WorldWideScience

Sample records for spray chamber ssc

  1. Tracking with wire chambers at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.; Gundy, M.C.; Palounek, A.P.T.

    1989-07-01

    Limitations placed on wire chambers by radiation damage and rate requirements in the SSC environment are reviewed. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tacking systems that meet these requirements are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 13 refs., 11 fig., 1 tab

  2. Recent developments in wire chamber tracking at SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogren, H.

    1990-01-01

    All of the major SSC proposed detectors use wire chambers in their tracking systems. The feasibility of wire chambers in an SSC detector has now been established by a number of groups planning detectors at SSC. The major advances during the past year in understanding straw tube drift chambers are presented and several innovations in gaseous wire chambers are discussed. The R and D section will concentrate on progress in drift cell design, electronics and signal processing, and engineering aspects of the tracking designs

  3. Tracking simulation and wire chamber requirements for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.; Niczyporuk, B.B.; Palounek, A.P.T.

    1988-11-01

    Limitations placed on wire chambers by radiation damage and rate requirements in the SSC environment are reviewed. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems which meet these requirements are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 16 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  4. MODELING OF FUEL SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS AND DIESEL COMBUSTION CHAMBER PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer model for coordination of fuel spray characteristics with diesel combustion chamber parameters has been created in the paper.  The model allows to observe fuel sprays  develоpment in diesel cylinder at any moment of injection, to calculate characteristics of fuel sprays with due account of a shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber, timely to change fuel injection characteristics and supercharging parameters, shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber. Moreover the computer model permits to determine parameters of holes in an injector nozzle that provides the required fuel sprays characteristics at the stage of designing a diesel engine. Combustion chamber parameters for 4ЧН11/12.5 diesel engine have been determined in the paper.

  5. 3D printing for cyclonic spray chambers in ICP spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Geertsen , Valérie; Barruet , Elodie; Tache , Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D-printing is an increasingly widespread technique which is often described as a source for rapid prototyping whereas it is a manufacturing process in itself. It is a new tool for instrumental research laboratories which can now easily manufacture by themselves a large variety of devices. This article describes its application to ICP introduction system spray chambers. We undertake to print and study cyclone spray chambers by combining a...

  6. Deposition of Composite LSCF-SDC and SSC-SDC Cathodes by Axial-Injection Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey; Qureshi, Musab; Kesler, Olivera

    2012-06-01

    The performance of solid oxide fuel cell cathodes can be improved by increasing the number of electrochemical reaction sites, by controlling microstructures, or by using composite materials that consist of an ionic conductor and a mixed ionic and electronic conductor. LSCF (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ) and SSC (Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3) cathodes were manufactured by axial-injection atmospheric plasma spraying, and composite cathodes were fabricated by mixing SDC (Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9) into the feedstock powders. The plasma power was varied by changing the proportion of nitrogen in the plasma gas. The microstructures of cathodes produced with different plasma powers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and gas permeation measurements. The deposition efficiencies of these cathodes were calculated based on the mass of the sprayed cathode. Particle surface temperatures were measured in-flight to enhance understanding of the relationship between spray parameters, microstructure, and deposition efficiency.

  7. HERCULES Advanced Combustion Concepts Test Facility: Spray/Combustion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Labor fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This yearly report for 2004 on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, presents a review of work being done within the framework of HERCULES (High Efficiency R and D on Combustion with Ultra Low Emissions for Ships) - the international R and D project concerning new technologies for ships' diesels. The work involves the use and augmentation of simulation models. These are to be validated using experimental data. The report deals with the development of an experimental set-up that will simulate combustion in large two-stroke diesel engines and allow the generation of reference data. The main element of the test apparatus is a spray / combustion chamber with extensive possibilities for optical observation under variable flow conditions. The results of first simulations confirm concepts and shall help in further work on the project. The potential offered by high-speed camera systems was tested using the institute's existing HTDZ combustion chamber. Further work to be done is reviewed.

  8. Spray combustion of Jet-A and diesel fuels in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the spray combustion of Jet-A fuel in an optical constant-volume combustion chamber under different ambient initial conditions. Ambient temperature was varied at 800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K and five different ambient O2

  9. An Experimental Study on the Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel and Diesel in a Constant Volume Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhan Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the macroscopic spray characteristics of different 0%–100% blends of biodiesel derived from drainage oil and diesel (BD0, BD20, BD50, BD80, BD100, such as spray tip penetration, average tip velocity at penetration, spray angle, average spray angle, spray evolution process, spray area and spray volume under different injection pressures (60, 70, 80, 90, 100 MPa and ambient pressures (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 MPa using a common rail system equipped with a constant volume chamber. The characteristic data was extracted from spray images grabbed by a high speed visualization system. The results showed that the ambient pressure and injection pressure had significant effects on the spray characteristics. As the ambient pressure increased, the spray angle increased, while the spray tip penetration and the peak of average tip velocity decreased. As the injection pressure increased, the spray tip penetration, spray angle, spray area and spray volume increased. The increasing blend ratio of biodiesel brought about a shorter spray tip penetration and a smaller spray angle compared with those of diesel. This is due to the comparatively higher viscosity and surface tension of biodiesel, which enhanced the friction effect between fuel and the injector nozzle surface and inhibited the breakup of the liquid jet.

  10. A new HF-resistant tandem spray chamber for improved determination of trace elements and Pb isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krachler, Michael; Rausch, Nicole; Feuerbacher, Helmut; Klemens, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The use of a new HF-resistant tandem spray chamber arrangement consisting of a cyclonic spray chamber and a Scott-type spray chamber made from PFA and PEEK provides a straightforward approach for improving the performance of inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The characteristics of the tandem spray chamber were critically evaluated against a PEEK cyclonic and a PFA Scott-type spray chamber, respectively. Sensitivity across the entire mass range was increased by about three times compared to the conventional setup utilizing only one spray chamber. Precision of the results, especially at low signal intensities, improved by 160% and 31% compared to the cyclonic and Scott-type spray chamber, respectively. Using the tandem spray chamber, the oxide formation rate was lowered by about 50%. Signals as low as 30 counts could be determined under routine measurement conditions with a RSD of 2.4% thus allowing to precisely quantify small concentration differences at the ng l -1 concentration level. The excellent precision (0.02-0.07%) of 206 Pb / 207 Pb and 206 Pb / 208 Pb ratios determined in pore water samples was rather limited by the instrumental capabilities of the single collector ICP-MS instrument than by the performance of the tandem spray chamber

  11. Radiation effects at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [ed.] [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1988-06-01

    This report contains a preliminary study of the effects of the radiation levels expected at the SSC on potential detector components and a subset of materials to be used in the SSC accelerators. The report does not contain a discussion of radiation damage to electronics components that may be used at the SSC. We have investigated many of the effects of radiation on silicon detectors, on wire chambers, on scintillating materials and the associated readout, on optical fibers for data transmission and on structural or other materials to be used in detector or accelerator components. In the SSC accelerator complex, in particular the storage rings, radiation damage will not present significant problems different than those now faced by existing high energy accelerators. We find that the effects of radiation damage on SSC detector components will be significant at the design luminosity of the ssc and will limit, or determine, many of the options for different detector components. In this regard the reader should keep in mind that, in the absence of a specific detector design, it is not possible to form definitive conclusions regarding the viability of the detector components. Since the radiation levels in experiments at the SSC will depend on the geometry and composition of the apparatus, simple yes /no generalizations about the feasibility of a detector component are not possible.

  12. Fuel spray and combustion characteristics of butanol blends in a constant volume combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Jun; Jin, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A sudden drop is observed in spray penetration for B10S10D80 fuel at 800 and 900 K. • With increasing of temperature, auto-ignition timings of fuels become unperceivable. • Low n-butanol addition has little effect on autoignition timings from 800 to 1200 K. • n-Butanol additive can reduce soot emissions at the near-wall regions. • Larger soot reduction is seen at higher ambient temperatures for n-butanol addition. - Abstract: The processes of spray penetrations, flame propagation and soot formation and oxidation fueling n-butanol/biodiesel/diesel blends were experimentally investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber with an optical access. B0S20D80 (0% n-butanol, 20% soybean biodiesel, and 80% diesel in volume) was prepared as the base fuel. n-Butanol was added into the base fuel by volumetric percent of 5% and 10%, denoted as B5S15D80 (5% n-butanol/15% soybean biodiesel/80% diesel) and B10S10D80 (10% n-butanol/10% soybean biodiesel/80% diesel). The ambient temperatures at the time of fuel injection were set to 800 K, 900 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K. Results indicate that the penetration length reduces with the increase of n-butanol volumes in blending fuels and ambient temperatures. The spray penetration presents a sudden drop as fueling B10S10D80 at 800 K and 900 K, which might be caused by micro-explosion. A larger premixed combustion process is observed at low ambient temperatures, while the heat release rate of high ambient temperatures presents mixing controlled diffusion combustion. With a lower ambient temperature, the auto-ignition delay becomes longer with increasing of n-butanol volume in blends. However, with increasing of ambient temperatures, the auto-ignition timing between three fuels becomes unperceivable. Generally, low n-butanol addition has a limited or no effect on the auto-ignition timing in the current conditions. Compared with the base fuel of B0S20D80, n-butanol additive with 5% or 10% in volume can reduce soot

  13. Spray combustion of Jet-A and diesel fuels in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the spray combustion of Jet-A fuel in an optical constant-volume combustion chamber under different ambient initial conditions. Ambient temperature was varied at 800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K and five different ambient O2 concentrations were used, spanning 10-21%. These ambient conditions can be used to mimic practical diesel engine working conditions under different fuel injection timings and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels. Both transient and quasi-steady state analyses were conducted. The transient analysis focused on the flame development from the beginning to the end of the combustion process, illustrating how the flame structure evolves with time. The quasi-steady state analysis concentrated on the stable flame structure and compared the flame emissions in terms of spatially integrated intensity, flame effective area, and intensity per pixel. The transient analysis was based on measurements using high-speed imaging of both OH∗ chemiluminescence and broadband natural luminosity (NL). For the quasi-steady state analysis, three flame narrow-band emissions (OH∗ at 310 nm, Band A at 430 nm and Band B at 470 nm) were captured using an ICCD camera. Based on the current Jet-A data and diesel data obtained from previous experiments, a comparison between Jet-A and diesel was made in terms of flame development during the transient state and spatially integrated intensity, flame effective area, and intensity per pixel during the quasi-steady state. For the transient results, Jet-A shares a similar flame development trend to diesel, but featuring a narrower region of NL and a wider region of OH∗ with the increase of ambient temperature and O2 concentration. The soot cloud is oxidized more quickly for Jet-A than diesel at the end of combustion, evident by comparing the area of NL, especially under high O2 concentration. The quasi-steady state results suggest that soot is oxidized effectively under high O2 concentration conditions by the

  14. Spray combustion of Jet-A and diesel fuels in a constant volume combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the spray combustion of Jet-A fuel in an optical constant-volume combustion chamber under different ambient initial conditions. Ambient temperature was varied at 800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K and five different ambient O 2 concentrations were used, spanning 10–21%. These ambient conditions can be used to mimic practical diesel engine working conditions under different fuel injection timings and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels. Both transient and quasi-steady state analyses were conducted. The transient analysis focused on the flame development from the beginning to the end of the combustion process, illustrating how the flame structure evolves with time. The quasi-steady state analysis concentrated on the stable flame structure and compared the flame emissions in terms of spatially integrated intensity, flame effective area, and intensity per pixel. The transient analysis was based on measurements using high-speed imaging of both OH ∗ chemiluminescence and broadband natural luminosity (NL). For the quasi-steady state analysis, three flame narrow-band emissions (OH ∗ at 310 nm, Band A at 430 nm and Band B at 470 nm) were captured using an ICCD camera. Based on the current Jet-A data and diesel data obtained from previous experiments, a comparison between Jet-A and diesel was made in terms of flame development during the transient state and spatially integrated intensity, flame effective area, and intensity per pixel during the quasi-steady state. For the transient results, Jet-A shares a similar flame development trend to diesel, but featuring a narrower region of NL and a wider region of OH ∗ with the increase of ambient temperature and O 2 concentration. The soot cloud is oxidized more quickly for Jet-A than diesel at the end of combustion, evident by comparing the area of NL, especially under high O 2 concentration. The quasi-steady state results suggest that soot is oxidized effectively under high O 2 concentration conditions by

  15. Narrow band flame emission from dieseline and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zengyang

    2016-08-18

    In this paper, spray combustion of diesel (No. 2) and diesel-gasoline blend (dieseline: 80% diesel and 20% gasoline by volume) were investigated in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber. Effects of ambient conditions on flame emissions were studied. Ambient oxygen concentration was varied from 12% to 21% and three ambient temperatures were selected: 800 K, 1000 K and 1200 K. An intensified CCD camera coupled with bandpass filters was employed to capture the quasi-steady state flame emissions at 430 nm and 470 nm bands. Under non-sooting conditions, the narrow-band flame emissions at 430 nm and 470 nm can be used as indicators of CH∗ (methylidyne) and HCHO∗ (formaldehyde), respectively. The lift-off length was measured by imaging the OH∗ chemiluminescence at 310 nm. Flame emission structure and intensity distribution were compared between dieseline and diesel at wavelength bands. Flame emission images show that both narrow band emissions become shorter, thinner and stronger with higher oxygen concentration and higher ambient temperature for both fuels. Areas of weak intensity are observed at the flame periphery and the upstream for both fuels under all ambient conditions. Average flame emission intensity and area were calculated for 430 nm and 470 nm narrow-band emissions. At a lower ambient temperature the average intensity increases with increasing ambient oxygen concentration. However, at the 1200 K ambient temperature condition, the average intensity is not increasing monotonically for both fuels. For most of the conditions, diesel has a stronger average flame emission intensity than dieseline for the 430 nm band, and similar phenomena can be observed for the 470 nm band with 800 K and 1200 K ambient temperatures. However, for the 1000 K ambient temperature cases, dieseline has stronger average flame emission intensities than diesel for all oxygen concentrations at 470 nm band. Flame emissions for the two bands have a

  16. Checking technical measurements on climatic data during sand blasting and spraying work in the condensation chamber of the boiling water reactor Gundremmingen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, D.; Unte, U.

    1986-01-01

    During sand blasting and spraying work in the condensation chambers of boiling water reactors prescribed climatic data must be adhered to. For this purpose temporary air conditioners are used. The technical measurement examination here should provide information as to whether the air conditioners used were to fulfill the parameter curve specifications. (orig.) [de

  17. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-05-26

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i.e., biomass to liquid (BTL), and a regular No. 2 diesel in a constant volume combustion chamber using multiband flame measurement and two-color pyrometry. The spray combustion flame structure was visualized by using multiband flame measurement to show features of soot formation, high temperature and low temperature reactions, which can be characterized by the narrow-band emissions of radicals or intermediate species such as OH, HCHO, and CH. The objective of this study was to identify the details of multiple injection combustion, including a pilot and a main injection, and to provide further insights on how the two injections interact. For comparison, three injection strategies were considered for both fuels including a two-injection strategy (Case TI), single injection strategy A (Case SA), and single injection strategy B (Case SB). Multiband flame results show a strong interaction, indicated by OH emissions between the pilot injection and the main injection for Case TI while very weak connection is found for the narrow-band emissions acquired through filters with centerlines of 430 nm and 470 nm. A faster flame development is found for the main injection of Case TI compared to Cases SA and SB, which could be due to the high temperature environment and large air entrainment from the pilot injection. A lower soot level is observed for the BTL flame compared to the diesel flame for all three injection types. Case TI has a lower soot level compared to Cases SA and SB for the BTL fuel, while the diesel fuel maintains a similar soot level among all three injection strategies. Soot temperature of Case TI is lower for both fuels, especially for diesel. Based on these results, it is expected that the two-injection strategy could be

  18. SUPERCOLLIDER: SDC for SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-03-15

    On a scale to match the 87-kilometre Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) planned for Ellis County, Texas, the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) is designing a large general purpose detector to pursue a broad range of physics goals.

  19. SSC seeks aid

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    The chairman of the science committee in the US House of representatives will ask Congress to pass a law requiring that at least a quarter of the funds for the SSC come from foreign money (2 paragraphs).

  20. SUPERCOLLIDER: SDC for SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    On a scale to match the 87-kilometre Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) planned for Ellis County, Texas, the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) is designing a large general purpose detector to pursue a broad range of physics goals

  1. Corrosion resistance of a new AL 6013-20 SiC(P) in salt spray chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zaki; Aleem, B. J. Abdul

    2000-06-01

    Aluminum 6013 alloy (0.82Si, 0.95Mg, and 0.35Mn) is finding increasing usage in new aircraft designs, automotives, and structural applications due to its good stretch forming character in T4 temper (solution heat treated and naturally aged to a substantially stable conditions) compared to alloy 2024 (4.4Cu, 0.6Mn, 1.5Mg, and balance Al) and Al6061 (Si0.51 to 0.71, Fe0.35, Cu0.15, Mn0.85, Mg0.15, 0.25Cr, 0.15Zn, and balanced Al). The newly developed A1 6013 reinforced with 20 vol.% SiC(P) has a higher strength than its unreinforced counterpart. Whereas the corrosion behavior of A1 6013 has been reported in literature, there is no previous data on A1 6013 reinforced with SiC(P). A knowledge of the corrosion behavior of this alloy is crucial to its applications in aerospace, structural, and automotive industry. The first results of corrosion study of this alloy in 3.5 wt.% Na Cl in a salt spray chamber are presented. Three tempers F (as fabricated), O (annealed), and T4 (age hardened and stabilized at room temperature) of the alloy A1 6013-30 SiC(P) were exposed to environmental chamber in accordance with ASTM recommended practice. The corrosion rate of the alloy showed a decrease with increased exposure period and after 800 h of exposure no appreciable change in the rate of corrosion was observed. The lowest rate of corrosion (4.83 mdd) was shown by temper T4 followed by tempers F and O after 1200 h of exposure in the increasing order of corrosion rate. Fluctuations in the corrosion rate with time are related to the kinetics of growth and dissolution of Al(OH)3 film, which was detected by fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (FTIS). The film was composed of an inner compact layer and outer bulk layer dependent on the refreshment rate from the bulk solution. Micrograph examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the presence of pits covered by aluminum hydroxide gel, which isolates the pit from the bulk solution. The acidic conditions of

  2. Prospects for SSC physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, F.E.

    1986-03-01

    The SSC is primarily designed to explore the physics of the 1 TeV mass scale. Since new heavy particles will decay either into other new particles or into the quanta of the standard model, the main goal of SSC experiments will be to identify and to measure these quanta well. Progress in simulating events and in understanding the signature and backgrounds for standard-model physics is described. 51 refs

  3. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm and 650. nm, 10. nm FWHM). After calibration, statistical analysis shows that the uncertainty of the two-color temperature is less than 5%, while it is about 50% for the KL factor. This technique is then applied to the spray combustion of biodiesel and diesel fuels under an ambient oxygen concentration of 21% and ambient temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200. K. The heat release result shows higher energy utilization efficiency for biodiesel compared to diesel under all conditions; meanwhile, diesel shows a higher pressure increase due to its higher heating value. Biodiesel yields a lower temperature inside the flame area, a longer soot lift-off length, and a smaller soot area compared to diesel. Both the KL factor and the total soot with biodiesel are lower than with diesel throughout the entire combustion process, and this difference becomes larger as the ambient temperature decreases. Biodiesel shows approximately 50-100. K lower temperatures than diesel at the quasi-steady stage for 1000 and 1200. K ambient temperature, while diesel shows a lower temperature than biodiesel at 800. K ambient. This result may raise the question of how important the flame temperature is in explaining the higher NO. x emissions often observed during biodiesel combustion. Other factors may also play an important role in controlling NO. x emissions. Both biodiesel and diesel temperature measurements show a monotonic dependence on the ambient temperature. However, the ambient temperature appears to have a more significant effect on the soot formation and oxidation in diesel combustion, while biodiesel combustion soot characteristics shows relative insensitivity to the ambient temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Effect of expansion chamber geometry on atomization and spray dispersion characters of a flashing mixture containing inerts. Part I. Numerical predictions and dual laser measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Dehao; Shrimpton, John; Bowdrey, Moira; Hearn, Alex

    2012-08-01

    A cigarette alternative is designed to deliver a dose of medicinal nicotine within a timeframe comparable to that of a cigarette, and gives much of what smokers expect from a cigarette without the risks of smoking tobacco. The design concept is the same as a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), but is a breath actuated device (Oxette(®)). This work predicts the residual mass median diameter (MMD) of the spray issuing from early stage Oxette(®) prototypes by using an evaporation model of multi-component liquid droplets with the help of a numerical multi-component two-phase actuation model (developed by the authors) to quantify the sprays. Two different formulations with 95% and 98% mass fraction of HFA 134a, and two prototypes of cigarette alternatives with different expansion chamber volumes have been analyzed by the numerical model and compared with laser based measurements. The later designed device provides a larger expansion chamber volume to enhance the propellant evaporation, recirculation, bubble generation and growth inside the chamber, and it makes a significant improvement to produce finer sprays than the earlier design. The mass fraction of the formulation does not affect significantly on the initial MMD of the droplets near the discharge orifice. However, it influences the residual MMD at x=100mm from the discharge orifice, where the ratio of the predicted residual MMDs of the droplets generated by the formulations with 98% and 95% of HFA 134a is 0.73. Although the formulation with 98% of HFA 134a can generate smaller droplets, the formulation with 95% of HFA 134a produces more steady puffs with relatively low mass flow rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i

  7. The influence of substrate temperature and spraying distance on the properties of plasma sprayed tungsten and steel coatings deposited in a shrouding chamber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Vilémová, Monika; Nevrlá, Barbara; Kocmanová, Lenka; Veverka, Jakub; Halasová, Martina; Hadraba, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 318, May (2017), s. 217-223 ISSN 0257-8972. [International Meeting on Thermal Spraying (RIPT)/7./. Limoges, 09.12.2015-11.12.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : Tungsten * Steel * Atmospheric plasma spraying * Shrouding * Substrate temperature * Fusion reactor materials * Plasma facing components Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials; JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials (UFM-A) OBOR OECD: Coating and films; Coating and films (UFM-A) Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S0257897216310520

  8. SSC accelerator physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Accelerator physicists at LBL began intensive work on the SSC in 1983, in support of the proposed 6.5-T magnet design, which, in turn, became reference design A during the Reference Designs Study. In that same study, LBL physicists formed the core of the accelerator physics group led by Fermilab's Don Edwards. In a period of only a few months, that group established preliminary parameters for a near-optimal design, produced conceptual designs based on three magnet types, addressed all significant beam lifetime and stability issues, and identified areas requiring further R and D. Since the conclusion of the Reference Designs Study, work has focused on the key SSC design issue, namely, single-particle stability in an imperfect magnetic field. At the end of fiscal 1984, much of the LBL accelerator physics group took its place in the SSC Central Design Group, whose headquarters at LBL will be the focus of nationwide SSC R and D efforts over the next several years

  9. SSC design update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    Recent developments in the design and construction of the SSC are presented. Topics include status of the 20 TeV Collider rings, including interaction regions, utility regions, and main arcs, plus some remarks on the injector accelerators. Remaining issues facing the design of the colliding beams synchrotron and its injectors are discussed

  10. Calorimetry at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1988-01-01

    The state of the art, and the present understanding of the basic limitations in hadron calorimetry, are briefly described. The various options for SSC calorimeters are discussed, and the R ampersand D needed for the ones that look most promising is outlined. The most promising candidates are (1) lead/scintillating fibers and (2) lead (or uranium)/TMS (or other warm liquids)

  11. Calorimetry at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-09-01

    The state of the art, and our present understanding of the basic limitations in hadron calorimetry, are briefly described. The various options for SSC calorimeters are discussed, and the R and D needed for the ones that look most promising is outlined. 13 refs.; 8 figs

  12. Direct introduction of volatile carbon compounds into the spray chamber of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer: Sensitivity enhancement for selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, Miroslav; Goessler, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The effect of signal enhancement of elements with ionization potentials in the range from 9 to 11 eV by carbon-containing compounds is a well-known phenomenon in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). It has traditionally been exploited through the addition of organic solvents to the sample matrix or to the mobile phase to improve sensitivity. In the present work, aqueous solutions of volatile carbon compounds (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) were directly introduced into the thermostatted spray chamber rather than being added to the sample matrix. It is presumed that no aerosol is produced from these solutions and only vapors of organic compounds are swept into the plasma together with the sample aerosol. When a 0.40 mol l -1 aqueous solution of acetone was introduced directly into the spray chamber, the signals for arsenic and selenium were enhanced by a factor of 4.2. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated through the achievement of lower instrumental detection limits for selenium at m/z 82 (0.1 ng ml -1 ) compared to the system without direct introduction of volatile carbon compounds (0.5 ng ml -1 ). The method was successfully applied in the determination of traces of selenium in natural water, urine and bovine liver reference material

  13. Software methodologies for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes some of the considerations that will determine how the author developed software for the SSC. He begins with a review of the general computing problem for SSC experiments and recent experiences in software engineering for the present generation of experiments. This leads to a discussion of the software technologies that will be critical for the SSC experiments. He describes the emerging software standards and commercial products that may be useful in addressing the SSC needs. He concludes with some comments on how collaborations and the SSC Lab should approach the software development issue

  14. SSC Cryogenic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.; Louttit, R.I.; Rode, C.; VanderArend, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the 4.5 K primary cooling system and higher temperature shield cooling systems for the SSC are described. Typical flow diagrams for the magnet piping systems are presented. Estimated heat loads are given. The systems have been designed to accomodate the great distances, 90 km and up, over which the load will be distributed. Provision has been made for cooldown, warmup, quench recovery and magnet replacement, as well as for steady-state operation

  15. SSC kicker impedances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.; Wang, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    The longitudinal and transverse complex impedances Z/sub l//n and Z/sub t/, respectively, have been calculated for both the SSC injection and abort kickers. The calculations assumed that no attempt was made to shield the beam from the kickers. We took the injection and abort kickers to be as specified. The injection kickers were ferrite with a single-turn design, and the abort kickers were of a ''window-frame design'' with tape wound cores

  16. Calorimetry for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, H.A.; Grannis, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The activities related to calorimetry at Snowmass took place in three main areas. These were: (1) The performance criteria for SSC calorimetry, including the requirements on hermeticity, shower containment, segmentation and time resolution. The use of calorimetric means of particle identification was studied. (2) The study of triggering methods using calorimeter energy, angle and timing information. (3) A review of a wide variety of calorimeter materials for absorber and sampling, as well as several means of obtaining the readout of the energy deposits. 48 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  17. Calorimetry for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Grannis, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The activities related to calorimetry at Snowmass took place in three main areas. These were: (1) The performance criteria for SSC calorimetry, including the requirements on hermeticity, shower containment, segmentation and time resolution. The use of calorimetric means of particle identification was studied. (2) The study of triggering methods using calorimeter energy, angle and timing information. (3) A review of a wide variety of calorimeter materials for absorber and sampling, as well as several means of obtaining the readout of the energy deposits. 48 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  18. WLWL scattering at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, J.; Valencia, G.

    1990-01-01

    We use higher-order chiral Lagrangians to study W L W L scattering at the SSC. We analyze a model that is consistent with crossing, unitarity and chiral symmetry, with no resonant behavior at SSC energies. The only signal is a slightly enhanced rate for W L W L scattering. Our results indicate the level of sensitivity that must be reached before the SSC can be assured of discovering the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Chiral Lagrangians and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.

    1991-09-01

    In the event that the SSC does not observe any resonances such as a Higgs boson or a techni-rho meson, we would like to know if the SSC can still discover something about the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking. We will use chiral Lagrangian techniques to address this question and analyze their utility for studying events containing W and Z gauge bosons at the SSC. 20 refs., 4 figs

  20. Sample introduction systems for reversed phase LC-ICP-MS of selenium using large amounts of methanol - comparison of systems based on membrane desolvation, a spray chamber and direct injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L.; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2005-01-01

    nebuliser (MCN) in combination with a membrane desolvator ( MD), a MCN in combination with a cyclonic spray chamber ( CS) and a direct injection nebuliser ( DIN), respectively. Thirteen selenium standards diluted in 50% methanol were introduced in each system at a flow rate of 50 mu l min(-1). Except...

  1. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji; Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm

  2. SSC muon detector group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

    1986-01-01

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4π detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC

  3. SSC muon detector group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

    1986-01-01

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4..pi.. detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC.

  4. Educational opportunities from the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doddy, G.J.; Rider, A.H.; Halff, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    High energy physics and education are very closely interwoven. Most physics laboratories are located at universities or are operated by consortiums of universities. Fermilab and the SSC are operated by the Universities Research Association, URA, a consortium of 69 major research universities and 3 associate members. Another example of this laboratory and universities relationship is the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, CEBAF, which is operated by the Southeastern Universities Research Association, SURA, another consortium of 39 major universities. The education potential inherent in the planning, construction and operation of the SSC is immense. The SSC, as the world's largest scientific instrument and, as the most power accelerator, will have a natural attraction as the preeminent institution in the scientific community. In addition to the primary objective of probing the fundamental composition of matter, the SSC will appear to a broad segment of the population and will create the opportunity for both passive and active educational experiences on the part of staff, students and visitors. On the esoteric level, the SSC will be a magnet for the scientific community and will attract from around the world the finest minds in the field of high energy physics. On the human level, the laboratory will become an integral part of the community and will be an object of great interest to local residents and visitors. The SSC planners should recognize the opportunity to be a contributing institution to both the local and the world community

  5. SSC detector solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Kephart, R.D.; Krebs, H.J.; Stone, M.E.; Theriot, E.D.; Wands, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A detector utilizing a superconducting solenoid is being discussed for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). A useful field volume of 8 m diameter x 16 m length at 1.5-2 T (--1 GJ at 2T) is required. It has been decided that all of the particle physics calorimetry will be inside the bore of the solenoid and that there is no need for the coil and cryostat to be ''thin'' in radiation lengths. An iron yoke will reduce the excitation required and will provide muon identification and a redundant momentum measurement of the muons. The authors have developed a conceptual design to meet these requirements. The magnet will use a copper-stabilized Nb-Ti conductor sized for a cryostable pool boiling heat flux --0.025 W/cm/sup 2/. A thermosiphon from a storage vessel above the cryostat will be used to prevent bubble stagnation in the liquid helium bath. The operating current, current density, coil subdivision and dump resistor have been chosen to guarantee that the coil will be undamaged should a quench occur. The axial electromagnetic force will be reacted by metallic support links; the stainless steel coil case will support the radial force. The 5000 metric tons of calorimetry will be supported from the iron yoke through a trussed cylindrical shell structure separate from the cryostat. The coil and case, radiation shield and stainless vacuum vessel would be fabricated and cryogenically tested as two 8-m sections. These would be lowered into the underground experimental hall and installed into the iron flux return yoke to provide the required 16-m length

  6. Integrated design of the SSC linac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.; Valiecnti, R.; Wood, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Ion Source, Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Linac act as a unit (referred to as the Linac Injector), the Ion Source and LEBT being cantilevered off of the RFQ. Immediately adjacent to both ends of the RFQ cavity proper are endwall chambers containing beam instrumentation and independently-operated vacuum isolation valves. The Linac Injector delivers 30 mA of H - beam at 2.5 MeV. This paper describes the design constraints imposed on the endwalls, aspects of the integration of the Ion Source and LEBT including attachment to the RFQ, maintainability and interchangeability of LEBTs, vacuum systems for each component, and the design of necessary support structure. (Author) 2 tab

  7. Forward spectrometers at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Most of SSC phase space and a great deal of physics potential is in the forward/backward region (absolute value of theta < 100 mrad). Comprehensive open-geometry spectrometers are feasible and very cost effective. Examples of such devices are sketched. Because such spectrometers are very long and may operate at high β and longer bunch spacing, they impact now on SSC interaction - region design. The data acquisition load is as heavy as for central detectors, although there may be less emphasis on speed and more emphasis on sophisticated parallel and/or distributed processing for event selection, as well as on high-capacity buffering

  8. Design of SSC collider structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsees, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The authors would like to set the record straight. To date, underground construction contracts on the SSC main ring have been bid at a savings of $77 million dollars or 33 percent below the baseline cost estimate. The SSC is the largest single underground project ever built anywhere in the world. When completed it will have approximately 70 miles of tunnels, 60 shafts, two huge underground experiment halls -- each the size of a football stadium -- and numerous other structures, each of which would be considered a major facility on any other project

  9. Simulating supersymmetry at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.; Haber, H.E.

    1984-08-01

    Careful study of supersymmetric signatures at the SSC is required in order to distinguish them from Standard Model physics backgrounds. To this end, we have created an efficient, accurate computer program which simulates supersymmetric particle production and decay (or other new particles). We have incorporated the full matrix elements, keeping track of the polarizations of all intermediate states. (At this time hadronization of final-state partons is ignored). Using Monte Carlo techniques this program can generate any desired final-state distribution or individual events for Lego plots. Examples of the results of our study of supersymmetry at SSC are provided

  10. Tracking with wire chambers at high luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1989-12-01

    Radiation damage and rate limitations impose severe constraints on wire chambers at the SSC. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems that satisfy these constraints are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 11 refs., 10 figs

  11. SSC Test Operations Contract Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Kerry D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Test Operations Contract at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). There are views of the test stands layouts, and closer views of the test stands. There are descriptions of the test stand capabilities, some of the other test complexes, the Cryogenic propellant storage facility, the High Pressure Industrial Water (HPIW) facility, and Fluid Component Processing Facility (FCPF).

  12. Ep option at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1984-05-01

    The possibilities for colliding electrons with the 20 TeV proton beams of the SSC are considered. Kinematics of ep colliding beams is reviewed. Energies that may be possible and interesting are suggested, and detector problems associated with the highly imbalanced collisions are briefly considered

  13. Present status and physics prospects of SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Shojiro

    1990-01-01

    Physics prospects of Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are discussed, referring to other coming colliders. In addition, the present status of the SSC project and detector proposals for the experiments are described. (author)

  14. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  15. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2013-09-02

    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  16. Computing for an SSC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, I.

