Link for Electroanalytical Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Bohdan; Novotný, Ladislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 24 (2002), s. 1739-1741 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV204/97/K084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : combined voltammetric-potentiometric sensors * solid amalgam Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.783, year: 2002

  20. VOLTAMMETRIC BEHAVIOR OF SOME STEELS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF HNO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Nemtoi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion process of some steels immersed in HNO3 solutions of different concentrations by means of voltammetric measurements was investigated. For different values of the corrosion potential, or of the contact time: solid steel-aggressive medium, several equations of the type: I = f (E were proposed, only for linear domains of the voltammograms.

  1. Voltammetric ion-selective electrodes for the selective determination of cations and anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Harris, Alexander R; Cattrall, Robert W; Bond, Alan M

    2010-03-01

    A general theory has been developed for voltammetric ion sensing of cations and anions based on the use of an electrode coated with a membrane containing an electroactive species, an ionophore, and a supporting electrolyte dissolved in a plasticizer. In experimental studies, a membrane coated electrode is fabricated by the drop coating method. In one configuration, a glassy carbon electrode is coated with a poly(vinyl chloride) based membrane, which contains the electroactive species, ionophore, plasticizer and supporting electrolyte. In the case of a cation sensor, ionophore facilitated transfer of the target cation from the aqueous solution to the membrane phase occurs during the course of the reduction of the electroactive species present in the membrane in order to maintain charge neutrality. The formal potential is calculated from the cyclic voltammogram as the average of the reduction and oxidation peak potentials and depends on the identity and concentration of the ion present in the aqueous solution phase. A plot of the formal potential versus the logarithm of the concentration exhibits a close to Nernstian slope of RT/F millivolts per decade change in concentration when the concentration of K(+) and Na(+) is varied over the concentration range of 0.1 mM to 1 M when K(+) or Na(+) ionophores are used in the membrane. The slope is close to RT/2F millivolts for a Ca(2+) voltammetric ion-selective electrode fabricated using a Ca(2+) ionophore. The sensor measurement time is only a few seconds. Voltammetric sensors for K(+), Na(+), and Ca(2+) constructed in this manner exhibit the sensitivity and selectivity required for determination of these ions in environmentally and biologically important matrixes. Analogous principles apply to the fabrication of anion voltammetric sensors.

  2. Electrochemical Investigation of Catechol at Poly(niacinamide) Modified Carbon Paste Electrode: A Voltammetric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Teradale, A. B.; Lamani, S. D.; Swamy, B. E. Kumara; Ganesh, P. S.; Das, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    A polymeric thin film modified electrode, that is, poly(niacinamide) modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE), was developed for the electrochemical determination of catechol (CC) by using cyclic voltammetric technique. Compared to bare carbon paste electrode (BCPE), the poly(niacinamide) MCPE shows good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of catechol in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of physiological pH 7.4. All experimental parameters were optimized. Poly(niacinamide) modified ca...

  3. Direct voltammetric analysis of DNA modified with enzymatically incorporated 7-deazapurines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivoňková, Hana; Horáková Brázdilová, Petra; Fojtová, Miloslava; Fojta, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 16 (2010), s. 6807-6813 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040901; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : modified DNA * 7-deazapurines * voltammetric analysis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  4. Square wave and differential pulse voltammetric methods for the analysis of olivetol at gold electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti T. Bagalkoti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Few electrochemical techniques have been employed for the determination of the powerful antitumor agent olivetol (OLV in real samples at gold electrode. An intense and well pronounced oxidation peak was obtained at 1.04 V in the phosphate buffer pH 5.0 as the supporting electrolyte. The effects of pH and scan rate on the oxidation peak were studied. The electrochemical behavior of OLV was investigated using cyclic voltammetric (CV, square wave voltammetric (SWV and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV techniques. In DPV and SWV, the gold electrode showed a good sensitivity for OLV in a linear range of 0.1-1.5 µM and 0.1-1.3 µM and detection limits of 1.936×10-9 M and 4.754×10-9 M, respectively. A plausible mechanism involving an adsorption controlled oxidation reaction was deduced. The effect of various excipients was also studied and the method was successfully applied for the determination of OLV in human biological samples.

  5. Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Gutiérrez, Manuel; Céspedes, Francisco; Capdevila, Josefina; Mínguez, Santiago; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Valle, Manel del

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. ► It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. ► Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. ► Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. ► Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin–Ciocalteau method and I 280 index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I 280 ) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L −1 gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).

  6. Application of voltammetric methods for the analysis of gold and other transition metals in quartzite rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrakar, Praveen Kumar; Pitre, Krishna Sadashiv

    2004-04-01

    Simple, rapid and accurate voltammetric methods viz. DCP, DPP and DPASV have been presented for the trace determination of gold and other transition metals in quartzite rock sample. The analysis has been performed using 0.1 M(NH4)2 tartrate, 0.1 M NaClO4 and 1 M NaOH as supporting electrolyte with 0.001% gelatin as maximum suppressor. The results show the presence of CuII(10.70), CoII(4.72), FeIII(66.96), AuIII(0.066), ZnII(1.68) and CdII(0.62) mg x g(-1) metal ions from the sample. Gold produced a well defined wave/peak with E1,2/Ep = -0.61 V/-0.64 V vs SCE, in 1 M NaOH supporting electrolyte. The quantitative analysis of metal inos was carried out by the method of standard addition. Statistical treatment of the observed voltammetric data reveals high accuracy and good precision of determination. The observed voltammetric results are comparable with those obtained using AAS method.

  7. Investigation of synthesized new vanadium(III) complexes of ditolyldithiophosphate ligands by spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetric, DFT, antimicrobial and cytotoxic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Syed, Atiya; Andotra, Savit; Kaur, Ramanpreet; Vikas; Pandey, Sushil K.

    2018-02-01

    Vanadium(III) complexes with sulfur donor dithiophosphate ligands corresponding to [{(ArO)2PS2}3V] and [{(ArO)2PS2}2VCl.L] (Ar = o-, m-, p-CH3C6H4 and p-Cl-m-CH3C6H3; L = NC5H5, P(C6H5)3, have been synthesized and characterized by various physico-chemical techniques like elemental analyses, magnetic studies, ESI-Mass, IR, UV and heteronuclear NMR (1H, 13C and 31P) spectral studies. These analyses have contributed to the prediction of structure: by exhibiting significant v(P-S) and v(Pdbnd S) band shifting in comparative IR spectra; shifting of resonance signal in comparative 31P NMR spectra of ligands and complexes and stability of V(III) ion in the complexed state is confirmed by magnetic and UV studies. Therefore, the six coordinated geometry stabilizing the trivalent vanadium atom in the complexes and adducts, respectively has been confirmed. The cyclic voltammetric analyses presented the redox aptitude of the complex under analysis which can be utilized as catalyst in organic synthesis. The geometry of ligands and complexes has been optimized using density functional theory (DFT). The structural parameters, vibrational bands and energy gaps of frontier orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) have also been calculated. The calculated geometric and spectral results reproduced the experimental data with well agreement. The DFT computed frontier molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) and their energies suggest charge transfer occurs within the complexes. Antimicrobial screening of the complexes against two bacterial strains: Gram-positive, Enterrococcus faecalis and Gram-negative, Eischerichia coli and fungus Fusarium oxysporum have shown potential bioactivity. A preliminary cytotoxic analysis has been carried out using the cultivated human cell lines: lung adeno carcinoma cell line A-549, leukemia cell line THP-1, prostate cancer cell line PC3 and colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116.

  8. Modification of carbon paste electrode with Fe(III)-clinoptilolite nano-particles for simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen and ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifian, Samira [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza, E-mail: arnezamzadeh@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razi Chemistry Research Center (RCRC), Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    A novel carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with Fe(III)-exchanged clinoptilolite nano-particles (Fe(III)-NClino/CPE) was constructed and used for simultaneous voltammetric (CV, SqW and chronoamperometry) determination of ascorbic acid and acetaminophen. Raw and modified zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The square wave peak current was linearly increased in the concentration ranges of 1.0 × 10{sup −9}–1.0 × 10{sup −2} mol L{sup −1} for ascorbic acid and 1.0 × 10{sup –10–}1.0 × 10{sup −2} mol L{sup −1} for acetaminophen with detection limits of 1.8 × 10{sup −9} mol L{sup −1} and 9.9 × 10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1}, respectively. The detection limits of 2.4 × 10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1} and 2.5 × 10{sup −11} mol L{sup −1} were also obtained for AA and AC in chronoamperometric measurements, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of 7.5 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} and 2.4 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} were respectively calculated for the oxidation of AC and AA by chronoamperometry. The proposed electrode exhibited high sensitivity and good stability, and would be valuable for the clinical assay of ascorbic acid and acetaminophen. - Graphical abstract: Comparison of CV voltammograms of the raw CPE (‘a’ and ‘b’) and the modified Fe(III)-NClino-CPE (‘c’ and ‘d’) confirmed good electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode for voltammetric determination of AC and AA, so the peak currents significantly increased in presence of AA or AC species in solution (‘c’ and ‘d’). - Highlights: • Usefulness of Fe(III)-Nclino for simultaneous voltammetric determination of AA + AC • Electrocatalytic behavior of the electrode for AA determination • Complexation behavior of the electrode for AC determination • Considerable increase in sensitivity of the process • More efficient of nanonized clinoptilolite than the micronized one.

  9. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  10. Voltammetric study of the boric acid-salicylaldehyde-H-acid ternary system and its application to the voltammetric determination of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Mari; Ito, Yoshio N; Miyazaki, Yoshinobu; Fujimori, Takao; Takehara, Kô; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2015-02-14

    The ternary system of boric acid, salicylaldehyde (SA) and H-acid (HA) was voltammetrically studied from kinetic and equilibrium points of view. The effect of the SA substituents was also studied by using two analogs, 5-fluorosalicylaldehyde (F-SA) and 5-methylsalicylaldehyde (Me-SA). The three cathodic peaks of Azomethine H (AzH), Azomethine H-boric acid complex (AzB), and free SA were observed in the solution containing boric acid, SA and HA. The peak potentials of AzH and SA were shifted to negative potentials with increasing pH, while the peak potential of AzB was pH-independent. This difference indicates that a proton participates in the charge-transfer steps of the AzH and SA reductions, but not in that of the AzB reduction. The formation constants for the AzB complexation were similar among all the examined analogs. In the kinetic study, the reaction rate was higher in an acidic condition for the AzH formation, but in a neutral condition for the AzB formation. The rate constants for the AzB complexes were in the order of F-SA > SA ≈ Me-SA, indicating that the fluoro group accelerates the F-AzB complexation. The AzB complexation mechanism is considered to consist of more than three steps, i.e., the pre-equilibrium of the salicylaldehyde-boric acid complex (SA-B) formation, the nucleophilic attack of HA on SA-B, and the remaining some steps to form AzB. Based on these results, the voltammetric determination method of boron using F-SA was optimized, which allowed the boron concentration to be determined within only 5 min with a 0.03 mg B dm(-3) detection limit.

  11. Voltammetric method for the determination of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszczuk, Katarzyna; Korolczuk, Mieczyslaw

    2010-06-01

    A highly sensitive and simple voltammetric method for the determination of sildenafil citrate (SC) was developed. The method is based on the accumulation by adsorption of SC on a lead film modified glassy carbon electrode (LF/GCE) and then the reduction of SC throughout the stripping step. During the determinations of SC at the lead film electrode three adsorptive stripping voltammetric peaks at -1.2, -1.33 and -1.45V were observed. The respective response selected for identification and quantification has been evaluated with respect to the composition and pH of the supporting electrolyte, the potential and the time of the lead film formation, the potential and the time of the SC accumulation and other variables. Experimental results indicate an excellent linear correlation between the peak current and concentration in the range of 2x10(-9)-1.5x10(-7)mol/L (for peaks 1 and 2) and 1x10(-8)-1.5x10(-7)mol/L (for the peak 3). The detection limits (LOD) for SC following 30s of accumulation time were equal to 9x10(-10)mol/L (for peaks 1 and 2) and 4.5x10(-9)mol/L (for the peak 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of SC in the tablets (Viagra 25 and Viagra 50) and average the contents were in close agreement with those quoted by the manufacturer and with those obtained by the reported spectrophotometric method and voltammetric method using a hanging mercury drop electrode. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceto, Xavier [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gutierrez, Juan Manuel [Bioelectronics Section, Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cespedes, Francisco [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Capdevila, Josefina; Minguez, Santiago [Estacio de Viticultura i Enologia, INCAVI, Vilafranca del Penedes (Spain); Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Valle, Manel del, E-mail: manel.delvalle@uab.cat [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin-Ciocalteau method and I{sub 280} index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I{sub 280}) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L{sup -1} gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).

  13. Emerging trends in biosensing using stripping voltammetric detection of metal-containing nanolabels – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkinos, Christos; Economou, Anastasios, E-mail: aeconomo@chem.uoa.gr

    2017-04-08

    Over the last years, nanomaterials have found many applications in the development of electrochemical biosensors. Among other functions, metal nanoparticles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) (semiconducting nanocrystals composed of metal salts) are increasingly being used as voltammetric labels in affinity biosensing. Labeling is based on the attachment of the label(s) on the target biomolecules or on a biorecognition reporting probe. After an appropriate specific affinity interaction between the target and the reporting probe, the metallic nanolabels are converted to the respective cations which are quantified by a voltammetric technique. The very use of metal-containing nanoprobes as labels provides a first amplification step since each nanoprobe can release a very significant number of detectable cations. When anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) (in which a preconcentration step precedes the actual voltammetric scan) is further employed as the detection format, ultra-sensitive bioassays can be developed. The present paper reviews the emerging trends in affinity biosensing using ASV detection of metal-containing nanolabels. It provides a critical discussion of recent developments in ASV transduction and electrodes, novel strategies for signal enhancement, approaches for multiplexed detection as well as fluidics, paper-based and lab-on-a-chip devices. - Highlights: • This paper reviews the use of ASV for affinity biosensing with metal-containing nanolabels. • Both metal nanoparticles and quantum dots applications are considered. • Transducers and new electrode materials are covered. • Signal enhancement and multiplexing strategies are discussed. • Sensor arrays, paper-based, fluidic and lab-on-chip applications are described.

  14. Voltammetric behavior of amfepramone (diethylpropion) at the hanging mercury drop electrode and its analytical determination in pharmaceutical formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Leandro M. de; Nascimento, Paulo C. do; Bohrer, Denise; Correia, Daniele; Bairros, André V. de; Pomblum, Valdeci J.; Pomblum, Solange G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic study of the voltammetric behavior of amfepramone at the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) by cyclic (CV) and alternating current (AC) voltammetric methods. The studies showed the adsorptive behavior of amfepramone at the HMDE and were performed in H2SO4 0.1 mol L-1 (pH 1.0) and Ringer buffer (pH 11.0) as supporting electrolytes. The linear range for the amfepramone determination by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was 0.05 to 2.0 mg L-1 (r = 0.998) i...

  15. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, BrittonâRobinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl ...

  16. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton–Robinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl ...

  17. Voltammetric Detection of Antioxidative Properties of Flavonoids Using Electrically Heated DNA Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gründler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple electrochemical sensor consisting of electrically heated carbon paste electrode with the surface modified by dsDNA is used to characterize voltammetric behaviour and antioxidative activity of four selected flavonoids. Quercetin, rutin, catechin and epigallocatechin gallate accumulate within the DNA layer. A positive effect of the electrode temperature within the range of 20 to 38 ºC on the detection of a deep DNA degradation by a copper(II/H2O2/ascorbic acid cleavage mixture as well as an antioxidative effect of flavonoids was evaluated.

  18. Sulfonated Polyaniline Coated Mercury Film Electrodes for Voltammetric Analysis of Metals in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical polymerization of 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid with and without aniline has been carried by cyclic potencial sweep in sulfuric acid solution at the glassy carbon electrode. The polymer and copolymer formed have been characterized voltammetrically. The sulfonated polyaniline coated mercury thin-film electrodes have been evaluated for use with anodic stripping voltammetry. The electrodes were tested and compared with a conventional thin-film mercury electrode. Calibration plots showed linearity up to 10-7 mol L-1. Detection limits for zinc, lead and cadmium test species are very similar at around 12 nmol L-1. Applications to analysis of waters samples are demonstrated.

  19. Voltammetric studies of copper speciation in Lake Elementaita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikandi, J.T.; Thairu, H.M.; Schroder, K.

    1995-01-01

    Differential pulse polarography (DPP) and diffential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) have been used to study the complex formation between copper and chloride, fluoride , bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide ligands in both potassium nitrate and lake water media. The lake water was sampled from Lake Elementaita (Kenya). It was found that copper( II) ions formed copper (1) complexes with the above ligands due to step-wise reduction of copper(11) to copper (1) ions on the mercury electrode. Fluoride and bicarbonate ligands formed complexes of the type CuL and CuL2 (where L is a monodentate ligand) while the chlride formed only CuL complex. The hydroxide and the carbonate ligands formed a third complex, CuL3, in addition to CuL2, and CuL complexes. From the graphs of species distribution, the values of stability constants and the levels of the ligands in the lake, it was found that the chloride and the carbonate ligands contributed most of the speciation of the copper in the Lake Elementaita, while the hydroxide ligand contributed least. (author)

  20. Sensitive voltammetric detection of yeast RNA based on its interaction with Victoria Blue B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI SUN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Voltammetric studies of the interaction of yeast RNA (y-RNA with Victoria Blue B (VBB are described in this paper. Furthermore, a linear sweep voltammetric method for the detection of y-RNA was established. The reaction conditions, such as acidity and amount of buffer solution, the concentration of VBB, the reaction time and temperature, etc., were carefully investigated by second order derivative linear sweep voltammetry. Under the optimal conditions, the reduction peak current of VBB at –0.75 V decreased greatly after the addition of y-RNA to the solution without any shift of the reduction peak potential. Based on the decrease of the peak current, a new quantitative method for the determination of y-RNA was developed. The effects of co-existing substances on the determination were carefully investigated and three synthetic samples were determined with satisfactory results. The stoichiometry of the VBB–y-RNA complex was calculated by linear sweep voltammetry and the interaction mechanism is discussed.

  1. Anodic Voltammetric determination of gemifloxacin using screen-printed carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Elgawad Radi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation behavior and voltammetric assay of gemifloxacin were investigated using differential-pulse and cyclic voltammetry on a screen-printed carbon electrode. The effects of pH, scan rates, and concentration of the drug on the anodic peak current were studied. Voltammograms of gemifloxacin in Tris–HCl buffer (pH 7.0 exhibited a well-defined single oxidation peak. A differential-pulse voltammetric procedure for the quantitation of gemifloxacin has been developed and suitably validated with respect to linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision, specificity, and robustness. The calibration was linear from 0.5 to 10.0 μM, and the limits of detection and quantification were 0.15 and 5.0 μM. Recoveries ranging from 96.26% to 103.64% were obtained. The method was successfully applied to the determination of gemifloxacin in pharmaceutical tablets without any pre-treatment. Excipients present in the tablets did not interfere in the assay. Keywords: Screen-printed carbon electrode, Voltammetry, Gemifloxacin, Pharmaceutical analysis

  2. Dual Approach to Amplify Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Signals Recorded Using Screen Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka KRÓLICKA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Screen printed electrodes plated with bismuth were used to record anodic stripping voltammograms of Pb(II, In(III and Cd(II. Using two bismuth precursors: Bi2O3 dispersed in the electrode body and Bi(III ions spiked into the tested solution it was possible to deposit bismuth layers, demonstrating exceptional ability to accumulate metals forming alloys with bismuth. The voltammetric signals were amplified by adjusting the electrode location with respect to rotating magnetic field. The electrode response was influenced by vertical and horizontal distance between the magnet center and the sensing area of screen printed electrode as well as the angle between the magnet surface and the electrode. When the electrode was moved away from the magnet center the recorded peaks were increasingly smaller and almost not affected by the presence of bismuth ions. It was shown that to obtain well-shaped signals a favourable morphology of bismuth deposits is of key importance. Hypotheses explaining processes responsible for the amplification of voltammetric signals were proposed.

  3. Voltammetric determination of copper in selected pharmaceutical preparations--validation of the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutka, Anna; Maruszewska, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    It were established and validated the conditions of voltammetric determination of copper in pharmaceutical preparations. The three selected preparations: Zincuprim (A), Wapń, cynk, miedź z wit. C (B), Vigor complete (V) contained different salts and different quantity of copper (II) and increasing number of accompanied ingredients. For the purpose to transfer copper into solution, the samples of powdered tablets of the first and second preparation were undergone extraction and of the third the mineralization procedures. The concentration of copper in solution was determined by differential pulse voltammetry (DP) using comparison with standard technique. In the validation process, the selectivity, accuracy, precision and linearity of DP determination of copper in three preparations were estimated. Copper was determined within the concentration range of 1-9 ppm (1-9 microg/mL): the mean recoveries approached 102% (A), 100% (B), 102% (V); the relative standard deviations of determinations (RSD) were 0.79-1.59% (A), 0.62-0.85% (B) and 1.68-2.28% (V), respectively. The mean recoveries and the RSDs of determination satisfied the requirements for the analyte concentration at the level 1-10 ppm. The statistical verification confirmed that the tested voltammetric method is suitable for determination of copper in pharmaceutical preparation.

  4. Voltammetric behavior of nitrofurazone and its hydroxymethyl prodrug with potential anti-Chagas activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La-Scalea, Mauro Aquiles [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: scalea@usp.br; Menezes, Carla Maria de Souza; Ferreira, Elizabeth Igne [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Juliao, Murilo Sergio da Silva [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraju, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Man Chin Chung [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Serrano, Silvia Helena Pires [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    Chagas' disease is a serious health problem for Latin America. The situation is worsened by the lack of efficient chemotherapy. The two available commercial drugs, benznidazole and nifurtimox, are more effective in the acute phase of the disease. Nitrofurazone is active against Trypanosoma cruzi, however its high toxicity precludes its current use in parasitosis. Hydroxymethyl nitrofurazone is a prodrug of nitrofurazone. It is more active against Trypanosoma cruzi than nitrofurazone, besides being less toxic. This work shows the voltammetric behavior of nitrofurazone and a comparison with those of metronidazole and chloramphenicol using cyclic, linear sweep and differential pulse voltammetries. For these drugs also the prediction of the diffusion coefficients using Wilke-Chang equation was performed. The reduction of nitrofurazone is pH-dependent and in acidic medium the hydroxylamine derivative, involving four electrons, is the principal product formed. In aqueous-alkaline medium and with a glassy carbon electrode pre-treatment the reduction of nitrofurazone occurs in two steps, the first involving one electron to form the nitro-radical anion and the second corresponding to the hydroxylamine derivative formation. Hydroxymethyl nitrofurazone presented the same voltammetric behavior and electroactivity, indicating that the molecular modification performed in nitrofurazone did not change its capacity to be reduced. A brief discussion regarding the differences in biological activity between the two compounds is also presented. (author)

  5. Manganese dioxide-graphene nanocomposite film modified electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor of indomethacin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuxia; Zhang, Zhenfa; Zhang, Cuizong; Huang, Wei; Liang, Caiyun; Peng, Jinyun [Guangxi Normal University for Nationalities, Chongzuo (China)

    2016-08-15

    Excess amount of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug, such as indomethacin, often leads to serious gastrointestinal complications; therefore, amount of such active compound should be regulated in commercial drugs. This study proposes an efficient analytical technique to detect indomethacin selectively. We prepared and investigated electrochemical properties of a manganese dioxide-graphene nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode (MnO{sub 2}-Gr/GCE). The behavior of the modified electrode as electrocatalyst towards indomethacin oxidation was also examined. The cyclic voltammetric results reveal that the electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of indomethacin can significantly be enhanced on the MnO{sub 2}-Gr/GCE. Indomethacin exhibited a sensitive anodic peak at about 0.90 V at MnO{sub 2}-Gr/GCE. The data obtained from differential pulse voltammetry showed that the anodic peak currents were linearly dependent on the indomethacin concentrations in the range of 1.0 X 10{sup -7} to 2.5 X 10{sup -5} mol/L with a detection limit of 3.2 X 10{sup -8} mol/L (S/N = 3). Most importantly, the proposed method shows efficient and selective sensing of indomethacin in commercial harmaceutical formulations. This is the first report of a voltammetric sensor for indomethacin using MnO{sub 2}-Gr/GCE. We believe that this new method can be commercialized for routine applications in laboratories.

  6. Voltammetric Determination of the Herbicide Linuron Using a Tricresyl Phosphate-Based Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Vytřas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the results of voltammetric studies on the herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1-methoxy-1-methylurea (Linuron, using a carbon paste electrode containing tricresyl phosphate (TCP-CPE as liquid binder. The principal experimental conditions, such as the pH effect, investigated in Britton-Robinson buffer solutions (pH 2.0–7.0, the peak characteristics for the analyte of interest, or instrumental parameters for the differential pulse voltammetric mode were optimized for the method. As found out, the best electroanalytical performance of the TCP-CPE was achieved at pH 2.0, whereby the oxidation peak of Linuron appeared at ca. +1.3 V vs. SCE. The analytical procedure developed offers good linearity in the concentration range of 1.25–44.20 μg mL−1 (1.77 × 10−4–5.05 × 10−6 mol L−1, showing - for the first time - the applicability of the TCP-CPE for anodic oxidations in direct voltammetry (without accumulation. The method was then verified by determining Linuron in a spiked river water sample and a commercial formulation and the results obtained agreed well with those obtained by the reference HPLC/UV determination.

  7. Voltammetric determination of the herbicide Linuron using a tricresyl phosphate-based carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðorđević, Jelena; Papp, Zsigmond; Guzsvány, Valéria; Svancara, Ivan; Trtić-Petrović, Tatjana; Purenović, Milovan; Vytřas, Karel

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of voltammetric studies on the herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea (Linuron), using a carbon paste electrode containing tricresyl phosphate (TCP-CPE) as liquid binder. The principal experimental conditions, such as the pH effect, investigated in Britton-Robinson buffer solutions (pH 2.0-7.0), the peak characteristics for the analyte of interest, or instrumental parameters for the differential pulse voltammetric mode were optimized for the method. As found out, the best electroanalytical performance of the TCP-CPE was achieved at pH 2.0, whereby the oxidation peak of Linuron appeared at ca. +1.3 V vs. SCE. The analytical procedure developed offers good linearity in the concentration range of 1.25-44.20 μg mL(-1) (1.77 × 10(-4)-5.05 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)), showing-for the first time-the applicability of the TCP-CPE for anodic oxidations in direct voltammetry (without accumulation). The method was then verified by determining Linuron in a spiked river water sample and a commercial formulation and the results obtained agreed well with those obtained by the reference HPLC/UV determination.

  8. Voltammetric studies on the electrochemical determination of methylmercury in chloride medium at carbon microelectrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, F.; Neto, M.M.M.; Rocha, M.M.; Fonseca, I.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Electroanalytical techniques have been used to determine methylmercury at low levels in environmental matrices. The electrochemical behaviour of methylmercury at carbon microelectrodes in a hydrochloric acid medium using cyclic, square wave and fast-scan linear-sweep voltammetric techniques has been investigated. The analytical utility of the methylmercury reoxidation peak has been explored, but the recorded peak currents were found to be poorly reproducible. This is ascribed to two factors: the adsorption of insoluble chloromercury compounds on the electrode surface, which appears to be an important contribution to hinder the voltammetric signal of methylmercury; and the competition between the reoxidation of the methylmercury radical and its dimerization reaction, which limits the reproducibility of the methylmercury peak. These problems were successfully overcome by adopting the appropriate experimental conditions. Fast-scan rates were employed and an efficient electrochemical regeneration procedure of the electrode surface was achieved, under potentiostatic conditions in a mercury-free solution containing potassium thiocyanate-a strong complexing agent. The influence of chloride ion concentration was analysed. Interference by metals, such as lead and cadmium, was considered. Calibration plots were obtained in the micromolar and submicromolar concentration ranges, allowing the electrochemical determination of methylmercury in trace amounts. An estuarine water sample was analysed using the new method with a glassy carbon microelectrode

  9. Vapor permeation-stepwise injection simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol in biodiesel with voltammetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishov, Andrey; Penkova, Anastasia; Zabrodin, Andrey; Nikolaev, Konstantin; Dmitrenko, Maria; Ermakov, Sergey; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    A novel vapor permeation-stepwise injection (VP-SWI) method for the determination of methanol and ethanol in biodiesel samples is discussed. In the current study, stepwise injection analysis was successfully combined with voltammetric detection and vapor permeation. This method is based on the separation of methanol and ethanol from a sample using a vapor permeation module (VPM) with a selective polymer membrane based on poly(phenylene isophtalamide) (PA) containing high amounts of a residual solvent. After the evaporation into the headspace of the VPM, methanol and ethanol were transported, by gas bubbling, through a PA membrane to a mixing chamber equipped with a voltammetric detector. Ethanol was selectively detected at +0.19 V, and both compounds were detected at +1.20 V. Current subtractions (using a correction factor) were used for the selective determination of methanol. A linear range between 0.05 and 0.5% (m/m) was established for each analyte. The limits of detection were estimated at 0.02% (m/m) for ethanol and methanol. The sample throughput was 5 samples h(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of biodiesel samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of antimony microparticles supported on biochar for application in the voltammetric determination of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaerd, Ava; de Oliveira, Paulo R; Mangrich, Antonio S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the construction and application of carbon paste electrodes modified with biochar and antimony microparticles (SbBCPE) for voltammetric determination of paraquat using a simple and sensitive procedure based on voltammetric stripping analysis. Some parameters such as amount of biochar and antimony used in the composition of the carbon paste and instrumental parameters were examined in detail. Under optimized conditions, an analytical curve was obtained for paraquat determination employing SbBCPE, which showed a linear response ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 μmol L(-1), with limit of detection and quantification of 34 nmol L(-1) and 113 nmol L(-1), respectively, after paraquat pre-concentration of 120 s. The repeatability study presented a RSD=2.0% for 10 consecutive measurements using the same electrode surface and the reproducibility study showed a RSD=2.7% for measurements with 10 different electrode surfaces. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for paraquat determination in tap water and citric fruit juice spiked samples and good recoveries were obtained without any sample pre-treatment, showing its promising analytical performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Np(IV) complex with task-specific ionic liquid based on CMPO: first cyclic voltammetric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, A; Murali, M.S.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Iqbal, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2015-01-01

    A cyclic voltammetric study on Np(IV) complexes with task-specific ionic liquid with 3-dodecylimidazolium cation appended with diphenylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)-imide anion dissolved in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium

  12. Unique, Voltammetric Electrochemical Sensors for Organic Contaminants, with Excellent Discrimination, Based on Conducting Polymer-, Aptamer- and Other-Functionalized Sensing Electrodes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In ongoing and recent prior work for the Army, this firm has developed a unique, patented technology for voltammetric electrochemical detection of toxic gases,...

  13. Rapid screening and guided extraction of antioxidants from microalgae using voltammetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiris, Koen; De Vreese, Peter; De Cooman, Luc; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2012-08-01

    Currently, microalgae draw much attention as a promising source of natural antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants for food applications. In this paper, the use of voltammetric techniques as a fast alternative for chemical assays to determine the antioxidant power of microalgal biomass is discussed. It was found that antioxidant activities determined by square wave voltammetry correlate well with the results from other established antioxidant assays, such as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (R(2) = 0.737), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (R(2) = 0.729), and AAPH-induced oxidation of linoleic acid (R(2) = 0.566). Besides yielding quantitative data on the antioxidant activity, square wave voltammetry provides additional information on the antioxidant profile of microalgal biomass as the peak potentials of antioxidant components are determined. Consequently, square wave voltammetry can be used as a tool for optimizing the extraction processes to recover antioxidant components from microalgae.

  14. Direct voltammetric determination of redox-active iron in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Pumera, Martin

    2014-12-01

    With the advances in nanotechnology over the past decade, consumer products are increasingly being incorporated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). As the harmful effects of CNTs are suggested to be primarily due to the bioavailable amounts of metallic impurities, it is vital to detect and quantify these species using sensitive and facile methods. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possibility of quantifying the amount of redox-available iron-containing impurities in CNTs with voltammetric techniques such as cyclic voltammetry. We examined the electrochemistry of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles in phosphate buffer solution and discovered that its electrochemical behavior could be affected by pH of the electrolyte. By utilizing the unique redox reaction between the iron and phosphate species, the redox available iron content in CNTs was determined successfully using voltammetry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Sensitive Voltammetric Determination of Natural Flavonoid Quercetin on a Disposable Graphite Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Long Vu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a pencil graphite electrode was pretreated using chronoamperometry technique in phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.0 for sensitive determination of quercetin. Oxidation of quercetin was investigated using pretreated pencil graphite electrode and anodic stripping differential pulse voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the anodic current of quercetin exhibited linear response to its concentration in the range from 0.001 to 1.5 μmol/L with the limit of detection of 0.3·10–3 μmol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of quercetin in cranberry and blackcurrant juices with recovery rate from 93.2 to 94.7 %. Solid-phase extraction was found to be necessary prior to voltammetric determination of quercetin in fruit juice samples using pretreated pencil graphite electrode.

  16. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton–Robinson (BR buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB and Tween 20 was studied. Among these surfactants SLS showed significant enhancement in reduction peak. The cathodic peak currents were directly proportional to the concentration of midazolam with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Keywords: Midazolam, Voltammetry, Surfactant, Glassy carbon electrode, Parenteral dosage form

  17. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and Tween 20 was studied. Among these surfactants SLS showed significant enhancement in reduction peak. The cathodic peak currents were directly proportional to the concentration of midazolam with correlation coefficient of 0.99.

  18. Performance of pyrolyzed photoresist carbon films in a microchip capillary electrophoresis device with sinusoidal voltammetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Nicole E; Snyder, Brian; McCreery, Richard L; Kuhr, Werner G; Brazill, Sara A

    2003-08-15

    Pyrolyzed photoresist films (PPF) are introduced as planar carbon electrodes in a PDMS-quartz hybrid microchip device. The utility of PPF in electroanalytical applications is demonstrated by the separation and detection of various neurotransmitters. PPF is found to form a stable, low-capacitance, durable layer on quartz, which can then be used in conjunction with a microchip capillary electrophoretic device. Sinusoidal voltammetric detection at PPF electrodes is shown to be very sensitive, with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 100 nM for dopamine, corresponding to a mass detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2 amol. The selectivity of analysis in the frequency domain is demonstrated by isolating each individual signal in a pair of analytes that are chromatographically unresolved. Effectively decoupling the electrophoresis and electrochemical systems allows the electrodes to be placed just inside the separation channel, which results in efficient separations (80 000-100 000 plates/m).

  19. Discrimination of Apple Liqueurs (Nalewka) Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue, UV-Vis and Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Garcia-Hernandez, Celia; Kościński, Mikołaj; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek; Śliwińska-Bartkowiak, Małgorzata; Jurga, Stefan; Garcia-Cabezon, Cristina; Rodriguez-Mendez, Maria Luz

    2016-10-09

    The capability of a phthalocyanine-based voltammetric electronic tongue to analyze strong alcoholic beverages has been evaluated and compared with the performance of spectroscopic techniques coupled to chemometrics. Nalewka Polish liqueurs prepared from five apple varieties have been used as a model of strong liqueurs. Principal Component Analysis has demonstrated that the best discrimination between liqueurs prepared from different apple varieties is achieved using the e-tongue and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Raman spectra coupled to chemometrics have not been efficient in discriminating liqueurs. The calculated Euclidean distances and the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm (kNN) confirmed these results. The main advantage of the e-tongue is that, using PLS-1, good correlations have been found simultaneously with the phenolic content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (R² of 0.97 in calibration and R² of 0.93 in validation) and also with the density, a marker of the alcoholic content method (R² of 0.93 in calibration and R² of 0.88 in validation). UV-Vis coupled with chemometrics has shown good correlations only with the phenolic content (R² of 0.99 in calibration and R² of 0.99 in validation) but correlations with the alcoholic content were low. Raman coupled with chemometrics has shown good correlations only with density (R² of 0.96 in calibration and R² of 0.85 in validation). In summary, from the three holistic methods evaluated to analyze strong alcoholic liqueurs, the voltammetric electronic tongue using phthalocyanines as sensing elements is superior to Raman or UV-Vis techniques because it shows an excellent discrimination capability and remarkable correlations with both antioxidant capacity and alcoholic content-the most important parameters to be measured in this type of liqueurs.

  20. Voltammetric determination of heparin based on its interaction with malachite green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Niu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper malachite green (MG was used as a bioprobe to determine heparin concentration by linear sweep voltammetry on the dropping mercury working electrode (DME. In Britton-Robinson (B-R buffer solution of pH 1.5, MG had a well-defined second order derivative linear sweep voltammetric reductive peak at –0.618 V (vs. SCE. After the addition of heparin into the MG solution, the reductive peak current decreased apparently without the movement of peak potential. Based on the difference of the peak current, a new voltammetric method for the determination of heparin was established. The conditions for the binding reaction and the electrochemical detection were optimized. Under the selected experimental conditions the difference of peak current was directly proportional to the concentration of heparin in the range from 0.3 to 10.0 mg/L with the linear regression equation as ∆ip″ (nA = 360.19 C (mg/L + 178.88 (n = 15, γ = 0.998 and the detection limit as 0.28 mg/L (3σ. The effects of coexisting substances such as metal ions, amino acids on the determination of heparin were investigated and the results showed that this method had good selectivity. This method was further applied to determine the heparin content in heparin sodium injection samples with satisfactory results and good recovery. The stoichiometry of the biocomplex was calculated by the electrochemical method and the binding mechanism was further discussed.

  1. Influence of the acidity level change in aprotic media on the voltammetric behavior of nitrogabacinamamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista-Martinez, J.A.; Gonzalez, I.; Aguilar-Martinez, M.

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a comparative voltammetric study of o-, m- and p-nitrogabacinamamides (N-[3(X-nitrophenyl)-(2E)-propenyl]-4-aminobutanoic acids), NG, in acetonitrile. These compounds, a HDR-NO 2 nitro compounds type, display three reduction waves, two of them are waves similar to those appearing in the reduction of the nitro compounds lacking a proton donor group and one new wave at less negative potentials, associated with the nitro-to-hydroxylamine reduction through a self-protonation reaction. Experiments were carried out in the presence of different chemical species giving an acidity level control by homogeneous buffer systems. The presence of tetraethylammonium phenolate achieves complete inhibition of self-protonation reactions, thus recovering the behavior established by ( - DR-NO 2 / - DR-NO 2 · - ) system. When the conjugated acid of the above mentioned base is added to the acetonitrile solution, where the acidity level was controlled by the phenol/phenolate system (acidity level buffer), only the second electroreduction wave ( - DR-NO 2 · - /HDR-NHOH) shows to be affected by the presence of phenol in the electrolytic medium and displaces towards less negative potential values. On the other hand, in the benzoic acid (HBz)/benzoate (Bz - ) medium, the electrochemical behavior of these nitro compounds changes completely passing from ( - DR-NO 2 / - DR-NO 2 · - ) system to (HDR-NO 2 + 4HBz/HDR-NHOH + 4Bz - ) type system, in which both the stoichiometry of the electroreduction process and the energetic requirement for its realization are changed. The comparison of the different voltammetric behavior in the presence of the different acidic and basic additives allowed constructing an acidity level scale where the different acid base couples of the intermediaries of the NG electroreduction were placed. This kind of scale allows choosing the chemical conditions necessaries to drive the pathway of the electrochemical transformation of nitro compounds

  2. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of vanillin based on an acetylene black paste electrode modified with graphene-polyvinylpyrrolidone composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peihong; Xu, Zhifeng; Zeng, Rongying; Ding, Chunxia

    2015-08-01

    The graphene-polyvinylpyrrolidone composite film modified acetylene black paste electrode (GR-PVP/ABPE) was fabricated and used to determine vanillin. In 0.1M H3PO4 solution, the oxidation peak current of vanillin increased significantly at GR-PVP/ABPE compared with bare ABPE, PVP/ABPE and GR/ABPE. The oxidation mechanism was discussed. The experimental conditions that exert influence on the voltammetric determination of vanillin, such as supporting electrolytes, pH values, accumulation potential and accumulation time, were optimized. Besides, the interference, repeatability, reproducibility and stability measurements were also evaluated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to vanillin concentration in the range of 0.02-2.0 μM, 2.0-40 μM and 40-100 μM. The detection limit was 10nM. This sensor was used successfully for vanillin determination in various food samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wencai; Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun; Ma, Houyi

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1-65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N=3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Voltammetric Detection of Diquat at the Carbon Paste Electrode Containing a Ca10(PO46(OH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abderrahim EL MHAMMEDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a sensitive electrochemical voltammetric method for analyzing diquat (DQ ions using a carbon paste electrochemical (CPE modified by porous material, such as hydroxyapatite (HAP. Diquat strongly adsorbed on a HAP-CPE surface and provides facile electrochemical quantitative methods for electroactive DQ ions. Operational parameters have been optimized, and the stripping voltammetric performance has been studied using square wave voltammetry. The peaks current intensity are highly linear over the 7×10-7–3×10-4 mol L-1 diquat range examined (10-min accumulation time, with a good sensitivity. These findings can lead to a widespread use of electrochemical sensors to detect DQ contaminates.Scanning electron microscopy was used for morphology observation and in particular the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis for characterization of synthesis powder.