    1993-01-01

    The hardware and software problems for SSC experiments are similar to those faced by present day experiments but larger in scale. In particular, the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) anticipates the need for close to 10**6 MIPS of off-line computing and will produce several Petabytes (10**15 bytes) of data per year. Software contributions will be made from large numbers of highly geographically dispersed physicists. Hardware and software architectures to meet these needs have been designed. Providing the requisites amount of computing power and providing tools to allow cooperative software development using extensions of existing techniques look achievable. The major challenges will be to provide efficient methods of accessing and manipulating the enormous quantities of data that will be produced at the SSC, and to enforce the use of software engineering tools that will ensure the open-quotes correctnessclose quotes of experiment critical software

  17. Intrinsic Chevrolets at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Collins, J.C.; Ellis, S.D.; Gunion, J.F.; Mueller, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of the production at high energy of heavy quarks, supersymmetric particles and other large mass colored systems via the intrinsic twist-six components in the proton wave function is discussed. While the existing data do not rule out the possible relevance of intrinsic charm production at present energies, the extrapolation of such intrinsic contributions to very high masses and energies suggests that they will not play an important role at the SSC

  18. Weak interactions at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    Prospects for the study of standard model weak interactions at the SSC are reviewed, with emphasis on the unique capability of the SSC to study the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking whether the associated new quanta are at the TeV scale or higher. Symmetry breaking by the minimal Higgs mechanism and by related strong interaction dynamical variants is summarized. A set of measurements is outlined that would calibrate the proton structure functions and the backgrounds to new physics. The ability to measure the three weak gauge boson vertex is found to complement LEP II, with measurements extending to larger Q 2 at a comparable statistical level in detectable decays. B factory physics is briefly reviewed as one example of a possible broad program of high statistics studies of sub-TeV scale phenomena. The largest section of the talk is devoted to the possible manifestations of symmetry breaking in the WW and ZZ production cross sections. Some new results are presented bearing on the ability to detect high mass WW and ZZ pairs. The principal conclusion is that although nonstandard model scenarios are typically more forgiving, the capability to study symmetry breaking in the standard model (and in related strong interaction dynamical variants) requires achieving the SSC design goals of √ s,L = 40Tev, 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 . 28 refs., 5 figs

  19. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  20. Overview of SSC accelerator requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper will present a general overview of the requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) accelerators. Each accelerator in the injector chain will be discussed separately, followed by a discussion of the collider itself. In conclusion, the top level requirements of the overall accelerator system will be presented. For each accelerator, the primary operating parameters will be presented in tabular form. A brief narrative discussion of the principal technical features of each machine will be given. Finally, the principal technical design challenges for the machine will be noted, together with the currently planned solution to these challenges

  1. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Simulated Field Trials Using an Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  3. Simulated Field Trials Using An Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  4. Effect of nebulizer/spray chamber interfaces on simultaneous, axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the direct determination of As and Se species separated by ion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettar, Raquel T.; Smichowski, Patricia; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Farias, Silvia; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    Different nebulizer/expansion chamber combinations were evaluated to assess their performance for sample introduction in the direct coupling with an axial view inductively coupled plasma multielement spectrometer for on-line determination of As and Se species previously separated by ion exchange-high performance liquid chromatography. The column effluents were injected into the plasma without prior derivatization. The instrument operation software was adapted for data acquisition and processing to allow multi-wavelength recording of the transient chromatographic peaks. After optimization of the chromatographic operating conditions, separation of mixtures of inorganic As and Se species, and of inorganic and two organic As species (monomethylarsonic and dimethylarsinic acids), was achieved with excellent resolution. Species discrimination from mixtures of As and Se oxyanions was further improved by the simultaneous element detection at specific analytical wavelengths. Three nebulizers and three spray chambers, employed in seven combinations, were tested as interfaces. Concentric nebulizers associated to a glass cyclonic chamber appear most suitable regarding sensitivity and signal to noise ratio. Measured element detection limits (3 σ) were around 10 ng ml -1 for all the species considered, making the method a viable alternative to similar procedures that employ volatile hydride generation previous to sample injection into the plasma. Analytical recoveries both for inorganic and organic species ranged between 92 and 107%. The method was demonstrated to be apt for the analysis of surface waters potentially subjected to natural contamination with arsenic

  5. Accelerator physics issues at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.F.

    1993-05-01

    Realization of the design energy and luminosity goals of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will require proper resolutions of a number of challenging problems in accelerator physics. The status of several salient issues in the design of the SSC will be reviewed and updated in this paper. The emphasis will be on the superconducting accelerators

  6. A GEM of an SSC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The SSC Laboratory has decided to support the GEM (Gammas, Electrons, and Muons) detector collaboration in the next stage of its work, development of a Technical Design Report. Initial ideas for GEM as the second major SSC detector were aired last year

  7. Cultural connections of the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, T.B.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper has as its purpose, to consider explicitly and in more than cursory detail, the cultural involvement of a major scientific facility, the SSC, with its public surroundings. At the moment of writing, it is uncertain whether the project will evolve under US-national or under international sponsorship. Since most of the paper's substantive content is invariant with respect to this question (but the means of implementation are not), the author proceeds as though the machine will be US sponsored. This assumption avoids the irritation of having to identify continually the particular methods for implementation of the ideas presented. If the international route is chosen, a second paper could be written to accommodate this outcome. By cultural involvement, the author is principally concerned with the following areas: i) accessibility of the facility to the general public; ii) educational potential at and away from the site; iii) architectural and aesthetic considerations; and iv) formal history of the project

  8. Commissioning plans for SSC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, J.W.; Aprile, R.L.; Chang, C.R.; Crist, C.E.; Cutler, R.I.; Funk, L.W.; Guy, F.W.; Leifeste, G.T.; Raparia, D.; Saadatmand, K.; Sethi, R.C.; Swenson, D.A.; Tooker, J.; Yao, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    Presented are the general description of the SSC linac and the plans for commissioning. Sections of the linac are installed, tested, and beam commissioned in a serial approach. A specialized set of diagnostics is used to characterize the beam through each section. In addition to the standard diagnostic set, plans call for the use of a bunch shape monitor and x-ray spectrometer. Streak camera and digital imaging diagnostics will be developed. The commissioning plan is folded into the general linac project schedule to show the relation between delivery, staging, installation, conditioning, and actual commissioning with beam. These plans form the basis for coordination between the various organizations responsible for different elements of the linac including the technical components, infrastructure, and temporary staging and operation facilities. (Author) 2 figs., 17 refs

  9. Physics possibilities at LHC/SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1991-01-01

    This document reviews some recent work on physics simulations for SSC/LHC. Included are reviews of some of the recent developments in physics simulations for the SSC/LHC and comments upon the requirements that are placed upon detectors by the need to extract specific physics signatures. The material in the various EOI/LOI documents submitted to the SCC Laboratory and the work done at the Aachen LHC workshop are discussed. In the following discussion 1 SSC (LHC) year corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 10 (100) fb -1 . 41 refs., 14 figs

  10. Systems engineering and integrated for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laintz, D.J.; Crosby, B.; Davis, M.; Eben, D.; Gliozzi, J.; Kientz, E.; Knafelc, J.; Phelps, J.; Rider, M.; Shearer, K.

    1989-01-01

    Experience in high technology projects of scale and scope similar to the SSC, leads the authors to propose utilization of a Systems Engineering and Integration (SE and I) process tailored specifically to the SSC project. They begin by giving an overview of SE and I. This overview includes the purpose, history, definition, and a discussion of when to use it. They then proceeded to give a description of a formalized SE and I process. They discuss tailoring the process to a project and close by recommending an early commitment to an SE and I methodology for the SSC. 2 refs., 2 figs

  11. Detector problems at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.G.

    1985-02-01

    During the last couple of years there has been considerable concern expressed among the US high energy community as to whether detector limitations would prevent one from being able to fully exploit a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 at a hadron-hadron high energy collider. As a result of these concerns, a considerable amount of work has been done recently in trying to understand the nature of potential difficulties and the required R and D that needs to be performed. A lot of this work has been summarized in the 1984 DPF Summer Study at Snowmass. This paper attempts to review some of these results. This work is limited to the discussion of detector problems associated with the study of high energy hadron-hadron collisions. We shall start with the discussion of the desirable features of the detectors and of the SSC environment in which they will have to work. After a brief discussion of the model 4π detectors, we shall discuss specific detector aspects: lepton identification, tracking, calorimetry and computing and triggering. We shall end with some remarks about possible future course of events. 15 refs., 10 figs

  12. Measuring structure functions at SSC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfin, J.G.; Owens, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include measuring Λ, tests of QCD using hard scattering processes, and measuring parton distributions. In each case, any opportunities and advantages afforded by the unique features of the SSC are emphasized. The working group on structure functions was charged with investigating two specific questions: (1) How well are the various parton distributions known in the kinematic region relevant to calculations for the SSC. (2) What new information can be learned about parton distributions at the SSC. Especially for this working group, the advantages of having a fixed-target facility at the SSC for the measurement of the parton distributions with multi-TeV leptons, were to be examined. 15 references

  13. Decoupling schemes for the SSC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-05-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  14. Physics motivations for SSC/LHC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1993-06-01

    In this talk, I review the some of the physics goals and simulation work done in the SSC and LHC experimental proposal. I select the processes that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses the proposed detectors

  15. SSC-K code user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y M; Lee, Y B; Chang, W P; Hahn, D

    2000-07-01

    The Supper System Code of KAERI (SSC-K) is a best-estimate system code for analyzing a variety of off-normal or accidents in the heat transport system of a pool type LMR design. It is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Inititution (KAERI) on the basis of SSC-L, originally developed at BNL to analyze loop-type LMR transients. SSC-K can handle both designs of loop and pool type LMRs. SSC-K contains detailed mechanistic models of transient thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechanical phenomena to describe the response of the reactor core, coolant, fuel elements, and structures to accident conditions. This report provides an overview of recent model developmentsvfor the SSC-K computer code, focusing on phenomenological model descriptions for new thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechnaical modules. A comprehensive description of the models for pool-type reactor is given in Chapters 2 and 3; the steady-state plant characterization, prior to the initiation of transient is described in Chapter 2 and their transient counterparts are discussed in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, a discussion on the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is presented. The IHX model of SSC-K is similar to that used in the SSC-L, except for some changes required for the pool-type configuration of reactor vessel. In Chapter 5, an electromagnetic (EM) pump is modeled as a component. There are two pump choices available in SSC-K; a centrifugal pump which was originally imbedded into the SSC-L, and an EM pump which was introduced for the KALIMER design. In Chapter 6, a model of passive safety decay heat removal system(PSDRS) is discussed, which removes decay heat through the reactor and containment vessel walls to the ambient air heat sink. In Chapter 7, models for various reactivity feedback effects are discussed. Reactivity effects of importance in fast reactor include the Doppler effect, effects of sodium density changes, effects of dimensional changes in core geometry. Finally in Chapter 8

  16. SPRAY CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and comp...

  17. Validation of SSC using the FFTF natural-circulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.; Guppy, J.G.; Kennett, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the Super System Code (SSC) validation program, the 100% power FFTF natural circulation test has been simulated using SSC. A detailed 19 channel, 2 loop model was used in SSC. Comparisons showed SSC calculations to be in good agreement with the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), test data. Simulation of the test was obtained in real time

  18. Thermal analysis simulation for a spin-motor used in the advanced main combustion chamber vacuum plasma spray project using the SINDA computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Gary H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many design challenges of this project is predicting the thermal effects due to the environment inside the vacuum chamber on the turntable and spin motor spindle assembly. The objective of the study is to model the spin motor using the computer program System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). By formulating the appropriate input information concerning the motor's geometry, coolant flow path, material composition, and bearing and motor winding characteristics, SINDA should predict temperatures at various predefined nodes. From these temperatures, hopefully, one can predict if the coolant flow rate is sufficient or if certain mechanical elements such as bearings, O ring seals, or motor windings will exceed maximum design temperatures.

  19. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  20. The knife-edge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, S.M.; Lee, B.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Popovic, M.; Smith, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the design for a new technology for particle track detectors is described. Using standard IC fabrication techniques, a pattern of microscopic knife edges and field-shaping electrodes can be fabricated on a silicon substrate. The knife-edge chamber uniquely offers attractive performance for the track chambers required for SSC detectors, for which no present technology is yet satisfactory. Its features include: excellent radiation hardness (10 Mrad), excellent spatial resolution (∼20 μm), short drift time (20 ns), and large pulse height (1 mV)

  1. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  2. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    With this report, the SSC Site Task Force forwards to the Director, Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE), its evaluation of the technical criteria and life-cycle costs for the proposed SSC sites judged to be the best qualified. The criteria against which each site was evaluated are those set forth in the Invitation for Site Proposals for the Superconducting Super Collider (DOE/ER-0315) (Invitation) which was prepared by the Task Force and issued in April 1987. The methodology followed by the Task Force in this report and in all other phases of the proposal evaluation has been consistent with the SSC site selection process approved by DOE's Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB). The goal of the site selection process is to identify a site that will permit the highest level of research productivity and overall effectiveness of the SSC at a reasonable cost of construction and operation and with minimial impact on the environment. The Task Force acknowledges that all seven sites are, indeed, highly qualified locations for the construction and operation of the SSC on the basis of technical and cost considerations. In performing its evaluation, which is presented in this paper, the Task Force took an in-depth look at each site on the basis of site visits and extensive technical analyses. A consensus rating for each technical evaluation criterion and subcriterion was developed for each site

  3. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  4. Wire chamber requirements and tracking simulation studies for tracking systems at the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.; Niczyporuk, B.B.; Palounek, A.P.T.

    1989-02-01

    Limitations placed on wire chambers by radiation damage and rate requirements in the SSC environment are reviewed. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems which meet these requirements are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. Such computer simulation studies are necessary to determine the feasibility of wire chamber tracking systems for complex events in a high-rate environment such as the SSC. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. A fixed target facility at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.; Morfin, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required

  6. Fixed target facility at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C.; Morfin, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group led by E. Colton whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required. 13 references, 5 figures.

  7. Fixed target facility at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.C.; Morfin, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group led by E. Colton whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required. 13 references, 5 figures

  8. First beam extracted from the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    On the 25th July 1986 the first 2,8 μA 66 MeV proton beam was successfully extracted from the separated sector cyclotron (SSC) at the National Accelerator Centre at Faure, South Africa. The beam has now also been transported for the first time down the high-energy beamline up to the last Faraday cup in front of the neutron therapy vault. A brief description of the extraction system of the SSC, consisting of an electrostatic extraction channel and two septum magnets is given

  9. Highlights of the SSC Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, J.R.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the Site Development Plan for the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. The Plan, sometimes called a Master Plan, was prepared by the architectural and engineering firm for the Laboratory: Parsons Brinckerhoff/Morrison Knudsen (PB/MK) working in association with CRSS. Their task was to interpret the SSC project needs in the context of the Ellis County, Texas site. The team effort was under the direction of Lewis May from CRSS, guided by Robert Sims from the SSC Laboratory. Conceptual drawings are presented in this report

  10. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  11. Analytical solutions to SSC coil end design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Fulton, H.J.; Lee, G.C.; Cook, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    As part of the SCC magnet effort, Fermilab will build and test a series of one meter model SSC magnets. The coils in these magnets will be constructed with several different end configurations. These end designs must satisfy both mechanical and magnetic criteria. Only the mechanical problem will be addressed. Solutions will attempt to minimize stresses and provide internal support for the cable. Different end designs will be compared in an attempt to determine which is most appropriate for the SSC dipole. The mathematics required to create each end configuration will be described. The computer aided design, programming and machine technology needed to make the parts will be reviewed. 2 refs., 10 figs

  12. A data acquisition architecture for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.

    1990-01-01

    An SSC data acquisition architecture applicable to high-p T detectors is described. The architecture is based upon a small set of design principles that were chosen to simplify communication between data acquisition elements while providing the required level of flexibility and performance. The architecture features an integrated system for data collection, event building, and communication with a large processing farm. The interface to the front end electronics system is also discussed. A set of design parameters is given for a data acquisition system that should meet the needs of high-p T detectors at the SSC

  13. Compensation of coupling in the SSC complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, F.; Bourianoff, G.

    1991-10-01

    This paper will describe a study of the coupling effects and their compensation by means of local depending techniques for some of the accelerators in the SSC Complex. Results concerning corrections and decoupling for the Low Energy and Medium Energy Boosters will be compared to results obtained for the Collider Ring. Some preliminary experimental data about measurement of coupling quantities will also be presented

  14. Liquid argon calorimetry for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid argon calorimetry is a mature technique. However, adapting it to the challenging environment of the SSC requires a large amount of R ampersand D. The advantages of the liquid argon approach are summarized and the issues being addressed by the R ampersand D program are described. 18 refs

  15. Heavy particle production at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Haber, H.E.; Gunion, J.F.

    1984-03-01

    Predictions for the production of heavy quarks, supersymmetric particles, and other colored systems at high energy due to intrinsic twist-six components in the proton wavefunction are given. We also suggest the possibility of using asymmetric collision energies (e.g., via intersecting rings at the SSC) in order to facilitate the study of forward and diffractive particle production processes. 9 references

  16. Electron beam emittance monitor for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, E.; Meinke, R.; Nexsen, W.; Kauffmann, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Taratin, A.

    1993-05-01

    A nondestructive beam profile monitor for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is presented using as a probe a low-energy electron beam interacting with the proton bunch charge. Results using a full Monte Carlo simulation code look promising for the transverse and longitudinal beam profile measurements

  17. Dicty_cDB: SSC474 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC474 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07719-1 SSC474P (Link... to Original site) SSC474F 368 SSC474Z 238 SSC474P 606 - - Show SSC474 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC474 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U07719-1 Original site URL http://dict...logy vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( AU071762 ) Dictyostelium di...scoideum slug cDNA, clone SSC474. 448 e-121 1 ( AU060185 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLA535.

  18. Nitrogen system for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAshan, M.; Thirumaleshwar, M.; Abramovich, S.; Ganni, V.

    1992-10-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider consists of two parallel magnet rings, each 87,120 m in circumference, constructed in a tunnel 25 m to 74 m below ground level. They are operated at a controlled low helium temperature in order to maintain the magnet windings in the superconducting state. To obtain this condition, the magnet cryostat is designed with a high-quality insulation obtained by a high vacuum chamber, multilayer insulation, and thermal shields at nominal temperatures of 84 K and 20 K. Thermal radiation and the conduction heat load through the supports are intercepted and absorbed by the 84-K shield. Liquid nitrogen provides the refrigeration for these loads. The 84-K shield is anchored to two 63.5-mm stainless-steel tubes. One of the tubes, the ''liquid line,'' serves as a conduit in the distribution system of liquid nitrogen. The other tube, the ''vapor line,'' is used to collect the nitrogen vapor generated in the cooling process and to supply this vapor to,the helium refrigerators for precooling. The vapor line may also be used as a continuous cooler by injecting controlled amounts of liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen system consists of nitrogen supplies; ten nitrogen dewars for the collider and two for the High Energy Booster located on the ground at the main shaft entrances; liquid and vapor transfer lines through the shaft to connect the surface and the tunnel systems; and transfer lines to bypass warm equipment sections of the collider. The nitrogen system is expected to operate at steady state condition except for cooldown, warmup, and system repair, for which transients are expected. During normal operation and standby modes of the collider, temperature, pressure, and mass flow are expected to be constant in all circuits of the nitrogen system. The conceptual design requirements for various flow schemes and the engineering considerations are presented in this report

  19. SSC beam dynamics scaled to the Eloisatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.

    1992-03-01

    As crosssections drop as E -2 a desirable target for a 100 TeV the Eloisatron would be to achieve luminosities ∼1.10 35 cm 2 /sec. To understand the impact of such an objective we have compared parameters for the SSC and Eloisatron to differentiate areas which involve considerable extrapolations from current technologies from those which represent more conventional scale-ups. Synchrotron radiation losses per m for the same guide magnetic field associated with such luminosities would be up by E 2 x I where E is the energy and I is the circulating current. This would result in energy densities of ∼250 times the nominal SSC values. The SSC is already limited by installed refrigeration power and if the circulating current was to be increased would have to use liners at liquid nitrogen temperatures to intercept the radiation as is proposed for the LHC. This issue was the subject of lively discussion at the workshop and is dealt with elsewhere by other authors. This author believed that the radiation could be intercepted by room temperature catchers spaced every 15--25 m around the ring. To obtain the requisite luminosities it assumes similar bunch spacing but circulating currents an order of magnitude larger than at the SSC. The SSC already uses a bunch spacing as small as 5 m and further reduction does not appear easy. The justification for the choice of bore for the magnets, emittances and attainable luminosities are discussed below. A further section looks into whether seismic ground disturbances might cause unacceptable emittance growth. The conclusion of this section is that careful use of current design practices should be adequate and that it is unlikely that exotic vibration free mounts will be required

  20. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  1. Dicty_cDB: SSC836 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC836 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - SSC836E (Link to Original s...ite) - - - - - - SSC836E 502 Show SSC836 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC836 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dict...yBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/...t alignments: (bits) Value N M77492 |M77492.1 Dictyostelium discoideum glycoprotein phosphorylase 2 (glpD) g...ene, complete cds. 779 0.0 1 AC116984 |AC116984.2 Dictyostelium discoideum chromo

  2. System engineering in the SSC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Chang, C.R.; Cutler, R.I.; Funk, L.W.; Guy, F.W.; Hale, R.; Leifeste, G.T.; Nonte, J.; Prichard, B.; Raparia, D.; Saadatmand, K.; Sethi, R.C.; Yao, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    The design and construction of the SSC Linac involves various departments within the SSCL and many outside vendors. The adaptive incorporation of system engineering principles into the SSC Linac is described. This involves the development of specification trees with the breakdown and flow of functional and physical requirements from the top level system specifications to the lower level component specifications. Interfaces are defined, which specify and control the interconnections between the various components. Review cycles are presented during which the requirements, evolution of the design, and test plans are reviewed, monitored, and finalized. The Linac specification tree, interface definition, and reviews of the Linac are presented, including typical examples. (Author) 2 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, W.S.; Althaus, R.F.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Green, M.A.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    We have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in the magnetic field were observed. One explanation for the observed field decay is time dependent superconductor magnetization. Another explanation involves flux creep or flux flow. Data are presented on how the decay changes with previous flux history. Similar magnets with different Nb-Ti filament spacings and matrix materials have different long time field decay. A theoretical model using proximity coupling and flux creep for the observed field decay is discussed. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Silicon calorimetry for the SSC[ Superconducting Supercollider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, C.; Borchi, E.; Brau, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    SSC experiments will rely heavily on their calorimeters. Silicon calorimetry, which has been introduced in recent years as a useful technology, has many attractive characteristics which may make it a viable option for consideration. The many attractive properties of silicon detectors are reviewed. The relevant present day applications of large areas of silicon detectors are summarize to illustrate the emerging use. The troublesome issue of radiation damage in a high luminosity environment like the SSC is considered with a summary of much of the recent new measurements which help clarify this situation. A discussion of the electronics and a possible mechanical configuration is presented, followed by a summary of the outstanding R and D issues. 31 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Reactivity feedback models for SSC-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Do Hee; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Kyung Du; Chang, Won Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    Safety of KALIMER is assured by the inherent safety of the core and passive safety of the safety-related systems. For the safety analysis of a new reactor design such as KALIMER, analysis models, which are consistent with the design, have to be developed for a plant-wide transient and safety analysis code. Efforts for the development of reactivity feedback models for SSC-K, which is now being developed for the safety analysis of KALIMER, is described in this report. Models for Doppler, sodium density/void, fuel axial expansion, core radial expansion, and CRDL expansion have been developed. Test runs have been performed for the unprotected accident for the verification of the models. Use of KALIMER reactivity coefficients and future development of models for GEM and PSDRS would make it possible to analyze the response of KALIMER under TOP as well as LOF and LOHS accident conditions using SSC-K. (author). 5 refs., 64 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Compositeness and QCD at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, V.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cahn, R.

    1987-01-01

    Compositeness may be signaled by an increase in the production of high transverse momentum hadronic jet pairs or lepton pairs. The hadronic jet signal competes with the QCD production of jets, a subject of interest in its own right. Tests of perturbative QCD at the SSC will be of special interest because the calculations are expected to be quite reliable. Studies show that compositeness up to a scale of 20 to 35 TeV would be detected in hadronic jets at the SSC. Leptonic evidence would be discovered for scales up to 10 to 20 TeV. The charge asymmetry for leptons would provide information on the nature of the compositeness interaction. Calorimetry will play a crucial role in the detection of compositeness in the hadronic jet signal. Deviations from an e/h response of 1 could mask the effect. The backgrounds for lepton pair production seem manageable. 30 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs

  7. The SSC access shafts calculational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baishev, I.S.; Mokhov, N.V.; Toohig, T.E.

    1991-06-01

    The SSC generic shaft requirements and access spacing are considered elsewhere. The shafts connecting the ground surface with the underground accelerator tunnel deliver to the surface some portion of the radiation created in the tunnel. The radiation safety problem of access shafts consists of two major questions: Does the dose equivalent at the ground surface exceed permissible limits? If it exceeds those limits, what additional shielding measures are required? A few works deal with this problem for high energy machines. This work is an attempt to answer these questions for the basic types of shafts specific to the SSC magnet delivery, utility and personnel shafts using full-scale Monte-Carlo calculations of the entire process from hadronic cascades in the lattice elements to particles scattered in the tunnel, niches, alcoves, shafts and surface bunkers and buildings. 9 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  8. An industrial cabling machine for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.; Armer, R.; Hannaford, R.; Scanlan, R.

    1989-02-01

    The SSC project will need the manufacturing of some 25,000 kilometers of keystoned flat cable. The technical specifications of the various cables to be produced are the result of five years of research and development work at LBL. An experimental cable machine was built and run in the laboratory; many improvements were implemented and tested. Semi-industrial production of the various cables was performed, and the resulting cables were used and tested in the one-meter model magnets and 17.5 meter dipole prototypes. From these experiments an industrial cabler specification was generated and used for an international RFQ. The winner of the contract is Dour Metal, a Belgium company that built the first industrial prototype which is now in a production line at New England Electric Wire Company. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the machine and give the first industrial production results of superconducting keystoned cable for the SSC project. 4 refs

  9. New linac technology - for SSC, and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    With recent agreement on the high priority of seeking funding for a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), it is appropriate to consider the injector linac requirements for such a machine. In so doing, the status of established technique and advantages of near-term R and D with relatively clear payoff are established, giving a base line for some speculation about linac possibilities even further in the future

  10. Neural networks, D0, and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, C.; Cutts, D.; Hoftun, J.S.; Partridge, R.A.; Sornborger, A.T.; Johnson, C.T.; Zeller, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    We outline several exploratory studies involving neural network simulations applied to pattern recognition in high energy physics. We describe the D0 data acquisition system and a natual means by which algorithms derived from neural networks techniques may be incorporated into recently developed hardware associated with the D0 MicroVAX farm nodes. Such applications to the event filtering needed by SSC detectors look interesting. 10 refs., 11 figs

  11. SSC collider dipole magnet end mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchamps, S.W.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.; Ewald, K.; Fulton, H.; Kerby, J.; Koska, W.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.; Leung, K.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the ends of Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnets to be constructed and tested at Fermilab. Coil end clamps, end yoke configuration, and end plate design are discussed. Loading of the end plate by axial Lorentz forces is discussed. Relevant data from 40 mm and 50 mm aperture model dipole magnets built and tested at Fermilab are presented. In particular, the apparent influence of end clamp design on the quench behavior of model SSC dipoles is described

  12. Engineered design of SSC cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bear, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    The cooling requirements of the SSC are significant and adequate cooling water systems to meet these requirements are critical to the project's successful operation. The use of adequately designed cooling ponds will provide reliable cooling for operation while also meeting environmental goals of the project to maintain streamflow and flood peaks to preconstruction levels as well as other streamflow and water quality requirements of the Texas Water Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency

  13. Computing facility at SSC for detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, P.; Scipiono, B.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the RISC-based distributed computing facility for detector simulaiton being developed at the SSC Laboratory is discussed. The first phase of this facility is scheduled for completion in early 1991. Included is the status of the project, overview of the concepts used to model and define system architecture, networking capabilities for user access, plans for support of physics codes and related topics concerning the implementation of this facility

  14. The status of detectors at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanski, R.

    1990-09-01

    The announcement of the location of the SSC at the site near Waxahachie, Texas was made in January, 1989. Since then a great many important steps have been taken toward the start of the new Laboratory. Some 900 people have been brought to the site as the starting nucleus of the staff that will ultimate number about 2200. A design baseline has been completed that includes a conceptual design for the accelerator, and the detectors. Also, the process has begun to determine the configuration of detectors that will be built for the SSC. This process has several steps, and now the first of these has been taken: The detector collaborations have submitted the Expression of Interest to the Laboratory. These were reviewed by Laboratory management and the Physics Advisory Committee in July, 1990 and recommendations were made to the collaborations. Decisions were deferred for all of the detectors. But perhaps the most significant recommendation was the request to reduce the size and cost of the general purpose detectors. The detector collaborations are now reviewing their initial designs to prepare for the Letters of Intent, the next step in the detector planning process. This is clearly a difficult and crucial step in that the redesign of the detectors must be done with minimal reduction in detector quality. It is an interesting time in the development of the new laboratory, and a crucial time for the ultimate physics that will be done at the SSC

  15. Relational databases for SSC design and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, E.; Peggs, S.; Saltmarsh, C.

    1989-01-01

    Most people agree that a database is A Good Thing, but there is much confusion in the jargon used, and in what jobs a database management system and its peripheral software can and cannot do. During the life cycle of an enormous project like the SSC, from conceptual and theoretical design, through research and development, to construction, commissioning and operation, an enormous amount of data will be generated. Some of these data, originating in the early parts of the project, will be needed during commissioning or operation, many years in the future. Two of these pressing data management needs-from the magnet research and industrialization programs and the lattice design-have prompted work on understanding and adapting commercial database practices for scientific projects. Modern relational database management systems (rDBMS's) cope naturally with a large proportion of the requirements of data structures, like the SSC database structure built for the superconduction cable supplies, uses, and properties. This application is similar to the commercial applications for which these database systems were developed. The SSC application has further requirements not immediately satisfied by the commercial systems. These derive from the diversity of the data structures to be managed, the changing emphases and uses during the project lifetime, and the large amount of scientific data processing to be expected. 4 refs., 5 figs

  16. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilbert, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns ionization chambers with particular reference to air-equivalent ionization chambers. In order to ensure that similar chambers have similar sensitivities and responses the surface of the chamber bounding the active volume carries a conducting material, which may be a colloidal graphite, arranged in the form of lines so that the area of the conducting material occupies only a small proportion of the area of said surface. (U.S.)

  17. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  18. SSC education: Science to capture the imagination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadsden, T.; Kivlighn, S.

    1992-01-01

    To the great majority of Americans, science is merely a collection of facts and theories that should (for unknown reasons) be memorized and perhaps even understood in order for one to function as a responsible citizen. Few see science as a way of thinking and questioning and as an approach to learning the secrets of our world. In addition, most children and many adults have a stereotypical view of scientists as studious men in lab coats who spend all their time working alone in dark and smelly chemical or biological laboratories. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) totally contradicts such a perception. This great instrument is being created by thousands of scientists, engineers, business people, technicians, administrators, and others, from dozens of nations, working together to realize a shared vision to seek answers to shared questions. The SSCL also provides an opportunity to change the mistaken impressions about science and scientists that have resulted in fewer students pursuing careers in fields related to science. In addition, it will serve as a catalyst to help people understand the roles that scientific thought and inquiry can play in bettering their lives and the lives of their offspring. Recognizing this problem in our society, the creators of the SSC Laboratory made a commitment to use the SSC to improve science education. Consequently, in addition to building the world's premier high-energy physics laboratory, the SSCL has a second goal: creation of a major national and international educational resource. To achieve the latter goal, the Education Office of the SSCL is charged with using the resources of the Laboratory, both during construction and during operation, to improve education in science and mathematics at all levels (prekindergarten through post-doctorate) and for all components of our society (including the general public), in the United States and around the world

  19. SSC lattice database and graphical interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trahern, C.G.; Zhou, J.

    1991-11-01

    When completed the Superconducting Super Collider will be the world's largest accelerator complex. In order to build this system on schedule, the use of database technologies will be essential. In this paper we discuss one of the database efforts underway at the SSC, the lattice database. The SSC lattice database provides a centralized source for the design of each major component of the accelerator complex. This includes the two collider rings, the High Energy Booster, Medium Energy Booster, Low Energy Booster, and the LINAC as well as transfer and test beam lines. These designs have been created using a menagerie of programs such as SYNCH, DIMAD, MAD, TRANSPORT, MAGIC, TRACE3D AND TEAPOT. However, once a design has been completed, it is entered into a uniform database schema in the database system. In this paper we discuss the reasons for creating the lattice database and its implementation via the commercial database system SYBASE. Each lattice in the lattice database is composed of a set of tables whose data structure can describe any of the SSC accelerator lattices. In order to allow the user community access to the databases, a programmatic interface known as dbsf (for database to several formats) has been written. Dbsf creates ascii input files appropriate to the above mentioned accelerator design programs. In addition it has a binary dataset output using the Self Describing Standard data discipline provided with the Integrated Scientific Tool Kit software tools. Finally we discuss the graphical interfaces to the lattice database. The primary interface, known as OZ, is a simulation environment as well as a database browser

  20. SSC collider dipole magnet end mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchamps, S.W.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.; Ewald, K.; Fulton, H.; Kerby, J.; Koska, W.; Strait, J.; Wake, S.M.; Leung, K.K.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the ends of Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnets to be constructed and tested at Fermilab. Coil end clamps, end yoke configuration, and end plate design are discussed. Loading of the end plate by axial Lorentz forces is discussed. Relevant data from 40 mm and 50 mm aperture model dipole magnets built and tested at Fermilab are presented. In particular, the apparent influence of end clamp design on the quench behavior of model SSC dipoles is described. 8 refs., 3 figs

  1. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on SSC physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Ad Hoc Committee on SSC Physics has reexamined the relationship between beam energy, machine luminosity, and physics capability. In the next section, the physics motivation for the SSC is reviewed in general terms. This is followed by a discussion of the ability to detect a number of specific processes as a function of the SSC energy and luminosity. The viability of various detector technologies is then assessed as a function of luminosity. The report ends with a brief summary and some conclusions

  2. Parameter selection for the SSC trade-offs and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.A.; Syphers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    In November of 1988, a site was selected in the state of Texas for the SSC. In January of 1989, the SSC Laboratory was established in Texas to adapt the design of the collider to the site and to manage the construction of the project. This paper describes the evolution of the SSC design since site selection, notes the increased concentration on the injector system, and addresses the rationale for choice of parameters

  3. Measurements of ground motion and SSC dipole vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shiltsev, V.D.; Weaver, H.J.

    1993-06-01

    The results of seismic ground measurements at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site and investigations of vibrational properties of superconducting dipoles for the SSC are presented. Spectral analysis of the data obtained in the large frequency band from 0.05 Hz to 2000 Hz is done. Resonant behavior and the dipole-to-ground transform ratio are investigated. The influence of measured vibrations on SSC operations is considered

  4. Uses of the chiral Lagrangian at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.

    1992-09-01

    In the event that the SSC does not observe any resonances such as a Higgs boson or a techni-rho meson, we would like to know if the SSC can still discover something about the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider the question of whether there is a ''no-lose'' corollary at the SSC. We will use chiral Lagrangian techniques to address this question and analyze their utility for studying events containing W and Z gauge bosons at the SSC

  5. Full length prototype SSC dipole test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from tests of the first full length prototype SSC dipole magnet. The cryogenic behavior of the magnet during a slow cooldown to 4.5K and a slow warmup to room temperature has been measured. Magnetic field quality was measured at currents up to 2000 A. Averaged over the body field all harmonics with the exception of b 2 and b 8 are at or within the tolerances specified by the SSC Central Design Group. (The values of b 2 and b 8 result from known design and construction defects which will be be corrected in later magnets.) Using an NMR probe the average body field strength is measured to be 10.283 G/A with point to point variations on the order of one part in 1000. Data are presented on quench behavior of the magnet up to 3500 A (approximately 55% of full field) including longitudinal and transverse velocities for the first 250 msec of the quench

  6. Scintillating fiber detection development for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchti, R.

    1993-01-01

    SSC Detector Program at Notre Dame has been concentrating on the development of scintillating fiber detectors for tracking applications. Initial work has focused on the development of new scintillation materials for micro-tracking and central tracking detectors based on organic plastics and liquids, This effort has included studies of solvents, solutes and waveguides. Techniques capable of providing the detection of single photons from fibers, are also being developed, leading to a collaboration with Rockwell, UCLA, and UTexas-Dallas groups on the development and application of the Solid State Photomultiplier (SSPM). This initial collaboration has been strengthened and expanded to the formation of a larger collaboration whose goal is to develop a fiber tracking subsystem for SSC, incorporating scintillating fibers and solid state photodetectors. The major subsystem proposal submitted to SSCL by this new collaboration, known at the Fiber Tracking Group (FTG), has been approved and funding is being put in place. The collaboration consists of 12 institutions and Notre Dame is a spokesman group

  7. Preserving SSC Design Function Using RCM Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) can be defined as an approach that employs preventive, predictive, proactive, and reactive maintenance practices and strategies in an integrated manner to increase the probability that a Structure, System, or Component (SSC) will function as designed over its life cycle with optimum maintenance. The goal of RCM is to preserve the SSC intended design function at the lowest cost by developing a maintenance strategy that is supported by sound technical and economic justification. RCM has been used extensively by the aircraft, space, defense, power generation, and manufacturing industries where functional failures of SSCs can have the potential to compromise worker or public safety, cause adverse environmental impact, cause loss of production, and/or result in excessive damage to critical SSCs. This paper provides a framework for performing an RCM analysis in support of DOE Order 430.1A (Life Cycle Asset Management) and DOE Order 420.1B (Facility Safety). The influence of RCM on the various aspects of the maintenance program including the work control process is also discussed

  8. An alternate end design for SSC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, C.; Caspi, S.; Taylor, C.

    1989-02-01

    Experience in the SSC dipole program has shown that fabrication of cylindrical coil ends is difficult. Cable stiffness requires large forces to maintain the proper position of the conductors in the end during winding. After winding, the coil ends remain distorted nd significant motion of the need conductors is required to force the coil end into the molding cavity. Local mechanical stresses are high during this process and extra pieces of insulation are required to prevent turn-to-turn shorts from developing during the winding and molding steps. Prior to assembly the coil end is compressed in a mold cavity and injected with a filler material to correct surface irregularities and fill voids in the end. LBL has developed an alternate design which permits the conductors to be wound over the end using minimal force and technician coerosion. The conductors are placed on a conical surface where the largest diameter over the outer layer conductors is 10 cm. No coil end spaces or insulation pieces between turns are required. The conductor geometry was analytically optimized to meet SSC multipole requirements for the ends. The first 1-m dipole utilizing this end geometry has been constructed and successfully tested. Design and construction data are presented. Also model test results, including training and multipole measurements of the end are given. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Factors affecting the development of sprays produced by multihole injectors for direct-injection engine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van Romunde, R. Z.

    2011-01-01

    The spray form development from a state of the art multi-hole injector for gasoline direct injection internal combustion engines is examined to attempt to determine the thermo-fluid dynamics affecting the spray development. The current state of knowledge regarding spray break-up and the interactivity of the factors on spray form are detailed. The spray under investigation was injected into purposely designed quiescent chambers to decouple the effects of the fluid mechanics on s...

  10. Structure of Non-evaporating diesel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.R.; Baluch, A.H.; Tahir, Z.R.

    2008-01-01

    Need is always felt of some rational experimental information on fuel spray jet formation, its development and dispersion in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The latest study uses computational fluid dynamics for the modeling of engine flows. The original experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by a single-hole orifice type nozzle using a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of non-evaporating diesel sprays. The correlations derived can be used to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure and combustion chamber pressure. (author)

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  12. Ussing Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are

  13. Dicty_cDB: SSC534 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC534 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13922-1 SSC534Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC534Z 711 - - - - Show SSC534 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC534 (Link to dic... 1.3 FM992688_1247( FM992688 |pid:none) Candida dubliniensis CD36 chrom... 35 3.0 EU565733_1( EU565733 |pid:none) Unculture... 20.0 %: nuclear 16.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 12.0 %: mitochondrial 8.0 %: Golgi 8.0 %: endoplasmic reticul...kholderia multivorans ATCC 1... 33 6.6 AM260479_1383( AM260479 |pid:none) Ralstonia e

  14. Dicty_cDB: SSC538 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC538 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13922-1 SSC538Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC538Z 712 - - - - Show SSC538 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC538 (Link to dic...SHR34... 36 1.3 FM992688_1247( FM992688 |pid:none) Candida dubliniensis CD36 chrom... 35 3.0 EU565733_1( EU565733 |pid:none) Uncultur...9385_2728( AP009385 |pid:none) Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 1... 33 6.6 AM260479_1383( AM260479 |pid:none) ... reticulum 4.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: vacu

  15. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.

    1987-09-01

    To minimize cost of the SSC facility, small-bore high field dipole magnets have been developed;some of the new technology that has been developed at several U.S. national laboratories and in industry is summarized. Superconducting wire with high J/sub c/ and filaments as small as 5μm diameter is not produced iwht mechanical properties suitable for reliable cable production. A variety of collar designs of both aluminum and stainless steel have been used in model magnets. A low-heat leak post-type cryostat support system is used and a system for accurate alignment of coil-collar-yoke in the cryostat has been developed. Model magnets of 1-m, 1.8 m, 4.5 m, and 17 m lengths have been build during the past two years. 23 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. SSC physics signatures and trigger requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Strategies are considered for triggering on new physics processes on the environment of the SSC, where interaction rates will be very high and most new physics processes quite rare. The quantities available for use in the trigger at various levels are related to the signatures of possible new physics. Two examples were investigated in some detail using the ISAJET Monte Carlo program: Higgs decays to W pairs and a missing energy trigger applied to gluino pair production. In both of the examples studied in detail, it was found that workable strategies for reducing the trigger rate were obtainable which also produced acceptable efficiency for the processes of interest. In future work, it will be necessary to carry out such a program for the full spectrum of suggested new physics

  17. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnet mechanical interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Niemann, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Ramstein, W.L.; Reynolds, M.P.; Engler, N.H.

    1989-03-01

    Installation of superconducting accelerator dipole and quadrupole magnets and spool pieces in the SSC tunnel requires the interconnection of the cryostats. The connections are both of an electrical and mechanical nature. The details of the mechanical connections are presented. The connections include piping, thermal shields and insulation. There are seven piping systems to be connected. These systems must carry cryogenic fluids at various pressures or maintain vacuum and must be consistently leak tight. The interconnection region must be able to expand and contract as magnets change in length while cooling and warming. The heat leak characteristics of the interconnection region must be comparable to that of the body of the magnet. Rapid assembly and disassembly is required. The magnet cryostat development program is discussed. Results of quality control testing are reported. Results of making full scale interconnections under magnet test situations are reviewed. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Closed orbit correction in the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Ferede, H.; Pilat, F.

    1991-01-01

    Most of the techniques associated with closed orbit correction are widely known. The present paper gives a brief description of one such method and discusses the results obtained when it is applied to the SSC collider lattice. The emphasis is on features of the lattice which effect closed orbit correction and it is likely that any of the 8 methods cataloged in a cited reference would yield similar results. The global scheme described here is very robust and easy to apply. The results of three separate studies are briefly described. Typical results for the residual RMS closed orbit in the arc is calculated to be 0.65 mm with peak values of 3 mm

  19. GIS/FIS development for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oslin, A.; Butalla, M.

    1992-01-01

    Facility management for a project of the size and complexity of the SSCL is a challenging task. The Facility Information System/Geographic Information System (FIS/GIS) should provide an effective tool for the demanding work ahead. Both the FIS and GIS encompass information that many potential users across multiple disciplines will require for effective facility management. FIS will be integrated with the GIS for applications that involve duplicate needs of graphic and attribute data. In particular, infrastructure networks, environmental monitoring, emergency dispatching, and hazardous materials management have been identified as areas where the two systems will interface. In general, the GIS will manage graphic and attribute information outside the actual structure of the SSCL. The FIS will take over operation of components and networks within the SSCL facility. By providing a method for informed decision-making, implementation of the SSC FIS/GIS will facilitate the tasks involved in managing our Laboratory during all phases of its life

  20. The SSC full cell prototype string test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraushaar, P.; Burgett, W.; Cromer, L.

    1994-11-01

    At the conclusion of the SSC half cell magnet string testing program. In February, 1993, the preliminary data analysis revealed that several substantive technical questions remained unresolved. These questions were: (1) could the high voltages to ground (>2 kV) measured during fault (quench) conditions be substantially reduced, (2) could the number of magnetic elements that became resistive (quenched) be controlled and (3) did the cryostats of the magnetic elements provide adequate insulation and isolation to meet designed refrigeration loads. To address these and other existing question a prototypical full cell of collider magnets (ten dipoles and two quadrupoles) was assembled and tested. At the conclusion of this testing there were definitive answers to most of the questions with numerical substantiation, the notable exception being the beat leak question. These answers and other results and issues are presented in this paper

  1. Physics requirements for LHC/SSC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1991-10-01

    The goal of the next generation of collider detectors is to study the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking. The mass scale for this study is roughly 1 TeV. No matter what the details of the mechanism, one can be confident that new phenomena will occur, since weak interactions become strong, i.e., violate partial wave unitarity, at that mass scale. The partial wave amplitude for ee→ WW scattering is; ao∼4φ/α w (M w /M) 2 , ao∼1 if M ∼1 TeV. Therefore, the detectors for LHC/SSC must be able to confront this mass scale. In particular, the electroweak dynamics is such that the study of gauge boson pairs has a high priority. Given that the simplest decay modes for gauge boson are into leptons, the new detectors will naturally tend to optimize performance for leptons

  2. Requirements for SSC central computing staffing (conceptual)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, J.

    1985-01-01

    Given a computation center with --10,000 MIPS supporting --1,000 users, what are the staffing requirements? The attempt in this paper is to list the functions and staff size required in a central computing or centrally supported computing complex. The organization assumes that although considerable computing power would exist (mostly for online) in the four interaction regions (IR) that there are functions/capabilities better performed outside the IR and in this model at a ''central computing facility.'' What follows is one staffing approach, not necessarily optimal, with certain assumptions about numbers of computer systems, media, networks and system controls, that is, one would get the best technology available. Thus, it is speculation about what the technology may bring and what it takes to operate it. From an end user support standpoint it is less clear, given the geography of an SSC, where and what the consulting support should look like and its location

  3. Single bunch instabilities in an SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this note coherent instability thresholds are estimated for the SSC and discuss some of the subsequent design restrictions. The various instabilities are set out in a block diagram with the essential features of each. The assumption is made that long wavelength coupled bunch effects can be cured effectively by a feedback system (both longitudinal and transverse) and that the impedance of the feedback system is such as to cancel that of the environment (at low frequency). Alternatively, the long wake field is assumed to be exactly canceled, on the average, by a feedback wake field. This leaves only single bunch effects. Thresholds for fast-blowup are discussed both in the longitudinal and transverse and the transverse mode coupling instability more familiar in electron/positron storage rings is covered. The impedances considered are a broadband impedance and the resistive wall impedance

  4. 84 K nitrogen system for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAshan, M.; Thirumaleshwar, M.; Abramovich, S.; Ganni, V.; Scheidemantle, A.

    1992-01-01

    The nitrogen system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is designed to provide the 84 K (nominal) shield refrigeration for the collider rings. Liquid nitrogen is supplied to the collider tunnel from one, two, or more locations on the surface through the service shafts and is distributed along, the 87 km of both rings by the 84 K shield lines. Additional design requirements for the nitrogen distribution system include precooling, fluid supply to the helium plants, supplying makeup liquid nitrogen to the reservoirs located at the entrance of the main shafts, and providing an efficient cooldown means for the cold mass from 300 K to 90 K. The operational modes and possible emergency and maintenance conditions of the collider are taken into account for the nitrogen system design. The status of our work, including design considerations that address thermal aspects (heat load, recooling scheme, etc.) and hydraulic aspects (pressures, elevations, distances, etc.) of the nitrogen system will be discussed

  5. The SSC full cell prototype string test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Kraushaar, P.; Burgett, W.; Cromer, L.

    1994-01-01

    At the conclusion of the SSC half cell magnet string testing program in February, 1993, the preliminary data analysis revealed that several substantive technical questions remained unresolved. These questions were: (1) could the high voltages to ground (>2 kV) measured during fault (quench) conditions be substantially reduced, (2) could the number of magnetic elements that became resistive (quenched) be controlled and 3) did the cryostats of the magnetic elements provide adequate insulation and isolation to meet designed refrigeration loads. To address these and other existing questions, a prototypical fall cell of collider magnets (ten dipoles and two quadrupoles) was assembled and tested. At the conclusion of this testing there were definitive answers to most of the questions with numerical substantiation, the notable exception being the beat leak question. These answers and other results and issues are presented in this paper

  6. Ac loss measurement of SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchamps, S.; Hanft, R.; Jaffery, T.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Ozelis, J.P.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.

    1992-09-01

    AC losses in full length and 1.5 m model SSC collider dipoles were successfully measured by the direct observation of energy flow into and out of magnets during a ramp cycle. The measurement was performed by using two double-integrating type digital volt meters (DVM's) for current and voltage measurement. Measurements were performed for six is m long ASST magnets and five 1.5 m long model magnets, inducting one 40 mm diameter magnet. There were large variations in the eddy current losses. Since these magnets use conductors with slight deviations in their internal structures and processing of the copper surface depending on the manufacturer, it is likely that there are differences in the contact resistance between strands. Correlation between the ramp rate dependence of the,quench current and the eddy current loss was evident

  7. Radiation levels in the SSC interaction regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, D.E. [ed.

    1988-06-10

    The radiation environment in a typical SSC detector has been evaluated using the best available particle production models coupled with Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The problems studied include direct charged particle dose, dose inside a calorimeter from the cascades produced by incident photons and hadrons, the flux of neutrons and photons backscattered from the calorimeter into a central cavity, and neutron flux in the calorimeter. The luminosity lifetime at the SSC is dominated by collision losses in the interaction regions, where the luminosity is equivalent to losing an entire full-energy proton beam into the apparatus every six days. The result of an average p-p collision can be described quite simply. The mean charged multiplicity is about 110, and the particles are distributed nearly uniformly in pseudorapidity ({eta}) over all the angles of interest. The transverse momentum distribution is independent of angle, and for our purposes may be written as p{perpendicular}exp(-p{perpendicular}/{beta}). The mean value of p{perpendicular} may be as high as 0.6 GeV/c. Most of the radiation is produced by the very abundant low-p{perpendicular} particles. The dose or neutron fluence produced by individual particles in this energy region are simulated over a wide variety of conditions, and several measurements serve to confirm the simulation results. In general, the response (a dose, fluence, the number of backscattered neutrons, etc.) for an incident particle of momentum p can be parameterized in the form Np{sup {alpha}}, where 0.5 < {alpha}< 1.0. The authors believe most of their results to be accurate to within a factor of two or three, sufficiently precise to serve as the basis for detailed designs.

  8. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  9. Variance component analysis of quantitative trait loci for pork carcass composition and meat quality on SSC4 and SSC11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van H.J.; Dibbits, B.W.; Liefers, S.C.; Buschbell, H.; Harlizius, B.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Knol, E.F.; Bovenhuis, H.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, QTL for carcass composition and meat quality were identified in a commercial finisher cross. The main objective of the current study was to confirm and fine map the QTL on SSC4 and SSC11 by genotyping an increased number of individuals and markers and to analyze the data using a

  10. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, Jesper Saederup; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  11. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  12. Drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yosuke

    1977-01-01

    Drift chamber is becoming an important detector in high energy physics as a precision and fast position detector because of its high spatial resolution and count-rate. The basic principle is that it utilizes the drift at constant speed of electrons ionized along the tracks of charged particles towards the anode wire in the nearly uniform electric field. The method of measuring drift time includes the analog and digital ones. This report describes about the construction of and the application of electric field to the drift chamber, mathematical analysis on the electric field and equipotential curve, derivation of spatial resolution and the factor for its determination, and selection of gas to be used. The performance test of the chamber was carried out using a small test chamber, the collimated β source of Sr-90, and 500 MeV/C electron beam from the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Most chambers to date adopted one dimensional read-out, but it is very advantageous if the two dimensional read-out is feasible with one chamber when the resolution in that direction is low. The typical methods of delay line and charge division for two dimensional read-out are described. The development of digital read-out system is underway, which can process the signal of a large scale drift chamber at high speed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Spray Characteristics of Pressure-swirl Nozzle at Different Ambient Pressures of Combustion Chamber%燃烧室背压对压力涡流喷嘴喷雾特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛涛; 张武高; 陈晓玲; 顾根香; 郭晓宁; 黄震

    2011-01-01

    采用高速摄影技术、激光测粒仪和PIV测试技术系统试验研究了燃烧室背压对斯特林发动机压力涡流喷嘴喷雾形成过程、贯穿距离增长规律、喷雾锥角、液滴粒径和喷雾流场的影响.结果表明,燃烧室背压的增加使喷雾形状更加致密,贯穿距离的增加变缓,液滴平均速度增加,索特平均直径增加.当燃烧室背压大于1.0~1.5 MPa之间的一个临界值时,其对喷雾锥角没有影响,小于此临界值,燃烧室背压的增加会使喷雾锥角急剧降低.%The spray characteristics of pressure-swirl nozzle used in Stirling engine was studied by way of the experiment under high ambient pressures (up to 2. 8 Mpa). The high-speed video imaging technique, FAM ( Fraunhofer and Mie) laser drop size analyzer, and PIV (particle image velocimetry) test equipment were used for experimental measurements. Experimental results showed that the spray structure at higher ambient pressure was more compact. The vortex cloud was found at the leading edge at high ambient pressure. Spray cone angle was independent of ambient pressure after a value between 1.0 ~ 1. 5 Mpa. The Sauter mean diameter ( SMD) and the drop velocity became larger at high ambient pressure conditions. Finally, a vortex was found in the center of the spray and this region moved to the downstream of the spray as the ambient pressure increased.

  14. Large Eddy Simulation of the spray formation in confinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampa, A.; Fritsching, U.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Process stability of confined spray processes is affected by the geometric design of the spray confinement. • LES simulations of confined spray flow have been performed successfully. • Clustering processes of droplets is predicted in simulations and validated with experiments. • Criteria for specific coherent gas flow patterns and droplet clustering behaviour are found. -- Abstract: The particle and powder properties produced within spray drying processes are influenced by various unsteady transport phenomena in the dispersed multiphase spray flow in a confined spray chamber. In this context differently scaled spray structures in a confined spray environment have been analyzed in experiments and numerical simulations. The experimental investigations have been carried out with Particle-Image-Velocimetry to determine the velocity of the gas and the discrete phase. Large-Eddy-Simulations have been set up to predict the transient behaviour of the spray process and have given more insight into the sensitivity of the spray flow structures in dependency from the spray chamber design

  15. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type X-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is placed next to the anode and is maintained at a voltage intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting towards the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  18. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  19. Personal extrapolation of CDF test beam use to the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodulman, L.

    1986-01-01

    The author's personal experience in test beam usage at CDF is used to predict SSC needs at the point of turn-on. It is concluded that the test beam demand will reflect the scale of effort involved in SSC detectors rather than the total number of them. Provision for later expansion is recommended. It is also recommended that the test beam facilities, as well as detector electronics, should reflect the available dynamic range; particularly, a single high energy beam derived from the SSC could be shared by several groups

  20. Geotechnical characterization and construction methods for SSC tunnel excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.P.; Lundin, T.K.

    1990-06-01

    The site for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) facility was selected in 1988 after a nationwide proposal competition. The selected site is located in Ellis County, Texas, surrounding the town of Waxahachie which is about 30 miles (48 km) south of the City of Dallas central business district. This paper will describe the geotechnical conditions anticipated for excavation at the SSC site. A general geologic and geomechanical description of the rock present will be followed by a summary of the site-specific conceptual design for the tunneled components of the SSC machine. The Supercollider project will include about 70 miles (113) km of tunnel excavation

  1. Personal extrapolation of CDF test beam use to the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodulman, L.

    1986-06-23

    The author's personal experience in test beam usage at CDF is used to predict SSC needs at the point of turn-on. It is concluded that the test beam demand will reflect the scale of effort involved in SSC detectors rather than the total number of them. Provision for later expansion is recommended. It is also recommended that the test beam facilities, as well as detector electronics, should reflect the available dynamic range; particularly, a single high energy beam derived from the SSC could be shared by several groups. (LEW)

  2. A study on the macroscopic spray behavior and atomization characteristics of biodiesel and dimethyl ether sprays under increased ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Park, Su Han [Graduate School of Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Chang Sik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the spray behaviors of biodiesel and dimethyl ether (DME) fuels using image processing and atomization performance analysis of the two fuel sprays injected through a common-rail injection system under various ambient pressure conditions in a high pressure chamber. In order to observe the biodiesel and DME fuel spray behaviors under various ambient pressures, the spray images were analyzed at various times after the start of energization using a visualization system consisting of a high speed camera and two metal halide light sources. In addition, a high pressure chamber that can withstand a pressure of 4 MPa was used for adjusting the ambient pressure. From the spray images, spray characteristics such as the spray tip penetration, cone angle, area, and contour plot at various light intensity levels were analyzed using image conversion processing. Also, the local Sauter mean diameters (SMD) were measured at various axial/radial distances from the nozzle tip by a droplet measuring system to compare the atomization performances of the biodiesel and DME sprays. The results showed that the ambient pressure had a significant effect on the spray characteristics of the fuels at the various experimental conditions. The spray tip penetration and spray area decreased as the ambient pressure increased. The contour plot of the biodiesel and DME sprays showed a high light intensity level in the center regions of the sprays. In addition, it was revealed that the atomization performance of the biodiesel spray was inferior to that of the DME spray at the same injection and ambient conditions. (author)

  3. Cabling for an SSC silicon tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.; Boissevain, J.; Cooke, B.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) funded silicon tracking subsystem R ampersand D program, we examine the problems associated with cabling such a system. Different options for the cabling plant are discussed. A silicon microstrip tracking detector for an SSC experiment is an extremely complex system. The system consists of approximately 10 7 detector channels, each of which requires a communication link with the outside world and connections to the detector bias voltage supply, to a DC power supply for the onboard electronics, and to an adjustable discrimination level. The large number of channels and the short time between beam interactions (16 nanoseconds) dictates the need for high speed and large bandwidth communication channels, and a power distribution system that can handle the high current draw of the electronics including the large AC component due to their switching. At the same time the constraints imposed by the physics measurements require that the cable plant have absolutely minimal mass and radiation length. 4 refs., 2 figs

  4. Prospects for polarization at RHIC and SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    In low to medium energy accelerators, betatron tune jumps and vertical orbit harmonic correction methods have been used to overcome the intrinsic and imperfection resonances. At high energy accelerators, snakes are needed to preserve polarization. We analyze the effects of snake resonances, snake imperfections overlapping resonances on the spin depolarization. We discuss also results of recent snake experiments at the IUCF Cooler Ring. The snake can overcome various kinds of spin depolarization resonances. These experiments pointed out further that partial snake can be used to cure the imperfection resonances in low to medium energy accelerators. We also examine various snake designs. A new generalized snake concept allows for two possible configurations. The compact configuration offers the advantages of shorter total snake length and smaller horizontal orbit displacement. The split snake configuration allows for dual functions of a snake and a 90 degree spin rotator at the mid-section of the snake, which provides helicity state collisions. The requirements for obtaining high luminosity polarized protons at high energy colliders, such as RHIC and SSC, are reviewed

  5. Engineering innovations on the SSC DTL accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rymer, J.P.; Potter, J.M.; Givens, J.; Campbell, B.; Hansborough, L.

    1992-01-01

    The engineering design of the drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) linac incorporates numerous innovative features, resulting in a reliable, cost-effective accelerator structure suitable for commercial production. The tank structure includes two integral strong-backs that provide stable mounting surfaces for the drift tubes and ion pumps and add mechanical stiffness. Drift tubes are mounted using AccSys' patented semi-hard socket technique, which includes separate metal seals for rf and vacuum. The socket allows repeatable adjustment of drift-tube location, thus allowing the tank to be fabricated to realistic tolerances. Transverse alignment of the drift tubes will be accomplished using a pulsed taut-wire technique to align the magnetic centers of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. This technique has been improved to allow drift-tube alignment throughout a 6 m long tank. For maximum reliability, the individual drift tubes include water-cooling channels that have no water-to-vacuum joints. Each tank will be driven through a waveguide iris coupler that can be adjusted to optimize the coupling. (Author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  6. GIS/FIS development for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oslin, A.; Butalla, M.

    1992-03-01

    Throughout all phases of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) project life decisions will be made on how to manage complex interactions of components, systems, and people with each other and with their environment at both micro and macro scales. The SSC has a distinct advantage compared to other large projects constructed and operated in the past, for even in the early phases scientists and engineers can use computer technology to provide faster computation and better modeling capability to resolve conflict and to make design, construction, and installation decisions. Computer systems today let us go beyond just making pictures of the components and objects under consideration. Not only can we know what objects look like, but we can visualize what and where they are, how they fit together to make networks, and how the networks relate to other types of objects and networks. Two such computer-based systems that relate object position and attributes to one another are Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Facility Information Systems (FIS)

  7. Field measuring probe for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganetis, G.; Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Skaritka, J.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1987-01-01

    The field probe developed for measuring the field in SSC dipole magnets is an adaptation of the rotating tangential coil system in use at Brookhaven for several years. Also known as the MOLE, it is a self-contained room-temperature mechanism that is pulled through the aperture of the magnet with regular stops to measure the local field. Several minutes are required to measure the field at each point. The probe measures the multipole components of the field as well as the field angle relative to gravity. The sensitivity of the coil and electronics is such that the field up to the full 6.6 T excitation of the magnet as well as the field when warm with only 0.01 T excitation can be measured. Tethers are attached to both ends of the probe to carry electrical connections and to supply dry nitrogen to the air motors that rotate the tangential windings as well as the gravity sensor. A small computer is attached to the probe for control and for data collection, analysis and storage

  8. Heavy neutrinos and new bosons at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.; Deshpande, N.; Gunion, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for seeking and studying heavy neutrinos and new W bosons at the SSC are considered. Such particles are predicted by left-right symmetric models. Their properties and experimental signatures are analyzed. 25 refs., 5 figs

  9. Status of superconducting magnet development (SSC, RHIC, LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarize recent superconducting accelerator magnet construction and test activities at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSC), the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (LHC), and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven (RHIC). Future plan are also presented

  10. Orbit correction system for the SSC interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Pilat, F.; Ritson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we review our design of the orbit correction system for the SSC interaction regions, and discuss the principles of the local orbit correction at the IP. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  11. Status of superconducting magnet development (SSC, RHIC, LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent superconducting accelerator magnet construction and test activities at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSC), the Large Hardon Collider at CERN (LHC), and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven (RHIC). Future plans are also presented

  12. SSC-K code user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y.M.; Lee, Y.B.; Chang, W.P.; Hahn, D

    2000-07-01

    The Supper System Code of KAERI (SSC-K) is a best-estimate system code for analyzing a variety of off-normal or accidents in the heat transport system of a pool type LMR design. It is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Inititution (KAERI) on the basis of SSC-L, originally developed at BNL to analyze loop-type LMR transients. SSC-K can handle both designs of loop and pool type LMRs. SSC-K contains detailed mechanistic models of transient thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechanical phenomena to describe the response of the reactor core, coolant, fuel elements, and structures to accident conditions. This report provides an overview of recent model developmentsvfor the SSC-K computer code, focusing on phenomenological model descriptions for new thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechnaical modules. A comprehensive description of the models for pool-type reactor is given in Chapters 2 and 3; the steady-state plant characterization, prior to the initiation of transient is described in Chapter 2 and their transient counterparts are discussed in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, a discussion on the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is presented. The IHX model of SSC-K is similar to that used in the SSC-L, except for some changes required for the pool-type configuration of reactor vessel. In Chapter 5, an electromagnetic (EM) pump is modeled as a component. There are two pump choices available in SSC-K; a centrifugal pump which was originally imbedded into the SSC-L, and an EM pump which was introduced for the KALIMER design. In Chapter 6, a model of passive safety decay heat removal system(PSDRS) is discussed, which removes decay heat through the reactor and containment vessel walls to the ambient air heat sink. In Chapter 7, models for various reactivity feedback effects are discussed. Reactivity effects of importance in fast reactor include the Doppler effect, effects of sodium density changes, effects of dimensional changes in core geometry. Finally in Chapter 8

  13. SSC-K code users manual (rev.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y. M.; Lee, Y. B.; Chang, W. P.; Hahn, D.

    2002-01-01

    The Supper System Code of KAERI (SSC-K) is a best-estimate system code for analyzing a variety of off-normal or accidents in the heat transport system of a pool type LMR design. It is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institution (KAERI) on the basis of SSC-L, originally developed at BNL to analyze loop-type LMR transients. SSC-K can handle both designs of loop and pool type LMRs. SSC-K contains detailed mechanistic models of transient thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechanical phenomena to describe the response of the reactor core, coolant, fuel elements, and structures to accident conditions. This report provides a revised User's Manual (rev.1) of the SSC-K computer code, focusing on phenomenological model descriptions for new thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechanical modules. A comprehensive description of the models for pool-type reactor is given in Chapters 2 and 3; the steady-state plant characterization, prior to the initiation of transient is described in Chapter 2 and their transient counterparts are discussed in Chapter 3. Discussions on the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and the electromagnetic (EM) pump are described in Chapter 4 and 5, respectively. A model of passive safety decay heat removal system (PSDRS) is discussed in Chapter 6, and models for various reactivity feedback effects are discussed in Chapter 7. In Chapter 8, constitutive laws and correlations required to execute the SSC-K are described. New models developed for SSC-K rev.1 are two dimensional hot pool model in Chapter 9, and long term cooling model in Chapter 10. Finally, a brief description of MINET code adopted to simulate BOP is presented in Chapter 11. Based on test runs for typical LMFBR accident analyses, it was found that the present version of SSC-K would be used for the safety analysis of KALIMER. However, the further validation of SSC-K is required for real applications. It is noted that the user's manual of SSC-K will be revised later with the

  14. Underground measurements of seismic vibrations at the SSC site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiltsev, V.D.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Weaver, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The results of underground measurements of seismic vibrations at the tunnel depth of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site are presented. Spectral analysis of the data obtained in the frequency band from 0.05 Hz to 1500 Hz is performed. It is found that amplitudes of ambient ground motion are less than requirements for the Collider, but cultural vibrations are unacceptably large and will cause fast growth of transverse emittance of the SSC beams

  15. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber......: fiction and translation and translation through time; post literacy; world picturing-world typing; and cartographic entanglements and expressions of subjectivity; through the lens a social imaginary of worlding or cosmological quest. Art at its core? Contributions by Nikos Papastergiadis, Rebecca Carson...

  16. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. Study on a small diesel engine with direct injection impinging distribution spray combustion system. Optimum of injection system and combustion chamber; Shototsu kakusan hoshiki kogata diesel kikan ni kansuru kenkyu. Funshakei to nenshoshitsu no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K; Kato, S; Saito, T [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Tanabe, H [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This study is concerned with a small bore (93mm) diesel engine using impinged fuel spray, named OSKA system. The higher rate of injection show lower smoke emission with higher NOx Emission. The exhaust emission and performance were investigated under different compression ratio with higher rate of injection. The experimental results show that this OSKA system is capable for reducing the smoke emission without the deterioration of NOx emission and fuel consumption compared with the conventional DI diesel engine. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  2. Fluctuations of a spray generated by an airblast atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batarseh, Feras Z.; Gnirss, Markus; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Chair of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics

    2009-06-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the aerodynamic instability of the spray generated by an airblast atomizer. As a result of this instability the spray shape and its velocity fluctuate with a certain frequency, which depends on the operational parameters of the atomizer. The effect of three parameters, namely; chamber pressure, liquid phase flow rate and the gas phase flow rate on the spray fluctuating frequency are investigated. The velocity vector of the drops in the spray and the arrival times to the detection volume are measured using the laser Doppler instrument. The slotting technique is applied to the data of axial velocity and arrival times of the drops in order to estimate the dominating spray frequencies. Additionally, the shape of the spray has been observed using the high-speed video system. The frequencies of the shape fluctuations are estimated using proper orthogonal decomposition of the time-resolved images of the spray. We show that the frequencies of the spray velocity and those exhibited by spray shape coincide over a wide range of spray parameters. Finally, a simple scaling for the spray frequency is proposed and validated by the experimental data. (orig.)