  5. Cobalt(II) salophen-modified carbon-paste electrode for potentiometric and voltammetric determination of cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mohammad K; Khorasani, Jafar H; Khaloo, Shokooh S; Tangestaninejad, Shahram

    2003-09-01

    A chemically modified electrode constructed by incorporating N,N(')-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-phenylenediaminocobalt(II) into carbon-paste matrix was used as a sensitive electrochemical sensor for detection of cysteine. The resulting electrode exhibits catalytic properties for the electrooxidation of cysteine and lowers the overpotential for the oxidation of this compound. The faster rate of electron transfer results in a near-Nernstian behavior of the modified electrode and makes it a suitable potentiometric and voltammetric sensor for the fast and easy determination of cysteine. A linear response in concentration range from approximately 2 microM to 0.01 M was obtained with a detection limit of 1 microM for the potentiometric detection of cysteine. The modified electrode was also used for the amperometric and differential pulse voltammetric determination of cysteine and the results were compared with those of the potentiometric method.

  6. Development of a voltammetric assay, using screen-printed electrodes, for clonazepam and its application to beverage and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeychurch, Kevin C; Brooks, Joshua; Hart, John P

    2016-01-15

    This paper describes the development of an electrochemical assay based on screen-printed carbon sensors for the determination of clonazepam in serum and in wine. The cyclic voltammetric behaviour of the drug was investigated and the effects of pH and scan rate on the peak current and peak potential determined. Two reduction peaks were recorded on the initial negative going scan, which were considered to result from the 2e(-), 2 H(+) reduction of the 4,5-azomethine and from the 4e(-), 4 H(+) reduction of the 7-NO2 to a hydroxylamine. On the return positive going scan an oxidation peak was seen, which was considered to result from the 2e(-), 2 H(+) oxidation (O1) of the hydroxylamine to the corresponding nitroso species. At pH 11 the solution of clonazepam was found to turn from clear to yellow in colour and the voltammetric signal of the O1 oxidation process was found to be adsorptive in nature, this was exploited in the development of an adsorptive stripping voltammetric assay. Experimental conditions were then optimised for the differential pulse adsorptive voltammetric measurement of clonazepam in wine and serum samples. It was shown that these analyses could be performed on only 100µL of sample which was deposited on the sensor surface. Mean recoveries of 79.53% (%CV=9.88%) and 88.22% (%CV=14.1%) were calculated for wine fortified with 3.16µg/mL and serum fortified with 12.6µg/mL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Voltammetric Double-Polymer-Modified Electrodes for Nanomolar Ion Detection for Environmental and Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yushin

    Qualitative and quantitative electrochemical methods for trace ion analysis of organic and inorganic species with environmental and biological attention have been developed and reported during past decades. The development of fast and accurate electrochemical methods is critical for field applications with various blocking contaminants. Voltammetric method is attractive not only to analyze selective ion species due to its characteristic based on ion lipophilicity, but also to lower the limit of detection by combining with stripping analysis. In my PhD work, I have developed and studied a highly selective and sensitive electrochemical method that can be used to characterize fundamental transport dynamics and to develop electrochemical sensors at liquid/liquid interfaces based on electrochemically-controlled ion transfer and recognition. The understanding of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the voltammetric ion transfer through polymer-modified ion-selective electrodes leads to realize the highly selective and sensitive analytical method. The ultrathin polymer membrane is used to maximize a current response by complete exhaustion of preconcentrated ions. Therefore, nanomolar detection is achieved and confirmed by a thermodynamic mechanism that controls the detection limit. It was also demonstrated experimentally and theoretically that more lipophilic ionic species gives a significantly lower detection limit. The voltammetric method was expanded into inexpensive and disposable applications based on pencil lead modified with the thin polymer membrane. In the other hand, micropipet/nanopipet voltammetry as an artificial cell membrane was used to study the interface between two immiscible solutions for environmental and biomedical applications. It is very useful to get quantitative kinetic and thermodynamic information by studying numerical simulations of ion transfer and diffusion. Molecular recognition and transport of heparin and low

  8. Glassy carbon electrode modified with horse radish peroxidase/organic nucleophilic-functionalized carbon nanotube composite for enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation and efficient voltammetric sensing of levodopa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoja, Yalda; Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir; Ghodsi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A novel and selective enzymatic biosensor was designed and constructed for voltammetric determination of levodopa (L-Dopa) in aqueous media (phosphate buffer solution, pH = 7). Biosensor development was on the basis of to physically immobilizing of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as electrochemical catalyst by sol–gel on glassy carbon electrode modified with organic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite which in this composite p-phenylenediamine (pPDA) as organic nucleophile chemically bonded with functionalized MWCNT (MWCNT-COOH). The results of this study suggest that prepared bioorganic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite (HRP/MWCNT-pPDA) shows fast electron transfer rate for electro oxidation of L-Dopa because of its high electrochemical catalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-Dopa, more −NH{sub 2} reactive sites and large effective surface area. Also in this work we measured L-Dopa in the presence of folic acid and uric acid as interferences. The proposed biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), FT-IR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for determination of L-Dopa from 0.1 μM to 1.9 μM with a low detection limit of 40 nM (for S/N = 3) and sensitivity was about 35.5 μA/μM. Also this biosensor has several advantages such as rapid response, high stability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • Glassy carbon electrode modified by a novel composite in which pPDA as nucleophile is chemically attached to MWCNTs. • The developed biosensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity in electrochemically determination of L-Dopa. • The biosensor showed acceptable sensitivity, reproducibility, detection limit, selectivity and stability. • MWCNT-pPDA provides a good electrical conductivity and large effective surface area for enzyme immobilization.

  9. Voltammetric Studies on Vitamins D2 and D3 in Organic Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Ya Yun; Yue, Yanni; Webster, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vitamins D 2 and D 3 undergo a chemically irreversible oxidation process. • The electrochemical oxidation occurs via one-electron on short (CV) time-scales. • On long time scales (electrolysis) the oxidation occurs via two-electrons. • Chemical oxidation was performed using two molar equivalents of NO + . • Oxidation occurs at the triene moiety. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of vitamins D 2 and D 3 were examined by performing cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode voltammetry, controlled potential electrolysis and chemical oxidation in aprotic organic solvents. Both vitamins were electrochemically oxidized in dichloromethane and acetonitrile (E p ox ∼ +0.8 vs. (Fc/Fc + )/V, where E p ox is the anodic peak potential and Fc = ferrocene) via a one-electron chemically irreversible process on the short voltammetric time scale (≤ seconds). Varying the scan rate (0.1 V s −1 to 20 V s −1 ) and temperature (233 K to 293 K) did not strongly affect the voltammetric response recorded on platinum and glassy carbon electrode surfaces with the oxidation process remaining chemically irreversible over the range of scan rates and temperatures tested, indicating that the initially formed cation radical was not long-lived. Repetitive CV experiments indicated that the oxidized product partially adsorbed onto the electrode surface, resulting in diminishing peak currents with multiple scans. Bulk controlled potential electrolysis of the vitamin D compounds performed by alternating several cycles of oxidative electrolysis and reductive pulsed stripping proved to be effective in stripping the adsorbed species off the electrode surfaces. Longer time scale bulk electrolysis experiments led to the detection of a new oxidation peak appearing at less positive potentials as the electrolysis progressed, suggesting that the compounds underwent oxidation on long time scales (minutes to hours) via a two electron process. The vitamins were most

  10. Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Hydroquinone using an Electrochemically Pretreated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Niaz1,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV method was developed for the determination of hydroquinone at an electrochemically pretreated glassy carbon (GC electrode in waste water. Various parameters such as solvent system, accumulation potential, accumulation time and scan rate were optimized. The electrochemically pretreated GC electrode showed good response towards hydroquinone determination by using AdSV. Under the optimized conditions the peak current showed good linear relationship with the hydroquinone concentration in the range of 0.5-4.0mg L-1 and 5-30mg L-1. The 60/40 methanol/water composition was found to be the best solvent system and 0.05mol L-1 H2SO4 was found as useful supporting electrolyte concentration. The accumulation time was 60 s and the detection limit was 50µg L-1. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of hydroquinone in polymeric industrial discharge samples waste photographic developer solution and cream sample without any significant effect of surface fouling.

  11. Simultaneous Voltammetric/Amperometric Determination of Sulfide and Nitrite in Water at BDD Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Baciu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reported new voltammetric/amperometric-based protocols using a commercial boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode for simple and fast simultaneous detection of sulfide and nitrite from water. Square-wave voltammetry operated under the optimized working conditions of 0.01 V step potential, 0.5 V modulation amplitude and 10 Hz frequency allowed achieving the best electroanalytical parameters for the simultaneous detection of nitrite and sulfide. For practical in-field detection applications, the multiple-pulsed amperometry technique was operated under optimized conditions, i.e., −0.5 V/SCE for a duration of 0.3 s as conditioning step, +0.85 V/SCE for a duration of 3 s that assure the sulfide oxidation and +1.25 V/SCE for a duration of 0.3 s, where the nitrite oxidation occurred, which allowed the simultaneously detection of sulfide and nitrite without interference between them. Good accuracy was found for this protocol in comparison with standardized methods for each anion. Also, no interference effect was found for the cation and anion species, which are common in the water matrix.

  12. Detection of antibiotic residues in bovine milk by a voltammetric electronic tongue system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhenbo; Wang Jun

    2011-01-01

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was developed to detect antibiotic residues in bovine milk. Six antibiotics (Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Kanamycin sulfate, Neomycin sulfate, Streptomycin sulfate and Tetracycline HCl) spiked at four different concentration levels (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 maximum residue limits (MRLs)) were classified based on VE-tongue by two pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The VE-tongue was composed of five working electrodes (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and titanium) positioned in a standard three-electrode configuration. The Multi-frequency large amplitude pulse voltammetry (MLAPV) which consisted of four segments (1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz and 1000 Hz) was applied as potential waveform. The six antibiotics at the MRLs could not be separated from bovine milk completely by PCA, but all the samples were demarcated clearly by DFA. Three regression models: Principal Component Regression Analysis (PCR), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), and Least Squares-Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) were used for concentrations of antibiotics prediction. All the regression models performed well, and PCR had the most stable results.

  13. Voltammetric study of chromium(VI)-ammonia/ammonium chloride solutions in the presence of dimethylglyoxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, V.G.; Salikhdzhanova, R.M.F.

    1987-10-10

    The authors believed complexation to be possible in the system Cr(VI)-dimethylglyoxime (DMG, H/sub 2/D) by reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) on a mercury electrode. The DMG can be used in chromium voltammetry and is promising for a number of reasons: The Cr(III) has an affinity for donor nitrogen atoms in the DMG molecule. Insertion of the H/sub 2/D into the inner sphere of the complex is expected to weaken the bond between the Cr(III) and the hydroxyl group, slow down formation of the insoluble hydroxide Cr(OH)/sub 3/, and lower the rate of the electrode reaction Cr(III) ..-->.. Cr(II). Molecules of H/sub 2/D adsorb on a mercury electrode. It is therefore possible to accelerate the electrode process by including adsorptive preconcentration of the chromium and thus lowering its detection limit. This paper reports the voltammetric behavior of the system Cr(VI)-DMG-NH/sub 4//sup +/ (proton donor) for the purpose of lowering the chromium detection limit.

  14. Square Wave Voltammetric Determination of 2-Thiouracil in Pharmaceuticals and Real Samples Using Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen M. Gokavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method was developed using cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques for the determination of trace-level sulfur containing compound, 2-thiouracil, at a glassy carbon electrode. 2-thiouracil produced two anodic peaks at 0.334 V and 1.421 V and a cathodic peak at −0.534 V. The square wave voltammetry of 2-thiouracil gave a good linear response in the range of 1–20 μM with a detection limit of 0.16 μM and quantification limit of 0.53 μM (0.0679 μg/g, which is in good agreement as per IUPAC definition of trace component analysis (100 μg/g. The obtained recoveries range from 98.10% to 102.1%. The proposed method was used successfully for its quantitative determination in pharmaceutical formulations and urine as real samples.

  15. Voltammetric determination of zinc in compound pharmaceutical preparations--validation of method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutka, Anna; Bukowska, Honorata

    2009-01-01

    The conditions of voltammetric determination of zinc in compound pharmaceutical preparations were established and validated. The three investigated preparations (Organic zinc (A), Calcium, zinc, copper with vitamin C (B), Vigor complete (V) contained different salts of zinc (II) and increasing number of other components. The samples of powdered tablets of each preparation were undergone mineralization or extraction procedures for the purpose to transfer the zinc ions into solution. The concentration of zinc in solution was determined by differential pulse voltammetry (DP). The selectivity, accuracy, precision and linearity of DP determination of zinc in three preparations were estimated in validation process. Zinc was determined within the concentration range of 1-12 ppm (1-12 microg/mL): the mean recoveries approached 96-99% (A), 96-102% (B), 106% (V); the relative standard deviations of determinations (RSD) were 2,97-2,98% (A), 2,83-3,84% (B) and 2,65% (V). The mean recoveries and the errors of determination satisfied the requirements for the analyte concentration at the level 1-20 ppm (12).

  16. A voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Inmaculada; Alcañiz, Miguel; Aguado, Daniel; Barat, Ramón; Ferrer, José; Gil, Luis; Marrakchi, Mouna; Martínez-Mañez, Ramón; Soto, Juan; Vivancos, José-Luis

    2012-05-15

    The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue as tool for the prediction of concentration levels of certain water quality parameters from influent and effluent wastewater from a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor pilot plant applied to domestic wastewater treatment is proposed here. The electronic tongue consists of a set of noble (Au, Pt, Rh, Ir, and Ag) and non-noble (Ni, Co and Cu) electrodes that were housed inside a stainless steel cylinder which was used as the body of the electronic tongue system. As a previous step an electrochemical study of the response of the ions sulphate, orthophosphate, acetate, bicarbonate and ammonium was carried out in water using the electrodes contained in the electronic tongue. The second part of the work was devoted to the application of the electronic tongue to the characterization of the influent and effluent waters from the wastewater treatment plant. Partial Least Squares analysis was used to obtain a correlation between the data from the tongue and the pollution parameters measured in the laboratory such as soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), soluble biological oxygen demand (BODs), ammonia (NH(4)-N), orthophosphate (PO(4)-P), Sulphate (SO(4)-S), acetic acid (HAC) and alkalinity (Alk). A total of 28 and 11 samples were used in the training and the validation steps, respectively, for both influent and effluent water samples. The electronic tongue showed relatively good predictive power for the determination of BOD, COD, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, SO(4)-S, and Alk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic and voltammetric studies of a novel Schiff-base of cysteine and saccharin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Semiha; Odabaşoğlu, Mustafa; Biçer, Ender; Yazar, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel Schiff-base of cysteine and saccharin [( 2R)-2-(1, 1-dioxo-1, 2-dihydro-1λ6-benzo[ d]isothiazol-3-ylideneamino)-3-mercapto-propionic acid] was synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The voltammetric behaviour of Schiff-base was investigated on the static mercury drop electrode (SMDE) by using Square-Wave voltammetry (SWV) and Cyclic voltammetry (CV). The voltammograms of the Schiff-base gave three reduction waves in Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 5.0-9.0) for the potential range from 0.0 to -1.4 V. The first reversible cathodic peak is due to reduction of the mercury thiolate, produced by the thiol group of Schiff-base which adsorbs at Hg electrode surface, to metallic mercury and free thiol. The second reduction peak may be assigned to the reduction of azomethine center (>C dbnd N sbnd ) in the Schiff-base and the last peak may be related to the catalytic hydrogen reduction.

  18. Detection of antibiotic residues in bovine milk by a voltammetric electronic tongue system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zhenbo [Zhejiang University, Department of Bio-Systems Engineering, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China); Wang Jun, E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, Department of Bio-Systems Engineering, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2011-05-23

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was developed to detect antibiotic residues in bovine milk. Six antibiotics (Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Kanamycin sulfate, Neomycin sulfate, Streptomycin sulfate and Tetracycline HCl) spiked at four different concentration levels (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 maximum residue limits (MRLs)) were classified based on VE-tongue by two pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The VE-tongue was composed of five working electrodes (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and titanium) positioned in a standard three-electrode configuration. The Multi-frequency large amplitude pulse voltammetry (MLAPV) which consisted of four segments (1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz and 1000 Hz) was applied as potential waveform. The six antibiotics at the MRLs could not be separated from bovine milk completely by PCA, but all the samples were demarcated clearly by DFA. Three regression models: Principal Component Regression Analysis (PCR), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), and Least Squares-Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) were used for concentrations of antibiotics prediction. All the regression models performed well, and PCR had the most stable results.

  19. Solar UV Photooxidation as Pretreatment for Stripping Voltammetric Trace Metal Analysis in River Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelaneh Woldemichael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar ultraviolet radiation as sample pretreatment or preparation step in stripping voltammetric analysis of trace metals in presence of low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC natural water samples (river water was studied. River water samples were collected from downstream of Warnow river (Germany and acidified to pH of 2±0.2 (by addition of 1 mL of ultrapure 65% HNO3 per liter sample. Furthermore, 100 μL/L of hydrogen peroxide solution (ultrapure, 30% H2O2 was added to the samples as photochemical reaction initiator. The samples were transferred to polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and irradiated with solar radiation of UV-A intensity of 3.6 mW/m2 for six hours, and the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV. The comparison of the values with the results obtained for the original untreated sample and artificial UV-treated one proved that solar UV radiation can be applied to the digestion of dissolved organic carbon in trace metal analysis in natural waters like river water, lake waters, well waters, and so forth.

  20. Electrochemical Investigation of Catechol at Poly(niacinamide Modified Carbon Paste Electrode: A Voltammetric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Teradale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric thin film modified electrode, that is, poly(niacinamide modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE, was developed for the electrochemical determination of catechol (CC by using cyclic voltammetric technique. Compared to bare carbon paste electrode (BCPE, the poly(niacinamide MCPE shows good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of catechol in phosphate buffer solution (PBS of physiological pH 7.4. All experimental parameters were optimized. Poly(niacinamide modified carbon paste electrode gave a linear response between concentration of CC and its anodic peak current in the range within 20.6–229.0 μM. The limit of detection (3S/M and limit of quantification (10S/M were 1.497 μM and 4.99 μM, respectively. From the study of scan rate variation, the electrode process was found to be adsorption-controlled. The involvement of protons and electrons in the oxidation of CC was found to be equal. The probable electropolymerisation mechanism of niacinamide was proposed. Finally, this method can be used in development of a sensor for sensitive determination of CC.

  1. Voltammetric and Mathematical Evidence for Dual Transport Mediation of Serotonin Clearance In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin M.; Zeqja, Anisa; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Reed, Michael C.; Best, Janet; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin underlies many of the brain’s functions. Understanding serotonin neurochemistry is important for improving treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Antidepressants commonly target serotonin clearance via serotonin transporters (SERTs) and have variable clinical effects. Adjunctive therapies, targeting other systems including serotonin autoreceptors, also vary clinically and carry adverse consequences. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is particularly well suited for studying antidepressant effects on serotonin clearance and autoreceptors by providing real-time chemical information on serotonin kinetics in vivo. However, the complex nature of in vivo serotonin responses makes it difficult to interpret experimental data with established kinetic models. Here, we electrically stimulated the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to provoke and detect terminal serotonin in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). In response to MFB stimulation we found three dynamically distinct serotonin signals. To interpret these signals we developed a computational model that supports two independent serotonin reuptake mechanisms (high affinity, low efficiency reuptake mechanism and low affinity, high efficiency reuptake system) and bolsters an important inhibitory role for the serotonin autoreceptors. Our data and analysis, afforded by the powerful combination of voltammetric and theoretical methods, gives new understanding of the chemical heterogeneity of serotonin dynamics in the brain. This diverse serotonergic matrix likely contributes to clinical variability of antidepressants. PMID:24702305

  2. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of silver ion at a carbon paste electrode modified with carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashkhourian, J.; Javadi, S.; Ana, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and successfully applied to the determination of silver ion by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Compared to a conventional CPE, a remarkably improved peak current response and sensitivity is observed. The analytical procedure consisted of an open circuit accumulation step for 2 min in -0.4 V, this followed by an anodic potential scan between +0.2 and + 0.6 V to obtain the voltammetric peak. The oxidation peak current is proportional to the concentration of silver ion in the range from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -5 mol L -1 , with a detection limit of 1.8 x 10 -9 mol L -1 after an accumulation time of 120 s. The relative standard deviation for 7 successive determinations of Ag(I) at 0.1 μM concentration is 1.99%. The procedure was validated by determining Ag(I) in natural waters. (author)

  3. Voltammetric investigation of avidin-biotin complex formation using an electroactive bisbiotinyl compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Shirotori, Tatsuya; Hirabayashi, George; Kamiya, Naoto; Kuramitz, Hideki; Tanaka, Shunitz

    2004-01-01

    Formation of avidin-biotin complex was investigated using bisbiotinyl thionine (BBT) by means of voltammetric techniques. Thionine is an electroactive compound and has two amino groups that are necessary for the reaction with a biotinylation reagent. The biotinylation of thionine produces a new reagent with two biotin moieties at each end of thionine. Three BBTs of different lengths of the spacer that connects the biotin moiety to the thionine moiety were prepared. The avidin-biotin binding assay was achieved by measuring the electrode response of the thionine moiety in BBT. The binding affinity and the conformation of complex, which depended on the length of spacer, are discussed. BBT in which the spacer is shortest (BBT-S, distance between carbonyl group of the two biotin moieties: 11 A) binds with only one avidin molecule. BBT with medium length of spacer (BBT-M, 28.8 A) forms the complex with two avidin molecules. BBT with the longest spacer (BBT-L, 46.6 A) allows binding with two avidin molecules as well as intramolecular binding within one avidin molecule. The affinity constants of BBT-S, BBT-M and BBT-L for avidin were estimated to be 7.0 x 10 12 M -1 , 3.2 x 10 12 M -1 and 4.0 x 10 12 M -1 , respectively

  4. Application of graphene for preconcentration and highly sensitive stripping voltammetric analysis of organophosphate pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shuo, E-mail: wushuo@dlut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Lan Xiaoqin; Cui Lijun; Zhang Lihui; Tao Shengyang; Wang Hainan; Han Mei; Liu Zhiguang; Meng Changgong [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} An electrochemical sensor is fabricated based on {beta}-CD dispersed graphene. {yields} The sensor could selectively detect organophosphate pesticide with high sensitivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene owns large adsorption capacity for MP and superconductivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene is superior to most of the porous sorbents ever known. - Abstract: Electrochemical reduced {beta}-cyclodextrin dispersed graphene ({beta}-CD-graphene) was developed as a sorbent for the preconcentration and electrochemical sensing of methyl parathion (MP), a representative nitroaromatic organophosphate pesticide with good redox activity. Benefited from the ultra-large surface area, large delocalized {pi}-electron system and the superconductivity of {beta}-CD-graphene, large amount of MP could be extracted on {beta}-CD-graphene modified electrode via strong {pi}-{pi} interaction and exhibited fast accumulation and electron transfer rate. Combined with differential pulse voltammetric analysis, the sensor shows ultra-high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response. The limit of detection of 0.05 ppb is more than 10 times lower than those obtained from other sorbent based sensors. The method may open up a new possibility for the widespread use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring of ultra-trace OPs.

  5. Application of graphene for preconcentration and highly sensitive stripping voltammetric analysis of organophosphate pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuo; Lan Xiaoqin; Cui Lijun; Zhang Lihui; Tao Shengyang; Wang Hainan; Han Mei; Liu Zhiguang; Meng Changgong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An electrochemical sensor is fabricated based on β-CD dispersed graphene. → The sensor could selectively detect organophosphate pesticide with high sensitivity. → The β-CD dispersed graphene owns large adsorption capacity for MP and superconductivity. → The β-CD dispersed graphene is superior to most of the porous sorbents ever known. - Abstract: Electrochemical reduced β-cyclodextrin dispersed graphene (β-CD-graphene) was developed as a sorbent for the preconcentration and electrochemical sensing of methyl parathion (MP), a representative nitroaromatic organophosphate pesticide with good redox activity. Benefited from the ultra-large surface area, large delocalized π-electron system and the superconductivity of β-CD-graphene, large amount of MP could be extracted on β-CD-graphene modified electrode via strong π-π interaction and exhibited fast accumulation and electron transfer rate. Combined with differential pulse voltammetric analysis, the sensor shows ultra-high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response. The limit of detection of 0.05 ppb is more than 10 times lower than those obtained from other sorbent based sensors. The method may open up a new possibility for the widespread use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring of ultra-trace OPs.

  6. Improvement of the ultra-trace voltammetric determination of Rh in environmental samples using signal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, C; Cobelo-García, A; Santos-Echeandía, J

    2016-01-01

    Rhodium (Rh) is present at the Earth's surface at ultra-trace concentrations (0.06 ng g(-1)); however, its use in catalytic converters has increased its deposition nearby traffic pressure and therefore the interest in analytical techniques for Rh determination has raised in the recent years. In this study we propose an improvement of Rh measurement by adsorptive voltammetry applying second-derivative signal transformation. The optimization of experimental parameters affecting the voltammetric analysis were carried out using sediment samples; these include the amount of sample digest used, the hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde concentrations, deposition potential and equilibration time. The use of the second derivative transformation provided well-defined peaks due to the minimization of background interferences, leading to a significant decrease in the detection limits. Accordingly, a detection limit of 200 fM Rh in the cell was obtained, which corresponds to 14 pg g(-1) of Rh for 200mg of sediments. The optimized methodology was applied to the analysis of Rh in a sediment core collected close to a motorway bridge from Tagus Estuary (Lisbon, Portugal). Here, Rh concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.47 ng g(-1), showing a surface Rh-enrichment linked to traffic, which was consistent with a Pt superficial peak. Reference materials were also analyzed, including road dust (BCR-723) and river sediment (JSD-2), and values obtained were in agreement with certified concentrations and previously values reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Voltammetric determination of caffeine in beverage samples on bare boron-doped diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svorc, L'ubomír; Tomčík, Peter; Svítková, Jana; Rievaj, Miroslav; Bustin, Dušan

    2012-12-01

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical method for the caffeine determination using bare boron-doped diamond electrode was developed. It was found that caffeine provided highly reproducible and well-defined irreversible oxidation peak at very positive potential. The effects of supporting electrolyte, pH and scan rate on the voltammetric response of caffeine oxidation were studied to select the optimum experimental conditions. Linear response of peak current on the concentration in the range from 4×10(-7) to 2.5×10(-5)M, good repeatability (RSD of 2.1%) and detection limit of 1.5×10(-7)M without any chemical modifications and electrochemical surface pretreatment were evaluated. The effect of possible interferents appeared to be negligible which evidently proved very good selectivity. The proposed method was successfully applied for the caffeine determination in commercially available beverage samples, with results in a close statistical agreement to those declared by manufacturer and HPLC used as independent method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Voltammetric determination of montelukast sodium in dosage forms and human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarra, I; Al-Omar, M; Gadkariem, E A; Belal, F

    2005-01-01

    The voltammetric behaviour of montelukast (MKST) was studied using cyclic voltammetry, direct current (DCt), differential pulse polarography (DPP) and alternating current (ACt) polarography. MKST exhibited well-defined cathodic waves over the range pH range 1-5. No anodic waves were produced over the same pH range. At pH 1, the analytical pH; the diffusion current constant (Id) was 2.2+/-0.01 microA l mmol-1. The current concentration plot was rectilinear over the range 2-20 microg ml-1 with correlation coefficient (n=10) of 0.9943. The lower limit of detection (S/N=2) was 0.2 microg ml-1 (3.41x10(-7) M). The wave has been characterised as being diffusion-controlled, although adsorption phenomenon played a limited role in the electrode reaction. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of MKST in commercial tablets, and results were in agreement with those given with a reference HPLC method. The method was further extended to the in vitro determination of the drug in spiked human plasma. The mean % recovery (n=5) was 101.38+/-3.85. The number of electrons transferred in the reduction process could be accomplished and a proposal of the electrode reaction was proposed.

  9. Voltammetric pH sensing using carbon electrodes: glassy carbon behaves similarly to EPPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Compton, Richard G

    2014-09-21

    Developing and building on recent work based on a simple sensor for pH determination using unmodified edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG) electrodes, we present a voltammetric method for pH determination using a bare unmodified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. By exploiting the pH sensitive nature of quinones present on carbon edge-plane like sites within the GC, we show how GC electrodes can be used to measure pH. The electro-reduction of surface quinone groups on the glassy carbon electrode was characterised using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and optimised with square-wave voltammetry (SWV) at 298 K and 310 K. At both temperatures, a linear correlation was observed, corresponding to a 2 electron, 2 proton Nernstian response over the aqueous pH range 1.0 to 13.1. As such, unmodified glassy carbon electrodes are seen to be pH dependent, and the Nernstian response suggests its facile use for pH sensing. Given the widespread use of glassy carbon electrodes in electroanalysis, the approach offers a method for the near-simultaneous measurement and monitoring of pH during such analyses.

  10. Honey adulteration detection: voltammetric e-tongue versus official methods for physicochemical parameter determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Paduret, Sergiu; Ropciuc, Sorina

    2018-02-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a voltammetric e-tongue (three electrodes: reference electrode (Ag/AgCl), counter electrode (glassy carbon electrode rod) and working electrode (Au, Ag, Pt and glass electrode)) for honey adulteration detection. For this purpose, 55 samples of authentic honey (acacia, honeydew, sunflower, Tilia and polyfloral) and 150 adulterated ones were analyzed. The adulteration was made using fructose, glucose, inverted sugar, hydrolyzed inulin syrup and malt wort at different percentages: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, respectively. The e-tongue has been compared with the physicochemical parameters (pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity (EC) and CIEL*a*b* parameters (L*, a* and b*)) in order to achieve a suitable method for the classification of authentic and adulterated honeys. The e-tongue and physicochemical parameters reached a 97.50% correct classification of the authentic and adulterated honeys. In the case of the adulterated honey samples, the e-tongue achieved 83.33% correct classifications whereas the physicochemical parameters only achieved 73.33%. The e-tongue is a fast, easy and accurate method for honey adulteration detection which can be used in situ by beekeepers and provide useful information on EC and free acidity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF PERFLUOROSULFONATE IONOMER-STABILIZED PLATINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. JIANG

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Pt colloid was synthesized by the reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid with formaldehyde in the presence of a stabilizer (a cation-exchanged polymer – perfluorosulfonate ionomer (PFSI or Teflon or without any stabilizers. The average size of platinum particles with a stabilizer, characterized by a transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, is in a nanometer range in comparison with the particle agglomeration without any stabilizers. Highly dispersive 40 wt. % Pt/C catalyst obtained from the PFSI-stabilized Pt colloid shows much better performance than its counterpart with Teflon as a stabilizer or without any stabilizer according to the cyclic voltammetric (CV characterization and the single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC performance testing. It is strongly suggested that the proton-conducting ionomer could smooth the reaction pathway by facilitating the proton transport, while Teflon inhibit the active sites, though both of them can inhibit the particle growth. The improved fuel cell performance is attributed to the small particles and the unhindered transport of protons/electrons ascribed to the intimate contact of Pt and proton-conducting ionomer.

  12. Comparison Between Potentiometric and Stripping Voltammetric Detection of Trace Metals: Measurements of Cadmium and Lead in the Presence of Thalium, Indium, and Tin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Wang, Joseph

    2009-08-12

    Recent advances in ion-selective electrodes have pushed the detection limits of direct potentiometry to the nanomolar concentration range. Here we present a direct comparison of the sensitivity and selectivity of potentiometric and stripping-voltammetric measurements of cadmium and lead. While both techniques offer a similar sensitivity, the potentiometric method offers higher selectivity in the presence of excess of metal ions (e.g., thallium, tin) that commonly interfere in the stripping-voltammetric operation. Because of the complementary nature of the potentiometric and stripping-voltammetric methods, it is recommended that these techniques will be selected based on the specific analytical problem or used in parallel to provide additional analytical information.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of highly-ordered Zinc Oxide nanorods on gold/glass electrode, and its application as a voltammetric sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatamie, Amir; Echresh, Ahmad; Zargar, Behrooz; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    A novel voltammetric determination of amoxicillin (AMX) sensor has been fabricated, using zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) grown directly on gold/glass electrode. To prepare an electrode, ZnO NRs were directly grown on Au sputtered (thickness: 100 nm) glass substrate (gold/glass electrode) with hydrothermal method. The directly synthesized ZnO NRs on the electrode expressively increases NRs attachment vertically, and increase its specific surface area. ZnO NRs/gold/glass electrode was characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) techniques, and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystal quality. The performance of the electrode was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The parameters of charge transfer coefficient (α), diffusion coefficient (D), electrode surface area (A), and catalytic rate constant (k h ) were determined, and the results were studied. The electro catalytic current of AMX was found to have a linear relation to concentration over the range of 5 × 10 −6 M – 250 × 10 −6 M (n=6). The good performance of the electrode is due to more immobilization on the well-aligned ZnO NRs arrays, and direct electron conduction between the ZnO NRs and the electrodes. Further, the sensor also showed a promising application for detecting AMX in capsule sample. The ease of fabrication, acceptable stability, and low cost of the modified electrode are the promising features of the proposed sensor

  14. Modification of glassy carbon electrode with a bilayer of multiwalled carbon nanotube/tiron-doped polypyrrole: Application to sensitive voltammetric determination of acyclovir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-3516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azimzadeh, Mahnaz [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-3516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mohammad K. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    A novel voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a thin film of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with an electropolymerized layer of tiron-doped polypyrrole was developed and the resulting electrode was applied for the determination of acyclovir (ACV). The surface morphology and property of the modified electrode were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrode was investigated by means of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The effect of several experimental variables, such as pH of the supporting electrolyte, drop size of the cast MWCNTssuspension, number of electropolymerization cycles and accumulation time was optimized by monitoring the LSV response of the modified electrode toward ACV. The best response was observed at pH 7.0 after accumulation at open circuit for 160 s. Under the optimized conditions, a significant electrochemical improvement was observed toward the electrooxidation of ACV on the modified electrode surface relative to the bare GCE, resulting in a wide linear dynamic range (0.03–10.0 μM) and a low detection limit (10.0 nM) for ACV. Besides high sensitivity, the sensor represented high stability and good reproducibility for ACV analysis, and provided satisfactory results for the determination of this compound in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. - Highlights: • A simple method was employed to construct a thin film modified electrode. • Tiron-doped polypyrrole was electropolymerized on MWCNT precast glassy carbon electrode. • Electrode surface characterization was performed by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. • The modified electrode showed nano-molar detection limit for acyclovir. • The modified electrode was applied for the detection of ACV in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  15. Glyphosate Detection by Means of a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue and Discrimination of Potential Interferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ibáñez-Civera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new electronic tongue to monitor the presence of glyphosate (a non-selective systemic herbicide has been developed. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists in an array of three working electrodes (Pt, Co and Cu encapsulated on a methacrylate cylinder. The electrochemical response of the sensing array was characteristic of the presence of glyphosate in buffered water (phosphate buffer 0.1 mol·dm−3, pH 6.7. Rotating disc electrode (RDE studies were carried out with Pt, Co and Cu electrodes in water at room temperature and at pH 6.7 using 0.1 mol·dm−3 of phosphate as a buffer. In the presence of glyphosate, the corrosion current of the Cu and Co electrodes increased significantly, probably due to the formation of Cu2+ or Co2+ complexes. The pulse array waveform for the voltammetric tongue was designed by taking into account some of the redox processes observed in the electrochemical studies. The PCA statistical analysis required four dimensions to explain 95% of variance. Moreover, a two-dimensional representation of the two principal components differentiated the water mixtures containing glyphosate. Furthermore, the PLS statistical analyses allowed the creation of a model to correlate the electrochemical response of the electrodes with glyphosate concentrations, even in the presence of potential interferents such as humic acids and Ca2+. The system offers a PLS prediction model for glyphosate detection with values of 098, −2.3 × 10−5 and 0.94 for the slope, the intercept and the regression coefficient, respectively, which is in agreement with the good fit between the predicted and measured concentrations. The results suggest the feasibility of this system to help develop electronic tongues for glyphosate detection.

  16. Voltammetric and rotating ring-disk studies of the influence of anions in the underpotential deposition of zinc on platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascaro Lucia H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The underpotential deposition of Zn on polycrystalline Pt was studied in three different acid solutions for different Zn2+ concentrations. The voltammetric charges and the inhibition promoted by the maximum coverage of Zn ads in the hydrogen adsorption and evolution reactions were used to postulate adsorption models. It was shown that the co-adsorption of anions HSO4-, ClO4- and F-, either on the substrate or on the ad-atoms, exerts a marked influence in the ad-layer nature. On Pt, the maximum values found for the redissolution charge were around 210 muC cm-2, except for 10-3 mol L-1 Zn2+ in fluoride medium where a value of 350 muC cm-2 was obtained. A negligible inhibition of the hydrogen evolution reaction was recorded in sulfuric and perchloric acid solutions while a strong inhibition was found for fluoride medium. These results were related to the interaction of the large oxy-anions either with the substrate or the ad-atoms. Collection experiments were performed with the rotating ring-disk electrode system (RRDE and the results confirmed the large charge value obtained in the HF electrolyte. The experiments performed with the RDDE also demonstrated that the voltammetric peaks analyzed here are associated with UPD Zn.

  17. Preparation and voltammetric characterization of electrodes coated with Langmuir-Schaefer ultrathin films of Nafion®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoncello Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin films of Nafion® perfluorinated polymer were deposited on indium-tin oxide electrodes (ITO by using Langmuir-Schaefer (LS technique, after optimization of the subphase composition conditions. Morphological characteristics of these coatings were obtained by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Nafion® LS films showed a good uniformity and complete coverage of the electrode surface, however a different organization degree of the polymer layer was evidenced with respect to thin films deposited by spin-coating. ITO electrodes modified with Nafion® LS coatings preconcentrate by ion-exchange electroactive cations, such as Ru[(NH36]3+, dissolved in diluted solutions. The electroactive species is retained by the Nafion® LS coated ITO also after transfer of the modified electrode into pure supporting electrolyte. This allowed the use of the ruthenium complex as voltammetric probe to test diffusion phenomena within the Nafion® LS films. Apparent diffusion coefficients (Dapp of Ru[(NH36]3+ incorporated in Nafion® LS films were obtained by voltammetric measurements. Dapp values decrease slightly by increasing the amount of ruthenium complex incorporated in the ultrathin film. They are significantly lower than values typical for recasted Nafion® films, in agreement with the highly condensed nature of the Nafion® LS fims.

  18. Voltammetric and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopic characterization of cytochrome C adsorbed on a 4-mercaptopyridine monolayer on silver electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millo, D.; Bonifacio, A.; Ranieri, A.; Borsari, M.; Gooijer, C.; van der Zwan, G.

    2007-01-01

    To combine voltammetric techniques with surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS), cytochrome c (cyt c) was immobilized on a roughened silver electrode chemically modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-mercaptopyridine (PySH). All measurements were performed on the same

  19. Equilibria in aqueous cadmium-chloroacetate-glycinate systems. A convolution-deconvolution cyclic voltammetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamid, R.; Rabia, M.K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Stability constants and composition of cadmium-glycinate binary complexes were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Furthermore, binary and ternary complex equilibria for chloroacetates and glycinate with cadmium in 0.1 M aqueous KNO 3 at pH 10.4 and 298 K were investigated. Cadmium forms binary complexes with chloroacetates of low stability and ternary ones with chloroacetate-glycinate of significant stability. (author)

  20. Determination of lead element trace in some Syrian cigarettes and Its mixtures using voltammetric method on HMDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, H.; Kabass, H.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims for estimating of trace for these elements in various brands of Syrian Cigarettes and its mixtures, by using voltammetric method (HMDE) hanging mercury drop elec trod. This method is first used to determined Syrian Cigarettes brand and its mixtures, during this study it was found that we can use it easily with low commission, high sensitivity and accurate results comparing with others studies. We prepare the samples by using reference methods. The samples were collected during two times in one year from the same kinds of samples. We noticed that the high concentrations was (3.795μg/g) in Gitanes samples, and the low concentrations in shame samples was (0.37 μg/g). This study refers that there is different concentrations of lead element in this samples.(author)

  1. Solar UV-treatment of water samples for stripping-voltammetric determination of trace heavy metals in Awash river, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelaneh Woldemichael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report about testing a new mobile and sustainable water sample digestion method in a preliminary field trial in Ethiopia. In order to determine heavy metals at the ultra-trace level by stripping voltammetric techniques in water samples from Awash River, we applied our new method of solar UV-assisted sample pretreatment to destroy the relevant interfering dissolved organic matter. The field tests revealed that 24 h of solar UV irradiation were sufficient to achieve the same sample pretreatment results as with classic digestion method based on intense and hard UV. Analytical results of this study suggest that both a hydroelectric power station and agrichemical applications at Koka Lake have increased the levels of the investigated metals zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, cobalt, nickel, and uranium.