  3. A parallel non-neural trigger tracker for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, R.M.; Kennison, W.; Lapedes, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is a major project promising to open the vistas of very high particle physics. When the SSC is in operation, data will be produced at a staggering rate. Current estimates place the raw data coming our of the proposed silicon detector system at 2.5 x 10 16 bits/second. Clearly, storing all events for later off-line processing is totally impracticable. A hierarchy of triggers, firing only on events meeting increasingly specific criteria, are planned to cull interesting events from the flood of information. Each event consists of a sequence of isolated ''hits'', caused by particles hitting various parts of the detector. Collating these hits into the tracks of the approximately 500 particles/event, and then quickly deciding which events meet the criteria for later processing, is essential if the SSC is to produce usable information. This paper addresses the need for real-time triggering and track reconstruction. A benchmarked and buildable algorithm, operable at the required data rates, is described. The use of neural nets, suggested by other researchers, is specifically avoided as unnecessary and impractical. Instead, a parallel algorithm, and associated hardware architecture using only conventional technology, is presented. The algorithm has been tested on fully scaled up, extensively detailed, simulated SSC events, with extremely encouraging results. Preliminary hardware analysis indicate that the trigger/tracker may be built within proposed SSC budget guidelines. 7 refs., 4 figs

  4. The Super Fixed Target beauty facility at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Kwong

    1991-01-01

    The rationale for pursuing beauty physics at the SSC in a fixed target configuration is described. The increased beauty production cross section at the SSC, combined with high interaction rate capability of the proposed detector, results in 10 10-11 produced BB events per year. The long decay length of the B hadrons (≅ 10 cm) allows direct observation of B decays in the high resolution silicon microstrip vertex detector. To optimize the operation of the proposed beauty spectrometer and the SSC, parasitic extraction of attendant or artificially generated large amplitude protons using crystal channeling is proposed and explored. The large sample of fully reconstructed B events allows detailed studies of various CP violating decays with requisite statistics to confront the standard model. The CP physics potential of the proposed experiment is evaluated and compared with alternative approaches, such as symmetric e + e - B Factories and specialized hadron colliders

  5. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalygin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ''Research Institute of Atomic Reactors'' (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs

  6. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalygin, V V [State Scientific Centre, Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The State Scientific Centre (SSC) ``Research Institute of Atomic Reactors`` (RIAR) is situated 100 km to the south-east from Moscow, in Dimitrovgrad, the Volga Region of the Russian Federation. SSC RIAR is the largest centre of research reactors in Russia. At present there are 5 types of reactor facilities in operation, including two NPP. One of the main tasks the Centre is the investigations on safety increase for power reactors. Broad international connections are available at the Institute. On the basis of the SSC RIAR during 3 years work has been done on the development of the branch training centre (TC) for the training of operation personnel of research and pilot reactors in Russia. (author). 3 tabs.

  7. An engineering design network for SSC detector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiacomo, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    The detector systems that are being proposed to exploit the capabilities of the SSC are of a scale and scope that will make them among the most complex devices ever built. To successfully design and build these systems over the next decade, the authors must make use of integrated state of the art computer aided engineering and design (CAE/CAD) tools that have been developed and employed in industry. The challenge is to made these tools and associated engineering resources available to the spectrum of institutions - large and small universities, industries and national labs - involved in SSC detector development in such a way that each may contribute and participate in the most effective manner. The authors believe that powerful workstations running sophisticated modeling, analysis and simulation software, linked by high speed data networks and governed by modern configuration management methods offer the ideal means of arriving at the optimum detector configuration for physics at the SSC

  8. A high gradient quadrupole magnet for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Wandesforde, A.

    1987-01-01

    A quadrupole magnet for the SSC has been designed with a gradient of 234 T/m at 6500 A. Coil I.D. is 40 mm. The two-layer windings have 9 inner turns and 13 outer turns per pole with a wedge-shaped space in each layer. The 30-strand cable is identical to that used in the outer layer of the SSC dipole magnet. Interlocking aluminum alloy collars are compressed around the coil using a four-way press and are locked with four keys. The collared coil is supported and centered in a cold split iron yoke. A one-meter model was constructed and tested. Design details including quench behavior are presented. The quadrupole magnets proposed for the main SSC rings have a design gradient of 230 T/m. For one proposed 60 degree lattice cell, each 3-m long quad is separated by five 17-m long dipole magnets

  9. Preliminary design implications of SSC fixed-target operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1984-06-01

    This paper covers some of the accelerator physics issues relevant to a possible fixed-target operating mode for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). In the brief time available, no attempt has been made to design this capability into the SSC. Rather, I have tried to evaluate what the performance of such a machine might be, and to indicate the hardware implications and extraction considerations that would be part of an actual design study. Where appropriate, parameters and properties of the present LBL design for the SSC have been used; these should be taken as being representative of the general class of small-aperture, high-field colliders being considered by the accelerator physics community. Thus, the numerical examples given here must ultimately be reexamined in light of the actual parameters of the particular accelerator being considered

  10. The SSC superconducting air core toroid design development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, T.; Carroll, A.; Chiang, I.H.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.; Littenberg, L.; Morse, W.; Strand, R.C.; Lau, K.; Weinstein, R.; McNeil, R.; Friedman, J.; Hafen, E.; Haridas, P.; Kendall, H.W.; Osborne, L.; Pless, I.; Rosenson, L.; Pope, B.; Jones, L.W.; Luton, J.N.; Bonanos, P.; Marx, M.; Pusateri, J.A.; Favale, A.; Gottesman, S.; Schneid, E.; Verdier, R.

    1990-01-01

    Superconducting air core toroids show great promise for use in a muon spectrometer for the SSC. Early studies by SUNY at Stony Brook funded by SSC Laboratory, have established the feasibility of building magnets of the required size. The toroid spectrometer consists of a central toroid with two end cap toroids. The configuration under development provides for muon trajectory measurement outside the magnetic volume. System level studies on support structure, assembly, cryogenic material selection, and power are performed. Resulting selected optimal design and assembly is described. 4 refs., 6 figs

  11. SSC Tenant Meeting: NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David; Larsen, David; Baldwin, Philip; Wilson, Cristy; Ruley, LaMont

    2018-01-01

    The Near Earth Network (NEN) consists of globally distributed tracking stations that are strategically located throughout the world which provide Telemetry, Tracking, and Commanding (TTC) services support to a variety of orbital and suborbital flight missions, including Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO), highly elliptical, and lunar orbits. Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), which is one of the NEN Commercial Service Provider, has provided the NEN with TTC services support from its Alaska, Hawaii, Chile and Sweden. The presentation will give an overview of the NEN and its support from SSC.

  12. Tevatron as an SSC prototype; experience versus predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Early machine experiments on the Tevatron which are relevant to the SSC are discussed. Despite the preliminary nature of the data, there have been some interesting observations which may influence the design of the SSC. In particular, comparisons of measured betatron tunes, chromaticities, and resonance line widths with those predicted from computer simulations using magnetic field measurements have been made; the predictability for low order phenomena seems acceptable. Coasting beam studies indicate long lifetime and lack of strong resonance driving terms. Low energy studies of beam behavior indicate that a dynamic range of a factor of 15 from injection to operation energy should be possible

  13. EMPACT: An alternative approach to a high PT SSC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, M.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY

    1989-05-01

    A survey of high P T detector concepts advanced for the SSC reveals two striking facts -- first, the scale of most detectors is set by the muon detection system; and second, that the performance of these muon systems is limited in comparison to electron or jet capabilities, either in resolution or in rapidity acceptance. I propose here an alternative concept for an SSC experiment which will provide enhanced muon performance at a level to that obtainable through calorimetric means for electrons and jets, while drastically reducing the tonnage of the experiment

  14. Heater induced quenches in SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] model dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1986-10-01

    A 1-m long SSC dipole constructed at the Lawrence Berkeley laboratory was subjected to a series of heater induced quenches to determine: axial quench propagation velocities, transverse quench propagation, and conductor temperature rise. Quenches were produced by 3 heaters at different locations in the magnet and at several currents. The results of these studies are described and are compared to previously published theoretical studies of quenches on the SSC dipoles. These results are shown to be in agreement with the calculations of the program ''QUENCH'', which includes an increase of the quench velocity during the first few milliseconds of the quench

  15. Radioactivation in ''quiet'' sections of the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-10-01

    Estimation of induced radioactivity in the ''quiet'' sections of the SSC is approached using elementary methods. Estimates are given of total activity and residual dose rates on the surface of magnets in the quiet regions, as well as estimates of the activation of tunnel concrete. The residual radioactivity produced in the magnets and concrete walls of the ''quiet'' regions of the SSC are found to be quite small and of little radiological impact, but that simple scaling could yield results for more ''lossy'' regions

  16. Full length SSC R and D dipole magnet test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Bleadon, M.; Brown, B.C.

    1989-03-01

    Four full scale SSC development dipole magnets have been tested for mechanical and quench behavior. Two are of a design similar to previous magnets but contain a number of improvements, including more uniform coil size, higher pre-stress and a redesigned inner-outer coil splice. One exceeds the SSC operating current on the second quench but the other appears to be limited by damaged superconductor to a lower current. The other two magnets are of alternate designs. One trains erratically and fails to reach a plateau and the other reaches plateau after four quenches. 12 refs., 4 figs

  17. Fixed target beauty physics from Tevatron to SSC (E771)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.

    1992-01-01

    The E771 beauty experiment at Fermilab is described. The Super Fixed Target Beauty Facility (SFT) proposal to perform fixed target beauty physics at the SSC is a natural evolution. The unique features of SFT include crystal channeling extraction from the SSC main ring, which allows the experiment to operate concurrently with the collider experiments. The slow extraction rate (≅2x10 8 protons/s) does not limit the lifetime of the stored beams. The proposed beauty spectrometer and its capability in CP violation studies are described. (author) 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm ...

  19. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  20. Searching for quark and lepton compositeness at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, C.H.; Bars, I.; Blumenfeld, B.

    1984-01-01

    We examine a variety of issues connected with searching for compositeness at the SSC. These include effects of resolution, alternative methods of looking for deviations from QCD predictions, advantages of polarized beams, and effects of compositeness on photon detection. We also consider how physics may look if the compositeness scale is as low as a few TeV. 17 refs

  1. Calculation of injection and extraction orbits for the IPCR SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, A.; Yano, Y.; Kishida, N.; Nakanishi, N.; Wada, T.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of beam trajectories in the injection and extraction systems for the IPCR SSC were done and the characteristics of those elements were determined. Beam centering for single turn extraction by use of first harmonic fields were also studied. The rather simple conditions at the injection point for a well-centered acceleration orbit are also discussed

  2. Fermilab R and D test facility for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Lamm, M.; McGuire, K.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Pachnik, J.

    1989-01-01

    The test facility used for R and D testing of full scale development dipole magnets for the SSC is described. The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility, originally built for production testing of Tevatron magnets, has been substantially modified to allow testing also of SSC magnets. Two of the original six test stands have been rebuilt to accommodate testing of SSC magnets at pressures between 1.3 Atm and 4 Atm and at temperatures between 1.8 K and 4.8 K and the power system has been modified to allow operation to at least 8 kA. Recent magnets have been heavily instrumented with voltage taps to allow detailed study of quench location and propagation and with strain gage based stress, force and motion transducers. A data acquisition system has been built with a capacity to read from each SSC test stand up to 220 electrical quench signals, 32 dynamic pressure, temperature and mechanical transducer signals during quench and up to 200 high precision, low time resolution, pressure, temperature and mechanical transducer signals. The quench detection and protection systems is also described. 23 refs., 4 figs. 2 tabs

  3. Cooldown and warmup computer simulations of the SSC ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.H.; Schiesser, W.E.; Yuecel, A.

    1991-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of two stacked rings of superconducting magnets; each ring is about 86 km in circumference. The total mass to be cooled to liquid helium temperature amounts to about 1 x 10 8 kg, and the total helium inventory under nominal operating conditions (4.15 K and 4 atm) is about 2.8 x 10 5 kg. The cooldown and warmup process of a long string of magnets has to be well understood in order to design a cryogenic system that can satisfy the requirements of helium inventory handling, magnet temperature gradients, and process time for the different cooldown and warmup scenarios being planned for the SSC. A system that can be convincingly simulated can be understood, controlled, operated and improved in a systematic way. In this paper, we introduce two numerical models, a lumped model and a distributed model, for cooldown and warmup of the SSC ring, and present simulation results for an SSC string (4320 m long, or 1/20th of the full ring circumference). The models cover the temperature range between room and liquid helium temperature; the distributed model includes radial temperature distribution in the cold mass. Low temperature range simulations are particularly important to study inventory handling strategies because of the relationship between rapid changes in density and the system mass flow rate. 9 refs., 9 figs

  4. Probing the non-minimal Higgs sector at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.; Komamiya, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.

    1987-11-01

    Non-minimal Higgs sectors occur in the Standard Model with more than one Higgs doublet, as well as in theories that go beyond the Standard Model. In this report, we discuss how Higgs search strategies must be altered, with respect to the Standard Model approaches, in order to probe the non-minimal Higgs sectors at the SSC

  5. Quench propagation across the copper wedges in SSC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of copper wedges on quench propagation in SSC windings has been studied. The results indicate that the turn-to-turn quench transit time for conductors separated by an insulated copper wedge can be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the bulk quench properties and the mean wedge thickness

  6. Plans for industrial production of the SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, V.N.; Rardin, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Universities Research Association through its Central Design Group is currently conducting research and development for the Department of Energy on a superconducting super collider (SSC). The proposed SSC is a device in which protons would be accelerated around a ring approximately 50 miles in circumference. The protons would be kept in their path by means of thousands of powerful superconducting magnets. Two such rings of magnets would be housed in a common underground tunnel, allowing groups of protons to be accelerated in opposite directions and collided, in order to study the fundamental nature of matter and energy. The magnet system is a major element of the SSC in terms of technical requirements, quantity of components and cost. In order to meet technical and production requirements imposed by this system early participation of industry is necessary. The program plans were developed with the objective to involve industry in the early stages of research and development of superconducting magnets, leading to cost effective processes of potential mass production of high quality accelerator magnets by industry. While a decision has not been made by the Department of Energy on whether or not to request construction of the SSC project, if such a request is made and the project is authorized and funded, it would lead to industrial manufacture of a large quantity of superconducting magnets

  7. Partial lifetime test of an SSC Collider dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Ganetis, G.

    1993-01-01

    Over a period of ten months, a 15 m-long, 50 mm-aperture superconducting SSC Collider dipole was taken through a series of thermal and power cycles to check for changes in performance. One quench below operating current was experienced during this period. Small changes in the coil preload and certain harmonics were observed

  8. Preaccident modeling of an LMFBR plant for SSC-L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, A.K.

    1976-12-01

    Physical models for various processes in preaccident or steady-state calculations for the entire liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant are described in this report. A computer program for this initialization phase was written to serve as the starting point for the transient version of the SSC-L code. All of the models and programming are applicable to the ''loop'' type plants

  9. Anti-proteinase 3 antibodies in diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc with normotensive renal impairment: is it suggestive for an overlapping between SSc and idiopathic vasculitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Campanella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To test the prevalence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA in systemic sclerosis (SSc and to verify a possible association of ANCA with normotensive renal involvement in SSc. Patients and methods: 51 patients affected by SSc, 35 with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc and 16 with limited scleroderma (lSSc, were tested for ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF on human ethanol and formalin-acetone-fixed granulocytes (before and after DNase treatment, by conventional enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA and by capture-ELISA. Results. Six out of 51 selected SSc patients had ANCA by IIF (11.7% and five presented a perinuclear/nuclear atypical ANCA pattern. In all cases we only found anti-proteinase3 (aPR3 antibodies. All ANCA positive patients had diffuse form of SSc (17.1%, all were anti-Scl70 positive (aScl70, five patients had proteinuria, three had microscopic haematuria. All ANCA positive patients were normotensive with normal renin plasma levels, the mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR was higher in this group compared to the other SSc patients. Conclusions. Our study shows that aPR3 is not rare in dSSc. According to the clinical and serological findings and to the recent literature, we can hypothesise that when ANCA are found in SSc, an overlapping of scleroderma with systemic necrotizing vasculitis should be suspected.

  10. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  11. The SSC dipole: Its conceptual origin and early design history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.

    1992-05-01

    The magnet system for the Superconducting Super Collider will likely remain the most ambitions-and challenging-application of superconducting technology for the foreseeable future. The centerpiece of the system is the behemoth collider dipole magnet. Its design, still evolving in its detailed features, dates from the mid-1980's when it emerged as the winter in an early technical showdown that occupied the fledgling SSC project. In the present report we chronicle the origins and chief milestones in the development of certain SSC dipole design concepts. Unfortunately, the chronicle must remain incomplete, with the design not yet frozen as we go to press and still subject to important modifications as the SSC Laboratory settles in near its future home in Ellis County, Texas, hard on the heels of a wide-ranging design review in the closing days of the SSC Central Design Group in (CDG) Berkeley. Be that as it may, in what follows we concentrate on the early years in an attempt to recapitulate the birth of the dipole, taking as our point of departure the SSC Reference Designs Study (RDS) of 1984. In Section 3 we touch on the background for the various RDS options, including ISABELLE/CBA and the Tevatron. In Section 4 the narrative focuses on the two final protagonists, a high-field cosine theta (cos θ) magnet and a low-field superferric magnet. Section 5 recounts the circumstances surrounding the selection of a particular magnet ''style'' for further development, and the ups and downs of the first model magnets. We conclude with a smattering of progress highlights in refining the design during the final push under the reign of the CDG. Beyond that, the ongoing chronicle must be left for others to amplify and complete

  12. The SSC dipole: Its conceptual origin and early design history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.

    1990-06-01

    The magnet system for the Superconducting Super Collider will likely remain the most ambitious -- and challenging -- application of superconducting technology for the foreseeable future. The centerpiece of the system is the behemoth collider dipole magnet. Its design, still evolving in its detailed features, dates from the mid-1980's when it emerged as the winner in an early technical showdown that occupied the fledgling SSC project. However, some of its gross features can be traced back to three path-breaking superconducting accelerator initiatives under way a decade earlier -- on the East Coast, on the West Coast, and in the Midwest. Other features have a still earlier legacy. In the present report we chronicle the origins and chief milestones in the development of certain SSC dipole design concepts. Unfortunately, the chronicle must remain incomplete, with the design not yet frozen as we go to press and still subject to important modifications as the SSC Laboratory settles in near its future home in Ellis County, Texas, hard on the heels of a wide-ranging design review in the closing days of the SSC Central Design Group in (CDG) Berkeley. Be that as it may, in what follows we concentrate on the early years in an attempt to recapitulate the birth of the dipole, taking as our point of departure the SSC Reference Designs Study (RDS) of 1984. In Section 3 we touch on the background for the various RDS options, including ISABELLE/CBA and the Tevatron. In Section 4 the narrative focuses on the two final protagonists, a high-field cosine theta (cos θ) magnet and a low-field superferric magnet. Section 5 recounts the circumstances surrounding the selection of a particular magnet ''style'' for further development, and the ups and downs of the first model magnets. We conclude with a smattering of progress highlights in refining the design during the final push under the reign of the CDG

  13. Detection of Corrosion Resistance of Components in Cyclic Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Álló

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is, to investigate the influence of two types of cyclic salt spray tests on parts surface treated with galvanizing. On the selected components was performed the method Zn-Ni surface treating on the bath line. Subsequently were the components embedded in the corrosion chamber, where was performed two types of cyclic salt test. In the first test was performed 4 hour salt spray, 8 hours drying, 60 hours condensation and 24 hours drying. Once cycle lasted 96 hours, and it was repeated 4 times. During the second test was performed 2 hours salt spray, 2 hours condensation. The cycle was repeated 4 times, that means 96 hours. After the cycle was performed 72 hours free relaxation in the corrosion chamber, on 20–25 °C temperature. As the research showed, after the cyclic salt spray was no red corrosion on the selected components. The white corrosion appeared only slightly.

  14. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  15. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  16. Electroweak and flavor physics: Implications for the SSC. Second annual SSCL spring conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book is a collection of vugraphs for the papers given at the conference. The following topics are covered: neutrino physics and dark matter; solar neutrinos; kaon decays; future prospects in high energy physics (non SSC); bottom quark physics; status and physics aims of SSC; and SSC possibilities for B physics

  17. Radio frequency induction plasma spraying of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianliang

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) induction plasma was used to make free-standing deposition of molybdenum (Mo). The phenomena of particle melting, flattening, and stacking were investigated. The effect of process parameters such as plasma power, chamber pressure, and spray distance on the phenomena mentioned above was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the plasma-processed powder, splats formed, and deposits obtained. Experimental results show that less Mo particles are spheroidized when compared to the number of spheroidized tungsten (W) particles at the same powder feed rate under the same plasma spray condition. Molten Mo particles can be sufficiently flattened on substrate. The influence of the process parameters on the flattening behavior is not significant. Mo deposit is not as dense as W deposit, due to the splash and low impact of molten Mo particles. Oxidation of the Mo powder with a large particle size is not evident under the low pressure plasma spray

  18. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  19. Cryogenic systems for the SSC and the status of their development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietz, W.A.; Ganni, V.; Abramovich, S.; Niehaus, T.

    1993-07-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of two parallel magnet rings, each 87,120 m in circumference, constructed in a tunnel 25 to 74 m underground. Protons are injected into these ring from the high energy booster (HEB), which contains a separate magnet ring 10,800 m in circumference constructed in a tunnel 14 m above the collider tunnel. The magnets will be operated at a controlled low temperature in order to maintain the windings in the superconducting state. Therefore the magnet cryostat is designed with a high vacuum insulating chamber, multilayer insulation (MLI), and thermal shields at 84 K and 20 K nominal temperatures. The major portion of the heat load is from thermal radiation and conduction through the supports, and is intercepted and absorbed by the shields. The cryogenic system for the machine is divided into sectors of nominally equal length: ten for the collider and two for the HEB. Each sector has a dedicated cryogenic system (SCS) as well as some level of redundancy from the neighboring SCS. The helium refrigeration plants will be installed at the midpoint of each sector. Each cryogenic sector in the collider is divided into four strings, two upper and two lower, about 4000 m long. Each string is subdivided into sections of about 1080 m, the smallest modules that can be isolated for maintenance, or for warmup and cooldown. Each section is subdivided into cells and half cells. The half cell, containing six main magnets and a spool piece is 90 m long. The SSC cryogenic system for each sector consists of a sector refrigerator surface system (SRS) and a sector refrigerator tunnel system (SRT). Proposals for the SRS systems' are presently in review for vendor selection. In this paper the SRT subsystems requirements and their status will be reviewed

  20. The SSC and speculations on the future of proton machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigner, M.

    1987-01-01

    In the U.S. a high energy physics community exists, in concert with many expert coleagues abroad, have submitted to the U.S. DOE, extensive documentation about the conceptual design, status of the R and D, and cost estimates for the SSC. Those documents come to more well over 2,000 pages and are available to anyone who would like to read them. This group is reviewed extensively by the DOE and all the expert committees that can possibly be put together and they have all concurred that the SSC is technically feasible, that the hardware is essentially in hand, and the cost has been properly calculated. That having been completed, the community withdraws into the inner sanctum to take counsel amongst themselves and decide whether or not to put the findings in the FY1988 budget. The next signal is when the President submits his budget in late January of 1988

  1. Preliminary study of magnet design for an SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.E.; Meuser, R.B.

    1983-08-01

    The overriding design consideration for the SSC magnets is that cost of the facility be minimized; at 8 T, approximately 40 km of bending magnets is required for each ring of a 20 TeV collider. We present some results of a parametric study of two-in-one, iron-core magnets for an SSC. These results are necessarily preliminary in nature, and are intended only to show some of the trade-offs for a wide range of the variables. We show also some results for a reference design that produces 6.5 T in the aperture at 4.4 K for a coil inside diameter of 40 mm. It is not to be inferred that we have established this to be an optimum in any sense

  2. Overview of the physics issues at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1984-11-01

    This report presents an overview of physics issues at the SSC. It discusses the progress made at the DPF Summer Study on the Design and Utilization of the SSC and emphasizes the important problems which remain. The discussion of the physics issues is divided into Standard Model, by which is meant the combination of QCD and the Weinberg-Salam model, and Non-Standard Physics, which includes supersymmetry, technicolor, new gauge bosons, compositeness and all the more or less speculative ideas in which theorists like to indulge. Then the work on identification of final states which contain W's, Z's or heavy quarks is discussed, and the impact of this work on some proposed signals for new physics is considered. Finally, some of the areas in which more work is required are discussed. 110 references

  3. Subcooler assembly for SSC single magnet test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.C.; Brown, D.P.; Sondericker, J.H.; Farah, Y.; Zantopp, D.; Nicoletti, A.

    1991-01-01

    A subcooler assembly has been designed, constructed and installed in the MAGCOOL magnet test area at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Since July 1989, it has been used for testing SSC magnets. This subcooler assembly and cryogenic system are the first of its kind ever built. Today, with more than 5000 hours of operating time, the subcooler has proved to be a reliable unit with individual components meeting design expectations. The lowest temperatures achieved with one SSC dipole are 3.0 K at the suction of the cold vacuum pump and 3.2 K at the return of the magnet. The system performs well in both steady state operation and during magnet quench, subcooling, cooldown and warmup. 4 refs., 7 figs

  4. Use of learning programs for SSC trigger strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.H.; Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    In a novel application of the learning program RL, we are studying ways to develop the trigger for experiments at the SSC. Our initial study, which is still in progress, is to understand how to select top events from background, combining both cuts at the trigger level and in the off-line analysis. Our plan is to carry out these studies for a variety of reactions and thereby build up a comprehensive view of the trigger requirements for a calorimeter-based experiment at the SSC. Our initial results have shown that the learning program can find correlations and cuts that would be quite difficult to find using traditional methods. The program is expected to obtain cuts that are at least as good, if not better, than the the cuts found by traditional methods

  5. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.; Burgett, W.; Dombeck, T.; Gannon, J.; Kraushaar, P.; McInturff, A.; Savord, T.; Tool, G.

    1993-05-01

    The string test facility was constructed to provide a development test bed for the arc regions of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Significant effort has been devoted to the development and testing of superconducting magnets, spools, and accelerator control systems required for the SSC. The string test facility provides the necessary environment required to evaluate the operational performance of these components as they are configured as an accelerator lens in the collider. This discussion will review the results of high current testing of the string conducted to evaluate magnet element uniformity and compatibility, the splice resistance used to connect the magnets, and system response to various quench conditions. Performance results of the spools, energy bypass systems, energy dump, and the power supply system are also discussed

  6. Observations on LEP with a view to SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohig, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    From 24-29 October 1984 a visit was made to the LEP project at CERN with a view to extracting from the LEP planning and experience what might be useful in planning an SSC. With a circumference of 26.7 km, in a reasonably densely-populated area outside the boundaries of the CERN site, LEP already faces most of the problems of environment, public relations, maintenance and operation that will be faced by an SSC project. Information is presented under the headings of: (1) radiation protection; (2) heating, ventilation, and airconditioning; (3) electrical power distribution; (4) LEP experiments/UA1, UA2; (5) civil; (6) infrastructure installation; (7) survey; (8) safety; and (9) LEP controls. Each report lists the CERN individuals who generously provided their insights and help

  7. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.; Burgett, W.; Dombeck, T.; Gannon, J.; Kraushaar, P.; McInturff, A.; Savord, T.; Tool, G.

    1993-01-01

    The string test facility was constructed to provide a development test bed for the arc regions of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Significant effort has been devoted to the development and testing of superconducting magnets, spools, and accelerator control systems required for the SSC. The string test facility provides the necessary environment required to evaluate the operational performance of these components as they are configured as an accelerator lens in the collider. This discussion will review the results of high current testing of the string conducted to evaluate magnet element uniformity and compatibility, the splice resistance used to connect the magnets, and system response to various quench conditions. Performance results of the spools, energy bypass systems, energy dump, and the power supply system are also discussed

  8. An automated coil winding machine for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, S.; Iwase, T.; Inoue, I.; Fukui, I.; Ishida, K.; Kashiwagi, S.; Sato, Y.; Yoshihara, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Johnson, E.; Gibson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have finished the preliminary design of a fully automated coil winding machine that can be used to manufacture the large number of SSC dipole magnets. The machine aims to perform all coil winding operations including coil parts inserting without human operators at a high productive rate. The machine is composed of five industrial robots. In order to verify the design, they built a small winding machine using an industrial robot and successfully wound a 1 meter long coil using SSC dipole magnet wire. The basic design for the full length coil and the robot winding technique are described in this paper. A fully automated coil winding machine using standard industrial components would be very useful if duplicate production lines are used. 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Development of pixel detectors for SSC vertex tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Shapiro, S.L.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Skubic, P.

    1991-04-01

    A description of hybrid PIN diode arrays and a readout architecture for their use as a vertex detector in the SSC environment is presented. Test results obtained with arrays having 256 x 256 pixels, each 30 μm square, are also presented. The development of a custom readout for the SSC will be discussed, which supports a mechanism for time stamping hit pixels, storing their xy coordinates, and storing the analog information within the pixel. The peripheral logic located on the array, permits the selection of those pixels containing interesting data and their coordinates to be selectively read out. This same logic also resolves ambiguous pixel ghost locations and controls the pixel neighbor read out necessary to achieve high spatial resolution. The thermal design of the vertex tracker and the proposed signal processing architecture will also be discussed. 5 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Experimental study of spray characteristics of biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Balaji; Yang, Wenming; Tay, Kun Lin; Yu, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • B20 and diesel exhibit similar spray tip penetration and angle. • Change in orientation of spray shapes observed with different fuels. • B100 shows poor air fuel mixing compared to B20 and diesel. • Diesel shows higher equivalence ratio compared to B20 and B100. - Abstract: In this study, the fuel spray characteristics and air-fuel mixing process of waste cooking oil biodiesel (B100) and its blend with diesel (B20) were investigated and compared with diesel fuel. Spray characteristics such as spray tip penetration, spray angle, spray velocity and spray morphology were investigated under high injection and ambient pressure conditions using a constant volume spray chamber. The air-fuel mixing process was analysed using empirical relations like fuel volume, mass of air entrained within the spray and equivalence ratio. The results shows that B100 has higher spray tip penetration and velocity but narrow spray angles due to high viscosity and large momentum possessed by B100 compared to B20 and diesel fuels. The deviation in spray tip penetration reduces under high ambient pressure. The spray angle shows no change under various injection pressures; however it increases significantly under high ambient pressure. The spray shape is affected by the cavitation inside the injector nozzle holes. The fuel volume and amount of air entrainment within the spray showed that B100 exhibits poor air-fuel mixing compared to B20 and diesel fuels. Nevertheless, the equivalence ratio along the axial direction of spray reveals that the B100 has lean equivalence ratio compared to B20 and diesel fuel due to the presence of inherent oxygen content in its structure. A numerical simulation was conducted using new hybrid spray model implemented in KIVA4 and found that the results obtained from the simulation were in good agreement with the empirical results calculated from the experiments

  11. Real time control of the SSC string magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, O.; Flora, R.; MacPherson, M.

    1987-01-01

    The system described in this paper, called SECAR, was designed to control the excitation of a test string of magnets for the proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and will be used to upgrade the present Tevatron Excitation, Control and Regulation (TECAR) hardware and software. It resides in a VME orate and is controlled by a 68020/68881 based CPU running the application software under a real time operating system named VRTX

  12. Irradiation of fiber optics in the SSC tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-03-01

    The salient question is not whether optical fiber will survive in the Super Conducting Supercollider (SSC) tunnel, but rather how long will it survive. Current estimates indicate that single mode fiber under ideal conditions will have an expected lifetime of at least 25 years. Future development of optical fiber will lead to longer service lifetimes and increased radiation hardness. But conservatively speaking, current production optical fibers can probably not be depended upon for more than 25 years of service even under ideal conditions

  13. SSC 40 mm cable results and 50 mm design discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Hannaford, R.; Remsbottom, R.; Delashmit, R.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Snitchler, G.; Scanlan, R.; Royet, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the cable produced for the 1990 40 mm Dipole Program. The cable design parameters for the 50 mm Dipole Program are discussed, as well as portions of the SSC specification draft. Considerations leading to the final cable configuration and the results of preliminary trials are included. The first iteration of a strand mapping program to automate cable strand maps is introduced

  14. SSC 40 mm cable results and 50 mm design discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Hannaford, R.; Remsbottom, R.; Jayakumar, R.; Snitchler, G.; Scanlan, R.; Royet, J.

    1990-09-01

    A summary of the cable produced for the 1990 40 mm Dipole Program is presented. The cable design parameters for the 50 mm Dipole Program are discussed, as well as portions of the SSC specification draft. Considerations leading to the final cable configuration and the results of preliminary trials are included. The first iteration of a strand mapping program to automate cable strand maps is introduced. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Total cross sections and elastic scattering at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, K.J.

    1985-12-05

    The need is discussed of a special purpose detector for the measurement of elastic scattering at the SSC. The detector would cover as small a solid angle as is practical. Two techniques are described briefly to measure total cross sections at hadron storage rings. The direct method is to measure the interaction rate in an IR of known luminosity - a method that gets more difficult increasing energy. A second method is to use the optical theorem. 6 refs., 1 fig. (LEW)

  16. Wire scanner data analysis for the SSC Linac emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.Y.; Hurd, J.W.; Sage, J.

    1993-07-01

    The wire scanners are designed in the SSC Linac for measurement of beam emittance at various locations. In order to obtain beam parameters from the scan signal, a data analysis program was developed that considers the problems of noise reduction, machine modeling, parameter fitting, and correction. This program is intended as a tool for Linac commissioning and also as part of the Linac control program. Some of the results from commissioning runs are presented

  17. Doriot Climatic Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers are two, 60-feet long, 11-feet high, 15-feet wide chambers that are owned and operated by NSRDEC. The Doriot Climatic Chambers are among...

  18. Stress relaxation in SSC 50mm dipole coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.; Markley, F.

    1992-04-01

    We are measuring the stress relaxation of SSC 50mm outer coils with the goal of predicting how much of the coil prestress will be lost while the coils are warehoused between manufacture and cooldown. We manufacture 3 inch (76.2mm) long segments of coil with the same materials and techniques that have been used for prototype coils. We are running four simultaneous tests in an attempt to separate the contributions of the different coil materials. Test one is a completely insulated coil section where the insulation is the all polyamide system being tested at Brookhaven; test two is a wire stack insulated only with the normal Kapton overwrap; test three is a stack of bare cable; and test four is a completely insulated normal coil section. All, except for the bare cable, include the ground insulation. The insulated coil sections are carefully dried before loading and testing in order to eliminate stress changes due to varying moisture content. The temperature dependence of the stress relaxation is being studied separately. Three companion papers presented at this conference will be: (1) ''Temperature dependence of the viscoelastic properties of SSC coil insulation'' (2) ''Measurement of the elastic modulus of Kapton perpendicular to the plane of the film at room and cryogenic temperatures'' (3) ''Theoretical methods for creep and stress relaxation studies of SSC coil.''

  19. An update on passive correctors for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    The concept of correction of the magnetization sextupole became a topic of discussion as soon as it was realized that superconductor magnetization could have a serious effect on the SSC beam during injection. Several methods of correction were proposed. These included (1) correction with active bore tube windings like those on the HERA machine which correct out magnetization sextupole and the sextupole due to iron saturation, (2) correction with persistent sextupole windings mounted on the bore tube (3) correction using passive superconductor (4) correction using ferromagnetic material, and (5) correction using oriented magnetized materials. This report deals with the use of passive superconductor to correct the magnetization sextupole. Two basic methods are explored in this report: (1) One can correct the magnetization sextupole by changing the diameter of the superconductor filaments in one or more blocks of the SSC dipole. (2) One can correct the magnetization sextupole and decapole by mounting passive superconducting wires on the inside of the SSC dipole coil bore. In addition, an assessment of the contribution of each conductor in the dipole to the magnetization sextupole and decapole is shown. 38 refs, 25 figs., 15 tabs

  20. Comparisons of processes and performance of SSC-VQP material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seuntjens, J.M.; Clark, F.Y.; Erdmann, M.J.; Coleman, E.S.; Jones, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's (SSC) cable Vendor Qualification Program (VQP) will end in FY 1993. At the time of this writing, all 8 vendors involved in this program have demonstrated capability to fabricate conductor which meets SSC specifications. The magnet vendors have hard choices to make in calendar year 1993 in deciding which cable vendors will make the production cable. It is well accepted that because of requirements of magnet uniformity, that only one vendor will be chosen for dipole Inner cable, one vendor for dipole Outer cable, and one vendor for quadrupole Outer cable. The production quantities are nominally 500, 500, and 200 metric tonnes, respectively. Among the many deciding factors are a technically sound production process, process control, and production quantity capability of each cable vendor. Qualified vendors will have proven their technical process and process control is adequate for production quantities. This paper is part of ongoing effort to provide technical information for the magnet vendor's decision making process. Some of the Phase IB process data is summarized as well as results of a portion of the materials characterization performed at the SSC Laboratory. Key process and final product parameters for each cable vendor are compared without identifying specific vendor's process detail

  1. Comparisons of processes and performance of SSC-VQP material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seuntjens, J.; Clark, F.; Erdmann, M.; Coleman, E.; Jones, B.

    1993-05-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's (SSC) cable Vendor Qualification Program (VQP) will end in FY 1993. At the time of this writing, all 8 vendors involved in this program have demonstrated capability to fabricate conductor which meets SSC specifications. The magnet vendors have hard choices to make in calendar year 1993 in deciding which cable vendors will make the production cable. It is well accepted that because of requirements of magnet uniformity, that only one vendor will be chosen for dipole Inner cable, one vendor for dipole Outer cable, and one vendor for quadrupole Outer cable. The production quantities are nominally 500, 500, and 200 metric tonnes, respectively. Among the many deciding factors are a technically sound production process, process control, and production quantity capability of each cable vendor. Qualified vendors will have proven their technical process and process control is adequate for production quantities. This paper is part of ongoing effort to provide technical information for the magnet vendor's decision making process. Some of the Phase IB process data is summarized and well as results of a portion of the materials characterization performed at the SSC Laboratory. Key process and final product parameters for each cable vendor are compared without identifying specific vendor's process detail

  2. Evaluating advanced LMR [liquid metal reactor] reactivity feedbacks using SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Kennett, R.J.; Cheng, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of the PRISM and SAFR Liquid Metal Reactors with SSC are discussed from a safety and licensing perspective. The PRISM and SAFR reactors with metal fuel are designed for inherent shutdown responses to loss-of-flow and loss-of-heat-sink events. The demonstration of this technology was performed by EBR-II during experiments in April 1986 by ANL (Planchon, et al.). Response to postulated TOPs (control rod withdrawal) are made acceptable largely by reducing reactivity swings, and therefore minimizing the size of possible ractivity insertions. Analyses by DOE and the contractors GE, RI, and ANL take credit for several reactivity feedback mechanisms during transient calculations. These feedbacks include Doppler, sodium density, and thermal expansion of the grid plates, the load pads, the fuel (axial) and the control rod which are now factored into the BNL SSC analyses. The bowing feedback mechanism is not presently modeled in the SSC due to its complexity and subsequent large uncertainty. The analysis is conservative by not taking credit for this negative feedback mechanism. Comparisons of BNL predictions with DOE contractors are provided

  3. Development of Radhard VLSI electronics for SSC calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.W.; Nodulman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A new program of development of integrated electronics for liquid argon calorimeters in the SSC detector environment is being started at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory and Vanderbilt University together with an industrial participants are expected to collaborate in this work. Interaction rates, segmentation, and the radiation environment dictate that front-end electronics of SSC calorimeters must be implemented in the form of highly integrated, radhard, analog, low noise, VLSI custom monolithic devices. Important considerations are power dissipation, choice of functions integrated on the front-end chips, and cabling requirements. An extensive level of expertise in radhard electronics exists within the industrial community, and a primary objective of this work is to bring that expertise to bear on the problems of SSC detector design. Radiation hardness measurements and requirements as well as calorimeter design will be primarily the responsibility of Argonne scientists and our Brookhaven and Vanderbilt colleagues. Radhard VLSI design and fabrication will be primarily the industrial participant's responsibility. The rapid-cycling synchrotron at Argonne will be used for radiation damage studies involving response to neutrons and charged particles, while damage from gammas will be investigated at Brookhaven. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Structure Analysis Of Corrosion Resistant Thermal Sprayed Coatings On Low Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pistofidis, N.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-01

    Metallic coatings have been proved to reduce the rate of corrosion of steel in various atmospheres. In this work the structure of Al, Cu-Al and Zn thermal sprayed coatings is examined. The as formed coatings are extremely rough, and they are composed of several phases which increase corrosion resistance as it was determined Salt Spray Chamber tests.

  5. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  6. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-chambered ionisation detector enables the amount of radiation entering each chamber from a single radioactive, eg β, source to be varied by altering the proportion of the source protruding into each chamber. Electrodes define chambers and an extended radioactive source is movable to alter the source length in each chamber. Alternatively, the source is fixed relative to outer electrodes but the central electrode may be adjusted by an attached support altering the chamber dimensions and hence the length of source in each. Also disclosed are a centrally mounted source tiltable towards one or other chamber and a central electrode tiltable to alter chamber dimensions. (U.K.)

  7. Evaluation of effervescent atomizer internal design on the spray unsteadiness using a phase/Doppler particle analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Meng; Duan, YuFeng; Zhang, TieNan [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the dependence of effervescent spray unsteadiness on operational conditions and atomizer internal design by the ideal spray theory of Edwards and Marx. The convergent-divergent effervescent atomizer spraying water with air as atomizing medium in the ''outside-in'' gas injection was used in this study. Results demonstrated that droplet formation process at various air to liquid ratio (ALR) led to the spray unsteadiness and all droplet size classes exhibited unsteadiness behavior in spray. The spray unsteadiness reduced quickly at ALR of 3% and decreased moderately at ALR of other values as the axial distance increased. When the axial distance was 200 mm, the spray unsteadiness reduced dramatically with the increase in radial distance, but lower spray unsteadiness at the center of spray and higher spray unsteadiness at the edge of spray were shown as the axial distance increased. The spray unsteadiness at the center region of spray increased with the injection pressure. Low spray unsteadiness and good atomization performance can be obtained when the diameter of incline aeration holes increased at ALR of 10%. Although short mixing chamber with large discharge orifice diameter for convergent-divergent effervescent atomizer produced good atomization, the center region of spay showed high spray unsteadiness and maybe formed the droplet clustering. (author)

  8. Radiation damage testing at the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinowsky, W.; Thun, R.

    1990-06-01

    A Task Force on Radiation Damage Testing met at the SSC Laboratory on March 5--6, 1990. This Task Force was asked to assess the availability of appropriate facilities for radiation damage tests of SSC detector materials and components. The Task Force was also instructed to review the techniques and standards for conducting such tests. Semiconductors were considered separately from other detector materials. Radiation damage test of electronic devices generally require exposures to both ionizing radiation and neutrons, whereas non-electric components such as plastic scintillating materials, adhesives, cable insulation, and other organic polymers are adequately tested with ionizing radiation only. Test standards are discussed with respect to irradiation techniques, environmental factors, dosimetry, and mechanisms whereby various materials are damaged. It is emphasized that radiation sources should be chosen to duplicate as much as possible the expected SSC environment and that the effects from ionizing particles and from neutrons be investigated separately. Radiation damage tests at reactors must be designed with particular care complex spectra of neutrons and gamma rays are produced at such facilities. It is also essential to investigate dose-rate effects since they are known to be important in many cases. The required irradiations may last several months and are most easily carried out with dedicated radioactive sources. Environmental factors such as the presence of oxygen when testing plastic scintillators, or temperature when measuring semiconductor annealing effects, must also be taken into account. The importance of reliable dosimetry is stressed and suitable references cited. Finally, it is noted that an understanding of the mechanisms for radiation damage in semiconductor and other materials is important in planning irradiations and evaluating results

  9. Overview and status of beam instrumentation at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, R.C.

    1993-05-01

    An overview of beam instrumentation requirements at the SSC and a status report on work progress is given. Small transverse emittance beams, ranging in energy from 30 KeV to 20 TeV, must be commissioned, measured, and diagnosed. Instrumentation plans and current design and development efforts for BPMs and other systems are presented. Monitors and electronics soon to be delivered for use in the Linac are described. Design of the Linac systems has been done with requirements and applications in the synchrotron in mind and thus should provide a basis for design of much of that hardware. The useful commonality of design across the machines is discussed

  10. Conductor development for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, E.

    1988-01-01

    This review investigates the developments in fine filamentary materials over the last three years and traces how the relations between the magnet requirements and property improvements have fashioned SSC conductor specifications. The review emphasizes factors that affect filament nonuniformity and the overall quality of the product. The elimination of proximity effect-induced coupling in SCC type conductors, by introducing small percentages of manganese into the copper between the filaments, is discussed. Modification of a Fermi kit has produced materials with improved critical current densities. The possibility of using this approach to make conductors for accelerator magnets is assessed

  11. Measurement of AC electrical characteristics of SSC superconducting dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, K.M.; Shafer, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the AC electrical characteristics of SSC superconducting dipole magnets over the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz. A magnet equivalent circuit representing the magnet DC inductance, eddy current losses, coil-to-ground and turn-to-turn capacitance, was synthesized from the experimental data. This magnet equivalent circuit can be used to predict the current ripple distribution along the superconducting magnet string and can provide dynamic information for the design of the collider current regulation loop

  12. High P/sub T/ detectors for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trilling, G.H.

    1987-11-01

    Summarized in this report is some of the work done at the recent Workshop on Experiments, Detectors, and Experimental Areas for the Supercollider held at Berkeley. The major goal was to develop an understanding of what complement of detectors would provide the capability for a well-balanced physics program at the SSC. Unlike earlier studies which had emphasized individual components such as tracking, calorimetry, etc., the intention was to focus on complete detectors. The particular detectors discussed in this paper are: the large solenoid detectors, the compact solenoid detectors, the non-magnetic detectors, the dipole detectors and muon detectors. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. A super fixed target beauty experiment at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel, L.; Murphy, C.T.; Cox, B.; Arenton, M.; Conetti, S.; Corti, G.; Dukes, C.; Golovatyuk, V.; Lawry, T.; McManus, A.

    1993-01-01

    The observation and precision measurement of CP violation asymmetries and the phase of the CKM matrix is a major objective of B experiments at the SSC. The yields of reconstructed and tagged B decays and the various factors which minimize the dilution factors make measurements of CP asymmetries in the fixed target option known as the SFT more than competitive with much more expensive hadron collider experiments and significantly better than asymmetric e + e - B factories. Moreover, the superior time resolution possible in the SFT configuration allows a precision in the measurement of the CKM matrix element phases possible with the SFT option for various B decay modes

  14. Hadron identification in a fixed target experiment at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, K.S.; Cox, B.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents the design criteria and expected performance of a hadron identification system in a fixed target experiment at the SSC. The proposed SFT spectrometer will be used as a model for the discussion. Two primary uses of hadron identification is a B physics experiment are flavor tagging and the rejection of background due to particle reflections in the reconstruction of exclusive decay modes. In the first case it is shown that use of kaons can increase substantially the number of events which can be tagged. In the latter case, decays in which particles are mis-identified can form a background to a desired decay mode

  15. Design features of the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willen, E.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The main ring dipole for the SSC is specified as a high performance magnet that is required to provide a uniform, 6.6 T field in a 4 cm aperture at minimum cost. These design requirements have been addressed in an R ampersand D program in which the coil design, coil mechanical support, yoke and shell structure, trim coil and beam tube design, and a variety of new instrumentation, have been developed. The design of the magnet resulting from this intensive R ampersand D program, including various measurements from both 1.8 m and 17 m long models, is reviewed. 7 refs., 3 figs

  16. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole coil production tooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.A.; Barczak, E.J.; Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Smith, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider dipole coils must be produced to high precision to ensure uniform prestress and even conductor distribution within the collared coil assembly. Tooling is being prepared at Fermilab for the production of high precision 1M and 16.6M SSC dipole coils suitable for mass production. The design and construction methods builds on the Tevatron tooling and production experience. Details of the design and construction methods and measured coil uniformity of 1M coils will be presented. 4 refs., 10 figs

  17. Debunching and Capture in the LEB for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahale, N.; Furman, M.

    1991-05-01

    The authors present the details of the capture process in the Low Energy Booster (LEB) for the SSC. They consider only the longitudinal dynamics. Space charge forces are computed quasistatically. The beam pipe is considered to be perfectly conducting. With respect to maximizing the capture efficiency and minimizing the space charge tune spread, initial few milliseconds are very important. They present only the first few milliseconds of the cycle, during which space charge effects are significant. For the numerical simulation they use the code ESME.

  18. Beam diagnostic system for SSC on HIRFL central console

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guixu; Wang Zhen; Huang Tuanhua

    1998-01-01

    The SSC ion beam diagnostic system on the console of HIRFL in institute of modern physics is presented. The information between console and diagnostic system can be transferred via DECnet communication. The central computer for HIRFL console is VAX-8350, the working computer of diagnostic system is changed from IBM PC/XT to COMPAQ 486, and the operating program is rewritten from FORTRAN to C. In order to communicate information, DECnet TTT function is put into both programs on the VAX and PC

  19. Initial results from 50mm short SSC dipoles at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Coulter, K.; Delchamps, S.; Ewald, K.D.; Fulton, H.; Gonczy, I.; Gourlay, S.A.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.B.; Wake, M.; Gordon, M.; Hassan, N.; Sims, R.; Winters, M.

    1991-03-01

    Several short model SSC 50 mm bore dipoles are being built and tested at Fermilab. Mechanical design of these magnets has been determined from experience involved in the construction and testing of 40 mm dipoles. Construction experience includes coil winding, curing and measuring, coil end part design and fabrication, ground insulation, instrumentation, collaring and yoke assembly. Fabrication techniques are explained and construction problems are discussed. Similarities and differences from the 40 mm dipole tooling and management components are outlined. Test results from the first models are presented. 19 refs., 12 figs

  20. Conclusions from the engineering subgroup of the SSC liquid argon calorimeter working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bederede, D.; Cooper, W.; Mulholland, G.; Kroon, P.; Guryn, W.; Lobkowicz, F.; Mason, I.; Pohlen, J.; Schindler, R.H.; Scholle, E.A.; Watanabe, Y.; Watt, R.

    1990-01-01

    The SSC Calorimeter Workshop was organized to explore the feasibility of each calorimeter technology for use in a 4π detector at the SSC. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter group further subdivided into four subgroups; Hermeticity, Engineering, Module Details, and Electronics. This is the report of the Engineering Subgroup whose charge was to evaluate the cost, schedule, manpower, safety, and facilities requirements for the construction of a large liquid argon calorimeter for the SSC

  1. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  2. An experimental study on atomizing formation process of diesel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bong

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the experiment has, been conducted to investigate the spray characteristics under the parameter of an ambient pressure with a single hole nozzle having aspect ratio(L/D) of 5 and diameter of 0.45mm. Under the condition of the injection pressure of 14Mpa, the initial disintegrating process of a diesel spray is investigated and analysized according to change of the ambient pressures, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3Mpa. The double flash method has been employed to visualize the process of the diesel sprays. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) After spray starts, the spray is shown as non-disturbance liquid column within about 1∼2mm from the nozzle tip, whose diameter is similar to that of a nozzle. For the same injection pressure, the increase of the ambient pressure makes the length of the non-disturbance liquid column become short. 2) Due to the surface wave, ligaments of the shape thread appear at the boundary of liquid column right after spray. The more developed wave together the progress of spray transforms ligaments into droplets that have generally the uniformed size. 3) In case spraying into chambers having different ambient pressures, 1, 2, and 3Mpa, the spray tip velocities reach up to 1.5, 1.2, and 0.6ms, respectively, and decrease with lapse of time. The spray angle keeps increasing for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.4ms after spray under the various ambient pressures, 3, 2, and 1Mpa, respectively, and begins to decrease and maintains the constant value. Therefore, the transition points appear near the point where the velocity decreases and the spray angle increases, simultaneously. The higher ambient pressure leads to fast appearance of transition under the same spray pressure. 4) The disintegrating mechanism of the liquid spray is two combined effects: a) friction forces between the surface waves generated at the surface of the liquid column and the ambient gas, b) the collisions of liquid droplets and ligaments by spray were overtaking

  3. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corno, Ada del, E-mail: delcorno@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Morandi, Sonia, E-mail: morandi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Parozzi, Flavio, E-mail: parozzi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.araneo@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy); CNR-IENI, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Casella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco2.casella@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m{sup 3}. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m{sup 3}. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was

  4. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, Ada del; Morandi, Sonia; Parozzi, Flavio; Araneo, Lucio; Casella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m"3. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m"3. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was detected with 1

  5. Glove box chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.E.; Cox, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    An environmental chamber is described which enables an operator's hands to have direct access within the chamber without compromising a special atmosphere within such chamber. A pair of sleeves of a flexible material are sealed to the chamber around associated access apertures and project outwardly from such chamber. Each aperture is closed by a door which is openable from within the sleeve associated therewith so that upon an operator inserting his hand and arm through the sleeve, the operator can open the door to have access to the interior of the chamber. A container which is selectively separable from the remainder of the chamber is also provided to allow objects to be transferred from the chamber without such objects having to pass through the ambient atmosphere. An antechamber permitting objects to be passed directly into the chamber from the ambient atmosphere is included. (auth)

  6. A helium venting model for a SSC half cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.H.; McAshan, M.S.; Schiesser, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    When a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet quenches, the quench protection system will intentionally quench other magnets in the half cell. The result is that the stored energy of all of these quenched magnets will be absorbed equally among them. These simultaneous quenches produce heat, which diffuses from the magnet coils to the main helium (He) coolant channels and thereby eventually causes an increase in the He pressure. When the quench is detected, vent valves open to minimize the He pressure increase and thus prevent damage to the magnets. The performance of the He venting system has been modeled and simulated to establish whether the venting will take place as required. The model consists of partial differential equation energy balances written radially for the magnet coils, collar, and yoke; and ordinary differential equations of energy and mass balance written for the He in the magnets and relief header. The basic algorithm is the numerical method of lines, with finite difference approximation of the spatial derivatives, and time integration by LSODES. Simulation results are presented for an SSC half cell of the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility. The results are also compared with recent string quench measurements performed at the Fermilab String Test Facility

  7. Report of the workshop on realistic SSC lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    A workshop was held at the SSC Central Design Group from May 29 to June 4, 1985, on topics relating to the lattice of the SSC. The workshop marked a shift of emphasis from the investigation of simplified test lattices to the development of a realistic lattice suitable for the conceptual design report. The first day of the workshop was taken up by reviews of accelerator system requirements, of the reference design solutions for these requirements, of lattice work following the reference design, and of plans for the workshop. The work was divided among four working groups. The first, chaired by David Douglas, concerned the arcs of regular cells. The second group, which studied the utility insertions, was chaired by Beat Leemann. The third group, under David E. Johnson, concerned itself with the experimental insertions, dispersion suppressors, and phase trombones. The fourth group, responsible for global lattice considerations and the design of a new realistic lattice example, was led by Ernest Courant. The papers resulting from this workshop are roughly divided into three sets: those relating to specific lattice components, to complete lattices, and to other topics. Among the salient accomplishments of the workshop were additions to and optimization of lattice components, especially those relating to lattices using 1-in-1 magnets, either horizontally or vertically separated, and the design of complete lattice examples. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  8. Parallel processing at the SSC: The fact and the fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.

    1991-10-01

    Accurately modelling the behavior of particles circulating in accelerators is a computationally demanding task. The particle tracking code currently in use at SSC is based upon a ''thin element'' analysis (TEAPOT). In this model each magnet in the lattice is described by a thin element at which the particle experiences an impulsive kick. Each kick requires approximately 200 floating point operations (''FLOP''). For the SSC collider lattice consisting of 10 4 elements, performing a tracking of study for a set of 100 particles for 10 7 turns would require 2 x 10 15 FLOPS. Even on a machine capable of 100 MFLOP/sec (MFLOPS), this would require 2 x 10 7 seconds, and many such runs are necessary. It should be noted that the accuracy with which the kicks are to be calculated is important: the large number of iterations involved will magnify the effects of small errors. The inability of current computational resources to effectively perform the full calculation motivates the migration of this calculation to the most powerful computers available. A survey of the current research into new technologies for superconducting reveals that the supercomputers of the future will be parallel in nature. Further, numerous such machines exist today, and are being used to solve other difficult problems. Thus it seems clear that it is not early to begin developing the capability to develop tracking codes for parallel architectures. This report discusses implementing parallel processing on the SCC

  9. Application of pulse combustion technology in spray drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zbicinski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents development of valved pulse combustor designed for application in drying process and drying tests performed in a specially built installation. Laser technique was applied to investigate the flow field and structure of dispersed phase during pulse combustion spray drying process. PDA technique was used to determine initial atomization parameters as well as particle size distribution, velocity of the particles, mass concentration of liquid phase in the cross section of spray stream, etc., in the drying chamber during drying tests. Water was used to estimate the level of evaporation and 5 and 10% solutions of sodium chloride to carry out drying tests. The Computational Fluid Dynamics technique was used to perform theoretical predictions of time-dependent velocity, temperature distribution and particle trajectories in the drying chamber. Satisfactory agreement between calculations and experimental results was found in certain regions of the drying chamber.

  10. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  12. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Saad, Nor Hayati; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Shah, Noriyati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  13. Analysis of spatial dispersion characteristics of improved conical sprays; Kairyo kasajo funmu no kukan bunsansei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, W; Murakami, A; Hama, J [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Obokata, T [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The macro-characteristics of conical and improved conical sprays were analyzed using laser sheet and high speed camera. The injection pressure was 14.7, 24.5 or 34.3 MPa and the chamber pressure was 0.098, 0.98 or 1.96 MPa, where the amount of injected fuel was 28.5 mg per cycle, and the injection frequency was 8.3 Hz. As a result, at atmospheric pressure, both of the conical spray and improved conical spray have a conical pattern, but at high chamber pressure, the sprays become three dimensional. The penetration of the improved conical spray was about 25% stronger than that of the conical spray. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  15. Current Approaches to the Treatment of Systemic-Sclerosis-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (SSc-PAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, Vincent; Launay, David; Hachulla, Eric; Humbert, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Despite the use of specific treatments, SSc-PAH survival remains poorer than in idiopathic PAH (IPAH). Recent therapeutic advances in PAH show a lower magnitude of response in SSc-PAH and a higher risk of adverse events, as compared to IPAH. The multifaceted underlying mechanisms and the multisystem nature of SSc probably explain part of the worse outcomes in SSc-PAH compared to IPAH. This review describes the current management of SSc-PAH with an emphasis on the impact of the different organ involvements in the prognosis and treatment response. An earlier detection of PAH and a better characterization of the clinical phenotypes of SSc-PAH are warranted in clinical practice and future trials. Determinants of prognosis, surrogate markers of clinical improvement or worsening, and relevance of the common endpoints used in clinical trials should be evaluated in this specific population. A multidisciplinary approach in expert referral centers is mandatory for SSc-PAH management.

  16. Is transverse feedback necessary for the SSC emittance preservation? (Vibration noise analysis and feedback parameters optimization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shiltsev, V.D.

    1993-06-01

    The paper considers the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site ground motion measurements as well as data from accelerators worldwide about noises that worsen beam performance. Unacceptably fast emittance growth due to these noises is predicted for the SSC. A transverse feedback system was found to be the only satisfactory alternative to prevent emittance decay. Optimization of the primary feedback parameters was done

  17. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  18. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... 5 sprays into the air away from the face. If you have not used it for 2 ...

  19. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  20. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  1. Variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupole for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Martinez, R.P.; Meyer, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    A set of compact variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupoles have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use in the SSC linac matching section. The quadrupoles have 24 mm-diameter apertures and 40 mm-long poles. The hybrid (permanent-magnet and iron) design, uses a fixed core of magnet material (NdFeB) and iron (C-1006) surrounded by a rotating ring of the same magnet material and iron. The quadrupole gradient-length product can be smoothly varied from a minimum of 0.7 T up to a maximum of 4.3 T by a 90 degree rotation of the outer ring of iron and magnet material

  2. Application of multiple timestep integration method in SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    The thermohydraulic transient simulation of an entire LMFBR system is, by its very nature, complex. Physically, the entire plant consists of many subsystems which are coupled by various processes and/or components. The characteristic integration timesteps for these processes/components can vary over a wide range. To improve computing efficiency, a multiple timestep scheme (MTS) approach has been used in the development of the Super System Code (SSC). In this paper: (1) the partitioning of the system and the timestep control are described, and (2) results are presented showing a savings in computer running time using the MTS of as much as five times the time required using a single timestep scheme

  3. A medical facility proposal to use the SSC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, L.W.

    1994-01-01

    A consortium organized by the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission under a Department of Energy grant proposes to build and operate a Regional Medical Technology Center to function as a combined medical radioisotope production complex and proton cancer therapy facility using the Linear Accelerator (Linac) assets of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The radioisotope production complex will serve as a domestic source of radioisotopes critically needed by the U.S. pharmaceutical industry and nuclear medicine facilities throughout North America. Presently, more than 70 percent of radioisotopes used in U.S. nuclear medicine procedures are produced outside the country. The Center's state-of-the-art proton cancer therapy facility will serve the Central United States, providing advanced capabilities and augmenting facilities in California and Massachusetts. Long-term, it is anticipated that the RMTC also will stimulate nuclear medicine research, advance medical diagnostic technologies, and generate new industrial applications for linear accelerator technology

  4. A medical facility proposal to use the SSC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    A consortium organized by the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) under a Department of Energy (DOE) grant proposes to build and operate a Regional Medical Technology Center (RMTC) to function as a combined medical radioisotope production complex and proton cancer therapy facility using the linear accelerator (linac) assets of the cancelled Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The radioisotope production complex will serve as a domestic source of radioisotopes critically needed by the U.S. pharmaceutical industry and nuclear medicine facilities throughout North America. Presently, more than 70 percent of radioisotopes used in U.S. nuclear medicine procedures are produced outside the country. The Center's state-of-the-art proton cancer therapy facility will serve the Central United States, providing advanced capabilities and augmenting facilities in California and Massachusetts. Long-term, it is anticipated that the RMTC also will stimulate nuclear medicine research, advance medical diagnostic technologies, and generate new industrial applications of linear accelerator technology. (orig.)

  5. A medical facility proposal to use the SSC linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren Funk, L.

    1995-05-01

    A consortium organized by the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) under a Department of Energy (DOE) grant proposes to build and operate a Regional Medical Technology Center (RMTC) to function as a combined medical radioisotope production complex and proton cancer therapy facility using the linear accelerator (linac) assets of the cancelled Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The radioisotope production complex will serve as a domestic source of radioisotopes critically needed by the U.S. pharmaceutical industry and nuclear medicine facilities throughout North America. Presently, more than 70 percent of radioisotopes used in U.S. nuclear medicine procedures are produced outside the country. The Center's state-of-the-art proton cancer therapy facility will serve the Central United States, providing advanced capabilities and augmenting facilities in California and Massachusetts. Long-term, it is anticipated that the RMTC also will stimulate nuclear medicine research, advance medical diagnostic technologies, and generate new industrial applications of linear accelerator technology.

  6. Performance of field measuring probes for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.; Ganetis, G.; Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Jain, A.; Louie, W.; Marone, A.; Wanderer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Several years of experience have been acquired on the operation of probes (open-quotes molesclose quotes) constructed for the measurement of the multipole components of the magnetic fields of SSC magnets. The field is measured by rotating coils contained in a 2.4-m long tube that is pulled through the aperture of the magnet by an external device - the transporter. In addition to the measuring coils, the tube contains motors for rotating the coil and a system for sensing local vertical using gravity sensors to provide an absolute reference for the field measurements. The authors describe the steps that must be taken in order to ensure accurate, repeatable measurements; the design changes that have been motivated by difficulties encountered (noise, vibration, variations in temperature); and other performance issues. The mechanical interface between the probe and the beam tube of the magnet is also described

  7. Performance of field measuring probes for SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.; Ganetis, G.; Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Jain, A.; Louie, W.; Marone, A.; Wanderer, P.

    1993-01-01

    Several years of experience have been acquired on the operation of probes (''moles'') constructed for the measurement of the multipole components of the magnetic fields of SSC magnets. The field is measured by rotating coils contained in a 2.4-m long tube that is pulled through the aperture of the magnet by an external device-the transporter. In addition to the measuring coils, the tube contains motors for rotating the coil and a system for sensing local vertical using gravity sensors to provide an absolute reference for the field measurements. We describe the steps that must be taken in order to ensure accurate, repeatable measurements; the design changes that have been motivated by difficulties encountered (noise, vibration, variations in temperature); and other performance issues. The mechanical interface between the probe and the hewn tube of the magnet is also described

  8. Overview and status of RF systems for the SSC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynk, J.; Grippe, J.; Cutler, R.I.; Rodriguez, R.

    1993-05-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Linear Accelerator (Linac) produces a 600-MeV, 35-μs, H-beam at a 10-Hz repetition rate. The beam is accelerated by a series of RF cavities. These consist of a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), two bunchers, and four Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tanks at 427.617 MHz, and two bunchers, nine side-coupled Linac modules, and an energy compressor at 1282.851 MHz. The RFQ amplifier and the low-frequency buncher cavity amplifiers use gridded tubes, while the other cavities use klystron amplifier systems. The RF control system consists of a reference line and cavity feedback and feedforward loops for each amplifier. The RF amplifier system for each of these accelerator cavities is described, and the current status of each system is presented

  9. Simulation of quenches in SSC magnets with passive quench protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, K.

    1985-06-01

    The relative ease of protecting an SSC magnet following a quench and the implications of quench protection on magnet reliability and operation are necessary inputs in a rational magnet selection process. As it appears likely that the magnet selection will be made prior to full scale prototype testing, an alternative means is required to ascertain the surviveability of contending magnet types. This paper attempts to provide a basis for magnet selection by calculating the peak expected quench temperatures in the 3 T Design C magnet and the 6 T Design D magnet as a function of magnet length. A passive, ''cold diode'' protection system has been assumed. The relative merits of passive versus active protection systems have been discussed in a previous report. It is therefore assumed that - given the experience gained from the Tevatron system - that an active quench protection system can be employed to protect the magnets in the eventuality of unreliable cold diode function

  10. Scintillating fiber detector development for the SSC: Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchti, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    During the past year, considerable effort has been applied to the development of scintillating fiber detectors in several areas: new scintillation liquids and studies of their fluorescence properties; new fluorescent dyes based on non-intramolecular proton transfer; new dyes based on intramolecular proton transfer; incorporation of these new dyes in plastic (polystyrene) and liquid scintillation solutions; development of small cross section glass capillaries for the containment of liquid scintillators; studies of waveguide characteristics; studies of image intensifier phosphor screen characteristics; initial steps to form a collaboration to study and develop appropriate new properties of the Solid State Photomultiplier; construction of a new laboratory at Notre Dame to enhance our capabilities for further measurements and studies; and organization of and execution of a Workshop on Scintillating Fiber Detector Development for the SSC, held at Fermilab, November 14--16, 1988

  11. Collider Physics: SDC/SSC liquified fiber calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.T.; Huson, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    Most effort was directed toward the D-Zero experiment at Fermilab. Over 3 pb -1 of high-quality physics data have been obtained. Analysis of the results (wino-zino physics, squark physics), D-zero data acquisition systems efforts, and level-1 and level-2 trigger work are described. Other work concerned detector development for use at the SSC. This technology consists of using liquid scintillator-filled tubes as scintillating fibers for a ''calorimeter.'' The key issues were to demonstrate that the liquid fibers were sufficiently rad-hard and to demonstrate that fibers with sufficiently long attenuation length could be found to satisfy the resolution requirements; both constraints could be satisfied

  12. Rad-hard electronics study for SSC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenberg, T.; Dawson, J.; Stevens, A.; Haberichter, W.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation environment in a SSC detector operating at a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 will put stringent requirements on radiation hardness of the electronics. Over the expected 10 year life-time of a large detector, ionizing radiation doses of up to 20 MRad and neutron fluences of 10 16 neutrons/cm 2 are projected. At a luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 even higher total doses are expected. the effect of this environment have been simulated by exposing CMOS/bulk and CMOS/SOS devices from monolithic processes to neutrons and ionizing radiation. leakage currents, noise variations, and DC characteristics have been measured before and after exposure in order to evaluate the effects of the irradiations. As expected the device characteristics remained virtually unchanged by neutron irradiation, while ionizing radiation caused moderate degradation of performance. 5 refs., 6 figs

  13. A novel bridge coupler for SSC coupled cavity linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.G.; Chang, C.R.; Funk, W.

    1992-01-01

    A novel magnetically coupled multi-cavity bridge coupler is proposed for SSC Coupled-Cavity-Linac (CCL). The bridge coupler is a five cell disc-loaded waveguide with a small central aperture used for measurement and two large curved coupling slots near the edge on each disc. The two coupling slots on the adjacent disc are rotated 90 degrees in orientation to reduce the direct coupling. This type of structure is capable of producing very large coupling (>10% in our longest bridge coupler). Also because of the small opening on the discs, the high-order-modes are very far (> 300 MHz) above the operating mode. Thus for long bridge couplers, the magnetic coupled structure should provide maximum coupling with minimum mode mixing problems. In this paper both physics and engineering issues of this new bridge coupler are presented. (Author) 5 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Variable-field permanent magnet quadrupole for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Martinez, R.P.; Meyer, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    A set of compact variable-field permanent-magnet quadrupoles have been designed, fabricated, and tested for use In the SSC linac matching section. The quadrupoles have 24 mm-diameter apertures and 40 mm-long poles. The hybrid (permanent-magnet and iron) design, uses a fixed core of magnet material (NdFeB) and iron (C-1006) surrounded by a rotating ring of the same magnet material and iron. The quadrupole gradient-length product can be smoothly varied from a minimum of 0.7 T up to a maximum, of 4.3 T by a 90 degrees rotation of the outer ring of iron and magnet material

  15. New technique for wiring SSC superconducting sextupole corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, B.

    1985-01-01

    There exists in the electronics industry, a technology for the manufacture of printed circuit (PC) boards which is directly transferable into the creation of highly controlled coils, such as the SSC sextupole superconducting corrector coils. This technology, which uses a process of laying down insulated wire in highly controlled patterns has heretofore been confined exclusively to the manufacture of high density printed circuit (PC) boards, possibly due to an ignorance of its utility in the field of precision winding of coils. This ability to fix wires in a well defined location can be used to produce precision wound coils in a very cost-effective manner. These coils may be superior in quality to conventionally made coils. Before describing what can be created with this technology, it is necessary to take a look at this coil winding process, the MULTIWIRE process, and the industry which has utilized this technology

  16. A new technique for wiring SSC superconducting sextupole corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, B.