  2. Evaluation of red wines antioxidant capacity by means of a voltammetric e-tongue with an optimized sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetó, Xavi; Apetrei, Constantin; Valle, Manel del; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz

    2014-01-01

    In this work, two sets of voltammetric sensors -prepared using different strategies- have been combined in an electronic tongue to evaluate the complete antioxidant profile of red wines. To this aim, wine samples were analyzed with the whole set of sensors. In order to reduce the large dimensionality of the data set while keeping the relevant information provided by the sensors, two different methods of feature selection and data compression were used (the kernels method and Discrete Wavelet Transform feature extraction method). Then, the coefficients obtained were used as the input variables of Principal Component Analysis (to evaluate the capability of discrimination. Partial-least squares regression (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were performer to build the quantitative prediction models that allowed the quantification of the antioxidant capacity of the tested wines

  3. Voltammetric Determination of Ivabradine Hydrochloride Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode in Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamal Attia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A new sensitive sensor was fabricated for the determination of ivabradine hydrochloride (IH based on modification with multiwalled carbon nanotubes using sodium dodecyl sulfate as micellar medium to increase the sensitivity. Methods: The electrochemical behavior of IH was studied in Britton-Robinson buffer (pH: 2.0-11.0 using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. Results: The voltammetric response was linear over the range of 3.984 x 10-6-3.475 x 10-5 mol L-1. The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 5.160 x 10-7 and 1.720 x 10-6 mol L-1, respectively. Conclusion: This method is suitable for determination of IH in tablets and plasma.

  4. Voltammetric Determination of Ivabradine Hydrochloride Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode in Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Ali Kamal; Abo-Talib, Nisreen Farouk; Tammam, Marwa Hosny

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: A new sensitive sensor was fabricated for the determination of ivabradine hydrochloride (IH) based on modification with multiwalled carbon nanotubes using sodium dodecyl sulfate as micellar medium to increase the sensitivity. Methods: The electrochemical behavior of IH was studied in Britton-Robinson buffer (pH: 2.0-11.0) using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. Results: The voltammetric response was linear over the range of 3.984 x 10 -6 -3.475 x 10 -5 mol L -1 . The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 5.160 x 10 -7 and 1.720 x 10-6 mol L -1 , respectively. Conclusion: This method is suitable for determination of IH in tablets and plasma.

  5. Dual-Frequency Alternating Current Designer Waveform for Reliable Voltammetric Determination of Electrode Kinetics Approaching the Reversible Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiezhen; Bentley, Cameron L; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-16

    Alternating current (ac) voltammetry provides access to faster electrode kinetics than direct current (dc) methods. However, difficulties in ac and other methods arise when the heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant (k(0)) approaches the reversible limit, because the voltammetric characteristics become insensitive to electrode kinetics. Thus, in this near-reversible regime, even small uncertainties associated with bulk concentration (C), diffusion coefficient (D), electrode area (A), and uncompensated resistance (Ru) can lead to significant systematic error in the determination of k(0). In this study, we have introduced a kinetically sensitive dual-frequency designer waveform into the Fourier-transformed large-amplitude alternating current (FTAC) voltammetric method that is made up of two sine waves having the same amplitude but with different frequencies (e.g., 37 and 615 Hz) superimposed onto a dc ramp to quantify the close-to-reversible Fc(0/+) process (Fc = ferrocene) in two nonhaloaluminate ionic liquids. The concept is that from a single experiment the lower-frequency data set, collected on a time scale where the target process is reversible, can be used as an internal reference to calibrate A, D, C, and Ru. These calibrated values are then used to calculate k(0) from analysis of the harmonics of the higher-frequency data set, where the target process is quasi-reversible. With this approach, k(0) values of 0.28 and 0.11 cm·s(-1) have been obtained at a 50 μm diameter platinum microdisk electrode for the close-to-diffusion-controlled Fc(0/+) process in two ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, respectively.

  6. A strategy to promote the electroactive platform adopting poly(o-anisidine)-silver nanocomposites probed for the voltammetric detection of NADH and dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangamithirai, D; Munusamy, S; Narayanan, V; Stephen, A

    2017-11-01

    A study on the voltammetric detection of NADH (β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), Dopamine (DA) and their simultaneous determination is presented in this work. The electrochemical sensor was fabricated with the hybrid nanocomposites of poly(o-anisidine) and silver nanoparticles prepared by simple and cost-effective insitu chemical oxidative polymerization technique. The nanocomposites were synthesized with different (w/w) ratios of o-anisidine and silver by increasing the amount of o-anisidine in each, by keeping silver at a fixed quantity. The XRD patterns revealed the semi-crystalline nature of poly(o-anisidine) and the face centered cubic structure of silver. The presence of silver in its metallic state and the formation of nanocomposite were established by XPS analysis. Raman studies suggested the presence of site-selective interaction between poly(o-anisidine) and silver. HRTEM studies revealed the formation of polymer matrix type nanocomposite with the embedment of silver nanoparticles. The sensing performance of the materials were studied via cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. Fabricated sensor with 3:1 (w/w) ratio of poly(o-anisidine) and silver exhibited good catalytic activity towards the detection of NADH and DA in terms of potential and current response, when compared to others. Several important electrochemical parameters regulating the performance of the sensor have been evaluated. Under the optimum condition, differential pulse voltammetry method exhibited the linear response in the range of 0.03 to 900μM and 5 to 270μM with a low detection limit of 0.006μM and 0.052μM for NADH and DA, respectively. The modified electrodes exhibited good sensitivity, stability, reproducibility and selectivity with well-separated oxidation peaks for NADH and DA in the simultaneous determination of their binary mixture. The analytical performance of the nanocomposite as an electrochemical sensor was also

  7. MWCNTs/Cu(OH)2 nanoparticles/IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode as a voltammetric sensor for determination of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvand, Majid; Gholizadeh, Tahereh M.; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development and utilization of a new nanocomposite consisting of Cu(OH) 2 nanoparticles, hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (EMIMPF 6 ) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes for glassy carbon electrode modification. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The modified electrode was used for electrochemical characterization of diclofenac. Using differential pulse voltammetry, the prepared sensor showed good sensitivity and selectivity with low overpotential for the determination of diclofenac in the range from 0.18 to 119 μM, with a detection limit of 0.04 μM. Electrochemical studies suggested that the MWCNTs/Cu(OH) 2 nanoparticles/IL nanocomposite modified electrode provided a synergistic augmentation on the voltammetric behavior of electrochemical oxidation of diclofenac, which was indicated by the improvement of anodic peak current. Highlights: ► This work examines oxidation of diclofenac at a nanocomposite modified electrode. ► The salient feature of this electrode is large diffusion coefficient. ► The proposed electrode decreased overpotential of diclofenac electrooxidation. ► The modified electrode has good stability and reproducibility.

  8. MWCNTs/Cu(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles/IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode as a voltammetric sensor for determination of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvand, Majid, E-mail: arvand@guilan.ac.ir; Gholizadeh, Tahereh M.; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the development and utilization of a new nanocomposite consisting of Cu(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles, hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (EMIMPF{sub 6}) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes for glassy carbon electrode modification. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The modified electrode was used for electrochemical characterization of diclofenac. Using differential pulse voltammetry, the prepared sensor showed good sensitivity and selectivity with low overpotential for the determination of diclofenac in the range from 0.18 to 119 {mu}M, with a detection limit of 0.04 {mu}M. Electrochemical studies suggested that the MWCNTs/Cu(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles/IL nanocomposite modified electrode provided a synergistic augmentation on the voltammetric behavior of electrochemical oxidation of diclofenac, which was indicated by the improvement of anodic peak current. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work examines oxidation of diclofenac at a nanocomposite modified electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The salient feature of this electrode is large diffusion coefficient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed electrode decreased overpotential of diclofenac electrooxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified electrode has good stability and reproducibility.

  9. Development of a new paper based nano-biosensor using the co-catalytic effect of tyrosinase from banana peel tissue (Musa Cavendish) and functionalized silica nanoparticles for voltammetric determination of l-tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Mohseni, Mohadeseh; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza; Aghajanzadeh, Tahereh A; Bagheri Hashkavayi, Ayemeh

    2018-02-12

    In this paper, a new and facile method for the electrochemical determination of l-tyrosine was designed. First, 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane-functionalized silica nanoparticles were added to a paper disc. Then, the banana peel tissue and the mediator potassium hexacyanoferrate were dropped onto the paper, respectively. The modified paper disc was placed on the top of the graphite screen printed electrode and electrochemical characterization of this biosensor was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The effective parameters like pH, banana peel tissue percentage, and the amount of mediator loading were optimized. l-tyrosine measurements were done by differential pulse voltammetry with a little sample (3 μL) for analysis. The biosensor showed a linear response for l-tyrosine in the wide concentration range of 0.05-600 μM and a low detection limit about 0.02 μM because of the co-catalytic effect of enzyme and nanoparticles. The stability of the biosensor and its selectivity were evaluated. This biosensor was applied for the voltammetric determination of l-tyrosine in the blood plasma sample. The results of the practical application study were comparable with the standard method (HPLC). In conclusion, a simple, inexpensive, rapid, sensitive and selective technique was successfully applied to the l-tyrosine analysis of the little samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study and Elimination of the Interference of Aluminium on the Voltammetric Determination of Uranium with Chloranilic Acid. Application to the Determination of Uranium in Waters and Geological Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; Sanchez, M.; Ballesteros, O.; Fernandez, M.; Clavero, M. A.; Gonzalez, A. M.

    2000-01-01

    The interference of aluminium during the voltammetric determination of uranium with 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid) has been investigated. The presence of aluminium originates a voltammetric signal due to its chloranilic acid complex at the same potential range as the uranium analytical signal appears. The interference of aluminium can be overcome by addition of an appropriate amount of sodium fluoride as complexing reagent. The determination of uranium by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) can be carried out at concentration levels as low as 1 μg/L in the presence of 100 μg/L aluminium after the addition of 100μL of 0.1 mol/L NaF. The method can be applied to the determination of uranium in aluminium-containing waters and geological samples containing high aluminium levels. (Author) 19 refs

  11. A simple, rapid and green method based on pulsed potentiostatic electrodeposition of reduced graphene oxide on glass carbon electrode for sensitive voltammetric detection of sophoridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Wu, Yanju; Lu, Kui; Gao, Lin; Ye, Baoxian

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple, rapid and green method, based on graphene nanosheets directly deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode by pulsed potentiostatic reduction of a graphene oxide colloidal solution, to build sensitive voltammetric sensor for the determination of sophoridine was presented. - Highlights: • A simple, rapid and green method to build sensitive voltammetric sensor was presented. • The proposed sensor has a high electrochemical sensitivity for determination of sophoridine. • The proposed sensor exhibited an excellent selectivity. - Abstract: A simple, rapid and green method was described for sensitive voltammetric detection of sophoridine based on graphene nanosheets directly deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by pulsed potentiostatic reduction of a graphene oxide (GO) colloidal solution. The resulting electrodes (PP-ERGO/GCE) were characterized by electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the electrochemical behaviors of sophoridine at the modified electrode were investigated in detail by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and chronocoulometry (CC). Compared with the bare GCE and the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films by potentiostatic method (PM) modified GCE, PP-ERGO/GCE could intensively enhance the oxidation peak currents and decrease the overpotential of sophoridine. Under the selected conditions, the modified electrode showed a linear voltammetric response to sophoridine within the concentration range of 8.0 × 10 −7 ∼ 1.0 × 10 −4 mol L −11 , with the detection limit of 2.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 . And, the method was also applied to detect sophoridine in spiked human urine with wonderful satisfactory

  12. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of salbutamol sulfate in syrup pharmaceutical formulation using poly(4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meareg Amare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for determination of salbutamol sulfate has been developed using poly(4-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalene sulfonic acid/GCE. Cyclic voltammetric investigation of the electrochemical behavior of salbutamol sulfate at the polymer modified glassy carbon unveiled electrocatalytic activity of the modifier towards irreversible oxidation of salbutamol sulfate. Dependence of peak current predominantly on scan rate than on square root of scan rate, and peak potential shift with pH demonstrated that oxidation of salbutamol sulfate at the polymer modified electrode follows adsorption reaction kinetics with proton participation.Under optimized solution and differential pulse voltammetric parameters, the oxidative peak current showed linear dependence on salbutamol sulfate concentration in the range 0.2 to 8 μM with method detection limit (3s/m and determination coefficient (R2 of 6.8 × 10−8 M and 0.99786, respectively. Low method detection limit, relatively wide linear range, and recovery results of spiked standard salbutamol sulfate in syrup samples in the range 96.7–98.9% validated the method for determination of salbutamol sulfate in pharmaceutical formulations.Differential pulse voltammetric analysis of salbutamol sulfate syrup formulation for its salbutamol sulfate content revealed 98.8 to 99.3% of the labeled value confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of salbutamol sulfate in real samples. Keywords: Electrochemistry, Analytical chemistry

  13. Cable Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2014-01-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  14. Electrooxidation of sulfanilamide and its voltammetric determination in pharmaceutical formulation, human urine and serum on glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno R.L. Ferraz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, sulfanilamide (SFD was determined in otologic solution, human urine and serum by electroanalytical techniques on glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The cyclic voltammetry (CV experiments showed an irreversible oxidation peak at +1.06 V in 0.1 mol/L BRBS (pH = 2.0 at 50 mV/s. Different voltammetric scan rates (from 10 to 250 mV/s suggested that the oxidation of SFD on the GCE was a diffusion-controlled process. Square-wave voltammetry (SWV method under optimized conditions showed a linear response to SFD from 5.0 to 74.7 μmol/L (R = 0.999 with detection and quantification limits of 0.92 and 3.10 μmol/L, respectively. The developed SWV method showed better results for detection limit and linear range than the chronoamperometry method. It has been successfully applied to determine SFD concentration in pharmaceutical formulation, human urine and serum samples with recovery close to 100%.

  15. Differential pulse anodic voltammetric determination of pantoprazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human plasma using glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Nevin

    2003-12-01

    Pantoprazole is used as an anti-ulcer drug through inhibition of H(+), K(+)-adenosine 5(')-triphosphatase in gastric parietal cells. It reduces the gastric acid secretion regardless of the nature of stimulation. The use of differential pulse voltammetry for the determination of pantoprazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human plasma using a glassy carbon electrode has been examined. The best voltammetric response was reached for a glassy carbon electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer solution of pH 5.0 submitted to a scan rate of 20.0 mVs(-1) and a pulse amplitude of 50.0 mV. This electroanalytical procedure was able to determine pantoprazole in the concentration range 6.0 x 10(-6)-8.0 x 10(-4)M. Precision and accuracy of the developed method was checked with recovery studies. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 4.0 x 10(-7) and 9.0 x 10(-7)M, respectively. Rapidity, precision, and good selectivity were also found for the determination of pantoprazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human plasma. For comparative purposes high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array and UV/VIS detection at 290.0 nm determination also was developed.

  16. Nafion covered lead film electrode for the voltammetric determination of caffeine in beverage samples and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszczuk-Rotko, Katarzyna; Bęczkowska, Ilona

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a sensitive, selective and low-cost voltammetric method for the determination of caffeine using a Nafion covered lead film electrode. The sensor was prepared on a glassy carbon electrode modified with lead film recovered by a Nafion layer. Caffeine was accumulated and then oxidised at the modified electrode surface to produce two anodic peaks at 0.86 and 1.40 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 medium. The obtained detection limits for caffeine following 120 s of accumulation time were equal to 1.7 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) (for peak 1) and 2.2 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) (for peak 2). The method was successfully applied to determination of caffeine in tea, coffee, soft and energy drink samples as well as pharmaceutical formulation and the contents closely corresponded to those quoted by the manufacturer and those obtained by the reported spectrophotometric method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A graphene-based label-free voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of the egg allergen ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Shimaa; L'Hocine, Lamia; Siaj, Mohamed; Zourob, Mohammed

    2013-08-07

    A graphene-based label-free voltammetric immunosensor for the sensitive detection of the egg white allergen ovalbumin has been developed. Graphene-modified screen printed carbon electrodes have been covalently functionalized using electrochemical reduction of in situ generated aryl diazonium salt forming a carboxyphenyl film on the graphene surface. The blocking property of the carboxyphenyl film grafted on to the graphene electrodes using different cyclic voltammetry cycles has been characterized using differential pulse voltammetry in [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) solution. Then, the terminal carboxylic groups on the graphene surface were activated using EDC/NHS and used to immobilize the ovalbumin antibody and construct the immunosensor. The fabrication steps of the immunosensor have also been characterized using differential pulse voltammetry. The decrease in the [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) reduction peak current after the immunochemical reaction with ovalbumin has been used for the ovalbumin detection. The developed immunosensor has been used for ovalbumin detection in the concentration range of 1 pg mL(-1) to 0.5 μg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.83 pg mL(-1) in PBS buffer. The food matrix effect studied with ovalbumin spiked cake extract showed a good percentage of recovery, indicating the possible applicability of the developed immunosensor in real food samples.

  18. Electrochemical oxidation behavior of hydrochlorothiazide on a glassy carbon electrode and its voltammetric determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali F. Alghamdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation behavior of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT on a glassy carbon as a working electrode was investigated in Britton–Robinson (B–R buffer pH 3, by using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV and cyclic voltammetry (CV. This drug gave a well-defined voltammetric oxidation peak at + 1200 mV versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The electrochemical oxidation process was shown to be irreversible and diffusion controlled, with adsorption characterized over the entire pH range. The optimized conditions, such as accumulation time and potential, scan rate, frequency, pulse amplitude, varying of working electrodes, and instrumental parameters were studied. The calibration graph for HCT was obtained from 4 × 10−6 to 4 × 10−5 M (correlation coefficient = 0.997 using the developed electroanalytical method (ASV. The detection limit of this drug was 4.3 × 10−9 M. ASV and CV techniques with adequate precision and accuracy have been developed and applied for direct determination of HCT in commercial tablets without separation or extraction procedures and biological fluids such as urine and plasma.

  19. Voltammetric behavior, biocidal effect and synthesis of some new nanomeric fused cyclic thiosemicarbazones and their mercuric(II salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.T. Makki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New nanomeric 3-thioxo-5-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-9-unsubstituted/substituted-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indoles (2a–c and 3-thioxo-5-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,4-triaino[5,6]-cyclobut-6-ene (3 were prepared via reaction of thiosemicarbazide with 5-unsubstitutedand/substituted-indol-2,3-diones and/or 3,4-dihydroxycyclobutane-1,2-dione in methanol–concentrated HCl at room temperature. A series of mercury(II–ligand salts e.g. compound 4b and Hg(II complexes 5a,b and 6 of cyclic Schiff base were prepared. Structures of these compounds were established by elemental analysis and spectral measurements. The redox characteristics of selected compounds were studied for use as chelating agents for stripping voltammetric determination of mercuric(II ions in aqueous media. The compounds were also screened for their use as molluscicidal agents against Biomophalaria Alexandrina Snails responsible for Bilhariziasis.

  20. A voltammetric sensor for acetaminophen based on electropolymerized-molecularly imprinted poly(o-aminophenol) modified gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Shalini; Jesny, Sirijagan; Girish Kumar, Krishnapillai

    2018-03-01

    A simple and reliable molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based voltammetric sensor has been proposed for the determination of acetaminophen (AP). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were initially deposited on the surface of gold electrode (GE) so as to get amplified electrochemical signals. Subsequently, a MIP film was created on the AuNPs modified GE (AuNPs/GE) surface by electropolymerization of o-aminophenol in the presence of AP as the template molecule. Significant parameters governing the performance of the sensor were studied and optimised. The proposed sensor presented a linear behaviour between peak current and concentration of AP in the range 4.5 × 10 -5 -5.0 × 10 -7 M with the limit of detection being 2.3 × 10 -9 M. The developed MIP/AuNPs/GE based sensor is simple in preparation and showed excellent selectivity, reproducibility and was successfully applied for the analysis of AP in pharmaceutical formulations and physiological fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Voltammetric determination of carbidopa and folic acid using a modified carbon nanotubes paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtkar Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of carbidopa in presence of large excess of folic acid at physiological pH was developed by the bulk modification of carbon paste electrode (CPE with carbon nanotubes (CNTs and vinylferrocene. Large peak separation, good sensitivity and stability allow this modified electrode to analyze carbidopa individually and simultaneously along with folic acid. Applying square wave voltammetry (SWV, a linear dynamic range of 1.0×10-6- 7.0×10-4 M with detection limit of 2.0×10-7 M was obtained for carbidopa. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the determination of carbidopa and folic acid in urine sample.

  2. Cyclic Voltammetric Investigation of Caffeine at Anthraquinone Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemane Tadesse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical methods have been widely used for the determination of electroactive compounds due to their simplicity, sensitivity, stability, and low cost. A carbon paste electrode was modified with anthraquinone. Cyclic voltammetry (CV was employed to study the properties of the modified electrode toward the oxidation of caffeine (CAF. Compared to the unmodified electrode, the AQMCPE showed excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of caffeine. AQMCPE was used to determine CAF in drug samples electrochemically. SWV was used to plot the calibration curve and there was a good linear relationship between anodic peak current and CAF concentration in the range 2.0×10-6-8.0×10–4 M, with the correlation coefficient of 0.998 and a detection limit of 1.43×10-7 M. The application of the modified electrode for the determination of CAF in pharmaceutical formulation showed good recovery with reproducible results.

  3. Advantages and disadvantages of voltammetric method in studying cadmium-metallothionein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, M; Raspor, B

    2000-03-01

    A sensitive and chemical species-selective technique of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was applied in studying the cadmium-metallothionein (Cd-MT) interaction. The amperometric titrations of the purified MT20 and MT10 fractions, isolated by verified biochemical procedures from the digestive gland of cadmium-exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, with Cd2+ ions were performed in the buffered sodium chloride solution of 0.59 M ionic strength, pH 7.9 and 25 degrees C. Applying the DPASV method at various cadmium to metallothionein ratio several groups of chemical species were recorded. The data on the available ligand concentration to complex cadmium ions (CL), the apparent concentration stability constants (K,) of the respective complexes and the reliability of the determined complexing parameters are discussed. In quantifying the Cd-MT interaction the interference of dithiotreitol (DTT), which is used as the reducing agent in isolation and purification of MTs, is documented.

  4. In situ voltammetric de-alloying of fuel cell catalyst electrode layer: A combined scanning electron microscope/electron probe micro-analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ratndeep; Mani, Prasanna; Strasser, Peter

    In situ voltammetric de-alloying, i.e. partial selective dissolution of less noble alloy components, is a recently proposed, effective strategy to prepare active electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) [S. Koh, P. Strasser, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 12624-12625; R. Srivastava, P. Mani, N. Hahn, P. Strasser, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (2007) 8988-8991]. However, in situ de-alloying of bimetallics inside electrode layers of membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) seems to defy the requirement of keeping the membrane free of cationic contaminants; yet, when followed by ion exchange, de-alloyed cathodes result in previously unachieved single cell activities of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell cathode layers of up to 0.4 A mg Pt -1 at 900 mV cell voltage. The effects of voltammetric Cu de-alloying on the MEA have never been studied before. In the present study, we therefore address this issue and report detailed scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of the morphology and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) mapping of a MEA at various stages of the de-alloying and ion-exchange process. We investigate the significant loss of Cu from the cathode particle catalyst after de-alloying, demonstrate how the membrane can be cleaned from Cu-ion contamination using ion exchange with protons from liquid inorganic acids, and show that Cu ion exchange does ultimately not affect the activated catalyst particles inside the cathode layer. We correlate the microscopic study of the MEA with its cyclic voltammetric response curves as well as the single cell polarization data.

  5. A novel voltammetric sensor based on carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide for the determination of ractopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet, E-mail: maslanoglu@harran.edu.tr

    2016-02-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide (ATO). The surface layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method (EDX) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The proposed electrode was assessed in respect to the electro-oxidation of ractopamine. Compared with a bare GCE and a GCE electrode modified with CNTs, the ATONPs/CNTs/GCE exhibited a great catalytic activity towards the oxidation of ractopamine with a well-defined anodic peak at 600 mV. The current response was linear with the concentration of ractopamine over the range from 10 to 240 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 nM. The proposed electrode enabled the selective determination of ractopamine in the presence of high concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The proposed electrode was successfully applied for the determination of ractopamine in feed and urine samples. The sensitive and selective determination of ractopamine makes the developed method of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use and doping control purposes. - Highlights: • A novel voltammetric sensor was prepared using nanoparticles of ATO and CNTs. • The ATONPs/CNTs/GCE has greatly improved the voltammetry of ractopamine. • The proposed electrode enabled a detection limit of 3.3 nM. • AA, DA and UA did not interfere with the selective detection of ractopamine. • Measurements were precise and accurate.

  6. Disposable sputtered-bismuth screen-printed sensors for voltammetric monitoring of cadmium and lead in atmospheric particulate matter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo-Marín, M R; Rueda-Holgado, F; Marín-Expósito, J; Pinilla-Gil, E

    2017-12-01

    We report here the use of commercial screen-printed disposable sensors comprising a sputtered bismuth working electrode, a silver pseudo reference electrode and a carbon auxiliary electrode (whole set referred as Bi sp SPE), as a new and advantageous alternative for reliable and convenient monitoring of Cd and Pb in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 fraction) by anodic stripping voltammetry after acid digestion. After a detailed exploration of surface composition and depth profiles of the Bi sp SPE by SEM, EDX, XPS and EIS, chemical and instrumental variables have been optimized to develop a reliable method capable of measuring Cd and Pb with detection limits of 11.8ngmL -1 and 6.1ngmL -1 respectively. These detection limits are useful for pollution monitoring of these elements in ambient air under the requirements of international health and environmental protection standards. The accuracy of the method was assessed by voltammetric measurements of Cd and Pb in ERM®-CZ120 Fine dust (PM10-like) and ERM® 1648a Urban Particulate Matter certified reference materials. The applicability of the method to Cd and Pb determination in real samples was demonstrated by analysis of PM10 samples from the air quality network in Extremadura, with a good correlation respect to the standard ICP-MS methodology. Our work constitutes the first reference about the use of disposable sensors based on Bi sp SPE for the determination of heavy metals in atmospheric particulate matter samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion induced by suckling: comparison of voltammetric and radioisotopic methods of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotsky, P.M.; Neill, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Previous in situ voltammetric microelectrode measurements of median eminence dopamine release during mammary nerve stimulation of anesthetized lactating rats revealed a transient (1-3 min) 70% decline of dopamine concentrations. This dopamine was believed to be destined for secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation, but direct experimental support for this supposition was lacking. Thus, in the present study, [3H]dopamine release into brief sequential samples of hypophysial portal blood was compared with dopamine release in the median eminence measured by voltammetry. Lactating female rats were urethane anesthetized, and the median eminence pituitary region was exposed. [3H]Tyrosine was injected into a jugular cannula (100 microCi) followed by continuous infusion (5 microCi/min). In a preliminary experiment, this regimen produced a steady state level of [3H]dopamine in the portal blood within 45 min. In subsequent experiments, portal blood was collected as sequential 3-min samples, and electrochemical sampling from a microelectrode placed in the median eminence occurred at 1-min intervals. Electrochemical current resulting from the oxidation of dopamine in the medial median eminence was unvarying throughout the 75-min experiment in control rats (n . 4) and during the 30-min control period preceding mammary nerve stimulation in the other group (n . 4). These results were paralled by [3H] dopamine levels in portal blood during the same periods of time. All animals showed simultaneous decreases in oxidation current and [3H]dopamine levels within 1-4 min after initiation of mammary nerve stimulation. These and earlier results demonstrate that mammary nerve stimulation (and by extension, suckling) induces a momentary, but profound, decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion which precedes or accompanies the rise in PRL secretion evoked by the same stimulus

  8. A mercury free electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Pb (II) ions using poly zincon film modified electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, S.; Devendiran, M.; Narayanan, S. Sriman

    2017-11-01

    With an aim of developing a mercury-free electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Pb (II) ions, a poly zincon film (PZF) modified electrode is reported here. The PZF on the electrode surface has been obtained by electropolymerisation of zincon. PZF present on the electrode surface has been used for preconcentrating Pb (II) ions through complexation. The electrochemical determination of the above metal ion has been carried out by reducing the preconcentrated Pb (II) at -1.0 V followed by anodic stripping in acetate buffer of pH 6 and measuring the stripping current at -0.64 V. The PZF and Pb preconcentrated PZF modified electrodes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The factors influencing the determination of Pb (II) ions such as the nature of medium/background electrolyte, pH, preconcentration time and electrode regeneration have been studied in detail. Under optimum conditions, a linear relation for the stripping current with Pb (II) ions in the solution has been observed in the range from 3.45 to 136.3 μg L-1 with a detection limit of 0.98 μg L-1. The regeneration of the modified electrode after each experiment has been achieved by simply immersing the electrode in 0.1 M EDTA solution for 2 min and washing thoroughly in de-ionised water. PZF modified electrode has shown a promising and sensitive platform for the anodic stripping determination of Pb (II) ions and the regeneration of the electrode has been found to be easy for subsequent uses. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of Pb (II) ions in ground water and tap water samples.

  9. A novel voltammetric sensor based on carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide for the determination of ractopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide (ATO). The surface layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method (EDX) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The proposed electrode was assessed in respect to the electro-oxidation of ractopamine. Compared with a bare GCE and a GCE electrode modified with CNTs, the ATONPs/CNTs/GCE exhibited a great catalytic activity towards the oxidation of ractopamine with a well-defined anodic peak at 600 mV. The current response was linear with the concentration of ractopamine over the range from 10 to 240 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 nM. The proposed electrode enabled the selective determination of ractopamine in the presence of high concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The proposed electrode was successfully applied for the determination of ractopamine in feed and urine samples. The sensitive and selective determination of ractopamine makes the developed method of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use and doping control purposes. - Highlights: • A novel voltammetric sensor was prepared using nanoparticles of ATO and CNTs. • The ATONPs/CNTs/GCE has greatly improved the voltammetry of ractopamine. • The proposed electrode enabled a detection limit of 3.3 nM. • AA, DA and UA did not interfere with the selective detection of ractopamine. • Measurements were precise and accurate.

  10. Voltammetric sensor for tartrazine determination in soft drinks using poly (p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid)/zinc oxide nanoparticles in carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim-Nezhad, Ghasem; Khorablou, Zeynab; Zamani, Maryam; Seyed Dorraji, Parisa; Alamgholiloo, Mahdieh

    2017-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (p-ABSA) were used to fabricate a modified electrode, as a highly sensitive and selective voltammetric sensor, for the determination of tartrazine. A fast and easy method for the fabrication of poly p-ABSA (Pp-ABSA)/ZnO NPs-carbon paste electrode (Pp-ABSA/ZnO NPs-CPE) by cyclic voltammetry was used. By combining the benefits of Pp-ABSA, ZnO NPs, and CPE, the resulted modified electrode exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic activity in terms of tartrazine oxidation by giving much higher peak currents than those obtained for the unmodified CPE and also other constructed electrodes. The effects of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric response of tartrazine were investigated. At the optimum conditions, the sensor has a linear response in the concentration range of 0349-5.44 μM, a good detection sensitivity (2.2034 μA/μM), and a detection limit of 80 nM of tartrazine. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of tartrazine in soft drinks with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Voltammetric sensor for tartrazine determination in soft drinks using poly (p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid/zinc oxide nanoparticles in carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Karim-Nezhad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs and p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (p-ABSA were used to fabricate a modified electrode, as a highly sensitive and selective voltammetric sensor, for the determination of tartrazine. A fast and easy method for the fabrication of poly p-ABSA (Pp-ABSA/ZnO NPs-carbon paste electrode (Pp-ABSA/ZnO NPs-CPE by cyclic voltammetry was used. By combining the benefits of Pp-ABSA, ZnO NPs, and CPE, the resulted modified electrode exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic activity in terms of tartrazine oxidation by giving much higher peak currents than those obtained for the unmodified CPE and also other constructed electrodes. The effects of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric response of tartrazine were investigated. At the optimum conditions, the sensor has a linear response in the concentration range of 0349–5.44 μM, a good detection sensitivity (2.2034 μA/μM, and a detection limit of 80 nM of tartrazine. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of tartrazine in soft drinks with satisfactory results.

  12. On the stability of platinum-composite electrocatalysts prepared with different substrate materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica G. Košević

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry (CV measurements were conducted and analyzed for a preliminary estimation of the stability of composite electrocatalysts based on Pt. The changes in CV currents of platinum nanoparticles supported on TiO2 were compared to the changes of those supported on commercial carbon. TiO2 was synthesized by sol-gel method and Pt was deposited from Pt colloidal dispersion synthesized by microwave-assisted polyol process. It was found that Pt component in both Pt/TiO2 and Pt/C behaves similarly with respect to stability and activity during the cycling. The loss in activity with cycling was linear and strongly depended on sweep rate, i.e., the relative loss is higher at lower sweep rates. The steady state activities for both electrocatalysts were reached at the level of 65 % of initial activity and required more than 100 voltammetric cycles.

  13. Voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and its combination with chemometrics for the detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Konstantopoulos, Dimitris; Kakoulidou, Anna Tsantili

    2018-07-26

    In the present work, two approaches for the voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and their combination with chemometrics were investigated in order to detect the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with olive pomace oil as well as the most common seed oils, namely sunflower, soybean and corn oil. In particular, cyclic voltammograms of diluted extra virgin olive oils, regular (pure) olive oils (blends of refined olive oils with virgin olive oils), olive pomace oils and seed oils in presence of dichloromethane and 0.1 M of LiClO 4 in EtOH as electrolyte were recorded at a glassy carbon working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was also employed in methanolic extracts of olive and seed oils. Datapoints of cyclic voltammograms were exported and submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square- Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). In diluted oils, PLS-DA provided a clear discrimination between olive oils (extra virgin and regular) and olive pomace/seed oils, while SIMCA showed a clear discrimination of extra virgin olive oil in regard to all other samples. Using methanolic extracts and considering datapoints recorded between 0.6 and 1.3 V, PLS-DA provided more information, resulting in three clusters-extra virgin olive oils, regular olive oils and seed/olive pomace oils-while SIMCA showed inferior performance. For the quantification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with olive pomace oil or seed oils, a model based on Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis was developed. Detection limit of adulteration in olive oil was found to be 2% (v/v) and the linearity range up to 33% (v/v). Validation and applicability of all models was proved using a suitable test set. In the case of PLS, synthetic oil mixtures with 4 known adulteration levels in the range of 4-26% were also employed as a blind test set. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Voltammetric behavior of nitrazepam and its determination in serum using liquid chromatography with redox mode dual-electrode detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeychurch, Kevin C; Smith, Gemma C; Hart, John P

    2006-01-15

    A method involving high-performance liquid chromatography with dual-electrode electrochemical detection in the redox mode (LC-DED) has been successfully developed for the determination of the benzodiazepine tranquilizer, nitrazepam, in serum. To elucidate the electrochemical mechanism occurring at a glassy carbon electrode, cyclic voltammetry was preformed with 1 mM solutions of nitrazepam at pH values between 2 and 12, using a potential range from -1.5 to +1.5 V. Two reduction peaks were observed over the whole pH range; the first, designated R1, was consistent with the 4e-, 4H+ reduction of the 7-nitro group to a hydroxylamine species; the second more negative peak, designated R2, was shown to be the result of a 2e-, 2H+ reduction of the 4-5 azomethine group. On the reverse anodic scan, an oxidation signal was observed, designated O1, which was considered to result from a 2e-, 2H+ oxidation of the hydroxylamine to a nitroso group. On the second forward scan, a new reduction peak, designated R3, was observed, which was considered to result from reduction of the nitroso species back to the hydroxylamine species. Studies were then undertaken to exploit the hydroxylamine/nitroso redox couple using LC-DED detection for the measurement of nitrazepam in serum. The optimal chromatographic conditions were found to comprise a mobile phase containing 60% methanol, 40% 50 mM pH 4.1 acetate buffer, in conjunction with a Hypersil C18 250 mm x 4.6 mm column. Hydrodynamic voltammetric studies were undertaken to optimize the operating potentials required for dual-electrode detection. It was found that an applied potential of -2.4 V was optimum for the "generator" cell and +0.5 V for the "detector" cell. The proposed method was evaluated by carrying out replicate nitrazepam determinations on spiked bovine and human serum samples. The former evaluation was preformed at a concentration of 11.2 microg mL(-1), and the latter at 1670 ng mL(-1). For bovine serum, the recovery of

  15. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR AND VOLTAMMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrochemical behaviour of Geshoidin was investigated at a glassy carbon electrode in mixtures of citric acid and di-sodium hydrogen orthophosphate aqueous buffer system over a wide pH range (pH 2-11) using cyclic voltammetry. Chemically irreversible single oxidation and reduction peaks were obtained in the ...

  16. Inappropriate Use of the Quasi-Reversible Electrode Kinetic Model in Simulation-Experiment Comparisons of Voltammetric Processes That Approach the Reversible Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Simonov, Alexandr N.

    2014-08-19

    Many electrode processes that approach the "reversible" (infinitely fast) limit under voltammetric conditions have been inappropriately analyzed by comparison of experimental data and theory derived from the "quasi-reversible" model. Simulations based on "reversible" and "quasi-reversible" models have been fitted to an extensive series of a.c. voltammetric experiments undertaken at macrodisk glassy carbon (GC) electrodes for oxidation of ferrocene (Fc0/+) in CH3CN (0.10 M (n-Bu)4NPF6) and reduction of [Ru(NH 3)6]3+ and [Fe(CN)6]3- in 1 M KCl aqueous electrolyte. The confidence with which parameters such as standard formal potential (E0), heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant at E0 (k0), charge transfer coefficient (α), uncompensated resistance (Ru), and double layer capacitance (CDL) can be reported using the "quasi- reversible" model has been assessed using bootstrapping and parameter sweep (contour plot) techniques. Underparameterization, such as that which occurs when modeling CDL with a potential independent value, results in a less than optimal level of experiment-theory agreement. Overparameterization may improve the agreement but easily results in generation of physically meaningful but incorrect values of the recovered parameters, as is the case with the very fast Fc0/+ and [Ru(NH3)6]3+/2+ processes. In summary, for fast electrode kinetics approaching the "reversible" limit, it is recommended that the "reversible" model be used for theory-experiment comparisons with only E0, R u, and CDL being quantified and a lower limit of k 0 being reported; e.g., k0 ≥ 9 cm s-1 for the Fc0/+ process. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  17. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  18. Modification of glassy carbon electrode with poly(hydroxynaphthol blue)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite and construction a new voltammetric sensor for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshinejad, Hassan; Arab Chamjangali, Mansour; Goudarzi, Nasser; Hossain Amin, Amir

    2018-03-01

    A novel voltammetric sensor is developed based on a poly(hydroxynaphthol blue)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode for the simultaneous determination of the dihydroxybenzene isomers hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC), and resorcinol (RS). The preparation and basic electrochemical performance of the sensor are investigated in details. The electrochemical behavior of the dihydroxybenzene isomers at the sensor is studied by the cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric techniques. The results obtained show that this new electrochemical sensor exhibits an excellent electro-catalytic activity towards oxidation of the three isomers. The mechanism of this electro-catalytic activity is discussed. Using the optimum parameters, limit of detection obtained 0.24, 0.24, and 0.26 μmol L-1 for HQ, CC, and RS, respectively. The modified electrode is also successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of dihydroxybenzene in water samples.

  19. Determinação voltamétrica do herbicida glifosato em águas naturais utilizando eletrodo de cobre Voltammetric determination of glyphosate in natural waters with a copper electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Fabiana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the copper electrode behavior in the voltammetric determination of glyphosate. The best conditions for this determination are phosphate buffer 0.05 mol L-1 and pH 7.3, and the peak potential is observed at 187 mV. LD and LQ values are 59 µg L-1 e 196 µg L-1, respectively. A water sample was analysed for glyphosate and identical results were obtained by using the analytical curve and the standard addition method. The comparison with a voltammetric method with Hg electrode, after a reaction with nitrite, showed quite concordant results for the analysis of the surface water sample. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied to direct determinations of the herbicide in waters, decreasing the time of analysis; besides, the method is in agreement with the "green chemistry" concept.

  20. Molecular modeling of the voltammetric oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode of the antimalarial drug primaquine and its prodrugs succinylprimaquine and maleylprimaquine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La-Scalea, Mauro A. [Lapen, Laboratorio de Planejamento e Sintese de Quimioterapicos Potencialmente Ativos Contra Endemias Tropicais, Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl. 13 sup., 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: scalea@usp.br; Menezes, Carla M.S. [Lapen, Laboratorio de Planejamento e Sintese de Quimioterapicos Potencialmente Ativos Contra Endemias Tropicais, Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl. 13 sup., 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: casmenezes@yahoo.com; Matsutami, Guilherme C. [Lapen, Laboratorio de Planejamento e Sintese de Quimioterapicos Potencialmente Ativos Contra Endemias Tropicais, Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl. 13 sup., 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Polli, Michelle C. [Lapen, Laboratorio de Planejamento e Sintese de Quimioterapicos Potencialmente Ativos Contra Endemias Tropicais, Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl. 13 sup., 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Serrano, Silvia H.P. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748 Bl. 2 sup., 05508-90 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira, Elizabeth I. [Lapen, Laboratorio de Planejamento e Sintese de Quimioterapicos Potencialmente Ativos Contra Endemias Tropicais, Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl. 13 sup., 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-15

    The 8-aminoquinoline primaquine (PQ) is the only antimalarial drug used as tissue schizonticide and relapsing malaria. Antichagasic activity was also reported. Nevertheless, as it also shows serious side effects, prodrugs such as succinyl and maleyl derivatives have been proposed to decrease its toxicity. Although PQ mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated, the promotion of oxidative stress is an advanced hypothesis that could explain its activity in both plasmodia and trypanosome parasites. The oxidation of PQ and its prodrugs, maleylprimaquine (MPQ) and succinylprimaquine (SPQ), was studied by cyclic voltammetry using glassy carbon electrode. All compounds were oxidized in aqueous medium, with the charge transfer process being pH-dependent in acidic medium and pH-independent in a weak basic medium, being the neutral form more easily oxidized. This indicated that the protonation of the nitrogen atoms displays a determinant role in the voltammetric oxidation, being both prodrugs more easily oxidized than PQ protonated forms, in the order: SPQ < MPQ < PQ. For a better understanding of this behavior, a molecular modeling study was performed using the AM1 semi-empirical method from Spartan 04 for Linux (v.119, Wavefunction Inc.). The medium pH showed to be fundamental not only to the electronic density of the quinoline ring but also to the rearrangement of the nitrogen side chain. The electronic density of primaquine non-protonated quinoline ring is higher than that in its protonated and diprotonated species. Also, the use of prodrugs and the degree of saturation of the carriers (maleic or succinic acid) interfere with this feature. SPQ and MPQ have a slight increase in the quinoline electronic density in comparison to PQ. Nevertheless, the carrier in the side chain of SPQ is closer to the quinoline ring than it is in MPQ, which accounts for the higher electronic density in the former. The most significant effect occurs in the correspondent protonated

  1. Development of a voltammetric procedure for assay of the antihistamine drug hydroxyzine at a glassy carbon electrode: Quantification and pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltagi, A M; Abdallah, O M; Ghoneim, M M

    2008-01-15

    An electrochemical study of hydroxyzine at a glassy carbon electrode was carried out in the Britton-Robinson universal buffer of pH 2-11. Hydroxyzine was oxidized in a single two-electron irreversible process controlled mainly by adsorption. A simple, sensitive and time-saving square-wave adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetric procedure has been developed for determination of hydroxyzine in its commercial tablets and human serum without prior extraction. The optimized procedural conditions were: frequency=120Hz, scan increment=10mV, pulse-amplitude=25mV, accumulation potential=-0.3V, accumulation time=90-300s and a Britton-Robinson universal buffer of pH 4 as a supporting electrolyte. Mean recoveries of 100.5+/-0.71 and 98.6+/-1.12% (n=5) were achieved for assay of hydroxyzine in Atarax 10 and 25mg dosage forms, respectively. Limit of detection of 1.5x10(-8)molL(-1) (5.624ngmL(-1)) and limit of quantitation of 5.0x10(-8)molL(-1) (18.746ngmL(-1)) were achieved in human serum with a mean recovery of 98.4+/-1.22%, without prior extraction of the drug. Moreover, the described procedure was applied for evaluating the pharmacokinetic parameters of hydroxyzine in plasma of two healthy volunteers after administration of a single oral dose (Atarax)-25mg).

  2. A Fast Strategy for Determination of Vitamin B9 in Food and Pharmaceutical Samples Using an Ionic Liquid-Modified Nanostructure Voltammetric Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Fatemeh; Irai, Abolfazl Elyasi; Sadeghi, Roya; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Wen, Yangping

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B9 or folic acid is an important food supplement with wide clinical applications. Due to its importance and its side effects in pregnant women, fast determination of this vitamin is very important. In this study we present a new fast and sensitive voltammetric sensor for the analysis of trace levels of vitamin B9 using a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide (1,3-DIBr) as a binder and ZnO/CNTs nanocomposite as a mediator. The electro-oxidation signal of vitamin B9 at the surface of the 1,3-DIBr/ZnO/CNTs/CPE electrode appeared at 800 mV, which was about 95 mV less positive compared to the corresponding unmodified CPE. The oxidation current of vitamin B9 by square wave voltammetry (SWV) increased linearly with its concentration in the range of 0.08–650 μM. The detection limit for vitamin B9 was 0.05 μM. Finally, the utility of the new 1,3-DIBr/ZnO/CNTs/CPE electrode was tested in the determination of vitamin B9 in food and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:27231909

  3. A Fast Strategy for Determination of Vitamin B9 in Food and Pharmaceutical Samples Using an Ionic Liquid-Modified Nanostructure Voltammetric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khaleghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B9 or folic acid is an important food supplement with wide clinical applications. Due to its importance and its side effects in pregnant women, fast determination of this vitamin is very important. In this study we present a new fast and sensitive voltammetric sensor for the analysis of trace levels of vitamin B9 using a carbon paste electrode (CPE modified with 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide (1,3-DIBr as a binder and ZnO/CNTs nanocomposite as a mediator. The electro-oxidation signal of vitamin B9 at the surface of the 1,3-DIBr/ZnO/CNTs/CPE electrode appeared at 800 mV, which was about 95 mV less positive compared to the corresponding unmodified CPE. The oxidation current of vitamin B9 by square wave voltammetry (SWV increased linearly with its concentration in the range of 0.08–650 μM. The detection limit for vitamin B9 was 0.05 μM. Finally, the utility of the new 1,3-DIBr/ZnO/CNTs/CPE electrode was tested in the determination of vitamin B9 in food and pharmaceutical samples.

  4. Alizarin Red S-Confined Layer-By-Layer Films as Redox-Active Coatings on Electrodes for the Voltammetric Determination of L-Dopa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Takahashi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of redox-active coatings is a key step in fabricating electrochemical biosensors. To this goal, a variety of coating materials have been used in combination with redox-active compounds. In this study, alizarin red S (ARS was confined in layer-by-layer (LbL films composed of poly(ethyleneimine (PEI and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC to study the redox properties. A gold (Au disc electrode coated with PEI/CMC LbL film was immersed in an ARS solution to uptake ARS into the film. ARS was successfully confined in the LbL film through electrostatic interactions. The cyclic voltammogram (CV of ARS-confined PEI/CMC film-coated electrodes thus prepared exhibited redox waves in the potential range from −0.5 to −0.7 V originating from 9,10-anthraquinone moiety in ARS, demonstrating that ARS preserves its redox activity in the LbL film. An additional oxidation peak appeared around −0.4 V in the CV recorded in the solution containing phenylboronic acid (PBA, due to the formation of a boronate ester of ARS (ARS-PBA in the film. The oxidation peak current at −0.4 V decreased upon addition of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa to the solution. Thus, the results suggest a potential use of the ARS-confined PEI/CMC films for constructing voltammetric sensors for L-dopa.

  5. A Voltammetric Sensor Based on Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Analysis of Uric Acid, Ascorbic Acid and Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper Kanyong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE modified with chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO (rGO-SPCE is described. The rGO-SPCE was characterized by UV-Vis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic activity towards uric acid (UA, ascorbic acid (AA and dopamine (DA. Three resolved voltammetric peaks (at 183 mV for UA, 273 mV for AA and 317 mV for DA, all vs. Ag/AgCl were found. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to simultaneously detect UA, AA and DA in their ternary mixtures. The linear working range extends from 10 to 3000 μM for UA; 0.1 to 2.5 μM, and 5.0 to 2 × 104 µM for AA; and 0.2 to 80.0 μM and 120.0 to 500 µM for DA, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3 are 0.1, 50.0, and 0.4 μM, respectively. The performance of the sensor was evaluated by analysing spiked human urine samples, and the recoveries were found to be well over 98.0% for the three compounds. These results indicate that the rGO-SPCE represents a sensitive analytical sensing tool for simultaneous analysis of UA, AA and DA.

  6. Development of a Nafion/MWCNT-SPCE-Based Portable Sensor for the Voltammetric Analysis of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Ethambutol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa A. S. Couto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the development, characterization and application of an electrochemical sensor based on the use of Nafion/MWCNT-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs for the voltammetric detection of the anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB drug ethambutol (ETB. The electrochemical behaviour of the drug at the surface of the developed Nafion/MWCNT-SPCEs was studied through cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV techniques. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were employed to characterize the modified surface of the electrodes. Results showed that, compared to both unmodified and MWCNTs-modified SPCEs, negatively charged Nafion/MWCNT-SPCEs remarkably enhanced the electrochemical sensitivity and selectivity for ETB due to the synergistic effect of the electrostatic interaction between cationic ETB molecules and negatively charged Nafion polymer and the inherent electrocatalytic properties of both MWCNTs and Nafion. Nafion/MWCNT-SPCEs provided excellent biocompatibility, good electrical conductivity, low electrochemical interferences and a high signal-to-noise ratio, providing excellent performance towards ETB quantification in microvolumes of human urine and human blood serum samples. The outcomes of this paper confirm that the Nafion/MWCNT-SPCE-based device could be a potential candidate for the development of a low-cost, yet reliable and efficient electrochemical portable sensor for the low-level detection of this antimycobacterial drug in biological samples.

  7. Amplified voltammetric detection of miRNA from serum samples of glioma patients via combination of conducting magnetic microbeads and ferrocene-capped gold nanoparticle/streptavidin conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhixuan; Tang, Hailin; Wu, Daohong; Xia, Yonghong; Wu, Minghua; Yi, Xinyao; Li, Hengfeng; Wang, Jianxiu

    2016-12-15

    MicroRNA (miRNA) plays a key regulatory role in many biological processes, emerging as an important biomarker for a large variety of cancer diseases. Employing gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-coated magnetic microbeads (AuNP-MMBs) as an immobilization matrix for higher loading density of hairpin-structured DNA probes and then ferrocene (Fc)-capped gold nanoparticle/streptavidin conjugates, amplified electrochemical assay of miRNA has been performed. In the presence of target miRNA, a novel assembly was formed via linking biotinylated hairpin DNA probe-covered AuNP-MMBs with Fc-capped gold nanoparticle/streptavidin conjugates and then collected by magnetic electrodes for voltammetric detection. The enlarged surface area, good conductivity of AuNP-MMBs and the multiple Fc tags on the electrode surface ensure high sensitivity of the method. The oxidation peak current of Fc tags is proportional to the concentrations of miRNA ranging from 5 fM to 100 fM, and a detection limit of 0.14 fM was achieved. The proposed assay is highly selective and reproducible, serving as a viable alternative for the detection of miRNA-182 from serum samples of glioma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid using a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszczuk-Rotko, Katarzyna; Bęczkowska, Ilona; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes the fabrication and application of a novel sensor (a boron-doped diamond electrode modified with Nafion and lead films) for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and ascorbic acid by differential pulse voltammetry. The main advantage of the lead film and polymer covered boron-doped diamond electrode is that the sensitivity of the stripping responses is increased and the separation of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved due to the modification of the boron-doped diamond surface by the lead layer. Additionally, the repeatability of paracetamol and ascorbic acid signals is improved by the application of the Nafion film coating. In the presence of oxygen, linear calibration curves were obtained in a wide concentration range from 5×10(-7) to 2×10(-4) mol L(-1) for paracetamol and from 1×10(-6) to 5×10(-4) mol L(-1) for ascorbic acid. The analytical utility of the differential pulse voltammetric method elaborated was tested in the assay of paracetamol and ascorbic acid in commercially available pharmaceutical formulations and the method was validated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aging time and brand determination of pasteurized milk using a multisensor e-nose combined with a voltammetric e-tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougrini, Madiha; Tahri, Khalid; Haddi, Zouhair; El Bari, Nezha; Llobet, Eduard; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Bouchikhi, Benachir

    2014-12-01

    A combined approach based on a multisensor system to get additional chemical information from liquid samples through the analysis of the solution and its headspace is illustrated and commented. In the present work, innovative analytical techniques, such as a hybrid e-nose and a voltammetric e-tongue were elaborated to differentiate between different pasteurized milk brands and for the exact recognition of their storage days through the data fusion technique of the combined system. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has shown an acceptable discrimination of the pasteurized milk brands on the first day of storage, when the two instruments were used independently. Contrariwise, PCA indicated that no clear storage day's discrimination can be drawn when the two instruments are applied separately. Mid-level of abstraction data fusion approach has demonstrated that results obtained by the data fusion approach outperformed the classification results of the e-nose and e-tongue taken individually. Furthermore, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised method was applied to the new subset and confirmed that all storage days were correctly identified. This study can be generalized to several beverage and food products where their quality is based on the perception of odor and flavor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensors properties of an alkylamine-intercalated kaolinite material towards the voltammetric preconcentration of [Ru(CN)6]4- at a clay-modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonle, I.K. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry, Center for Catalysis Research and Innovation; Yanoude Univ. (Cameroon). Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences; Dschang Univ. (Cameroon). Dept. de Chimie; Bouwe, B.; Rose, G.; Ngameni, E. [Yanoude Univ. (Cameroon). Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences; Detellier, C. [Yanoude Univ. (Cameroon). Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences

    2008-07-01

    This study discussed the sensor properties of a kaolinite material in relation to the voltammetric preconcentration of ruthenium (Ru) anions in a clay-modified electrode. An organoclay was intercalated at room temperature with a layer of hexylamine. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was intercalated between the clay layers and displaced in wet conditions by the akylamine. The modified clay was then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The analyses confirmed the incorporation of the hexylamine between the kaolinite platelets. The organokaolinite was then studied for use as a preconcentration agent when coated on the active surface of a glassy carbon electrode for the accumulation of [Ru(CN)6]4- anions in a hydrochloric acid medium. Factors that influenced the conductivity of the film and the diffusion of the electroactive species within the film included the concentration of the electrolyte, and the redox probe. The study showed that kaolinite can be used as a material in electrochemical sensors.

  11. Effect of preparation methods on dispersion stability and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li, E-mail: chenli1981@lut.cn; Li, Na; Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Pinnan; Lin, Zhengping

    2017-05-15

    Chemical exfoliation is one of the most important strategies for preparing graphene. The aggregation of graphene sheets severely prevents graphene from exhibiting excellent properties. However, there are no attempts to investigate the effect of preparation methods on the dispersity of graphene sheets. In this study, three chemical exfoliation methods, including Hummers method, modified Hummers method, and improved method, were used to prepare graphene sheets. The influence of preparation methods on the structure, dispersion stability in organic solvents, and electrochemical properties of graphene sheets were investigated. Fourier transform infrared microscopy, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and UV–vis spectrophotometry were employed to analyze the structure of the as-prepared graphene sheets. The results showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits excellent dispersity and stability in organic solvents without any additional stabilizer or modifier, which is attributed to the completely exfoliation and regular structure. Moreover, cyclic voltammetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits superior electrochemical properties than that prepared by the other two methods. - Graphical abstract: Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three methods, and then graphene with different crystal structures were created by chemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxides. - Highlights: • Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three oxidation methods. • The influence of oxidation methods on microstructure of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on dispersion stability of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on electrochemical properties of graphene was discussed.

  12. Effect of preparation methods on dispersion stability and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Li, Na; Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Pinnan; Lin, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    Chemical exfoliation is one of the most important strategies for preparing graphene. The aggregation of graphene sheets severely prevents graphene from exhibiting excellent properties. However, there are no attempts to investigate the effect of preparation methods on the dispersity of graphene sheets. In this study, three chemical exfoliation methods, including Hummers method, modified Hummers method, and improved method, were used to prepare graphene sheets. The influence of preparation methods on the structure, dispersion stability in organic solvents, and electrochemical properties of graphene sheets were investigated. Fourier transform infrared microscopy, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and UV–vis spectrophotometry were employed to analyze the structure of the as-prepared graphene sheets. The results showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits excellent dispersity and stability in organic solvents without any additional stabilizer or modifier, which is attributed to the completely exfoliation and regular structure. Moreover, cyclic voltammetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that graphene prepared by improved method exhibits superior electrochemical properties than that prepared by the other two methods. - Graphical abstract: Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three methods, and then graphene with different crystal structures were created by chemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxides. - Highlights: • Graphene oxides with different oxidation degree were obtained via three oxidation methods. • The influence of oxidation methods on microstructure of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on dispersion stability of graphene was investigated. • The effect of oxidation methods on electrochemical properties of graphene was discussed.

  13. Estudo voltamétrico do complexo de cobre(II com o ligante vermelho de alizarina S, adsorvido na superfície do eletrodo de grafite pirolítico Voltammetric study of complex of copper (II with alizarin red S ligand, absorbed on surface of pyrolytic graphite electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Mouchrek Filho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The alizarin red S (ARS has been used as a spectrophotometric reagent of several metals for a long time. Now this alizarin has been used as modifier agent of electrodes, for voltammetric analyses. In this work cyclic voltammetry experiments was accomplished on closed circuit, with the objective of studying the voltammetric behavior of alizarin red S adsorbed and of its copper complex, on the surface of the pyrolytic graphite electrode. These studies showed that ARS strongly adsorbs on the surface of this electrode. This adsorption was used to immobilize ions copper(II from the solution.

  14. Aging time and brand determination of pasteurized milk using a multisensor e-nose combined with a voltammetric e-tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougrini, Madiha; Tahri, Khalid; Haddi, Zouhair; El Bari, Nezha; Llobet, Eduard; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Bouchikhi, Benachir

    2014-01-01

    A combined approach based on a multisensor system to get additional chemical information from liquid samples through the analysis of the solution and its headspace is illustrated and commented. In the present work, innovative analytical techniques, such as a hybrid e-nose and a voltammetric e-tongue were elaborated to differentiate between different pasteurized milk brands and for the exact recognition of their storage days through the data fusion technique of the combined system. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has shown an acceptable discrimination of the pasteurized milk brands on the first day of storage, when the two instruments were used independently. Contrariwise, PCA indicated that no clear storage day's discrimination can be drawn when the two instruments are applied separately. Mid-level of abstraction data fusion approach has demonstrated that results obtained by the data fusion approach outperformed the classification results of the e-nose and e-tongue taken individually. Furthermore, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised method was applied to the new subset and confirmed that all storage days were correctly identified. This study can be generalized to several beverage and food products where their quality is based on the perception of odor and flavor. - Highlights: • Five pasteurized milk brands were differentiated using e-nose and e-tongue. • E-tongue allowed a correct distinction of the milk brands comparing to the e-nose. • The combined system allows determining the storage days of pasteurized milk. • No clear storage day’s discrimination can be drawn when applied e-systems separately. • Data fusion method has been successful in the identification of the storage days

  15. A screen-printed carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), poly(styrene sulfonate) and a molecular imprint for voltammetric determination of nitrofurantoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechtrirat, Decha; Yingyuad, Peerada; Prajongtat, Pongthep; Chuenchom, Laemthong; Sriprachuabwong, Chakrit; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Tang, I-Ming

    2018-04-23

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and a nanocomposite prepared from gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were deposited on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The nanocomposite was prepared by one-pot simultaneous in-situ formation of AuNPs and PEDOT:PSS and was then inkjet-coated onto the SPCE. The MIP film was subsequently placed on the modified SPCE by co-electrodeposition of o-phenylenediamine and resorcinol in the presence of the antibiotic nitrofurantoin (NFT). Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), response at the potential of ~ 0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) is linear in 1 nM to 1000 nM NFT concentration range, with a remarkably low detection limit (at S/N = 3) of 0.1 nM. This is two orders of magnitude lower than that of the control MIP sensor without the nanocomposite interlayer, thus showing the beneficial effect of AuNP-PEDOT:PSS. The electrode is highly reproducible (relative standard deviation 3.1% for n = 6) and selective over structurally related molecules. It can be re-used for at least ten times and was found to be stable for at least 45 days. It was successfully applied to the determination of NFT in (spiked) feed matrices and gave good recoveries. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of a voltammetric sensor for the determination of nitrofurantoin. The sensor is based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with an inkjet-printed gold nanoparticles-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) nanocomposite and a molecularly imprinted polymer.

  16. Aging time and brand determination of pasteurized milk using a multisensor e-nose combined with a voltammetric e-tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougrini, Madiha [Sensor Electronic and Instrumentation Group, Moulay Ismaïl University, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes (Morocco); Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR CNRS 5280, 5, rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Tahri, Khalid [Sensor Electronic and Instrumentation Group, Moulay Ismaïl University, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes (Morocco); Haddi, Zouhair [Sensor Electronic and Instrumentation Group, Moulay Ismaïl University, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes (Morocco); MINOS-EMaS, Electronic Engineering Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Països Catalans, 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); El Bari, Nezha [Biotechnology Agroalimentary and Biomedical Analysis Group, Moulay Ismaïl University, Faculty of Sciences, Biology Department, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes (Morocco); Llobet, Eduard [MINOS-EMaS, Electronic Engineering Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Països Catalans, 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR CNRS 5280, 5, rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bouchikhi, Benachir, E-mail: benachir.bouchikhi@gmail.com [Sensor Electronic and Instrumentation Group, Moulay Ismaïl University, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, B.P. 11201, Zitoune, Meknes (Morocco)

    2014-12-01

    A combined approach based on a multisensor system to get additional chemical information from liquid samples through the analysis of the solution and its headspace is illustrated and commented. In the present work, innovative analytical techniques, such as a hybrid e-nose and a voltammetric e-tongue were elaborated to differentiate between different pasteurized milk brands and for the exact recognition of their storage days through the data fusion technique of the combined system. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has shown an acceptable discrimination of the pasteurized milk brands on the first day of storage, when the two instruments were used independently. Contrariwise, PCA indicated that no clear storage day's discrimination can be drawn when the two instruments are applied separately. Mid-level of abstraction data fusion approach has demonstrated that results obtained by the data fusion approach outperformed the classification results of the e-nose and e-tongue taken individually. Furthermore, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised method was applied to the new subset and confirmed that all storage days were correctly identified. This study can be generalized to several beverage and food products where their quality is based on the perception of odor and flavor. - Highlights: • Five pasteurized milk brands were differentiated using e-nose and e-tongue. • E-tongue allowed a correct distinction of the milk brands comparing to the e-nose. • The combined system allows determining the storage days of pasteurized milk. • No clear storage day’s discrimination can be drawn when applied e-systems separately. • Data fusion method has been successful in the identification of the storage days.

  17. A novel voltammetric sensor for sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions using glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene-based ion imprinted polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanei-Motlagh, Masoud, E-mail: m.ghaneimotlagh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taher, Mohammad Ali; Heydari, Abolfazl [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanei-Motlagh, Reza [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gupta, Vinod K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel strategy was proposed to prepare ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Polymerization was performed using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, 2,2′–((9E,10E)–1,4–dihydroxyanthracene–9,10–diylidene) bis(hydrazine–1–carbothioamide) (DDBHCT) as the chelating agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator, via surface imprinted technique. The RGO–IIP was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical procedure was based on the accumulation of Hg(II) ions at the surface of a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with RGO–IIP. The prepared RGO–IIP sensor has higher voltammetric response compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), traditional IIP and RGO. The RGO–IIP modified electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward Hg(II) concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 80 μg L{sup −1}. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.02 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3), below the guideline value from the World Health Organization (WHO). The applicability of the proposed electrochemical sensor to determination of mercury(II) ions in different water samples was reported. - Highlights: • The novel Hg(II)-imprinted polymer was synthesized and characterized. • The resulting RGO–IIP was applied for electrochemical monitoring of Hg(II) ions. • The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determination of Hg(II) in real water samples.

  18. Microfabricated three-electrode on-chip PDMS device with a vibration motor for stripping voltammetric detection of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Han; Williams, Spencer E; Zhou, Anhong

    2015-01-01

    A microfabricated three-electrode on-chip device with a vibration motor for stripping voltammetric detection of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions is introduced. Gold electrodes on a glass substrate are utilized as the counter electrode directly, as well as the working electrode with bismuth coating. The reference electrode is achieved by painting silver/silver chloride layer on the gold layer. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cover is bonded onto the glass substrate, organizing a compact module. A vibration motor in the device provides vibration as the alternate for stirring to improve detection limits and decrease deposition time. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is performed with the on-chip reference electrode and a commercial liquid electrolyte Ag/AgCl electrode, showing that the potential shift is less than 20 mV. Differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) is used to detect Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions. Linearity is well defined from 10 µg/L to 80 µg/L for both ions. Detection limits for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions are 0.7 µg/L and 1.2 µg/L, respectively, at 325 s deposition without vibration; the limits are 0.11 µg/L and 0.25 µg/L at 120 s deposition with vibration. The reliability is verified by detecting Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) concentrations of natural water samples and comparing with the results obtained from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Voltammetric determination of ultratrace levels of cerium(III) using a carbon paste electrode modified with nano-sized cerium-imprinted polymer and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Akhoundian, Maede; Norouzi, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode was modified with a Ce(III)-imprinted polymer (Ce-IP) and used for voltammetric determination of Ce(III) ions in real water samples. Precipitation polymerization was used for synthesis of the nano-sized Ce-IP from vinylpyridine and methacrylic acid (acting as the complexing ligands and functional monomers), divinylbenzene (cross-linker) and AIBN as the radical starter. The Ce-IP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and zeta potentials. A carbon paste electrode (CPE) was then impregnated with the Ce-IP and used for the extraction and subsequent determination of Ce(III). Oxidative square wave voltammetry showed the electrode to give a significantly better response than an electrode modified with the non-imprinted polymer. The addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the Ce-IP-modified electrode further improves the signal, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the method. The effects of electrode composition, extraction pH value, volume and time were optimized. The electrode, if operated at a voltage of 1.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), displays a linear response to Ce(III) in the 1.0 μM to 25 pM concentration range, and the detection limit is 10 pM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The relative standard deviation of 5 separate determinations is 3.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Ce(III) in the spiked samples of drinking water and sea water. (author)

  20. The Use of Silver Solid Amalgam Electrodes for Voltammetric and Amperometric Determination of Nitrated Polyaromatic Compounds Used as Markers of Incomplete Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Yosypchuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs are formed during incomplete combustion processes by reaction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs with atmospheric nitrogen oxides. 1-Nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, and 3-nitrofluoranthene as the dominating substances are used as markers of NPAHs formation by these processes. In the presented study, voltammetric properties and quantification of these compounds and of 5-nitroquinoline (as a representative of environmentally important genotoxic heterocyclic compounds have been investigated using a mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode (m-AgSAE, which represent a nontoxic alternative to traditional mercury electrodes. Linear calibration curves over three orders of magnitude and limits of determination mostly in the 10−7 mol L−1 concentration range were obtained using direct current and differential pulse voltammetry. Further, satisfactory HPLC separation of studied analytes in fifteen minutes was achieved using 0.01 mol L−1 phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 : methanol (15 : 85, v/v mobile phase, and C18 reversed stationary phase. Limits of detection of around 1 · 10−5 mol L−1 were achieved using amperometric detection at m-AgSAE in wall-jet arrangement for all studied analytes. Practical applicability of this technique was demonstrated on the determination of 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, and 5-nitroquinoline in drinking water after their preliminary separation and preconcentration using solid phase extraction with the limits of detection around 1 · 10−6 mol L−1.

  1. Optimization of Stripping Voltammetric Sensor by a Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network for the Accurate Determination of Pb(II in the Presence of Cd(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An easy, but effective, method has been proposed to detect and quantify the Pb(II in the presence of Cd(II based on a Bi/glassy carbon electrode (Bi/GCE with the combination of a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN and square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV without further electrode modification. The effects of Cd(II in different concentrations on stripping responses of Pb(II was studied. The results indicate that the presence of Cd(II will reduce the prediction precision of a direct calibration model. Therefore, a two-input and one-output BP-ANN was built for the optimization of a stripping voltammetric sensor, which considering the combined effects of Cd(II and Pb(II on the SWASV detection of Pb(II and establishing the nonlinear relationship between the stripping peak currents of Pb(II and Cd(II and the concentration of Pb(II. The key parameters of the BP-ANN and the factors affecting the SWASV detection of Pb(II were optimized. The prediction performance of direct calibration model and BP-ANN model were tested with regard to the mean absolute error (MAE, root mean square error (RMSE, average relative error (ARE, and correlation coefficient. The results proved that the BP-ANN model exhibited higher prediction accuracy than the direct calibration model. Finally, a real samples analysis was performed to determine trace Pb(II in some soil specimens with satisfactory results.

  2. Voltammetric determination of polyphenolic content in pomegranate juice using a poly(gallic acid/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Abdel-Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive poly(gallic acid/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/MWCNT/GCE electrochemical sensor was prepared for direct determination of the total phenolic content (TPC as gallic acid equivalent. The GCE working electrode was electrochemically modified and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. It was found that gallic acid (GA exhibits a superior electrochemical response on the PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor in comparison with bare GCE. The results reveal that a PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor can remarkably enhance the electro-oxidation signal of GA as well as shift the peak potentials towards less positive potential values. The dependence of peak current on accumulation potential, accumulation time and pH were investigated by square-wave voltammetry (SWV to optimize the experimental conditions for the determination of GA. Using the optimized conditions, the sensor responded linearly to a GA concentration throughout the range of 4.97 × 10−6 to 3.38 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 3.22 × 10−6 M (S/N = 3. The fabricated sensor shows good selectivity, stability, repeatability and (101% recovery. The sensor was successfully utilized for the determination of total phenolic content in fresh pomegranate juice without interference of ascorbic acid, fructose, potassium nitrate and barbituric acid. The obtained data were compared with the standard Folin–Ciocalteu spectrophotometric results.

  3. Towards a zero-blank, preconcentration-free voltammetric method for iron analysis at picomolar concentrations in unbuffered seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laglera, Luis M; Caprara, Salvatore; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-04-01

    A method with negligible blank values for the determination of total iron at the ultratrace level in seawater has been optimized and validated exploring for the first time the performance and limitations of Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdCSV) in non-buffered solutions. The method is based on the CSV determination of the Fe-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) complex using atmospheric oxygen to catalytically enhance the signal via hydrogen peroxide formation at the electrode/solution interface. The accumulation of hydroxyl ions, the by-product of the hydrogen peroxide formation, increased the pH in the diffusion layer in the absence of buffer bringing it to 9, the optimum for the analytical performance of the method. Voltammograms in UV digested seawater showed no stability or reproducibility drawbacks. The negligible, lower than 5pM, blank level, is due to the simplicity of the procedure requiring no sample manipulation and a maximum of three reagents only, necessarily the ligand DHN and a base only for those samples previously acidified to raise the pH to circumneutral values (here HCl and NH3 according to common trace metals protocols). These reagents do not require cleaning before use, further simplifying the overall procedure. Analysis of seawater previously acidified at pH ~1.5 with HCl and neutralized with ammonia showed interferences due to the buffering properties of the NH3/NH4Cl couple and the transient formation of a volatile electroactive interference that can be easily removed by simply allowing a set time before analysis. In general, the proposed method features several advantages, including high sample throughput, an excellent limit of detection at 12pM, minimum sample handling (no preconcentration or change of matrix is required), cost effectiveness and mainly a negligible blank. The method was successfully validated using open ocean consensus samples (SAFe D2 and S). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of copper speciation in the extract of Eichhornia crassipes using reverse and forward/CLE voltammetric titrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael H.M. Abdelraheem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reverse and forward titrations coupled with the competitive ligand equilibration (CLE technique were, for the first time, used to investigate the chemical organic speciation of copper ions in an aqueous extract of Eichhornia crassipes (E.C plant growing in Egypt. Salicylaldoxime (SA was used as the competitive ligand. Two samples were collected from huge submerged masses in the Nile water at Sohag and Mansura cities. In this study the concentration of the natural complexing ligands (CLn and their conditional stability constants with copper (KCuLn′ in the aqueous extract were determined by linear and nonlinear modeling. Reverse titration resulted in two classes of copper complexation (CuL1 and CuL2 in both samples. The strongest class, CuL1, is predominant in Sohag-sample with average logKCuL1′ and CL1 of 15.66 and 435.5 nM, respectively, and also dominated in the Mansura-sample with average 16.77 and 162 nM, respectively. The second class (CuL2 is minor in both samples. For comparison, forward titration was performed for the Sohag-sample. The results indicated that reverse titration showed a breakthrough ability to detect, for the first time, different types of metal complexation present in equilibrium in the aqueous extracts of biological samples. Moreover, the presence of E.C in Nile water is so useful in transforming free Cu ions to less toxic forms by organic complexation.

  5. Voltammetric detection of the {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound: Methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Chen Aicheng, E-mail: achen@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of Pt nanoparticles and single-wall carbon nanotubes on the reduction of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel electrochemical Pt/SWNT/GCE sensor designed for the determination of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent analytical performance with low detection limit and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed methylglyoxal sensor shows promising process control, clinical and, biomedical applications. - Abstract: A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 100 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  6. Voltammetric Response of Alizarin Red S-Confined Film-Coated Electrodes to Diol and Polyol Compounds: Use of Phenylboronic Acid-Modified Poly(ethyleneimine as Film Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Takahashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alizarin red S (ARS was confined in layer-by-layer (LbL films composed of phenylboronic acid-modified poly(ethyleneimine (PBA-PEI and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC to study the voltammetric response to diol and polyol compounds. The LbL film-coated gold (Au electrode and quartz slide were immersed in an ARS solution to uptake ARS into the film. UV-visible absorption spectra of ARS-confined LbL film suggested that ARS formed boronate ester (ARS-PBS in the film. The cyclic voltammetry of the ARS-confined LbL film-coated electrodes exhibited oxidation peaks at −0.50 and −0.62 V, which were ascribed to the oxidation reactions of ARS-PBS and free ARS, respectively, in the LbL film. The peak current at −0.62 V increased upon the addition of diol or polyol compounds such as L-dopa, glucose, and sorbitol into the solution, depending on the concentration, whereas the peak current at −0.50 V decreased. The results suggest a possible use of ARS-confined PBA-PEI/CMC LbL film-coated Au electrodes for the construction of voltammetric sensors for diol and polyol compounds.

  7. Electrochemical Oxidation of l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine at a Thiol-Compound-Modified Gold Electrode: Its Application in a Flow-Through Voltammetric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Hao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A flow-electrolytic cell that consists of a bare gold wire or of different thiol-compound-modified gold electrodes (such as 2,4-thiazolidinedione, 2-mercapto-5-thiazoline, 2-mercaptothiazoline, l-cysteine, thioglycolic acid was designed to be used in a voltammetric detector to identify l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Both l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine are more efficiently electrochemically oxidized on a thiol/gold than on a bare gold electrode. For the DC mode, and for measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 10 to 1600 ng·mL−1 was found. The limits of quantification for l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine were below 10 ng·mL−1. The method can be applied to the quantitative determination of l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine in commercial selenium-containing supplement products. Findings using high-performance liquid chromatography with a flow-through voltammetric detector and ultraviolet detector are comparable.

  8. Mesoporous film of WO{sub 3}–the “sunlight” assisted decomposition of surfactant in wastewater for voltammetric determination of Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata, E-mail: bekras@chem.uw.edu.pl; Bielecka, Agnieszka; Biaduń, Ewa; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof, E-mail: kmiecz@chem.uw.edu.pl

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The “sun light” decomposed of surfactants: Sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton™X-114 in the presence of WO{sub 3}. • Mesoporous WO{sub 3} films use for the degradation of surfactant without any reagents. • The developed procedure is suggested to be a no-reagents method of decomposition of added SDS leads to 100% recovery of added Pb (II). - Abstract: In this paper we present the application of “sunlight” assisted digestion in the presence of WO{sub 3} to the decomposition of dissolved organic matter, using the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the nonionic surfactant (1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton™X-114) in natural water samples, prior to the determination of traces residues of lead by stripping voltammetry methods. The results of the study showed firstly that the preparation of reproducible WO{sub 3} layers characterized by high mechanical and chemical resistance was possible, and secondly that it was also possible to obtain a high efficiency of decomposition, equal in efficiency to that of the reference method, which was the hydrogen peroxide oxidation assisted by UV, with evaporation nearly to dryness. The developed procedure is suggested to be a no-reagents method for the decomposition of added SDS, leading to 100% recovery of added Pb (II). The anodic stripping voltammetric curves recorded in solution after 4 h irradiation with UV assisted by WO{sub 3} were repeatable and increased linearly with standard additions, but the data finally obtained were incorrect. The curves recorded in solution after “sunlight” assisted digestion in the presence of WO{sub 3} were repeatable, and increased linearly with an increasing of concentration of standard additions (100% recovery of Pb). In the case of a nonionic surfactant, the decomposition time is at least 6 h. The advantage of the proposed method is the fact that the digestion process does not need the addition of any chemicals for the

  9. Synthesis of phthalocyanine stabilized rhodium nanoparticles and their application in biosensing of cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokesh, K S; Shivaraj, Y; Dayananda, B P; Chandra, Sudeshna

    2009-06-01

    A single step synthesis route is described for the preparation of rhodium nanoparticles using a cobalt aminophthalocyanine macrocyclic complex as a stabilizer. The results of nanoparticles characterization using electronic absorption, Raman and X-ray spectroscopes as well as transmission electron microscopy are reported. Rhodium nanoparticle modified electrode behavior as examined by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry is also provided. The nanoparticles were found to be well dispersed and stabilized throughout the macromolecular matrix. TEM studies showed that they have an average diameter of 3 to 5 nm with spherical shape. The colloidal rhodium was then used for electrochemical sensing of cytochrome c using glassy carbon electrode. The results showed that the colloidal rhodium nanoparticles enhanced the electron transfer process between cytochrome c and the electrode. Differential pulse voltammetric measurements of cytochrome c at the colloidal rhodium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode showed a linear relationship with the oxidation peak currents in the concentration range of 100 nM to 3 microM of cytochrome c.

  10. Stability of parallel flows

    CERN Document Server

    Betchov, R

    2012-01-01

    Stability of Parallel Flows provides information pertinent to hydrodynamical stability. This book explores the stability problems that occur in various fields, including electronics, mechanics, oceanography, administration, economics, as well as naval and aeronautical engineering. Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the general equations of a two-dimensional incompressible flow. This text then explores the stability of a laminar boundary layer and presents the equation of the inviscid approximation. Other chapters present the general equation

  11. electrochemical behaviour and voltammetric determination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on a micro-cloth pad and rinsed with distilled and de-ionized water. All potentials are reported ... Controlled potential electrolysis of Geshoidin was carried out at a glassy carbon electrode of large surface area (0.79 ... volume of standard Geshoidin solution was spiked into the cell by micro-pipette. The same procedure was ...

  12. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  13. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  14. [Human thrombin: drug stability and stabilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzeĭskaia, M V; Sokolovskiĭ, V A; Volkov, G L

    2006-01-01

    Stabilization of enzymes is a key factor when using biocatalysis in practice. Each enzyme stability depends both on the structure of its molecule and on the effect of various environmental factors, thus, one of the methods of the enzyme stability preservation is the formation of optimal macromedium. Thus, water structure and enzyme hydration change in the presence of solvable additives that affects its stability and catalytic properties. The paper deals with a new method of stabilization of human thrombin developed by the authors. It is proposed to use some known organic-ligands which have ion group and different nonpolar hydrophobic groups instead of traditional additives (salts, aminoacids, polyols, polyethylene glycols etc.). Thrombin stabilization proceeds in the conditions something changed compared with traditional ones. Processes of thrombin stabilization by the above compound have been investigated, enzyme stability at different temperatures and long-term storage of diluted solutions of the preparation in different conditions have been studied. It has been established that rosselin and orange II are the most efficient ligands. Optimal finite concentrations of stabilizing agents make approximately 0.0012-0.0014 M which are rather low in the system thrombin-ligand. It has been found that diluted solutions of thrombin are more stable, than concentrated ones. In the latter case the process of autolysis is included that affects negatively the catalytic effect of the enzyme, as far as there occurs the change of thrombin molecule structure, especially of thrombin beta-chain sections, evoking conformational changes of some sites of its active centre. The experiments directed to increasing thrombin intensity in the presence of organic ligands rosselin and orange II are discussed in details. Special attention is given to autolytic method of thrombin inactivation. It is admitted on the basis of already obtained data that thrombin binding with organic ligands proceeds

  15. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…

  16. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  17. Stability of Hyperthermophilic Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiefler-Jensen, Daniel

    to life at high temperatures so are their enzymes, as a result the high stability is accompanied by low activity at moderate temperatures. Thus, much effort had been put into decoding the mechanisms behind the high stability of the thermophilic enzymes. The hope is to enable scientist to design enzymes...... in the high stability of hyperthermophilic enzymes. The thesis starts with an introduction to the field of protein and enzyme stability with special focus on the thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes and proteins. After the introduction three original research manuscripts present the experimental data...

  18. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Trandum, C.; Larsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (T-m) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal a-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  19. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...

  20. Microwave stability at transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Colestock, P.L.

    1995-05-01

    The question of microwave stability at transition is revisited using a Vlasov approach retaining higher order terms in the particle dynamics near the transition energy. A dispersion relation is derived which can be solved numerically for the complex frequency in terms of the longitudinal impedance and other beam parameters. Stability near transition is examined and compared with simulation results

  1. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as

  2. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Trandum, Christa; Larsen, Nanna Brink

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (Tm) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal alpha-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  3. The statistical stability phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, Igor I

    2017-01-01

    This monograph investigates violations of statistical stability of physical events, variables, and processes and develops a new physical-mathematical theory taking into consideration such violations – the theory of hyper-random phenomena. There are five parts. The first describes the phenomenon of statistical stability and its features, and develops methods for detecting violations of statistical stability, in particular when data is limited. The second part presents several examples of real processes of different physical nature and demonstrates the violation of statistical stability over broad observation intervals. The third part outlines the mathematical foundations of the theory of hyper-random phenomena, while the fourth develops the foundations of the mathematical analysis of divergent and many-valued functions. The fifth part contains theoretical and experimental studies of statistical laws where there is violation of statistical stability. The monograph should be of particular interest to engineers...