    1985-01-01

    There exists in the electronics industry, a technology for the manufacture of printed circuit (PC) boards which is directly transferable into the creation of highly controlled coils, such as the SSC sextupole superconducting corrector coils. This technology, which uses a process of laying down insulated wire in highly controlled patterns, has heretofore been confined excusively to the manufacture of high density printed circuit (PC) boards, possibly due to an ignorance of its utility in the field of precision winding of coils. This ability to fix wires in a well defined location can be used to produce precision wound coils in a very cost-effective manner. These coils may be superior in quality to conventionally made coils. Before describing what can be created with this technology, it is necessary to take a look at this coil winding process, the MULTIWIRE process, and the industry which has utilized this technology

  17. Coil and iron design for SSC 50 mm magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Morgan, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of the two dimensional coil and iron cross section, referred to as DSX201/W6733, for the 50 mm aperture dipole magnet being built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The computed values of the allowed field harmonics as a function of current, the quench performance predictions, the stored energy calculations, the effect of random errors on the coil placement and the Lorentz forces on the coil will be presented. The yoke has been optimized to reduce iron saturation effects on the field harmonics. We shall present the summary of this design which will include the expected overall performance of this cross section. 4 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs

  18. Winding mandrel design for the wide cable SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.H.; Greene, A.; Jochen, G.; Morgillo, A.

    1990-01-01

    The 50 mm coil i.d. SSC dipole magnets use wider cables to give a greater operational margin between quench field and operating field. The cable used for the inner coil has 30 strands of the same size (0.808 mm) instead of 23 and the outer has 36 strands of the same size (0.648 mm) instead of 30 and the cable widths are increased in proportion. Although the coil inner diameter has been increased from 40 mm, the coil ends are noticeably harder to wind. This report describes the computational and experimental effort to design winding mandrels or center posts for the constant-perimeter ends. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. A development environment for the SSC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Doug; Martinsen, Garth; Wang, Judy

    1994-01-01

    The SSC is developing a design environment for control system development within the context of EPICS. The environment is aimed at developers of applications using the EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC). The unique aspect of this effort is our emphasis on providing a simple and intuitive development environment compared with tools currently available. Our most important goal in this effort has been to hide the complexity of EPICS IOC development from the developers. This paper describes two tools which are under development; The Function Block Editor (FBE) and the State Machine Editor (SME). The FBE provides a visual editing environment for graphically describing control processes as a set of related functional blocks. The configuration of functional blocks is then translated into IOC records and executed. SME allows the user to visually construct a sequence using a notation we are modeling after Grafcet [1]. State machines are translated into EPICS State Notation Language programs and executed. Future extensions will be described. ((orig.))

  20. Double chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uman, M.F.; Winnard, J.R.; Winters, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    The ion source is comprised of two discharge chambers one of which is provided with a filament and an aperture leading into the other chamber which in turn has an extraction orifice. A low voltage arc discharge is operated in an inert gas atmosphere in the filament chamber while an arc of higher voltage is operated in the second ionization chamber which contains a vapor which will give the desired dopant ion species. The entire source is immersed in an axial magnetic field parallel to a line connecting the filament, the aperture between the two chambers and the extraction orifice. (author)

  1. ROTARY SPRAY DUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nechaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches of hydraulic resistance, ablation of splashes and efficiency of dedusting in the rotor spray dust collector are given. Influence of frequency of rotation of the spray, the specified speed of gas and diameter of spattering holes on hydraulic resistance, size ablation of splashes and efficiency of a dedusting the device by diameter 0,25 m is investigated. As model liquid water is used. Results of mathematical processing are presented.

  2. Numerical modelling of diesel spray using the Eulerian multiphase approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujanović, Milan; Petranović, Zvonimir; Edelbauer, Wilfried; Baleta, Jakov; Duić, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical model for fuel disintegration was presented. • Fuel liquid and vapour were calculated. • Good agreement with experimental data was shown for various combinations of injection and chamber pressure. - Abstract: This research investigates high pressure diesel fuel injection into the combustion chamber by performing computational simulations using the Euler–Eulerian multiphase approach. Six diesel-like conditions were simulated for which the liquid fuel jet was injected into a pressurised inert environment (100% N 2 ) through a 205 μm nozzle hole. The analysis was focused on the liquid jet and vapour penetration, describing spatial and temporal spray evolution. For this purpose, an Eulerian multiphase model was implemented, variations of the sub-model coefficients were performed, and their impact on the spray formation was investigated. The final set of sub-model coefficients was applied to all operating points. Several simulations of high pressure diesel injections (50, 80, and 120 MPa) combined with different chamber pressures (5.4 and 7.2 MPa) were carried out and results were compared to the experimental data. The predicted results share a similar spray cloud shape for all conditions with the different vapour and liquid penetration length. The liquid penetration is shortened with the increase in chamber pressure, whilst the vapour penetration is more pronounced by elevating the injection pressure. Finally, the results showed good agreement when compared to the measured data, and yielded the correct trends for both the liquid and vapour penetrations under different operating conditions

  3. Visualization research on spray atomization, evaporation and combustion processes of ethanol–diesel blend under LTC conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Sheng; Deng, Peng; Huang, Ronghua; Wang, Zhaowen; Ma, Yinjie; Dai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Spray combustion of E20 diesel in LTC condition shows a U-shape flame structure. • The chasing behavior of fuel spray exists near the spray axis. • Fuel ignition doesn’t initiate at the spray tip but in peripheral regions behind it. • An improper chamber structure may lead to a long post-combustion duration. - Abstract: Utilization of ethanol in diesel engines has been widely studied by means of engine experiments and emission detection. However, pertinent studies on the spray combustion process of ethanol–diesel blends are scarce. In order to verify the effect of ethanol in modern diesel engines, an experiment is conducted to visualize the spray combustion process of ethanol–diesel blend under LTC conditions. Stages including atomization, evaporation and combustion, are investigated individually to realize synergistic analysis. Meanwhile, considering the long time scale of combustion after fuel injection finishes, characteristics during and after injection period are both targeted in this paper. Moreover, measurement of macroscopic characteristics, such as spray tip penetration, spray spreading cone angle and flame lift off length, provides a quantitative profile of the spray structure. Results show that, evaporation, different from atomization, has little influence on spray penetration, but promotes the spray spreading angle and spray projected area. So does combustion, which enlarges the spray projected area further. Ignition takes place on the periphery behind the spray tip, then quickly extends to the whole head of the spray and forms a U-shape diffusion structure. After the injection period, the residual spray tail develops into wavelike structures due to absence of subsequent entrainment force. Also, the penetration speed falls greatly to an extent much slower than flame propagation, which frees the flame from the lift-off effect. Subsequently, the flame propagates upstream towards the nozzle orifice. After consumed all fuel in

  4. Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS Identify QTL on SSC2 and SSC17 Affecting Loin Peak Shear Force in Crossbred Commercial Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Of all the meat quality traits, tenderness is considered the most important with regard to eating quality and market value. In this study we have utilised genome wide association studies (GWAS for peak shear force (PSF of loin muscle as a measure of tenderness for 1,976 crossbred commercial pigs, genotyped for 42,721 informative SNPs using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchip. Four 1 Mb genomic regions, three on SSC2 (at 4 Mb, 5 Mb and 109 Mb and one on SSC17 (at 20 Mb, were detected which collectively explained about 15.30% and 3.07% of the total genetic and phenotypic variance for PSF respectively. Markers ASGA0008566, ASGA0008695, DRGA0003285 and ASGA0075615 in the four regions were strongly associated with the effects. Analysis of the reference genome sequence in the region with the most important SNPs for SSC2_5 identified FRMD8, SLC25A45 and LTBP3 as potential candidate genes for meat tenderness on the basis of functional annotation of these genes. The region SSC2_109 was close to a previously reported candidate gene CAST; however, the very weak LD between DRGA0003285 (the best marker representing region SSC2_109 and CAST indicated the potential for additional genes which are distinct from, or interact with, CAST to affect meat tenderness. Limited information of known genes in regions SSC2_109 and SSC17_20 restricts further analysis. Re-sequencing of these regions for informative animals may help to resolve the molecular architecture and identify new candidate genes and causative mutations affecting this trait. These findings contribute significantly to our knowledge of the genomic regions affecting pork shear force and will potentially lead to new insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating meat tenderness.

  5. Study of ethanol and gasoline fuel sprays using mie-scatter and schlieren imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Lauren; Bittle, Joshua; Puzinauskas, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Many cars today are capable of running on both gasoline and ethanol, however it is not clear how well optimized the engines are for the multiple fuels. This experiment looks specifically at the fuel spray in a direct injection system. The length and angle of direct injection sprays were characterized and a comparison between ethanol and gasoline sprays was made. Fuels were tested using a modified diesel injector in a test chamber at variable ambient pressures and temperatures in order to simulate both high and low load combustion chamber conditions. Rainbow schlieren and mie-scatter imaging were both used to investigate the liquid and vapor portions of the sprays. The sprays behaved as expected with temperature and pressure changes. There was no noticeable fuel effect on the liquid portion of the spray (mie-scatter), though the gasoline vapor spray angles were wider than ethanol spray angles (possible a result of the distillation curves of the two fuels). Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  6. In-nozzle flow and spray characteristics for mineral diesel, Karanja, and Jatropha biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Som, Sibendu; Shukla, Pravesh Chandra; Goyal, Harsh; Longman, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In-nozzle flow characterization for biodiesel sprays. • Comparison of experimental spray parameters and nozzle hole simulations. • Effect of Karanja and Jatropha biodiesel on in-nozzle cavitation. • Cavitation formation investigation with diesel and biodiesels. • Nozzle hole outlet fuel velocity profile determination for test fuels. - Abstract: Superior spray behavior of fuels in internal combustion engines lead to improved combustion and emission characteristics therefore it is necessary to investigate fuel spray behavior of new alternative fuels. This study discusses the evolution of the in-nozzle orifice parameters of a numerical simulation and the evolution of spray parameters of fuel spray in a constant-volume spray chamber during an experiment. This study compares mineral diesel, biodiesels (Karanja-and Jatropha-based), and their blends with mineral diesel. The results show that mineral diesel provides superior atomization and evaporation behavior compared to the biodiesel test fuels. Karanja biodiesel provides superior atomization and evaporation characteristics compared to Jatropha biodiesel. The qualitative comparison of simulation and experimental results in tandem shows that nozzle-hole design is a critical parameter for obtaining optimum spray behavior in the engine combustion chamber

  7. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat surface and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and experimental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 °C and 78.2 °C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed; results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  8. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  9. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  10. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  11. DORIOT CLIMATIC CHAMBERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers reproduce environmental conditions occurring anywhere around the world. They provide an invaluable service by significantly reducing the...

  12. Gas microstrip chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, S.M.; Howe, M.R.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Wahl, J.; Wu, Y.; Yue, W.K.; Gaedke, R.M.; Vanstraelen, G.

    1992-01-01

    The gas microstrip chamber has been developed from concept to experimental system during the past three years. A pattern of anode and grid lines are microfabricated onto a dielectric substrate and configured as a high-resolution MWPC. Four recent developments are described: Suitable plastic substrates and lithography techniques for large-area chambers; non-planar silicon-based chambers for 20 μm resolution; integrated on-board synchronous front-end electronics and data buffering; and a porous silicon active cathode for enhanced efficiency and time response. The microstrip chamber appears to be a promising technology for applications in microvertex, tracking spectrometer, muon spectrometer, and transition radiation detection. (orig.)

  13. Best practices: Strategic stigma change (SSC): five principles for social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2011-08-01

    This column describes strategic stigma change (SSC), which comprises five principles and corresponding practices developed as a best practice to erase prejudice and discrimination associated with mental illness and promote affirming behaviors and social inclusion. SSC principles represent more than ten years of insights from the National Consortium on Stigma and Empowerment. The principles, which are centered on consumer contact that is targeted, local, credible, and continuous, were developed to inform the growth of large-scale social marketing campaigns supported by governments and nongovernmental organizations. Future social marketing efforts to address stigma and the need for evidence to determine SSC's penetration and impact are also discussed.

  14. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation proc...

  15. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  16. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  17. Controlling the crossing angle in the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garren, A.A.; Johnson, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The colliding beams in the SSC must cross at a small angle, so that when the bunches pass each other away from the interaction point (IP), they are sufficiently separated to avoid disruptive beam-beam forces. However, the crossing angle is so small that the adjacent quadrupoles must be common to both beams. Only after passing through four common quadrupoles on each side of the IP, are the beams split by vertical dipoles into separate beamlines. In order to make the closed orbits of the two beams cross at a definite angle at the IP (within a range up to 150 μrad), a series of correction dipoles are placed in the insertions. If these dipoles are excited in such a way as to control the closed orbits alone, the dispersion will be mismatched, reaching values of up to 50 cm in the arcs. This mismatch is due to the closed orbit displacements in the interaction region (IR) quadrupoles, causing them to act as bending magnets. Therefore, both the closed orbit and dispersion must be matched simultaneously. Solutions to this problem are presented. 6 figs

  18. SSC collider quadrupole cold mass design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, R.A.; Murray, F.S.; Jonas, P.A.; Mischler, W.R.; Blecher, L.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 1,664 focussing and defocussing superconducting quadrupoles are required for the two SSC collider rings. Collider quadruple magnets (CQMS) must satisfy stringent performance, reliability, life and low cost criteria. Performance requirements include field uniformity, training, quench, tracking, thermal cycling and alignment. The CQM cold mass design presented incorporates lessons IGC and Alsthom Intermagnetics S.A. (AISA), our joint venture with GEC-Alsthom, learned in the design, development and manufacture of 500 MRI, 160 high-field custom and 126 HERA quadruple superconducting magnets. This baseline design reflects careful quantitative assessment of coil winding placement and collar material, evaluation of field uniformity and mechanical performance of the magnet coil ends using 3-D modeling and analysis, and considers tolerance and process variability. Selected CQM cold mass design highlights and a proposed prototype development program that allows incorporation of test feedback into the design to minimize risk are detailed in this paper. This information may be helpful to SSCL in the design and development of prototype CQM'S

  19. Design of the SSC medium-beta Interaction Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.M.

    1993-06-01

    In the SSC design the 87.12 km long collider lattice consists of two 35.28 km identical arcs located on the North and South sides of the machine and two 8.28 km clusters placed on the West and on the East. Each cluster contains two Interaction Regions (IRs), the Utility section and the interconnect sections between them. According to present plans the goal for the optics in the East IRs is to provide for a high value of the luminosity and, hence, for a low β at the Interaction Point (IP). The West IRs are aimed at providing for a large space for detector which can be achieved at the cost of higher value of the β and lower luminosity. The optics of each IR are based on the same optical configuration which gives an opportunity to use mostly identical quadrupoles and dipoles in four IRs. Trivial modification of the central region in this basic configuration allows for a wide range of values for detector free space from L = 20 m to L = 90 m, suitable for the experiments in both clusters. L denotes here the distance between the IP and the nearest magnetic element of the machine. In this paper we briefly review the current design of the so-called medium-β IR optics with a large free space for detector of L = 90 m, which could be used in the West cluster

  20. Field measuring probe for SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganetis, G.; Herrera, J.; Hogue, R.; Skaritka, J.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.

    1987-03-01

    The field probe developed for measuring the field in SSC dipole magnets is an adaptation of the rotating tangential coil system in use at Brookhaven for several years. Also known as the MOLE, it is a self-contained room-temperature mechanism that is pulled through the aperture of the magnet with regular stops to measure the local field. Several minutes are required to measure the field at each point. The probe measures the multipole components of the field as well as the field angle relative to gravity. The sensitivity of the coil and electronics is such that the field up to the full 6.6 T excitation of the magnet as well as the field when warm with only 0.01 T excitation can be measured. Tethers are attached to both ends of the probe to carry electrical connections and to supply dry nitrogen to the air motors that rotate the tangential windings as well as the gravity sensor. A small computer is attached to the probe for control and for data collection, analysis and storage. Digital voltmeters are used to digitize the voltages from the rotating coil and several custom circuits control motor speeds in the probe. The overall diameter of the probe is approximately 2 cm and its length is 2.4 m; the field sensitive windings are 0.6 m in length

  1. Electrical characteristics of long strings of SSC superconducting dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.; Smedley, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    Because long strings of series-connected superconducting magnets have no dc resistance and low ac losses, the string behaves like a shorted transmission line. The string is thus resonant at multiple half-wavelengths unless damped by the inclusion of resistors that couple to the LdI/dt voltage across the magnet inductance. Based on the measured ac characteristics of individual magnets, it is possible to predict the electrical properties of long strings of magnets for a variety of damping resistors. These strings can be simulated using an analytic representation in FORTRAN (using complex-number notation) or a discrete-component equivalent-circuit modelling program (e.g., SPICE). Various electrical parameters, including characteristic impedance, signal velocity, induced power-supply ripple current, attenuation lengths, and driving-point impedances, can be predicted, and the damping resistor value can be optimized. Comparisons will be made to measurements on a long string of superconducting Tevatron magnets, and some predictions will be made for the SSC collider magnet system

  2. A liquid nitrogen temperature SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAshan, M.S.; VanderArend, P.

    1987-04-01

    Under the assumption that new developments in the science of superconductivity will lead to dipole magnets suitable for the SSC that have the same properties with regard to field, field quality, size and cost as those in the present conception of the collider, but operating at 77 K rather than 4.35 K; the initial cost of the collider facility is found to be less by $213 M out of the $2,000 M actual construction cost for the collider technical systems and the conventional facilities estimated in the Conceptual Design Report. EDI and contingency is not included in these figures. Operation at the higher temperature is not, however, an unequivocal advantage. The beam line vacuum system in the 77 K case presents problems that will require a larger magnet aperture for satisfactory solution. The costs of this together with the cost of the development and construction of the new vacuum system required is estimated to be $156 M. The net capital cost saving associated with the higher temperature operation is thus found to be $57 M or about 3% of the estimated cost. In addition it is estimated that the operating cost of the facility will under conditions be less by $27.5 M per year in the steady-state including an allowance for the greater availability of the simpler cryogenic system. 14 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  3. Two dimensional magnetic field calculations for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krefta, M.P.; Pavlik, D.

    1991-01-01

    In this work two-dimensional methods are used to calculate the magnetic fields throughout the cross section of a SSC dipole magnet. Analytic techniques, which are based on closed form solutions to the defining field equations, are used to calculate the multipole content for any specified conductor positioning. The method is extended to investigate the effects of radial slots or keyways in the iron yoke. The multipole components of field, directly attributable to the slots or keyways, are examined as a function of size and location. It is shown that locating the slots or keyways at the magnet pole centers has a large effect on the multipole components; whereas, locating the keyways between the magnet poles has little effect on any of the multipoles. The investigation of nonlinear effects such as ferromagnetic saturation or superconductor magnetization relies on the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method. The errors associated with these codes are explained in terms of numerical round-off, spatial discretization error and the representation of distant boundaries. A method for increasing the accuracy of the multipole calculation from finite element solutions is set forth. It is shown that calculated multipole coefficients are sensitive to boundary conditions external to the cold mass during conditions of magnetic saturation

  4. A room-temperature liquid calorimeter prototype for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, G.W.; Geer, S.H.; Oliver, J.; Sadowski, E.; Theriot, D.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimeters will be an extremely important part of SSC detectors as they have been in existing collider detectors. The main issues that need to be addressed are: (1) energy resolution of jets and electrons, (2) segmentation, (3) hermiticity, (4) response time, and (5) radiation resistance. An attractive possibility on all these counts is the use of room-temperature liquids together with uranium, as pioneered by UA1. The authors are planning a prototype calorimeter which consists of a sealed vessel containing both the radiator plates and the readout pads. This geometry has been appropriately named the swimming pool design. The general mechanical starting point is similar to the SLD liquid argon calorimeters. The points they wish to address are the following: (1) Simple and reliable modular construction techniques, (2) Satisfactory electrical connections with minimal geometric impact, (3) The necessity of isolating radiator plates and liquid to maintain purity, (4) What materials can be immersed without compromising the liquid purity. The design and construction of the swimming pool electromagnetic calorimeter prototype is being carried out at the Harvard High Energy Physics Laboratory. This is one of the first attempts to build a full-scale prototype of such a design

  5. Automatic beam centering at the SSC interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joestlein, H.

    1984-01-01

    In the SSC interaction regions, the two colliding beams, each only a few microns in size, will have to be centered and maintained in good alignment over many hours, in order to provide the maximum possible luminosity and to minimize off-center beam-beam focussing effects. It is unlikely that sufficiently good alignment can be achieved without some kind of active feedback system, based on the beam-beam interaction rate. This memo describes such a system. In the proposed scheme, one of the beams is moved continuously and in a circular fashion about its mean transverse position. The radius of this motion is approximately 0.01 of the rms beam size at the interaction point. The motion is achieved with two sets of crossed high frequency dipole magnets, one on each side of the interaction region, suitably phased. As a consequence of this motion, the beam-beam interaction rate is modulated in synchronism with the beam motion when the beams are not centered on one another. The amplitude and phase of this modulation yields information on the magnitude and direction of the misalignment between the beams, allowing continuous display and automatic correction of any misalignment

  6. Spray structure of a pressure-swirl atomizer for combustion applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha Miroslav; Jedelsky Jan; Durdina Lukas

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, global as well as spatially resolved parameters of a spray produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer are obtained. Small pressure-swirl atomizer for aircraft combustion chambers was run on a newly designed test bench with Jet A-1 kerosene type aviation fuel. The atomizer was tested in four regimes based on typical operation conditions of the engine. Spray characteristics were studied using two optical measurement systems, Particle Image velocimetry (PIV) and Phase-Doppler Par...

  7. An electrodeless drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Duerdoth, I.; Rowe, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a chamber in which the drift field is controlled by the deposition of electrostatic charge on an insulating surface. The chamber operates with good efficiency and precision for observed drift distances of up to 45 cm, promises to be extremely robust and adaptable and offers a very cheap way of making particle detectors. (orig.)

  8. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Plastic flashtube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisken, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the use and operation of plastic flashtube chambers. Gas leaks, electric pulsing, the glow discharge, and readout methods are considered. Three distinct problems with high rate applications deal with resolving time, dead time, and polarization/neutralization of the chamber

  10. Climatic chamber ergometer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Atkins, AR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of an ergometer for exercising subjects during calorimetric studies in the climate chamber, are described. The ergometer is built into the climatic chamber and forms an integral part of the whole instrumentation system foe...

  11. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  12. The Mobile Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Gregory; Cox, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a simulation chamber that represents a shift from the thermal-vacuum chamber stereotype. This innovation, currently in development, combines the capabilities of space simulation chambers, the user-friendliness of modern-day electronics, and the modularity of plug-and-play computing. The Mobile Chamber is a customized test chamber that can be deployed with great ease, and is capable of bringing payloads at temperatures down to 20 K, in high vacuum, and with the desired metrology instruments integrated to the systems control. Flexure plans to lease Mobile Chambers, making them affordable for smaller budgets and available to a larger customer base. A key feature of this design will be an Apple iPad-like user interface that allows someone with minimal training to control the environment inside the chamber, and to simulate the required extreme environments. The feedback of thermal, pressure, and other measurements is delivered in a 3D CAD model of the chamber's payload and support hardware. This GUI will provide the user with a better understanding of the payload than any existing thermal-vacuum system.

  13. DELPHI time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The time projection chamber is inserted inside the central detector of the DELPHI experiment. Gas is ionised in the chamber as a charged particle passes through, producing an electric signal from which the path of the particle can be found. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  14. Qualification of technical personnel for employment during construction and operation of the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Wolf, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the early stages of the SSC design it became apparent that construction will have a significant impact on post-secondary technical/vocational education in Texas. Present estimates are that from 2,000 to 3,000 employees will be needed in the traditional fields of civil, mechanical, electrical technology, computers as well as exotic technologies such as cryogenics and high vacuum. In this paper an on-going project is described which is directed toward assuring that graduates of Texas post-secondary technical and vocational education programs will be competitive for employment in these jobs. The project involves development of SSC pedagogical material at a level appropriate to the students, education of teachers about the SSC and development of delivery systems for education about the SSC

  15. Proceedings of the international workshop on solenoidal detectors for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Fumio; Hasegawa, Katsuo

    1990-07-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the International Workshop on solenoidal detectors for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The 48 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Increasing NASA SSC Range Safety by Developing the Framework to Monitor Airspace and Enforce Restrictions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) has a safety concern associated with unauthorized aircraft entering...

  17. A full-acceptance detector for SSC physics at low and intermediate mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The author of this paper is interested in seeing the proposed detector and physics measurements done at the SSC. It should be clear that the author views this subject as important enough to warrant the effort going into producing this tome. It should also be clear that nothing will happen unless members of the experimental community come forward and do real work to see whether the ideas contained herein are sound and that the physics is indeed worth a dedicated effort at the SSC. Therefore this paper is directed more toward the experimental community than the SSC Laboratory. However, since initial encouragement (or discouragement) by the laboratory is evidently very important, this paper also contains specific requests addressed to the SSC Laboratory

  18. Detection of H0 → γγ at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, C.; Partridge, R.; Bay, A.; Spadafora, A.; Whitaker, S.; Abashian, A.; Kass, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper explores the prospects for using the SSC to find an intermediate mass Higgs boson through its decay to two photons. Monte Carlo studies of the signal and various backgrounds are performed to determine the required detector parameters

  19. Performance evaluation of concrete bridge decks reinforced with MMFX and SSC rebars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report investigates the performance of bridge decks reinforced with stainless steel clad (SSC) and micro-composite multistructural formable steel (MMFX) rebars. The two-span Galloway Road Bridge on route CR5218 over North Elkhorn Creek in Scott ...

  20. Spray drying test of simulated borated waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Zhou Lianquan; Fan Zhiwen; Sun Qi; Lin Xiaolong

    2007-01-01

    Performance and the effecting factors of spray drying of simulated borated waste solutions is studied for three contaeting methods between the atomized beads and the heated air, in which boron concentration is around 21000 ppm. The contacting modes are centrifugal atomizing co-current flow, pneumatic atomizing co-current flow and mixed flow. The results show that a free-flowing product in all these tests when the temperature of the solutions is between 62 degree C and 64 degree C, the inlet temperature of the spray drying chamber is between 210 degree C and 220 degree C, the temperature of the outlet of the spray drying chamber is between 110 and 120 degree C, the flow rate of the pressure air is 8.0 m 3 /h, the rotational speed of the centrifugal atomizer is 73.0 m/s. The diameters of the powder product which account for 95% of the feed range from 0.356 mm to 0.061 mm. The production capacity and water content in the powder increase in the order of pneumatic atomizing co-current flow, mixed flow and centrifugal atomizing co-current flow. The volume reduction coeffecient of spray drying is in the ranged of 0.22 and 0.27. (authors)

  1. Mechanical and electromagnetic design of the SSC QSE101 quadrupole ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrell, D.; Nobrega, F.; Lilly, J.; Snitchler, G.; Jayakumar, J.; Venkatraman, V.; Brandt, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The SSC collider magnets feature grouped ends in which cables of a particular coil remain stacked together as they are bent around the end. Methods have been developed to form the ends in such a way that mechanical stresses are lowered and field quality is optimized. This paper discusses techniques of end turn design and presents calculations of harmonics and peak fields for the SSC quadrupole QSE101

  2. Mechanical and electromagnetic design of the SSC QSE101 quadrupole ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrell, D.; Nobrega, F.; Lilly, J.; Snitchler, G.; Jayakumar, J.; Venkatraman, V.; Brandt, J.S.

    1991-06-01

    The SSC collider magnets feature grouped ends in which cables of a particular coil remain stacked together as they are gent around the end. methods have been developed to form the ends in such a way that mechanical stresses are lowered and field quality is optimized. This paper discusses techniques of end turn design and presents calculations of harmonics and peak fields for the SSC quadrupole QSE101. 5 refs., 9 figs

  3. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING METHODS USED FOR GCE AND SSC LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatti, Muhammad Safdar; Mukhtar, Rafia; Bajwa, Shahla

    2017-01-01

    Thepresent research focuses on comparative study of the Secondary SchoolCertificate (SSC) and the General Certificate of Education-Ordinary level(GCE-O level) English language course to trace out the problems andshortcomings of the curriculum objectives and teaching methods. The objectivesof the study were to analyze the objectives of teaching English of SSC and GCEO-level to critically review the teaching methodologies of both the courses.The population of the study comprised of all the teac...

  4. Design and analysis of the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole magnet suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    The design of the suspension system for Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnets has been driven by rigorous thermal and structural requirements. The current system, designed to meet those requirements, represents a significant departure from previous superconducting magnet suspension system designs. This paper will present a summary of the design and analysis of the vertical and lateral suspension as well as the axial anchor system employed in SSC dipole magnets. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Magnetic field measurements of full length 50 mm aperture SSC dipole magnets at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.W.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.; Ozelis, J.; Wake, M.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.; Ogitsu, T.

    1992-09-01

    Thirteen 16 m long, 50 mm aperture SSC dipole magnets, designed jointly by Fermilab, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the SSC Laboratory, have been built at Fermilab. The first nine magnets have been fully tested to date. The allowed harmonics are systematically shifted from zero by amounts larger than the specification. The unallowed harmonics, with the exception of the skew sextupole, are consistent with zero. The magnet-to-magnet RMS variation of all harmonics is much smaller than the specification

  6. Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E-NMPC) for a spray drying process. By simulation we evaluate the economic potential of this E-NMPC compared to a conventional PID based control strategy. Spray drying is the preferred process to reduce...... the water content for many liquid foodstuffs and produces a free flowing powder. The main challenge in controlling the spray drying process is to meet the residual moisture specifications and avoid that the powder sticks to the chamber walls of the spray dryer. We present a model for a spray dryer that has...... been validated on experimental data from a pilot plant. We use this model for simulation as well as for prediction in the E-NMPC. The E-NMPC is designed with hard input constraints and soft output constraints. The open-loop optimal control problem in the E-NMPC is solved using the single...

  7. Front-end electronics development for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.

    1990-12-01

    This is a status report on electronics development undertaken by the Front-End Electronics Collaboration. The overall goal of the collaboration remains the development by 1992 of complete, architecturally compatible, front end electronic systems for calorimeter, wire drift chamber, and silicon strip readout. We report here a few highlights to give a brief overview of the work underway. Performance requirements and capabilities, selected architectures, circuit designs and test results are presented. 13 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  8. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  9. SSCTRK: A particle tracking code for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.

    1990-07-01

    While many indirect methods are available to evaluate dynamic aperture there appears at this time to be no reliable substitute to tracking particles through realistic machine lattices for a number of turns determined by the storage times. Machine lattices are generated by ''Monte Carlo'' techniques from the expected rms fabrication and survey errors. Any given generated machine can potentially be a lucky or unlucky fluctuation from the average. Therefore simulation to serve as a predictor of future performance must be done for an ensemble of generated machines. Further, several amplitudes and momenta are necessary to predict machine performance. Thus to make Monte Carlo type simulations for the SSC requires very considerable computer resources. Hitherto, it has been assumed that this was not feasible, and alternative indirect methods have been proposed or tried to answer the problem. We reexamined the feasibility of using direct computation. Previous codes have represented lattices by a succession of thin elements separated by bend-drifts. With ''kick-drift'' configurations, tracking time is linear in the multipole order included, and the code is symplectic. Modern vector processors simultaneously handle a large number of cases in parallel. Combining the efficiencies of kick drift tracking with vector processing, in fact, makes realistic Monte Carlo simulation entirely feasible. SSCTRK uses the above features. It is structured to have a very friendly interface, a very wide latitude of choice for cases to be run in parallel, and, by using pure FORTRAN 77, to interchangeably run on a wide variety of computers. We describe in this paper the program structure operational checks and results achieved

  10. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  11. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. Hollow-Cone Spray Modeling for Outwardly Opening Piezoelectric Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-01-04

    Linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) breakup model has been widely used for modeling hollow-cone spray. However, the model was originally developed for inwardlyopening pressure-swirl injectors by assuming toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, LISA model is not suitable for simulating outwardly opening injectors having string-like structures at wide spray angles. Furthermore, the varying area and shape of the annular nozzle exit makes the modeling difficult. In this study, a new spray modeling was proposed for outwardly opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mas flow rate and injection pressure regardless of ambiguous nozzle exit geometries. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like liquid film spray. Liquid spray injection was modeled using Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the detailed model was implemented by user defined functions. It was found that the new model predicted the liquid penetration length and local SMD accurately for various fuels and chamber conditions.

  13. Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics and Autoignition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Oğuz Taşkiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to get the temporal and spatial spray evolution under diesel-like conditions and to investigate autoignition process of sprays which are injected from different nozzle geometries. A constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and heated internally up to 825 K at 3.5 MPa for experiments. Macroscopic properties of diesel spray were recorded via a high-speed CCD camera by using shadowgraphy technique, and the images were analyzed by using a digital image processing program. To investigate the influence of nozzle geometry, 4 different types of divergent, straight, straight-rounded, convergent-rounded nozzles, were manufactured and used in both spray evolution and autoignition experiments. The internal geometry of the injector nozzles were obtained by using silicone mold method. The macroscopic properties of the nozzles are presented in the study. Ignition behaviour of different nozzle types was observed in terms of ignition delay time and ignition location. A commercial Diesel fuel, n-heptane, and a mixture of hexadecane-heptamethylnonane (CN65—cetane number 65 were used as fuels at ignition experiments. The similar macroscopic properties of different nozzles were searched for observing ignition time and ignition location differences. Though spray and ignition characteristics revealed very similar results, the dissimilarities are presented in the study.

  14. Acoustic-Levitation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Uncontaminated environments for highly-pure material processing provided within completely sealed levitation chamber that suspends particles by acoustic excitation. Technique ideally suited for material processing in low gravity environment of space.

  15. Optical spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    An optical spark chamber developed for use in the Omega spectrometer. On the left the supporting frame is exceptionally thin to allow low momentum particles to escape and be detected outside the magnetic field.

  16. Vacuum chamber 'bicone'

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This chamber is now in the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, where it was exposed in an exhibit on the History of High Energy Accelerators (1977).

  17. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  18. Reference ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Zielczynski, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of ionization chamber devoted for the determination of the absolute value of the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent material. The special attention was paid to ensure that the volume of the active gas cavity was constant and well known. A specific property of the chamber design is that the voltage insulators are 'invisible' from any point of the active volume. Such configuration ensures a very good time stability of the electrical field and defines the active volume. The active volume of the chamber was determined with accuracy of 0.3%. This resulted in accuracy of 0.8% in determination of the absorbed dose in the layer of material adherent to the gas cavity. The chamber was applied for calibration purposes at radiotherapy facility in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia) and in the calibration laboratory of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk. (author)

  19. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  20. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  1. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  2. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  3. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M Allen [Berkeley, CA; Beeman, Barton V [San Mateo, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Hadley, Dean R [Manteca, CA; Landre, Phoebe [Livermore, CA; Lehew, Stacy L [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter A [Pleasanton, CA

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  4. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  5. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  6. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  7. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  8. Radiolysis of spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habersbergerova, A.; Janovsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    The factors were studied affecting thiosulfate radiolysis in the so-called spray solution for nuclear power plant containments. The reaction mechanism of primary radiolytic reactions leading to thiosulfate decomposition was studied using pulse radiolysis. Also measured was hydrazine loss in the irradiation of the bubbling solution intended for the capture of volatile chemical forms of radioiodine. Pulse radiolysis was used to study the kinetics of hydrazine reaction with elemental iodine. (author)

  9. Coupled Lagrangian impingement spray model for doublet impinging injectors under liquid rocket engine operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang WEI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To predict the effect of the liquid rocket engine combustion chamber conditions on the impingement spray, the conventional uncoupled spray model for impinging injectors is extended by considering the coupling of the jet impingement process and the ambient gas field. The new coupled model consists of the plain-orifice sub-model, the jet-jet impingement sub-model and the droplet collision sub-model. The parameters of the child droplet are determined with the jet-jet impingement sub-model using correlations about the liquid jet parameters and the chamber conditions. The overall model is benchmarked under various impingement angles, jet momentum and off-center ratios. Agreement with the published experimental data validates the ability of the model to predict the key spray characteristics, such as the mass flux and mixture ratio distributions in quiescent air. Besides, impinging sprays under changing ambient pressure and non-uniform gas flow are investigated to explore the effect of liquid rocket engine chamber conditions. First, a transient impingement spray during engine start-up phase is simulated with prescribed pressure profile. The minimum average droplet diameter is achieved when the orifices work in cavitation state, and is about 30% smaller than the steady single phase state. Second, the effect of non-uniform gas flow produces off-center impingement and the rotated spray fan by 38°. The proposed model suggests more reasonable impingement spray characteristics than the uncoupled one and can be used as the first step in the complex simulation of coupling impingement spray and combustion in liquid rocket engines.

  10. Coupled Lagrangian impingement spray model for doublet impinging injectors under liquid rocket engine operating conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang WEI; Guozhu LIANG

    2017-01-01

    To predict the effect of the liquid rocket engine combustion chamber conditions on the impingement spray,the conventional uncoupled spray model for impinging injectors is extended by considering the couplingof the jet impingement process and the ambient gas field.The new coupled model consists of the plain-orifice sub-model,the jet-jet impingement sub-model and the droplet collision sub-model.The parameters of the child droplet are determined with the jet-jet impingement sub-model using correlations about the liquid jet parameters and the chamber conditions.The overall model is benchmarked under various impingement angles,jet momentum and offcenter ratios.Agreement with the published experimental data validates the ability of the model to predict the key spray characteristics,such as the mass flux and mixture ratio distributions in quiescent air.Besides,impinging sprays under changing ambient pressure and non-uniform gas flow are investigated to explore the effect of liquid rocket engine chamber conditions.First,a transient impingement spray during engine start-up phase is simulated with prescribed pressure profile.The minimum average droplet diameter is achieved when the orifices work in cavitation state,and is about 30% smaller than the steady single phase state.Second,the effect of non-uniform gas flow produces off-center impingement and the rotated spray fan by 38°.The proposed model suggests more reasonable impingement spray characteristics than the uncoupled one and can be used as the first step in the complex simulation of coupling impingement spray and combustion in liquid rocket engines.

  11. Chamber for Aerosol Deposition of Bioparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Roger; Kirschner, Larry

    2008-01-01

    accumulation of electric charge on them, they are spray-coated with an anti-static material. During use, the base plate and the sides and top of the chamber are grounded as a further measure to minimize the buildup of electric charge.

  12. Performance of the MAGCOOL-subcooler cryogenic system after SSC quadrupole quenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The subcooler assembly installed in the MAGCOOL magnet test area at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been used for testing SSC dipoles, quadrupoles and a spool piece since 1989. A detailed description of the system, its steady state capacity and the performance after quenches of a 50 mm SSC dipole were given. Subsequent studies on low current quenches of the SSC dipoles and quenches of the RHIC dipoles were also carried out. In this paper, the performance of the subcooler after quenches of the SSC quadrupole QCC404 is presented. Pressures, temperatures and flow rates in the magnet cooling loop after magnet quenches are given as a function of time. The cooling rates and total energy removed by cooling during quench recovery have been calculated for quench currents between 2000 and 7952 amperes. Because the inductance of the quadrupole is about one tenth that of a SSC dipole, the stored energy released is small and the impact on the system is mild. The cooling loop pressure never exceeds 12 atmospheres and the cryogenic system recovers in less than 15 minutes. As in all past studies, the peak pressure and temperature in the magnet cooling loop are linearly proportional to the energy released during a quench and excellent agreement between the total cooling provided and the magnetic stored energy is found

  13. Sawtooth-wave prebuncher with dual-gaps in Linac injector for HIRFL-SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Yuan, Youjin; Xia, Jiawen; Yin, Xuejun; Jin, Peng; Xu, Zhe; Du, Heng; Li, Zhongshan; Qiao, Jian; Wang, Kedong

    2018-01-01

    An RFQ structure is normally composed of radial matcher, shaper, gentle buncher and accelerator section with changing cell geometry. Bunching is started in the shaper, and adiabatic bunching is done in gentle buncher section. The beam preforms from DC beam to bunch beam through the RFQ and the longitudinal emittance for the ions linacs is defined initially in the RFQ, in which the beam bunch has been shaped. In the present SSC-Linac injector, an RFQ has been designed to accelerate the continuous beam from 3.728 keV/u to 143 keV/u. The heavy ions beam is injected into the SSC (Separated Sector Cyclotron) with the kinetic energy of 1.025 MeV/u after four IH DTLs. The rf frequency of the SSC is 13.417 MHz, and the frequency of the heavy ions RFQ is set to four times of the rf frequency of the SSC. In order to increase the longitudinal capture efficiency of the SSC and suppress the longitudinal emittance at the exit of RFQ, an external MHB (Multi-Harmonics Buncher) is proposed in front of the RFQ. The fundamental frequency of the MHB is the same as the rf frequency of the cyclotron. The scheme of dual-gaps prebuncher with the sawtooth waveform is firstly carried out through multi-harmonics synthetic technology. The multi-particle beam dynamic simulations of the MHB have been done by the BEAMPATH code.

  14. Theoretical methods for creep and stress relaxation studies of SSC coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdams, J.; Markley, F.

    1992-04-01

    Extrapolation of laboratory measurements of SSC coil properties to the actual construction of SSC magnets requires mathematical models of the experimental data. A variety of models were used to approximate the data collected from creep and stress relaxation experiments performed on Kapton film and SSC coil samples. The coefficients for these mathematical models were found by performing a least-squares fit via the program MINUIT. Once the semiempirical expressions for the creep data were found, they were converted to expressions for stress relaxation using an approximate I pn of the Laplace integral relating the two processes. The data sets from creep experiments were also converted directly to stress relaxation data by numeric integration. Both of these methods allow comparison of data from two different methods of measuring viscoelastic properties. Three companion papers presented at this conference will present: Stress relaxation in SSC 50mm dipole coil. Measurement of the elastic modulus of Kapton perpendicular to the plane of the film at room and cryogenic temperatures. Temperature dependence of the viscoelastic properties of SSC coil insulation (Kapton)

  15. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  16. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  17. Temperature changes in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    To examine the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the temperature changes in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum temperature rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the temperature rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of temperature in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of temperature was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the temperature rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.

  18. A study on the particle melting by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, In Ha; Ji, C. G.; Bae, S. O.; Yoon, J. H.; Kwon, H. I.

    2001-12-01

    As a preliminary study for fabricating a thick and dense free standing type deposit, powder melting studies were carried out. Various morphologies and sizes of powder having the same chemical compositions were applied in particle melting experiments with varying systematic parameters. Through the study of powder melting by inductively coupled plasma, we can conclude as followings: Argon-hydrogen plasma gas with a higher plasma power gave good quality of splats and shown a higher density with a higher build-up rate. Reproducibility of the experiments appeared in the range of 99%. Degree of particle melting and its density just before impinging played a predominant role in the density of a deposit. Chamber pressure has an effect on degree of deformation of the splats, i.e. on the particle momentum. Completely melted particle showed a high deformation appearance. Build-up rate had a relation with a fraction of the fully melted particle, and this also closely associates with productivity and economical efficiency. For increasing the fraction of the fully melted particle, either increasing the power or limiting the particle size was recommended. Mean pore size and its distribution of a deposit seemed to have a relation with a viscosity of the melted powder, i.e. particle temperature, and also with a chamber pressure and spraying distances. Particle temperature may be governed by a plasma power, plasma gas property, probe position, and spraying distance in the present experimental range. Some results might be appeared with mutual interactions of the effects, for example, particle residence time and momentum with chamber pressure, particle temperature with chamber pressure, spraying distance and its size

  19. A study on the particle melting by plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Ha; Ji, C. G.; Bae, S. O.; Yoon, J. H.; Kwon, H. I

    2001-12-01

    As a preliminary study for fabricating a thick and dense free standing type deposit, powder melting studies were carried out. Various morphologies and sizes of powder having the same chemical compositions were applied in particle melting experiments with varying systematic parameters. Through the study of powder melting by inductively coupled plasma, we can conclude as followings: Argon-hydrogen plasma gas with a higher plasma power gave good quality of splats and shown a higher density with a higher build-up rate. Reproducibility of the experiments appeared in the range of 99%. Degree of particle melting and its density just before impinging played a predominant role in the density of a deposit. Chamber pressure has an effect on degree of deformation of the splats, i.e. on the particle momentum. Completely melted particle showed a high deformation appearance. Build-up rate had a relation with a fraction of the fully melted particle, and this also closely associates with productivity and economical efficiency. For increasing the fraction of the fully melted particle, either increasing the power or limiting the particle size was recommended. Mean pore size and its distribution of a deposit seemed to have a relation with a viscosity of the melted powder, i.e. particle temperature, and also with a chamber pressure and spraying distances. Particle temperature may be governed by a plasma power, plasma gas property, probe position, and spraying distance in the present experimental range. Some results might be appeared with mutual interactions of the effects, for example, particle residence time and momentum with chamber pressure, particle temperature with chamber pressure, spraying distance and its size.

  20. Test results from recent 1.8-m SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] model dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Cottingham, J.G.; Dahl, P.

    1988-01-01

    We report results from four 1.8 m-long dipoles built as part of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) RandD program. Except for length, these models have the features of the SSC design, which is based on a two-layer cosine theta coil with 4 cm aperture. As compared to the 17 m design length SSC dipoles, these 1.8 m magnets are a faster and more economical way of testing design changes in field shape, conductor support in the coil straight-section and ends, etc. The four magnets reported here all reach fields in excess of 7.5T with little training and have excellent field shape. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Coherent production of {epsilon}{sup +} particles in crystal using proton beam from SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okorokov, V.V.; Dubin, A.Yu. [ITER, Moscow, (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-01

    The unique possibilities of the SSC can be ideally used for a new generation of coherent generation experiments with relativistic protons which require 20 Tev energy of the incident beam. The availability of 20 Tev proton beam at SSC allows new experiments on coherent production of {var_epsilon}{sup +} particle by relativistic proton in crystal. Experiment carried out at low energies can now be extended with protons in very narrow energy region (resonance energy, which easy can be calculated) using the new accelerator facilities at SSC. We propose to study coherent production via the Coulomb field of the cristal atoms to excite the transition p + {gamma}{implies} {var_epsilon} {sup +} (1189).

  2. Radon diffusion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Boerner, E.; Lehmann, R.; Sarenio, O.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the detection of radioactive gases emitting alpha particles like radon, thoron and their alpha-decaying daughters by means of a diffusion chamber with a passive detector, preferably with a solid state track detector. In the chamber above and towards the detector there is a single metallized electret with negative polarity. The distance between electret and detector corresponds to the range of the alpha particles of radon daughters in air at the most. The electret collects the positively charged daughters and functions as surface source. The electret increases the sensitivity by the factor 4

  3. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  4. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  5. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  6. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  7. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterson, Melissa A; Luck, Joe D; Sama, Michael P

    2015-12-17

    An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  8. The Effect of Nozzle Design and Operating Conditions on the Atomization and Distribution of Fuel Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dana W

    1933-01-01

    The atomization and distribution characteristics of fuel sprays from automatic injection valves for compression-ignition engines were determined by catching the fuel drops on smoked-glass plates, and then measuring and counting the impressions made in the lampblack. The experiments were made in an air-tight chamber in which the air density was raised to values corresponding to engine conditions.

  9. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and concentration for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji; Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2015-01-01

    during biodiesel and diesel spray combustion. The experiment was implemented in a constant volume chamber system, where the ambient oxygen concentration varied from 21 to 10% and the ambient temperature was kept to 1,000 K. A high speed two-color

  10. Eulerian–Lagrangian RANS Model Simulations of the NIST Turbulent Methanol Spray Flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Shanglong; Roekaerts, Dirk; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2015-01-01

    A methanol spray flame in a combustion chamber of the NIST was simulated using an Eulerian–Lagrangian RANS model. Experimental data and previous numerical investigations by other researchers on this flame were analyzed to develop methods for more comprehensive model validation. The inlet boundary

  11. Modelling formation of new radiation belts and response to ULF oscillations following March 24, 1991 SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.K.; Kotelnikov, A.D.; Li, X.; Lyon, J.G.; Roth, I.; Temerin, M.; Wygant, J.R.; Blake, J.B.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Yumoto, K.; Shiokawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    The rapid formation of a new proton radiation belt at L≅2.5 following the March 24, 1991 Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) observed at the CRRES satellite is modelled using a relativistic guiding center test particle code. The new radiation belt formed on a time scale shorter than the drift period of eg. 20 MeV protons. The SSC is modelled by a bipolar electric field and associated compression and relaxation in the magnetic field, superimposed on a background dipole magnetic field. The source population consists of solar protons that populated the outer magnetosphere during the solar proton event that preceeded the SSC and trapped inner zone protons. The simulations show that both populations contribute to drift echoes in the 20 endash 80 MeV range measured by the Aerospace instrument and in lower energy channels of the Protel instrument on CRRES, while primary contribution to the newly trapped population is from solar protons. Proton acceleration by the SSC differs from electron acceleration in two notable ways: different source populations contribute and nonrelativistic conservation of the first adiabatic invariant leads to greater energization of protons for a given decrease in L than for relativistic electrons. Model drift echoes, energy spectra and flux distribution in L at the time of injection compare well with CRRES observations. On the outbound pass, ∼2 hours after the SSC, the broad spectral peak of the new radiation belt extends to higher energies (20 endash 40 MeV) than immediately after formation. Electron flux oscillations observed at this later time are attributed to post-SSC impulses evident in ground magnetograms, while two minute period ULF oscillations also evident in CRRES field data appear to be cavity modes in the inner magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  13. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  14. NO-diagnostics in the combustion chamber of a gasoline direct-injection engine with spray-guided combustion process in a four-cylinder transparent engine; NO-Diagnostik im Brennraum eines direkteinspritzenden Ottomotors mit strahlgefuehrtem Brennverfahren an einem Vierzylinder-Transparentmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suck, G.; Jakobs, J. [Volkswagen AG - Konzernforschung, Wolfsburg (Germany); Nicklitzsch, S. [IAV GmbH - Versuch Ottomotoren, Chemnitz (Germany); Bessler, W.G.; Hofmann, M.; Schulz, C. [PCI, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    For further reduction of fuel consumption in modern gasoline direct-injection engines, the Volkswagen Group Research is investigating the spray-guided combustion process. To benefit from fuel economy achieved by this combustion process in the sustained development of the Volkswagen FSI {sup registered} -technology, minimizing the engine-out NO{sub x}-emissions is necessary. In this proceeding, we report on the application of several measurement techniques, which include NO-LIF, in-cylinder gas sampling and fast CLD. The aim is the identification of major factors which effect NO-formation in a spray-guided combustion process. Double-injection during the compression stroke allows the generation of double-stratification of the air-fuel mixture cloud. A fuel-rich core with good ignition characteristics is surrounded by a fuel-lean gas mixture. These conditions show that NO-emissions can significantly be reduced while maintaining the good fuel economy. Spray-guided direct-injection allows the expansion of the operation-map area with stratified operation in comparison to recent serial production gasoline DI engines with wall-guided or air-guided combustion processes. It is, however, only possible to benefit from this advantage under realistic conditions of an operating automobile application when the engine-out NO{sub x}-flux is below a limit given by the storage capacity of the catalyst. NO{sub x} exhaust aftertreatment with storage catalysts requires regeneration cycles with fuel-air equivalent ratios {phi} > 1, which effectively increase fuel consumption. (orig.)

  15. Bipolar and unipolar tests of 1.5m model SSC collider dipole magnets at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, M.J.; Ozelis, J.P.; Coulter, K.J.; Delchamps, S.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.; Fortunato, D.; Johnson, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Tests have been performed at Fermilab on 1.5 m magnetic length model SSC collider dipoles using both bipolar and unipolar ramp cycles. Hysteresis energy loss due to superconductor and iron magnetization and eddy currents is measured and compared as a function of various ramp parameters. Additionally, magnetic field measurements have been performed for both unipolar and bipolar ramp cycles. Measurements such as these will be used to estimate the heat load during collider injection for the SSC High Energy Booster dipoles. 9 refs., 4 figs

  16. Correction of magnetization sextupole and decapole in a 5 centimeter bore SSC dipole using passive superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    Higher multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor in four and five centimeter bore Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) superconducting dipole magnets have been observed. The use of passive superconductor to correct out the magnetization sextupole has been demonstrated on two dipoles built by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This reports shows how passive correction can be applied to the five centimeter SSC dipoles to remove sextupole and decapole caused by magnetization of the dipole superconductor. Two passive superconductor corrector options will be presented. The change in magnetization sextupole and decapole due to flux creep decay of the superconductor during injection can be partially compensated for using the passive superconductor. 9 refs; 5 figs

  17. From mobile ADCP to high-resolution SSC: a cross-section calibration tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Justin A.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment is a major cause of stream impairment, and improved sediment monitoring is a crucial need. Point samples of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) are often not enough to provide an understanding to answer critical questions in a changing environment. As technology has improved, there now exists the opportunity to obtain discrete measurements of SSC and flux while providing a spatial scale unmatched by any other device. Acoustic instruments are ubiquitous in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for making streamflow measurements but when calibrated with physical sediment samples, they may be used for sediment measurements as well. The acoustic backscatter measured by an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) has long been known to correlate well with suspended sediment, but until recently, it has mainly been qualitative in nature. This new method using acoustic surrogates has great potential to leverage the routine data collection to provide calibrated, quantitative measures of SSC which hold promise to be more accurate, complete, and cost efficient than other methods. This extended abstract presents a method for the measurement of high spatial and temporal resolution SSC using a down-looking, mobile ADCP from discrete cross-sections. The high-resolution scales of sediment data are a primary advantage and a vast improvement over other discrete methods for measuring SSC. Although acoustic surrogate technology using continuous, fixed-deployment ADCPs (side-looking) is proven, the same methods cannot be used with down-looking ADCPs due to the fact that the SSC and particle-size distribution variation in the vertical profile violates theory and complicates assumptions. A software tool was developed to assist in using acoustic backscatter from a down-looking, mobile ADCP as a surrogate for SSC. This tool has a simple graphical user interface that loads the data, assists in the calibration procedure, and provides data visualization and output options. This tool

  18. Advanced thermohydraulic simulation code for transients in LMFBRs (SSC-L code)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, A.K.

    1978-02-01

    Physical models for various processes that are encountered in preaccident and transient simulation of thermohydraulic transients in the entire liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) plant are described in this report. A computer code, SSC-L, was written as a part of the Super System Code (SSC) development project for the ''loop''-type designs of LMFBRs. This code has the self-starting capability, i.e., preaccident or steady-state calculations are performed internally. These results then serve as the starting point for the transient simulation.

  19. Summary of the performance of strand produced for the 1990 SSC dipole program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D. II; Seuntjens, J.; Pollock, D.; Hannaford, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990 and at the beginning of 1991, more than 4 million feet of wire was delivered to support the SSC Dipole Program. This wire was fabricated to meet specification SSC-MAG-M-4141, and test results and various statistics are compiled here. Certain strengths and weaknesses in the performance of the delivered strand are discussed, including analysis of strand breakage in certain billets. Test results of cable manufactured for 40 mm dipole magnets and 50 mm dipole magnets are reported, and a brief overview of the 1991-1992 Conductor Program is included

  20. Summary of the performance of strand produced for the 1990 SSC Dipole Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Seuntjens, J.; Pollock, D.; Hannaford, C.R.

    1991-03-01

    In 1990 and at the beginning of 1991, more than 4 million feet of wire was delivered to support the SSC Dipole Program. This wire was fabricated to meet specification SSC-MAG-M-4141, and test results and various statistics are compiled here. Certain strengths and weaknesses in the performance of the delivered strand are discussed, including analysis of strand breakage in certain billets. Test results of cable manufactured for 40 mm dipole magnets and 50 mm dipole magnets are reported, and a brief overview of the 1991--1992 Conductor Program is included. 4 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Experimental study of heavy flavor physics and SSC research and development at the University of Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidy, J.J.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Summers, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The High Energy Physics Group has been principally involved with Fermilab experiments on photoproduction and hadroproduction of charm. Nuclear reactions with a mixed 250-GeV hadronic beam and 500-GeV π-N interactions were used. Considerable attention is devoted to the UNIX/RISC computing farm. The Group also has an SSC R ampersand D program dealing with the adaptation and use of the HETC-based detector simulation code CALOR89, the development of liquid scintillator technology for use in SSC detector calorimeters, the hanging file calorimeter project, and the calorimetry program for GEM

  2. Advanced thermohydraulic simulation code for transients in LMFBRs (SSC-L code)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, A.K.

    1978-02-01

    Physical models for various processes that are encountered in preaccident and transient simulation of thermohydraulic transients in the entire liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) plant are described in this report. A computer code, SSC-L, was written as a part of the Super System Code (SSC) development project for the ''loop''-type designs of LMFBRs. This code has the self-starting capability, i.e., preaccident or steady-state calculations are performed internally. These results then serve as the starting point for the transient simulation

  3. Tracking considerations for fixed target B experiments at SSC and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, A.P.; Conetti, S.; Corti, G.; Cox, B.; Dukes, E.C.; Lawry, T.; Nelson, K.; Tzamouranis, I.

    1993-01-01

    Fixed target beauty (B) experiments proposed at the SSC or LHC come in two basic types. Extracted beam experiments use a bent crystal of silicon or some other method to extract a beam of protons parasitically from the circulating beam as the collider experiments are taking data. The two chief extracted beam experiments are the LHB collaboration at the LHC and the SFT collaboration at the SSC. The second type of fixed target experiment places the detector around the circulating beam using a gas jet or thin wire(s) as a target. The (GAJET) experiment proposed at CERN for LHC and the Hera-B experiment at DESY are of this type

  4. Experimental Study on Temperature Behavior of SSC (Stiffened Steel Plate Concrete) Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. J.; Ham, K. W.; Park, D. S.; Kwon, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    SSC(Stiffened Steel plate Concrete) module method uses steel plate instead of reinforcing bar and mold in existing RC structure. Steel plate modules are fabricated in advance, installed and poured with concrete in construction field, so construction period is remarkably shortened by SC module technique. In case of existence of temperature gap between internal and external structure surface such as containment building, thermal stress is taken place and as a result of it, structural strength is deteriorated. In this study, we designed two test specimens and several tests with temperature heating were conducted to evaluate temperature behavior of SSC structures and RC structure

  5. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  6. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  7. The KLOE drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2002-01-01

    The design and construction of the large drift chamber of the KLOE experiment is presented. The track reconstruction is described, together with the calibration method and the monitoring systems. The stability of operation and the performance are studied with samples of e + e - , K S K L and K + K - events

  8. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  9. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  10. OPAL Muon Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the 4 experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 to 2000. This is a slice of the outermost layer of OPAL : the muon chambers. This outside layer detects particles which are not stopped by the previous layers. These are mostly muons.

  11. Improvements in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Zubal, C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of reducing mechanical vibrations transmitted to the parallel plate electrodes of ionization chamber x-ray detectors, commonly used in computerized x-ray axial tomography systems, is described. The metal plate cathodes and anodes are mounted in the ionizable gas on dielectric sheet insulators consisting of a composite of silicone resin and glass fibres. (UK)

  12. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  13. MISSING: BUBBLE CHAMBER LENS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Emma.Sanders@cern.ch Thank you

  14. Ion chamber instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical ionization chamber is described having a self-supporting wall of cellular material which is of uniform areal density and formed of material, such as foamed polystyrene, having an average effective atomic number between about 4 and about 9, and easily replaceable when on the instrument. (auth)

  15. Review of straw chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, W.H.

    1990-03-01

    This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e + e - experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed

  16. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  17. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  18. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  19. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  20. Influence of fuel temperature on dispersion and decay of BDE sprays; Einfluss der Kraftstofftemperatur auf die Ausbreitung und den Zerfall von BDE-Sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, I.; Beyrau, F.; Leipertz, A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2007-07-01

    As an example for a highly - developed technical spray system, the spray vaporization of a multi - hole injector used for the gasoline direct injection (GDI) has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in a heated injection chamber for different chamber pressures, fuels and fuel temperatures. In this investigation pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (RCARS) has been applied to the study of vaporizing sprays in combination with other laser techniques. Gas phase temperatures inside the sprays have been determined with high spatial and temporal resolution. A temperature drop of about 30 K was measured for all fuel temperatures studied. Droplet sizes and number densities have been measured using phase Doppler anemometry, and the correlation of these results with two - dimensional laser sheet Mie scattering images and laser-induced exciplex fluorescence allows an improved interpretation of the spray vaporization process. Furthermore under the influence of flash boiling a reduction of the mean drop size D10 up to 30% could be observed. (orig.)

  1. Substrate system for spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  2. Drop formation of black liquor spraying; Mustalipeaen pisaroituminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C J; Kankkunen, A; Nieminen, K; Laine, J; Miikkulainen, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Lab. of Energy Technology and Environmental Protection

    1997-10-01

    Black liquor is a spent liquor of the pulp and paper industry. It is burned in kraft recovery boilers for chemical and energy recovery. The high dry solids content and viscosity of black liquor require a high spraying temperature. This affects the performance of the boiler. Kraft recovery boiler deposit formation, emissions and chemical recovery are strongly affected by the drop size and the velocity of the black liquor spray formed by a splashplate nozzle. The sheet breakup mechanism is studied with a system based on a video and image-analysis. The drop size of mill-scale nozzles was measured also with an image-analysis-system. Measurements were carried out in a spray test chamber. The sheet breakup mechanism and drop size tests were carried out both below and over the boiling point of black liquor. Special attention was paid to the effect of flashing on drop formation. Temperature increase normally decreases drop size. In the temperature where the wavy-sheet disintegration changes to perforated-sheet disintegration the drop size increases. Spray velocity rises when the temperature is increased above the boiling point. (orig.)

  3. ATPase Domain and Interdomain Linker Play a Key Role in Aggregation of Mitochondrial Hsp70 Chaperone Ssc1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamowska, Marta; Sichting, Martin; Mapa, Koyeli; Mokranjac, Dejana; Neupert, Walter; Hell, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The co-chaperone Hep1 is required to prevent the aggregation of mitochondrial Hsp70 proteins. We have analyzed the interaction of Hep1 with mitochondrial Hsp70 (Ssc1) and the determinants in Ssc1 that make it prone to aggregation. The ATPase and peptide binding domain (PBD) of Hsp70 proteins are connected by a linker segment that mediates interdomain communication between the domains. We show here that the minimal Hep1 binding entity of Ssc1 consists of the ATPase domain and the interdomain linker. In the absence of Hep1, the ATPase domain with the interdomain linker had the tendency to aggregate, in contrast to the ATPase domain with the mutated linker segment or without linker, and in contrast to the PBD. The closest homolog of Ssc1, bacterial DnaK, and a Ssc1 chimera, in which a segment of the ATPase domain of Ssc1 was replaced by the corresponding segment from DnaK, did not aggregate in Δhep1 mitochondria. The propensity to aggregate appears to be a specific property of the mitochondrial Hsp70 proteins. The ATPase domain in combination with the interdomain linker is crucial for aggregation of Ssc1. In conclusion, our results suggest that interdomain communication makes Ssc1 prone to aggregation. Hep1 counteracts aggregation by binding to this aggregation-prone conformer. PMID:20007714

  4. ATPase domain and interdomain linker play a key role in aggregation of mitochondrial Hsp70 chaperone Ssc1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamowska, Marta; Sichting, Martin; Mapa, Koyeli; Mokranjac, Dejana; Neupert, Walter; Hell, Kai

    2010-02-12

    The co-chaperone Hep1 is required to prevent the aggregation of mitochondrial Hsp70 proteins. We have analyzed the interaction of Hep1 with mitochondrial Hsp70 (Ssc1) and the determinants in Ssc1 that make it prone to aggregation. The ATPase and peptide binding domain (PBD) of Hsp70 proteins are connected by a linker segment that mediates interdomain communication between the domains. We show here that the minimal Hep1 binding entity of Ssc1 consists of the ATPase domain and the interdomain linker. In the absence of Hep1, the ATPase domain with the interdomain linker had the tendency to aggregate, in contrast to the ATPase domain with the mutated linker segment or without linker, and in contrast to the PBD. The closest homolog of Ssc1, bacterial DnaK, and a Ssc1 chimera, in which a segment of the ATPase domain of Ssc1 was replaced by the corresponding segment from DnaK, did not aggregate in Delta hep1 mitochondria. The propensity to aggregate appears to be a specific property of the mitochondrial Hsp70 proteins. The ATPase domain in combination with the interdomain linker is crucial for aggregation of Ssc1. In conclusion, our results suggest that interdomain communication makes Ssc1 prone to aggregation. Hep1 counteracts aggregation by binding to this aggregation-prone conformer.

  5. Spray deposition and spray drift in orchard spraying by multiple row sprayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Stallinga, H.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the latest data on spray drift in orchard spraying in the Netherlands, and measurements of surface water quality parameters show that the current legislation and measures are insufficient to protect the surface water. To meet the national and European objectives regarding surface

  6. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-04

    systems, there exists a lack of fundamental understanding of the effect of hardware characteristics and operating parameters on HVOF thermally sprayed coatings. Motivated by these issues, this study is devoted to investigate the effect of hardware characteristics (e.g. spraying distance) and operating parameters (e.g. combustion chamber pressure, equivalence ratio, and total gas flow rate) on HVOF sprayed coatings using Inconel 718 alloy. The current study provides extensive understanding of several key operating and process parameters to optimize the next generation of HVOF thermally sprayed coatings for high temperature and harsh environment applications. A facility was developed to support this endeavor in a safe and efficient way, including a HVOF thermal spray system with a Data Acquisition and Remote Controls system (DARCS). The coatings microstructure and morphology were examined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nanoindentation.

  7. The effect of nozzle diameter, injection pressure and ambient temperature on spray characteristics in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhaodah Andsaler, Adiba; Khalid, Amir; Sharifhatul Adila Abdullah, Nor; Sapit, Azwan; Jaat, Norrizam

    2017-04-01

    Mixture formation of the ignition process is a key element in the diesel combustion as it influences the combustion process and exhaust emission. Aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of nozzle diameter, injection pressure and ambient temperature to the formation of spray. This study investigated diesel formation spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Multiphase volume of fluid (VOF) behaviour in the chamber are determined by means of transient simulation, Eulerian of two phases is used for implementation of mixing fuel and air. The detail behaviour of spray droplet diameter, spray penetration and spray breakup length was visualised using the ANSYS 16.1. This simulation was done in different nozzle diameter 0.12 mm and 0.2 mm performed at the ambient temperature 500 K and 700 K with different injection pressure 40 MPa, 70 MPa and 140 MPa. Results show that high pressure influence droplet diameter become smaller and the penetration length longer with the high injection pressure apply. Smaller nozzle diameter gives a shorter length of the breakup. It is necessary for nozzle diameter and ambient temperature condition to improve the formation of spray. High injection pressure is most effective in improvement of formation spray under higher ambient temperature and smaller nozzle diameter.

  8. Experimental study of heavy flavor physics and SSC research and development at The University of Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidy, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: particle production of charmed particle; progress in the SSC research and development program; CALOR/GEANT integration; the calorimeter simulation effort; scintillating plate/liquid argon calorimeter simulation; liquid scintillator R ampersand D; and funding by the TNRLC

  9. PSF blind test SSC, SPVC, and SVBC physics-dosimetry-metallurgy data packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the final PSF radiometric data; calculated spectral fluences and dosimeter activities for the metallurgical blind test irradiations at the ORR-PSF; fabrication data package for HEDL dosimetry in the ORNL Poolside Facility LWR pressure vessel mock-up irradiation; SSC-1; NUREG-CR-3457; and NUREG-CR-3295

  10. The Disappearing Fourth Wall: John Marburger, Science Policy, and the SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert

    2015-04-01

    John H. Marburger (1941-2011) was a skilled science administrator who had a fresh and unique approach to science policy and science leadership. His posthumously published book Science Policy up Close contains recollections of key science policy episodes in which he participated or observed closely. One was the administration of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC); Marburger was Chairman of the Universities Research Association, the group charged with managing the SSC, from 1988-1994. Many accounts of the SSC saga attribute its demise to a combination of transitory factors: poor management, rising cost estimates, the collapse of the Soviet Union and thus of the Cold War threat, complaints by ``small science'' that the SSC's ``big science'' was consuming their budget, Congress's desire to cut spending, unwarranted contract regulations imposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in response to environmental lapses at nuclear weapons laboratories, and so forth. Marburger tells a subtler story whose implications for science policy are more significant and far-reaching. The story involves changes in the attitude of the government towards large scientific projects that reach back to management reforms introduced by the administration of Presidents Johnson, Nixon, and Carter in the 1960s and 1970s. This experience impressed Marburger with the inevitability of public oversight of large scientific projects, and with the need for planners of such projects to establish and make public a cost and schedule tracking system that would model the project's progress and expenditures.