  4. Silver ion imprinted polymer nanobeads based on a aza-thioether crown containing a 1,10-phenanthroline subunit for solid phase extraction and for voltammetric and potentiometric silver sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Beshare; Dehdashtian, Sara; Mohammadi, Moslem; Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Garau, Alessandra; Lippolis, Vito [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Universita' degli Studi di Cagliari, S.S. 554 Bivio per Sestu, 09042 Monserrato, CA (Italy)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Preparation of Ag{sup +} imprinted polymeric nanobeads via precipitation polymerization. • Use of a mixed aza-thioether crown containing a 1,10-phenanthroline subunit a selective host for Ag{sup +} ion. • Highly selective, sensitive and fast recognition of traces of Ag{sup +} ions. • Use of the prepared Ag{sup +}-IIP for preparation of an Ag{sup +}-voltammetric sensor with LOD of 9.0 × 10{sup −10} M. • Use of the prepared Ag{sup +}-IIP for preparation of Ag{sup +}-ISEs with LOD of 1.2 × 10{sup −9} M 9.0 × 10{sup −10} M. - Abstract: A new nano-sized silver(I) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) was prepared via precipitation copolymerization using ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, as a cross-linking agent in the presence of Ag{sup +} and an aza-thioether crown containing a 1,10-phenanthroline subunit as a highly selective complexing agent. The imprint silver(I) ion was removed from the polymeric matrix using a 1.0 M HNO{sub 3} solution. The resulting powder material was characterized using IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The SEM micrographs showed colloidal nanoparticles of about 52 nm and 75 nm in diameter and slightly irregular in shape for leached and unleached IIPs, respectively. The optimal pH for quantitative enrichment was 6.0 and maximum sorbent capacity of the prepared IIP for Ag{sup +} was 18.08 μmol g{sup −1}. The relative standard deviation and limit of detection (LOD = 3S{sub b}/m) for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of silver(I) ion, after its selective extraction by the prepared IIP nanobeads, were evaluated as 2.42% and 2.2 × 10{sup −8} M, respectively. The new Ag{sup +}-IIP was also applied as a suitable sensing element to the preparation of highly selective and sensitive voltammetric and potentiometric sensors for ultra trace detection of silver(I) ion in water samples, with limits of detection of 9.0 × 10{sup −10} and 1.2 × 10{sup −9} M, respectively.

  5. Dispersal and metapopulation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metapopulation dynamics are jointly regulated by local and spatial factors. These factors may affect the dynamics of local populations and of the entire metapopulation differently. Previous studies have shown that dispersal can stabilize local populations; however, as dispersal also tends to increase spatial synchrony, its net effect on metapopulation stability has been controversial. Here we present a simple metapopulation model to study how dispersal, in interaction with other spatial and local processes, affects the temporal variability of metapopulations in a stochastic environment. Our results show that in homogeneous metapopulations, the local stabilizing and spatial synchronizing effects of dispersal cancel each other out, such that dispersal has no effect on metapopulation variability. This result is robust to moderate heterogeneities in local and spatial parameters. When local and spatial dynamics exhibit high heterogeneities, however, dispersal can either stabilize or destabilize metapopulation dynamics through various mechanisms. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. We show that dispersal functions as a form of spatial intraspecific mutualism in metapopulation dynamics and that its effect on metapopulation stability is opposite to that of interspecific competition on local community stability. Our results also suggest that conservation corridors should be designed with appreciation of spatial heterogeneities in population dynamics in order to maximize metapopulation stability.

  6. Gravity stabilizes itself

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2017-08-15

    We show that a possible resolution to the stabilization of an extra spatial dimension (radion) can be obtained solely in the context of gravitational dynamics itself without the necessity of introducing any external stabilizing field. In this scenario the stabilized value of the radion field gets determined in terms of the parameters appearing in the higher curvature gravitational action. Furthermore, the mass of the radion field and its coupling to the standard model fields are found to be in the weak scale implying possible signatures in the TeV scale colliders. Some resulting implications are also discussed. (orig.)

  7. Core stability exercise principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Venu; Ferreiro, Andrea; Moore, Tamara; Fredericson, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Core stability is essential for proper load balance within the spine, pelvis, and kinetic chain. The so-called core is the group of trunk muscles that surround the spine and abdominal viscera. Abdominal, gluteal, hip girdle, paraspinal, and other muscles work in concert to provide spinal stability. Core stability and its motor control have been shown to be imperative for initiation of functional limb movements, as needed in athletics. Sports medicine practitioners use core strengthening techniques to improve performance and prevent injury. Core strengthening, often called lumbar stabilization, also has been used as a therapeutic exercise treatment regimen for low back pain conditions. This article summarizes the anatomy of the core, the progression of core strengthening, the available evidence for its theoretical construct, and its efficacy in musculoskeletal conditions.

  8. Gyroscopic Control and Stabilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Li-Sheng; Krishnaprasad, P. S

    1991-01-01

    .... To assess the stability of relative equilibria in the resultant feedback systems, they extend the energy-momentum block-diagonalization theorem of Simo, Lewis, Posbergh, and Marsden to gyroscopic systems with symmetry...

  9. Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-05-02

    This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

  10. Intelligent passively stabilized quadrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfeddine, D.; Bulgakov, A. G.; Kruglova, T. N.

    2017-10-01

    Quadrotor stability is one of the most topical researches worldwide. It is due to the simplicity, availability and cost of such platform. This miniature aerial vehicle is highly manoeuvrable, straight forward to use and to maintain. It can be deployed to perform wide variety of tasks. On the other hand, the quadrotor suffers from non-stability, which makes it unreliable, especially when flying on low speed, high altitude and in windy circumstances. This paper discusses the improvement of the quadrotor by adding a stabilizing mechanism working as a passive breaking system in sharp and spontaneous turns. The mechanism is described and simulated as a standalone module. The end result represents the determination of the stiffness coefficient of the stabilizing actuator using fuzzy logic controller.

  11. Contagion and Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    The Contagion and Stability Game provided a forum% for discussing the military, economic, informational, political, and medical aspects of contagion in an environmentally stressed region of the less-developed world-South Asia...

  12. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  13. METHOD FOR STABILIZING KLYSTRONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, D.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1959-04-14

    High-frequency oscillators for the generation of microwaves, particularly a system for stabilizing frequency-modulated klystron oscillators of the reflex type, are described. The system takos advantage of the fact that a change in oscillator frequency will alter the normal phase displacement between the cavity and its modulator, creating an error voltage which is utilized to regulate the frequency of the oscillator and stabilize it.

  14. PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1996-04-30

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  15. Financial System Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Freund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Three essays on financial system stability. The first paper explores the stability of core-periphery interbank networks in a static simulation framework. The results are then compared to a meanfield approximation. While this proves accurate in early rounds of default, precision of this approximation suffers as the simulation evolves. The second essay contributes to the empirical literature on real-world economic and financial networks. We explore the topology of the Spanish bank-firm credi...

  16. Cyber Deterrence and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goychayev, Rustam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Donnelly, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clements, Samuel L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodda, Kabrena E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartholomew, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinnon, Archibald D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Andres, Richard B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries, deterrence and arms control have been cornerstones of strategic stability between the superpowers. However, the weaponization of the cyber realm by State actors and the multipolar nature of cyber conflict now undermines that stability. Strategic stability is the state in which nations believe that if they act aggressively to undermine U.S. national interests and the post-World War II liberal democratic order, the consequences will outweigh the benefits. The sense of lawlessness and lack of consequences in the cyber realm embolden States to be more aggressive in taking actions that undermine stability. Accordingly, this paper examines 1) the role of deterrence and arms control in securing cyber stability, and 2) the limitations and challenges associated with these traditional national security paradigms as applied to this emerging threat domain. This paper demonstrates that many 20th-century deterrence and arms control concepts are not particularly applicable in the cyber realm. However, they are not entirely irrelevant. The United States can distill lessons learned from this rich deterrence and arms control experience to develop and deploy a strategy to advance cyber stability.

  17. Spectroscopic and voltammetric study of NpCl62- and PuCl62- complexes in hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid [BuMeIm][(CF3SO2)2N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitenko, S.I.; Moisy, P.; Berthon, C.; Bisel, I.

    2004-01-01

    UV/VIS/NIR Spectroscopic study shows that complexes [BuMeIm] 2 AnCl 6 , where BuMeIm + is 1- butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium, and An(IV) is Np(IV) and Pu(IV), have octahedral structure in hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid [BuMeIm][(CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N] similar to that in solids. Water has no influence on absorption spectra of AnCl 6 2- complexes up to concentration of 0.5 M. Addition of [BuMeIm]Cl even at relatively low concentration (0.04-0.06 M) causes significant change in UV/VIS spectra of the complexes. Increase of [BuMeIm]Cl concentration up to 0.1 M leads to the precipitation of solid complexes. Solid state reflectance spectra indicate that An(IV) environment has no a center of symmetry in precipitated compounds. It is assumed that the effect of [BuMeIm]Cl on absorption spectra of An(IV) in RTILs is related to the formation of An(IV) chloride complexes with Cl - /An(IV) ratio higher than 6/1. Voltammetric study shows that octahedral AnCl 6 2- complexes are electrochemically inert in [BuMeIm][(CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N]. By contrast, several electrochemical redox couples are observed for Np(IV) and Pu(IV) in RTIL in the presence of [BuMeIm]Cl. (authors)

  18. Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, S

    1981-01-01

    Dr. Chandrasekhar's book received high praise when it first appeared in 1961 as part of Oxford University Press' International Series of Monographs on Physics. Since then it has been reprinted numerous times in its expensive hardcover format. This first lower-priced, sturdy paperback edition will be welcomed by graduate physics students and scientists familiar with Dr. Chandrasekhar's work, particularly in light of the resurgence of interest in the Rayleigh-Bénard problem. This book presents a most lucid introduction to the Rayleigh-Bénard problem: it has also been applauded for its thorough, clear coverage of the theory of instabilities causing convection. Dr. Chandrasekhar considers most of the typical problems in hydromagnetic stability, with the exception of viscous shear flow; a specialized domain deserving a book unto itself. Contents include: Rotation; Stability of More General Flows; Bénard Problem; Gravitational Equilibrium and Instability; Stability of a Magnetic Field; Thermal Instability of a L...

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Zohm, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between general plasma physics lectures and the real world problems in MHD stability. In order to support the understanding of concepts and their implication, it refers to real world problems such as toroidal mode coupling or nonlinear evolution in a conceptual and phenomenological approach. Detailed mathematical treatment will involve classical linear stability analysis and an outline of more recent concepts such as the ballooning formalism. The book is based on lectures that the author has given to Master and PhD students in Fusion Plasma Physics. Due its strong lin

  20. Accelerator terminal voltage stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, J. A.; Kolonko, J. J.; Phillips, S. H.; Lunstrum, S. J.

    1992-02-01

    Measurements reported at the 11th International Conference on Applications of Accelerators in Research and Industry [Schroeder et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B56/B57 (1991) 1033] for a 1 MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator equipped with corona probe and tank liner voltage stabilizers have been extended by measuring the resonant yield of γ-rays from the 27Al(p, γ) 28Si reaction at 992 keV. Results show that terminal voltage stability is consistent with the earlier measurement of 31 V FWHM for ripple at 1 MV for periods of about one-half ( {1}/{2}) hour.

  1. Accelerator terminal voltage stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, J.A.; Kolonko, J.J.; Phillips, S.H.; Lunstrum, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements reported at the 11th International Conference on Applications of Accelerators in Research and Industry for a 1 MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator equipped with corona probe and tank liner voltage stabilizers have been extended by measuring the resonant yield of γ-rays from the 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si reaction at 992 keV. Results show that terminal voltage stability is consistent with the earlier measurement of 31 V FWHM for ripple at 1 MV for periods of about one-half (1/2) hour. (orig.)

  2. Premixed conical flame stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikunova, A. I.; Son, E. E.; Saveliev, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    In the current work, stabilization of premixed laminar and lean turbulent flames for wide range of flow rates and equivalence ratios was performed. Methane-air mixture was ignited after passing through premixed chamber with beads and grids, and conical nozzle (Bunsen-type burner). On the edge of the nozzle a stabilized body-ring was mounted. Ring geometry was varied to get the widest stable flame parameters. This work was performed as part of the project on experimental investigation of premixed flames under microgravity conditions.

  3. Stability of dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Xiaoxin; Yu, P 0

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of developing stability theory is to examine dynamic responses of a system to disturbances as the time approaches infinity. It has been and still is the object of intense investigations due to its intrinsic interest and its relevance to all practical systems in engineering, finance, natural science and social science. This monograph provides some state-of-the-art expositions of major advances in fundamental stability theories and methods for dynamic systems of ODE and DDE types and in limit cycle, normal form and Hopf bifurcation control of nonlinear dynamic systems.ʺ Presents

  4. Marital stability and repartnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana V; Costa, Patrício; Peterson, Brennan D

    2014-01-01

    a second union have higher initial levels of stress in their original relationship and higher changes in stress levels over the course of treatments. These findings suggest that high infertility-related stress levels before entering fertility treatment can negatively affect the stability of marital...

  5. Ractor stability monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Yutaka.

    1991-01-01

    A stability monitor for a BWR type reactor determines the index of stability by statistic processing of signals from an average power region monitor or the like, but it takes much time and the reliability thereof is not always high. Then, parameters such as reactor core power are measured on every sampling periods as observation data and pretreatments such as normalization are applied successively, to obtain monitored amount and store them successively. Differentiation coefficient relative to time are calculated by using the observed amount at present and that one sample period before, to evaluate on a phasal plane using the amount of observation and the differentiation coefficient with time on the axes of coordinate. As a result, information relative to the stability can be represented accurately, thereby enabling to monitor the stability at a high accuracy. Further, judgement for the condition considering the amplitude is conducted upon oscillation, thereby enabling to conduct control operation certainly. The operation in a region where it has been limited under great caution can be conducted appropriately and safely, enabling to conduct controlled operation of excellent economical property. (N.H.)

  6. Stability of mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher; Krothapalli, A

    1993-01-01

    The research program for the first year of this project (see the original research proposal) consists of developing an explicit marching scheme for solving the parabolized stability equations (PSE). Performing mathematical analysis of the computational algorithm including numerical stability analysis and the determination of the proper boundary conditions needed at the boundary of the computation domain are implicit in the task. Before one can solve the parabolized stability equations for high-speed mixing layers, the mean flow must first be found. In the past, instability analysis of high-speed mixing layer has mostly been performed on mean flow profiles calculated by the boundary layer equations. In carrying out this project, it is believed that the boundary layer equations might not give an accurate enough nonparallel, nonlinear mean flow needed for parabolized stability analysis. A more accurate mean flow can, however, be found by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. The advantage of the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations is that its accuracy is consistent with the PSE method. Furthermore, the method of solution is similar. Hence, the major part of the effort of the work of this year has been devoted to the development of an explicit numerical marching scheme for the solution of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equation as applied to the high-seed mixing layer problem.

  7. Stability in straight stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Yoshikawa, S.

    1981-07-01

    The stability of the straight stellarator against localized interchange modes is investigated employing the Mercier-Greene-Johnson criterion. Critical values of β are obtained both numerically and analytically. The conclusion is that for classical helical stellarators the average limiting β's are quite low of order three to four percent

  8. Ventil – ochrana stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    Červenec (2017) ISSN 2464-7888 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * ITER * tokamak * valve * VAT * gyrotron Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://www.3pol.cz/cz/rubriky/jaderna-fyzika-a-energetika/2035-ventil-ochrana-stability

  9. Nanoporous PdZr surface alloy as highly active non-platinum electrocatalyst toward oxygen reduction reaction with unique structure stability and methanol-tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huimei; Xu, Caixia

    2016-06-01

    Nanoporous (NP) PdZr alloy with controllable bimetallic ratio is successfully fabricated by a simple dealloying method. By leaching out the more reactive Al from PdZrAl precursor alloy, NP-PdZr alloy with smaller ligament size was generated, characterized by the nanoscaled interconnected network skeleton and hollow channels extending in all three dimensions. Upon voltammetric scan in acid solution, the dissolution of surface Zr atoms generates the highly active Pd-Zr surface alloy with a nearly pure Pd surface and Pd-Zr alloy core. The NP-Pd80Zr20 surface alloy exhibits markedly enhanced specific and mass activities as well as higher catalytic stability toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) compared with NP-Pd and the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts. In addition, the NP-Pd80Zr20 surface alloy shows a better selectivity for ORR than methanol in the 0.1 M HClO4 and 0.1 M methanol mixed solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations both demonstrate that the weakened Pd-O bond and improved ORR performances in turn depend on the downshifted d-band center of Pd due to the alloying Pd with Zr (20 at.%). The as-made NP-PdZr alloy holds prospective applications as a cathode electrocatalyst in fuel-cell-related technologies with the advantages of superior overall ORR performances, unique structure stability, and easy preparation.

  10. Square-wave voltammetric determination of fungicide fenfuram in real samples on bare boron-doped diamond electrode, and its corrosion properties on stainless steels used to produce agricultural tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brycht, Mariola; Skrzypek, Sławomira; Kaczmarska, Kinga; Burnat, Barbara; Leniart, Andrzej; Gutowska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: • A bare boron-doped diamond electrode was first used to determine fenfuram. • A sensitive voltammetric procedure for the determination of fenfuram was developed. • The sensor showed high sensitivity, selectivity, and wide linear range. • The procedure was successfully applied to detect fenfuram in real samples. • The effect of fenfuram on the uniform and pitting corrosion of steel was stated. -- Abstract: A simple, selective, and sensitive electroanalytical method for the determination of a novel fungicide, fenfuram (Fnf), on a bare boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) was developed. For the first time, the electrochemical oxidation of Fnf at BDDE at about 1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode in 0.35 mol L −1 sulfuric acid was investigated. To select the optimum experimental conditions, the effects of the supporting electrolyte, pH, frequency, amplitude, and step potential were studied. The developed method allowed the determination of Fnf in the concentration range of 2.4 × 10 −5 to 2.6 × 10 −4 mol L −1 (LOD = 6.3 × 10 −6 mol L −1 , LOQ = 2.1 × 10 −5 mol L −1 ). The validation of the method was carried out. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to determine Fnf in the spiked natural water samples collected from Polish rivers and in the spiked triticale seed samples by the standard addition method. To understand the Fnf electrode mechanism, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique was applied. The oxidation mechanism was also confirmed using mass spectrometry with the electrospray ionization (ESI-MS) technique. Using electrochemical techniques, the effect of Fnf on the corrosion properties of stainless steel which is used to produce agricultural tools was studied

  11. Poly-Alizarin red S/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode for the boost up of electrocatalytic activity towards the investigation of dopamine and simultaneous resolution in the presence of 5-HT: A voltammetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddaiah, K. [Electrochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, S.V.U. College of Sciences, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Madhusudana Reddy, T., E-mail: tmsreddysvu@gmail.com [Electrochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, S.V.U. College of Sciences, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Venkata Ramana, D.K. [Department of Safety Engineering, Dongguk University, 123 Dongdae-ro, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780 714 (Korea, Republic of); Subba Rao, Y. [DST-PURSE Centre, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2016-05-01

    Poly-Alizarin red S/multiwalled carbon nanotube film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (poly-AzrS/MWCNT/GCE) was synthesized by electrochemical process and was used for the sensitive and selective determination of dopamine (DA) by employing voltammetric techniques. The electrocatalytic response of the modified electrode was found to exhibit admirable activity. The simultaneous determination of dopamine in the presence of serotonin (5-HT) was found to exhibit very good response at poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE. The effect of pH, scan rate, accumulation time and concentration of dopamine was studied at the developed poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE. The poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited an efficient electron mediating behavior together with well resolved peaks for dopamine, in 0.1 mol/dm{sup 3} phosphate buffer (PBS) solution of pH 7.0. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be as 1.89 × 10{sup −7} mol/dm{sup 3} and 6.312 × 10{sup −7} mol/dm{sup 3} respectively with a dynamic range from 1 × 10{sup −6} to 1.8 × 10{sup −5} mol/dm{sup 3}. The interfacial electron transfer behavior of DA was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); the studies showed that the charge transfer rate was enhanced at poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE when compared with bare GCE and poly-AzrS/GCE. - Highlights: • The poly-AzrS/MWCNTs/GCE showed good sensitivity towards DA sensing. • The sensor reduced the overoxidation potentials for DA. • This electrode was successfully used for simultaneous sensing of DA and 5-HT. • The electrode was effectively used for the determination of DA in pharmaceutical formulations.

  12. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  13. Voltammetric Study of the Copper Pentacyanonitrosylferrate Adsorbed on the Silica Modified with a Poly(propyleneimine Hexadecylamine Dendrimer for Determination of Nitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(propyleneimine hexadecylamine dendrimer (DAB-Am-16 was anchored on the surface of 3-chloropropylsilyl silica gel and subsequently interacted with copper nitroprusside. The composite was characterized by infrared (FTIR, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, and cyclic voltammetry. The above techniques confirmed the successful anchoring of the dendrimer on the silica gel modified surface and its interaction with copper nitroprusside. The cyclic voltammogram of CuNPSD was found to exhibit two redox couples with (Eθ′1 = 0.30 V and (Eθ′2 = 0.78 V versus Ag/AgCl (KCl=1.0 mol L−1; =20 mV s−1 attributed to the redox processes Cu(I/Cu(II and Fe(II(CN5NO/Fe(III(CN5NO, respectively. The CuNPSD-modified graphite paste electrode was found to show a linear response of 5.0×10−4 to 9.0×10−3 mol L−1 for nitrite determination with a detection limit (DL of 3.8×10−4 mol L−1 and an amperometric sensitivity of 25.0 mA/mol L−1. The CuNPSD-modified graphite paste electrode was found to show a good electrochemical stability and an excellent response to the electrocatalytic oxidation of sodium nitrite.

  14. Diet and genomic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Graeme P

    2007-01-01

    Cancer results from a disordered and unstable genome - the degree of abnormality progresses as the process of oncogenesis proceeds. Such genomic instability appears to be subject to control by environmental factors as evidenced by the number of cancers that are either caused by specific environmental agents (lung, skin, cervix) or else regulated by a broader range of agents such as effect of diet on gastric and colorectal cancers. Dietary factors might interact in several ways with the genome to protect against cancer. An agent might interact directly with the genome and regulate expression (as a genetic or epigenetic regulator) or indirectly by influencing DNA 'repair' responses and so improve genomic stability. Research now shows that diet-genomic interactions in cancer go beyond interactions with the normal genome and involve enhancement of normal cellular responses to DNA damage such that genome stability is more effectively maintained. Activation of apoptosis may be a key to protection.

  15. Hillslope hydrology and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Landslides are caused by a failure of the mechanical balance within hillslopes. This balance is governed by two coupled physical processes: hydrological or subsurface flow and stress. The stabilizing strength of hillslope materials depends on effective stress, which is diminished by rainfall. This book presents a cutting-edge quantitative approach to understanding hydro-mechanical processes across variably saturated hillslope environments and to the study and prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. Topics covered include historic synthesis of hillslope geomorphology and hydrology, total and effective stress distributions, critical reviews of shear strength of hillslope materials and different bases for stability analysis. Exercises and homework problems are provided for students to engage with the theory in practice. This is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in hydrology, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics and for professionals in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and natural hazard analysis.

  16. Glycosylation and thermodynamic versus kinetic stability of horseradish peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tams, J.W.; Welinder, Karen G.

    1998-01-01

    Glycoprotein stability, glycoprotein unfolding, horseradish peroxidase, thermodynamic stability, kinetik stability......Glycoprotein stability, glycoprotein unfolding, horseradish peroxidase, thermodynamic stability, kinetik stability...

  17. Phase Stabilization of Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-30

    Case No. 77,410 nickel or iron. The bond coat protects and is disposed over a superalloy substrate, such as nickel or a cobalt superalloy . The...conductivity, and a relatively high thermal coefficient of expansion to match expansion of the underlying superalloy 20 substrate, if one is present...multilayer construction, with an MCrAlY (M=Ni, Co, or Fe) inner coating, known as the bond coat, on a superalloy substrate and yttria-stabilized

  18. TOOMPEA HILL STABILITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Pastarus, Jüri-Rivaldo

    1997-01-01

    On Toompea Hill situated in the center of Tallinn there are several natural, ancient architectural and historical monuments. It has become apparent that the processes in the rock mass caused an unfavorable environmental side effect accompanied by significant subsidence of the Toompea Hill. Identification of the reasons of the Toompea Hill's subsidence and opening the physical substance of these processes is the main aim of the present work. For the feasibility study stability problems were in...

  19. Determining postural stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  20. Rotations in Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    forces to the protected population .” An “ overwhelming presence” was essential to the initial success in Haiti and an “inadequate” number of troops was...stability operations until they achieve the endstate rather than rotating them allows the military to use overwhelming presence, successfully handle...must deploy a force that provides an overwhelming presence in the area of operations with the mission to achieve the endstate. 14. SUBJECT

  1. Limits of Nuclear Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Nerlo-Pomorska, B; Kleban, M

    2003-01-01

    The modern version of the liquid-drop model (LSD) is compared with the macroscopic part of the binding energy evaluated within the Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov procedure with the Gogny force and the relativistic mean field theory. The parameters of a liquid-drop like mass formula which approximate on the average the self-consistent results are compared with other models. The limits of nuclear stability predicted by these models are discussed.

  2. Oxidative stability of polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Exnerová, Milena; Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Hromádková, Jiřina; Prokeš, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2012), s. 1026-1033 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * nanotubes * oxidation stability Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.770, year: 2012

  3. Improved roof stabilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities require that personnel have access to all areas of structures, some of which are more than 40 years old. In many cases, these structures have remained in a standby condition for up to 10 years; few preventative maintenance activities have been performed on them because of lack of funding or a defined future plan of action. This situation has led to deteriorated building conditions, resulting in potential personnel safety hazards. In addition, leaky roofs allow water to enter the buildings, which can cause the spread of contamination and increase building deterioration, worsening the already unsafe working conditions. To ensure worker safety and facilitate building dismantlement, the assessment of roof stabilization techniques applicable to US Department of Energy (DOE) structures has become an important issue. During Fiscal year 1997 (FY97), a comprehensive reliability-based model for the structural stabilization analysis of roof system in complex structures was developed. The model consists of three major components: a material testing method, a deterministic structural computer model, and a reliability-based optimization, and probabilistic analyses of roof structures can be implemented. Given site-specific needs, this model recommends the most appropriate roof stabilization system. This model will give not only an accurate evaluation of the existing roof system in complex structures, but it will also be a reliable method to aid the decision-making process. This final report includes in its appendix a Users' Manual for the Program of Deterministic and Reliability Analysis of Roof Structures

  4. Heterotic moduli stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, M. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. Fisica ed Astronomia; INFN, Bologna (Italy); Adbus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); De Alwis, S. [Adbus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). UCB 390 Physics Dept.; Westphal, A. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2013-04-15

    We perform a systematic analysis of moduli stabilization for weakly coupled heterotic string theory compactified on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds. We focus on both supersymmetric and supersymmetry breaking vacua of generic (0,2) compactifications obtained by minimising the total (F+D)-term scalar potential. After reviewing how to stabilise all the geometric moduli in a supersymmetric way by including fractional fluxes, non-perturbative and threshold effects, we show that the inclusion of {alpha}' corrections leads to new de Sitter or nearly Minkowski vacua which break supersymmetry spontaneously. The minimum lies at moderately large volumes of all the geometric moduli, at perturbative values of the string coupling and at the right phenomenological value of the GUT gauge coupling. However the structure of the heterotic 3-form flux used for complex structure moduli stabilization does not contain enough freedom to tune the superpotential. This results in the generic prediction of high-scale supersymmetry breaking around the GUT scale. We finally provide a dynamical derivation of anisotropic compactifications with stabilized moduli which allow for perturbative gauge coupling unification around 10{sup 16} GeV.

  5. Improved roof stabilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities require that personnel have access to all areas of structures, some of which are more than 40 years old. In many cases, these structures have remained in a standby condition for up to 10 years; few preventative maintenance activities have been performed on them because of lack of funding or a defined future plan of action. This situation has led to deteriorated building conditions, resulting in potential personnel safety hazards. In addition, leaky roofs allow water to enter the buildings, which can cause the spread of contamination and increase building deterioration, worsening the already unsafe working conditions. To ensure worker safety and facilitate building dismantlement, the assessment of roof stabilization techniques applicable to US Department of Energy (DOE) structures has become an important issue. During Fiscal year 1997 (FY97), a comprehensive reliability-based model for the structural stabilization analysis of roof system in complex structures was developed. The model consists of three major components: a material testing method, a deterministic structural computer model, and a reliability-based optimization, and probabilistic analyses of roof structures can be implemented. Given site-specific needs, this model recommends the most appropriate roof stabilization system. This model will give not only an accurate evaluation of the existing roof system in complex structures, but it will also be a reliable method to aid the decision-making process. This final report includes in its appendix a Users` Manual for the Program of Deterministic and Reliability Analysis of Roof Structures.

  6. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  7. Stability of surface nanobubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Shantanu; van der Hoef, Martin; Zhang, Xuehua; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the stability and dissolution of surface nanobubbles on the chemical heterogenous surface by performing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of binary mixture consists of Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles. Recently our group has derived the exact expression for equilibrium contact angle of surface nanobubbles as a function of oversaturation of the gas concentration in bulk liquid and the lateral length of bubble. It has been showed that the contact line pinning and the oversaturation of gas concentration in bulk liquid is crucial in the stability of surface nanobubbles. Our simulations showed that how pinning of the three-phase contact line on the chemical heterogenous surface lead to the stability of the nanobubble. We have calculated the equilibrium contact angle by varying the gas concentration in bulk liquid and the lateral length of the bubble. Our results showed that the equilibrium contact angle follows the expression derived analytically by our group. We have also studied the bubble dissolution dynamics and showed the ''stick-jump'' mechanism which was also observed experimentally in case of dissolution of nanodrops.

  8. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  9. A novel voltammetric sensor based on gold nanoparticles involved in p-aminothiophenol functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Application to the simultaneous determination of quercetin and rutin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Atar, Necip

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The p-MWCNs and AuNPs/p-MWCNs nanocomposites were synthesized. • The prepared nanocomposites were characterized. • The nanocomposites were applied to simultaneous determination of flavanoids. • The developed electrodes showed long-term stability and reproducibility. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes are expected to play a significant role in the design and manufacture of many nano-material devices in the future. Carbon nanotubes exhibit many unique properties which generate strong interests in studying their applications. In addition, certain properties of gold nanoparticles (e.g., conductivity, catalytic and photocatalytic activity) suggest that gold-nanoparticle-functionalized carbon nanotubes may prove applicable in future fabrication of nanodevices. In this study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the mean diameters of 20-25 nm were self-assembled onto the surfaces of p-aminothiophenol functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNs) sheets. The p-MWCNs and AuNPs/p-MWCNs nanocomposites were characterized by reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The simultaneous determination of quercetin (QR) and rutin (RT) was performed by square wave voltammetry (SWV) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with AuNPs/p-MWCNs nanocomposite (AuNPs/p-MWCNs-GCE). QR presented two oxidation steps at E a1 of 270 mV and E a2 of 450 mV and RT presented only one oxidation step at E a of 360 mV at AuNPs/p-MWCNs-GCE. The linearity ranges and the detection limits of QR and RT were 1.0 × 10 −9 - 5.0 × 10 −8 M and 3.3 × 10 −10 . The application of the prepared nanocomposite to the analysis of real sample was also investigated

  10. Elements of magnetohydrodynamic stability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.

    1976-11-01

    The nonlinear equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics are discussed along with the following topics: (1) static equilibrium, (2) strict linear theory, (3) stability of a system with one degree of freedom, (4) spectrum and variational principles in magnetohydrodynamics, (5) elementary proof of the modified energy principle, (6) sufficient stability criteria, (7) local stability, and (8) normal modes

  11. A novel electrochemical sensor based on magneto Au nanoparticles/carbon paste electrode for voltammetric determination of acetaminophen in real samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghshenas, Esmaeel; Madrakian, Tayyebeh, E-mail: madrakian@basu.ac.ir; Afkhami, Abbas

    2015-12-01

    An electrochemical magneto Au nanoparticles/carbon paste electrodes (MAuNP/CPE) which is used for the determination of acetaminophen (AC) in real samples was developed. Initially, Au nanoparticles were immobilized at the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (AuNPs@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), which was used as a sorbent for capturing AC molecules. After adding AuNPs@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to the AC solution and stirring for 20 min, the AuNPs@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was gathered on the magneto electrode based on its magnetic field. The AC molecules which became adsorbed at AuNPs@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were analyzed by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). For characterization and investigation of the performance of AuNPs@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MAuNPs/CPE, various methods, including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–Vis spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and DPV were used. Under the optimized conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to the concentration of AC in the range of 0.1 to 70.0 μmol L{sup −1} with the detection limit of 4.5 × 10{sup −2} μmol L{sup −1}. This method was also successfully used to detect the concentration of AC in pharmaceutical formulations and human serum samples. In addition, the proposed magneto sensor exhibited good reproducibility, long-term stability and fast current response. - Highlights: • Magneto Au nanoparticle/carbon paste electrode was fabricated. • Au nanoparticles were immobilized at the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (AuNPs@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). • It is the first time AuNPs@Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and magneto electrode are used for the determination of AC. • The proposed sensor showed a wide linear range, low detection limit, and high sensitivity. • This sensor is also used for the determination of AC in real samples.

  12. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  13. Core stability and bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Chad; Ross, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Bicycling is a popular fitness activity in the United States and around the world. Because of the nature of the bicycling position, the neck and back are at risk for injury. One method to prevent these injuries is to ensure that the body's "core" is strong and stable. A strong and stable core also provides a platform to maximize power transfer, improving performance. Core exercises also may enhance recovery from intense bicycling efforts. Simple stability exercises can improve performance and may prevent injuries in bicyclists.

  14. Regional Stability & Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . With contributions from leading international scholars within the field of security studies this book sets out to explain the main security knots preventing stability to emerge and on that basis to test whether a different approach in addressing these knots. By pursuing an innovative and different approach...... to the process of peacebuilding, this could prove as a useful tool, and for this reason politicians, officials, and persons in general with an interest in this region will benefit from the perspectives presented here....

  15. Stability of Streamer Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi

    1982-08-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result.

  16. Stability of streamer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result. (author)

  17. Measuring autocratic regime stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers measure regime stability in autocratic contexts using a variety of data sources that capture distinct concepts. Often this research uses concepts developed for the study of democratic politics, such as leadership change or institutionalized authority, to construct measures of regime breakdown in non-democratic contexts. This article assesses whether the measure a researcher chooses influences the results they obtain by examining data on executive leadership, political authority, and autocratic regimes. We illustrate the conceptual differences between these variables by extending recent studies in the literature on the political consequences of non-tax revenue and unearned foreign income.

  18. Stability Landscape of Shell Buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emmanuel; Kreilos, Tobias; Schneider, Tobias M.; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.

    2017-12-01

    We measure the response of cylindrical shells to poking and identify a stability landscape, which fully characterizes the stability of perfect shells and imperfect ones in the case where a single defect dominates. We show that the landscape of stability is independent of the loading protocol and the poker geometry. Our results suggest that the complex stability of shells reduces to a low dimensional description. Tracking ridges and valleys of this landscape defines a natural phase-space coordinates for describing the stability of shells.

  19. Plasma stabilization experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziklas, E. A.; Fader, W. J.; Jong, R. A.; Stufflebeam, J. H.

    1980-07-01

    The plasma stabilization experiment is an effort to enhance stability in a mirror-confined plasma by trapping cold ions with rf fields applied near the mirror throats. Nagoya Type 3 antennas, coupled to a 60 kW rf power supply are mounted in the throats of the UTRC baseball magnet. An external washer gun provides a source of plasma for both streaming and confined plasma tests. Results show a strong stoppering effect on streaming plasmas and a marginal effect on confined plasmas. Theoretical calculations provide an explanation for the experimental observations. The field generates a ponderomotive force acting on the electrons. The resultant improvement in electron confinement changes the ambipolar potential and inhibits the flow of ions through the mirror throat. Criteria are derived for the validity of this trapping concept. The requisite field strengths are significantly lower than those required to trap ions directly. Scaling laws are developed for application of cold ion trapping to large mirror devices containing dense plasmas. The use of slow-wave antenna structures operated at frequencies above the lower hybrid frequency is recommended for these applications.

  20. Containment vessel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Morris, N.F.; Unsal, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The stability analysis for a steel containment shell is presented herein. The containment is a freestanding shell consisting of a vertical cylinder with a hemispherical dome. It is stiffened by large ring stiffeners and relatively small longitudinal stiffeners. The containment vessel is subjected to both static and dynamic loads which can cause buckling. These loads must be combined prior to their use in a stability analysis. The buckling loads were computed with the aid of the ASME Code case N-284 used in conjunction with general purpose computer codes and in-house programs. The equations contained in the Code case were used to compute the knockdown factors due to shell imperfections. After these knockdown factors were applied to the critical stress states determined by freezing the maximum dynamic stresses and combining them with other static stresses, a linear bifurcation analysis was carried out with the aid of the BOSOR4 program. Since the containment shell contained large penetrations, the Code case had to be supplemented by a local buckling analysis of the shell area surrounding the largest penetration. This analysis was carried out with the aid of the NASTRAN program. Although the factor of safety against buckling obtained in this analysis was satisfactory, it is claimed that the use of the Code case knockdown factors are unduly conservative when applied to the analysis of buckling around penetrations. (orig.)

  1. Gender and family stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of partnership disruption among families with children in recent decades has been accompanied by substantial changes in traditional gender roles in industrialized countries. Yet, relatively little is known about the effects of changing gender relations on family stability in the European context. In this paper, we study such gender influences at the familial and societal level in Sweden and Hungary between the mid-1960s and the early 1990s. We focus on the disruption of the first parental union (i.e. the union in which a couple's first child was born. Our analysis is based on data extracted from the Swedish and Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of 1992/93. We use the method of hazard regression. The results suggest (i that the establishment of the dual-earner family model influences family stability only if it is accompanied by some changes in traditional gender relations within the family, and (ii that women's and men's labor-market behavior have different effects in spite of the relatively long history of women's (also mothers' labor-force participation in both Sweden and Hungary.

  2. Food Fortification Stability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, T. O.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The extended length of a Mars mission, along with the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortificants will remain stable through long-duration missions if proper formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are all achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX); premixes were formulated to be compatible with current processing techniques (retort or freeze-dried), varied water activities (high or low), and packaging material. The overall goal of this process is to provide 25% of the recommended daily intake of each vitamin (per serving), following processing and two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced (with and without the vitamin premix), to assess the impact of the added fortificant on color and taste, and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The use of fortification in spaceflight foods appears to be a plausible mitigation step to inadequate nutrition. This is due to the ease of vitamin addition as well as the sustainability of the premixes through initial processing steps. Postprocessing analysis indicated that vitamin fortification with this premix did not immediately impact organoleptic properties of the food. At this stage, the largest hurdle to fortification is the preciseness to which vitamins can be added; the total amount of vitamins required for production is 10

  3. Food Fortification Stability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The length of proposed Mars missions and the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system, which will need a five-year shelf life. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortification nutrients will remain stable through a long duration exploration mission at sufficient levels if compatible formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX) such that the vitamin concentration per serving equaled 25% of the recommended daily intake after two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermo-stabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced, with and without the vitamin premix, to assess the impact of the added fortification on color and taste and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The addition of fortification to spaceflight foods did not greatly alter the organoleptic properties of most products. In most cases, overall acceptability scores remained above 6.0 (minimum acceptable score) following six months and one year of low-temperature storage. Likewise, the color of fortified products appears to be preserved over one year of storage. The only exceptions were Grilled pork Chop and Chicken Noodle Soup whose individual components appeareddegrade rapidly over one year of storage. Finally, most vitamins appeared to be stable during long-term storage. The only exception was thiamin, which degraded rapidly during the first year of storage at

  4. Exploiting sequence and stability information for directing nanobody stability engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Patrick; Flock, Tilman; Soler, Nicolas; Zaiss, Moritz; Vincke, Cécile; Sterckx, Yann; Kastelic, Damjana; Muyldermans, Serge; Hoheisel, Jörg D

    2017-09-01

    Variable domains of camelid heavy-chain antibodies, commonly named nanobodies, have high biotechnological potential. In view of their broad range of applications in research, diagnostics and therapy, engineering their stability is of particular interest. One important aspect is the improvement of thermostability, because it can have immediate effects on conformational stability, protease resistance and aggregation propensity of the protein. We analyzed the sequences and thermostabilities of 78 purified nanobody binders. From this data, potentially stabilizing amino acid variations were identified and studied experimentally. Some mutations improved the stability of nanobodies by up to 6.1°C, with an average of 2.3°C across eight modified nanobodies. The stabilizing mechanism involves an improvement of both conformational stability and aggregation behavior, explaining the variable degree of stabilization in individual molecules. In some instances, variations predicted to be stabilizing actually led to thermal destabilization of the proteins. The reasons for this contradiction between prediction and experiment were investigated. The results reveal a mutational strategy to improve the biophysical behavior of nanobody binders and indicate a species-specificity of nanobody architecture. This study illustrates the potential and limitations of engineering nanobody thermostability by merging sequence information with stability data, an aspect that is becoming increasingly important with the recent development of high-throughput biophysical methods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... and physics. This edition includes a new chapter on the useful effects of fast vibrations and many new exercise problems. Written for: Students in mechanical or structural engineering. Keywords: Nonlinear Vibrations, Bifurcations, Chaotic Vibrations, Vibrations and Stability....

  6. HMD symbol stabilization concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1995-05-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. Symbol stabilization is a key issue for HMDs. In current equipment, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. A set of standardized coordinate transformations are necessary for the development of HMD symbology and the control laws. Part of the problem is there is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A candidate set of coordinate definitions is proposed to address this issue.

  7. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    are identified and empirically explored: (i) job matching, (ii) labour market value, and (iii) personal commitment. Entrepreneurs appear to be more productive and thus better matched compared to wageworkers. However, they also appear to be locked in entrepreneurship because of their anticipated lower value......This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...... in the labour market and because of their personal attachment to the venture. The counter-intuitive finding – entrepreneurship yields greater employment stability – only holds with respect to subsequent transitions to wagework and not for new venture founding. The results have implications for our understanding...

  8. IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner.

  9. IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner

  10. From Crisis to Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Cornel; Seabrooke, Leonard

    The European Stability Mechanism (ESM) was created to save the euro from collapse. But the Eurozone’s bailout fund is not actually an EU institution. This has a series of knock-on effects, making it difficult to hold the ESM to EU standards as regards transparency, legal review by the CJEU......, but also access to documents regulation and accountability vis-à-vis the European Parliament, the Court of Auditors and Anti-Fraud Office. Transparency International EU’s in-depth study of the governance and accountability of the ESM provides the first comprehensive analysis of the newest European economic...... governance institution, and makes a number of concrete recommendations. To make the ESM accountable, more transparency is in order, about where decisions are taken and who calls the shots. Is it the ESM, the Eurogroup, the Commission, or a coalition of Member States? Our report launch attempts to answer...

  11. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... and physics. This edition includes a new chapter on the useful effects of fast vibrations and many new exercise problems. Written for: Students in mechanical or structural engineering. Keywords: Nonlinear Vibrations, Bifurcations, Chaotic Vibrations, Vibrations and Stability.......About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...

  12. Complementarity and stability conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Georgi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the issue of complementarity between the confining phase and the Higgs phase for gauge theories in which there are no light particles below the scale of confinement or spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show with a number of examples that even though the low energy effective theories are the same (and trivial, discontinuous changes in the structure of heavy stable particles can signal a phase transition and thus we can sometimes argue that two phases which have different structures of heavy particles that cannot be continuously connected and thus the phases cannot be complementary. We discuss what this means and suggest that such “stability conditions” can be a useful physical check for complementarity.

  13. Parabolized stability equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Thorwald

    1994-01-01

    The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are a new approach to analyze the streamwise evolution of single or interacting Fourier modes in weakly nonparallel flows such as boundary layers. The concept rests on the decomposition of every mode into a slowly varying amplitude function and a wave function with slowly varying wave number. The neglect of the small second derivatives of the slowly varying functions with respect to the streamwise variable leads to an initial boundary-value problem that can be solved by numerical marching procedures. The PSE approach is valid in convectively unstable flows. The equations for a single mode are closely related to those of the traditional eigenvalue problems for linear stability analysis. However, the PSE approach does not exploit the homogeneity of the problem and, therefore, can be utilized to analyze forced modes and the nonlinear growth and interaction of an initial disturbance field. In contrast to the traditional patching of local solutions, the PSE provide the spatial evolution of modes with proper account for their history. The PSE approach allows studies of secondary instabilities without the constraints of the Floquet analysis and reproduces the established experimental, theoretical, and computational benchmark results on transition up to the breakdown stage. The method matches or exceeds the demonstrated capabilities of current spatial Navier-Stokes solvers at a small fraction of their computational cost. Recent applications include studies on localized or distributed receptivity and prediction of transition in model environments for realistic engineering problems. This report describes the basis, intricacies, and some applications of the PSE methodology.

  14. Emulsion stability: determination from turbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, S.R.; Fogler, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between particle size and concentration and turbidity has been developed for a polydispersed system. The stability of acoustically prepared emulsions of C36H74 in water were determined from turbidimetry and found to be in agreement with the stability determined by the freezing method. The turbidimetry method can be used for determining the stability of various emulsions easily and inexpensively. 11 references.

  15. Radiohumeral stability to forced translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Seki, Atsuhito

    2002-01-01

    Radiohumeral stability to forced translation was experimentally analyzed in 8 osteocartilaginous joint preparations. The joints were dislocated in 8 centrifugal directions at 12 different combinations of joint flexion and rotation while a constant joint compression force of 23 N was applied....... Stability was measured as the maximum resistance to translation. On average, the specimens could resist a transverse force of 16.4 N (range, 13.0-19.1 N). Stability was greater in some directions than in others. Rotating the joint changed the direction at which stability was greatest, whereas joint flexion...

  16. Effect of TiO2 photocatalytic activity in a HDPE-based food packaging on the structural and microbiological stability of a short-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumiero, Matteo; Peressini, Donatella; Pizzariello, Andrea; Sensidoni, Alessandro; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Toniolo, Rosanna

    2013-06-01

    A high density polyethylene (HDPE)/calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) film containing TiO(2) was prepared via blown film extrusion process. The photocatalytic properties of this film were evaluated by voltammetric, UV-Vis spectrophotometric and gas chromatographic measurements following the decomposition rate of suitably selected molecular probes, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and methylene blue. The film containing 1% w/w of TiO(2) displayed a profitable and reproducible photoinduced degradation activity towards target organic compounds. The effect of packaging photocatalytic activity on the structural and microbiological stability of a short-ripened cheese was studied. Cheese structure was assessed by dynamic, small deformation rheological tests. A container consisting of a multilayer material, where the layer brought in contact with the food, made from the HDPE+CaCO(3)+TiO(2) composite matrix, was able to provide a greater maintenance of the original cheese structure than a rigid container currently used, mainly due to the inhibition of lactic acid bacteria and coliforms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Adaptive Deadbeat Stabilizer for Power System Dynamic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, V

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses an adaptive deadbeat stabilizer to improve power system damping. The method involves normalized recursive least squares estimation to yield a reduced order state space model of the power system. This reduced order model is used to design the required deadbeat stabilizer recursively, along with an adaptive observer to estimate the unknown states.

  18. Optimal allosteric stabilization sites using contact stabilization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Alex; Bailey, Christopher T; Karanicolas, John

    2017-06-05

    Proteins can be destabilized by a number of environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and mutation. The ability to subsequently restore function under these conditions by adding small molecule stabilizers, or by introducing disulfide bonds, would be a very powerful tool, but the physical principles that drive this stabilization are not well understood. The first problem lies is in choosing an appropriate binding site or disulfide bond location to best confer stability to the active site and restore function. Here, we present a general framework for predicting which allosteric binding sites correlate with stability in the active site. Using the Karanicolas-Brooks Gō-like model, we examine the dynamics of the enzyme β-glucuronidase using an Umbrella Sampling method to thoroughly sample the conformational landscape. Each intramolecular contact is assigned a score termed a "stabilization factor" that measures its correlation with structural changes in the active site. We have carried out this analysis for three different scaling strengths for the intramolecular contacts, and we examine how the calculated stabilization factors depend on the ensemble of destabilized conformations. We further examine a locally destabilized mutant of β-glucuronidase that has been characterized experimentally, and show that this brings about local changes in the stabilization factors. We find that the proximity to the active site is not sufficient to determine which contacts can confer active site stability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Stabilized thermally compensated mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, C. III; Tobin, R.D.; Bergstreser, N.E.; Heinz, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally compensated mirror is described that is formed by a laminated structure. The structure is comprised of a front plate having a reflective front surface and having a plurality of grooves formed in the rear surface for conducting coolant fluid in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface, a rear plate having coolant inlet and coolant outlet openings extending therethrough, a minimum temperature plate interposed between said front and rear plates and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution passageways coupled to receive coolant fluid from said coolant inlet and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a minimum temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, a temperature stabilization plate interposed between said front plate and said minimum temperature plate and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution channels coupled to receive said coolant fluid after said coolant fluid has passed in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a uniform temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, and means for circulating said coolant fluid through said structure in a predetermined path. (U.S.)

  20. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  1. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  2. BWR Stability Issues in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Ikeda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews activates relevant to the boiling water reactor (BWR stability phenomenon, which has a coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic nature, from the viewpoint of model and code developments and their applications to the BWR stability solution methodology in Japan.

  3. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  4. Stability of Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion; Gevorgyan, Suren

    2012-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) evolve in an exponential manner in the two key areas of efficiency and stability. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) has in the last decade been increased by almost a factor of ten approaching 10%. A main concern has been the stability that was previously measured ...

  5. Project Management Plan Solution Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SATO, P.K.

    1999-08-31

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Solutions Stabilization subproject. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Solution Stabilization subproject. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Solution Stabilization subproject. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process.

  6. Project Management Plan Solution Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SATO, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Solutions Stabilization subproject. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Solution Stabilization subproject. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Solution Stabilization subproject. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  7. Stochastic stabilization of cosmological photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettmann, C P; Keating, J P; Prado, S D

    2004-01-01

    The stability of photon trajectories in models of the universe that have constant spatial curvature is determined by the sign of the curvature: they are exponentially unstable if the curvature is negative and stable if it is positive or zero. We demonstrate that random fluctuations in the curvature provide an additional stabilizing mechanism. This mechanism is analogous to the one responsible for stabilizing the stochastic Kapitsa pendulum. When the mean curvature is negative it is capable of stabilizing the photon trajectories; when the mean curvature is zero or positive it determines the characteristic frequency with which neighbouring trajectories oscillate about each other. In constant negative curvature models of the universe that have compact topology, exponential instability implies chaos (e.g. mixing) in the photon dynamics. We discuss some consequences of stochastic stabilization in this context. (letter to the editor)

  8. Dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal nanofluids, the engineered fluids with dispersed functional nanoparticles, have exhibited extraordinary thermophysical properties and added functionalities, and thus have enabled a broad range of important applications. The poor dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids, however, has been considered as a long-existing issue that limits their further development and practical application. This review overviews the recent efforts and progresses in improving the dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids such as mechanistic understanding of dispersion behavior of nanofluids, examples of both water-based and oil-based nanofluids, strategies to stabilize nanofluids, and characterization techniques for dispersion behavior of nanofluids. Finally, on-going research needs, and possible solutions to research challenges and future research directions in exploring stably dispersed thermal nanofluids are discussed. Keywords: Thermal nanofluids, Dispersion, Aggregation, Electrostatic stabilization, Steric stabilization

  9. Magnetohydodynamics stability of compact stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Cooper, W.A.; Hirshman, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Recent stability results of external kink modes and vertical modes in compact stellarators are presented. The vertical mode is found to be stabilized by externally generated poloidal flux. A simple stability criterion is derived in the limit of large aspect ratio and constant current density. For a wall at infinite distance from the plasma, the amount of external flux needed for stabilization is given by Fi = (k2 minus k)=(k2 + 1), where k is the axisymmetric elongation and Fi is the fraction of the external rotational transform. A systematic parameter study shows that the external kink mode in QAS can be stabilized at high beta (approximately 5%) without a conducting wall by magnetic shear via 3D shaping. It is found that external kinks are driven by both parallel current and pressure gradient. The pressure contributes significantly to the overall drive through the curvature term and the Pfirsch-Schluter current

  10. Protein stability, flexibility and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2011-01-01

    Proteins rely on flexibility to respond to environmental changes, ligand binding and chemical modifications. Potentially, a perturbation that changes the flexibility of a protein may interfere with its function. Millions of mutations have been performed on thousands of proteins in quests...... for a delineation of the molecular details of their function. Several of these mutations interfered with the binding of a specific ligand with a concomitant effect on the stability of the protein scaffold. It has been ambiguous and not straightforward to recognize if any relationships exist between the stability...... of a protein and the affinity for its ligand. In this review, we present examples of proteins where changes in stability results in changes in affinity and of proteins where stability and affinity are uncorrelated. We discuss the possibility for a relationship between stability and binding. From the data...

  11. Montmorillonite stability - experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, Ola; Birgersson, Martin; Olsson, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Several repository concepts for spent nuclear fuel comprise a bentonite buffer which encloses the fuel containers. The function of this bentonite buffer is critically dependent on the properties of the swelling mineral in the bentonite, which typically is montmorillonite in commercial high quality bentonites. The physical and chemical properties of the montmorillonite in bentonites have consequently been studied in various types of analyses in several countries, and the results have been the basis for the design of the bentonite buffer with respect to size, degree of compaction etc (SKB TR-10-47). Significant changes in the montmorillonite structure with time may change the properties of the bentonite buffer and jeopardize the isolating function. In nature, illite is the most common alteration product from montmorillonite, and a 50% alteration reduces, for instance, the swelling pressure by one order of magnitude. Fortunately, the process is very slow at typical repository temperatures, and also in the perspective of repository life-time no significant alteration is expected according to the available kinetic models. The models are, however, based on laboratory batch experiments performed at temperatures, which by necessity are much higher than what is planned for in a repository. Alternatively, the models are based on natural montmorillonite-to-illite alteration in e.g. deep sediments. In both cases there are divergences from repository conditions which limit the arguments for the bentonite buffer stability. The mechanism by which the montmorillonite-to-illite reaction takes place is not fully understood, but the overall process may be represented by the following schematic reaction: Na + montmorillonite + K + + Al 3+ → illite + SiO 2 + Na + . Aluminum may be supplied from the bentonite itself, but potassium has to be transported to the buffer from an external source in order to give a significant alteration in

  12. New stability and stabilization for switched neutral control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Lianglin; Zhong Shouming; Ye Mao; Wu Shiliang

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns stability and stabilization issues for switched neutral systems and presents new classes of piecewise Lyapunov functionals and multiple Lyapunov functionals, based on which, two new switching rules are introduced to stabilize the neutral systems. One switching rule is designed from the solution of the so-called Lyapunov-Metzler linear matrix inequalities. The other is based on the determination of average dwell time computed from a new class of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). And then, state-feedback control is derived for the switched neutral control system mainly based on the state switching rules. Finally, three examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Quantifying Stability in Complex Networks: From Linear to Basin Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurths, Jürgen

    The human brain, power grids, arrays of coupled lasers and the Amazon rainforest are all characterized by multistability. The likelihood that these systems will remain in the most desirable of their many stable states depends on their stability against significant perturbations, particularly in a state space populated by undesirable states. Here we claim that the traditional linearization-based approach to stability is in several cases too local to adequately assess how stable a state is. Instead, we quantify it in terms of basin stability, a new measure related to the volume of the basin of attraction. Basin stability is non-local, nonlinear and easily applicable, even to high-dimensional systems. It provides a long-sought-after explanation for the surprisingly regular topologies of neural networks and power grids, which have eluded theoretical description based solely on linear stability. Specifically, we employ a component-wise version of basin stability, a nonlinear inspection scheme, to investigate how a grid's degree of stability is influenced by certain patterns in the wiring topology. Various statistics from our ensemble simulations all support one main finding: The widespread and cheapest of all connection schemes, namely dead ends and dead trees, strongly diminish stability. For the Northern European power system we demonstrate that the inverse is also true: `Healing' dead ends by addition of transmission lines substantially enhances stability. This indicates a crucial smart-design principle for tomorrow's sustainable power grids: add just a few more lines to avoid dead ends. Further, we analyse the particular function of certain network motifs to promote the stability of the system. Here we uncover the impact of so-called detour motifs on the appearance of nodes with a poor stability score and discuss the implications for power grid design. Moreover, it will be shown that basin stability enables uncovering the mechanism for explosive synchronization and

  14. VOLTAMMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to 90% of the metal was found to exist as the “inert” fraction, implying that the effluent system from the brewery industry poses minimal health risks to the environment with regard to toxic forms of the metals as the organically bound metal forms are generally known to have low toxicity compared to the aquo or labile metal ...

  15. Voltammetric Determination of Thiodiglycolic Acid in Urine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlasková, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Heyrovský, Michael; Pelclová, D.; Novotný, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 375, - (2003), s. 164-168 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : urine * thioglycolic acid * voltammetry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.715, year: 2003

  16. DROP AMALGAM VOLTAMMETRIC STUDY OF LEAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Lake, sea and river waters contain trace metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium and lead whose ... methods [11, 12]. The equation. I = ½∑CiZi. 2. (1) was used to calculate the ionic strength (I) of the lake water. Ci is the concentration of the ion I while Zi is its charge, the value obtained for the ionic strength was 7.35 M.

  17. Voltammetric Determination of a Benzimidazole Anthelmintic Mixture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-10-17

    Oct 17, 2002 ... KEYWORDS. Electrochemistry, square-wave voltammetry, benzimidazole anthelmintics, poly(3-methylthiophene) electrode. 1. Introduction .... electrode and. (2) unmodified electrode. A, fenbendazole; B, mebendazole, C, oxibendazole, and D, thiabendazole. Arrows indicate the direction of potential scan.

  18. Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetric Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoang & Yen. Trop J Pharm Res, October 2013;12 (5): 783. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2013; 12 (5): 783-790 ... enzymes DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase. IV, which probably leads to the lethal release of double-strand DNA breaks [3]. The bioavailable salt forms of ciprofloxacin in the market ...

  19. Stability of dispersions in polar organic media. I. Electrostatic stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooy, N. de; Bruyn, P.L. de; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    Electrostatically stabilized sols of silver, silver iodide, α-goethite, and copper phthalocyanine in methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and acetone have been prepared and characterized. Coagulation concentrations with electrolytes of various charge numbers have been determined in water, in organic

  20. Stability indicators in network reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filosi

    Full Text Available The number of available algorithms to infer a biological network from a dataset of high-throughput measurements is overwhelming and keeps growing. However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a 'gold standard' is available to measure how close the reconstructed network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is the stability of these predictions to data resampling approaches. We introduce NetSI, a family of Network Stability Indicators, to assess quantitatively the stability of a reconstructed network in terms of inference variability due to data subsampling. In order to evaluate network stability, the main NetSI methods use a global/local network metric in combination with a resampling (bootstrap or cross-validation procedure. In addition, we provide two normalized variability scores over data resampling to measure edge weight stability and node degree stability, and then introduce a stability ranking for edges and nodes. A complete implementation of the NetSI indicators, including the Hamming-Ipsen-Mikhailov (HIM network distance adopted in this paper is available with the R package nettools. We demonstrate the use of the NetSI family by measuring network stability on four datasets against alternative network reconstruction methods. First, the effect of sample size on stability of inferred networks is studied in a gold standard framework on yeast-like data from the Gene Net Weaver simulator. We also consider the impact of varying modularity on a set of structurally different networks (50 nodes, from 2 to 10 modules, and then of complex feature covariance structure, showing the different behaviours of standard reconstruction methods based on Pearson correlation, Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC and False Discovery Rate (FDR strategy. Finally, we demonstrate a strong combined effect of different reconstruction methods and phenotype subgroups on a hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA microarray dataset (240 subjects, and we

  1. Radiochemical stability of radiopharmaceutical preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Patricia de A.; Silva, Jose L. da; Ramos, Marcelo P.S.; Oliveira, Ideli M. de; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Herrerias, Rosana; Zapparoli Junior, Carlos L.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.

    2011-01-01

    The 'in vitro' stability studies of the radiopharmaceutical preparations are an essential requirement for routine practice in nuclear medicine and are an important parameter for evaluating the quality, safety and efficacy required for the sanitary registration of pharmaceutical products. Several countries have published guidelines for the evaluation of pharmaceutical stability. In Brazil, the stability studies should be conducted according to the Guide for Conducting Stability Studies published in the Resolution-RE n. 1, of 29th July 2005. There are also for radiopharmaceutical products, two specific resolutions: RDC-63 regulates the Good Manufacturing Practices for Radiopharmaceuticals and RDC-64 provides the Registration of Radiopharmaceuticals, both published on the 18th December 2009. The radiopharmaceutical stability is defined as the time during which the radioisotope can be safely used for the intended purpose. The radiochemical stability can be affected by a variety of factors, including storage temperature, amount of radioactivity, radioactive concentration, presence or absence of antioxidants or other stabilizing agents. The radiochemical stability studies must be established under controlled conditions determined by the effective use of the product. The aim of this work was to evaluate the radiochemical stability of labeled molecules with 131 I, 123 I, 153 Sm, 18 F, 51 Cr, 177 Lu and 111 In as well as 67 Ga and 201 Tl radiopharmaceuticals. Radiochemical purity was evaluated after production and in the validity period, with the maximum activity and in the recommended storage conditions. The analyses were carried out by thin-layer silica gel plate, paper chromatography and gel chromatography. The experimental results showed to be in accordance with the specified limits for all the analysed products. (author)

  2. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  3. Stability of holonomic quantum computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, V.I.; Kuzmin, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    We study the stability of holonomic quantum computations with respect to errors in assignment of control parameters. The general expression for fidelity is obtained. In the small errors limit the simple formulae for the fidelity decrease rate is derived

  4. Linear stability of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Hahm, T.S.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the stability of tearing modes in a sheared slab when the width of the tearing layer is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius. The ion response is nonlocal, and the quasineutrality retains its full integal form. An expansion procedure is introduced to solve the quasineutrality equation in powers of the width of the tearing layer over the ion Larmor radius. The expansion procedure is applied to the collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes. The first order terms in the expansion we find to be strongly stabilizing. The physics of the mode and of the stabilization is discussed. Tearing modes are observed in experiments even though the slab theory predicts stability. It is proposed that these modes grow from an equilibrium with islands at the rational surfaces. If the equilibrium islands are wider than the ion Larmor radius, the mode is unstable when Δ' is positive

  5. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W.; Silverstein, Brian L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Financial Stability and Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Morgan; Victor Pontines

    2014-01-01

    Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion, i.e., greater access to financial services for low-income households and firms, as part of their overall strategies for economic and financial development. This raises the question of whether financial stability and financial inclusion are, broadly speaking, substitutes or complements. In other words, does the move toward greater financial inclusion tend to increase or decrease financial stability? A number of studies have sugge...

  7. Market liquidity and financial stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Crockett, A.

    2008-01-01

    Stability in financial institutions and in financial markets are closely intertwined. Banks and other financial institutions need liquid markets through which to conduct risk management. And markets need the back-up liquidity lines provided by financial institutions. Market liquidity depends not only on objective, exogenous factors, but also on endogenous market dynamics. Central banks responsible for systemic stability need to consider how far their traditional responsibility for the health ...

  8. Transient stability of superconducting alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, M.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A simulation study is performed for the purpose of determining the transient stability characteristics of superconducting alternators. This simulation is compared with an equal area criterion method. It is found that superconducting machines have good transient stability characteristics, that field forcing is not particularly helpful nor necessary. It is also found that the equal area criterion is useful for computing critical clearing times, if voltage behind subtransient reactance is held constant. (U.S.)

  9. Laccases stabilization with phosphatidylcholine liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, M.; Zille, Andrea; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Parra, J. L.; Coderch, L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an upsurge of interest in enzyme treatment of textile fibres. Enzymes are globular proteins whose catalytic function is due to their three dimensional structure. For this reason, stability strategies make use of compounds that avoid dismantling or distorting protein 3D structures. This study is concerned with the use of microencapsulation techniques to optimize enzyme stabilization. Laccases were embedded in phophatidylcholine liposomes and their encaps...

  10. Stability Information for the Master

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-25

    the hydrostatic properties change rapidly with mean draft and the longitudinal center of flotation is not near amidships, which occurs with barge...for the vessel. Fixed ballast of the U.S. Steel " QCM " Concentrate capped with concrete layer was installed, for the total 2085 Long Tons and is...Architecture II 646, Stability and Trim Ship stability and trim. Define terms related to the flotation properties of a ship. Study of forces and

  11. Subgrade stabilization alternatives to lime and cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This project involved four distinct research activities, (1) the influence of temperature on lime-stabilized soils, (2) the influence of temperature on cement-stabilized soils (3) temperature modeling of stabilized subgrade and (4) use of calcium chl...

  12. Stability measures in arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosshi, M. I.; Brunsell, N. A.; Koerner, S.

    2015-12-01

    Stability, the capacity of ecosystems to persist in the face of change, has proven its relevance as a fundamental component of ecological theory. Here, we would like to explore meaningful and quantifiable metrics to define stability, with a focus on highly variable arid and semi-arid savanna ecosystems. Recognizing the importance of a characteristic timescale to any definition of stability, our metrics will be focused scales from annual to multi-annual, capturing different aspects of stability. Our three measures of stability, in increasing order of temporal scale, are: (1) Ecosystem resistance, quantified as the degree to which the system maintains its mean state in response to a perturbation (drought), based on inter-annual variability in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). (2) An optimization approach, relevant to arid systems with pulse dynamics, that models vegetation structure and function based on a trade off between the ability to respond to resource availability and avoid stress. (3) Community resilience, measured as species turnover rate (β diversity). Understanding the nature of stability in structurally-diverse arid ecosystems, which are highly variable, yields theoretical insight which has practical implications.

  13. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Dump Truck Stability During Unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Baryshnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of stability of the truck while unloading. The main symptom is a loss of stability of a vehicle rollover. The most common vehicle rollover occurs when unloading on sloped sites. The unloading area can be both longitudinal and cross slope. In this regard, the main task of the calculation is to determine the stability of the car the maximum allowable angle of discharge site and loads acting on the bearing system of the car.The paper presents a developed mathematical model of the truck when unloading on the longitudinal slope. It also offers the procedure of the step change in the parameters for the calculation of the critical angle of the site. The formulas for calculating the force interaction platform and the support system in the truck unloading at the site with a longitudinal slope are given. On the basis of the developed technique, a program for calculating longitudinal stability and loads acting on the bearing system dump trucks is created.Modern methods to assess stability while unloading the truck on a cross slope are analyzed. It is noted that the solution of this problem is developing in two directions. The first approach involves the testing truck samples on the special stands. Examples of bench tests on the stability of trucks are given. Another approach uses computational methods for the study. However, this requires the creation of a complex mathematical model of the truck, which should take into account the structural features of the suspension, the nonlinear elastic suspension components and tires, as well as the possibility of plastic deformation of the support system in torsion. In this formulation, the problem can only be solved using numerical methods and may be the subject of further research.The proposed approach allows multiple calculations for truck strength and stability already at an early designing stage in order to find the optimal design solution.

  15. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document summarizes progress made on the research of high beta and second region transport and stability. In the area second stability region studies we report on an investigation of the possibility of second region access in the center of TFTR ''supershots.'' The instabilities found may coincide with experimental observation. Significant progress has been made on the resistive stability properties of high beta poloidal ''supershot'' discharges. For these studies profiles were taken from the TRANSP transport analysis code which analyzes experimental data. Invoking flattening of the pressure profile on mode rational surfaces causes tearing modes to persist into the experimental range of interest. Further, the experimental observation of the modes seems to be consistent with the predictions of the MHD model. In addition, code development in several areas has proceeded

  16. Stability Analysis and Stabilization of Miduk Heap Leaching Structure, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To construct copper heap leaching structures, a stepped heap of ore is placed over an isolated sloping surface and then washed with sulphuric acid. The isolated bed of such a heap consists of some natural and geosynthetic layers. Shear strength parameters between these layers are low, so they form the possible sliding surfaces of the heaps. Economic and environmental considerations call for studying such slides. In this study, firstly, results of the laboratory tests carried on the materials of the heap leaching structures bed are presented. Then, the instability mechanisms of such structures are investigated and proper approaches are summarized for their stabilization. Finally, stability of the Miduk copper heap is evaluated as a case history, and appropriate approaches and their effects are discussed for its stabilization.

  17. Compressible stability of growing boundary layers using parabolized stability equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Malik, Mujeeb R.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The parabolized stability equation (PSE) approach is employed to study linear and nonlinear compressible stability with an eye to providing a capability for boundary-layer transition prediction in both 'quiet' and 'disturbed' environments. The governing compressible stability equations are solved by a rational parabolizing approximation in the streamwise direction. Nonparallel flow effects are studied for both the first- and second-mode disturbances. For oblique waves of the first-mode type, the departure from the parallel results is more pronounced as compared to that for the two-dimensional waves. Results for the Mach 4.5 case show that flow nonparallelism has more influence on the first mode than on the second. The disturbance growth rate is shown to be a strong function of the wall-normal distance due to either flow nonparallelism or nonlinear interactions. The subharmonic and fundamental types of breakdown are found to be similar to the ones in incompressible boundary layers.

  18. Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

  19. Can the UN Stabilize Mali? Towards a UN Stabilization Doctrine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Boutellis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost two years after the deployment of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA in July 2013, the increasing number of asymmetric terrorist attacks targeting UN peacekeepers – in the context of a drawn-out peace process – has raised a number of questions in Mali, the sub-region, and in New York, over the relevance and adequacies of MINUSMA’s mandate and capabilities. It also raises a broader issue, of whether the consent-based UN peacekeeping tool is appropriate and can be effective in carrying out stabilization mandates in such a context and what doctrine such operations should be based on. The UN is indeed under increasing pressure from host countries and some African troop-contributing countries to go on the offensive. Member States have also increasingly recognized terrorism and organized crime as a strategic threat, and while opposed to the UN directly engaging in counterterrorism (CT operations, some may wish to see the UN playing a greater stabilization role following the January 2013 French military intervention in Mali. However, little guidance and means have been given so far to UN missions for dealing with such threats and implementing effective stabilization mandates. The High-Level Panel on Peace Operations, which recently released its report, noted that the usage of the term “stabilization” by the UN requires clarification. This article analyses the complex and evolving nature of threats in northern Mali and implications for MINUSMA and describes the military and political tools – including mediation – so far available within and outside the UN. The article concludes that the UN is bound to move towards stabilization when and if deployed in contexts such as Mali’s if it wants to remain relevant. However, such a move should be based on an overarching UN stabilization doctrine and context-specific UN-wide stabilization strategies which are first and foremost political

  20. On hovercraft overwater heave stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, M. J.; Sullivan, P. A.

    1993-05-01

    The dynamic heave stability of an air cushion vehicle or hovercraft hovering over deep water without forward motion is investigated analytically. The principal feature of the analysis is the modeling of the motion of the water surface beneath the cushion caused by fluctuations in the pressure of the cushion or cavity air. This surface motion interacts with the vehicle dynamics by modulating both the volume and exit flow area of the cushion. For analytical simplicity, the geometry chosen for study is a 2D section of a rigid wall plenum chamber; this enables exploitation of classical linear wave formulas developed by Lamb for the surface motion generated by a spatially uniform surface pressure oscillating sinusoidally in time. To assess stability characteristics, the Nyquist criterion is applied to the linearized equations. Results are presented for two cases: one is representative of a small test vehicle, and the other of a large ice-breaking platform. They show that the water surface motion significantly affects stability through both of the proposed mechanisms, with cushion exit flow area modulation usually being more important. A feature of the results is that as the weight of a vehicle decreases many stability transitions occur. This suggests that simple guidelines for avoiding instability may not exist, so that stability augmentation devices may be required for vehicles designed to hover for extended periods over water.

  1. Development of emotional stability scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional stability remains the central theme in personality studies. The concept of stable emotional behavior at any level is that which reflects the fruits of normal emotional development. The study aims at development of an emotional stability scale. Materials and Methods: Based on available literature the components of emotional stability were identified and 250 items were developed, covering each component. Two-stage elimination of items was carried out, i.e. through judges′ opinions and item analysis. Results: Fifty items with highest ′t′ values covering 5 dimensions of emotional stability viz pessimism vs. optimism, anxiety vs. calm, aggression vs. tolerance., dependence vs. autonomy., apathy vs. empathy were retained in the final scale. Reliability as checked by Cronbach′s alpha was .81 and by split half method it was .79. Content validity and construct validity were checked. Norms are given in the form of cumulative percentages. Conclusion: Based on the psychometric principles a 50 item, self-administered 5 point Lickert type rating scale was developed for measurement of emotional stability.

  2. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  3. Chemical stabilization of graphite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistrika, Alexander A.; Lerner, Michael M.

    2018-04-03

    Embodiments of a device, or a component of a device, including a stabilized graphite surface, methods of stabilizing graphite surfaces, and uses for the devices or components are disclosed. The device or component includes a surface comprising graphite, and a plurality of haloaryl ions and/or haloalkyl ions bound to at least a portion of the graphite. The ions may be perhaloaryl ions and/or perhaloalkyl ions. In certain embodiments, the ions are perfluorobenzenesulfonate anions. Embodiments of the device or component including stabilized graphite surfaces may maintain a steady-state oxidation or reduction surface current density after being exposed to continuous oxidation conditions for a period of at least 1-100 hours. The device or component is prepared by exposing a graphite-containing surface to an acidic aqueous solution of the ions under oxidizing conditions. The device or component can be exposed in situ to the solution.

  4. MHD stability properties of Extrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, R.

    1986-01-01

    Stability properties of an Extrap with N conductors are investigated. The plasma is described by the ideal MHD model, the surface current model is used and the noncircularity is assumed to be weak. The investigation is carried out to second order in a small parameter /EPSILON/ that is a measure of the noncircularity of the cross section. As expected it turns out that the degeneracy present in the circular case is removed to first order in /EPSILON/ for m=N/2 and to second order for m=N, m beeing the azimuthal mode number. For other m values the degeneracy prevails but the eigenfrequences are shifted. It is also found that the sausage modes are stabilized for wave- lengths longer than the circumference of the pinch, that some other modes are stabilized for short waves and that the non- circularity causes resonant coupling between certain modes

  5. Nonlinear stability of supersonic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N. (Principal Investigator); Bhat, T. R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The stability calculations made for a shock-free supersonic jet using the model based on parabolized stability equations are presented. In this analysis the large scale structures, which play a dominant role in the mixing as well as the noise radiated, are modeled as instability waves. This model takes into consideration non-parallel flow effects and also nonlinear interaction of the instability waves. The stability calculations have been performed for different frequencies and mode numbers over a range of jet operating temperatures. Comparisons are made, where appropriate, with the solutions to Rayleigh's equation (linear, inviscid analysis with the assumption of parallel flow). The comparison of the solutions obtained using the two approaches show very good agreement.

  6. Secular stability of rotating stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, J.N.; Friedman, J.L.; Durisen, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In this work, we calculate the secular stability limits of rotating polytropes to nonaxisymmetric perturbations of low m. We consider polytropic indices ranging from 1 to 3 and several angular momentum distributions. Results are most conveniently presented in terms of the t-parameter, defined as the ratio of the rotational kinetic energy to the absolute value of the gravitational energy of the fluid. Previous work on polytropes considered only the m = 2 mode, which is unstable for values of the t-parameter greater than 0.14 +- 0.01 for the n values n = 1.5 and 3 and the angular momentum distributions tested (see Durisen and Imamura 1981). The GRR secular stability limit of the m = 2 mode for the Maclaurin spheroids (n = O) was determined by Chandrasekhar (1970). GRR stability limits of higher m modes for the Maclaurin spheroids were located approximately by Comins (1979a,b) and more precisely by Friedman (1983)

  7. Gold nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Silva, Andressa A. da; Leal, Jessica; Batista, Jorge G.S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    In our laboratory has been growing the interest in studying gold nanoparticles and for this reason, the aim of this work is report the first results of the effect of chitosan as stabilizer in gold nanoparticle formulation. AuNPs were synthesized by reducing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) using NaBH 4 or gamma irradiation (25kGy) as reduction agent. The chitosan (3 mol L -1 ) was added at 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mL. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their physical stability was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer over one week during storage at room temperature. Absorption measurements indicated that the plasmon resonance wavelength appears at a wavelength around 530 nm. Has been observed that Chitosan in such quantities were not effective in stabilizing the AuNPs. (author)

  8. 46 CFR 178.210 - Stability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stability letter, or a stability booklet) is required on certain vessels by paragraphs (b) or (c) of this..., must be provided to allow the master to be able to determine operating guidelines, loading restrictions... have stability details on the vessel's Certificate of Inspection, a stability letter issued by the...

  9. Stability and stabilization of linear systems with saturating actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Tarbouriech, Sophie; Gomes da Silva Jr, João Manoel; Queinnec, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Gives the reader an in-depth understanding of the phenomena caused by the more-or-less ubiquitous problem of actuator saturation. Proposes methods and algorithms designed to avoid, manage or overcome the effects of actuator saturation. Uses a state-space approach to ensure local and global stability of the systems considered. Compilation of fifteen years' worth of research results.

  10. Association of Stability Parameters and Yield Stability of Sesame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten sesame genotypes were tested in four locations in 2011 and 2012 crop seasons using a randomized block design, with three replications. Nine statistical methods were used to determine seed yield stability of the sesame genotypes. The results of the various statistical analyses showed significant variations in seed ...

  11. The myth of core stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    The principle of core stability has gained wide acceptance in training for the prevention of injury and as a treatment modality for rehabilitation of various musculoskeletal conditions in particular of the lower back. There has been surprisingly little criticism of this approach up to date. This article re-examines the original findings and the principles of core stability/spinal stabilisation approaches and how well they fare within the wider knowledge of motor control, prevention of injury and rehabilitation of neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems following injury.

  12. Concepts of stability and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    The first part of the paper deals with the role transfer functions play in control problems (closed loop, Nyquist stability criterion, sampled data systems and z-transforms; the ''hog cycle''; spring oscillations; Lyapunov functions; the Zubov method; positive-real functions and the Popov criterion; the circle criterion; linear time-delay systems; equations with periodic coefficients; stability of repeated processes). In the second part the author considers the control of systems which are described by partial differential equations (heat-conduction equation; wave equation; control of the heat and the wave equations; parasitic oscillations; noise in linear systems; discrete noise processes). Many examples are given and briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Stability analysis of nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmikantham, Vangipuram; Martynyuk, Anatoly A

    2015-01-01

    The book investigates stability theory in terms of two different measure, exhibiting the advantage of employing families of Lyapunov functions and treats the theory of a variety of inequalities, clearly bringing out the underlying theme. It also demonstrates manifestations of the general Lyapunov method, showing how this technique can be adapted to various apparently diverse nonlinear problems. Furthermore it discusses the application of theoretical results to several different models chosen from real world phenomena, furnishing data that is particularly relevant for practitioners. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems is an invaluable single-sourse reference for industrial and applied mathematicians, statisticians, engineers, researchers in the applied sciences, and graduate students studying differential equations.

  14. Oxidative stability of marine phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    of this study is to investigate the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL. In addition, this study also investigates the effect of chemical composition of MPL and Maillard reaction (interaction between lipids oxidation products with the residue of amino acids) on MPL emulsions’ stability. Firstly, MPL were...... was further investigated through measurement of secondary volatile compounds by Solid Phase Microextraction at several time intervals. On the other hand, the Maillard reaction was investigated through the measurement of color changes and pyrrole content before and after 32 days storage. Preliminary result...

  15. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study...

  16. Electrochemical fabrication and potential-enhanced luminescence of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+} incorporating DNA-stabilized single-wall carbon nanotubes on an indium tin oxide electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Qingyu; Shao Jiangyang [Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Sun Ting [Lab of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Technology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Hong, E-mail: lihong@scnu.edu.c [Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lan Sheng [Lab of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Technology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Xu Zhenghe [Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed for the preparation of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+}-based aggregates (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, tatp = 1,4,8,9-tetra-aza-triphenylene) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode in the presence of DNA-stabilized single-walled carbon nanotubes (DNA-SWCNTs). The presence of SWCNTs in the concentration range from 0.02 to 0.125 g L{sup -1} dispersed with 0.25 mmol L{sup -1} DNA was found to promote the immobilization of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+} on the ITO electrode by the method of repetitive voltammetric sweeping. The photoluminescence of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+} incorporating DNA-SWCNTs both in solution and on the ITO electrode was systematically investigated by emission spectra and fluorescence microscopic imaging. An excess amount of SWCNTs can quench the photoluminescence of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+} enhanced by DNA. The anodic potentials combined with CW green laser via an optical microscope was found to significantly increase the emission intensity of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+}-DNA-SWCNTs aggregates on the ITO electrode. In addition, the electrochemical fabrication and photoluminescence principles of [Ru(bpy){sub 2}tatp]{sup 2+}-DNA-SWCNTs aggregates on the ITO electrode tuned by the external electric fields were discussed in detail.

  17. Stabilization of betalains: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj

    2016-04-15

    Betalains are vacuolar pigments composed of a nitrogenous core structure, betalamic acid [4-(2-oxoethylidene)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid]. This compound consists of a chromophore substructure 1,7-diazaheptamethin. Betalamic acid condenses with imino compounds (cyclo-DOPA or its glucosyl derivatives), or amines and/or their derivatives to form a variety of betacyanins (violet) and betaxanthins (yellow), respectively. These pigments exhibit absorption maxima in between 532-550 nm and 457-485 nm, respectively. These colors are currently in use as food additives as they are bioactive and completely safe to consume. However, owing to poor stability, their potential application in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics is severely compromised. There is a lack of scientific reports highlighting their superior tinctorial strength including fluorescence, and their excellent water solubility. For widening the color spectrum and their usage, various betalain-rich extracts have been reviewed here, focusing on their matrix effects on stability vis-a-vis purified pigments of different structural make-up. This review also encompasses work carried out in the past related to stability/stabilization of betalains and future research direction for the same. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bank regulation and banking stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    This note discusses some issues in bank closure policy from a financial stability standpoint and how these issues have evolved since we first raised the question of how a reputation-driven divergence of interests between bank regulators and taxpayers may distort bank closure policy in our 1993 paper

  19. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  20. The condition for dynamic stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL; Gazendam, MGJ; Sinke, WE

    The well-known condition for standing stability in static situations is that the vertical projection of the centre of mass (CoM) should be within the base of support (BoS). On the basis of a simple inverted pendulum model, an extension of this rule is proposed for dynamical situations: the position

  1. Stability of Functional Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lemm, Jeffrey M

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the structure and stability properties of solutions of functional differential equations. Numerous examples of applications (such as feedback systrems with aftereffect, two-reflector antennae, nuclear reactors, mathematical models in immunology, viscoelastic bodies, aeroautoelastic phenomena and so on) are considered in detail. The development is illustrated by numerous figures and tables.

  2. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  3. Material stabilization characterization management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GIBSON, M.W.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents overall direction for characterization needs during stabilization of SNM at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Technical issues for needed data and equipment are identified. Information on material categories and links to vulnerabilities are given. Comparison data on the material categories is discussed to assist in assessing the relative risks and desired processing priority

  4. Social Capital and Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-26

    lowers drug use, criminality, and teenage pregnancies , while increasing youth academic success, economic development, and government effectiveness.49...terrorism, organized crime, narco-trafficking, refugee migration, epidemics, humanitarian crises, and poverty .17 Many such states exist in what has... poverty , and radical movements have riveted U.S. and partner attentions and demanded from them comprehensive and holistic approaches to stability

  5. Stability of supported liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neplenbroek, Antonius Maria

    1989-01-01

    This thesis deals with the stability of supported liquid membranes (SLMs). The use of SLMs, in which an extraction liquid containing a carrier is immobilized in the pores of a microporous support, has recently been introduced as a promising new separation technique. Some advantages ascribed to this

  6. Translational Influence on Messenger Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette

    -termination to be a global phenomena in gene regulation. The influence of codon usage in the early coding region on messenger stability was examined, in order to establish how fast or slow the ribosome has to decode the sequence for it to protect the messenger from degradation. The experiments demonstrated that very fast...

  7. Stability of solubilized benzodiazepine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.J; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R.A

    1997-01-01

    According to the observations of other researchers, benzodiazepine receptors solubilized with sodium deoxycholate are unstable, but stability can be improved by exchanging deoxycholate for Triton X-100. In our experiments we conclude that the choice of detergent is not the restrictive factor for the

  8. On core stability and extendability

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.

  9. Stability of Approximate Quadratic Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hark-Mahn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the general solution of the quadratic functional equation , in the class of all functions between quasi- -normed spaces, and then we prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the equation by using direct method and fixed point method.

  10. Quantum state stability against decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Luis; Kruegel, A.; Saavedra, C.

    2007-01-01

    We study the stability of the coherence of a pure state of a quantum system under the effect of an interaction with another quantum system during a short time. We find an expression for evaluating the order of magnitude of the time scale for the onset of the decoherence. Applying that expression, we analyze decoherence-instability of three illustrative cases

  11. Comparative antioxidant capacity, membrane stabilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative antioxidant capacity, membrane stabilization, polyphenol composition and cytotoxicity of the leaf and stem of Cissus multistriata. ... standard anti-inflammatory drug (Indomethacin) used. The extracts are less toxic to the cell (Arthenia salina) with their LC/EC50 higher than that of standard potassium dichromate ...

  12. Sludge stabilization operability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    Document provides the results of the Operability Test Procedure performed to test the operability of the HC-21C thermal stabilization process for sludge. The OTP assured all equipment functioned properly and established the baseline temperature profile for glovebox HC-21C

  13. Hydrodynamic stability and stellar oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandrasekhar's monograph on Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability, published in 1961, is a standard ... the Astrophysics Data System shows about 2500 citations to this monograph and what is remarkable is that ... form the bulk of the book are devoted to convection, or the thermal instability of a layer of fluid heated ...

  14. Genome stability in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaften, G.W. van

    2006-01-01

    Genome stability is closely linked to cancer. Most, if not all tumor cells show some form of genome instability, mutations can range from single point mutations to gross chromosomal rearrangements and aneuploidy. Genome instability is believed to be the driving force behind tumorigenesis. In order

  15. Nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement is described wherein a plurality of actuators, disposed in a pattern laterally surrounding a group of elongated fuel assemblies, press against respective contiguous fuel assemblies on the periphery of the group to reduce the clearance between adjacent fuel assemblies thereby forming a more compacted, vibration resistant core structure. 7 claims, 4 drawing figures

  16. Comparative antioxidant capacity, membrane stabilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... In this present study, a comparative evaluation of the antioxidant capacities, phenol and polyphenol composition, membrane stabilization, and cytotoxicity to brine shrimps (Arthemia salina) of the leaf and stem extracts of Cissus multistriata were carried out. 2,2- Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical.

  17. MHD stability of tandem mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, P.; Molvik, A.; Shearer, J.

    1982-01-01

    The TMX-Upgrade experiment was described, and the manner in which various plasma parameters could be affected was discussed. The initial analysis of the MHD stability of the tandem mirror was also discussed, with emphasis on the negative tandem configuration

  18. Axial stability of Taylor bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Long gas bubbles rising in a vertical tube are observed to lose axial symmetry and become unstable in a downward liquid flow. In this paper an approximate linear stability analysis of this phenomenon is presented. It is found that, under the combined effect of gravity and the pressure gradient which

  19. Molecular laser stabilization for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloin, Hubert; Acef, Ouali; Argence, Berengere; Jeannin, Olivier; Prat, Pierre; de Vismes, Eden; Plagnol, Eric; Brillet, Alain; Mondin, Linda; Berthon, Jacques; Turazza, Oscar

    2017-11-01

    The expected performance of LISA relies on two main technical challenges: the ability for the spacecrafts to precisely follow the free-flying masses and the outstanding precision of the phase shift measurement. This latter constraint requires frequency stabilized lasers and efficient numerical algorithms to account for the redundant, delayed noise propagation, thus cancelling laser phase noise by many orders of magnitude (TDI methods). Recently involved in the technical developments for LISA, the goal of our team at APC (France) is to contribute on these two subjects: frequency reference for laser stabilization and benchtop simulation of the interferometer. In the present design of LISA, two stages of laser stabilization are used (not accounting for the "post-processed" TDI algorithm): laser pre-stabilization on a frequency reference and lock on the ultra stable distance between spacecrafts (arm-locking). While the foreseen (and deeply studied) laser reference consists of a Fabry-Perot cavity, other techniques may be suitable for LISA or future metrology missions. In particular, locking to a molecular reference (namely iodine in the case of the LISA Nd:YAG laser) is an interesting alternative. It offers the required performance with very good long-term stability (absolute frequency reference) though the reference can be slightly tuned to account for arm-locking. This technique is currently being investigated by our team and optimized for LISA (compactness, vacuum compatibility, ease of use and initialization, etc.). A collaboration with a French laboratory (the SYRTE) had been started aiming to study a second improved technique consisting in inserting the iodine cell in a Fabry-Perot cavity. Ongoing results and prospects to increase the performance of the system are presented in the present article.

  20. Protein stability: a crystallographer’s perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deller, Marc C.; Kong, Leopold; Rupp, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification and crystallization of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. Protein stability is a topic of major interest for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries, in addition to being a daily consideration for academic researchers studying proteins. An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification, formulation, storage and structural studies of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability, on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. The differences between protein conformational stability and protein compositional stability will be discussed, along with a brief introduction to key methods useful for analyzing protein stability. Finally, tactics for addressing protein-stability issues during protein expression, purification and crystallization will be discussed

  1. Electrochemical stabilization of clayey ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhanitzin, B.A.; Sokoloff, V.P.

    1947-01-01

    Recently developed new methods of stabilization of weak grounds (e.g. the silicate treatment) are based on injection of chemical solutions into the ground. Such methods are applicable accordingly only to the kinds of ground that have the coefficient of filtration higher than 2 meters per 24 hours and permit penetration of the chemical solutions under pressure. This limit, however, as it is shown by our experience in construction, excludes a numerous and an important class of grounds, stabilization of which is indispensable in many instances. For example, digging of trenches and pits in clayey, silty, or sandy ground shows that all these types act like typical "floaters" (sluds? -S) in the presence of the ground water pressure. There were several instances in the canalization of the city of Moskow where the laying of trenches below the ground water level has led to extreme difficulties with clayey and silty ground. Similar examples could be cited in mining, engineering hydrology, and railroad construction. For these reasons, the development of methods of stabilizing such difficult types of ground has become an urgent problem of our day. In 1936, the author began his investigations, at the ground Stabilization Laboratory of VODGEO Institute, with direct electrical current as the means of stabilization of grounds. Experiments had shown that a large number of clayey types, following passage of direct electrical current, undergoes a transformation of its physico-chemical properties. It was established that the (apparent -S) density of the ground is substantially increased in consequence of the application of direct electrical current. The ground loses also its capacity to swell and to soften in water. Later, after a more detailed study of the physico-chemical mechanism of the electrical stabilization, it became possible to develop the method so as to make it applicable to sandy and silty as well as to clayey ground. By this time (1941, S.), the method has already been

  2. Quantum stabilization in anharmonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albeverio, Sergio; Kondratiev, Yuri; Kozitsky, Yuri; Röckner, Michael

    2003-05-02

    For a model of interacting quantum particles of mass m oscillating in a double-well crystalline field, a mechanism of its stabilization by quantum effects is described. In particular, a stability condition involving m, the interaction intensity, and the parameters of the crystalline field is given. It is independent of the temperature and is satisfied if m is small enough and/or the tunneling frequency is big enough. It is shown that under this condition the infinite-volume free energy density is an analytic function of the external field and the displacement-displacement correlation function decays exponentially; hence, no phase transitions can arise at all temperatures. This gives a complete and rigorous answer to the question about the influence of quantum effects on structural phase transitions, the discussion of which was initiated in [T. Schneider, H. Beck, and E. Stoll, Phys. Rev. B 13, 1123 (1976)

  3. FINANCIAL STABILITY - A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vasilescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Central banks have become poles of stability and decisive factors of globalization. Financialstability represents a national issue, a public asset, that requires both an intervention of public judicious authoritiesand their cooperation with private sector. Given the integration of financial markets during the last decades in bothdeveloped and developing countries, as direct result of globalization, liberalization and deregulation processes, andthe high degree of innovation they felt over time, a shift in market participants’ perceptions on the importance ofstable financial systems in economic growth arose. The global context characterized by the interdependence ofmarkets and institutions, emergence of new techniques and instruments, increasing international capital flowsstressed the new meanings of the analysis of financial stability.

  4. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  5. Chromatin dynamics in genome stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, Nidhi; Shoaib, Muhammad; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2017-01-01

    Genomic DNA is compacted into chromatin through packaging with histone and non-histone proteins. Importantly, DNA accessibility is dynamically regulated to ensure genome stability. This is exemplified in the response to DNA damage where chromatin relaxation near genomic lesions serves to promote ...... of chromatin structure regulation in maintaining genome integrity by multiple mechanisms including facilitating DNA repair and directly suppressing endogenous DNA damage.......Genomic DNA is compacted into chromatin through packaging with histone and non-histone proteins. Importantly, DNA accessibility is dynamically regulated to ensure genome stability. This is exemplified in the response to DNA damage where chromatin relaxation near genomic lesions serves to promote...... access of relevant enzymes to specific DNA regions for signaling and repair. Furthermore, recent data highlight genome maintenance roles of chromatin through the regulation of endogenous DNA-templated processes including transcription and replication. Here, we review research that shows the importance...

  6. Meritocratic administration and democratic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornell, Agnes; Lapuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hypothesis for understanding democratic stability based on the distinction between politicized and meritocratic bureaucracies. We argue that in a politicized administration, the professional careers of large numbers of government officials depend directly upon which party wins......, in democracies with meritocratic administrations, incumbents are credibly constrained from undertaking partial policies because their hands are tied in terms of managing the staff policy of the state apparatus. Consequently, countries with meritocratic bureaucracies have greater prospects for democratic...... stability. Empirically, we illustrate the mechanisms with two well-documented cases of democratic transitions that enshrined a politicized administration – Spain (1876–1936) and Venezuela (1958–1998) – and one transition that kept a meritocratic bureaucracy, Spain (1975–)....

  7. Mao-Gilles Stabilization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Originally, the Mao-Gilles stabilization algorithm was designed to compensate the non-rigid deformations due to atmospheric turbulence. Given a sequence of frames affected by atmospheric turbulence, the algorithm uses a variational model combining optical flow and regularization to characterize the static observed scene. The optimization problem is solved by Bregman Iteration and the operator splitting method. The algorithm is simple, efficient, and can be easily generalized for different sce...

  8. Mao-Gilles Stabilization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Gilles

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Originally, the Mao-Gilles stabilization algorithm was designed to compensate the non-rigid deformations due to atmospheric turbulence. Given a sequence of frames affected by atmospheric turbulence, the algorithm uses a variational model combining optical flow and regularization to characterize the static observed scene. The optimization problem is solved by Bregman Iteration and the operator splitting method. The algorithm is simple, efficient, and can be easily generalized for different scenarios involving non-rigid deformations.

  9. PATRIMONIAL ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patrimonial analysis of financial stability is realized with the help of some indicator determined on the balance: working capital; required working capital and net treasury. These indicators are determined and presented in evolution at two companies with different situations, and there are given conclusions and suggestions concerning achieving and maintaining the financial equilibrium or initiating corrective measures in time, before the imbalance would take irrecoverable forms.

  10. Extrapolative Expectations and Market Stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Redondo, Fernando

    1989-01-01

    An auctioneer model of market adjustment is proposed which, unlike the standard formulation, has prices react to extrapolated (rather than prevailing) excess demands. If expectations are sufficiently sensitive to current rates of change, every regular market equilibrium is shown to be locally stable. The model can be regarded as providing an institutional interpretation to Newton-like methods of market adjustment that, as the Newton process itself, ensure stability of every regular zero of a ...

  11. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other`s accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  12. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  13. Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Pava

    Full Text Available The hypnogenic properties of cannabis have been recognized for centuries, but endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid regulation of vigilance states is poorly characterized. We report findings from a series of experiments in mice measuring sleep with polysomnography after various systemic pharmacological manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. Rapid, unbiased scoring of vigilance states was achieved using an automated algorithm that we devised and validated. Increasing endocannabinoid tone with a selective inhibitor of monoacyglycerol lipase (JZL184 or fatty acid amide hydrolase (AM3506 produced a transient increase in non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep due to an augmentation of the length of NREM bouts (NREM stability. Similarly, direct activation of type 1 cannabinoid (CB1 receptors with CP47,497 increased NREM stability, but both CP47,497 and JZL184 had a secondary effect that reduced NREM sleep time and stability. This secondary response to these drugs was similar to the early effect of CB1 blockade with the antagonist/inverse agonist AM281, which fragmented NREM sleep. The magnitude of the effects produced by JZL184 and AM281 were dependent on the time of day this drug was administered. While activation of CB1 resulted in only a slight reduction in gamma power, CB1 blockade had dramatic effects on broadband power in the EEG, particularly at low frequencies. However, CB1 blockade did not significantly reduce the rebound in NREM sleep following total sleep deprivation. These results support the hypothesis that endocannabinoid signaling through CB1 is necessary for NREM stability but it is not necessary for sleep homeostasis.

  14. Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava, Matthew J; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Lovinger, David M

    2016-01-01

    The hypnogenic properties of cannabis have been recognized for centuries, but endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) regulation of vigilance states is poorly characterized. We report findings from a series of experiments in mice measuring sleep with polysomnography after various systemic pharmacological manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. Rapid, unbiased scoring of vigilance states was achieved using an automated algorithm that we devised and validated. Increasing endocannabinoid tone with a selective inhibitor of monoacyglycerol lipase (JZL184) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (AM3506) produced a transient increase in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep due to an augmentation of the length of NREM bouts (NREM stability). Similarly, direct activation of type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors with CP47,497 increased NREM stability, but both CP47,497 and JZL184 had a secondary effect that reduced NREM sleep time and stability. This secondary response to these drugs was similar to the early effect of CB1 blockade with the antagonist/inverse agonist AM281, which fragmented NREM sleep. The magnitude of the effects produced by JZL184 and AM281 were dependent on the time of day this drug was administered. While activation of CB1 resulted in only a slight reduction in gamma power, CB1 blockade had dramatic effects on broadband power in the EEG, particularly at low frequencies. However, CB1 blockade did not significantly reduce the rebound in NREM sleep following total sleep deprivation. These results support the hypothesis that endocannabinoid signaling through CB1 is necessary for NREM stability but it is not necessary for sleep homeostasis.

  15. Cosmological stability of quantum compactification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleiser, M.

    1987-02-01

    We discuss the cosmological stability of higher dimensional models that feature internal manifolds given by the product of two spheres. In particular, we consider the case when the total number of dimensions is even. After we obtain the vacuum energy coming from one-loop fluctuations of scalars and spin-1/2 fermions, we show how a realistic cosmological scenario can arise by balancing the quantum energy with monopole-like contributions. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Morocco; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    The Financial System Stability Assessment of Morocco reviews the reform program that is aimed at establishing a modern, market-oriented financial system that optimizes the mobilization of savings and the allocation of financial resources. It reviews the modernization of the banking sector and the development of competition within the sector, development of financial markets, and removal of constraints on financial system activity. It also provides reports on the Observance of Standards and Co...

  17. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  18. Stability of Approximate Quadratic Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the general solution of the quadratic functional equation f(2x+y+3f(2x−y=4f(x−y+12f(x, in the class of all functions between quasi-β-normed spaces, and then we prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the equation by using direct method and fixed point method.

  19. Achieving financial stability in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Achieving Financial Stability in Asia sets out to identify the elements which could restore confidence to the countries of the region and stabilise financial flows on a global basis. Thus, measures must be taken which include improving public and corporate governance, strengthening democracy and improving the efficiency of regulatory institutions. At the same time, emerging economies ought to be given a greater measure of participation in international regulatory bodies, so that any solutions...

  20. Bifurcation routes and economic stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 14 (2001), s. 43-59 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/00/0439; GA ČR GA402/01/0034; GA ČR GA402/01/0539 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : macroeconomic stability * foreign investment phenomenon * the Hopf bifurcation Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  1. Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava, Matthew J.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Lovinger, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The hypnogenic properties of cannabis have been recognized for centuries, but endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) regulation of vigilance states is poorly characterized. We report findings from a series of experiments in mice measuring sleep with polysomnography after various systemic pharmacological manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. Rapid, unbiased scoring of vigilance states was achieved using an automated algorithm that we devised and validated. Increasing endocannabinoid tone with a selective inhibitor of monoacyglycerol lipase (JZL184) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (AM3506) produced a transient increase in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep due to an augmentation of the length of NREM bouts (NREM stability). Similarly, direct activation of type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors with CP47,497 increased NREM stability, but both CP47,497 and JZL184 had a secondary effect that reduced NREM sleep time and stability. This secondary response to these drugs was similar to the early effect of CB1 blockade with the antagonist/inverse agonist AM281, which fragmented NREM sleep. The magnitude of the effects produced by JZL184 and AM281 were dependent on the time of day this drug was administered. While activation of CB1 resulted in only a slight reduction in gamma power, CB1 blockade had dramatic effects on broadband power in the EEG, particularly at low frequencies. However, CB1 blockade did not significantly reduce the rebound in NREM sleep following total sleep deprivation. These results support the hypothesis that endocannabinoid signaling through CB1 is necessary for NREM stability but it is not necessary for sleep homeostasis. PMID:27031992

  2. Stability diagram of colliding beams

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, X; Mounet, N; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the beam-beam interactions on the stability of impedance mode is discussed. The detuning is evaluated by the means of single particle tracking in arbitrarily complex collision configurations, including lattice non-linearities, and used to numerically evaluate the dispersion integral. This approach also allows the effect of non-Gaussian distributions to be considered. Distributions modified by the action of external noise are discussed.

  3. Exponentially Stabilizing Robot Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Bayard, David S.

    1990-01-01

    New class of exponentially stabilizing laws for joint-level control of robotic manipulators introduced. In case of set-point control, approach offers simplicity of proportion/derivative control architecture. In case of tracking control, approach provides several important alternatives to completed-torque method, as far as computational requirements and convergence. New control laws modified in simple fashion to obtain asymptotically stable adaptive control, when robot model and/or payload mass properties unknown.

  4. Multisensory Control of Stabilization Reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    motion vision pathway indicated unexpectedly high stability margins. The gain margin (Fig. 3d , GM) at the 180 degrees phase reversal is still 20 dB...and the phase margin at the zero-crossing in the gain plot amounts to 130 degrees (Fig. 3d , PM). Given these values, the motion vision pathway...Eds. N. Elsner, M. Heisenberg , Thieme, Stuttgart 1993, 357. A3. Krapp H., Hengstenberg B., and Hengstenberg R.: Correspondence of dendritic field

  5. Assessing Locally Focused Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    concept as we understand it involves small teams of U.S. or HN forces that embed in strategically located villages or similar locales to foster...Instability (1 HR) Introduction to Key Leader Engagements (1 HR) FET/FST (1 HR) Media Awareness (2 HR) Language Skills (2 HR) Language Skills (2 HR...assessing the impact of stability operations. For exam- ple, on its face, building a dam that provides water for the crops of a local village seems

  6. Water-stabilized plasma generators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (1998), s. 1157-1162 ISSN 0033-4545 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/95/0592; GA ČR GV106/96/K245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : thermal plasma, plasma torch, water -stabilized plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 1998

  7. Internal stability of technical superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, K.

    1985-09-01

    Electrical stability and longitudinal quench propagation velocity of technical NbTi superconductors having various matrix compositions was investigated experimentally and theoretically (numerically) for different cooling conditions. Copper, cupro-nickel and both combined were used as matrix materials of the conductors. The measurements were performed between 5 and 8 K in vacuum and at 4.2 K in helium both applying magnetic fields up to 7 T. The quantitative agreement between experiments and calculations was better than a factor of 2 regarding all 8 specimen at the investigated environmental conditions (cooling, temperature, and magnetic field). The remaining uncertainty is mainly conditioned by the accumulation of small inaccuracies in knowledge of the various conductor parameters, but far less to be found in the computer program itself. The accuracy of these parameters cannot be further improved with reasonable effort and expenditure. It is shown, that position and fraction of the cupro-nickel barriers inside the mixed matrix conductors affect strongly quench propagation velocity; stability also is sensible to these parameters. The strong effect on quench propagation velocity may be explained by a feedback mechanism. A way is given, how to change stability and quench propagation velocity of a mixed matrix conductor by constructional measures without implicating an enhancement of the coupling current losses. (orig.) [de

  8. Stability of fluid motions I

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Daniel D

    1976-01-01

    The study of stability aims at understanding the abrupt changes which are observed in fluid motions as the external parameters are varied. It is a demanding study, far from full grown"whose most interesting conclusions are recent. I have written a detailed account of those parts of the recent theory which I regard as established. Acknowledgements I started writing this book in 1967 at the invitation of Clifford Truesdell. It was to be a short work on the energy theory of stability and if I had stuck to that I would have finished the writing many years ago. The theory of stability has developed so rapidly since 1967 that the book I might then have written would now have a much too limited scope. I am grateful to Truesdell, not so much for the invitation to spend endless hours of writing and erasing, but for the generous way he has supported my efforts and encouraged me to higher standards of good work. I have tried to follow Truesdell's advice to write this work in a clear and uncomplicated style. This is not ...

  9. Stability of glassy hierarchical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Camargo-Forero, L.; Vicsek, T.

    2018-02-01

    The structure of interactions in most animal and human societies can be best represented by complex hierarchical networks. In order to maintain close-to-optimal function both stability and adaptability are necessary. Here we investigate the stability of hierarchical networks that emerge from the simulations of an organization type with an efficiency function reminiscent of the Hamiltonian of spin glasses. Using this quantitative approach we find a number of expected (from everyday observations) and highly non-trivial results for the obtained locally optimal networks, including, for example: (i) stability increases with growing efficiency and level of hierarchy; (ii) the same perturbation results in a larger change for more efficient states; (iii) networks with a lower level of hierarchy become more efficient after perturbation; (iv) due to the huge number of possible optimal states only a small fraction of them exhibit resilience and, finally, (v) ‘attacks’ targeting the nodes selectively (regarding their position in the hierarchy) can result in paradoxical outcomes.

  10. Ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G.T.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; Smeulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, extremely large pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injections in the current rise phase followed by strong additional heating. In the second type, the total pressure of the discharge is approaching the Troyon limit. The stability of these discharges with respect to the ideal MHD ballooning modes has been studied with the stability code HBT. The equilibria are reconstructed with the IDENTC code using the external magnetic measurements and the experimental pressure profile. The results show that the evaluated high beta discharge is unstable in the central region of the plasma. This instability is related to the low shear and not to a large pressure gradient, as expected at the Troyon limit. In the pellet discharges the regions with the large pressure gradients are unstable to ballooning modes at the time of the beta decay, which ends the period of enhanced performance. The maximum pressure gradient in these discharges is limited by the boundary of the first region of stability. The observed phenomena at the beta decay are similar to those observed at the beta limit in DIII-D and TFTR. (author)

  11. Stabilization of Inviscid Vortex Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protas, Bartosz; Sakajo, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    In this study we investigate the problem of stabilizing inviscid vortex sheets via feedback control. Such models, expressed in terms of the Birkhoff-Rott equation, are often used to describe the Kevin-Helmholtz instability of shear layers and are known to be strongly unstable to small-scale perturbations. First, we consider the linear stability of a straight vortex sheet in the periodic setting with actuation in the form of an array of point vortices or sources located a certain distance away from the sheet. We establish conditions under which this system is controllable and observable. Next, using methods of the linear control theory, we synthesize a feedback control strategy which stabilizes a straight vortex sheet in the linear regime. Given the poor conditioning of the discretized problem, reliable solution of the resulting algebraic Riccati equation requires the use of high-precision arithmetic. Finally, we demonstrate that this control approach also succeeds in the nonlinear regime, provided the magnitude of the initial perturbation is sufficiently small.

  12. Stability properties of gravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, S

    1982-01-01

    Studies the stability properties of general relativity with a non- vanishing cosmological constant Lambda by means of the energy. First, it is shown that there exists a suitable definition of energy in these models, for all metrics tending asymptotically to any background solution which has a timelike Killing symmetry. It is conserved and has flux integral form. Stability is established for all systems tending asymptotically to anti-De Sitter space when Lambda >0, using supergravity techniques. Spinorial charges are defined which are also flux integrals and satisfy the global graded anti-De Sitter algebra. The latter then implies that the energy is always positive. For Lambda >0, it is shown that small excitations about De Sitter space are stable, provided they occur within the event horizon intrinsic to this space. Outside the horizon an instability arises which signals the onset of Hawking radiation: it is shown to be universal to all systems. Semi-classical stability is also discussed for Lambda >0.

  13. Stability of the space cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapman, John

    2009-07-01

    The space cable consists of evacuated tubes supported by fast-moving objects, called bolts, travelling inside them. The bolts are connected to the tubes via permanent magnets stabilized electronically for minimal power consumption. Version 1 was designed to replace the role of a first-stage rocket by lifting space vehicles from the ground to 50 km at 5800 km/h. Version 2 rises to 140 km and has wider applications. Comparable proposals include the space fountain and the launch loop. In the long term, such a fixed infrastructure is more economical than rockets. A key issue with these dynamically supported structures is lateral stability, particularly in the presence of varying cross winds in the stratosphere. The relevant partial differential equations are derived below with a set of solutions. A proposal is presented for providing stability by means of tethers, pipes, and a support structure at each end. Each support is a miniature space cable rising to 15 km, and it bears the load of the tethers and pipes that would otherwise have to be carried by the main structure.

  14. Dimensional stability of natural fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Mark S.; Smith, Jennifer L.; Woods, Sean; Tiss, Kenneth J.; Larsen, L. Scott

    2013-01-01

    One of the main problems associated with the use of natural fibers as reinforcing agents in composites is their uptake of moisture. Many natural fibers are lignocellulosic, which causes them to swell and shrink as the amount of available moisture changes. Swelling and shrinking can cause composites to prematurely fail. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study that considers the use of two different low molecular weight monomers, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), polymerized by electron beam ionizing radiation, to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers. Eight different treatments consisting of varying amounts of monomer, encapsulating agent, and cross-linkers, were evaluated for their ability to dimensionally stabilize sisal fiber. Results indicate that both polymerized HEA and HEMA can reduce the swelling of sisal fiber. The effectiveness of HEA and HEMA can be further enhanced with the use of a cross-linker (SR 454). The use of hydroxylated monomers to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers may play an important role in reducing delamination and improving fiber-resin adhesion in composites.

  15. HIF Stabilization Weakens Primary Cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Resnick

    Full Text Available Although solitary or sensory cilia are present in most cells of the body and their existence has been known since the sixties, very little is known about their functions. One suspected function is fluid flow sensing- physical bending of cilia produces an influx of Ca++, which can then result in a variety of activated signaling pathways. Defective cilia and ciliary-associated proteins have been shown to result in cystic diseases. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD is a progressive disease, typically appearing in the 5th decade of life and is one of the most common monogenetic inherited human diseases, affecting approximately 600,000 people in the United States. Because the mechanical properties of cilia impact their response to applied flow, we asked how the stiffness of cilia can be controlled pharmacologically. We performed an experiment subjecting cilia to Taxol (a microtubule stabilizer and CoCl2 (a HIF stabilizer to model hypoxia. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK cells were selected as our model system. After incubation with a selected pharmacological agent, cilia were optically trapped and the bending modulus measured. We found that HIF stabilization significantly weakens cilia. These results illustrate a method to alter the mechanical properties of primary cilia and potentially alter the flow sensing properties of cilia.

  16. Spectrum stabilizer; Stabilisateur de spectres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detourne, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Departement d' electronique generale, Service d' instrumentation nucleaire

    1967-05-01

    A spectrum stabilizer is a control mechanism which renders an analytical chain reliable. It can detect a drift in the amplification and in the base of the energy scale, and can modify the characteristics of this chain. The results of a theoretical study make it possible to calculate the width and the abscissae of the peaks of a stabilized spectrum as a function of the drifts. The SPECTROSTAB is a numerical stabilizer of a continuous type; it provides the artificial reference peak at low energies. Experimental results give the performances obtained on a reference peak provided by a semi-conductor detector, in the field of gamma spectroscopy. (author) [French] Un stabilisateur de spectres est un asservissement qui permet de rendre fidele une cha e d'analyse. Il detecte les derives du gain et de l'origine de l'echelle des energies et reagit sur les caracteristiques de cette cha e. Les resultats d'une etude theorique permettent le calcul des elargissements et des abscisses des pics d'un spectre stabilise, en fonction des derives. Le SPECTROSTAB est un stabilisateur numerique du genre continu; il fournit le pic de reference artificiel aux basses energies. Des resultats experimentaux donnent les performances obtenues sur un pic de reference fourni par un detecteur a semi-conducteur, dans le domaine de la spectrometrie gamma. (auteur)

  17. Stability of the pumpkin balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Frank

    A large axisymmetric balloon with positive differential pressure, e.g., a sphere, leads to high film stresses. These can be significantly reduced by using a lobed pumpkin-like shape re-enforced with tendons. A number of schemes have been proposed to achieve a cyclically symmetric pumpkin-shape at full inflation, including the constant bulge angle (CBA) design and the constant bulge radius (CBR) design. The authors and others have carried out stability studies of CBA and CBR designs and found instabilities under various conditions. While stability seems to be a good indicator of deployment problems for large balloons under normal ascent conditions, one cannot conclude that a stable design will deploy reliably. Nevertheless, stability analysis allows one to quantify certain deployment characteristics. Ongoing research by NASA's Balloon Program Office utilizes a new design approach developed by Rodger Farley, NASA/GSFC, that takes into account film and tendon strain. We refer to such a balloon as a constant stress (CS) pumpkin design. In June 2006, the Flight 555-NT balloon (based on a hybrid CBR/CBA design) developed an S-cleft and did not deploy. In order to understand the S-cleft phenomena and study a number of aspects related to the CS-design, a series of inflation tests were conducted at TCOM, Elizabeth City, NC in 2007. The test vehicles were 27 meter diameter pumpkins distinguished by their respective equatorial bulge angles (BA). For example, BA98 indicates an equatorial bulge angle of 98° . BA90, BA55, and BA00 are similarly defined. BA98 was essentially a one-third scale version of of the Flight 555 balloon (i.e., 12 micron film instead of 38.1 micron, mini-tendons, etc.). BA90 and BA55 were Farley CS-designs. BA00 was derived from the BA55 design so that a flat chord spanned adjacent tendons. In this paper, we will carry out stability studies of BA98, BA90, BA55, and BA00. We discuss the deployment problem of pumpkin balloons in light of 2007 inflation

  18. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  19. Stabilization of classic and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the mechanism of quantum whirligig can be successfully used for stabilization of classical systems. In particular, the conditions for stabilization of charged particles and radiation fluxes in plasma are found.

  20. Chemical and thermal stability of insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huus, Kasper; Havelund, Svend; Olsen, Helle B

    2006-01-01

    To study the correlation between the thermal and chemical stability of insulin formulations with various insulin hexamer ligands.......To study the correlation between the thermal and chemical stability of insulin formulations with various insulin hexamer ligands....

  1. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the potential to predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  2. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the means to accurately predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  3. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  4. Phospholipid stabilized gold nanorods: towards improved colloidal stability and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Thomas, Neethu; Sudhakar, Swathi; Chadha, Anju; Mani, Ethayaraja

    2017-07-19

    Biocompatible and colloidally stable gold nanorods (GNRs) with well-defined plasmonic properties are essential for biomedical and theranostic applications. The as-synthesized GNRs using the seed-mediated method are stabilized by the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which is known for its cytotoxicity in many cell lines. Biocompatible GNRs synthesized using known protocols exhibit some extent of cytotoxicity and colloidal instability because of the incomplete removal of CTAB. We report a facile method for the efficient removal of CTAB molecules with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) phospholipid molecules, which are naturally present in cell membranes. The kinetics of the ligand exchange process is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and corroborated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. From colloidal stability studies using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, the optimal lipid concentration and duration required for the successful ligand exchange of CTAB by DMPC are reported. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the surface concentration of DMPC on colloidally stable GNRs is found to be approximately 9 molecules per nm 2 . The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays show that the surface-modified DMPC-GNRs have significantly better biocompatibility than those of CTAB-GNRs. Studies on the ligand exchange, colloidal stability and biocompatibility of DMPC-GNRs with aspect ratios ranging from 2.2 to 4.2 demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method. The results provide insights into the important factors to be considered while designing biocompatible GNRs suitable for applications in nanomedicine.

  5. Stability Limits in Resonant Planetary Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the boundaries for Hill and Lagrange stability in orbital element space is modified in the case of resonantly interacting planets. Hill stability requires the ordering of the planets to remain constant while Lagrange stability also requires all planets to remain bound to the central star. The Hill stability boundary is defined analytically, but no equations exist to define the Lagrange boundary, so we perform numerical experiments to estimate the location of this boun...

  6. Simplified methods for evaluating road prism stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Elliot; Mark Ballerini; David Hall

    2003-01-01

    Mass failure is one of the most common failures of low-volume roads in mountainous terrain. Current methods for evaluating stability of these roads require a geotechnical specialist. A stability analysis program, XSTABL, was used to estimate the stability of 3,696 combinations of road geometry, soil, and groundwater conditions. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to...

  7. On the nonlinear stability of dissipative fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.; Camargo, S.J.

    1991-02-01

    A general sufficient condition for nonlinear stability of steady and unsteady flows in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics is derived. It leads to strong limitations in the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers. It is applied to the stability of generalized time-dependent planar Couette flows in magnetohydrodynamics. Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers have to be typically less than 2π 2 for stability. (orig.)

  8. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  9. Orthogonality preserving property, Wigner equation, and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmieliński Jacek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the stability of the orthogonality preserving property in the class of mappings phase-equivalent to linear or conjugate-linear ones. We give a characterization of approximately orthogonality preserving mappings in this class and we show some connections between the considered stability and the stability of the Wigner equation.

  10. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Anderson, Barton E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: ...

  11. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  12. Core stability training for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C; Anderson, Barton E

    2013-11-01

    Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. PUBMED WAS SEARCHED FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC, BIOMECHANIC, AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF CORE STABILITY FOR INJURY PREVENTION (KEYWORDS: "core OR trunk" AND "training OR prevention OR exercise OR rehabilitation" AND "risk OR prevalence") published between January 1980 and October 2012. Articles with relevance to core stability risk factors, assessment, and training were reviewed. Relevant sources from articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Stabilizer, mobilizer, and load transfer core muscles assist in understanding injury risk, assessing core muscle function, and developing injury prevention programs. Moderate evidence of alterations in core muscle recruitment and injury risk exists. Assessment tools to identify deficits in volitional muscle contraction, isometric muscle endurance, stabilization, and movement patterns are available. Exercise programs to improve core stability should focus on muscle activation, neuromuscular control, static stabilization, and dynamic stability. Core stabilization relies on instantaneous integration among passive, active, and neural control subsystems. Core muscles are often categorized functionally on the basis of stabilizing or mobilizing roles. Neuromuscular control is critical in coordinating this complex system for dynamic stabilization. Comprehensive assessment and training require a multifaceted approach to address core muscle strength, endurance, and recruitment requirements for functional demands associated with daily activities, exercise, and sport.

  13. A remark on Dickey's stabilizing chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svinin, Andrei K.

    2011-01-01

    We observe that Dickey's stabilizing chain can be naturally included into two-dimensional chain of infinitely many copies of equations of KP hierarchy. -- Highlights: → In this study we consider Dickey's stabilizing chain. → We construct two-dimensional chain of dressing truncated operators. → We show that Dickey's stabilizing chain can be included into two-dimensional chain of KP hierarchies.

  14. A Unified Stability Property in Spin Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Dmitry

    2012-08-01

    Gibbs' measures in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick type models satisfy two asymptotic stability properties, the Aizenman-Contucci stochastic stability and the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities, which play a fundamental role in our current understanding of these models. In this paper we show that one can combine these two properties very naturally into one unified stability property.

  15. 46 CFR 170.110 - Stability booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Center or the ABS. (c) Each stability book must contain sufficient information to enable the master to...) A stability booklet is not required if sufficient information to enable the master to operate the... of Inspection, Load Line Certificate, or in the stability letter required in § 170.120. (f) On board...

  16. Stability theory of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard Ernest

    1953-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this was the first English-language text to offer detailed coverage of boundedness, stability, and asymptotic behavior of linear and nonlinear differential equations. It remains a classic guide, featuring material from original research papers, including the author's own studies.The linear equation with constant and almost-constant coefficients receives in-depth attention that includes aspects of matrix theory. No previous acquaintance with the theory is necessary, since author Richard Bellman derives the results in matrix theory from

  17. Stability of swirling annular flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, František; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Novotný, Pavel; Werner, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2010), s. 267-279 ISSN 1065-3090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : swirling jet * hydrodynamic stability * impinging jet Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.begellhouse.com/journals/52b74bd3689ab10b,6bfbd93509947e2e,03fca4e77476857d.html

  18. Stability of the Wurtzite Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawætz, Peter

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of available data for 20 wurtzite compounds of the ANB8-N type shows that the stability as compared with zinc blende is closely connected with deviations of the c / a ratio from the ideal value of 1.633. A simple qualitative model is proposed to account for this feature. The variation...... in c / a is then correlated with the charge parameter ZC / ℏωp, where Z is the (effective) valence, C Phillips's electronegativity difference, and ℏωp the plasma energy of the free-valence-electron gas. The results indicate that c / a may be predicted with an uncertainty of 0.1%....

  19. Stabilization of modified polyamide matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchini, Leonardo G.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    Films of PA 6 (polyamide) doped with europium luminescent complexes have been develop and studied for applications in advanced technologies. Development of optical marker for process monitoring is the focus of the present study. Based in doped luminescent polyamide samples were prepared for polymer processing use. Films were prepared by dissolution of PA 6 in acid moiety with addition of europium complex. Stability evaluation was done in samples submitted to irradiation with 10 and 100 kGy of ionizing source. The luminescent polymer matrices were characterized using the techniques of infrared, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and photoluminescent properties by electron emission spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Financial Stability In The Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielińska Klaudia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial stability inside the European Monetary Union (EMU is a trendy topic in most developed countries around the world. From the moment the EMU was brought to life, there was much speculation about its imperfections, inadequate management, and vulnerability. Some of them have turned out to be true, while others have been proved invalid. Nevertheless, the debt crisis has demonstrated inadequacies in the EMU’s structure and proved that a higher degree of integration is necessary in order to guarantee the robustness of the common currency and fully utilize its potential.

  1. Stabilizing and changing phenomenal worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Andersen, Hanne

    2001-01-01

    discuss the problem of how divergent thinking can emerge in a dogmatic atmosphere. We shall argue that in their accounts of the factors inducing changes of scientific phenomenal worlds Fleck and Kuhn offer substantially different approaches, and we shall discuss in which respects their approaches may......In the work of both Ludwik Fleck and Thomas Kuhn the scientific literature plays important roles for stability and change of scientific phenomenal worlds. In this article we shall introduce the analyses of scientific literature provided by Fleck and Kühn, respectively. From this background we shall...

  2. The luminescent concentrator. Stability issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slooff, L.H.; Budel, T.; Burgers, A.R.; Bakker, N.J. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O.Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Buechtemann, A.; Danz, R. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Polymer Research, Geiselbergstr.69, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Meyer, T.; Meyer, A. [Solaronix SA, Rue de l' Ouriette 129, CH-1170 Aubonne (Switzerland)

    2007-08-15

    One of the major challenges in the research on luminescent concentrators is the lifetime of the luminescent polymer plates. There are some commercial plates available, but data on lifetime are very limited, especially when dedicated to applications like the luminescent concentrator. In this paper we report stability experiments on luminescent concentrator plates, aged under continuous white light illumination, outdoor conditions and high intensity monochromatic illumination. The results show that the lifetime strongly depends on the organic luminescent dye in the plate. The best materials exhibit an initial decrease in performance of about 20% and then remain more or less stable. It is shown that the degradation is not caused by UV illumination.

  3. Plume spread and atmospheric stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The horizontal spread of a plume in atmospheric dispersion can be described by the standard deviation of horizontal direction. The widely used Pasquill-Gifford classes of atmospheric stability have assigned typical values of the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction and of the lapse rate. A measured lapse rate can thus be used to estimate the standard deviation of wind direction. It is examined by means of a large dataset of fast wind measurements how good these estimates are. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  4. Nuclear astrophysics away from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Howard, W.M.; Takahashi, K.; Ward, R.A.

    1985-08-01

    Explosive astrophysical environments invariably lead to the production of nuclei away from stability. An understanding of the dynamics and nucleosynthesis in such environments is inextricably coupled to an understanding of the properties of the synthesized nuclei. In this talk a review is presented of the basic explosive nucleosynthesis mechanisms (s-process, r-process, n-process, p-process, and rp-process). Specific stellar model calculations are discussed and a summary of the pertinent nuclear data is presented. Possible experiments and nuclear-model calculations are suggested that could facilitate a better understanding of the astrophysical scenarios. 39 refs., 4 figs

  5. Stability in quadratic torsion theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilev, Teodor Borislavov; Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Gigante Valcarcel, Jorge; Martin-Moruno, Prado [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    We revisit the definition and some of the characteristics of quadratic theories of gravity with torsion. We start from a Lagrangian density quadratic in the curvature and torsion tensors. By assuming that General Relativity should be recovered when the torsion vanishes and investigating the behaviour of the vector and pseudo-vector torsion fields in the weak-gravity regime, we present a set of necessary conditions for the stability of these theories. Moreover, we explicitly obtain the gravitational field equations using the Palatini variational principle with the metricity condition implemented via a Lagrange multiplier. (orig.)

  6. Stability in a changing world -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares, Ingrid; Svenning, J.-C.; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Are the hyperdiverse local forests of the western Amazon undergoing changes linked to global and local drivers such as climate change, or successional dynamics? We analyzed local climatic records to assess potential climatic changes in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, and compared two censuses (1995...... dynamics in Yasuní contrast with recent findings from eastern Amazon, where environmental change is driving significant changes in ecosystem dynamics. Our findings suggest that until now, local forests in the northwest Amazon may have escaped pressure from climate change. The stability of this rich palm...

  7. Stability in quadratic torsion theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Teodor Borislavov; Cembranos, Jose A. R.; Valcarcel, Jorge Gigante; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2017-11-01

    We revisit the definition and some of the characteristics of quadratic theories of gravity with torsion. We start from a Lagrangian density quadratic in the curvature and torsion tensors. By assuming that General Relativity should be recovered when the torsion vanishes and investigating the behaviour of the vector and pseudo-vector torsion fields in the weak-gravity regime, we present a set of necessary conditions for the stability of these theories. Moreover, we explicitly obtain the gravitational field equations using the Palatini variational principle with the metricity condition implemented via a Lagrange multiplier.

  8. Capacitor storage voltage stabilization device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logvin, V.V.; Gusev, E.V.

    1987-01-01

    An electric circuit of a device designed for charging and stabilizing a capacitor storage is described. A phase-pulse method for thyristor control in the power transformer first circuit is used. In the process of storage charging the triggering angle of thyristors linearly grows, that excludes the necessity of application of current-limiting elements in the charging circuit. The averaged charging voltage of the storage linearly dependce on charging time. Charging is realized by a series of short-time current pulses. Output voltage is controlled within 10...95% limits of the rated value. Voltage instability is ≤0.5% at power supply voltage variation of ±10%

  9. Stability of aztreonam in AZACTAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Marianna; Jelińska, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Oszczapowicz, Irena

    2005-01-01

    The influence of temperature and relative humidity on the stability of aztreonam in AZACTAM was investigated. Changes of the concentration of aztreonam were followed using the HPLC method with UV detection. The first-order rate constants of the reversible reaction of isomerization Z-aztreonam right harpoon over left harpoonE-aztreonam and the parallel reaction Z-aztreonam-->products were determined at RH=76.4% and T=313, 323, 333, 343 and 353 K, and at T=343 K and RH=50.9%, 60.5%, 66.5% and 76.4%. The thermodynamic parameters-energy, enthalpy and entropy of these reactions were calculated.

  10. A relation between Liapunov stability, non-wanderingness and Poisson stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, K.H.

    1985-07-01

    In this work, some of the relations among Liapunov stability, non-wanderingness and Poisson stability are considered. In particular it is shown that for a non-wandering point in a set, positive (resp. negative) Liapunov stability in that set implies positive (resp. negative) Poisson stability in the same set. (author)

  11. Nitride stabilized core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian Abraham; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2018-01-30

    Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.

  12. Stability problems for linear hyperbolic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhoff, K.S.

    1975-05-01

    The stability properties for the trivial solution of a general linear hyperbolic system of partial differential equations of the first order are studied. It is shown that results may be obtained by studying the stability properties of certain systems of ordinary differential equations which can be constructed from the hyperbolic system (the so-called transport equations). In some cases the associated stability problem for the transport equations can in fact be shown to be equivalent to the stability problem for the hyperbolic system, but in general the transport equations will only give the necessary conditions for stability. (Auth.)

  13. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND STABILITY OF BIRD COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyura M.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available When comparing the suggested stability indicators, we obtained statistically significant correlations for indicators of annual stability of species and total number and standard deviation of the logarithm of the number. Annual Stability Index can be applied with a high degree of reliability as a characteristic of the averaged structure of the community and its pyramid of abundances. The results of correlation analysis confirm our assumptions about the correlation between stability over the years and indices of species diversity and relative uniformity.The final task of the study was to create a mathematical model of stability, where the independent variables are the indices of species diversity. The calculation of these indices allows forecasting birds’ community stability. According to the result of multiple regression for the indicators of diversity and stability of the breeding birds’ community highest correlation coefficients were obtained fro Shannon index and Simpson's dominance Index.Community stability could be determined by its overall species diversity. When considering the stability of community its diversity should be considered as a combination of uniformity of their total number and number of species. The most suitable predictors for the community stability were the nonparametric index of dominance and information-statistical indices, since they considered simultaneously evenness and richness. The community stability is subject of the complexity of its internal communications pattern.

  14. The concept of stability in numerical mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In this book, the author compares the meaning of stability in different subfields of numerical mathematics.  Concept of Stability in numerical mathematics opens by examining the stability of finite algorithms. A more precise definition of stability holds for quadrature and interpolation methods, which the following chapters focus on. The discussion then progresses to the numerical treatment of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). While one-step methods for ODEs are always stable, this is not the case for hyperbolic or parabolic differential equations, which are investigated next. The final chapters discuss stability for discretisations of elliptic differential equations and integral equations. In comparison among the subfields we discuss the practical importance of stability and the possible conflict between higher consistency order and stability.  

  15. Protein stability: a crystallographer’s perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Marc C.; Kong, Leopold; Rupp, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is a topic of major interest for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries, in addition to being a daily consideration for academic researchers studying proteins. An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification, formulation, storage and structural studies of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability, on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. The differences between protein conformational stability and protein compositional stability will be discussed, along with a brief introduction to key methods useful for analyzing protein stability. Finally, tactics for addressing protein-stability issues during protein expression, purification and crystallization will be discussed. PMID:26841758

  16. Vacuum Stability of Standard Model^{++}

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R.; Vlcek, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The latest results of the ATLAS and CMS experiments point to a preferred narrow Higgs mass range (m_h \\simeq 124 - 126 GeV) in which the effective potential of the Standard Model (SM) develops a vacuum instability at a scale 10^{9} -10^{11} GeV, with the precise scale depending on the precise value of the top quark mass and the strong coupling constant. Motivated by this experimental situation, we present here a detailed investigation about the stability of the SM^{++} vacuum, which is characterized by a simple extension of the SM obtained by adding to the scalar sector a complex SU(2) singlet that has the quantum numbers of the right-handed neutrino, H", and to the gauge sector an U(1) that is broken by the vacuum expectation value of H". We derive the complete set of renormalization group equations at one loop. We then pursue a numerical study of the system to determine the triviality and vacuum stability bounds, using a scan of 10^4 random set of points to fix the initial conditions. We show that, if there...

  17. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affected Political Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolution of debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after the introduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (including the provincial capitals during the period 1995–2009. Our results show that the Budgetary Stability Law has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated the incumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims. Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoral cycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before the implementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the election year.

  18. Stability analysis of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdelle, C.

    2000-10-01

    In a tokamak plasma, the energy transport is mainly turbulent. In order to increase the fusion reactions rate, it is needed to improve the energy confinement. The present work is dedicated to the identification of the key parameters leading to plasmas with a better confined energy in order to guide the future experiments. For this purpose, a numerical code has been developed. It calculates the growth rates characterizing the instabilities onset. The stability analysis is completed by the evaluation of the shearing rate of the rotation due to the radial electric field. When this shearing rate is greater than the growth rate the ion turbulence is fully stabilised. The shearing rate and the growth rate are determined from the density, temperature and security factor profiles of a given plasma. Three types of plasmas have been analysed. In the Radiative Improved modes of TEXTOR, high charge number ions seeding lowers the growth rates. In Tore Supra-high density plasmas, a strong magnetic shear and/or a more efficient ion heating linked to a bifurcation of the toroidal rotation direction (which is not understood) trigger the improvement of the confinement. In other Tore Supra plasmas, locally steep electron pressure gradients have been obtained following magnetic shear reversal. This locally negative magnetic shear has a stabilizing effect. In these three families of plasmas, the growth rates decrease, the confinement improves, the density and temperature profiles are steeper. This steepening induces an increase of the rotation shearing rate, which then maintains the confinement high quality. (author)

  19. Is crisis stability still achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Joshua

    During the Cold War, the idea of crisis stability concerned whether the United States and the Soviet Union would be faced with powerful incentives to strike each other first with their nuclear weapons during periods of tension. This idea influenced the design of nuclear forces and guided aspects of nuclear arms control. The United States and Russia continue to operate large, alert nuclear forces, but at least three new factors have emerged that add significantly greater complexity to this picture. The first new factor consists of the development and deployment of new strategic military technologies that are entangled with nuclear weapons. These include strategic ballistic missile defenses, counter-space weapons, and strategic conventional weapons. The second new factor consists of new dyads of interacting strategic forces beyond US-Russia. These include US-China, US-North Korea, India-Pakistan, and India-China. The third new factor consists of the emergence of three-actor crisis stability dynamics, where the third actor is not necessarily nuclear-armed. This paper illustrates the concept with the US-North Korea-South Korea triangle. It briefly discusses the implications of these developments and reflects on the broad policy options that may be available.

  20. Stability of multispecies bacterial communities: signaling networks may stabilize microbiomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kerényi

    Full Text Available Multispecies bacterial communities can be remarkably stable and resilient even though they consist of cells and species that compete for environmental resources. In silico models suggest that common signals released into the environment may help selected bacterial species cluster at common locations and that sharing of public goods (i.e. molecules produced and released for mutual benefit can stabilize this coexistence. In contrast, unilateral eavesdropping on signals produced by a potentially invading species may protect a community by keeping invaders away from limited resources. Shared bacterial signals, such as those found in quorum sensing systems, may thus play a key role in fine tuning competition and cooperation within multi-bacterial communities. We suggest that in addition to metabolic complementarity, signaling dynamics may be important in further understanding complex bacterial communities such as the human, animal as well as plant microbiomes.

  1. Stability and boundary stabilization of 1-D hyperbolic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bastin, Georges

    2016-01-01

    This monograph explores the modeling of conservation and balance laws of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems using partial differential equations. It presents typical examples of hyperbolic systems for a wide range of physical engineering applications, allowing readers to understand the concepts in whichever setting is most familiar to them. With these examples, it also illustrates how control boundary conditions may be defined for the most commonly used control devices. The authors begin with the simple case of systems of two linear conservation laws and then consider the stability of systems under more general boundary conditions that may be differential, nonlinear, or switching. They then extend their discussion to the case of nonlinear conservation laws and demonstrate the use of Lyapunov functions in this type of analysis. Systems of balance laws are considered next, starting with the linear variety before they move on to more general cases of nonlinear ones. They go on to show how the problem of boundary...

  2. Atomic Stability as Result of Electrodynamic Stability Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng-Johansson, Jx; Johansson, P.-I.

    2006-03-01

    According to [1] an electron e^- is formed of an oscillatory massless charge -e in general also traveling at velocity v, and the resulting electromagnetic waves of angular frequency ĵ, j= and for generated in +v and -v directions. The wave energy √̂̂ equals the charge oscillation energy ɛq (with the v=0 portion) endowed at the charge's creation; ɛq/c^2 gives the electron mass me, c the wave speed. For an atomic orbiting electron, the charge's v motion is along a circular (or projected-elliptic) orbit l of radius r; so are its waves. (a) The waves meet in each loop with the charge, are absorbed a portion by it and reemitted, repeatedly, and thereby retained to it; the vacuum, having no lower energy levels for the charge to decay to except in a pair annihilation, is essentially a non-dissipative medium. (b) The two waves, being Doppler-differentiated for the moving source, meet each other over the loops and superpose into a beat, or de Broglie phase wave ψ. ψ =C e^i(kdl-φT) is a maximum if 2πrn= nλdn, n integer, λd=2πkd=(cv)λ the de Broglie wavelength and λ=2 πcφ, and accordingly yields a stable state. The corresponding overall eigen solutions are exactly equivalent with the QM results. The classical electrodynamic stability conditions (a)-(b) entail the stability of the atomic system. [1] JX Zheng-Johansson & P-I Johansson, Unification of Classical, Quantum and Relativistic Mechanics and the Four Forces, Fwd Prof R Lundin, Nova Science, NY, 2005; see also B40.00003, this meeting.

  3. Linear and nonlinear stability in resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.

    1994-01-01

    A sufficient stability condition with respect to purely growing modes is derived for resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Its open-quotes nearnessclose quotes to necessity is analysed. It is found that for physically reasonable approximations the condition is in some sense necessary and sufficient for stability against all modes. This, together with hermiticity makes its analytical and numerical evaluation worthwhile for the optimization of magnetic configurations. Physically motivated test functions are introduced. This leads to simplified versions of the stability functional, which makes its evaluation and minimization more tractable. In the case of special force-free fields the simplified functional reduces to a good approximation of the exact stability functional derived by other means. It turns out that in this case the condition is also sufficient for nonlinear stability. Nonlinear stability in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics is discussed especially in connection with open-quotes unconditionalclose quotes stability and with severe limitations on the Reynolds number. Two examples in magnetohydrodynamics show that the limitations on the Reynolds numbers can be removed but unconditional stability is preserved. Practical stability needs to be treated for limited levels of perturbations or for conditional stability. This implies some knowledge of the basin of attraction of the unperturbed solution, which is a very difficult problem. Finally, a special inertia-caused Hopf bifurcation is identified and the nature of the resulting attractors is discussed. 23 refs

  4. Stability of accelerated metal shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahsiri, H.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic treatment has been developed for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an accelerated liner. It is applicable to one-dimensional models either compressible or incompressible. With this model several points have been clarified. For an incompressible liner model, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability will have about five e-folding periods and the usual growth rate is independent of the current distribution or current rise time. Adequate stability will therefore depend on the magnitude of the initial perturbations or the precision of the initial liner and the thickness over which the shell is accelerated. However, for a compressible model, theory predicts that the current rise time is important and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is suppressed if the current rise time is less than the shock transit time

  5. Stabilized imploding liner fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, D.L.; Cooper, A.L.; Ford, R.; Gerber, K.A.; Hammer, D.A.; Jenkins, D.J.; Robson, A.E.; Turchi, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept in imploding liner plasma compression is described in which a liquid metal liner is imploded by pistons driven by high-pressure gas, and stability of the inner surface against Rayleigh-Taylor modes is achieved by rotation. The principle has been demonstrated by using a water liner to compress air. This 'captive liner' offers the possibility of stable, reversible implosion-expansion cycles in which the plasma energy is recovered into the driving system, leading to reactor cycles with low Q and, hence, small size. A new method of setting up closed-field confinement geometries inside a liner using a rotating electron beam is described. Plasma currents induced by the beam provide initial plasma heating and generate the containment geometry. Persistence of plasma currents 100 times longer than the beam duration has been observed. Development of these methods could lead to a very compact thermonuclear reactor operating in the manner of a reciprocating engine. (author)

  6. Stability, divertors and innovative concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirnov, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains a short resume of the sections on 'Stability, Divertors and Innovative Concepts' presented at the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The main conclusions are: (1) the problem of type I ELMs in tokamaks seems to be not so dramatic; (2) it was demonstrated that the working pulse length of large thermonuclear devices can achieve 100 s and more; (3) the problem of tritium retention seems to be not so dramatic now; probable approaches of its solution are visible; (4) active methods of plasma instabilities suppression (NTM, RWM, sawteeth, external MHD) work successfully; (5) new methods of mitigation of the disruption consequences were offered. New technological ideas and new ideas on magnetic confinement were presented. (author)

  7. Stability of a tachyon braneworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Kuerten, André Martorano; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto; Rocha, Roldão da

    2016-01-01

    Within the braneworld paradigm the tachyonic scalar field has been used to generate models that attempt to solve some of the open problems that physics faces nowadays, both in cosmology and high energy physics as well. When these field configurations are produced by the interplay of higher dimensional warped gravity with some matter content, braneworld models must prove to be stable under the whole set of small fluctuations of the gravitational and matter fields background, among other consistency tests. Here we present a complete proof of the stability under scalar perturbations of tachyonic thick braneworlds with an embedded maximally symmetric 4D space-time, revealing its physical consistency. This family of models contains a recently reported tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld which possesses a series of appealing properties. These features encompass complete regularity, asymptotic flatness (instead of being asymptotically dS or AdS) even when it contains a negative bulk cosmological constant, a relevant 3-brane with dS metric which naturally arises from the full set of field equations of the 5D background (it is not imposed), qualitatively describing the inflationary epochs of our Universe, and a graviton spectrum with a single zero mode bound state that accounts for the 4D graviton localised on the brane and is separated from the continuum of Kaluza-Klein massive graviton excitations by a mass gap. The presence of this mass gap in the graviton spectrum makes the extra-dimensional corrections to Newton’s law decay exponentially. Gauge vector fields with a single massless bound state in its mass spectrum are also localised on this braneworld model a fact that allows us to recover the Coulomb’s law of our 4D world. All these properties of the above referred tachyonic braneworld together with the positive stability analysis provided in this work, constitute a firm step towards the construction of realistic cosmological models within the braneworld paradigm

  8. Stability of a tachyon braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germán, Gabriel [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla,Apartado Postal J-48, 72570, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Ciudad Universitaria, CP 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Kuerten, André Martorano [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC),Avenida dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rocha, Roldão da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC),Avenida dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-26

    Within the braneworld paradigm the tachyonic scalar field has been used to generate models that attempt to solve some of the open problems that physics faces nowadays, both in cosmology and high energy physics as well. When these field configurations are produced by the interplay of higher dimensional warped gravity with some matter content, braneworld models must prove to be stable under the whole set of small fluctuations of the gravitational and matter fields background, among other consistency tests. Here we present a complete proof of the stability under scalar perturbations of tachyonic thick braneworlds with an embedded maximally symmetric 4D space-time, revealing its physical consistency. This family of models contains a recently reported tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld which possesses a series of appealing properties. These features encompass complete regularity, asymptotic flatness (instead of being asymptotically dS or AdS) even when it contains a negative bulk cosmological constant, a relevant 3-brane with dS metric which naturally arises from the full set of field equations of the 5D background (it is not imposed), qualitatively describing the inflationary epochs of our Universe, and a graviton spectrum with a single zero mode bound state that accounts for the 4D graviton localised on the brane and is separated from the continuum of Kaluza-Klein massive graviton excitations by a mass gap. The presence of this mass gap in the graviton spectrum makes the extra-dimensional corrections to Newton’s law decay exponentially. Gauge vector fields with a single massless bound state in its mass spectrum are also localised on this braneworld model a fact that allows us to recover the Coulomb’s law of our 4D world. All these properties of the above referred tachyonic braneworld together with the positive stability analysis provided in this work, constitute a firm step towards the construction of realistic cosmological models within the braneworld paradigm.

  9. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk

  10. Stability of a tachyon braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germán, Gabriel; Kuerten, André Martorano; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, 72570, Puebla, Puebla, México (Mexico); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: gabriel@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: aherrera@ifuap.buap.mx, E-mail: andre.kuerten@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: malagon@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Avenida dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-01

    Within the braneworld paradigm the tachyonic scalar field has been used to generate models that attempt to solve some of the open problems that physics faces nowadays, both in cosmology and high energy physics as well. When these field configurations are produced by the interplay of higher dimensional warped gravity with some matter content, braneworld models must prove to be stable under the whole set of small fluctuations of the gravitational and matter fields background, among other consistency tests. Here we present a complete proof of the stability under scalar perturbations of tachyonic thick braneworlds with an embedded maximally symmetric 4D space-time, revealing its physical consistency. This family of models contains a recently reported tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld which possesses a series of appealing properties. These features encompass complete regularity, asymptotic flatness (instead of being asymptotically dS or AdS) even when it contains a negative bulk cosmological constant, a relevant 3-brane with dS metric which naturally arises from the full set of field equations of the 5D background (it is not imposed), qualitatively describing the inflationary epochs of our Universe, and a graviton spectrum with a single zero mode bound state that accounts for the 4D graviton localised on the brane and is separated from the continuum of Kaluza-Klein massive graviton excitations by a mass gap. The presence of this mass gap in the graviton spectrum makes the extra-dimensional corrections to Newton's law decay exponentially. Gauge vector fields with a single massless bound state in its mass spectrum are also localised on this braneworld model a fact that allows us to recover the Coulomb's law of our 4D world. All these properties of the above referred tachyonic braneworld together with the positive stability analysis provided in this work, constitute a firm step towards the construction of realistic cosmological models within the braneworld

  11. The Hydromechanics of Vegetation for Slope Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono, A.; Subardja, A.; Ekasari, I.; Lailati, M.; Sudirja, R.; Ningrum, W.

    2018-02-01

    Vegetation is one of the alternative technologies in the prevention of shallow landslide prevention that occurs mostly during the rainy season. The application of plant for slope stabilization is known as bioengineering. Knowledge of the vegetative contribution that can be considered in bioengineering was the hydrological and mechanical aspects (hydromechanical). Hydrological effect of the plant on slope stability is to reduce soil water content through transpiration, interception, and evapotranspiration. The mechanical impact of vegetation on slope stability is to stabilize the slope with mechanical reinforcement of soils through roots. Vegetation water consumption varies depending on the age and density, rainfall factors and soil types. Vegetation with high ability to absorb water from the soil and release into the atmosphere through a transpiration process will reduce the pore water stress and increase slope stability, and vegetation with deep root anchoring and strong root binding was potentially more significant to maintain the stability of the slope.

  12. Stochastic stability properties of jump linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangbo; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Ji, Yuandong; Chizeck, Howard J.

    1992-01-01

    Jump linear systems are defined as a family of linear systems with randomly jumping parameters (usually governed by a Markov jump process) and are used to model systems subject to failures or changes in structure. The authors study stochastic stability properties in jump linear systems and the relationship among various moment and sample path stability properties. It is shown that all second moment stability properties are equivalent and are sufficient for almost sure sample path stability, and a testable necessary and sufficient condition for second moment stability is derived. The Lyapunov exponent method for the study of almost sure sample stability is discussed, and a theorem which characterizes the Lyapunov exponents of jump linear systems is presented.

  13. A coupled-stability index for ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fei-Fei; Kim, Seon Tae; Bejarano, Luis

    2006-12-01

    Based on the simple framework of the recharge oscillator for El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), this paper describes the formulation of a coupled stability index for the large-scale tropical ocean-atmosphere interactions in the equatorial Pacific region. This index, referred to as the Bjerknes (BJ) stability index, takes its negative contributions from the mean upwelling and thermal damping and its positive contributions from the thermocline, the zonal advection, and the Ekman feedbacks. The validity of the BJ stability index formula is tested through a detailed eigen-analysis of an intermediate-coupled model, which shows that the BJ stability index captures the dependence of growth rate of the leading coupled ENSO-like mode on various climate conditions. The general formula of the BJ stability index may be useful for assessing the coupled stability of ENSO and its sensitivity to changes in tropical climate conditions.

  14. Biomechanics of posterior dynamic stabilization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbulut, D U; Zafarparandeh, I; Ozer, A F; Goel, V K

    2013-01-01

    Spinal rigid instrumentations have been used to fuse and stabilize spinal segments as a surgical treatment for various spinal disorders to date. This technology provides immediate stability after surgery until the natural fusion mass develops. At present, rigid fixation is the current gold standard in surgical treatment of chronic back pain spinal disorders. However, such systems have several drawbacks such as higher mechanical stress on the adjacent segment, leading to long-term degenerative changes and hypermobility that often necessitate additional fusion surgery. Dynamic stabilization systems have been suggested to address adjacent segment degeneration, which is considered to be a fusion-associated phenomenon. Dynamic stabilization systems are designed to preserve segmental stability, to keep the treated segment mobile, and to reduce or eliminate degenerative effects on adjacent segments. This paper aimed to describe the biomechanical aspect of dynamic stabilization systems as an alternative treatment to fusion for certain patients.

  15. Biomechanics of Posterior Dynamic Stabilization Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. U. Erbulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal rigid instrumentations have been used to fuse and stabilize spinal segments as a surgical treatment for various spinal disorders to date. This technology provides immediate stability after surgery until the natural fusion mass develops. At present, rigid fixation is the current gold standard in surgical treatment of chronic back pain spinal disorders. However, such systems have several drawbacks such as higher mechanical stress on the adjacent segment, leading to long-term degenerative changes and hypermobility that often necessitate additional fusion surgery. Dynamic stabilization systems have been suggested to address adjacent segment degeneration, which is considered to be a fusion-associated phenomenon. Dynamic stabilization systems are designed to preserve segmental stability, to keep the treated segment mobile, and to reduce or eliminate degenerative effects on adjacent segments. This paper aimed to describe the biomechanical aspect of dynamic stabilization systems as an alternative treatment to fusion for certain patients.

  16. Assessment of Voltage Stability Using Network Equivalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chakrabarti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fast system voltage stability index (FSVSI has been proposed to assess overall system voltage stability of a multi-bus power system at a particular operating point using the concept of two bus network equivalent. A universal direct voltage stability index has also been explored to assess local (DVSI as well as overall system voltage stability (DSVSI. An index called system transmission quality factor (STQF has been developed to assess the power transmission quality of the overall system in the context of voltage stability. Two FACTS controllers, TCSC and STATCOM have also been incorporated in the present study to observe their effectiveness to ensure voltage stabilty. STATCOM has been found to be superior in order to improve voltage stability of power system as compared to TCSC. The developed concept has been validated using practical India Easten Grid (WBSEB system and it has a high potential of on-line application.

  17. Rapid Stabilization/Polymerization of Wet Clay Soils; Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Fibre Reinforced Soil." Journal of the Institu- tion of Engineers ( India ), Civil Engineering Division, 83, 135-138. 57. Gow, A. J., Davidson, D. T., and...the Institution of Engineers ( India ) Publication Date: 2002 Purpose of Stabilizer: Stabilizer - Earth Structures Stabilizers Tested: Coir...Purpose of Stabilizer: Stabilizer - Swell potential Stabilizers Tested: Gypsum, lignite , flyash, lime, slime tailings Soil Tested USCS Primary

  18. Assessment of trace element stabilization in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpiene, Jurate

    2005-01-01

    The thesis deals with the remediation of trace element contaminated soil by the chemical stabilization technique. The objective is to complement the knowledge about possibilities of applying the stabilization either (1) as an alternate soil remediation method to excavation and landfilling or (2) for a pre-treatment of contaminated soil before landfilling. The work is based on two case studies of the stabilization of 1) Cr, Cu, As, and Zn contaminated soil using metallic iron and 2) Pb and Cu ...

  19. Spin stabilized magnetic levitation of horizontal rotors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Louis Anthony

    2004-10-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of a new configuration for achieving spin stabilized magnetic levitation. In the classical configuration, the rotor spins about a vertical axis; and the spin stabilizes the lateral instability of the top in the magnetic field. In this new configuration the rotor spins about a horizontal axis; and the spin stabilizes the axial instability of the top in the magnetic field.

  20. Exponential Stabilization of an Underactuated Surface Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that a large class of underactuated vehicles cannot be asymptotically stabilized by either continuous or discontinuous state feedback. Furthermore, stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel is considered. Controllability properties of the surface vessels is presented, and a continuous periodic time-varying feedback law is proposed. It is shown that this feedback law exponentially stabilizes the surface vessel to the origin, and this is illustrated by simulations.

  1. Relationship Stability through Lenses of Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Karakurt, Gunnur

    2012-01-01

    Research on relationship stability usually considers the effect of couple outcomes and individual differences on relationship stability in isolation from each other. These separate bodies of research often lead to inconsistent results. In order to better understand relationship stability and explain inconsistencies in the literature, it is important to investigate more complex models that integrate couple outcomes and behaviors with individual differences. Motivated by these considerations, w...

  2. Financial stability of banking system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, B

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims at investigating the financial stability of China's banking system. Since the banking system is one of the most important financial intermediaries in the financial systems, the financial soundness of banks could secure the stability of the whole financial system. Two of the factors that may significantly increase imbalance of the banking system, and hence affect financial stability of an economy is the accumulated non-performing loans of banks and the macro-economic turbulenc...

  3. Stability of magnetic modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.

    1994-06-01

    A theoretical study is carried out concerning two experimental topics: stabilization, by a suprathermal population, of the mode ''m=1, n=1'' which induces the sawtooth effect (modelling the role of suprathermal particles in the stabilization); stability, in the non linear regime, of the magnetic islands involved in magnetic turbulence problems (micro-tearing) and in disruption phenomena (tearing), and the effects of diamagnetism, excitation threshold and saturation levels. 45 figs., 97 refs

  4. Stability investigation of quadratic systems with delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Davydov

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems of differential equations with quadratic right-hand sides with delay are considered in the paper. Compact matrix notation form is proposed for the systems of such type. Stability investigations are performed by Lyapunov's second method with functions of quadratic form. Stability conditions of quadratic systems with delay, uniformly by argument deviation, and with delay depending on the system's parameters are derived. A guaranteed radius of the ball of asymptotic stability region for zero solution is obtained.

  5. Stability of the elderberry dye in vodkas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizlo, A.; Jankowska, D.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of light, pH, strength of vodkas and by-products on Sambucus nigra pigments stability was tested in this paper. The elderberry dye was unstable in vodkas during light action in general. It was stated that low strength of vodkas and high pH effected an increase of the vodkas colour stability. The presence of vitamin C caused discolouring effect on elderberry dye but chockeberry distillate effected an increase of the vodkas colour stability

  6. Formulation and stability testing of photolabile drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, H H

    2001-08-28

    Exposure of a drug to irradiation can influence the stability of the formulation, leading to changes in the physicochemical properties of the product. The influence of excipients of frequently used stabilizers is often difficult to predict and, therefore, stability testing of the final preparation is important. The selection of a protective packaging must be based on knowledge about the wavelength causing the instability. Details on drug photoreactivity will also be helpful in order to minimize side-effects and/or optimize drug targeting by developing photoresponsive drug delivery systems. This review focuses on practical problems related to formulation and stability testing of photolabile drugs.

  7. Radioimmunoassay procedure using a stabilized complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanian, I.V.; Irani, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay procedure involves the use of a stabilized complex of labelled antigen and antibody which has an extended shelf life as compared to the same complex absent the stabilizers. Since the time needed to incubate the mixture of labelled antigen and antibody is eliminated, the time for completing the assay is considerably shortened and simplified. The components for carrying out the procedure are packaged in a kit basically including standard antigen for generation of a standard curve, a stabilized labelled antigen-antibody complex and reference serum, if used. A plurality of stabilizers are used in the complex to provide a shelf life of six weeks or more. 10 claims

  8. Stability of nanosuspensions in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yancai; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Qiwei; Zhang, Dianrui

    2013-12-28

    Nanosuspensions are nanosized colloidal dispersion systems that are stabilized by surfactants and/or polymers. Because nanosizing results in the creation of new interfaces and in a positive Gibbs free energy change, nanosuspensions are thermodynamically unstable systems with a tendency toward agglomeration or crystal growth. Despite extensive research on nanosuspension technology, stability remains a limitation for pharmaceutical or industrial applications of nanosuspensions. Furthermore, the empirical relationship between stabilizer efficacy and nanosuspension stability has not been well characterized. This review focuses on the issue of nanosuspension stability in drug delivery to present the state of the art of nanosuspensions. Therefore, this review will discuss unstable suspensions, methods and guidelines for selecting and optimizing stabilizers, approaches for enhancing stability, and other factors that influence nanosuspension stability. This review could serve as a reference for the educated selection of a stabilizer for a specific drug candidate and the optimization of the operational parameters for nanosuspension formulation, rather than the currently practiced trial-and-error approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonlinear stability of ideal fluid equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Lyapunov method for establishing stability is related to well- known energy principles for nondissipative dynamical systems. A development of the Lyapunov method for Hamiltonian systems due to Arnold establishes sufficient conditions for Lyapunov stability by using the energy plus other conserved quantities, together with second variations and convexity estimates. When treating the stability of ideal fluid dynamics within the Hamiltonian framework, a useful class of these conserved quantities consists of the Casimir functionals, which Poisson-commute with all functionals of the dynamical fluid variables. Such conserved quantities, when added to the energy, help to provide convexity estimates that bound the growth of perturbations. These convexity estimates, in turn, provide norms necessary for establishing Lyapunov stability under the nonlinear evolution. In contrast, the commonly used second variation or spectral stability arguments only prove linearized stability. As ideal fluid examples, in these lectures we discuss planar barotropic compressible fluid dynamics, the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq model, and a new set of shallow water equations with nonlinear dispersion due to Basdenkov, Morosov, and Pogutse[1985]. Remarkably, all three of these samples have the same Hamiltonian structure and, thus, possess the same Casimir functionals upon which their stability analyses are based. We also treat stability of modified quasigeostrophic flow, a problem whose Hamiltonian structure and Casimirs closely resemble Arnold's original example. Finally, we discuss some aspects of conditional stability and the applicability of Arnold's development of the Lyapunov technique. 100 refs

  10. Two stability problems related to resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.

    1994-01-01

    Two general problems related to resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability are addressed in this paper. First, a general stability condition previously derived by the author for a class of real systems, occurring especially in plasma physics, is proved to persist to second order, despite the addition of several antisymmetric operators of first order in the linearized stability equation. Second, for a special but representative choice of the stability operators, a nonperturbative analysis demonstrates the existence of a critical density for the appearance of an overstability and the connected Hopf bifurcation, as suggested in a previous paper [Phys. Lett. A 180, 257 (1993)

  11. Nanoporous silica membranes with high hydrothermal stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giualiana; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Despite the use of sol-gel derived nanoporous silica membranes in substitution of traditional separation processes is expected leading to vast energy savings, their intrinsic poor steam-stability hampers their application at an industrial level. Transition metal ions can be used as dopant...... to improve the stability of nanoporous silica structure. This work is a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions on the microporous structure and stability of amorphous silica-based membranes, which provides information on how to design chemical compositions...... and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile nanoporous structure...

  12. Park power deficit due to atmospheric stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca; Ott, Søren

    The purpose of this paper is to present a power deficit analysis based on offshore wind farm measurements with respect to the atmospheric stability classification. The result is used to validate wind farm prediction models under different inflow and atmospheric stability conditions......The purpose of this paper is to present a power deficit analysis based on offshore wind farm measurements with respect to the atmospheric stability classification. The result is used to validate wind farm prediction models under different inflow and atmospheric stability conditions...

  13. FINANCIAL STABILITY AS A FACTOR ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Endovitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article examines the linkages between financial stability and the level of its economic security. Considered the content of financial stability, represented by its own definition, we studied the basic conditions to achieve it. The logic diagram showing the location of financial stability and financial security to ensure the economic security of the business entity. A system of internal and external factors affecting the financial stability and endanger financial stability and financial security company. It has been established that it is the internal factors such as the availability of financial resources and financial position, capital structure, the company's ability to generate profits determine the level of economic security and its ability to withstand the negative impact of external and internal threats. The necessity of improving the financial sustainability in order to improve the economic security of the enterprise. On the basis of the research proposed matrix of risks affecting the financial stability and economic security, which allows to determine the probability of their occurrence and impact. It presents the economic, social, human, financial, organizational, economic, innovative and productive tools to increase the stability and financial security of an economic entity. List considered standard measures will make a plan of action to minimize the adverse impacts and enhance financial stability and security. Therefore, a prerequisite for the economic security of the enterprise is the attainment of financial stability.

  14. The Nature of Stability in Replicating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addy Pross

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of dynamic kinetic stability, a type of stability associated specifically with replicating entities, and show how it differs from the well-known and established (static kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities associated with regular chemical systems. In the process we demonstrate how the concept can help bridge the conceptual chasm that continues to separate the physical and biological sciences by relating the nature of stability in the animate and inanimate worlds, and by providing additional insights into the physicochemical nature of abiogenesis.

  15. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  16. U31: vehicle stability and dynamics electronic stability control final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A team led by NTRCI is working to improve the roll and yaw stability of heavy duty combination trucks through developing stability algorithms, assembling demonstration hardware, and investigating robust wireless communication. : Modern electronic sta...

  17. The Stability of Galaxy Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, K. B.; Andersen, D. R.; Bershady, M. A.; Martinsson, T. P. K.; Swaters, R. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.

    2014-03-01

    We calculate the stellar surface mass density (Σ*) and two-component (gas+stars) disk stability (QRW) for 25 late-type galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. These calculations are based on fits of a dynamical model to our ionized-gas and stellar kinematic data performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the Bayesian posterior. Marginalizing over all galaxies, we find a median value of QRW = 2.0±0.9 at 1.5 scale lengths. We also find that QRW is anti-correlated with the star-formation rate surface density (Σ*), which can be predicted using a closed set of empirical scaling relations. Finally, we find that the star-formation efficiency (Σ*/Σg) is correlated with Σ* and weakly anti-correlated with QRW. The former is consistent with an equilibrium prediction of Σ*/Σg ∝ Σ*1/2. Despite its order-of-magnitude range, we find no correlation of Σ*/ΣgΣ*1/2 with any other physical quantity derived by our study.

  18. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  19. Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Smith L.

    2010-01-01

    This document establishes the policy and procedures for the HSP and is authorized through the Director, Johnson Space Center (JSC). This document delineates the medical operations requirements for the HSP. The HSP goals are accomplished through an awareness campaign and procedures such as limiting access to flight crewmembers, medical screening, and controlling flight crewmember activities. NASA's Human Space Flight Program uses strategic risk mitigation to achieve mission success while protecting crew health and safety. Infectious diseases can compromise crew health and mission success, especially in the immediate preflight period. The primary purpose of the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program (HSP) is to mitigate the risk of occurrence of infectious disease among astronaut flight crews in the immediate preflight period. Infectious diseases are contracted through direct person-to-person contact, and through contact with infectious material in the environment. The HSP establishes several controls to minimize crew exposure to infectious agents. The HSP provides a quarantine environment for the crew that minimizes contact with potentially infectious material. The HSP also limits the number of individuals who come in close contact with the crew. The infection-carrying potential of these primary contacts (PCs) is minimized by educating them in ways to avoid infections and avoiding contact with the crew if they are or may be sick. The transmission of some infectious diseases can be greatly curtailed by vaccinations. PCs are strongly encouraged to maintain updated vaccinations.

  20. Trunk orientation, stability and quadrupedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P Ivanenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Uner Tan and colleagues (2005-2012 have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area has undergone a convincing critique (Downey 2010 and ended with a call "... to move in a different direction … away from thinking solely in terms of genetic abnormality and evolutionary atavism". We consider quadrupedalism as a ‘natural experiment’ that may contribute to our knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying our balance system and our tendency toward normal (upright posture. Bipedalism necessitates a number of characteristics that distinguish us from our ancestors and present-day mammals, including: size and shape of the bones of the foot, structure of the axial and proximal musculature, and the orientation of the human body and head. In this review we address the results of experimental studies on the mechanisms that stabilize the body in healthy people, as well as how these mechanisms may be disturbed in various forms of clinical pathology. These disturbances are related primarily to automatic rather than voluntary control of posture and suggest that human quadrupedalism is a behavior that can result from adaptive processes triggered by disorders in postural tone and environmental cues. These results will serve as a starting point for comparing and contrasting bi- and quadrupedalism.