  11. Delta-function Approximation SSC Model in 3C 273 S. J. Kang1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We obtain an approximate analytical solution using δ approximate calculation on the traditional one-zone synchrotron self-. Compton (SSC) model. In this model, we describe the electron energy distribution by a broken power-law function with a sharp cut-off, and non- thermal photons are produced by both ...

  12. Deflection analysis for an SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole magnet with two external supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    SSC dipole magnets are presently supported at five mounting locations coincident with the internal cold mass supports. There is growing interest in reducing the number of external supports from five to two for reasons of simplified installation and alignment and as a cost reduction measure. This reports examines the placement of two external supports required to minimize the deflection of the cold mass assembly

  13. Fermilab R and D test facility for SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Lamm, M.; McGuire, K.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Pachnik, J.

    1989-02-01

    The test facility used for R and D testing of full scale development dipole magnets for the SSC is described. The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility, originally built for production testing of Tevatron magnets, has been substantially modified to allow testing also of SSC magnets. Two of the original six test stands have been rebuilt to accommodate testing of SSC magnets at pressures between 1.3 Atm and 4 Atm and at temperatures between 1.8 K and 4.8 K and the power system has been modified to allow operation to at least 8 kA. Recent magnets have been heavily instrumented with voltage taps to allow detailed study of quench location and propagation and with strain gage based stress, force and motion transducers. A data acquisition system has been built with a capacity to read from each SSC test stand up to 220 electrical quench signals, 32 dynamic pressure, temperature and mechanical transducer signals during quench and up to 200 high precision, low time resolution, pressure, temperature and mechanical transducer signals. The quench detection and protection systems is also described. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Need to plan for a full-scale lns-physics program at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1984-03-01

    Arguments for a full lns physics program at the SSC are enumerated and elaborated on. They are: first - the inadequacy of data from a minimal program, second - the potential fundamental significance of a high-energy soft physics collective phenomenon and third - the possible diffractive production of much of the interesting new physics that will be searched for

  15. Review of the abort dump shown in the SSC [superconducting super collider] conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    This report details the design of the abort dump for the Superconducting Super-Collider (SSC). The dump is made from graphite and designed to absorb the maximum beam energy of 400 MJ. The report considers long time activation effects of the dump components. The report concludes that the basic design of the abort dump is well defined

  16. Test results of BNL built 40-mm aperture, 17-m-long SSC collider dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; Devred, A.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.C.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H.; Ogitsu, T.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Gosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1991-06-01

    Eleven 17 m long, 40 mm aperture SSC R ampersand D superconducting collider dipole magnets, built at BNL, have been extensively tested at BNL and Fermilab during 1990--91. Quench performance of these magnets and details of their mechanical behavior are presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  17. The effect of particulate debris on the insulation integrity of SSC coils during molding and collaring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrlich, E.; Markley, F.; Rogers, D.

    1991-03-01

    In order to simulate the effect of accidentally introduced debris on SSC coil insulation integrity, models consisting of two pieces of insulated SSC cable have been loaded in an hydraulic press after introducing foreign particles between the layers. The tests were originally suggested by R. Palmer of the SSC Laboratory. A high voltage (2 Kv) was continually applied between the two cables and the load gradually increased until an electrical short occurred. The high voltage was used as an easy method of detecting insulation punctures and to continue the general type of testing begun at Brookhaven by J. Skaritka, now at the SSC Laboratory, and continued at Fermilab by F. Markley and presented at last year's session of the Conference. A range of particles of different size, shape, and hardness were used, and both conducting and insulating particles were included. Fine wires were also used. When the data are normalized using the control (no particles added), data for each cable batch used, there is a slight correlation between pressure at breakdown and particle size for cables insulated with Kapton only. Adjustment must be made for soft particles that tend to deform and for particles with aspect ratios greater than one. Additional measurements have also been made where the opoxy-fiberglass layer was added to the Kapton insulation overwrap. These show a correlation between conductivity and breakdown pressure. 1 ref., 7 figs

  18. Computing and data handling requirements for SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] and LHC [Large Hadron Collider] experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.

    1990-05-01

    A number of issues for computing and data handling in the online in environment at future high-luminosity, high-energy colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are outlined. Requirements for trigger processing, data acquisition, and online processing are discussed. Some aspects of possible solutions are sketched. 6 refs., 3 figs

  19. Technical advisory on SSC site criteria and catalog of site information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-15

    The Superconducting Super Collider, or SSC, is a proposed scientific instrument of the study of the fundamental nature of matter. In the SSC two 20-TeV beams of protons will be accelerated and counter circulate on an approximately circular path. The protons will be made to collide at six locations where detectors can be placed to count and measure the products of the collisions. These collisions, twenty times more energetic than in any existing facility, will enable scientists to probe deeper into the heart of matter in the quest for a deeper understanding of the universal forces of nature. The goal of the SSC project is to create a scientific laboratory in high energy physics whose facilities are unique. Ultimately the success of that laboratory will be measured by its scientific discoveries, measurements, interpretations, and innovations. Toward that end the accelerator-collider must be constructed to high standards at minimum cost and maximum effectiveness. Preparations must be made for future operations and a scientific-technical staff attracted and maintained. The chosen site must accommodate all of these factors. This document summarizes siting criteria for the SSC and enumerates site-specific information important to the evaluation of potential sites. This document is not a call for site proposals but a technical report prepared for the information and use of the Department of Energy (DOE).

  20. A high-resolution comparative RH map of porcine chromosome (SSC) 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rattink, A.P.; Faivre, M.; Jungerius, B.J.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Harlizius, B.

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution comparative map was constructed for porcine Chromosome (SSC) 2, where a QTL for back fat thickness (BFT) is located. A radiation hybrid (RH) map containing 33 genes and 25 microsatellite markers was constructed for this chromosome with a 3000-rad porcine RH panel. In total, 16

  1. Construction experience with Fermilab-built full length 50mm SSC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, M.J.; Hoffman, D.E.; Packer, M.D.; Gordon, M.; Higinbotham, W.; Sims, R.

    1992-03-01

    Fourteen full length SSC dipole magnets are being built and tested at Fermilab. Their purpose is to verify the magnet design as well as transfer the construction technology to industry. Magnet design is summarized. Construction problems and their solutions are discussed. Topics include coil winding, curing and measuring, collaring, instrumentation, end clamp installation, yoking and electrical and mechanical interconnection

  2. Probing electroweak symmetry breaking at the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider]: A no-lose corollary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Low energy theorems are derived for scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z's, providing the basis for an estimate of the observable signal at the SSC if electroweak symmetry breaking is due to new physics at the TeV scale

  3. Tests of 1.5 meter model 50mm SSC collider dipoles at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Coulter, K.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.; Sims, R.; Winters, M.

    1991-05-01

    A series of 50mm diameter 1.5m model magnets have been constructed. The test of these magnets gave convincing results concerning the design of the 50mm cross section of the SSC collider dipoles. 9 refs., 6 figs

  4. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  5. Radial semiconductor drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)

  6. Planning for Plume Diagnostics for Ground Testing of J-2X Engines at the SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    SaintCyr, William W.; Tejwani, Gopal D.; McVay, Gregory P.; Langford, Lester A.; SaintCyr, William W.

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is the premier test facility for liquid rocket engine development and certification for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Therefore, it is no surprise that the SSC will play the most prominent role in the engine development testing and certification for the J-2X engine. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X engine has been selected by the Constellation Program to power the Ares I Upper Stage Element and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage in NASA s strategy of risk mitigation for hardware development by building on the Apollo program and other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with first demonstration flight in 2010 and human test flights in 2012. Accordingly, J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development and testing efforts. In order to leverage SSC s successful and innovative expertise in the plume diagnostics for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) health monitoring,1-10 this paper will present a blueprint for plume diagnostics for various proposed ground testing activities for J-2X at SSC. Complete description of the SSC s test facilities, supporting infrastructure, and test facilities is available in Ref. 11. The A-1 Test Stand is currently being prepared for testing the J-2X engine at sea level conditions. The A-2 Test Stand is currently being used for testing the SSME and may also be used for testing the J-2X engine at sea level conditions in the future. Very recently, ground-breaking ceremony for the new A-3 rocket engine test stand took place at SSC on August 23, 2007. A-3 is the first large - scale test stand to be built at the SSC since the A and B stands were constructed in the 1960s. The A-3 Test Stand will be used for testing J-2X engines under vacuum conditions simulating high altitude operation at approximately 30,480 m (100,000 ft

  7. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  8. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  9. Double chambered right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  10. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  11. Argus drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, M; Nagovizin, V; Hasemann, H; Michel, E; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Wurth, R; Kim, P

    1983-11-15

    The ARGUS detector came into operation at the DORIS-II e/sup +/s/sup -/ storage ring at the end of 1982. Its two meter long drift chamber contains 5940 sense and 24588 field wires organized in uniform 18x18.8 mm/sup 2/ drift cells filling the whole volume. These cells form 36 layers, 18 of which provide stereo views. Each sense wire is equipped with a single hit TDC and ADC for coordinate and dE/dx measurements. The chamber is operated with propane to improve momentum and dE/dx resolution. The drift chamber design and initial performance are presented. With a very crude space-time relation approximation and without all the necessary corrections applied a spatial resolution of about 200 ..mu..m was obtained for half of the drift cell volume. Further corrections should improve this result. An intrinsic dE/dx resolution of 4.2% and an actual resolution of 5% were obtained for cosmic muons and also for Bhabha scattered electrons. An actual dE/dx resolution of 5.6% was obtained for pions from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation data with almost no track selection. A relativistic rise of 30% was observed in good agreement with theory. The long-term stability is still to be investigated.

  12. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  13. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The

  14. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  15. Criteria for controlled atmosphere chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.N.

    1980-03-01

    The criteria for design, construction, and operation of controlled atmosphere chambers intended for service at ORNL are presented. Classification of chambers, materials for construction, design criteria, design, controlled atmosphere chamber systems, and operating procedures are presented. ORNL Safety Manual Procedure 2.1; ORNL Health Physics Procedure Manual Appendix A-7; and Design of Viewing Windows are included in 3 appendices

  16. Performance of a Compression-ignition Engine with a Precombustion Chamber Having High-Velocity Air Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanogle, J A; Moore, C S

    1931-01-01

    Presented here are the results of performance tests made with a single-cylinder, four stroke cycle, compression-ignition engine. These tests were made on a precombustion chamber type of cylinder head designed to have air velocity and tangential air flow in both the chamber and cylinder. The performance was investigated for variable load and engine speed, type of fuel spray, valve opening pressure, injection period and, for the spherical chamber, position of the injection spray relative to the air flow. The pressure variations between the pear-shaped precombustion chamber and the cylinder for motoring and full load conditions were determined with a Farnboro electric indicator. The combustion chamber designs tested gave good mixing of a single compact fuel spray with the air, but did not control the ensuing combustion sufficiently. Relative to each other, the velocity of air flow was too high, the spray dispersion by injection too great, and the metering effect of the cylinder head passage insufficient. The correct relation of these factors is of the utmost importance for engine performance.

  17. High power density cell using nanostructured Sr-doped SmCoO3 and Sm-doped CeO2 composite powder synthesized by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Toshio; Sumi, Hirofumi; Hamamoto, Koichi; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    High power density solid oxide electrochemical cells were developed using nanostructure-controlled composite powder consisting of Sr-doped SmCoO3 (SSC) and Sm-doped CeO2 (SDC) for electrode material. The SSC-SDC nano-composite powder, which was synthesized by spray pyrolysis, had a narrow particle size distribution (D10, D50, and D90 of 0.59, 0.71, and 0.94 μm, respectively), and individual particles were spherical, composing of nano-size SSC and SDC fragments (approximately 10-15 nm). The application of the powder to a cathode for an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) realized extremely fine cathode microstructure and excellent cell performance. The anode-supported SOFC with the SSC-SDC cathode achieved maximum power density of 3.65, 2.44, 1.43, and 0.76 W cm-2 at 800, 750, 700, and 650 °C, respectively, using humidified H2 as fuel and air as oxidant. This result could be explained by the extended electrochemically active region in the cathode induced by controlling the structure of the starting powder at the nano-order level.

  18. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  19. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  20. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  2. Stability of Streamer Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi

    1982-08-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result.

  3. Stability of streamer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result. (author)

  4. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  5. Cardiac chamber scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goretzki, G.

    1981-01-01

    The two methods of cardiac chamber scintiscanning, i.e. 'first pass' and 'ECG-triggered' examinations, are explained and compared. Two tables indicate the most significant radiation doses of the applied radio tracers, i.e. 99m-Tc-pertechnetate and 99m-Tc-HSA, to which a patient is exposed. These averaged values are calculated from various data given in specialised literature. On the basis of data given in literature, an effective half-life of approximately 5 hours in the intravascular space was calculated for the erythrocytes labelled with technetium 99m. On this basis, the radiation doses for the patients due to 99m-Tc-labelled erythrocytes are estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods applied for cardiac chamber scintiscanning are put into contrast and compared with the advantages and disadvantages of the quantitative X-ray cardiography of the left heart. The still existing problems connected with the assessment of ECG-triggered images are discussed in detail. The author performed investigations of his own, which concerned the above-mentioned problems. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  7. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  8. A cryogenic test stand for full length SSC magnets with superfluid capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.J.; Mazur, P.O.

    1989-02-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility performs testing of the full scale SSC magnets on test stands capable of simulating the cryogenic environment of the SSC main ring. One of these test stands, Stand 5, also has the ability to operate the magnet under test at temperatures from 1.8K to 4.5K with either supercritical helium or subcooled liquid, providing at least 25 Watts of refrigeration. At least 50 g/s flow is available from 2.3K to 4.5K, whereas superfluid operation occurs with zero flow. Cooldown time from 4.5K to 1.8K is 1.5 hours. A maximum current capability of 10,000 amps is provided, as is instrumentation to monitor and control the cryogenic conditions. This paper describes the cryogenic design of this test stand. 8 refs., 6 figs

  9. An experimental study of the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnet aperture criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, N.; Edwards, D.; Finley, D.

    1988-01-01

    A beam dynamics experiment, performed in the Fermilab Tevatron, that was mainly motivated by planning for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is described. Nonlinearities are introduced in the Tevatron by special sextupoles in order to stimulate the SSC environment. ''Smear'' is one of the parameters used to characterize the deviation from linear behavior. Smear is extracted from experimental data and compared with calculation over a wide range of conditions. The agreement is excellent. The closed orbit at injection trajectory reveal no deterioration even at the highest sextupole excitations. Measurements of the dynamic aperture are in general agreement with prediction. Particles captured on nonlinear resonance islands are directly observed and measurements are performed for the first time. The stability of the islands under tune modulation is investigated. 4 refs., 8 figs

  10. Real-time data acquisition and computation for the SSC using optical and electronic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Fenyves, E.J.; Wallace, B.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss combinations of optical and electronic technologies that may be able to address major data-filtering and data-analysis problems at the SSC. Novel scintillation detectors and optical readout may permit the use of optical processing techniques for trigger decisions and particle tracking. Very-high-speed fiberoptic local-area networks will be necessary to pipeline data from the detectors to the triggers and from the triggers to computers. High-speed, few-processor MIMD superconductors with advanced fiberoptic I/O technology offer a usable, cost-effective alternative to the microprocessor farms currently proposed for event selection and analysis for the SSC. The use of a real-time operating system that provides standard programming tools will facilitate all tasks, from reprogramming the detectors' event-selection criteria to detector simulation and event analysis. 34 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Considerations on the design of front-end electronics for silicon calorimetry for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Bauer, M.L.; Britton, C.L.; Kennedy, E.J.; Todd, R.A.; Berridge, S.C.; Bugg, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    Some considerations are described for the design of a silicon-based sampling calorimetry detector for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The use of silicon as the detection medium allows fast, accurate, and fine-grained energy measurements - but for optimal performance, the front-end electronics must be matched to the detector characteristics and have the speed required by the high SSC interaction rates. The relation between the signal-to-noise rtio of the calorimeter electronics and the charge collection time, the preamplifier power dissipation, detector capacitance and leakage, charge gain, and signal shaping and sampling was studied. The electrostatic transformer connection was analyzed and found to be unusable for a tightly arranged calorimeter because of stray capacitance effects. The method of deconvolutional sampling was developed as a means for pileup correction following synchronous sampling and analog storage

  12. Statistical factors to qualify the superconducting magnets for the SSC based on warm/cold correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Devred, A.; Coles, M.; Tompkins, J.

    1993-05-01

    All of the SSC production magnets will be measured at room temperature (warm), but only a fraction of these will be measured at liquid helium temperature (cold). The fractional information will then be analyzed to determine warm acceptance criteria for the field quality of the SSC magnets. Regarding predictors of the field quality based on partial information, there are several observations and studies based on the warm/cold correlation. A different facet of the acceptance test is production control, which interprets the warm/cold correlation to adjust the process parameters. For these applications, we are evaluating statistical techniques relying on asymptotic estimators of the systematic errors and random errors, and their respective confidence intervals. The estimators are useful to qualify the population magnets based on a subset of sample magnets. We present the status of our work, including: (i) a recapitulation of analytic formulas, (ii) a justification based on HERA magnet experience, and (iii) a practical interpretation of these estimators

  13. HIRFL-SSC trim coil currents calculation by conjugate gradients method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.

    2005-01-01

    For accelerating different kinds of ions to various energies, the HIRFL-SSC should form the corresponding isochronous magnetic field by its main coil and trim coils. Previously, there were errors in fitting the theoretical isochronous magnetic field in the small radius region, which led to some operation difficulties for ion acceleration in the inject region. After further investigation of the restrictive condition of the maximum current limitation, the trim coil currents for fitting the theoretical isochronous magnetic field were recalculated by the conjugate gradients method. Better results were obtained in the operation of HIRFL-SSC. This article introduces the procedure to calculate the trim coil currents. The calculation method of conjugate gradients is introduced and the fitting error is analysed. (author)

  14. A high gradient quadrupole magnet for the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Mirk, K.; Peters, C.; Wandesforde, A.

    1987-03-01

    A quadrupole magnet for the SSC has been designed with a gradient of 234 T/m at 6500 A. Coil ID is 40 mm. The two-layer windings have 9 inner turns and 13 outer turns per pole with a wedge-shaped spacer in each layer. The 30-strand cable is identical to that used in the outer layer of the SSC dipole magnet. Interlocking aluminum alloy collars are compressed around the coils using a four-way press and are locked with four keys. The collared coil is supported and centered in a cold split iron yoke. A one-meter model was constructed and tested. Design details including quench behavior are presented

  15. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  16. FAD: A full-acceptance detector for physics at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1992-09-01

    For high energy pp collisions, the concepts ''4π'' and ''full acceptance'' are distinct. At the SSC, the appropriate variables for describing phase space are the lego variables: pseudorapidity η and azimuthal angle φ. While most of 4π is covered by pseudorapidities less than 3 or 4 in magnitude, at the SSC there is very interesting physics out to η's of 9 to 12. For over a year I have been attempting to encourage an initiative at the SSC to provide a detector which could cover the missing acceptance of the two big detectors, which in particular have no appreciable charged particle tracking with good momentum resolution beyond rapidities of 2.5 or so. The nonnegotiable criteria for an FAD are for me the following: 1. All charged particles are seen and their momenta measured well, provided pt is not too large. 2. All photons are seen and their momenta are measured well. 3. The physics of rapidity-gaps is not compromised. This means angular coverage from 90 degrees down to tens of microradians. The above criteria cannot be met on day one of SSC commissioning with the amount of funds available. But I believe a staged approach is feasible, with a lot of interesting physics available along the way. The basic philosophy underlying the FAD idea is that it should first and most be a survey instrument, sensitive to almost everything, but optimized for almost nothing. Its strength is in the perception of complex patterns individual events, used as a signature of new and/or interesting physics. Examples of such patterns will be given later

  17. Extraction of Z' coupling data from Z' → jj at the LHC and SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1993-06-01

    A recent analysis has shown that it may be possible at the SSC to extract information about Z' couplings via the decay Z' → jj. This technique was found to be useful for some extended electroweak models provided the Z' is relatively light. In the present paper, the authors generalize this procedure to the LHC and to Z''s which are more massive than 1 TeV

  18. Model SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole magnet cryostat assembly at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) magnet development program includes the design, fabrication and testing of full length model dipole magnets. A result of the program has been the development of a magnet cryostat design. The cryostat subsystems consist of cold mass connection-slide, suspension, thermal shields, insulation, vacuum vessel and interconnections. Design details are presented along with model magnet production experience. 6 refs., 13 figs

  19. ELMUD: An ELectron MUon Detector for Higgs physics at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Requirements for detecting H → Z 0 Z 0 → iota + iota - iota + iota - at the SSC with m/sub H/ = 800 GeV are explored. It is found a luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 is needed but that the detector can have only a fast electromagnetic calorimeter plus a muon detector. Such a detector should be feasible at the required luminosity

  20. Thermal optimization of the helium-cooled power leads for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demko, J.A.; Schiesser, W.E.; Carcagno, R.; McAshan, M.; McConeghy, R.

    1992-01-01

    The optimum thermal design of the power leads for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will minimize the amount of Carnot work (which is a combination of refrigeration and liquefaction work) required. This optimization can be accomplished by the judicious selection of lead length and diameter. Even though an optimum set of dimensions is found, the final design must satisfy other physical constraints such as maximum allowable heat leak and helium vapor mass flow rate. A set of corresponding lengths and diameters has been determined that meets these requirements for the helium vapor-cooled, spiral-fin power lead design of the SSC. Early efforts by McFee and Mallon investigated optimizing power leads for cryogenic applications with no convection cooling. Later designs utilized the boiled-off helium vapor to cool the lead. One notable design for currents up to several thousand amps is presented by Efferson based on a series of recommendations discussed by Deiness. Buyanov presents many theoretical models and design formulae but does not demonstrate an approach to thermally optimizing the design of a vapor-cooled lead. In this study, a detailed numerical thermal model of a power lead design for the SSC has been developed. It was adapted from the dynamic model developed by Schiesser. This model was used to determine the optimum dimensions that minimize the Carnot refrigeration and liquefaction work due to the leads. Since the SSC leads will be cooled by supercritical helium, the flow of vapor is regulated by a control valve. These leads include a superconducting portion at the cold end. All of the material properties in the model are functions of temperature, and for the helium are functions of pressure and temperature. No pressure drop calculations were performed as part of this analysis. The diameter that minimizes the Carnot work was determined for four different lengths at a design current of 6600 amps

  1. SSC type NbTi superconductor research program at Teledyne SC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallsen, J.F.; McDonald, W.K.; Geno, J.D.; O'Larey, P.M.; Siddall, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    In an on-going research effort at Teledyne SC, several multifilament niobium titanium composite billets have been fabricated and processed to make SSC type wire. Critical current densities of 3000 A/mm 2 ± 5% and 2950 A/mm 2 ± 5% (5 T, 4.2 K, 10 -14 ohm-m) have been achieved in wires containing 6.5 and 4.8 micron diameter filaments respectively. This paper addresses piece length and cable-able characteristics

  2. Test of two 1.8 M SSC model magnets with iterated design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Cottingham, J.G.; Dahl, P.

    1989-01-01

    We report results from two 1.8 m-long dipoles built as part of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) RandD program. These magnets contain design changes made on both the 1.8 m and the full-length 17 m dipoles to improve quench performance, magnetic field uniformity, and manufacturability. The magnets reach 8 T with little training. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Production and detection at SSC of Higgs bosons in left-right symmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunion, J.; Kayser, B.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Deshpande, N.G.; Grifols, J.; Mendez, A.; Olness, F.; Pal, P.B.

    1986-12-01

    We discuss the production and detection at SSC of charged and neutral Higgs bosons of the left-right symmetric theories. The H + , which is largely a member of a left-right ''bidoublet,'' should be detectable. The H 2 0 , a more unusual Higgs particle which, apart from mixing, is in a right-handed triplet and does not couple to quarks, may be detectable too

  4. A bipolar monolithic preamplifier for high-capacitance SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] silicon calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Kennedy, E.J.; Bugg, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a preamplifier designed and fabricated specifically to address the requirements of silicon calorimetry for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The topology and its features are discussed in addition to the design methodology employed. The simulated and measured results for noise, power consumption, and speed are presented. Simulated an measured data for radiation damage effects as well as data for post-damage annealing are also presented. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Advanced forward calorimetry for the SSC and TeVatron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBitonto, D.; Van Peteghem, P.M.; Geiger, R.L.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Thane, J.M.; White, J.T.; Atac, M.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a project to develop fast, radiation hardened forward calorimetry for the SSC and TeVatron collider. Detector technologies discussed are based on gas and warm liquid media. In particular, we present the design of an ultrasensitive hybrid charge preamplifier for liquid technology capable of operating at 0.1-1 GHz. The actual detector bandwidth will depend on the choice of detector media used and the maximum allowable operating high voltage. (orig.)

  6. A turtle-like swimming robot using a smart soft composite (SSC) structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Jung; Song, Sung-Hyuk; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a biomimetic swimming robot based on the locomotion of a marine turtle. To realize the smooth, soft flapping motions of this type of turtle, a novel actuator was also developed, using a smart soft composite (SSC) structure that can generate bending and twisting motions in a simple, lightweight structure. The SSC structure is a composite consisting of an active component to generate the actuation force, a passive component to determine the twisting angle of the structure, and a matrix to combine the components. The motion of such a structure can be designed by specifying the angle between a filament of the scaffold structure and a shape-memory alloy (SMA) wire. The bending and twisting motion of the SSC structure is explained in terms of classical laminate theory, and cross-ply and angled-ply structures were fabricated to evaluate its motion. Finally, the turtle-like motion of a swimming robot was realized by employing a specially designed SSC structure. To mimic the posterior positive twisting angle of a turtle’s flipper during the upstroke, the SMA wire on the upper side was offset, and a positive ply-angled scaffold was used. Likewise, for the anterior negative twisting angle of the flipper during the downstroke, an offset SMA wire on the lower side and a positive ply-angled scaffold were also required. The fabricated flipper’s length is 64.3 mm and it realizes 55 mm bending and 24° twisting. The resulting robot achieved a swimming speed of 22.5 mm s −1 . (paper)

  7. Spray structure of a pressure-swirl atomizer for combustion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, global as well as spatially resolved parameters of a spray produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer are obtained. Small pressure-swirl atomizer for aircraft combustion chambers was run on a newly designed test bench with Jet A-1 kerosene type aviation fuel. The atomizer was tested in four regimes based on typical operation conditions of the engine. Spray characteristics were studied using two optical measurement systems, Particle Image velocimetry (PIV and Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer (P/DPA. The results obtained with P/DPA include information about Sauter Mean Diameter of droplets and spray velocity profiles in one plane perpendicular to the spray axis. Velocity magnitudes of droplets in an axial section of the spray were obtained using PIV. The experimental outputs also show a good confirmation of velocity profiles obtained with both instruments in the test plane. These data together will elucidate impact of the spray quality on the whole combustion process, its efficiency and exhaust gas emissions.

  8. Assessment of differences between products obtained in conventional and vacuum spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Melo RAMOS

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, an experimental unit of a vacuum spray dryer was built. This prototype attempted to combine the advantages of freeze-drying (drying at low temperatures due to vacuum and spray drying (increase of surface area aiming the improvement of heat transfer efficiency. Maltodextrin solutions were dried in the vacuum operated equipment and in conventional spray dryer. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed obtaining powder at low temperatures due to the lowering of pressure conditions (2-5 kPa inside the drying chamber. The products obtained in the two systems were characterized and compared for particle size distribution, moisture content, water activity, bulk density and solubility in water. The processes yields were also evaluated and compared. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed the production of larger, more soluble and less dense particles than those obtained in the conventional configuration of the equipment, resulting in drier and, therefore, with lower water activity particles. Thus, the use of the vacuum spray dryer as a drying technique may be an alternative for the production of powder rich in thermosensitive compounds.

  9. Studies on Microscopic Structure of Diesel Sprays under Atmospheric and High Gas Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Deshmukh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the spray structure of diesel from a 200-μm, single-hole solenoid injector is studied using microscopic imaging at injection pressures of 700, 1000 and 1400 bar for various gas pressures. A long-distance microscope with a high resolution camera is used for spray visualization with a direct imaging technique. This study shows that even at very high injection pressures, the spray structure in an ambient environment of atmospheric pressure reveals presence of entangled ligaments and non-spherical droplets during the injection period. With increase in the injection pressure, the ligaments tend to get smaller and spread radially. The spray structure studies are also conducted at high gas pressures in a specially designed high pressure chamber with optical access. The near nozzle spray structure at the end of the injection shows that the liquid jet breakup is improved with increase in gas density. The droplet size measurement is possible only late in the injection duration when the breakup appears to be complete and mostly spherical droplets are observed. Hence, droplet size measurements are performed after 1.3 ms from start of the injection pulse. Spatial and temporal variation in Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD is observed and reported for the case corresponding to an injection pressure of 700 bar. Overall, this study has highlighted the importance of verifying the extentof atomization and droplet shape even in dense sprays before using conventional dropsizing methods such as PDPA.

  10. Spray structure of a pressure-swirl atomizer for combustion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdina, Lukas; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    In the present work, global as well as spatially resolved parameters of a spray produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer are obtained. Small pressure-swirl atomizer for aircraft combustion chambers was run on a newly designed test bench with Jet A-1 kerosene type aviation fuel. The atomizer was tested in four regimes based on typical operation conditions of the engine. Spray characteristics were studied using two optical measurement systems, Particle Image velocimetry (PIV) and Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer (P/DPA). The results obtained with P/DPA include information about Sauter Mean Diameter of droplets and spray velocity profiles in one plane perpendicular to the spray axis. Velocity magnitudes of droplets in an axial section of the spray were obtained using PIV. The experimental outputs also show a good confirmation of velocity profiles obtained with both instruments in the test plane. These data together will elucidate impact of the spray quality on the whole combustion process, its efficiency and exhaust gas emissions.

  11. Development of gas micro-strip chambers for high rate radiation detection and tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Gaudaen, J; Florent, J J; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Bondar, A E; Groshev, V R; Minakov, G D; Onuchin, A P; Pestov, Yu N; Shekhtman, L I; Sidorov, V A; Dixit, M S; Oakham, G K; Møller, S; Sørensen, G; Uggerhøj, Erik; Brons, S; Brückner, W; Godbersen, M; Heidrich, M; Paul, S; Trombini, A; Werding, R; Armitage, J A; Karlen, D A; Stewart, G; Barasch, E F; McIntyre, P; Pang, Y; Trost, H J; Salomon, M; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Pansky, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1992-01-01

    Gas Micro-Strip Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high-rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of pre-shower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/charm/beauty factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and for medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about performan...

  12. Development of Gas Micro-Strip Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD28 \\\\ \\\\ Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of preshower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/beauty/charm factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about p...

  13. Passive superconductor: A viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1989-02-01

    At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Passive superconductor a viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia (Tish) P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic

  16. Magnet strength fluctuations in the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] lattice: Part 2, Frequency modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goderre, G.P.

    1987-06-01

    This is a continuation of SSC-N-305. SSC-N-305 examined the effects of field strength modulation, when the modulation frequency (f/sub mod/) was equal to zero (i.e., current offset). The objective of this study is to examine the effect of field strength modulation with modulation frequencies other than zero. To this end, the tracking routine TEAPOT is modified to simulate frequency modulation of the current output from the 10 main SSC magnet power supplies. The amplitude (A/sub i/) and phase (phi/sub i/) of the modulation for the i/sup th/ power supply are chosen randomly. Effects of bore tube shielding are included only when studying 60 Hz modulation frequency. Bore tube shielding is due to the copper coating on the bore tube walls. This coating modifies the amplitude and phase of the modulation inside the bore tube. The bore tube is more effective at shielding the dipole field and it becomes most effective as the modulation frequency increases. 3 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  17. An integrated 3D design, modeling and analysis resource for SSC detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiacomo, N.J.; Adams, T.; Anderson, M.K.; Davis, M.; Easom, B.; Gliozzi, J.; Hale, W.M.; Hupp, J.; Killian, K.; Krohn, M.; Leitch, R.; Lajczok, M.; Mason, L.; Mitchell, J.; Pohlen, J.; Wright, T.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated computer aided engineering and design (CAE/CAD) is having a significant impact on the way design, modeling and analysis is performed, from system concept exploration and definition through final design and integration. Experience with integrated CAE/CAD in high technology projects of scale and scope similar to SSC detectors leads them to propose an integrated computer-based design, modeling and analysis resource aimed specifically at SSC detector system development. The resource architecture emphasizes value-added contact with data and efficient design, modeling and analysis of components, sub-systems or systems with fidelity appropriate to the task. They begin with a general examination of the design, modeling and analysis cycle in high technology projects, emphasizing the transition from the classical islands of automation to the integrated CAE/CAD-based approach. They follow this with a discussion of lessons learned from various attempts to design and implement integrated CAE/CAD systems in scientific and engineering organizations. They then consider the requirements for design, modeling and analysis during SSC detector development, and describe an appropriate resource architecture. They close with a report on the status of the resource and present some results that are indicative of its performance. 10 refs., 7 figs

  18. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Salomone, Lawrence A.; Fuller, Chris W.; Glaser, Laura L.; Hanson, Kathryn L.; Hartleb, Ross D.; Lettis, William R.; Lindvall, Scott C.; McDuffie, Stephen M.; McGuire, Robin K.; Stirewalt, Gerry L.; Toro, Gabriel R.; Youngs, Robert R.; Slayter, David L.; Bozkurt, Serkan B.; Cumbest, Randolph J.; Falero, Valentina Montaldo; Perman, Roseanne C.; Shumway, Allison M.; Syms, Frank H.; Tuttle, Martitia P.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic

  19. Report of the third meeting of the SSDL Scientific Committee (SSC). Vienna, 19-23 September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The SSDL Scientific Committee (SSC) was appointed in 1985 by the Director General of the IAEA, in consultation with and the concurrence of the Director General of the WHO. As indicated in its Terms of Reference, the main objective of the SSC is to advise the Directors General of the IAEA and WHO regarding the programme of work of the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs). The first meeting of the SSC was held in May 1986 and the recommendations were reported in IAEA SSDL Newsletter No. 25, October 1986. The second meeting of the SSC was held in June 1987 and the recommendations were reported in the SSDL Newsletter No. 26, October 1987. Discussions and recommendations of this meeting are covered in this report

  20. Diogene pictorial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1984-01-01

    A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive)