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Sample records for spp digenea didymozoidae

  1. Histopathology of five species of Didymocystis spp. (Digenea: Didymozoidae) in cage-reared Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus).

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    Mladineo, I

    2006-07-01

    The first parasitological examinations of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus thynnus reared in the Adriatic Sea revealed high numbers of different digenean trematodes, belonging to family Didymozoidae. Five species were the most frequently isolated: Coeliodidymocystis, abdominalis, Didymocystis wedli, Koellikerioides internogastricus, K. intestinalis and K. apicalis. Parasites were isolated from gills, gill rakers, intestine, serosa of pyloric caeca, and inner layers of the fundic region of stomach, encysted in pairs in connective tissue capsules originating from host tissue. Gross pathology revealed no pathological changes. Histological alterations comprised tissue reaction resulting in lymphocyte infiltration and formation of a collagenous envelope around the parasite cysts; the intensity of observed reaction depended on the size of the cyst and on the tissue infected. The most notable changes were observed in the intestine under provocation by K. intestinalis, while the most potentially pathogenic didymozoid under fish rearing conditions is D. wedli, which if present in high abundance can induce secondary bacterial infections.

  2. Metacercarias del tipo Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae, parásitos accidentales de elasmobranquios (Elasmobranchii del golfo de México e identificación de metacercarias (Didymozoidae de la Colección Nacional de Helmintos Metacercariae of the type Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae, accidental parasites in elasmobranchs (Elasmobranchii from the Mexican Gulf of Mexico and identification of metacercarias (Didymozoidae of the Colección Nacional de Helmintos

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    Erick Rodríguez-Ibarra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de un estudio sobre los helmintos parásitos de rayas (Elasmobranchii, se colectaron 12 ejemplares en 3 localidades del estado de Veracruz, México: Laguna de Tamiahua, Laguna de Tampamachoco y un arrecife de la costa del golfo de México. Se encontraron metacercarias identificadas como parásitos accidentales del tipo Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae en la válvula espiral de Dasyatis say (raya látigo chata, Gymnura micrura (raya cola de rata y Rhinobatus lentiginosus (guitarra diablito. De manera complementaria, se actualizó la identificación de material perteneciente a Didymozoidae depositado en la Colección Nacional de Helmintos en el Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Éste es el primer registro para México de metacercarias del tipo Paramonilicaecum en rayas.During an ongoing study of the helminths of stingrays (Elasmobranchii, 12 stingrays were collected from 3 localities in the state of Veracruz, Mexico: Laguna de Tamiahua, Laguna de Tampamachoco, and a costal reef in the Gulf of Mexico. Metacercarias were collected from the spiral valves of Dasyatis say (bluntnose stingray, Gymnura micrura (lesser butterfly ray, and Rhinobatus lentiginosus (Atlantic guitarfish. The metacercarias, accidental parasites, were assigned to type Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae. Material (Didymozoidae previously deposited in the Colección Nacional de Helmintos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, was re-identified. This is the first report of a species in larval phase of the "Type" Paramonilicaecum from the Gulf of Mexico, Veracruz, and the first report from a Mexican stingray.

  3. Trematoda, Digenea, Didymozoidae, Wedlia retrorbitalis (Yamaguti, 1970 and Wedlia submaxillaris (Yamaguti, 1970: First record in South America and the Atlantic Ocean.

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    Kohn, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Didymozoidae originally described from Pacific Ocean, Wedlia retrorbitalis and Wedliasubmaxillaris are reported for the first time in South America, Atlantic Ocean. W. retrorbitalis was found encysted inretrorbital adipose tissue and W. submaxillaris in the maxillary region of Thunnus obesus caught along the Rio de Janeirocoastline, extending their current geographical distribution. Original measurements and figures are presented.

  4. Molecular identification of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Platyhelminthes in cattle from Vietnam

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    Nguyen S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. Microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. Analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of Fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presented a hybrid sequence from F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica. Interestingly, all the mitochondrial sequences (partial COI and NDI were of F. gigantica type, suggesting that the maternal lineage of the hybrid form is from F. gigantica. No intra-sequence variation was detected.

  5. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Acanthostomum spiniceps (Digenea: Acanthostomidae), a parasite of Bagrus spp. (Siluriformes:Bagridae).

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    Mansour, Mohamed Fathy A

    2012-04-01

    The present study describes, for the first time, the sperm ultrastructure of the parasite Acanthostomum spiniceps (Digenea: Acanthostomidae). The adult worms of this species were collected from the freshwater fishes, Bagrus bayad and Bagrus docmac, caught from the Damietta branch of the River Nile in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Ultrastructure of the sperm of this species revealed that it can be differentiated into seven regions. It is characterized by its filiform shape, tapers anterior, and posterior ends; the two axonemes are in close contact with the plasma membrane and the presence of two mitochondria as one anterior and the other is posterior. The two mitochondria are parallel at a short distance enclosing the first part of nucleus in between. The nucleus is characteristically formed of unusual network of chromatin which is vacuolated. The spermatozoon of A. spiniceps is similar to that of most parasitic Platyhelminthes.

  6. Auriculostoma astyanace n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Allocreadiidae), from the banded astyanax, Astyanax fasciatus (Characiformes: Characidae), from Nicaragua, with a reevaluation of neotropical Crepidostomum spp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Aguirre-Macedo, M. L.; Choudhury, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2004), s. 1128-1132 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Digenea * Allocraediidae * Auriculostoma Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004

  7. Report of Didymocystis wedli Ariola, 1902 (Digenea; Didymozoidae from Thunnus albacares in Brazil

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    A Kohn

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Didymocystis wedli a parasite from the gills of Thunnus albacares from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, is described by use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first report of this species in Brazil and South America. New data are presented on the surface topography as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Distribution, abundance, and genetic diversity of Clinostomum spp. metacercariae (Trematoda:Digenea) in a modified Ozark stream system.

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    Bonett, Ronald M; Steffen, Michael A; Trujano-Alvarez, Ana L; Martin, Samuel D; Bursey, Charles R; McAllister, Chris T

    2011-04-01

    Land-use alterations can have profound influences on faunal distributions, including host-parasite relationships. Yellow grub trematodes ( Clinostomum spp.) have complex life cycles involving 3 hosts: a snail, a fish or amphibian, and a bird. Here, we analyze the distribution, prevalence, intensity, abundance, and genetic diversity of encysting metacercariae of Clinostomum spp. in salamanders and fishes throughout an aquatic system that includes a natural Ozark stream and man-made ponds. We found Clinostomum sp. infecting permanently aquatic Oklahoma salamanders ( Eurycea tynerensis ; 56% prevalence) and larval grotto salamanders ( Eurycea spelaea ) immediately downstream from a man-made pond. However, Clinostomum sp. did not infect any salamanders in the spring that supplies this pond, or in sections farther downstream (~0.5 and 2 km). Metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. were present in ~90% of introduced largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) in the man-made pond adjunct to the stream. Morphological examination and phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase 1 ( Co1 ) and the nuclear ribosomal gene 18S show that fishes and salamanders at this site are primarily infected with Clinostomum marginatum . There is a relatively high degree of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in C. marginatum at this site but no consistent genetic difference between parasites in largemouth bass from the man-made pond and those in salamanders from the stream. Based on the microgeographic distribution and relationships of metacercariae of C. marginatum at this site, we hypothesize that the adjunct man-made pond has created an ecological situation that brings the cercariae of this parasite into contact with novel stream salamander hosts.

  9. Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae from scombrids and carangids (Perciformes from the Great Barrier Reef, with the description of two new species Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae de escómbridos y carángidos (Perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera, con descripción de dos especies nuevas

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    Rodney A. Bray

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species and 4 Stephanostomum spp. as new host and/or locality records from Percifomes from the Great Barrier Reef are described: Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp. from Grammatorcynus bilineatus (type-host and G. bicarinatus, Lizard Island and Swain Reefs, is characterised by its 50-55 circum-oral spines and >than 20% of the hindbody length lacking vitelline follicles; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. from Caranx papuensis, Lizard Island, is characterised by its 34-36 circum-oral spines and Se describen 2 especies nuevas del género Stephanostomum y se redescriben 4 más parásitas de perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera australiana. Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp., parásito de Grammatorcynus bilineatus (hospedero-tipo y de G. bicarinatus, de la isla Lizard y de los arrecifes Swain, se caracteriza por sus 50-55 espinas circumorales y por carecer de folículos vitelinos en más del 20% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. de Caranx papuensis de la isla Lizard, exhibe como rasgos diagnósticos 34-36 espinas circumorales y folículos vitelinos en menos del 8% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum ditrematis (Yamaguti, 1939 se registra en Gnathanodon speciosus de las islas Heron y Lizard; Stephanostomum hawaiiense Yamaguti, 1970 y Stephanostomum carangi Liu, 1998 se recolectaron en Carangoides fulvoguttatus y finalmente, Stephanostomum nyoomwa Bray and Cribb, 2003 se encontró parasitando a Caranx sexfasciatus, ambos peces de la isla Lizard.

  10. A new species of Limnoderetrema (Trematoda, Digenea from the freshwater Atherinid fish Basilichthys australis Eigenmann, 1927 from the south of Chile

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    Patricio Torres

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Limnoderetrema tolosai sp. n. (Trematoda, Digenea within an autochthonous freshwater fish, the silverside Basilichthys autralis Eigenmann, 1927, from Lakes Riñihue and Ranco in Southern Chile is described. The species is distinguished from Limnoderetrema minutum (Manter, 1954 by the presence of one spine in the cirrus and cecal bifurcation nearer to ventral sucker than to pharinx. It is proposed Limnoderetrema macrophallus (Szidat & Nani, 1951 n. comb. (originally Steganoderma. Limnoderetrema tolosai differs from L. macrophallus since it cirrus has a distal spine and by its vitelline follicles distribution. It seems that Limnoderetrema spp. of South America are highly specific unlike L. minutum of New Zealand.

  11. Evolutionary and ecological differentiation in the pantropical to warm-temperate seaweed Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta)

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    Pakker, H; Klerk, H; vanCampen, JH; Olsen, JL; Breeman, AM

    Genetic differentiation among geographic isolates of the pantropical to warm-temperate red alga Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh was investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, crossing studies, and temperature tolerances experiments. Eleven isolates representing

  12. Molecular prospecting for European Diplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) reveals cryptic diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgieva, Simona; Soldánová, Miroslava; Pérez-Del-Olmo, A.; Dangel, D.R.; Sitko, J.; Sures, B.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2013), s. 57-72 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) 04-135/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptic species * Digenea * Diplostomum * Barcoding * cox1 * ITS * Europe Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.404, year: 2013

  13. Parasitism by a Digenea in Lucina pectinata (Mollusca: Lucinidae

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    M. M. Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lucina pectinata is an important economic resource in the Brazilian coast. This study reports parasitism caused by a Digenea in this species. The specimens (n = 470 were collected in December 2012 in a mangrove swamp of the Cachoeira River estuary, Bahia, Brazil. They were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length, and after macroscopic analysis for parasites and diseases cuts of 5 mm were fixated in Carnoy’s solution and processed by routine histology technique wherein sessions of 7 μm were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The tissues were examined using an optical microscope. The mean length of L. pectinata was 4.0 ± 0.53 cm. Microscopic analysis showed sporocysts containing both germ balls as cercariae of an unidentified Digenea (Platyhelminthes, these in various stages of development. The prevalence was 1.48% (7/470. In a parasitized specimen was macroscopic evidence of tissue densification of gills. The sporocysts were observed in mantle, gills, digestive gland and gonads, with evident alteration/destruction of tissues, including parasitic castration. There were no other parasites found, which is probably related to inaccessibility and chemical conditions in which lives L. pectinata, i.e., between 10 and 20 cm in mangrove sediment.

  14. Parasitism by a Digenea in Lucina pectinata (Mollusca: Lucinidae).

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    Ribeiro, M M; Oliveira, J B; Boehs, G

    2018-02-01

    Lucina pectinata is an important economic resource in the Brazilian coast. This study reports parasitism caused by a Digenea in this species. The specimens (n = 470) were collected in December 2012 in a mangrove swamp of the Cachoeira River estuary, Bahia, Brazil. They were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length), and after macroscopic analysis for parasites and diseases cuts of 5 mm were fixated in Carnoy's solution and processed by routine histology technique wherein sessions of 7 μm were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The tissues were examined using an optical microscope. The mean length of L. pectinata was 4.0 ± 0.53 cm. Microscopic analysis showed sporocysts containing both germ balls as cercariae of an unidentified Digenea (Platyhelminthes), these in various stages of development. The prevalence was 1.48% (7/470). In a parasitized specimen was macroscopic evidence of tissue densification of gills. The sporocysts were observed in mantle, gills, digestive gland and gonads, with evident alteration/destruction of tissues, including parasitic castration. There were no other parasites found, which is probably related to inaccessibility and chemical conditions in which lives L. pectinata, i.e., between 10 and 20 cm in mangrove sediment.

  15. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS CACING PARASITIK PADA IKAN KEMBUNG (RASTRELLIGER SPP. DI PERAIRAN TELUK BANTEN DAN PELABUHAN RATU

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    Forcep Rio Indaryanto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The short mackerel is the most commercially important small pelagic fish in Indonesia. Parasitism plays a central role in fish biology. Parasitism is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the marine environment and it is probable that all marine fishes are infected with parasites. Helminth parasitic of Rastrelliger spp. are Lechitocladium angustonum (Digenea: Hemiuridae, Lecitochirium sp. (Digenea: Hemiuridae, Prodistomum orientalis (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae and Anisakis typica (Nematodes: Anisakidae, with 90.12% of prevalence. They are not significant different of helminth parasitic abundance from R. kanagurta and R. brachysoma, but significant in helminth species richness. This different of helminth species richness was because of L. angustonum dominances. The different location wasn’t have significant different of helminth parasitic abundance because Indonesian in the tropical zone. Anisakis species in Java sea have a same genetic with Anisakis typical and not zoonotic parasite kategories. The fish digestion was a microhabitat for helminth parasitik because they have much food stuff. The fish growth have significant different in helminth parasitic abundance and intencity. This situation was because the fish immunity development and the food habit of fish.

  16. Ochetosoma heterocoelium (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae in snakes from Colombia Ochetosoma heterocoelium (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae en ofidios de Colombia

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    Carolina Lenis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochetosoma heterocoelium Travassos, 1921 is a parasite that has been identified in snakes from different locations in Colombia and is considered of veterinary importance. Here, we present a redescription based on morphological traits of juveniles and adults. Parasite burden of O. heterocoelium in the host varied between 3-207 individuals which were localized in the oral cavity of snakes, causing damage that range from small infections to mechanical obstruction of the esophagus and Jacobson's organ. The low levels of abundance and prevalence in the snakes Leptodeira septentrionalis, Bothriechis schlegelli, Bothrops asper and Porthidium nasutum coming from the localities of Maceo, Vegachí and Acandí regions, suggest that the parasite is not a threat to the snakes of Colombia. We propose a treatment program that consists of manual removal of Digenea as well as treating snakes with antihelminthics, the applaying of soft antiseptics and monitoring recovery. The prevalence of O. heterocoelium was established in new regions, namely Middle Magdalena, Valle de Aburrá, Urabá Chocoano and northern Colombia. This extends the known geographical distribution from Brazil and Venezuela. New hosts were also identified: Atractus lasallei, Bothriechis schlegelli, Bothrops asper, Chironius carinatus, Leptodeira septentrionalis, Leptophis ahaetulla and Porthidium nasutum.Se identifica Ochetosoma heterocoelium Travassos, 1921 como un parásito de importancia veterinaria en ofidios de diferentes localidades de Colombia y se redescribe con base en las características morfológicas de individuos juveniles y adultos. La carga parasitaria de O. heterocoelium varió de 3-207 individuos alojados en la cavidad bucal de los ofidios, causando desde infecciones leves hasta obstrucción mecánica en el esófago y órgano de Jacobson. Los bajos valores de abundancia y prevalencia en las localidades de Maceo, Vegachí y Acandí y en los ofidios Leptodeira septentrionalis

  17. Four new species of Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Faustulidae) from batfishes (Perciformes: Ephippidae) on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

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    Diaz, Pablo E; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2017-03-01

    Examination of three species of batfishes (Teleostei: Epphippidae) from off Lizard and Heron Islands on the Great Barrier Reef led to the discovery of specimens of the trematode genus Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Faustulidae). Morphological analysis demonstrated that the new specimens represented four morphotypes which we interpret to be new species: Paradiscogaster martini n. sp., P. vichovae n. sp. and P. brayi n. sp. from Platax orbicularis (Forsskål) and P. pinnatus (Linnaeus) off Lizard Island, and P. nitschkei n. sp. from P. teira (Forsskål) off Heron Island. Published material was re-examined and the specimens identified as P. chaetodontis okinawensis Yamaguti, 1971 from P. pinnatus from Okinawa, Japan, actually represent the new species P. brayi n. sp., demonstrating that some species of Paradiscogaster have wide geographical distributions. ITS2 rDNA data for the four morphotypes differ by 4-39 base pairs confirming the delineation of the four species proposed. A feature of this study is the recognition of Platax spp. as an important host group for Paradiscogaster, with the new species placing them as the second richest host group for these parasites after the Chaetodontidae.

  18. The mitochondrial genome and ribosomal operon of Brachycladium goliath (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) recovered from a stranded minke whale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briscoe, A.G.; Bray, R. A.; Brabec, Jan; Littlewood, D. T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 271-275 ISSN 1383-5769 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Digenea * Balaenoptera acutorostrata * Cetacea * Hologenophore * NGS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2016

  19. Taxonomic status, redescription, and surface ultrastructure of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) pindoramensis n. comb. (Digenea: Heterophyidae)

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    Simoes, S. B. E.; Scholz, Tomáš; Barbosa, H. S.; Santos, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2006), s. 501-508 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Digenea * Heterophyidae * taxonomy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.300, year: 2006

  20. A new species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Mediterranean mullet (Teleostei: Mugilidae)

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    Marzoug, D.; Rima, M.; Boutiba, Z.; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2014), s. 127-134 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Digenea * phylogeny * Platyhelminthes * Trematoda * inference * evolution Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  1. Description ofPleurogenoides cyanophlyctin. sp. (Digenea: Pleurogenidae) infectingEuphlyctis cyanophlyctisfrom the Western Ghats, India.

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    Shinad, K; Prasadan, P K

    2018-03-01

    Pleurogenoides cyanophlycti n. sp. (Digenea, Pleurogenidae ) from the intestine of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), inhabiting the Western Ghats, India is described and illustrated. Pleurogenoides cyanophlycti n. sp. is new to the genus and is separated from its congeners on the basis of differences in morphology and morphometry. It is named after the host, E. cyanophlyctis .

  2. Taxonomic status of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) rara Arruda, Muniz-Pereira et Pinto, 2002 (Digenea: Heterophyidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Muniz-Pereira, L. C.; Santos, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2006), s. 297-301 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Digenea * morphology * systematics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2006

  3. Collyricloides massanae (Digenea, Collyriclidae): spermatozoon ultrastructure and phylogenetic importance.

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    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye Jacque; Quilichini, Yann; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The spermatological characteristics of Collyricloides massanae (Digenea: Collyriclidae), a parasite of Apodemus sylvaticus caught in France, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mature sperm of C. massanae presents two axonemes of different lengths with the 9 + "1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, one mitochondrion, a nucleus and granules of glycogen. An analysis of spermatological organisation emphasised some differences between the mature spermatozoon of C. massanae and those reported in the Gorgoderoidea species studied to date, specially belonging to the families Dicrocoeliidae, Paragonimidae and Troglotrematidae. The ultrastructural criteria described in C. massanae such as the morphology of both anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, the association "external ornamentation+cortical microtubules", the type 2 of external ornamentation and the spine-like bodies would allow us to bring closer the Collyriclidae to Microphalloidea. However, further ultrastructural and molecular studies are needed particularly in the unexplored taxa in order to fully resolve the phylogenetic position of the Collyriclidae. © A.J. Bakhoum et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  4. Collyricloides massanae (Digenea, Collyriclidae: spermatozoon ultrastructure and phylogenetic importance

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    Bakhoum Abdoulaye Jacque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spermatological characteristics of Collyricloides massanae (Digenea: Collyriclidae, a parasite of Apodemus sylvaticus caught in France, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mature sperm of C. massanae presents two axonemes of different lengths with the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, one mitochondrion, a nucleus and granules of glycogen. An analysis of spermatological organisation emphasised some differences between the mature spermatozoon of C. massanae and those reported in the Gorgoderoidea species studied to date, specially belonging to the families Dicrocoeliidae, Paragonimidae and Troglotrematidae. The ultrastructural criteria described in C. massanae such as the morphology of both anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, the association “external ornamentation + cortical microtubules”, the type 2 of external ornamentation and the spine-like bodies would allow us to bring closer the Collyriclidae to Microphalloidea. However, further ultrastructural and molecular studies are needed particularly in the unexplored taxa in order to fully resolve the phylogenetic position of the Collyriclidae.

  5. Stegodexamene anguillae (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae), an intestinal parasite of eels (Anguilla spp.) in New Caledonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2007), s. 1047-1051 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Stegodexamene * Anguilla * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  6. A new cryptic species of Aponurus Looss, 1907 (Digenea: Lecithasteridae) from Mediterranean goatfish (Teleostei: Mullidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carreras-Aubets, M.; Repulles-Albelda, A.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2011), 145-159 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GAP505/10/1562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : N. SP DIGENEA * ALLOMETRIC GROWTH * MARINE FISHES * MULLUS-SURMULETUS * TREMATODES * MONORCHIIDAE * HEMIUROIDEA * BELIZE * ISRAEL Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2011

  7. Report on two species of Digenea from marine fishes in Brazil

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    B. M. M. FERNANDES

    Full Text Available Two species of Digenea were recorded for the first time in South America and in new hosts: Acanthostomum spiniceps (Looss, 1896 (Cryptogonimidae was reported from Astroscopus sexspinosus (Steindachner, 1877 (Uranoscopidae and Diplomonorchis sphaerovarium Nahhas & Cable, 1964 (Monorchiidae from Ophichthus gomesi (Castelnau, 1855 (Ophichthidae. From the latter, Heliconema heliconema Travassos, 1919 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae, was also recovered representing also a new host for this nematode species.

  8. Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Digenea: Cladorchidae) - back to the fauna of the Czech Republic after 200 years

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubková, B.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Koubek, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2002), s. 155-158 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093104; GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA AV ČR IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Stichorchis subtriquetrus * Digenea * European beaver Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.646, year: 2002

  9. Description of spermatogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Acanthostomum (Atrophocaecum aswaninesis Wannas, 1977 (Digenea, Acanthostomatidae, a parasite of Bagrus bayad in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Taeleb

    2013-03-01

    The spermiogenesis process and spermatozoon organization of A. (A. aswaninesis match the general pattern found in the digenea, but certain peculiarities are characteristic and differentiate the sperm of this fluke from that of other digenetic trematodes.

  10. Geographic variation in thermal traits in Digenea simplex and Champia parvula (Rhodophyta) in relation to present and glacial temperature regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfanidis, S; Breeman, AM

    1999-01-01

    Geographic variation in temperature responses (survival and growth) was investigated in two red algae: Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh and Champia parvula (C. Agardh) Harvey. D. simplex has a tropical to warm temperate distribution; C. parvula extends from the tropics into the cold temperate

  11. Acidithiobacillus caldus , Leptospirillum spp., Ferroplasma spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acidithiobacillus caldus , Leptospirillum spp., Ferroplasma spp. and Sulphobacillus spp. mixed strains for use in cobalt and copper removal from water. ... Such findings suggest that if optimal conditions for biosorption of the metals by micro-organisms are achieved, this should afford a cost-effective method of removing metal ...

  12. Digenean metacercaria (Trematoda, Digenea, Lepocreadiidae parasitizing "coelenterates" (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa and Ctenophora from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carrara Morandini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacercaria specimens of the genus Opechona (Trematoda: Digenea: Lepocreadiidae are described parasitizing "coelenterates" (scyphomedusae and ctenophores from Southeastern Brazil (São Paulo state. The worms are compared to other Opechona species occurring on the Brazilian coast, but no association has been made because only adult forms of these species have been described. Suppositions as to the possible transference of the parasites are made.Exemplares de metacercárias do gênero Opechona (Trematoda: Digenea: Lepocreadiidae são descritos parasitando "celenterados" (cifomedusas e ctenóforos no sudeste do Brasil (estado de São Paulo. Os vermes foram comparados a outras espécies de Opechona ocorrentes no litoral brasileiro, porém nenhuma associação foi realizada devido às demais espécies terem sido descritas a partir de exemplares adultos. São apresentadas suposições sobre as possíveis formas de transferência dos parasitas.

  13. Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Digenea, Diplostomidae) in the eyes of fishes from Paraná river, Brazil=Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Digenea, Diplostomidae) em olhos de peixes do rio Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Laterça Martins; José Luis Pedreira Mourino; Haroldo Kazuyuki Takahashi; Vamilton Alvares Santarem; Natalia Marchiori; Rosemeire de Souza Santos

    2012-01-01

    Parasitological indexes of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea, Diplostomidae) in fishes from the Paraná River, Presidente Epitácio region, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and their relationship with climate and water quality are evaluated. Fifty-one specimens of Plagioscion squamosissimus, 39 Geophagus surinamensis, 27 Hoplias malabaricus and 23 Cichla sp. were collected between June 2007 and June 2008. Water quality and rainfall indexes were measured monthly. P. squamosissimus had the highest ...

  14. New species of Prosotocus (Digenea; Pleurogenidae) and other helminths in Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab

    2015-09-01

    Prosotocus punjabensis sp. nov. (Digenea, Pleurogenidae) from the intestine of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Punjab, India is described and illustrated. Prosotocus punjabensis sp. nov. is the 13th Oriental species assigned to the genus and is separated from its congeners based upon the morphology of the vitellaria and cecal terminations. In addition, E. cyanophlyctis was found to harbour three species of Nematoda, Aplectana macintoshii, Cosmocerca kalesari and an unidentified species assigned to Cosmocerca.

  15. Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. and Podocotyle sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from the deep waters off Oregon and British Columbia with an updated key to the species of Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946 and checklist of parasites from Lycodes cortezianus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blend, Charles K; Dronen, Norman O; Racz, Gabor R; Gardner, Scott L

    2017-06-01

    Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Opecoelinae) is described from the intestine of the bigfin eelpout, Lycodes cortezianus (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), collected at 200-800 m depths in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean off Oregon and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The new species is distinguished by possessing a unique combination of the following diagnostic characters: vitelline fields that extend to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker; a slender, tubular and sinuous seminal vesicle that extends some distance into the hindbody; an unspecialized, protuberant ventral sucker; a genital pore at pharynx level; lobed to deeply multilobed testes; a lobed ovary; and an egg size of 68-80 μm × 30-46 μm. A single specimen of Podocotyle Dujardin, 1845 (Digenea: Plagioporinae) is also described from the intestine of an individual Coryphaenoides sp. (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) collected at 2,800 m depth off Oregon. A listing of parasites from the bigfin eelpout as well as observations of parasite diversity within relevant hosts are offered, new host and locality records are noted, and a brief discussion of Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946 in the deep sea is presented taking note of the low level of host specificity recorded (i.e. spp. of Pseudopecoelus are now known to parasitize deep-water fish from at least 20 piscine families). A new dichotomous key to the 39 recognized species of Pseudopecoelus is introduced.

  16. The translocated Liza haematocheila (Teleostei: Mugilidae) as a new host of four species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae) within its invasive range in the Black Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pankov, P.; Gibson, D. I.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2009), s. 29-39 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Liza haematocheila * Saturnius * Digenea * Hemiuridae * invasive species Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2009

  17. Finding of Pseudobacciger harengulae (Digenea, Faustulidae) in the Mediterranean Horse Mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus (Actinopterygii, Carangidae), from the Gulf of Odessa, Black Sea, Ukraine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulak, B.; Kvach, Yuriy

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2018), s. 47-52 ISSN 0084-5604 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Black Sea * Digenea * Pseudobacciger * Trachurus * new records * new host Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology

  18. An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Moravec, František; Trilles, J.-P.; Whittington, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 237-262 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Isopoda * Copepoda * Monogenea * Digenea * Cestoda * Nematoda * Serranidae * Epinephelinae * parasite biodiversity * coral reef * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  19. New species of Allopharynx (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) and other helminths in Uranoscodon superciliosus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Vitt, Laurie J

    2005-12-01

    Allopharynx daileyi n. sp. (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) from the small intestine of the tropidurid lizard Uranoscodon superciliosus from Amazonian Brazil is described and illustrated. Of the 11 currently recognized species of Allopharynx, we consider Allopharynx megorchis Simha, 1961 a synonym of Allopharynx mehrai (Gogate, 1935) Price 1938 and Allopharynx puertoricensis Acholonu, 1976 a synonym of Allopharynx riopedrensis Garcia-Diaz; thus, A. daileyi becomes the 10th species assigned to the genus. The trematode species Mesocoelium monas and 2 species of Nematoda, Africana chabaudi and Cosmocerca vrcibradici, were also present.

  20. Two new genera of Paramphistomidae (Trematoda, Digenea from freshwater fish of Rondônia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veron E. Thatcher

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and species of Paramphistomidae (Trematoda, Digenea are described from freshwater fish of Rondônia State, Brazil. Pronamphistoma cichlasomae gen. et sp. nov. from Cichlasoma severum (Heckel is characterized as having a small, robust body with an anterior collar-like expansion, diverticula within the wall of the oral sucker and vitellaria in lateral fanshaped configurations. Micramphistoma ministoma gen. et sp. nov. from Hypopomus sp lacks oral diverticula, has anteriorly situated parallel tests and a very small postero-ventral acebtabulum. Neither of the new forms closely resembles any known genus.

  1. New species of Gorgoderina (Digenea; Gorgoderidae) and other helminths in Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Dehradun, (Uttarakhand), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab

    2014-10-01

    Gorgoderina spinosa sp. nov. (Digenea, Gorgoderidae) from the bladder of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Gorgoderina spinosa is the 6th Indian species assigned to the genus and is separated from its congeners based upon the morphology of vitelline glands and the presence of a spinose integument. Two additional digenean species, Diplodiscus amphichrus and Ganeo tigrinus, and 3 nematode species, Cosmocerca kalesari, Gendria chauhani, and unidentified larvae were found. Diplodiscus amphichrus, Ganeo tigrinus, Cosmocerca kalesari, and Gendria chauhani have previously been reported to infect Indian individuals of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis.

  2. [Distribution of Paragonimus (Digenea: Troglotrematidae) in Antioquia Province, Colombia, based on metacercariae counts in freshwater crabs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruburu, Mónica; Granada, Mabel; Velásquez, Luz Elena

    2008-12-01

    Paragonimosis or lung fluke disease courses with signs similar to those seen in tuberculosis. The causative agent is a parasite of the genus Paragonimus (Digenea: Troglotrematidae). People become infected by ingesting raw or partially cooked crabs containing metacercariae. The first focus of human paragonimosis in Colombia was recorded in the county of Urrao, where two species of crabs infected with Paragonimus were found. In 2005, crabs with Paragonimus' metacercariae were captured near Medellín, western Colombia. This prompted a search for the parasite in other locations through its presence in the crabs. To establish the distribution of Paragonimus in Antioquia, we evaluated the presence of metacercaria in freshwater brachyuran crabs. From 2005 to 2007, crabs were captured in 13 counties of Antioquia. The crabs were relaxed and dissected to determine presence of trematodes and then to make the taxonomic identifications. From 52 crabs captured in 9 counties, 42 (80.8%) were found with Paragonimus metacercariae. The crabs were identified as Pseudothelphusidae in 2 genera--Hypolobocera and Strengeriana--and were assigned to four species. Three of the species were recorded for the first time as hosts of Paragonimus. A Paragonimus' distribution map was constructed for Antioquia; for the first time urban zones were included. Because of the high rate of infection, the handling and consumption of raw and poorly cooked crabs pose risk factors for human infection. Because crabs are affordable and provide means of easy diagnosis, crabs are targeted as primary agents of and diagnostic tools for paragonmosis.

  3. Effect of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) on fecundity, shell height, and survival rate of Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls.

  4. The mitochondrial genome of Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea, the first representative for the family Paramphistomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bin Yan

    Full Text Available We determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence of a fluke, Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomidae. This genome (14,014 bp is slightly larger than that of Clonorchis sinensis (13,875 bp, but smaller than those of other digenean species. The mt genome of P. cervi contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions (NCRs, a complement consistent with those of other digeneans. The arrangement of protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes in the P. cervi mitochondrial genome is identical to that of other digeneans except for a group of Schistosoma species that exhibit a derived arrangement. The positions of some transfer RNA genes differ. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, based on concatenated nucleotide sequences and amino-acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes, placed P. cervi within the Order Plagiorchiida, but relationships depicted within that order were not quite as expected from previous studies. The complete mtDNA sequence of P. cervi provides important genetic markers for diagnostics, ecological and evolutionary studies of digeneans.

  5. A new species of Mesocoelium (Digenea: Mesocoeliidae) found in Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tássia FF; Melo, Francisco TV; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-01-01

    Mesocoelium lanfrediaesp. nov. (Digenea: Mesocoeliidae) inhabits the small intestine of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) and is described here, with illustrations provided by light, scanning electron microscopy and molecular approachs. M. lanfrediae sp. nov. presents the typical characteristics of the genus, but is morphometrically and morphologically different from the species described previously. The main diagnostic characteristics of M. lanfrediae sp. nov. are (i) seven pairs of regularly-distributed spherical papillae on the oral sucker, (ii) ventral sucker outlined by four pairs of papillae distributed in a uniform pattern and interspersed with numerous spines, which are larger at the posterior margin and (iii) small, rounded tegumentary papillae around the opening of the oral sucker, which are morphologically different from those of the oral sucker itself, some of which are randomly disposed in the ventrolateral tegumentary region of the anterior third of the body. Addionally, based on SSU rDNA, a phylogenetic analysis including Brachycoeliidae and Mesocoeliidae taxa available on GenBank established the close relationship between M. lanfrediae sp. nov. and Mesocoelium sp. PMID:23579798

  6. Ultrastructural features of the spermatozoon and its differentiation in Brandesia turgida (Brandes, 1888) (Digenea, Microphalloidea, Pleurogenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Brázová, Timea; Zhokhov, Alexander E; Poddubnaya, Larisa G

    2014-07-01

    Spermatological characters of the digenean Brandesia turgida (Brandes, 1888), an intestinal parasite of the frog Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771), have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The process of the spermatozoon formation begins with the appearance of the differentiation zone bordered by cortical microtubules and containing two centrioles associated with striated rootlets and with an intercentriolar body. The intercentriolar body is made up of seven distinct electron-dense plates, two less electron-dense, and four electron-lucent zones. The orthogonal development of the two flagella is followed by a flagellar rotation and their proximodistal fusion with the median cytoplasmic process. This process is accompanied by an extension of both the mitochondrion and nucleus into the median cytoplasmic process. The mature spermatozoon of B. turgida contains two parallel axonemes of unequal lengths with the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan pattern, mitochondrion, nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, four electron-dense attachment zones, an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, and electron-dense glycogen granules. The anterior extremity of the male gamete contains one complete centriole, a small component of the central element of the second centriole, and peripheral cortical microtubules (up to 45). The posterior extremity of the mature spematozoon exhibits tubular elements of the disorganized axoneme. The present study provides the first data on spermiogenesis within the family Pleurogenidae. Variations of the spermatozoa ultrastructural characters within Digenea, in particular, between different families of the superfamily Microphalloidea, are discussed.

  7. Ultrastructural study of sperm cells in Acanthocolpidae: the case of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis (Digenea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J.S.; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A.; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Marchand, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The mature spermatozoa of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis are described by transmission electron microscopy. They present several ultrastructural features previously reported in other digeneans. Their spermatozoa possess two axonemes of different length showing the 9 + ‘1’ trepaxonematan pattern, four attachment zones, two mitochondria (with an anterior moniliform one in S. murielae), a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The main differences between the mature spermatozoon of S. murielae and S. tenuis are the maximum number of cortical microtubules, the morphology of the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the anterior mitochondrion. This study is the first concerning members of the family Acanthocolpidae. The main ultrastructural characteristics discussed are the morphology of the anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, antero-lateral electron dense material, external ornamentations, spine-like bodies and number and morphology of mitochondria. In addition, the phylogenetic significance of all these ultrastructural features is discussed and compared to molecular results in order to highlight the complex relationships in the Digenea. PMID:25699200

  8. Ultrastructural study of sperm cells in Acanthocolpidae: the case of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis (Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye J.S. Bakhoum

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mature spermatozoa of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis are described by transmission electron microscopy. They present several ultrastructural features previously reported in other digeneans. Their spermatozoa possess two axonemes of different length showing the 9 + ‘1’ trepaxonematan pattern, four attachment zones, two mitochondria (with an anterior moniliform one in S. murielae, a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The main differences between the mature spermatozoon of S. murielae and S. tenuis are the maximum number of cortical microtubules, the morphology of the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the anterior mitochondrion. This study is the first concerning members of the family Acanthocolpidae. The main ultrastructural characteristics discussed are the morphology of the anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, antero-lateral electron dense material, external ornamentations, spine-like bodies and number and morphology of mitochondria. In addition, the phylogenetic significance of all these ultrastructural features is discussed and compared to molecular results in order to highlight the complex relationships in the Digenea.

  9. Aspectos imunológicos e parasitológicos em Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni e outros Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Doralice de Souza Luro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.

  10. Skoulekia erythrini n. sp (Digenea: Aporocotylidae): a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (L.) (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the western Mediterranean with an amendment of the generic diagnosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palacios-Abella, J. F.; Georgieva, Simona; Mele, S.; Raga, J. A.; Isbert, W.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Montero, F. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 6 (2017), s. 669-688 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : southern bluefin tuna * blood flukes digenea * trematoda aporocotylidae * life-cycle * maximum-likelihood * sequence alignment * seriola-dumerili * cardicola * paradeontacylix Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  11. Morphometric and molecular characterisation of specimens of Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Lepidapedidae) from the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso) (Teleostei: Moridae) in the western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dallarés, S.; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.; Gibson, D. I.; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2013), s. 243-253 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) 04-135/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Northern Atlantic * Lepocrediidae Digenea * genus Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.035, year: 2013

  12. Species diversity of Plagiorchis Luhe, 1899 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) in lymnaeid snails from freshwater ecosystems in central Europe revealed by molecules and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zikmundová, Jana; Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Soldánová, Miroslava; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2014), s. 37-54 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : larval trematodes digenea * partial lsrDNA sequences * great pond snail * maximum-likelihood * Lymnea stagnalis * life -cycle * platyhelminthes * differentiation * omphalometridae * phylogenies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  13. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Heterolebes maculosus (Digenea, Opistholebetidae), a parasite of the porcupinefish Diodon hystrix (Pisces, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of Heterolebes maculosus. It is the first study of this kind concerning the Opistholebetidae (Platyhelminthes, Digenea). The ultrastructural elements observed in the spermatozoon are: two axonemes with 9+"1" pattern of Trepaxonemata and their attachment zones, two mitochondria, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spine-like bodies. The number and the disposition of cortical microtubules, the organisation of 11 cortical microtubules disposed in semi-circle around the first mitochondrion in the external ornamentation region and the organisation of the posterior part of the spermatozoon are discussed. Three principal types of posterior part of digenean spermatozoa are proposed. The similarity between the spermatozoon of the Opistholebetidae H. maculosus and Opecoelidae enables us to confirm that these two families are closely related.

  14. The Genus Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) and the Early History of Parasitology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Thomas R

    2017-08-01

    We know little about the founders of our discipline apart from their scientific contributions and brief biographical sketches, most frequently in published obituaries. A number of years ago, Ralph Lichtenfels, then Director of the National Parasite Collection, sent me photocopies of letters between Henry Baldwin Ward, Horace W. Stunkard, George A. MacCallum, and William G. MacCallum dating from the early years of the 20th century that hinted at a series of conflicts centered on the proposal of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea). The description of a fluke that matured in the blood of a tetrapod and that was morphologically similar to the schistosomes of humans was in its time a transformative discovery; and the scientist who published it would have garnered some scholarly recognition. Herein, I provide an historical account of the issues and the motives of each individual and the eventual resolution of these matters.

  15. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  16. Medicago sativa spp. falcata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Falcata (Medicago sativa spp. falcata L.), with its high resistance to cold weather, drought and disease, .... 40 plants. Seeds were grown in a greenhouse and seedlings were transplanted three months later to the experiment station in Hebei province ..... latitude range (from northern latitude 29° to northern.

  17. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a prospective study undertaken at Hillbrow. Hospital in Johannesburg during a 3-month period. All patients from whose sputum cultures Klebsiella spp. were isolated in significant growth on primary blood agar plates following culture of fresh sputum specimens were entered into the study (2+ grO\\:vth was equal to.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  19. First spermatological study in the Atractotrematidae (Digenea, Haploporoidea): the case of Atractotrema sigani, intestinal parasite of Siganus lineatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J. S.; Quilichini, Yann; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A.; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Marchand, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the mature spermatozoon of the digenean Atractotrema sigani (from Siganus lineatus off New Caledonia) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The male gamete of A. sigani exhibits the general morphology described in digeneans with the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. However, the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani has some specific characters such as the morphology of its anterior region and the submembranous electron-dense material. Although similar structures have been reported in some digenean species, the presence of a submembranous electron-dense material describing a complete ring is reported here for the first time in the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani. In addition, sperm characteristics are compared between the Haploporoidea and their supposed close superfamilies, and possible phylogenetic implications of these findings for the Digenea are discussed. PMID:26475645

  20. First spermatological study in the Atractotrematidae (Digenea, Haploporoidea: the case of Atractotrema sigani, intestinal parasite of Siganus lineatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhoum Abdoulaye J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural organization of the mature spermatozoon of the digenean Atractotrema sigani (from Siganus lineatus off New Caledonia was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The male gamete of A. sigani exhibits the general morphology described in digeneans with the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. However, the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani has some specific characters such as the morphology of its anterior region and the submembranous electron-dense material. Although similar structures have been reported in some digenean species, the presence of a submembranous electron-dense material describing a complete ring is reported here for the first time in the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani. In addition, sperm characteristics are compared between the Haploporoidea and their supposed close superfamilies, and possible phylogenetic implications of these findings for the Digenea are discussed.

  1. Description of two new species of Glypthelmins Stafford, 1905 (Digenea: Macroderoididae) in Rana spp. from Mexico, based on morphology and mtDNA and rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises J; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2004-11-01

    Glypthelmins Stafford, 1905 includes 29 putative species commonly found in the intestine and liver of anurans from all over the world but mainly in the Americas. Partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 ( cox 1), ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) and the large subunit 28S rDNA gene were obtained and analysed using pairwise distance matrices and parsimony methods in order to characterise the interrelationships between 14 isolates of four nominal species of Glypthelmins recognised on morphological grounds. The highest intra-specific sequence divergence occurred in the cox 1 (18.53%) sequence, followed by that of the ITS2 (5.44%) and 28S (4.63%). Genetic variability was detected between the three isolates originally identified as G. facioi Brenes et al., 1959 from two localities in Mexico and one locality in Costa Rica. Sequence divergence exhibited among these isolates ranged from 10.70 to 11.22%, from 0.48 to 0.97% and from 1.33 to 1.88% for cox 1, ITS2 and 28S, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis combining all three data-sets generated a single most parsimonious tree. The three isolates of G. facioi form a clade, with an isolate collected from frogs in Veracruz State as the sister group to an isolate from Tabasco State + G. facioi from Costa Rica. The information derived from pairwise distance of independent data-sets plus the phylogenetic information indicate that each of the two isolates from Mexico, identified a priori as G. facioi, represent separate species. A re-examination of specimens was carried out and a re-evaluation made of the morphological characters to find reliable differences that had been overlooked. As a consequence, G. brownorumae n. sp. from Tabasco and G. tuxtlasensis n. sp. from Veracruz are described based on molecular and morphological differences.

  2. Metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Digenea) in European newts Triturus carnifex and Lissotriton vulgaris (Caudata: Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffara, M; Bruni, G; Paoletti, C; Gustinelli, A; Fioravanti, M L

    2014-09-01

    Adults of Clinostomum spp. are digenetic trematodes found in fish-eating birds, reptiles and occasionally mammals, including humans. Freshwater snails serve as first intermediate hosts and many fish species and amphibians as second intermediate hosts. To date, amphibian hosts of Clinostomum metacercariae include members of urodele and anuran families in North America, but no data are available on infections of European amphibians, including newts. In this study, we characterize infections of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae in four smooth (Lissotriton vulgaris) and 18 Italian crested newts (Triturus carnifex) from an artificial pond located in a protected area in Tuscany, Italy. Parasites were surgically removed from the infected newts and identified both morphologically and using sequences of a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I, and the ribosomal markers, internal transcribed spacers. This is the first record of C. complanatum in European newts and, more generally, in amphibians in Europe.

  3. Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae) from Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máca, Ondřej; Pavlásek, Ivan; Vorel, Aleš

    2015-08-01

    Between March 2012 and April 2014, we performed post-mortem parasitological examinations of 11 Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) from the basins of four main rivers (Dyje, Labe, Morava, Vltava) in the Czech Republic. The cause of death of five adult animals was unknown, three adult animals died after being hit by cars, while one young and one adult as a result of serious injuries and one juvenile male drowned. The trematode Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Rudolphi, 1814) Lühe, 1909 was only found in the caecum body and caecum apex of nine beavers (82%), with no significant differences in parasite intensity among beavers. The highest number of trematodes (271) occurred in an adult female in July 2013; while a range of 1-57 individuals were found in other positive beavers. S. subtriquetrus size in both parts of the caecum was 11.0-17.0 × 5.5-8.0 mm (mean 14.3 × 6.9 mm). Results demonstrated that for the optimal detection of eggs, it was necessary to examine at least 10 g of faeces with a new modified method of sedimentation. The size range of 30 eggs was 157.1-182.5 × 99.3-109.8 μm (mean 168.0 × 104.4 μm). There were no differences in prevalence and seasonal occurrence of S. subtriquetrus between male and female beavers. We did not find any other intestinal endoparasites or tissue parasites (Sarcocystis spp., Trichinella spp.).

  4. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  5. A first insight into the barcodes for African diplostomids (Digenea: Diplostomidae): Brain parasites in Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chibwana, F.D.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Georgieva, Simona; Hosea, K.M.; Nkwengulila, G.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 17, JUL 2013 (2013), s. 62-70 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 252124 - PARAPOPGENE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tylodelphys spp. * Diplostomum spp. * Clarias gariepinus * Synodontis nigrita * Tanzania * Africa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013

  6. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.

  7. A new species of Haematoloechus Looss, 1899 (Digenea: Plagiorchioidea: Haematoloechidae), a parasite of Rana psilonota Webb and R. zweifeli Hillis, Frost & Webb (Anura: Ranidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Règagnon, Virginia; Romero-Mayén, Ángeles R

    2017-06-01

    During an inventory of the helminths of amphibians in Mexico, specimens of an undescribed species of Haematoloechus Looss, 1899 (Digenea: Haematoloechidae) were collected from the lungs of frogs of the "tarahumarae" group in western México. Haematoloechus longicollum n. sp. differs from other known species of Haematoloechus by the combination of the following characters: body elongate and slender in the preovarian region and broad and blunt in the postovarian region, ovary separated from the ventral sucker more than twice the ovary length, oral sucker to pharynx length ratio 1:0.56, oral sucker to ventral sucker length ratio 1:0.80, presence of extracaecal uterine loops, absence of longitudinal extracaecal uterine loops, ovary and testes oval.

  8. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  9. Zoonotic potential of Helicobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mladenova-Hristova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Helicobacter contains more than 35 species. Helicobacter pylori is the most important in terms of human health. Discovery of these helicobacters gives opportunity to understand the relationship between these bacteria which colonise the animal and human gut and their effect on the host. Infection with Helicobacter spp. and the associated diseases in their hosts allow us to study the pathogenic mechanisms. The potential zoonotic pathway for the transmission of Helicobacter spp. and epidemiology of this genus, deserve more attention to these emerging pathogens.

  10. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic agrobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Ivanović, Milan; Ćalić, Anđelka; Gašić, Katarina; Obradović, Aleksa

    2011-01-01

    Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the s...

  11. Notes on helminth parasites of tuna fishes (Scombridae in Brazil Notas sobre los helmintos parásitos del atún (Scombridae en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Nascimento-Justo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Scombridae from the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southwest Atlantic Ocean were found to be parasitized with species of Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson a new host record for Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970, and Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitized by Didymozoon longicolle and reported as a new host for Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitized by Nephrodidymotrema ahi, and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus by Didymozoon longicolle. Measurements, figures, and parameters of infection are presented.Cuatro especies de Scombridae de la costa de Río de Janeiro, suroeste del océano Atlántico, se reportan parasitados con diferentes especies de Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson un registro de nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970 y para Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitado por Didymozoon longicolle, se indica como nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitados por Nephrodidymotrema ahi y Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus por Didymozoon longicolle. Se presentan las mediciones, las figuras y los parámetros de la infección.

  12. Comparative pattern of growth and development of Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in hamster and Wistar rat using light and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Joyce G R; Garcia, Juberlan S; Gomes, Ana Paula N; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2017-12-01

    Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) lives in the duodenum and bile duct of rodents and is reported as a useful model for studies on the biology of flatworms. Here, we compared the growth and development of pre and post ovigerous worms collected 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post infection from experimentally infected hamster (permissive host) and Wistar rat (less permissive hosts). Linear measurements and ratios were examined by light (morphology and morphometry) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. At day 3, either worm from hamsters or rats were small with poorly developed gonads. At seven day, worms increased in size and morphometric differences between hosts are statistically significant after this time. In addition, adult worms (14 and 21 days of age) harvested from hamster showed developed gonads and vitelline glands laterally distributed on the body, whereas worms from rat showed atrophied reproductive system characterized by underdeveloped vitelline glands and stunted ovary. The worm rate recovery in rat decreased from 29.3% (day 7) to 20.6% (day 14) and 8% (day 21), whilst it remained around 37% in hamster. In conclusion, this is the first appointment demonstrating that low permissiveness influences the reproductive system of echinostome since the immature stages of development. The phenotypic analysis evidenced that hamster provides a more favorable microenvironment for gonads development than rat, confirming golden hamster as a permissive host, whereas Wistar rat is less permissive host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. First molecular identification of Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) from an intermediate host Radix labiata (Rossmaessler) (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E

    2016-07-01

    The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae).

  14. Liolope copulans (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae) parasitic in Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in Japan: Life cycle and systematic position inferred from morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takashi; Hosoi, Masatomi; Urabe, Misako; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tochimoto, Takeyoshi; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2011-06-01

    The life cycle of Liolope copulans Cohn, 1902 (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae), an intestinal parasite of the Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), was studied in the field and laboratory in Japan. This is the first description of mother sporocyst, daughter sporocyst and cercariae of a liolopid species. Non-oculate longifurcate pharyngeate cercariae were formed in lanceolate-cylindrical daughter sporocysts in Semisulcospira libertina (Gould) (Gastropoda: Sorbeoconcha: Pleuroceridae). They successfully developed to encapsulated metacercariae in cyprinid fishes, Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck and Schlegel) and Rhynchocypris lagowskii (Dybowski), by experimental infection. Cercariae had a V-shaped excretory vesicle with two looped arms, as in metacercariae and adults. Developmental stages from mother sporocyst to adult are described and illustrated. DNA sequencing was conducted for 28S and 18S rDNA of mother and daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and an adult. The result of molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. copulans may be one of the basal taxa of the order Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray, and Littlewood, 2003, but its systematic position is still unclear because of the topological inconsistence between the 28S and 18S trees. Therefore, we tentatively place the family Liolopidae in the superfamily Diplostomoidea, mainly based on the morphology of sporocysts and cercariae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoa in Digeneans of the genus Lecithochirium Lühe, 1901 (Digenea, Hemiuridae, parasites of fishes: comparative study of L. microstomum and L. musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndiaye Papa Ibnou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the first ultrastructural data of spermatozoa in the genus Lecithochirium. The spermatozoa of L. microstomum (from Trichiurus lepturus in Senegal and L. musculus (from Anguilla anguilla in Corsica exhibit the general pattern described in the great majority of the Digenea, namely two axonemes with the 9 + “1” pattern typical of the Trepaxonemata, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules and external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. Spermatozoa of L. microstomum and L. musculus have some specific features such as the presence of a reduced number of cortical microtubules arranged on only one side of the spermatozoon, the lack of spine-like bodies and expansion of the plasma membrane. The external ornamentation of the plasma membrane entirely covers the anterior extremity of the spermatozoa. The ultrastructure of the posterior extremity of the spermatozoa corresponds to the pattern previously described in the Hemiuridae, characterized by only singlets of the second axoneme. A particularity of these spermatozoa is the organization of the microtubule doublets of the second axoneme around the nucleus in the posterior part of the spermatozoon.

  16. Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoa in Digeneans of the genus Lecithochirium Lühe, 1901 (Digenea, Hemiuridae), parasites of fishes: comparative study of L. microstomum and L. musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Quilichini, Yann; Sène, Aminata; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first ultrastructural data of spermatozoa in the genus Lecithochirium. The spermatozoa of L. microstomum (from Trichiurus lepturus in Senegal) and L. musculus (from Anguilla anguilla in Corsica) exhibit the general pattern described in the great majority of the Digenea, namely two axonemes with the 9 + "1" pattern typical of the Trepaxonemata, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules and external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. Spermatozoa of L. microstomum and L. musculus have some specific features such as the presence of a reduced number of cortical microtubules arranged on only one side of the spermatozoon, the lack of spine-like bodies and expansion of the plasma membrane. The external ornamentation of the plasma membrane entirely covers the anterior extremity of the spermatozoa. The ultrastructure of the posterior extremity of the spermatozoa corresponds to the pattern previously described in the Hemiuridae, characterized by only singlets of the second axoneme. A particularity of these spermatozoa is the organization of the microtubule doublets of the second axoneme around the nucleus in the posterior part of the spermatozoon. P.I. Ndiaye et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

  17. Larval trematodes (Digenea of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L., (Gastropoda, Pulmonata in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faltýnková A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea from the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, South-East Germany, Poland and Slovak Republic is presented, based on a study of 3,628 snails examined from 1998 to 2005. A total of 953 (26.3% L. stagnalis were infected with 24 trematode species comprising 19 species of cercariae and 11 species of metacercariae (six species occurred both as cercarie and metacercarie of eight families. The dominant cercariae were those of Opisthioglyphe ranae (159 hosts infected, Plagiorchis elegans (141 (both family Plagiorchiidae and Echinoparyphium aconiatum (153 (Echinostomatidae; 14 double infections were found. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Neoglyphe locellus (71 (Omphalometridae, E. aconiatum (66, Echinostoma sp. (59 and Moliniella anceps (48 (Echinostomatidae. In the previous studies carried out in Central Europe, a very similar spectrum of nine trematode families of 22 cercariae determined to species level and 43 types of cercariae reported under generic or provisional names, which can be in many cases conspecific with the previous taxa, were found. A simple key to identification of cercariae and metacercariae, together with their illustrations, is provided.

  18. Fish pathogens near the Arctic Circle: molecular, morphological and ecological evidence for unexpected diversity of Diplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Skírnisson, Karl; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Host-parasite systems at high latitudes are promising model systems for detecting and predicting the impact of accelerated environmental change. A major challenge is the lack of baselines for the diversity and distribution of parasites in Arctic wildlife, especially in the freshwater environment. Here we present the first known estimates of the species diversity and host associations of Diplostomum spp. in sub-Arctic freshwater ecosystems of the Palaearctic. Our analyses integrating different analytical approaches, phylogenies based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, estimates of genetic divergence, character-based barcoding, morphological examination, precise detection of microhabitat specialisation and host use, led to the discovery of one described and five putative new species that complete their life-cycles within a fairly narrow geographic area in Iceland. This increases the species richness of Diplostomum in Iceland by 200% and raises the number of molecularly characterised species from the Palaearctic to 17 species. Our results suggest that the diversity of Diplostomum spp. is underestimated globally in the high latitude ecosystems and call for a cautionary approach to pathogen identification in developing the much needed baselines of pathogen diversity that may help detect effects of climate change in the freshwater environment of the sub-Arctic. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp. and Monocercomonas spp. in the gastrointestinal tract of snakes by in-situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B; Kübber-Heiss, A; Weissenböck, H; Schmidt, P

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a diagnostic method for protozoal infections of the gastrointestinal tract of captive snakes, based on chromogenic in-situ hybridization with probes designed for the detection of 18S rRNA genes from Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba invadens and Monocercomonas spp. The specificity of the probes was confirmed with the help of parasitic cultures and gene sequence analysis. The probes gave clear positive signals. Of 182 snakes examined, seven were positive with the Cryptosporidium probe, 13 with the Entamoeba probe (of which nine were also positive with the E. invadens probe), and 34 with the Monocercomonas probe.

  20. Echinostoma 'revolutum' (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) species complex revisited: species delimitation based on novel molecular and morphological data gathered in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Brown, Rebecca; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Soldánová, Miroslava; Sitko, Jiljí; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-11-27

    The systematics of echinostomes within the so-called 'revolutum' group of the genus Echinostoma, which encompasses the type-species E. revolutum and a number of morphologically similar species, has long been controversial. Recent molecular studies indicate the existence of more species than previously considered valid, thus stressing the need for wider taxon sampling from natural host populations. This is especially true for Europe where morphological evidence indicates higher species diversity than previously thought, but where molecular data are virtually lacking. This gap in our knowledge was addressed in the present study through an integration of morphological and molecular approaches in the investigation of a dataset with larger taxonomic and geographical coverage. More than 20,000 freshwater snails belonging to 16 species were collected during 1998-2012 from various localities in eight countries in Europe. Snail screening provided representative larval isolates for five species of the 'revolutum' group, identified by their morphology. Adult isolates for four species recovered from natural and experimental infections were also identified. Partial fragments of the mitochondrial nad1 and 28S rRNA genes were amplified for 74 and 16 isolates, respectively; these were analysed together with the sequences of Echinostoma spp. available on GenBank. Delineation of the European Echinostoma spp. was carried out based on molecular, morphological and ecological data. The large-scale screening revealed infections with five Echinostoma spp., including one new species: E. revolutum (sensu stricto), E. miyagawai, E. paraulum, E. bolschewense and Echinostoma n. sp. The newly-generated nad1 sequences from Europe fall into six distinct, well-supported, reciprocally monophyletic lineages corresponding to the species identifications based on morphology; this was corroborated by the 28S rDNA sequences. The analyses of the total nad1 dataset provided evidence for 12 monophyletic

  1. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  2.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

      The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables   Anne Winding, National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde, AU   Trichoderma spp. is a naturally occurring fungus in soil and T. harzianum is an active ingredient in microbial pest control agents (MPCA) active against root pathogenic fungi....... The MPCA is administered to the plants by watering. The fungus establishes in the root zone and exerts its beneficial effect by general increase of resistance against pathogenic fungi. The natural occurrence of Trichoderma spp. and the fate and survival of the introduced T. harzianum on vegetables...

  3. Karakteristik Tepung Prebiotik Umbi Uwi (Dioscorea Spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Winarti, Sri; Saputro, Erwan Adi

    2013-01-01

    Umbi uwi (Dioscorea spp.) merupakan salah satu jenis umbi yang banyak tumbuh di Indonesia memiliki kandungan karbohidrat yang tinggi. Keanekaragaman uwi sangat banyak baik dilihat dari bentuk, ukuran, warna, maupun rasa umbinya. Terdapat lebih dari 600 spesies dari genus Dioscorea spp. tersebar di berbagai negara, termasuk Indonesia, antara lain Dioscorea hispida (gadung), Dioscorea esculenta (gembili), Discorea bulbifera (gembolo), Dioscorea alata (uwi ungu/purple yam), Dioscorea opposita (...

  4. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  5. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kuzmanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the strains. Two duplex PCR methods were conducted with four different primer pairs. In all strains, presence of plasmid virD2 and virC pathogenicity genes was detected. Chromosomal pehA gene was determined in A. vitis strain. Pathogenicity was confirmed on carrot slices and young plants of tomato and sunflower. Strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis were pathogenic on all test plants, while strain of A. rhizogenes induced characteristic symptoms only on carrot slices. The tests used in this study provided reliable discrimination between the three species and confirmed their identity as tumorigenic (TiAgrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis, and rhizogenic (Ri A. rhizogenes.

  6. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  7. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  8. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  9. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  10. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  11. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlberg, Hllytchaikra Ferraz; Maciel, Bianca Mendes; Albuquerque, George Rêgo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan), on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction), and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction). The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively). This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  12. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Widespread Oceanospirillaceae Bacteria in Porites spp.

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    Mark D. Speck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence that a clade of bacteria in the Oceanospirillaceae is widely distributed in Porites spp. and other hermatypic corals. Bacteria 16S rDNA clone libraries were prepared from community genomic DNA extracted from Porites compressa and Porites lobata surface mucus and adjacent seawater collected along a line transect off Maui. Phylogenetic affiliations of operational taxonomic units (OTUs defined at the 97% level of nucleotide identity varied within and between the respective Porites spp. along the transect and differed from those in the seawater. One OTU (C7-A01, however, occurred in all mucus samples from both Porites species. C7-A01c affiliates with a clade of uncultivated Oceanospirillum-like bacteria; the nearest neighbors of this OTU have been reported only in the surface mucus layer of Porites spp. and other stony corals, in reef-dwelling invertebrates, and the corallivorous six-banded angelfish, Pomacanthus sexstriatus.

  14. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

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    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  15. Distribución parcial de Paragonimus (Digenea: Troglotrematidae en Antioquia, por presencia de metacercarias en cangrejos dulciacuícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Velásquez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La paragonimosis, o distomatosis pulmonar, es una enfermedad con sintomatología similar a la observada en la tuberculosis. Es causada por parásitos del género Paragonimus (Digenea: Troglotrematidae. Las personas se infectan al consumir cangrejos crudos o mal cocidos, con metacercarias del parásito. El primer foco de paragonimosis humana en Colombia se registró durante 1995 en Urrao, Antioquia, donde se hallaron dos especies de cangrejos que hospedaban el parásito. En el 2005 se capturaron cangrejos con metacercarias de Paragonimus en Medellín, lo que motivó la búsqueda del parásito en otras localidades, mediante su presencia en estos crustáceos. Objetivo. Establecer la distribución de Paragonimus en Antioquia, evaluando la presencia de metacercarias en macrocrustáceos braquiuros, dulciacuícolas. Materiales y métodos. Desde 2005 hasta 2007 se capturaron cangrejos en 13 municipios antioqueños. Se relajaron y sacrificaron para la búsqueda del digeneo y la identificación taxonómica. Resultados. En nueve municipios se capturaron 52 cangrejos, 42 (80,76% con metacercarias de Paragonimus. Todos los crustáceos se determinaron como Pseudothelphusidae, de los géneros Hypolobocera y Strengeriana, y se asignaron a cuatro especies. Tres se registran por primera vez como huéspedes del parásito. Conclusión. Se inicia la construcción de un mapa con la distribución de Paragonimus en Antioquia que incluye por primera vez zonas urbanizadas. Se ratifican el consumo y la manipulación de los cangrejos crudos y mal cocidos como factores de riesgo para la infección humana. Se propone a los cangrejos como agentes focalizadores de paragonimosis por ser asequibles y de fácil diagnóstico.

  16. Association of Treponema spp. with canine periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Marcel; Rühe, Bärbel; Kellermeier, Claudia; Moter, Annette; Schmitz, Rose; Brunnberg, Leo; Wieler, Lothar H

    2008-03-18

    To evaluate the association of oral Treponema (T.) spp. with severity of canine periodontitis, subgingival plaque samples of dogs of various breeds undergoing surgery were investigated. A wide range of oral Treponema spp. was analysed by a molecular and culture-independent approach applying DNA-DNA dot blot hybridization analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization using Treponema specific oligonucleotide probes specific for phylogenetic groups I-VII of oral treponemes as well as probes specific for T. socranskii and T. denticola. To assess the periodontal status of affected dogs clinical parameters were measured and the periodontal status was classified from grade 0 (physiological periodont) to 3 (severe periodontitis). The periodontal status correlated significantly with an increasing concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC, r=0.854) determined with a Halimeter, indicating a positive correlation between the presence of VSC-producing bacteria and periodontitis. In this study Treponema spp. of phylogenetic groups III, V-VII were not detected in any sample, whereas T. denticola-like treponemes were found only in 2 of 51 animals. However, treponemes belonging to phylogenetic groups I, II and IV of oral treponemes or T. socranskii were found in up to 64.84% of the dogs. The detection rate of Treponema spp. was significantly associated with an increased periodontal status. Treponemes present in periodontal lesions were also visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization of gingival biopsies showing Treponema spp. not only in the microbial biofilm but also within the gingival tissue. The data presented here indicate that oral Treponema spp. are associated with canine periodontitis. Similar to human periodontitis, treponemes of groups I, II and IV and T. socranskii were found more frequently the higher the degree of periodontitis was.

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2006-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  18. Metacercárias de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomidae em peixes do rio Paraná, Brasil. Prevalência, sazonalidade e intensidade de infecção Metacercariae of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomatidae in fishes of Paraná River, Brazil. Prevalence, seasoning and intensity of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Kazuyuki Takahashi

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomidae no globo ocular de Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina e Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, capturados mensalmente, no rio Paraná, Presidente Epitácio, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. De 61 corvinas analisadas, 56 estavam parasitadas (92% com intensidade média de 42,0 parasitos por hospedeiro. De 81 tucunarés, 45 estavam parasitados (55% com intensidade média de 9,3 parasitos. A corvina apresentou prevalências de 71 a 100% e as maiores intensidades médias (103,3 e 106,9 nos meses de fevereiro e março/2001. Comparativamente, o tucunaré apresentou as mais altas prevalências nos meses de novembro/2000 (90% e fevereiro/2001 (80%. As mais altas intensidades médias no tucunaré ocorreram em setembro/2000 (12,7, dezembro/2000 (12,2 e fevereiro/2001 (16,1. As metacercárias apresentam o corpo côncavo ventralmente e na região posterior existe uma sinuosa protuberância cônica. A ventosa oral menor do que o acetábulo. Acetábulo simples situado na região pré-equatorial do helminto. Pré-faringe curta seguida de faringe musculosa. Poro genital situado próximo da altura do acetábulo. As metacercárias da corvina apresentam 1.434,0 µm (880 a 1.840 de comprimento por 611,2±93,4 µm (400 a 792 de largura e as do tucunaré 1.462,4 µm (960 a 2.480 por 710,8 µm (560 a 960. Os autores confirmaram a maior susceptibilidade da corvina ao Diplostomum e a relação do parasitismo com os parâmetros aquáticos e climáticos.This paper aims at evaluating the occurrence of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomatidae in the eyeball of Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina and Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, monthly captured in Paraná river, Presidente Epitácio, state of São Paulo, Brazil. From 61 corvinas under analysis, 56 of them contained parasites (92 % with intensity rate of 42.0 host parasites. From an amount of 81 tucunarés, 45 contained

  19. Leptospira spp. in commensal rodents, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengmin; He, Hongxuan

    2013-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis, and rats (Rattus spp.) are its most common source. We found antibodies to leptospires in 115 (30.2%) of 381 commensal rodents from Beijing, China. Commensal rodents might represent a potential source for human and pet leptospirosis in urban environments.

  20. SPAWNING MIGRATION OF LABEOBARBUS SPP. (PISCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pairwise comparison of the Labeobarbus spp. showed temporal segregation in all sampling months, except L. intermedius and L. brevicephalus that did not show temporal segregation with L. nedgia. The best management option to protect these species is closed season that should be strictly implemented during the ...

  1. EKOLOGI Anopheles spp. DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

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    Majematang Mading

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok

  2. Toward in vitro fertilization in Brachiaria spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusi, D.; Alves, E.R.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Falcao, R.; Valle, do C.B.; Carneiro, V.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Brachiaria are forage grasses widely cultivated in tropical areas. In vitro pollination was applied to accessions of Brachiaria spp. by placing pollen of non-dehiscent anthers on a solid medium near isolated ovaries. Viability and in vitro germination were tested in order to establish good

  3. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in retail foods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hochel, I.; Růžičková, H.; Krásný, Lukáš; Demnerová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 1257-1265 ISSN 1364-5072 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biotype * antibiotic resistance * Cronobacter spp Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2012

  4. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  5. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  6. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis,

  7. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  8. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  13. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus Vibrio spp. e Salmonella spp. em caranguejos, Ucides cordatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine H.S.F. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.Foram pesquisadas a presença de Vibrio spp. e de Salmonella spp. em caranguejos comercializados na Av. Bezerra de Menezes, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, no período entre fevereiro e maio de 2003. O número de indivíduos em cada, das quinze coletas realizadas, semanalmente, variava entre quatro e oito dependendo do tamanho dos animais, totalizando um número de 90 (noventa animais examinados. Foram identificadas sete cepas de Salmonella spp. provenientes de quatro coletas: cinco foram identificadas como sorovar S. Senftenberg e duas como S. Poona. Todas as cepas de Salmonella, isoladas das amostras de caranguejos, apresentaram sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção de tetraciclina e ácido nalidíxico para os quais elas apresentaram uma sensibilidade intermediária. Os NMPs

  14. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  15. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  16. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  18. Easy storage strategies for Sporothrix spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Natalya Fechine; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Caetano, Érica Pacheco; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the maintenance of Sporothrix spp. (6 Sporothrix brasiliensis; 6 S. schenckii; 5 S. mexicana, and 3 S. globosa) in saline at 4°C, and in 10% glycerol plus either 10% lactose or 10% sucrose, at -20°C and -80°C. Viability was assessed after 3, 6, and 9 months of storage, through the recovery of strains on potato dextrose agar and analysis of macro- and micromorphological features. Conidium quantification was performed before and after storage, at 3, 6 and 9 months. 100% viability was observed, regardless of storage conditions or time period. Storage at 4°C and at -20°C did not alter the number of conidia, but lower conidium counts were observed at -80°C. This study shows that the combination of glycerol with lactose or sucrose is effective to maintain Sporothrix spp. at freezing temperatures.

  19. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis, production of lytic enzymes, and induced systemic resistance (ISR). The involvement of ISR is typically studied in systems in which the Pseudomonas bacteria and the pathogen are inoculated and rema...

  20. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmund-Høyer, E.; Norsker, Merete

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... into bread. The OCTT for raw SPP was significantly delayed compared to lactulose (P = 0.01). The OCTT for SPP baked into bread was significantly delayed compared to raw SPP (P = 0.01), indicating that SPP may be used as a marker of oro-coecal transit time for as well the fluid phase as the solid phase...

  1. El rol de Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura en los ciclos de vida de Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: algunos aspectos de su ecologia parasitaria The role of Cytograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura in the life cycles of Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: some aspects of their ecological parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Martorelli

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos se pudo concluir que: a C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati.Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977, from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host the following conclusions have been reached: a C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations

  2. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  3. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P Babesia related to B. lengau from Africa.

  4. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryp...

  5. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Wei, Ben-Jun; He, Xuan-Hui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp. PMID:26788113

  9. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.

  10. New, simple medium for selective, differential recovery of Klebsiella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás, J M; Ciurana, B; Jofre, J T

    1986-01-01

    A highly selective, differential medium for the enumeration and isolation of Klebsiella spp. was developed. With pure cultures, 100% recovery of Klebsiella spp. was observed. Recovery of Klebsiella spp. on MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite (MCIK) agar was as good as or better than on MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin agar either with pure cultures or environmental samples. Recovery and percent colony confirmation with MCIK agar were greater and easier to obtain than for other proposed Kle...

  11. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  12. Pathogenic and molecular characterisation of Pythium spp. inducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenic and molecular characterisation of Pythium spp. inducing root rot symptoms in other crops intercropped with beans in Southwestern Uganda. Virginia Gichuru, Robin Buruchara, Patrick Okori ...

  13. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinkovic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located. Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 2008 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  14. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  15. Growth of Pseudomonas spp. in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw

    of spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria...... (pH 7.0) showed interesting results. Despite a lower pH value in the cottage cheese, compared to the dressing, more rapid growth was observed. This may be caused by insufficient amounts of oxygen in the cream dressing having a negative effect on growth of Pseudomonas spp. At 15˚C growth...

  16. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  17. Control potential of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp. using fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcielly F. Turatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.

  18. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE METACERCÁRIAS DE ASCOCOTYLE SP (TREMATODA: DIGENEA DOS TECIDOS DE MUGIL LIZA VALENCIENNES, 1836 (TELEOSTEI: MUGILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.

  19. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  20. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsborg, Stig M; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered in young animals. Dogs are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis while cats are infected with different species according to geographical location (Strongyloides felis, Strongyloides tumefaciens, Strongyloides planiceps and perhaps S. stercoralis). In contrast to the other species, lactogenic transmission is not a primary means of infection in dogs, and S. stercoralis is the only species considered zoonotic. Strongyloides papillosus in calves has been linked to heavy fatalities under conditions of high stocking density. Strongyloides westeri and Strongyloides ransomi of horses and pigs, respectively, cause only sporadic clinical disease. In conclusion, these infections are generally of low relative importance in livestock and equines, most likely due to extensive use of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics and/or improved hygiene. Future prevalence studies need to include molecular typing of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes.

  1. Streptomyces spp. in the biocatalysis toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Jelena; Mandic, Mina; Djokic, Lidija; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2018-04-01

    About 20,100 research publications dated 2000-2017 were recovered searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases for Streptomyces, which are the richest known source of bioactive molecules. However, these bacteria with versatile metabolism are powerful suppliers of biocatalytic tools (enzymes) for advanced biotechnological applications such as green chemical transformations and biopharmaceutical and biofuel production. The recent technological advances, especially in DNA sequencing coupled with computational tools for protein functional and structural prediction, and the improved access to microbial diversity enabled the easier access to enzymes and the ability to engineer them to suit a wider range of biotechnological processes. The major driver behind a dramatic increase in the utilization of biocatalysis is sustainable development and the shift toward bioeconomy that will, in accordance to the UN policy agenda "Bioeconomy to 2030," become a global effort in the near future. Streptomyces spp. already play a significant role among industrial microorganisms. The intention of this minireview is to highlight the presence of Streptomyces in the toolbox of biocatalysis and to give an overview of the most important advances in novel biocatalyst discovery and applications. Judging by the steady increase in a number of recent references (228 for the 2000-2017 period), it is clear that biocatalysts from Streptomyces spp. hold promises in terms of valuable properties and applicative industrial potential.

  2. Genomic, proteomic and morphological characterization of two novel broad host lytic bacteriophages (phi)PD10.3 and (phi)PD23.1 infecting pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; de Jager, Victor; Siwinska, Joanna; Smolarska, Anna; Ossowicki, Adam; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens of many important crops, including potato, worldwide. This study reports on the isolation and characterization of broad host lytic bacteriophages able to infect the dominant Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp.

  3. Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... Eggplant (Solanum spp.) production in Arumeru district and other parts of Africa is severely affected by wilting diseases of unknown etiology. Fusarium spp. characterized through morphological and sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor associated with Fusarium wilt of eggplants was.

  4. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida

  5. Genetic characterization of Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to detect and identify the target bacteria, samples were analysed by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques (quantitative real-time PCR). Genetic relatedness was established using Sanger sequencing of the invA gene of Salmonella spp. and ipaH of Shigella spp. Results of this study displayed the ...

  6. Pseudomonas spp. convert metmyoglobin into deoxymyoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Michiyo; Kobayashi, Miho; Sasaki, Keisuke; Nomura, Masaru; Mitsumoto, Mitsuru

    2010-01-01

    Meat 'reddening' by bacteria was observed in chilled beef. To identify the reddening bacteria, isolates were inoculated onto beef and the changes in CIE L*a*b* values monitored. As a result, two Pseudomonas spp., including Pseudomonas fragi which is commonly observed in raw meat, were selected and identified as reddening bacteria. The reddening was coincidentally occurred with the appearance of slime, and the increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was simultaneously suppressed. In myoglobin-containing nutrient broth, it is shown spectroscopically that P. fragi converted metmyoglobin into deoxymyoglobin. It was concluded that the meat reddening was due to the formation of deoxymyoglobin, induced by the very-low-oxygen tension brought about by Pseudomonad's oxygen consumption: This oxygen depletion simultaneously suppressed TBARS increase.

  7. Rhabdochlamydia spp. in an Oregon raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy, Sophie J; Schlueter, Andrew H; Bildfell, Robert J; Rockey, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    PCR-based approach was used to examine the rate of Chlamydia positivity in raptors from wild bird rehabilitation centers in Oregon. Three of 82 birds were identified as positive for Chlamydia with this PCR. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA from 2 of these birds confirmed the presence of DNA from phylum Chlamydiae. One bird was positive for Chlamydia psittaci in both choanal and cloacal swabs. The second bird, a louse-infested red-tailed hawk, had evidence of choanal colonization by "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia" spp. Our study describes evidence of this Chlamydia-like organism in the United States. This survey also suggests that the carriage rate of C. psittaci is low in raptors in Oregon wild bird rehabilitation centers, and that care must be taken in the design of PCR primers for phylum Chlamydiae such that colonization by insect endosymbionts is not mistaken for an infection by known chlamydial pathogens. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. associated with the infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander Human

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences.

  9. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L. en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98, el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  10. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. Associated with the Infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Zander R.; Moon, Kyuho; Bae, Munhyung; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Cha, Sangwon; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Oh, Dong-Chan; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2016-01-01

    Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences. PMID:27853450

  11. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  12. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  13. Pertumbuhan Optimum Penicillium spp. dan Cunninghamella spp. yang Diisolasi dari Pakan dan Efek Toksiknya pada Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are a major microorganism present in the feedstuffs that able to reduce nutritive value and produce toxin that harmful for animal. Penicillium spp. and Cunninghamella spp. were dominant present in the feedstuffs in tropical regions. The objectives of this study were to find out the optimum pH and temperature of Penicillium spp. and Cunninghamella spp. on agar media and to find out the effect of feeding diet containing corn contaminated with the fungi at level of 0%, 50% and 100% on the performance and relative organ weight of 45 mice (Mus musculus. Cunninghamella spp. grew at pH range of 3-9, and Penicillium spp. at pH range of 3-7. The temperature for the optimum growth of both fungi was on room temperature (28±2 oC. Feed consumption and daily gain (ADG of mice were not significantly affected by content of corn contaminated with Cunninghamella spp. Conversely, corn contaminated with Penicillium spp. significantly (P<0.05 reduced feed consumption and ADG of mice. Treatments had no effect on liver and hearth relative weight, but significantly influenced relative weight of kidney and lymph. Lymph relative weight of mice fed ration containing Penicillium-contaminated corn was lower (P<0.05 than that of control. Mice treated with contaminated corn from both fungi at the level 100% also significantly (P<0.05 had higher kidney relative weight than that of control. It was concluded that the toxic effect of Penicillium spp. was higher than that of Cunninghamella spp.

  14. Leptospira spp. in Rodents and Shrews in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mayer-Scholl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae, six vole species (family Cricetidae and six shrew species (family Soricidae. The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%, followed by Apodemus spp. (11% and Clethrionomys spp. (6%. The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST. Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified.

  15. Leptospira spp. in Rodents and Shrews in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C.; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275

  16. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  17. Interaction of Salmonella spp. with the intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian MM Ahmer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been developed to study Salmonella spp. interaction with the microbiota that have helped to identify factors necessary to overcome colonization resistance and to mediate disease. Here we review the current state of studies into this important pathogen/microbiota/host interaction in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  19. Expression analysis of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα1 and TNFα2 in response to parasites Pseudocycnus appendiculatus (Copepoda) and Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Digenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Bušelić, Ivana; Trumbić, Željka; Bočina, Ivana; Šprung, Matilda; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-08-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in teleost defence against numerous types of pathogens, therefore are often used as biomarkers during various infections. In order to evaluate Atlantic bluefin tuna IL-1β, TNFα1 and TNFα2 induction by PAMPs, we quantified their expression during in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes by LPS and Poly I:C. Furthermore, their role in acute and chronic parasitic infection was examined during natural infection of Pseudocycnus appendiculatus (Copepoda) and Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Digenea), as well as during leukocyte exposure to total protein extracts isolated from two parasite species. Induction of ABT IL-1β and TNFα2 by PAMPs and protein extracts from D. katsuwonicola and P. appendiculatus, as well as during natural infection with two parasites, suggests these cytokines play an important role in inflammation, being engaged in controlling parasite infections, in contrast to ABT TNFα1. Cellular innate response to the digenean D. katsuwonicola showed rather chronic character, resulting with parasite encapsulation in connective tissue. Mast cells, eosinophils, goblet cells, and occasional rodlet cells found at the site of infection, along with the induction of TNFα2, suggest the presence of a moderate inflammatory reaction that fails to seriously endanger digenean existence. In contrast, copepod P. appendiculatus, attached to the gill epithelium by clamping, caused direct tissue disruption with undergoing necrotic or apoptotic processes, and extensive proliferation of rodlet and goblet cells. Differential expression patterns of target cytokines in tissue surrounding two parasites and in vitro PBL model suggest that quality and quantity of tuna immune response is conditioned by parasite adaptive mechanisms and pathogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Horses seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp. and Neospora spp.: Possible risk factors for infection in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazarotto, Chrystian J; Balzan, Alexandre; Grosskopf, Rhayana K; Boito, Jhonatan P; Portella, Luiza P; Vogel, Fernanda F; Fávero, Juscivete F; de C Cucco, Diego; Biazus, Angelisa H; Machado, Gustavo; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-10-01

    Many parasitic diseases are considered asymptomatic, even though some studies have shown that they may cause pathological changes in the host. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis spp. in horses, and to identify the risk factors for disease. For this, 174 horses were studied, 90 males and 84 females aged between two and 20 years old. Blood samples were collected and stored in tubes without anticoagulant to obtain serum, which was subjected to serological tests for T. gondii, Sarcocystis spp., and Neospora spp. using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). IFA results were as follows: Sarcocystis spp. 41.37% (72/174) (CI95%-34.05-49.09); T. gondii 32.18% (56/174) (CI95%-25.42-39.74) and Neospora spp. 48.27% (84/174) (CI95%-40.68.50-55.93). Out of 174 horses, 81 had simple infection, 61 had mixed infections with two or three of these pathogens, and therefore, only 32 horses showed no antibodies to any of these pathogens. No risk factors for Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii infection were identified. However, there was a significant (1.22-CI95%-1.02-1.52) relationship between animal age and Neospora spp. infection, since older animals showed higher prevalence. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that T. gondii and Neospora spp. affect horses in Southern Brazil, however all the animals studied were asymptomatic without reproductive, neurological or locomotor problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of sources of resistance. Phoebe Kirigo Mwaniki, Mathew Musumbale Abang, Isabel Nyokabi Wagara, Joseph Ngwela Wolukau, Schroers Hans-Josef ...

  2. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  3. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); De Ridder, C. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Biologie Marine

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  4. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria

  5. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  6. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Holospora spp., Intranuclear Symbionts of Paramecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya K. Garushyants

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula, a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria, and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp. can persist outside the host, they cannot synthesize most of the essential small molecules, such as amino acids, and lack some central energy metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. As the main energy source, Holospora spp. likely rely on nucleotides pirated from the host. Holospora-specific genes absent from other Rickettsiales are possibly involved in the lifestyle switch from the infectious to the reproductive form and in cell invasion.

  7. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  8. Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquid has antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Yolanda; Ingrid M. Makahinda; Maureen Aprilia; Nikki Sanjaya; Harry Gunawan; Rita Dewi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND To develop new effective antifungals, it is essential to search for antifungal compounds from plants such as Nepenthes spp., which have their greatest diversity in Indonesia. Since chitin-induced liquid (CIL) from Nepenthes khasiana pitchers has antifungal activity, due to their naphthoquinone content, this study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquids on Candida spp. METHODS Collected pitcher liquids were of 3 types: non-induced l...

  9. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  10. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  11. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  12. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  13. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henciya, Santhaseelan; Seturaman, Prabha; James, Arthur Rathinam; Tsai, Yi-Hong; Nikam, Rahul; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Chang, Fang Rong

    2017-01-01

    Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H + , K + , ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, "mesquite" honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  15. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  16. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  17. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Abdelfattah M; Elhaig, Mahmoud M; Gaede, Wolfgang

    2014-12-29

    Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  18. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  19. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  20. Assessment of Duplex PCR for the simultaneous diagnose of Mycobacterium spp. and Brucella spp. in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Escobar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis and brucellosis remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, for the detection of both diseases requires efficient and sensitive tool for effectuate the diagnosis. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the duplex PCR versus the nested PCR, for detection of Brucella spp. (BR and Mycobacterium spp. (TB. A total of 100 samples of tissues from tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes, bovine lung and bacterial isolate as positive controls were used. Were evaluated ten combinations of primers which were designed to flank the segment of the 16S rRNA sequence (RB and antigen gen MPB70 (TB, the best result for the Duplex PCR was obtained with the primers Bru-2F/Bru-2R for BR and Tub-1F/Tub-N-R for TB. The amplification of the products was 225 and 230-bp respectively. In order to compare the results of the proposed technique, all samples were initially analyzed and compared between PCR and nested PCR (Kappa, k = 0.85 and the concordance between Duplex PCR and nested PCR (k = 0.88 for the two bacteria was very good.

  1. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryptosporidium and 17.14% for Giardia, the low rates were in Mosul city 10% for both protozoa. The highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium was in March 38.46% and the lowest was in November and July 0%. The highest prevalence rate of Giardia was in October 23.53% and the lowest rate in July 0%. This first study shows the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water (Ground water in Nineveh governorate.

  2. ACIDENTES POR SERPENTE (BOTHROPS SPP. E CROTALLUS SPP. EM CRIANÇAS: RELATO DE DOIS CASOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ferreira Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes provocados por serpientes poseen importancia sanitaria debido a la frecuencia y gravedad. La estandarización de la atención es imprescindible para auxiliar a los equipos de salud en el diagnóstico precoz y en el tratamiento específico a las víctimas. Pero, la evolución clínica del caso presenta particularidades, principalmente en accidentes infantiles y en ancianos. El objetivo fue describir y analizar dos casos clínicos de accidentes infantiles con serpientes de los géneros Bothrops spp. y Crotallus spp., notificados a un centro de información y asistencia toxicológica del Noroeste del Paraná/Brasil. Se encontraron aspectos positivos en la atención, como precocidad del acceso a la unidad de salud, identificación de síntomas y seroterapia precoz, y no ocurrencia de reacciones adversas a la seroterapia antivenenosa, y como aspectos negativos, la ausencia de la solicitud de exámenes bioquímicos preconizados y alta hospitalaria precoz pos seroterapia, considerando la posibilidad de reacciones adversas.

  3. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  4. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  6. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

  7. Skoulekia erythrini n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae): a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (L.) (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the western Mediterranean with an amendment of the generic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Abella, José F; Georgieva, Simona; Mele, Salvatore; Raga, Juan Antonio; Isbert, Wolf; Kostadinova, Aneta; Montero, Francisco E

    2017-07-01

    A new aporocotylid, Skoulekia erythrini n. sp., is described from the heart, cephalic kidney and gill blood vessels of the common pandora Pagellus erythrinus (L.) collected from several localities of the western Mediterranean off Spain. The new species differs from the type- and only species of the genus, S. meningialis Alama-Bermejo, Montero, Raga & Holzer, 2011 in possessing a symmetrical body (vs laterally curved), short tegumental spines (3-4 vs 7-10 µm) without hooked ends, diffuse (vs conspicuous) oesophageal gland-cells, a relatively longer oesophagus, a testis that is shorter in relation to body length and a much smaller seminal vesicle (17-34 × 10-26 vs 33-101 × 27-97 μm). Elongated ellipsoidal eggs of S. erythrini n. sp. were found trapped in gill vessels in histological sections. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial 28S rDNA and ITS2 sequences supported the placement of the new species within Skoulekia and the close relationships of this genus with Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929 and Pearsonellum Overstreet & Køie, 1986. Skoulekia meningialis is described from a new sparid host, Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum), collected off Santa Pola, Spain. The new morphological data for the two Skoulekia spp. and a re-examination of three paratypes of S. meningialis pinpointed features amending both the description of S. meningialis and the generic diagnosis of Skoulekia.

  8. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  10. Significance and Roles of Proteus spp. Bacteria in Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Dominika

    2016-11-01

    Proteus spp. bacteria were first described in 1885 by Gustav Hauser, who had revealed their feature of intensive swarming growth. Currently, the genus is divided into Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus penneri, Proteus hauseri, and three unnamed genomospecies 4, 5, and 6 and consists of 80 O-antigenic serogroups. The bacteria are known to be human opportunistic pathogens, isolated from urine, wounds, and other clinical sources. It is postulated that intestines are a reservoir of these proteolytic organisms. Many wild and domestic animals may be hosts of Proteus spp. bacteria, which are commonly known to play a role of parasites or commensals. However, interesting examples of their symbiotic relationships with higher organisms have also been described. Proteus spp. bacteria present in soil or water habitats are often regarded as indicators of fecal pollution, posing a threat of poisoning when the contaminated water or seafood is consumed. The health risk may also be connected with drug-resistant strains sourcing from intestines. Positive aspects of the bacteria presence in water and soil are connected with exceptional features displayed by autochthonic Proteus spp. strains detected in these environments. These rods acquire various metabolic abilities allowing their adaptation to different environmental conditions, such as high concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances, which may be exploited as sources of energy and nutrition by the bacteria. The Proteus spp. abilities to tolerate or utilize polluting compounds as well as promote plant growth provide a possibility of employing these microorganisms in bioremediation and environmental protection.

  11. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmiro Poltronieri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions.

  12. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  13. Safety evaluation of a new anxiolytic product containing botanicals Souroubea spp. and Platanus spp. in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Aleksandar; Liu, Rui; Simkus, Kristen; Wilson, Jeff; Baker, John; Sanchez, Pablo; Saleem, Ammar; Harris, Cory C; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John T

    2018-01-01

    Separation anxiety and noise aversion are common behavioral problems in dogs. They elicit fear responses such as cowering, seeking out the owner, and attempting to escape. This can result in property damage, injury to the dog, and disruption of the owner-pet bond, possibly leading to pet abandonment or euthanasia. A novel botanical anxiolytic product was evaluated for safety in dogs as the target animal species. Its intended use is for the treatment and prevention of anxiety and noise aversion in dogs. It contains a defined mixture of Souroubea spp. vine and Platanus spp. bark, delivering the active principle, betulinic acid, at a recommended dose of 1 mg/kg body weight (BW). In the current target animal safety study, 16 healthy male beagle dogs were administered either a placebo or the newly formulated botanical tablets at 0.5×, 2.5×, or 5× the recommended dose (1 mg/kg BW) over 28 d. The dogs were monitored for occurrence of any systemic or local adverse events. In the investigation presented here, there were no clinically significant adverse effects following treatment, as determined by clinical observations, physical examinations, BW, hematology, clinical biochemistry, and urinalysis. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that the concentration of betulinic acid in serum was below 0.020 μg/mL in treated animals. Under the conditions of these studies, the formulated blend of S. sympetala and P. occidentalis, when administered up to 5× the intended dose for 28 consecutive d, showed no adverse effects on the health of dogs.

  14. Screening of Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. for glycosidase activities that are important in oenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, A; Bartowsky, E; Jiranek, V

    2005-01-01

    To assess glycosidase activities from a range of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species and characterize these activities under conditions pertinent to the wine industry. Lactic acid bacteria were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with apple juice before being harvested, washed and assayed for glycosidase activity using p-nitrophenol-linked substrates. All strains exhibited a detectable capacity for the hydrolysis of the beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosides. The magnitude of these activities and their response to the physico-chemical parameters investigated varied in a strain-dependent manner. The use of an assay buffer with a pH below 4 generally resulted in a reduced hydrolysis of both substrates while temperature optima ranged between 35 and 45 degrees C. The effect of the inclusion of ethanol in the assay buffer (up to 12%, v/v) ranged from near complete inhibition to increases in activity approaching 80%. With the clear exception of a single strain, glucose and fructose (0.1-20 g l(-1)) acted as inhibitors. An assessment of glycosidase activity during simultaneous exposure to glucose and ethanol at a pH of 3.5 suggested that ethanol decreased loss of activity under these wine-like conditions. Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. possess varying degrees of beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosidase activities, which in turn are influenced differently by exposure to ethanol and/or sugars, temperature and pH. Several strains appeared suited for further evaluation under winemaking conditions. This work highlights the fact that strains of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus have the potential to influence the glycoside composition of wine. Tailoring of wine may therefore be possible through selective application of strains or enzymatic extracts thereof.

  15. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of Trichoderma spp. against Common Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tančić-Živanov Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organic food production demands more environmental friendly control of plant diseases. Biocontrol based on Trichoderma spp. usage is a promising due to Trichoderma is aggressive to broad range of phytopathogenic fungi. Given that, the aim of this study was to test in vitro antagonistic ability of ten native Serbian Trichoderma strains to ten common fungal pathogens. Study confirmed that Trichoderma spp. inhibits radial growth of Ascochyta pinodella (76.9%, A. pinodes (60.0%, A. pisi (68.5%, Fusarium graminearum (71.1%, F. proliferatum (63.9%, F. verticillioides (62.6%, F. oxysporum (63.9%, Macrophomina phaseolina (63.8%, and Pyrenophora teres (83.9%. These are first reports of Trichoderma spp. in vitro efficacy against A. pisi, A. pinodes, A. pinodella and P. teres. The lowest inhibitory effect was registered in dual cultures with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - 52.2%.

  17. Hemorrhagic stroke secondary to Bothrops spp. venom: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Anna Beatriz Temoteo; Gondim, Caio Cesar Vaz Lacet; Reichert, Lucas Pereira; da Silva, Pedro Hugo Vieira; Souza, Rodrigo Marmo da Costa E; Fernandes, Thiago Monteiro de Paiva; Calvo, Bernardino Fernandez

    2017-06-15

    The Bothrops spp. venom contain metalloproteinases that contributes to vascular and hemorrhagic effects. This case report describes a 58 years-old patient from the city of Dona Inês, Paraiba, Brazil victim of an ophidian accident by Bothrops spp. The vascular and hemorrhagic effects of venom components have triggered a hemorrhagic stroke. Brazil has about 600 deaths annually due to ophidian accidents. However, as reports have been precarious, the obtaining of epidemiological-clinical data has been affected. This case highlights the importance of prior knowledge of possible neurological and vascular complications in Bothrops spp. venom to increase the effectiveness of an adequate treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  19. PCR detection of Bartonella spp. in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Konvalinová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed at using PCR to identify the incidence of Bartonella spp. in blood of dogs. Altogether 286 dogs of 92 breeds aged 3 month to 17 years were tested from October 2008 to December 2009. Healthy dogs as well as dogs with various clinical symptoms of disease were included in the group. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for the presence of Bartonella spp. Following the DNA examination in 286 dogs by PCR and subsequent sequencing, two samples were identified as Bartonella henselae (0.7%. Other species of Bartonella were not found. It was the first time in the Czech Republic when incidence of Bartonella spp. was determined in dogs.

  20. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  1. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  4. [Isolation of Candida spp. from ascites in cirrhotic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saludes, Paula; Araguás, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Font, Bernat

    2016-10-01

    The isolation of Candida spp. in ascites of cirrhotic patients is an uncommon situation in clinical practice. Factors that have been associated with increased susceptibility to primary fungal peritonitis are exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppression, a typical situation of these patients. We report seven episodes of Candida spp. isolation in ascites of cirrhotic patients detected in our hospital during the past 15years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  6. Brunfelsia spp (yesterday, today, tomorrow) toxicity in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Cowan, S; Child, G

    2008-06-01

    Four dogs were treated for acute toxicity following ingestion of the popular garden shrub 'Yesterday, today, tomorrow' (Brunfelsia spp). Clinical signs included vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle tremors, anxiousness, opisthotonus and seizures. All dogs recovered following treatment with any or all of general anaesthetic, gastric lavage, enema, diazepam, phenobarbitone or propofol sedation. Brunfelsia spp toxicity should be considered in young, previously healthy dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs that rapidly progress to muscle tremors and seizures. Examination of faeces was required for diagnosis in all cases. Owners should also be questioned thoroughly about their dogs' access to such plants.

  7. Occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Rhipidomys spp. from a forest fragment of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, D O; Ramos, G B; Alves, V B A; Ciuffa, A Z; Cuccato, L P; Dos Reis, T F M; Lima, A M C; Gonçalves, M C; Tolesano, G V; Rodrigues, V S; Szabó, M P J

    2017-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of world importance, and its transmission depends on the interaction between humans and animals. Given the necessity to investigate potential hosts of Leptospira spp., this study verified the prevalence of different serovars in the species of Rhipidomys spp., a widespread sigmodont rodent in Brazil. The studied population originates from a semi-evergreen forest located in the county of Uberlândia, in the state of Minas Gerais. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed with 14 serovars. Thirteen out of the 43 wild rodents captured showed a positive agglutination reaction, with a greater prevalence of the serovars Pyrogenes, Copenhageni, and Canicola. This study found a prevalence of 30.3% anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies; all positive animals were reactive to more than one serovar.

  8. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  9. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Potencial mutualismo entre Cipocereus minensis (Werderm.) F.Ritter (Cactaceae) e Silvestritermes spp. e Nasutitermes spp. (Isoptera:Termitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Julya Pires; Lopes, Sabrina Aparecida; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor; Santos, Thiago

    2017-01-01

    O objetivo foi verificar se a associação entre \\textit{Cipocereus minensis} e \\textit{Silvestritermes spp.} e \\textit{Nasutitermes spp.} influencia o sucesso reprodutivo do cacto, pois os cupinzeiros funcionam como manchas de nutrientes. Foram observados quinzenalmente 30 indivíduos de \\textit{C. minensis} divididos em 2 grupos: 19 indivíduos associados ao cupinzeiro; 11 indivíduos afixados em rochas. Foram empregados modelos lineares generalizados mistos onde o substrato, as temperaturas mé...

  11. Do sawfish Pristis spp. represent South Africa's first local extirpation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do sawfish Pristis spp. represent South Africa's first local extirpation of marine elasmobranchs in the modern era? ... African Journal of Marine Science ... This paper traces the decline in sawfish catches from 1951 and assesses the current population status and local extinction risk, based on historical and current records up ...

  12. Characteristics of micro-propagated banana (Musa spp.) cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...

  13. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nifH gene sequence of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter spp. was determined with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter specific medium.

  14. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; Røy, Hans; Kamp, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The large sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. As gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen–sulfide interface.We ...... Beggiatoa accumulate high nitrate concentrations in internal vacuoles as an alternative electron acceptor to oxygen....

  15. Asymptomatic presence of Nosema spp. in Spanish commercial apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José Manuel; Puerta, Francisco; Cousinou, Mercedes; Dios-Palomares, Rafaela; Campano, Francisco; Redondo, Laura

    2012-10-01

    Nosemosis is caused by intracellular parasites (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae) that infect the midgut epithelial cells in adult honey bees. Recent studies relate N. ceranae to Colony Collapse Disorder and there is some suggestion that Nosema spp., especially N. ceranae, induces high mortality in honey bees, a fact that is considered as a serious threat for colony survival. 604 samples of adult honey bees for Nosema spp. analysis were collected from beekeeping colonies across Spain and were analysed using PCR with capillary electrophoresis. We also monitored 77 Andalusian apiaries for 2 years; the sampled hives were standard healthy colonies, without any special disease symptoms. We found 100% presence of Nosema spp. in some locations, indicating that this parasite was widespread throughout the country. The two year monitoring indicated that 87% of the hives with Nosema spp. remained viable, with normal honey production and biological development during this period of time. The results of these trials indicated that both N. ceranae and N. apis could be present in these beehives without causing disease symptom and that there is no evidence for the replacement of N. apis by N. ceranae, supporting the hypothesis that nosemosis is not the main reason of the collapse and death of beehives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Remarks concerning two sympatric seedeaters Poliospiza spp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turner, D.A., Finch, B.F, & Hunter, N.D. Remarks concerning the all-black coastal boubous. (Laniarius spp.) of Kenya and southern Somalia. Bulletin of the British ... northern striatipectus bears little or no similarity to the southern African nominate reichardi, itself largely endemic to the miombo woodlands of Zambia and ...

  17. Prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility profile of Enterococcus spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolated from patients and some selected hospital environment in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples included clinical and environmental. The clinical samples included stool, urine and wound swabs while the environmental samples ...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Flavobacterium and provides epidemiological information...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... belonging to the genus Corynebacterium and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis is characterized by a variety of acute and chronic infections. Acute...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella and...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis of shigellosis caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Shigella and provides...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella and provides epidemiological information on diseases...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Listeria, and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this disease...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia and provides...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Klebsiella and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. These...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bacteria belonging to the genus Citrobacter and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... protozoans belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosomiasis in adults is a chronic disease characterized...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Arizona...

  14. Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Abalone Haliotis spp. are in considerable demand worldwide, especially in the Far East. This has en- couraged industries that involve not only harvesting natural populations but also, as such populations have declined, setting up artificial cultures of appropriate species (Lo-Chai Chen 1990, Britz 1996, Knauer et al. 1996).

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  16. Response of Soybean to Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium spp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is an important crop in Ethiopia. However, its productivity is constrained by a number of factors among which soil salinity is one the major problems. Therefore, field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effectiveness of exotic and locally isolated Bradyrhizobium spp.

  17. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  18. Trichoderma spp. from rhizosphere soil and their antagonism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty six (146) isolates of Trichoderma spp. were obtained from rhizosphere soils of potato plants in the middle areas of Gansu Province, China. By means of dual culture method, they were examined for antagonism against Fusarium sambucinum, which causes potato dry rot. Ten of the isolates were found ...

  19. Prevalence and antibiogram of Shigella and Salmonella spp. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrheal diseases remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Salmonella and Shigella species are among the leading causes of diarrhea in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in children less ...

  20. Seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in horses from Central Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... Vet. Parasitol. 79:269-274. Hoane JS, Gennari SM, Dubey JP, Ribeiro MG, Borges AS Yai, LE,. Aguiar DM, Cavalcante GT, Bonesi GL, Howe DK (2006). Prevalence of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. infection in horses from. Brazil based on presence of serum antibodies to parasite surface antigen.

  1. Molecular detection of Brucella spp. from broth culture of clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR was employed to detect Brucella spp. from broth cultures of clinical samples using a group specific primer based on IS6501 sequence. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay was confirmed by Southern hybridization analysis using a digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe while reproducibility of the analysis was ...

  2. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  3. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of

  4. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  5. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml

  6. Host Responses to Malassezia spp. in the Mammalian Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Sparber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skin of mammalian organisms is home for a myriad of microbes. Many of these commensals are thought to have beneficial effects on the host by critically contributing to immune homeostasis. Consequently, dysbiosis can have detrimental effects for the host that may manifest with inflammatory diseases at the barrier tissue. Besides bacteria, fungi make an important contribution to the microbiota and among these, the yeast Malassezia widely dominates in most areas of the skin in healthy individuals. There is accumulating evidence that Malassezia spp. are involved in a variety of skin disorders in humans ranging from non- or mildly inflammatory conditions such as dandruff and pityriasis versicolor to more severe inflammatory skin diseases like seborrheic eczema and atopic dermatitis. In addition, Malassezia is strongly linked to the development of dermatitis and otitis externa in dogs. However, the association of Malassezia spp. with such diseases remains poorly characterized. Until now, studies on the fungus–host interaction remain sparse and they are mostly limited to experiments with isolated host cells in vitro. They suggest a multifaceted crosstalk of Malassezia spp. with the skin by direct activation of the host via conserved pattern recognition receptors and indirectly via the release of fungus-derived metabolites that can modulate the function of hematopoietic and/or non-hematopoietic cells in the barrier tissue. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the host response to Malassezia spp. in the mammalian skin.

  7. Host Responses to Malassezia spp. in the Mammalian Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparber, Florian; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2017-01-01

    The skin of mammalian organisms is home for a myriad of microbes. Many of these commensals are thought to have beneficial effects on the host by critically contributing to immune homeostasis. Consequently, dysbiosis can have detrimental effects for the host that may manifest with inflammatory diseases at the barrier tissue. Besides bacteria, fungi make an important contribution to the microbiota and among these, the yeast Malassezia widely dominates in most areas of the skin in healthy individuals. There is accumulating evidence that Malassezia spp. are involved in a variety of skin disorders in humans ranging from non- or mildly inflammatory conditions such as dandruff and pityriasis versicolor to more severe inflammatory skin diseases like seborrheic eczema and atopic dermatitis. In addition, Malassezia is strongly linked to the development of dermatitis and otitis externa in dogs. However, the association of Malassezia spp. with such diseases remains poorly characterized. Until now, studies on the fungus–host interaction remain sparse and they are mostly limited to experiments with isolated host cells in vitro. They suggest a multifaceted crosstalk of Malassezia spp. with the skin by direct activation of the host via conserved pattern recognition receptors and indirectly via the release of fungus-derived metabolites that can modulate the function of hematopoietic and/or non-hematopoietic cells in the barrier tissue. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the host response to Malassezia spp. in the mammalian skin. PMID:29213272

  8. Occurrence of Trichinella spp . in wild animals in northwestern Libya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determined the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in captured and some perished wildlife animals which included 70 hedgehogs, 19 red foxes, 13 common jackals and 8 crested porcupines in northwestern Libya. Muscle samples of these animals were examined by trichinoscopy. Trichinella larvae were ...

  9. Transformation Artisanale Des Crevettes ( Penaeus Spp) Au Sud Du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation Artisanale Des Crevettes ( Penaeus Spp) Au Sud Du Bénin : Évaluation Des Performances Techniques Des Équipements Et Procédés De Fumage. ... This study aims to evaluate and compare the technical performances of the main important traditional smoking processes in the south of Benin. Therefore ...

  10. Antifungals susceptibility pattern of Candida spp . isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...

  11. Preliminary studies on pathogenic Leptospira spp . In slaughtered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. and the associated renal morphological changes in pigs slaughtered in slaughter slabs within Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 42 pigs' kidney samples were randomly collected for the study. The samples were examined using ...

  12. Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella spp. in 46 Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, K E; Young, A; Kozikowski, T; Swain, E A; Byrne, B A; Reilly, C M; Kass, P H; Aleman, M

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. are implicated as a common cause of bacterial pneumonia in horses, but few reports describe clinical presentation and disease progression. To describe the signalment, clinicopathologic data, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, antimicrobial susceptibility, outcome, and pathologic lesions associated with Klebsiella spp. pneumonia in horses. Forty-six horses from which Klebsiella spp. was isolated from the lower respiratory tract. Retrospective study. Medical records from 1993 to 2013 at the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis were reviewed. Exact logistic regression was performed to determine if any variables were associated with survival to hospital discharge. Survival in horses Klebsiella pneumoniae was the primary isolate, survival was 52%. Mechanical ventilation preceded development of pneumonia in 11 horses. Complications occurred in 25/46 horses, with thrombophlebitis and laminitis occurring most frequently. Multi-drug resistance was found in 47% of bacterial isolates. Variables that significantly impacted survival included hemorrhagic nasal discharge, laminitis, and thoracic radiographs with a sharp demarcation between marked caudal pulmonary alveolar infiltration and more normal-appearing caudodorsal lung. Klebsiella spp. should be considered as a differential diagnosis for horses presenting with hemorrhagic pneumonia and for horses developing pneumonia after mechanical ventilation. Multi-drug resistance is common. Prognosis for survival generally is fair, but is guarded for adult horses in which K. pneumoniae is isolated as the primary organism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Detection, occurence, growth and inactivation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cronobacter consists of Gram-negative, motile, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, and was originally defined as one species “Enterobacter sakazakii” within the genus Enterobacter in 1980. Cronobacter spp. have been documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases

  14. Cement bonded wood wool boards from podocarpus spp. for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sound insulation in walls, ceilings and floors, roofs, sound barriers and thermal insulation. Further research is required to investigate the use of different wood species and different mineral binders. Keywords: podocarpus spp, wood-wool, wood-cement composites. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  15. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  16. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M Estevinho

    Full Text Available Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors. Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.

  17. [Population genetics of Pomacea spp. in mainland of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Liu, Wei; Liu, Qin; Li, Shi-Zhu; Hu, Wei; Jürg, Utzinger; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-04-01

    To reveal the population structure of Pomacea spp. using genetic markers so as to provide the evidence for studying the invasion and expansion of it in the mainland of China. The genetics of 581 specimens of Pomacea spp. from 60 sites was analyzed by sequencing CO I gene. The diversity of nucleotide and haplotypes were calculated in DnaSP 5.10.01. The haplotype network analysis was performed in Network 4.2.0.1. A phylogenetic tree was produced based on the haplotypes from the present study and those available from GenBank in order to understand the taxonomic status of Pomacea spp. in China. A total of 556 sequences were acquired in the present study and produced 25 unique haplotypes. Six haplotypes frequently occurred in the specimens and accounted for 96.0%. The phylogenetic analysis identified two Pomacea species in China, i. e. P. canaliculata and P. insularum. The usage of haplotypes of P. insularum in China reversed from the existing pattern in other countries. The complexity of population structure of Pomacea spp. in the mainland of China indicates multi-original introduction and complicated expansion patterns.

  18. In vitro activity of farnesol against vaginal Lactobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengjuan; Liu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Dai; Niu, Xiaoxi

    2017-05-01

    Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule in Candida albicans, can affect the growth of certain microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of farnesol against vaginal Lactobacillus spp., which play a crucial role in the maintenance of vaginal health. Growth and metabolic viability of vaginal Lactobacillus spp. incubated with different concentrations of farnesol were determined by measuring the optical density of the cultures and with the MTT assay. Morphology of the farnesol-treated cells was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. In vitro adherence of vaginal Lactobacillus cells treated with farnesol was determined by co-incubating with vaginal epithelial cells (VECs). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of farnesol for vaginal Lactobacillus spp. was 1500μM. No morphological changes were observed when the farnesol-treated Lactobacillus cells were compared with farnesol-free cells, and 100μM farnesol would reduce the adherence of vaginal Lactobacillus to VECs. Farnesol acted as a potential antimicrobial agent, had little impact on the growth, metabolism, and cytomorphology of the vaginal Lactobacillus spp.; however, it affected their adhering capacity to VECs. The safety of farnesol as an adjuvant for antimicrobial agents during the treatment of vaginitis needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of intergeneric hybrids between Saccharum spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-27

    Feb 27, 2009 ... Erianthus fulvus” F1 hybrids was performed with ITS analysis. Out ... ITS analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials included hybrid parents Yacheng 89/9 (Saccharum spp.), E. fulvus, and 126 hybrid F1 plants, planted in the ... ground to powder in liquid nitrogen, using a mortar and pestle. The.

  20. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The nifH gene sequence of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter spp. was determined with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter.

  1. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  2. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Most resistant microorganism to these bacteria was Proteus mirabilis. Two of Gram positive bacteria, S. lugdenensis (K15-9) and S. aureus (SDA48), were also found as resistant. Conclusions: In this study, Bacillus spp isolated from conjunctiva showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  4. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  5. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this study was complete randomized design (CRD) through factorial experiment with 2 factors (factor A = effects of sterilization, factor B = effects of Trichoderma spp.) in three replicates for each treatment. Effects of the Trichoderma isolates on the substrate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH as ...

  6. Production, characterization and application of banana (Musa spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pasting properties of flour from six varieties of matured green banana (Musa spp) fruits identified as Gross michel (GM), Dwarf Cavendish (DC), Cavendish (CA), Lacatan (LA), Poyo (PO) and Red skin (RS) were determined. Flour of CA, used in formulation of banana–whole maize meal was assessed organoleptically for ...

  7. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS.

  8. Effect of sowing depths on Cylas spp infestation on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sowing depths on Cylas spp infestation of four sweetpotato varieties 'Sauti', 'Okumkom','Santompona' and 'Faara' was determined in a field trial at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Data on number of leaves and branches on upper plant canopy (top 30cm), vine thickness, internode ...

  9. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was.

  10. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  12. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  13. Seabirds (Laridae) as a source of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and antimicrobial resistance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Elisabet; Ayats, Teresa; Ryan, Peter G; Naicker, Preneshni R; Keddy, Karen H; Gaglio, Davide; Witteveen, Minke; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta

    2017-10-01

    Zoonotic thermophilic Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica are a major cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis worldwide. There is little information about reservoirs of these zoonotic agents in Africa. Thus, chicks of kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, n = 129) and greater crested terns (Thalasseus bergii, n = 100) were studied at five colonies on the Western Cape coast (South Africa) during summer 2013/2014. Campylobacter spp. occurrence was 14.0% (CI 95% : 9.9-19.3), with C. jejuni the most frequently isolated species, whilst that of Salmonella was 27.5% (CI 95% : 21.9-33.9) overall, with a higher prevalence in gulls (43.0%, CI 95% : 34.8-52.4) than terns (7.0%, CI 95% : 3.1-14.4). Among the 16 different S. enterica serovars found, Anatum, Enteritidis and Hadar were the most frequent. The same or highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotype was found in some Salmonella isolates from seabirds and humans presenting with salmonellosis in Cape Town hospitals. Both Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance to several agents, including critically important antimicrobials (quinolones, tetracyclines and β-lactams) and multidrug resistance in Salmonella serovars from kelp gulls. Our results highlight the importance of seabirds as reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella resistant strains and their role in the maintenance and transmission of these bacteria in the environment, with implications for public health. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Multilocus sequence typing of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from gastric niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Gohil, Kushal; Misra, Vatsala; Kakrani, Arjun L; Misra, Sri P; Patole, Milind; Shouche, Yogesh; Dharne, Mahesh

    The human stomach is colonized by diverse bacterial species. The presence of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria in urease-positive biopsies of individuals has been reported. Bacteria belonging to the Ochrobactrum genus have been documented in the human gastric niche. The co-occurrence of Ochrobactrum spp. with H. pylori was previously reported in an antral biopsy of a non-ulcer dyspeptic (NUD) subject from Northern India. There is no information on the genetic diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from the gastric niche in the stomach. We aimed to study the species distribution and diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. with and without H. pylori in urease-positive biopsies across three different geographical regions in India. Sixty-two Ochrobactrum isolates recovered from patients with an upper gastric disorder (n=218) were subjected to molecular identification and multilocus sequence typing. H. pylori DNA was found in the majority of biopsies, which had a variable degree of Ochrobactrum spp present. Interestingly, some of the urease-positive biopsies only had Ochrobactrum without any H. pylori DNA. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the Ochrobactrum isolates were distributed into the O. intermedium, O. anthropi and O. oryzae groups. This indicates there are multiple species in the gastric niche irrespective of the presence or absence of H. pylori. Antibiotyping based on colistin and polymyxin B could differentiate between O. intermedium and O. anthropi without revealing the resistance-driven diversity. Considering the prevalence of multiple Ochrobactrum spp. in the human gastric niche, it is important to evaluate the commensal and/or pathogenic nature of non-H. pylori bacteria with respect to their geographical distribution, lifestyle and nutrition needs. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence of Treponema spp. in porcine skin ulcers and gingiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Frida; Svartström, Olov; Belák, Katinka; Fellström, Claes; Pringle, Märit

    2013-08-30

    Porcine shoulder ulcers and ear necrosis are a significant animal welfare concern and impair efficient livestock production. Although spirochetes have been detected in both types of lesions the potential role of these bacteria in lesion propagation has received little attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of spirochetes of the genus Treponema in shoulder ulcers or ear necrosis in pigs and compare these with treponemes from porcine gingiva. Samples were collected from gingiva and necrotic ulcers in 169 pigs. Presence of spirochetes was observed in silver stained histological sections and by phase contrast microscopy in scrapings from the necrotic lesions. Additionally, PCR of the 16SrRNA-tRNA(Ile) intergenic spacer region (ISR2) was used to detect Treponema spp. in all samples. Combined analysis showed that 73% of the shoulder ulcers and 53% of the ear necroses were positive for spirochetes. Treponema spp. were detected in 9.7% of the gingival samples. Comparative DNA sequence analysis of the ISR2 sequences revealed the presence of three distinct genetic phylotypes of Treponema spp. corresponding to Treponema pedis, and as yet two unnamed phylotypes represented by GenBank sequences C1UD1 (Acc. No. AY342041) and C1BT2-8 (Acc. No. AY342046). Detection of identical ISR2 sequences from gingiva and ulcer samples indicates that oral Treponema spp. are spread from mouth to ulcer. We conclude that Treponema spp. frequently occur in shoulder ulcers and ear necrosis in pigs, and suggest a possible infection route through biting and licking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.

  17. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, David M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  18. Canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E

    2017-05-19

    Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.

  19. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero; Domingo Moreno; Vicente J. Monleon; Fernando Arredondo-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to...

  20. ESCMID and ECMM joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of hyalohyphomycosis: Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorano, A M; Richardson, M; Roilides, E; van Diepeningen, A; Caira, M; Munoz, P; Johnson, E; Meletiadis, J; Pana, Z-D; Lackner, M; Verweij, P; Freiberger, T; Cornely, O A; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Dannaoui, E; Groll, A H; Lagrou, K; Chakrabarti, A; Lanternier, F; Pagano, L; Skiada, A; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Boekhout, T; Chowdhary, A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Guinea, J; Guarro, J; de Hoog, S; Hope, W; Kathuria, S; Lortholary, O; Meis, J F; Ullmann, A J; Petrikkos, G; Lass-Flörl, C

    2014-04-01

    Mycoses summarized in the hyalohyphomycosis group are heterogeneous, defined by the presence of hyaline (non-dematiaceous) hyphae. The number of organisms implicated in hyalohyphomycosis is increasing and the most clinically important species belong to the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Purpureocillium and Paecilomyces. Severely immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and clinical manifestations range from colonization to chronic localized lesions to acute invasive and/or disseminated diseases. Diagnosis usually requires isolation and identification of the infecting pathogen. A poor prognosis is associated with fusariosis and early therapy of localized disease is important to prevent progression to a more aggressive or disseminated infection. Therapy should include voriconazole and surgical debridement where possible or posaconazole as salvage treatment. Voriconazole represents the first-line treatment of infections due to members of the genus Scedosporium. For Acremonium spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Purpureocillium spp. and Paecilomyces spp. the optimal antifungal treatment has not been established. Management usually consists of surgery and antifungal treatment, depending on the clinical presentation. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  2. Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Guimarães

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9% of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19. In 82% (9/11 calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75% positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30 sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm. They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

  3. Between-year variation and spatial dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections in naturally infected rodent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, A

    2008-12-01

    Prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections were studied over the 8-year period in 3 species of rodents in N.E. Poland (bank vole Myodes glareolus-1523; yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis- 638; common vole Microtus arvalis- 419). Prevalence was 53.8, 28.1 and 62.3% respectively for Cryptosporidium spp. and 58.3, 24.4 and 74.2% respectively for Giardia spp. Prevalence and abundance of infection varied markedly across 8 years of the study with 1998 and 2002 being years of higher prevalence and abundance, following changes in the densities of host species. The distribution of intestinal protozoa in forest rodents did not vary in the 3 isolated sites during the 4-year study. In the case of Cryptosporidium, fewer older animals carried infection and infections of the oldest bank and common voles were relatively milder. In the case of Giardia in yellow-necked mice, infections were more common in older age classes (2 and 3). The two species showed significant co-occurrence and in animals carrying both species there was a strong significant positive correlation between abundance of infection with each. These data are discussed in relation to the parasite genotypes identified in this region and in respect of the role of various ecological factors in shaping of intestinal protozoa communities.

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp isolated from surfaces in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Elizabeth; Kaneene, John B; May, Katherine J; Kruger, John M; Schall, William; Beal, Matthew W; Hauptman, Joe G; DeCamp, Charles E

    2012-06-15

    To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci and staphylococci collected from environmental surfaces at a veterinary teaching hospital (VTH). Longitudinal study. Samples collected from surfaces in 5 areas (emergency and critical care, soft tissue and internal medicine, and orthopedic wards; surgery preparation and recovery rooms; and surgery office and operating rooms) of a VTH. Selected surfaces were swabbed every 3 months during the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Isolates of enterococci and staphylococci were identified via biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated with a microbroth dilution technique. A subset of isolates was analyzed to assess clonality by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. 430 samples were collected, and isolates of enterococci (n = 75) and staphylococci (110) were identified. Surfaces significantly associated with isolation of Enterococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp included cages and a weight scale. Fourteen Enterococcus spp isolates and 17 Staphylococcus spp isolates were resistant to ≥ 5 antimicrobials. Samples collected from the scale throughout the study suggested an overall increase in antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecium over time. Clonality was detected for E faecium isolates collected from 2 different surfaces on the same day. Although not surprising, the apparent increase in antimicrobial resistance of E faecium was of concern because of the organism's ability to transmit antimicrobial resistance genes to other pathogens. Results reported here may aid in identification of critical control points to help prevent the spread of pathogens in VTHs.

  5. Helmintofauna de cavalas, Scomber japonicus Houtt, do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arandas Rêgo

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores identificaram as seguintes espécies de helmintos, coletados de 50 cavalas, Scomber japonicus, no Rio de Janeiro: Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829 e Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1858 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschenberg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercos de Trypanorhyncha Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 e Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanghocephala e Anisakidae larvares (Nematoda, identificados aos tipos larvares Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum e Anisakis tipo 1. Os digenéticos foram os de maior incidência, 84% dos peixes mostraram-se parasitados por uma ou mais espécies. Quanto às espécies, a de maior incidência foi Nematobothrium scombri (Digenea, Didymozoidae, em 46% dos peixes. São pela primeria vez assinalados Scomber japonicus larvas de Phillobothiidae, possivelmente Rhinebothrium, além de larvas de Anisakis do tipo 1. São pela primeira vez assinaladas no Brasil as espécies, Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri e Opechona orientalis.There were identified twelve species of helminths from fifty "Spanish Mackerel", Scomber japonicus Houtt, in Rio de Janeiro; Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829, and Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1859 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschengerg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercus of Trypanorhyncha, Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 and Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala and larval Anisakidae (Nematoda, types Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum and Anisakis I. Larval Phillobothriid, following species are referred in Brazil for the first time: Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri and Opechona orientalis.

  6. Molecular detection of Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri and Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) vermiformis as vectors for Legionella spp. in untreated and solar pasteurized harvested rainwater

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowsky, Penelope H.; Khan, Sehaam; Cloete, Thomas E.; Khan, Wesaal

    2016-01-01

    Background Legionella spp. employ multiple strategies to adapt to stressful environments including the proliferation in protective biofilms and the ability to form associations with free-living amoeba (FLA). The aim of the current study was to identify Legionella spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) vermiformis and Naegleria fowleri that persist in a harvested rainwater and solar pasteurization treatment system. Methods Pasteurized (45??C, 65??C, 68??C, 74??C, 84??C and 93??C) a...

  7. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  8. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Lu , J., I. Struewing, E. Vereen, A.E. Kirby, K. Levy, C. Moe, and N. Ashbolt. Molecular detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system (Journal Article). JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA, 120(2): 509-521, (2016).

  9. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter spp. on Ham in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of illness from Campylobacter spp. on ham. To identify the hazards of Campylobacter spp. on ham, the general characteristics and microbial criteria for Campylobacter spp., and campylobacteriosis outbreaks were investigated. In the exposure assessment, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on ham was evaluated, and the probabilistic distributions for the temperature of ham surfaces in retail markets and home refrigerators were prepared. In addition, the raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) 2012 were used to estimate the consumption amount and frequency of ham. In the hazard characterization, the Beta-Poisson model for Campylobacter spp. infection was used. For risk characterization, a simulation model was developed using the collected data, and the risk of Campylobacter spp. on ham was estimated with @RISK. The Campylobacter spp. cell counts on ham samples were below the detection limit (ham was 23.93 g per person, and the consumption frequency was 11.57%. The simulated mean value of the initial contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on ham was -3.95 Log CFU/g, and the mean value of ham for probable risk per person per day was 2.20×10(-12). It is considered that the risk of foodborne illness for Campylobacter spp. was low. Furthermore, these results indicate that the microbial risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in this study should be useful in providing scientific evidence to set up the criteria of Campylobacter spp..

  10. STRUKTUR DAN PRODUKSI LEBAH Trigona spp. PADA SARANG BERBENTUK TABUNG DAN BOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ade Hinduari Putra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lebah tanpa sengat (Trigona spp. dapat menghasilkan madu yang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui : (1 morfologi Trigona spp., (2 struktur internal sarang Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola, (3 volume sarang serta perkiraan produksi madu, beebread dan selanakan Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan November 2014. Sampel yang digunakan adalah koloni dan sarang Trigona spp. berbentuk tabung dan bola yang diambil di Desa Padang Tunggal,Kecamatan Selat, Kabupaten Karangasem, Bali. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa nama spesies dari sampel koloni Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola adalah Trigona laeviceps. Struktur internal sarang Trigona spp. pada sarang berbentuk tabung dan bola mempunyai pola susunan yaitu pot madu, pot beebread dan pot sel anakan. Volume sarang besar memberikan perkiraan total jumlah produksi madu, beebread dan selanakan lebih banyak dibandingkan volume sarang kecil.

  11. Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-10-01

    Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the

  12. Impact of technical and economic performance on costs of campylobacter spp. interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.

  13. Algal Meningoencephalitis due to Prototheca spp. in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Le Roux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Boxer was examined because of progressive neurologic signs, with severe hindlimb ataxia and head tilt on presentation. There was no history of diarrhea or vomiting. MRI of the brain revealed multifocal ill-defined T1-enhancing lesions affecting the cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical meninges, without associated mass effect. Meningoencephalitis was considered the most likely diagnosis. Multiple algae were observed on the cytology of the CSF and were most consistent with Prototheca spp. Antiprotozoal treatment was denied by the owners, and 5 weeks after diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to progression of the neurologic deficits, and a necropsy was performed. Histological changes in the brain were compatible with severe multifocal protothecal meningoencephalitis. The specific Prototheca species was not identified. The gastrointestinal tract was unremarkable on histology. According to this report, Prototheca spp. should be included in the differentials for neurological deficits even in the absence of gastrointestinal signs.

  14. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  15. Trichomonas spp. in pigeons: detection by OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Petr; Kunca, Tomas; Langrova, Iva; Hartlova, Helena; Brozova, Adela; Jankovska, Ivana; Kudrnacova, Marie; Sloup, Vladislav

    2013-12-01

    The efficacy of the OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test (developed for rapid diagnosis of human Trichomonas vaginalis) in detection of Trichomonas spp. in pigeons (Columba livia) was investigated. Two oral cavity swabs were taken from 50 farm pigeons. Cultivation in Diamond Trichomonas medium was used as a reference method. According to a morphological determination, Trichomonas gallinae was the only protozoan found; however, no further molecular analysis was conducted. The OSOM Trichomonas test was positive in 39 oral swabs. In comparison with the cultivation method three samples were identified as false negative and one as false positive. Test specificity and sensitivity were established as 93% and 90%, respectively. Using Cohen's Kappa, the concordance between the two testing methods was found to be strong (kappa = 0.7506, 95% CI = 0.5162-0.9850). The OSOM Trichomonas test is not able to distinguish between Trichomonas species; however, results suggest that the test is suitable for the rapid detection of Trichomonas spp. infection in pigeons.

  16. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840

  17. Induction of conidiation by endogenous volatile compounds in Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcovic, Marek; Jakubíková, Lucia; Víden, Ivan; Farkas, Vladimír

    2008-07-01

    Light and starvation are two principal environmental stimuli inducing conidiation in the soil micromycete Trichoderma spp. We observed that volatiles produced by conidiating colonies of Trichoderma spp. elicited conidiation in colonies that had not been induced previously by exposure to light. The inducing effect of volatiles was both intra- and interspecific. Chemical profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the nonconidiated colonies grown in the dark and by the conidiating colonies were compared using solid-phase microextraction of headspace samples followed by tandem GC-MS. The conidiation was accompanied by increased production of eight-carbon compounds 1-octen-3-ol and its analogs 3-octanol and 3-octanone. When vapors of these compounds were applied individually to dark-grown colonies, they elicited their conidiation already at submicromolar concentrations. It is concluded that the eight-carbon VOCs act as signaling molecules regulating development and mediating intercolony communication in Trichoderma.

  18. Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens: Epidemiology and resistance features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad B. Almasaudi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter is a major cause of nosocomial infections; it is increasingly being associated with various epidemics and has become a widespread concern in a variety of hospitals worldwide. Multi-antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, is now recognized to be of great clinical significance. Numerous reports relay to the spread of A. baumannii in the hospital settings which leads to enhanced nosocomial outbreaks associated with high death rates. However, many other Acinetobacter spp. also can cause nosocomial infections. This review focused on the role of Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens in addition to their persistence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and epidemiology. Keywords: Acinetobacter, Nosocomial infections, Multi-drug resistance, Epidemiology, Characteristics

  19. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  20. Sensitivity of Campylobacter spp. to irradiation in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity of Campylobacter jejuni (three strains), Camp. coli (three strains), Camp. fetus (one strain) and Camp. lari (one strain) to irradiation in poultry meat was investigated. There was no significant difference in the counts obtained on Blood or Skirrows agar. Preston agar gave a significantly lower recovery of the pathogens after irradiation so these results were not included in calculations of D10 values. The D10 values ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 kGy and there was a significant difference in the radiation sensitivity between different Campylobacter spp. and within strains of the same species. These values indicate that Campylobacter spp. are more radiation-sensitive than Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes irradiated under similar conditions. Therefore irradiation treatments suggested to eliminate the latter from poultry carcasses would also be sufficient to remove Campylobacter

  1. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-05-04

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. from water sources from Northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniloo, Ali; Pezeshki, Ali; Mahmmodzadeh, Abbas; Kadkhodamohammadi, Elnaz

    2017-12-20

    Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae which are ubiquitously distributed worldwide and can be found in the wide range of environments, particularly in various types of water sources, where they able to cause important health problems. In the present study, cultures containing Acanthamoeba from water samples were obtained from our earlier survey. For an analysis of the genetic pattern of Acanthamoeba isolates, DNA sequencing of nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene (18S rRNA or Rns) was applied. A phylogenetic analyses of the isolates displayed that all of them were belonged to the potentially pathogenic T4 genotype. This investigation provides further evidence that the T4 genotype is the most prevalent in water samples and demonstrates that there is a need for taking more consideration to water sources in order to prevent complications associated with pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp.

  3. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

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    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  4. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Lívia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Stap...

  5. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  6. Keragaman Genetik Ganoderma Spp. dari Beberapa Tempat di Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanto, Dwi; Andriani, Siskha; Nurtjahja, Kiki

    2010-01-01

    Sebanyak 12 isolat jamur Ganoderma spp. dari beberapa tempat di Sumatera Utara berhasil diisolasi. Berdasarkan ciri-ciri morfologi, 12 isolat tersebut termasuk dalam 5 spesies, yaitu Ganoderma applanatum, G. tsugae, G. lucidum, G. bonninense, dan Ganoderma sp. Analisis genetika semua isolat termasuk isolat G. lucidum DXN dengan amplifikasi rDNA menggunakan primer internal transcribed spacer, ITS1 dan ITS4 menghasilkan fragmen tunggal dengan ukuran sama besar sekitar 600 pb.

  7. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelazez, Amro; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao; Abdelmotaal, Heba; Sami, Rokayya; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adoles...

  8. [Evaluation of Fusarium spp. pathogenicity in plant and murine models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Reyes, Consuelo M; Alvarado-Fernández, Angela M; Ceballos-Rojas, Ana M; González-Carmona, Lady C; Linares-Linares, Melva Y; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana; Góngora-Medina, Manuel E; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Rodríguez-Bocanegra, María X

    The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Pathogenicity tests in plants did not show all the symptoms associated with vascular wilt in the three plant models; however, colonization and necrosis of the vascular bundles, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates, showed the infective potential of Fusarium spp. in different plant species. Moreover, the pathogenicity tests in the murine model revealed behavioral changes. It was noteworthy that only five isolates (different origin and species) caused mortality. Additionally, it was observed that all isolates infected and colonized different organs, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates or host immune status. In contrast, the superficial inoculation test showed no evidence of epidermal injury or colonization. The observed results in plant and murine models suggest the pathogenic potential of Fusarium spp. isolates in different types of hosts. However, further studies on pathogenicity are needed to confirm the multihost capacity of this genus. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  10. Presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; Almeida, André; González-Warleta, Marta; Correia Da Costa, José Manuel; Mezo, Mercedes

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in the influent and final effluent of sixteen drinking water treatment plants located in a hydrographic basin in Galicia (NW Spain) - in which the principal river is recognised as a Site of Community Importance (SCI) - estimate the efficiency of treatment plants in removing these protozoans and determine the species and genotypes of the parasites by means of a molecular assay. All plant samples of influent and final effluent (50-100 l) were examined in the spring, summer, autumn and winter of 2007. A total of 128 samples were analysed by method 1623, developed by US Environmental Protection Agency for isolation and detection of both parasites. To identify the genotypes present the following genes were amplified and sequenced: 18S SSU rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp.) and b-giardina (G. duodenalis). The mean concentrations of parasites in the influent were 0.0-10.5 Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts per litre and 1.0-12.8 of G. duodenalis cysts per litre. In the final treated effluent, the mean concentration of parasites ranged from 0.0-3.0 oocysts per litre and 0.5-4.0 cysts per litre. The distribution of results by season revealed that in all plants, the highest numbers of (oo)cysts were recorded in spring and summer. Cryptosporidium parvum, C. andersoni, C. hominis and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were detected. Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were consistently found at high concentrations in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in the hydrographic basin under study, in Galicia (NW Spain). It is important that drinking water treatment authorities rethink the relevance of contamination levels of both parasites in drinking water and develop adequate countermeasures.

  11. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz; Ana-Paulina Barba de la Rosa; Cécile Héliès-Toussaint; Françoise Guéraud; Anne Nègre-Salvayre

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus- indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmac...

  12. Possible environmental sources of Acanthamoeba spp in contact lens wearers.

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, D; Stapleton, F; Dart, J

    1992-01-01

    The water supply and dust samples from the home environment (bathrooms and kitchens) of 50 wearers of contact lenses (CLs) were cultured for the presence of free-living amoebae. CL cases, solutions, and water taps were cultured for bacteria, which amoebae require for growth. Acanthamoeba spp were isolated from water drawn from six bathroom cold water taps (tank supplied), five in the presence of limescale, and from one kitchen cold water tap (mains supplied). There was an association between ...

  13. Deregulation led to record-breaking profit for SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    The state collected close to 15 bn Sk of SPP's last year profits. The income tax represents about 5,2 bn Sk and the dividends paid to state as owner of 51 percent of the stock of Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) amount up to 9,5 billion Sk. Investors Ruhrgas and Gaz de France will split 9 billion Sk. This was possible thank to a record-breaking net profit of 20.5 billion Sk made by the company due to deregulation of the distorted gas prices for consumers that lead to an average price increase by over 30 percent. A positive impact on the company's economy had also the dissolving of provisions and reserves but on the other hand the sales went down by close to 5 percent due to higher temperatures. Another factor that had a positive impact on the company revenues was the increase of gas volumes transported through the SPP network to Western Europe. Expenditures related to purchase of gas increased last year and not even the decrease USD exchange rates could eliminate the impact of increasing gas prices. The decrease of sales on the domestic market was one of the major factors that allowed the total cost to decrease on year-to-year basis by ten percent. A restructuring of SPP should bring along further savings but the company has not calculated the total effect of a restructuring yet. The strong positive impact the restructuring may have on the company should show in 2004 and later. Last year the company concentrated on savings in area of maintenance and repairs and this year it should be the procurement expenditures that should be decreased. The future economic result of the company would depend on several factors like exchange rates, sale volumes and price of natural gas. Oils prices have reached their new maximums and the gas prices, in general, follow the oil price

  14. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  15. Effects of Earthworms on the Dispersal of Steinernema spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, D. I.; Tylka, G. L.; Berry, E. C.; Lewis, L. C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dispersal of S. carpocapsae may be enhanced in soil with earthworms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the effects of earthworms on dispersal of other Steinernema spp. Vertical dispersal of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. glaseri was tested in soil columns in the presence and absence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Dispersal was evaluated by a bioassay and by direct extraction of nematodes from soil. Upward dispersal ...

  16. Sulfur compounds identification and quantification from Allium spp. fresh leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gîtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyruvic acid concentration is a critical factor in determining Allium spp. pungency. This study was initiated to accurately measure the background pyruvic acid levels in Romanian Allium spp. From the pungency point of view, all analyzed plant varieties in this study are considered low pungent cultivars based on the enzymatically produced pyruvate level (between 42 μmol/g and 222 μmol/g fresh wt. Chromatographic analysis was carried out for the different varieties of the most popular fresh leaves (Allium cepa var. “Diamant”, Allium cepa var. “Rubiniu”, and Allium ursinum L. in order to identify the sulfur compounds. The thin layer chromatography analysis led to the identification of allicin, with Rf = 0.377–0.47, as an important sulfur compound. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the leaves' extracts detected disulfides as the major sulfur compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to establish the differences in plant composition. These studies suggest the potential good uses of the fresh leaves of Romanian Allium spp. as condiment, ingredient, or preservative in the food industry.

  17. Biological control of Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca using Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ghannam

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The broomrape (Orobanche spp. is an obligate holoparasitic weed that causes severe damage to many important vegetable crops. Many broomrape control strategies have been tested over the years. In this investigation, 125 Fusarium spp. isolates were recovered from diseased broomrape spikes collected from fields in agricultural areas near Hebron. The pathogenicity of isolates on broomrape was evaluated using an inoculum suspension containing mycelia and conidia. The most effective Fusarium isolates significantly increased the dead spikes of broomrape by 33.6–72.7% compared to the control; there was no obvious pathogenic effect on the tomato plants. Fusarium spp. isolates Fu 20, 25 and 119 were identified as F. solani, while Fu 30, 52, 59, 87 and 12-04 were F. oxysporum. In addition, the two previously known Fusarium strains, F. oxysporum strain EId (CNCM-I-1622 (Foxy and F. arthrosporioides strain E4a (CNCM-I-1621 (Farth were equally effective in controlling broomrape parasitizing tomato plants grown in pots, where the dead spikes of broomrape increased by 50.0 and 51.6%, respectively.

  18. Ecology of Anopheles spp. in Central Lombok Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.

  19. [Antifungal activity of melanin in clinical isolates of Candida spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Marisol; Hernández, Romané; Gordillo, Diego; Amaro, José; Falconer, Mary A; Alburquenque, Claudio; Tapia, Cecilia V

    2014-02-01

    Melanocytes are cells located in epidermis and mucous membranes that synthesize melanin and cytokines. It is known that melanin has antimicrobial activity and that melanocytes are melanized in presence of microbial molecules. To study the antifungal activity of melanin on Candida spp. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to melanin was determined in 4 Candida ATCC strains (C. albicans SC5314, C. parapsilosis 22019, C. glabrata 2001, C. krusei 6258) and 56 clinical isolates of Candida spp. (33 C. albicans, 12 C. glabrata, 3 C. famata, 3 C. krusei, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 C. tropicalis) using a broth microdilution method. In addition, the antifungal activity of melanocytes and mice melanoma cells was tested against C. albicans. Melanin inhibited the tested isolates, including the susceptible dose-dependent and fluconazole-resistant strains; MIC range and MIC50 were 0.09-50 μg/mL and 6.25 μg/mL, respectively. Pigmented cells lysates inhibited C. albicans. Melanin is able to inhibit clinical isolates of Candida spp. Melanization could be an important protective mechanism of melanocytes.

  20. Molecular Differentiation of Shigella Spp. from Enteroinvasive E. Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løbersli, I.; Wester, A. L.; Kristiansen, Å.; Brandal, L. T.

    2016-01-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, amplifying the genes encoding lactose permease (lacY) and invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH), was run on 121 isolates phenotypically classified as Shigella spp., enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), or EIEC O nontypable (ONT). The results were compared with data from a generic E. coli multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and a Shigella MLVA. The real-time PCR verified all Shigella spp. (n = 53) as Shigella (lacY negative) and all EIEC O121 (n = 15) and EIEC O124 (n = 2) as EIEC (lacY positive). However, the real-time PCR typed EIEC O164 as either EIEC (n = 2) or Shigella (n = 2) and, thus, was not suited for classifying this group of isolates. Interestingly, the majority (42/47, 89.4%) of the EIEC ONT were classified as Shigella (lacY negative) by the real-time PCR, and in nearly all cases, (92.9%, 39/42) data from both MLVA assays supported these findings. Overall, in 94.7% (114/121) of the isolates, the results from the real-time PCR were substantiated by the results from the MLVA assays. In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay was fast and accurate in differentiating Shigella spp. from EIEC, with the exception of the EIEC O164 group. This molecular assay was particularly pragmatic for the challenging EIEC ONT group. PMID:27766168

  1. Volatiles from a Rare Acer spp. Honey Sample from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jerković

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A rare sample of maple (Acer spp. honey from Croatia was analysed. Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE using: 1 pentane, 2 diethyl ether, 3 a mixture of pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v and 4 dichloromethane as solvents was applied. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The most representative extracts were 3 and 4. Syringaldehyde was the most striking compound, being dominant in the extracts 2, 3 and 4 with percentages 34.5%, 33.1% and 35.9%, respectively. In comparison to USE results of other single Croatian tree honey samples (Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar honey, Salix spp. nectar and honeydew honeys, Quercus frainetto Ten. honeydew as well as Abies alba Mill. and Picea abies L. honeydew and literature data the presence of syringaldehyde, previously identified in maple sap and syrup, can be pointed out as a distinct characteristic of the Acer spp. honey sample. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC and GC/MS identified benzaldehyde (16.5%, trans-linalool oxide (20.5% and 2-phenylethanol (14.9% as the major compounds that are common in different honey headspace compositions.

  2. Cryobiotechnology of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2018-05-01

    Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.

  3. The genotypic characterization of Cronobacter spp. isolated in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Cui

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an important pathogen contaminating powdered infant formula (PIF. To describe the genotypic diversity of Cronobacter isolated in China, we identified the isolates using fusA allele sequencing, and subtyped all of the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. A total of 105 isolates were identified, which included C. sakazakii (58 isolates, C. malonaticus (30 isolates, C. dublinensis (11 isolates, C. turicensis (5 isolates, and C. muytjensii (1 isolate. These isolates were showed to have 85 PFGE-patterns, 71 sequence types (STs, and 55 MLVA-patterns. Comparisons among the three molecular subtyping methods revealed that the PFGE method was the most distinguishable tool in identifying clusters of Cronobacter spp. through DNA fingerprinting, and MLST method came second. However, ESTR-1, ESTR-2, ESTR-3, and ESTR-4 were not effective loci for subtyping Cronobacter spp. such that the MLVA method requires further improvement.

  4. Detection of Listeria spp. using ACTERO listeria enrichment media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveau, David; Olishevskyy, Sergiy; Giuffre, Michael; Martinez, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media (ACTERO Listeria) is a selective medium developed for a single-step recovery and enrichment of Listeria spp. from environmental samples. Robustness testing of the ACTERO Listeria medium demonstrated good performance when minor changes were introduced to the incubation temperature and time. All 54 Listeria strains tested, representing the most frequently isolated Listeria species from food (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi), were successfully enriched in ACTERO Listeria. None of the 30 nontarget strains tested in the exclusivity study was recovered after incubation in ACTERO Listeria. Recovery of Listeria was consistent across three independently produced lots of the ACTERO Listeria, and the prepared medium was stable for 45 days when stored at 4 degrees C in the dark. Matrix studies performed with environmental sponge samples from plastic and stainless steel surfaces demonstrated similar recovery of Listeria spp. in a single-step enrichment using ACTERO Listeria from plastic, and significantly better recovery from stainless steel surfaces when compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference method. The results of this study prove that ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media can be effectively used in replacement of the two-step enrichment suggested by the reference method without affecting the recovery of Listeria spp. from environmental samples.

  5. Synanthropic Cockroaches (Blattidae: Periplaneta spp.) Harbor Pathogenic Leptospira in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  7. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae: exploratory patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Mayumi Francisco

    Full Text Available Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp. and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  8. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  9. Reports of Outbreaks and Isolation on Salmonella Spp. in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Constanza Pérez Rubiano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The foodborne diseases are currently one of the problems with great socio-economic impact in the world. According to the Pan American Health Organization, the foodborne diseases are within the five leading causes of death in children under five years in Latin America and the Caribbean. Among the etiologic agents most involved in outbreaks of foodborne diseases is Salmonella spp., this pathogen has often been associated with diarrheal diseases worldwide, caused by the consumption of contaminated food and causes the most prevalent zoonosis in developed countries. The numbers of records of these diseases in some countries, especially those in the developing world, are deficient because information systems as SIRVETA just recently have developed strategies to improve the detection of outbreaks and isolates of foodborne diseases. However, there are still some gaps in the registration and notification procedures. The present review covers general aspects of Salmonella spp., outbreaks and isolates, most frequently reported serotypes and distribution, and behavior of this microorganism to antimicrobial found in Colombia and indicates some control programs and monitoring of Salmonella spp. which have been implemented in the country.

  10. Intra-uterine exposure of horses to Sarcocystis spp. antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

  11. Preliminary findings of Salmonella spp. in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M A; Shane, S M

    2000-06-12

    Captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and reports of reptile-associated salmonellosis are increasing. Unfortunately, little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. and green iguanas. We did a limited survey of a green-iguana farm in El Salvador to identify sources of Salmonella spp. in green iguanas and their environment. A limited number of samples for microbiological culture were collected from iguanas (adult, hatchling, and embryos) and their environment (food, water, soil, shelter, insects, and wild-caught lizards). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the intestine of both adult (3/20) and hatchling iguanas (8/20). There was no evidence of Salmonella spp. in the reproductive tracts of female iguanas (0/10). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the surface of 40% (7/16) of the egg surfaces tested. Salmonella spp. was not identified from the externalized yolk-sac of the iguana embryos tested. Soil samples from a breeding pen and a nest were both positive for Salmonella spp. Eight different Salmonella spp. serotypes were identified in this survey. These results suggest that horizontal transmission of Salmonella spp. is a potential source of exposure to hatchling iguanas at this facility.

  12. Differential identification of Sporothrix spp. and Leishmania spp. by conventional PCR and qPCR in multiplex format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Camacho, Emma; Mendoza, Mireya; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis are skin infections with similar clinical manifestations but different treatment methods. The present study aimed to evaluate qPCR and conventional PCR for differential detection of the etiological agents of both infections in multiplex format. Assays were designed using two sets of reported primers: SS1/SS2, designed on the 18S ribosomal RNA gene from Sporothrix spp., and JW11/JW12, designed on the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles of Leishmania spp. qPCR detected 200 fg of DNA per reaction for both Sporothrix and Leishmania. Melting curve analysis revealed two distinctive Tm peaks for Sporothrix spp. (85.5°C), and Leishmania spp. (82.6°C). A detection limit of 20 pg was determined for the diagnosis of both with conventional PCR. No other clinically important organisms were detected by either PCR or qPCR. However, a Blast analysis on GenBank databases, using as query the sequence of the PCR fragment obtained with primers SS1/SS2, showed 100% identity to environmental fungi of the Ophiostomales order. Lower percentages of identity (≤80%), with mismatches at primers' sequence regions were obtained for other environmental or clinically important fungi. Proper handling of clinical samples is required to avoid false negatives due to contamination with environmental fungi of the Ophiostomales order. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Candida spp. and Klebsiella spp. Isolated from the Denture Plaque of COPD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowska, D; Piskorska, K; Gołaś, M; Sikora, M; Swoboda-Kopeć, E; Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E

    2017-01-01

    Yeast-like fungi and gram-negative bacilli are the most frequent potential pathogens of the respiratory tract isolated from the denture plaque of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Dominant species among yeast-like fungi are Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Significant frequency is also exhibited by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca. The purpose of this study was to analyze genetic diversity of the strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and Klebsiella spp. present in patients in stable phases of COPD. The analysis was conducted by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method on clinical strains isolated from patients with COPD and control patients in overall good health. Forty one strains of Candida albicans, 12 of Candida tropicalis, as well as 9 strains of K. pneumoniae and 7 of K. oxytoca were scrutinized. The dominant species in clinical material from COPD patients was Candida albicans with a substantial degree of variations of genetic profiles. On the basis of affinity analysis, 19 genetic types were identified within this strain. An analysis of the banding patterns among C. tropicalis strains indicated the existence of 6 genetic types. A considerable diversity of genetic profiles among Klebsiella spp. also was established. The genotype diversity of Klebsiella spp. strains may indicate the endogenic character of the majority of infections, regardless of the therapy applied for the underlying condition.

  14. Cross-fertilization as a reproductive strategy in a tissue flukes Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Platyhelmintes: Didymozoidae) inferred by genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladineo, Ivona; Tomaš, Marina; Stanić, Rino

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA locus cytochrome oxidase I was used to asses intraspecific genetic diversity of a didymozoid species Didymosulcus katsuwonicola. Adult forms of this species live encapsulated in pairs in the gills of the reared Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). The life cycle of this food-borne parasites and its migration in the host tissues after releasing from the digestive tract to the definitive site in the gills are unknown. Our goal was to assess whether two encysted didymozoids share the same haplotype, indicative of a common maternal origin, as well as the extent of cross- in respect to self-fertilization strategy. Intraspecific comparison showed high haplotype diversity, while the presence of two matching haplotypes within a single cyst encompassed only 17% of sampled individuals. This infers that cross-fertilization between paired individuals within the cyst is more common mechanism than self-fertilization. Such hermaphroditic parasite's trait suggests the existence of intricate infection and reproduction mechanisms, presumably as an adaptation for successful fulfillment of their indirect life cycle through dissemination of genetically more diverse and consequently more fit offspring.

  15. Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in Brazilian opossums (Didelphis spp.): Molecular investigation and in vitro isolation of Sarcocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Leane S Q; Jesus, Rogério F; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Silva, Jean C R; Siqueira, Daniel B; Marvulo, Maria F V; Aléssio, Felipe M; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Julião, Fred S; Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gondim, Luís F P

    2017-08-30

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp. from wild opossums for comparison with previously isolated strains. Carcasses of 39 opossums from Bahia state were available for molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. and N. caninum in their tissues, and for sporocyst detection by intestinal scraping. In addition, Sarcocystis-like sporocysts from nine additional opossums, obtained in São Paulo state, were tested. Sarcocystis DNA was found in 16 (41%) of the 39 opossums' carcasses; N. caninum DNA was detected in tissues from three opossums. The sporocysts from the nine additional opossums from São Paulo state were tested by bioassay and induced infection in nine budgerigars, but in none of the gamma-interferon knockout mice. In vitro isolation was successful using tissues from all nine budgerigars. The isolated strains were maintained in CV-1 and Vero cells. Three of nine isolates presented contamination in cell culture and were discarded. Analysis of six isolates based on five loci showed that these parasites were genetically different from each other and also distinct from S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. lindsayi, and S. speeri. In conclusion, opossums in the studied regions were infected with N. caninum and Sarcocystis spp. and represent a potential source of infection to other animals. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in tissues from black-eared opossum (D. aurita or D

  16. Nafion/ZrSPP composite membrane for high temperature operation of PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Taek; Song, Min-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Park, Seung-Bae; Min, Sung-Kyu; Rhee, Hee-Woo

    2004-01-01

    Nafion/zirconium sulphophenyl phosphate (ZrSPP) composite membranes were prepared to maintain proton conductivity at elevated temperatures. ZrSPP was precipitated by the reaction of Zr 4+ ion and m-sulphophenyl phosphonic (SPP) acid with a stoichiometric ratio P/Zr = 2. The synthesis of ZrSPP was confirmed by phosphonate (P-O) stretching band, assigned at 900-1300 cm -1 in FTIR spectra. The sharp diffraction pattern at 2θ = 5 deg. indicated crystalline α-layered structure of ZrSPP. The proton conductivity of Nafion/ZrSPP (12.5 wt.%) composite membrane reached ca. 0.07 S/cm at 140 deg. C without extra humidification

  17. Desmodus rotundus and Artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Oliveira Fahl

    Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.

  18. Desmodus rotundus and Artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Oliveira Fahl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.

  19. Desmodus rotundus and Artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahl, Willian Oliveira; Carnieli, Pedro; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Iamamoto, Keila; Oliveira, Rafael Novaes; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV) strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. [Research advances in the effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of Aurelia spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yao, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Shan

    2012-11-01

    Aurelia spp. is a cosmopolitan coastal species, and also, one dominant species of large jellyfish in the coastal waters of China. In recent years, Aurelia spp. bloom events occur frequently in the world, causing severe damage to marine ecosystems, coastal economy, and society development. Aurelia spp. has a complicated life history comprising a benthic asexually-reproducing polyp generation and a sexually-reproducing medusa generation, and various vegetative reproduction (budding, strobilation, and podocyst production) and sexual reproduction. Surrounding physical and biological factors affect each growth stage of Aurelia spp., especially the juvenile stage of planktonic-benthic life cycle, which has major effect on the population dynamics of Aurelia spp. This paper reviewed the research advances in the effects of environmental factors on Aurelia spp. at its different growth and development stages, and discussed some problems worthy of further study, aimed to provide useful reference for the research of the key factors controlling the jellyfish blooms in coastal waters of China.

  1. [TYPING OF LEPTOSPIRA SPP. STRAINS BASED ON 16S rRNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostankova, Yu V; Semenov, A V; Stoyanova, N A; Tokarevich, N K; Lyubimova, N E; Petrova, O A; Ananina, Yu V; Petrov, E M

    2016-01-01

    Comparative typing of Leptospira spp. strain collection based on analysis of 16S RNA fragment. 2 pairs of primers were used for PCR, that jointly flank 1423b.p. sized fragment. Sequences of Leptospira spp. strain 16S rRNA, presented in the international database, were used for phylogenetic analysis. A high similarity, including interspecies, of the 16S fragment in Leptospira spp. strains was shown independently of the source, serovar and serogroup. Heterogeneity of the primary matrix, spontaneous mutations of hotspots and erroneous nucleotide couplings, characteristic for 16S sequence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. strains, are discussed. Molecular-genetic characteristic of certain reference Leptospira spp. strains by 16S sequence is obtained. Results of the studies give evidence on expedience of introduction into clinical practice of identification of Leptospira spp. by 16S sequence directly from the clinical material, that would allow to significantly reduce identification time, dismiss complex type-specific sera and other labor-intensive methods.

  2. PENGENDALIAN SERANGAN GANODERMA SPP. (60-80% PADA TANAMAN SENGON SEBAGAI PELINDUNG TANAMAN KOPI DAN KAKAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Nina Herliyana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic variation of Ganoderma spp. As a cause of rot disease on plantation crops is necessary for consideration in efforts to protect crops. Exploration of the use of biological agents, especially Trichoderma spp., For the control of Ganoderma on forestry crops is still limited to laboratory testing. Its effectiveness to control Trichoderma spp. To protect plants in the nursery sengon being carried out, as well as to determine its role in improving plant growth

  3. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Gigliarelli; Judith X. Becerra; Massimo Curini; Maria Carla Marcotullio

    2015-01-01

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  4. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  5. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  6. Gracilaria spp. morphology cultured in brackish water pond Pantai Sederhana Village, Muara Gembong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinar Tri Soelistyowati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gracilaria spp. is a euryhaline species of seaweed which can live in the marine and brackish water. Development of Gracilaria spp. culture in Bekasi is potential because this seaweed can be cultured in ex shrimp pond by polyculture system. The objective of this research was to evaluate the phenotype morphological characteristic of Gracilaria spp. based on and its relationship with shrimp pond water quality. Sampling was done at three shrimp ponds with a salinity range at 13.7–19.2 g/L. Phenotypical characteristics of Gracilaria spp. consisted of colour and thallus morfometrics, while measurement of water quality consisted of physical and chemical charactersof shrimp pond. The result showed that Gracilaria spp. generally had light brown colour. At salinity higher than 13.7 g/kg, the number of secondary thalli increased, the distance among internode tertiary thalli declined, and the number of ramification index increased. Salinity showed a positive correlation with remification index which was 0.571. Keywords: Gracilaria spp., remification index, phenotype, salinity, brackishwater culture  ABSTRAK Gracilaria spp. merupakan spesies rumput laut eurihalin yang dapat hidup di laut dan di perairan payau. Pengembangan budidaya Gracilaria spp. di Bekasi potensial dilakukan karena memanfaatkan tambak bekas budidaya udang dengan sistem polikultur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi karakteristik fenotipe morfologi Gracilaria spp. dan hubungannya dengan kualitas air di tambak budidaya. Sampling dilakukan pada tiga tambak dengan kisaran salinitas 13,7–19,2 g/L. Karakterisasi fenotipe meliputi warna dan morfometrik talus Gracilaria spp., sedangkan parameter kualitas air meliputi karakter fisika dan kimia air tambak. Hasil menunjukkan talus Gracilarias spp. umumnya berwarna coklat muda dan pada salinitas di atas 13,7 g/L menunjukkan jumlah talus sekunder meningkat, jarak internode talus tersier menurun, dan indeks percabangan

  7. Diversity and Utilization of Dioscorea Spp. Tuber as Alternative Food Source in Nganjuk Regency, East Java

    OpenAIRE

    Trimanto, Trimanto; Hapsari, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Dioscorea spp. is local tuberous food crop that has potential as alternative food source to support food security program in Indonesia. Exploration study and collecting mission subjected to Dioscorea spp. have been conducted in Nganjuk Regency. The study was aimed to 1) determine the distribution of Dioscorea spp. in Nganjuk, 2) to characterize tuber's morphological characteristic, and 3) to know how tuber's utilization by local peoples. The results showed that there were 4 species of Dioscor...

  8. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. Strains to Control Fusarium circinatum in Pinus radiata Seedlings Evaluación de Cepas de Trichoderma spp. y Clonostachys spp. para Controlar Fusarium circinatum en Plántulas de Pinus radiata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Moraga-Suazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell causes pine pitch canker, an important disease for conifers worldwide. F. circinatum was first detected in Chile in 2001 and to date is present in nurseries and clonal hedges from Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins Region to Los Rios Region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains to control F. circinatum in Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings in the absence of other effective control methods. Eighty-one Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys spp. strains were evaluated through in vitro assays to determine their ability to act as antagonists of F. circinatum and 21 strains were tested for their ability to reduce post-emergence mortality and increase P. radiata survival under greenhouse conditions. During in vitro experiments, 15 strains of Trichoderma inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen by more than 60% and one strain of Clonostachys showed parasitism of F. circinatum hyphae. Greenhouse experiments showed no control of the disease when the antagonists were added to substrate after the pathogen. However, when the antagonists were added before the pathogen, four strains (Clonostachys UDC-32 and UDC-222 and Trichoderma UDC-23 and UDC-408 reduced post-emergence mortality between 80 and 100%. Among these strains, only Clonostachys UDC-222 significantly increased the survival of P. radiata seedlings. These results showed that Clonostachys UDC-222 has the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against F. circinatum in the production of P. radiata plants.Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O’Donnell es el hongo que causa el cancro resinoso del pino, una enfermedad de importancia mundial en coníferas. En Chile, F. cicirnatum fue detectado por primera vez el año 2001 y a la fecha se encuentra presente en algunos viveros y huertos clonales desde la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O’Higgins hasta la Región de Los R

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF LETTUCE SALADS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães César, Josi; Madruga Peres, Andriele; Pereira das Neves, Caroline; Tupiniquim Freitas de Abreu, Érica; Fagundes de Mello, Jozi; Nunes Moreira, Ângela; Lameiro Rodrigues, Kelly

    2015-11-01

    self-service restaurants in which food is served ready to be consumed are liable to have some products contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms causing food-transmitted diseases. evaluates the microbiological quality of lettuce salads in restaurants in Pelotas RS Brazil by counts of thermo-tolerant coliforms, E. coli, Staphylococcus spp. and detection of Salmonella spp. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolates are also assessed. thirty-six samples of lettuce salads were collected from nine restaurants and thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. were quantified, coupled to a research on Salmonella spp., following methodology by the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Staphylococcus spp. isolates underwent antimicrobial resistance test by the disc-diffusion method. results showed that 61.1% of the salad samples contained more thermotolerant coliforms than allowed by Brazilian legislation and E. coli was confirmed in 5.6% of the samples. Positive and negative coagulase Staphylococcus occurred respectively in 5.6% and 77.8% of isolates, but no sample had Salmonella spp. Further, 56.7% of the thirty isolates of Staphylococcus spp. tested were resistant to penicillin; 46.7% to oxacillin; 26.7% to erythromycin and 23.3% were multi- resistant. inadequate quality of the salad was due to pathogenic microorganisms, while Staphylococcus spp. isolates had a high percentage of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Microorganisms inhabiting follicular contents of facial acne are not only Propionibacterium but also Malassezia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the relationship between major cutaneous microorganisms (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus and Malassezia spp.) and acne vulgaris (acne), we examined the microbiota quantitatively in the follicular contents of inflammatory acne and on the facial skin of patients with acne. Fifteen Japanese untreated acne outpatients were studied. The follicular contents from inflammatory acne lesions of the face were collected using a comedo extractor. The skin surface samples were obtained by the swab method from 10 cm(2) of facial skin. The microbiota was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. The microbiota in follicular contents was similar to that on the skin surface, namely, there were large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. Moreover, the number of Malassezia spp. on the skin surface was correlated with that of inflammatory acne and that in follicular contents. This study clarified that there are large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. in follicular contents. These results suggest the possibility that not only Propionibacterium acnes but also other cutaneous resident microorganisms are related to acne. Particularly, we considered that Malassezia spp. is closely related. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. Serosurvey of Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in rats captured from two zoos in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Maysa; Conrado, Francisco de Oliveira; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Joaquim, Sâmea Fernandes; Ferreira, Fernando; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2017-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii, respectively, with co-seropositivity occurring in two animals. For laboratory-raised rats, 20% tested positive for Leptospira spp. Also, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc and Leptospira noguchii serovar Panama were found. Serosurveys can show the environmental prevalence of zoonotic pathogens.

  12. Endophytic Actinobacteria from Rhododendron spp. as an Antibacterial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Fitriandini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron has long been known to treat various diseases including diarrhea, but diversity and potency of its endophytic actinobacteria has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to explore the existence of endophytic actinobacteria from Rododendron spp. and assesed their antibacterial activity, as an effort to control the growth of bacterial pathogen resistant to some antibiotics. The endophytes were isolated from Rhododendron spp. using HV medium, and purified in ISP2 medium.  The antibacterial activity was assayed against Enteropathogenic Escerichia coli (EPEC K1.1 resistant to ampicillin and Bacillus pumilus.  The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC value, macroscopic and microscopic were examined. Twenty three of endophytic actinobacteria were successfully isolated from 7 Rhododendron species. Two of them, i.e.  RJkb1 and RJkb3 isolates, had high antibacterial activity, with 17.2 mm and 14.5 mm inhibition zone against EPEC K1-1, respectively; and 12.4 mm and 16.1 mm inhibition zone against B. pumilus, respectively.  The highest antibacterial activity for both RJkb1 and RJkb3 isolates was achieved at day 15, at 28 oC. At 250 µg/mL to 1750 µg/mL either RJkb1 or RJkb3 supernatant showed no activity against EPEC K1-1. The MIC value against B. pumilus was at 1250 µg/mL for both tested isolates. Under an electron microscope observation, cell morphology of the treated B. pumilus showed elongated cells and viewer in cell number, compared with the untreated one.  From this work, the existence of endophytic actinobacteria from Rhododendron spp. and their antibacterial activity contribute to the understanding of their diversity and potency as antibacterial agent. 

  13. Reassessment of MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. typing worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Vanina; Ruybal, Paula; Lauthier, Juan José; Tomasini, Nicolás; Brihuega, Bibiana; Koval, Ariel; Caimi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods have been developed for Leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis. In this study we reassessed the most commonly used MLST schemes in a set of worldwide isolates, in order to select the loci that achieve the maximum power of discrimination for typing Leptospira spp. Global eBURST algorithm was used to detect clonal complexes among STs and phylogenetic relationships among concatenated and individual sequences were inferred through maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The evaluation of 12 loci combined to type a subset of strains rendered 57 different STs. Seven of these loci were selected into a final scheme upon studying the number of alleles and polymorphisms, the typing efficiency, the discriminatory power and the ratio dN/dS per nucleotide site for each locus. This new 7-locus scheme was applied to a wider collection of worldwide strains. The ML tree constructed from concatenated sequences of the 7 loci identified 6 major clusters corresponding to 6 Leptospira species. Global eBURST established 8 CCs, which showed that genotypes were clearly related by geographic origin and host. ST52 and ST47, represented mostly by Argentinian isolates, grouped the higher number of isolates. These isolates were serotyped as serogroups Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae, showing a unidirectional correlation in which the isolates with the same ST belong to the same serogroup. In summary, this scheme combines the best loci from the most widely used MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. and supports worldwide strains classification. The Argentinian isolates exhibited congruence between allelic profile and serogroup, providing an alternative to serological methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Optimization of medium for antimycotic production by Streptomyces spp.

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    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of the genus Streptomyces, on the appropriate cultivation medium in the process of submerged biosynthesis, as a product of the secondary metabolism, and under aerobic conditions synthesize pharmacologically active compounds. The aim of presented study was optimization of different nitrogen sources in the cultivation medium for the production of antimycotics using a strain of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors at three levels (peptone: 3.0 g/l, 7.0 g/l and 11.0 g/l; yeast extract: 1.0 g/l, 3.0 g/l and 5.0 g/l; soybean meal: 5.0 g/l, 15.0 g/l and 25.0 g/l and three repetitions in the central point. Cultivation mediums were analyzed for determination of residual sugar, residual nitrogen, pellet diameter and RNA. Also, antimycotic activity of the obtained culti­vation mediums was determined using diffusion disc method on the Aspergillus spp. as the test microorganism. For the optimization of selected parameters, a Response Surface Methodology was used and the obtained data were analyzed using the software package DESIGN EXPERT 8.1. Achieved model with a coefficient of determination (R of 0.952 predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (24.0 mm against microorganism Aspergillus spp. and the minimum amount of residual sugar (0.551528 g/l under applied experimental conditions was produced when the contents of varied nitrogen sources were: peptone 11.0 g/l, yeast extract 4.32 g/l and soybean meal 25.00 g/l.

  15. Isolation of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas spp. from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marcus Ho-Yin; Chan, Edward Wai Chi; Chen, Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are ubiquitous in nature. Carbapenem resistance in environmental isolates of members of this genus is thought to be rare but the exact resistance rate is unknown. In this study, carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from chicken and pork samples and the mechanisms underlying the carbapenem resistance in these strains were investigated. A total of 16 carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas otitidis isolates were recovered from eight samples of chicken and pork. The isolates exhibited meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8 to ≥32mg/L and imipenem MICs of resistance in various strains was found to be mediated by efflux systems only, whereas overexpression of MexAB-OprM efflux pump and lack of OprD porin were responsible for carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa. The intrinsic metallo-β-lactamase gene bla POM in P. otitidis and overexpression of the TtgABC efflux system in P. putida were also responsible for carbapenem resistance in these organisms. In conclusion, this study reports for the first time the isolation of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, P. otitidis and P. putida strains from food. The resistance mechanisms of these strains are rarely due to production of carbapenemases. Further selection of such carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas spp. in the environment and the risk by which they are transmitted to clinical settings are of great public health concern. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efeito prebiótico do mel sobre o crescimento e viabilidade de Bifidobacterium spp. e Lactobacillus spp. em leite Prebiotic effect of honey on growth and viability of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Nolasco Macedo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para ser considerado prebiótico, um microrganismo deve atender a uma série de requisitos, sendo a manutenção da viabilidade, um dos principais. Culturas probióticas de Lactobacillus spp. e Bifidobacterium spp. foram cultivadas em leite em pó desnatado reconstituído 12% adicionado de 3% (p/v de mel pasteurizado. Foram preparados controles sem mel. Todos os cultivos mantiveram-se viáveis por 46 dias a 7 °C atendendo o número mínimo exigido pela legislação. O maior número de células viáveis de L. casei-01 e L. casei Shirota (>9,0 log10 UFC.mL-1 foi observado nos cultivos contendo mel. A acidez titulável produzida por estas culturas foi de 1,44%. O número de células viáveis de L. acidophilus Sacco® aos 46 dias em cultivos com mel foi significativamente maior (p To be considered prebiotic, a microorganism must fulfill a series of requirements and the maintenance of viability is a major one. Probiotic cultures of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were cultured in 12% (w/v reconstituted nonfat dry milk containing 3% (w/v of pasteurized honey. Controls without honey were prepared. All cultures remained viable for up 46 days at 7 °C conforming to the regulation requirement. The higher cell number of L. casei-01 and L. casei Shirota (>9.0 log10 CFU.mL-1 were maintained in the presence of honey. The titratable acidity produced by these cultures was of 1.44%. On the 46th day of storage, the number of L. acidophilus Sacco® viable cells in the presence of honey was significantly higher (p < 0.05 compared to the control. Considering the overall storage period, honey exerted significant positive effect (p < 0,05 only on Bifidobacterium cultures. The lowest growth and acidity on the 46th day was observed with Bf. Lactis Bb12, being 7,63 log10 CFU.g-1 and 0,61% of acidity in the presence of honey and 6.11 log CFU.mL-1 and 0,30% of acidity in the control. Differently, Bf. lactis Sacco® cultures reached counts of 9,11 log10 CFU

  17. Tempat Perkembangbiakan Nyamuk Aedes spp. Di Pasar Wisata Pangandaran

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    Joni Hendri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An observation of Aedes spp. breeding places in water container was carried out located at Pasar Wisata Pangandaran. The final results showed that larvae were found mostly in bucket (28,21 %, container with plastic based goods (87,18 % and container with blue colors (33,33%. The House Index (HI rate was 29,20 %, Container Index (CI rate was 9,30 %, Breteau Index (BI rate was 40,6. The research to, showed the barrels or drum was been most productive container with Pupae Index (PI rate was 25,42.

  18. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF STREPTOMYCES SPP. PRODUCING VANCOMYCIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-KABBANY, H.M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples obtained from different governments in Egypt were analyzed to determine the presence of types of antibiotic producing actinomycetes using starch-nitrite agar, starch-casein nitrate agar and Czapek's Dox agar as culture media. Different Streptomyces spp. were isolated. The Streptomyces (S.) isolates encountered were S. violochromogens, S. violaceus-nigar and S. orientalis and known as standard Vancomycin producers. The optimum conditions of S. orientalis; incubation period, initial pH and incubation temperature, were determined. In addition, physical properties; appearance, melting point, solubility, mass spectrophotometer of ultra violet (UV) and the effect of gamma rays, were also determined

  19. Seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in horses in South of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraveji, M; Hosseini, M H; Amrabadi, O; Rahimian, A; Namazi, F; Namavari, M

    2011-12-01

    Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of Neospora antibodies in horses worldwide. The aim of the present study is to determine serological prevalence of Neospora infection in horses in Iran. Blood samples were obtained from 200 horses and tested for serum antibodies against Neospora spp. by the Neospora modified direct agglutination test (N-MAT). Antibodies were found in 64 (32%) horses being tested with titers of 1:80. This is the first serological survey for Neospora antibodies performed on horses in Iran.

  20. A molecular survey of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks from Thuringia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najm, Nour-Addeen; Meyer-Kayser, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Lothar; Herb, Ingrid; Fensterer, Veronika; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-06-01

    Wild canines which are closely related to dogs constitute a potential reservoir for haemoparasites by both hosting tick species that infest dogs and harbouring tick-transmitted canine haemoparasites. In this study, the prevalence of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. was investigated in German red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks. DNA extracts of 261 spleen samples and 1953 ticks included 4 tick species: Ixodes ricinus (n=870), I. canisuga (n=585), I. hexagonus (n=485), and Dermacentor reticulatus (n=13) were examined for the presence of Babesia/Theileria spp. by a conventional PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. One hundred twenty-one out of 261 foxes (46.4%) were PCR-positive. Out of them, 44 samples were sequenced, and all sequences had 100% similarity to Theileria annae. Similarly, sequencing was carried out for 65 out of 118 PCR-positive ticks. Theileria annae DNA was detected in 61.5% of the sequenced samples, Babesia microti DNA was found in 9.2%, and Babesia venatorum in 7.6% of the sequenced samples. The foxes were most positive in June and October, whereas the peak of tick positivity was in October. Furthermore, the positivity of the ticks was higher for I. canisuga in comparison to the other tick species and for nymphs in comparison to adults. The high prevalence of T. annae DNA in red foxes in this study suggests a reservoir function of those animals for T. annae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. annae in foxes from Germany as well as the first detection of T. annae and B. microti in the fox tick I. canisuga. Detection of DNA of T. annae and B. microti in three tick species collected from foxes adds new potential vectors for these two pathogens and suggests a potential role of the red fox in their natural endemic cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and ixodid ticks from the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Gholamreza; Pourhosseini, Moslem; Yaghfouri, Saeed; Rashidi, Ahmad; Seidabadi, Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    Theilerioses and babesioses are important diseases in Iranian sheep. The present study was undertaken to identify and classify/specify Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and vector ticks. Investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. In total, 302 sheep originating from 60 different flocks were clinically examined and their blood collected. In addition, from the same flocks, ixodid ticks were sampled. Stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Theileria and Babesia organisms, and a semi-nested PCR was used for subsequent molecular specification. From the ticks, salivary glands and uterus were isolated and subsequently analyzed by semi-nested PCR. Piroplasm organisms were observed in 29% of the blood smears with low parasitemia, whereas 65% of the blood samples yielded positive PCR findings. The presence of Theileria ovis (55.6%), Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection with Theileria spp. and Babesia ovis were detected by semi-nested PCR in 0.3%, 5.6%, and 0.99%, respectively. In total, 429 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 376; 87.6% of the total), followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 30; 7.0%), Dermacentor raskemensis (n = 12; 2.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 7; 1.6%), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 2; 0.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 1; 0.2%), and Haemaphysalis sp. (n = 1; 0.2%). Of the positive R. turanicus samples, 5 (5.7%) were infected with T. ovis and 2 (2.9%) with T. lestoquardi. Neither Babesia ovis nor Babesia motasi infection was detected in salivary glands or uterine samples of the ticks. The results also suggest that R. turanicus could be the vector responsible for transmission of the 2 Theileria species.

  2. Versatile Antagonistic Activities of Soil-Borne Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. against Phytophthora infestans and Other Potato Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Caulier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The world potato is facing major economic losses due to disease pressure and environmental concerns regarding pesticides use. This work aims at addressing these two issues by isolating indigenous bacteria that can be integrated into pest management strategies. More than 2,800 strains of Bacillus-like and Pseudomonas-like were isolated from several soils and substrates associated with potato agro-systems in Belgium. Screenings for antagonistic activities against the potato pathogens Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani (BCCM-MUCL 5492, Pectobacterium carotovorum (ATCC 15713, Phytophthora infestans (CRA-W10022 and Rhizoctonia solani (BCCM-MUCL 51929 were performed, allowing the selection of 52 Bacillus spp. and eight Pseudomonas spp. displaying growth inhibition of at least 50% under in vitro conditions, particularly against P. infestans. All 60 bacterial isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and further characterized for the production of potential bio-active secondary metabolites. The antagonistic activities displayed by the selected strains indicated that versatile metabolites can be produced by the strains. For instance, the detection of genes involved bacilysin biosynthesis was correlated with the strong antagonism of Bacillus pumilus strains toward P. infestans, whereas the production of both bio-surfactants and siderophores might explain the high antagonistic activities against late blight. Greenhouse assays with potato plants were performed with the most effective strains (seven Bacillus spp. and four Pseudomonas spp. in order to evaluate their in vivo antagonistic effect against P. infestans. Based on these results, four strains (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 17A-B3, Bacillus subtilis 30B-B6, Pseudomonas brenneri 43R-P1 and Pseudomonas protegens 44R-P8 were retained for further evaluation of their protection index against P. infestans in a pilot field trial. Interestingly, B. subtilis 30B-B6 was shown to significantly

  3. Leuconostoc Spp. Bacteremia in a Patient with Sigmoid Colon Cancer

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    Havva Avcikucuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leuconostoc species are opportunistic pathogens that rarely encountered as an infection agent. It has been reported that, this pathogen could cause infections especially in immunsupressive patients, after invasive procedures and antibiotic treatment. In this report, we aim to present a case with intrinsically vancomycin resistant Leuconostoc spp. that was isolated in blood culture. Fifty six years old male patient with type II diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had been operated for sigmoid colon cancer one a half years ago. He was taken radiotherapy and chemotherapy right after the operation. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of stenosis in colostomy opening. Empiricial treatment was started for high fever. Gram positive coccus was reported in the blood culture(Bactec 9050, Becton-Dickinson, USA. The isolate was identified as Leuconostoc spp. with API 20 Strep (BioMerieux, French kit. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by the disk diffusion method according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. The isolate was found susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristine, while it was resistant to penicilin, ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, vancomycin and teicoplanin by the disk diffusion method. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden.

  4. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

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    Amro Abdelazez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548 were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044 for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at −18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolates from vegetable plantation soil

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    Isnaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Streptomyces isolates were isolated from soil in some different location on vegetable plantation at agriculture standard condition. The isolates were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB ATCC H37RV and mycobacterial which isolated from Dr. Soetomo Hospital patients in Surabaya. The International Streptomyces Project 4 (ISP4 and Middlebrook 7H9 (MB7H9 wwere used as growth or fermentation medium. The screening of inhibition activity was performed using turbidimetry and spot-test on agar medium. Results shown that 33.3% of the isolates (5 isolates have anti-mycobacterial activities. The first line anti tuberculosis drug rifampicin, (RIF, ethambutol (EMB, isoniazid (INH, and pyrazinamide (PZA were used as standards or positive controls with concentration 20 ppm. Optical density of crude fermentation broth concentrated from five isolates relatively lower than five anti-tuberculosis drug activity standard, although their activities against some microbial were similar to the standard at spot-test. The most efficient isolate shown anti-mycobacterial activity was Streptomyces B10 which identified as Streptomyces violaceousniger. In addition, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profile of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatogram of each isolates were studied and compared to Streptomyces spp. Keywords: Anti-mycobacterial, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptomyces spp.

  6. Ecology and biotechnological potential of the thermophilic fermentative Coprothermobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Petruccioli, M; Rossetti, S

    2015-05-01

    Thermophilic bacteria have been isolated from several terrestrial, marine and industrial environments. Anaerobic digesters treating organic wastes are often an important source of these microorganisms, which catalyze a wide array of metabolic processes. Moreover, organic wastes are primarily composed of proteins, whose degradation is often incomplete. Coprothermobacter spp. are proteolytic anaerobic thermophilic microbes identified in several studies focused on the analysis of the microbial community structure in anaerobic thermophilic reactors. They are currently classified in the phylum Firmicutes; nevertheless, several authors showed that the Coprothermobacter group is most closely related to the phyla Dictyoglomi and Thermotoga. Since only a few proteolytic anaerobic thermophiles have been characterized so far, this microorganism has attracted the attention of researchers for its potential applications with high-temperature environments. In addition to proteolysis, Coprothermobacter spp. showed several metabolic abilities and may have a biotechnological application either as source of thermostable enzymes or as inoculum in anaerobic processes. Moreover, they can improve protein degradation by establishing a syntrophy with hydrogenotrophic archaea. To gain a better understanding of the phylogenesis, metabolic capabilities and adaptations of these microorganisms, it is of importance to better define the role in thermophilic environments and to disclose properties not yet investigated. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazez, Amro; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao; Abdelmotaal, Heba; Sami, Rokayya; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. ( Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548) were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture ( Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044) for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at -18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.

  8. Infection with Capillaria spp. in cage reared peacocks (Pavus cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodovski Aleksandar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period of July and August 2009 at the Veterinary Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Skopje clinical and laboratory investigations of two peacocks (Pavus Cristatus male and female old 2, 5 years were performed. Peacocks had history of disease in the previous 3-4 months with clinical signs consisting of white diarrhea, emaciation, apathy, with normal appetite. Peacocks were treated several times with antibiotics without any success. With parasitological examination of the feces with qualitative method of flotation with saturated solution of ZnSO4 (SpG 1.4., mass infestation with eggs of Capillaria spp was established. On the basis of laboratory results therapy with levamisole (Neositol 10% - FM Pharm of the peacocks and thorough disinfection of the holding were recommended. On the basis of laboratory investigations, especially parasitological investigations it can be conclude that this is the first case of isolation of Capillaria spp in peacocks in Republic of Macedonia. Repeated single shot therapy with levamisole has proven effective with no side effects.

  9. Type IV secretion system of Brucella spp. and its effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Li, Wengfeng; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause infection in domestic and wild animals. They are often used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and 15 effectors that are proposed to be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells. VirB T4SS also plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. Here, we list the key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella that are potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating the functions of these effectors will help clarify the molecular role of T4SS during infection. Furthermore, studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms used by the bacteria to hijack the host signaling pathways and aid in the development of better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  10. Cryptic polyketide synthase genes in non-pathogenic Clostridium SPP.

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    Swantje Behnken

    Full Text Available Modular type I polyketide synthases (PKS produce a vast array of bacterial metabolites with highly diverse biological functions. Notably, all known polyketides were isolated from aerobic bacteria, and yet no example has been reported for strict anaerobes. In this study we explored the diversity and distribution of PKS genes in the genus Clostridium. In addition to comparative genomic analyses combined with predictions of modular type I polyketide synthase (PKS gene clusters in sequenced genomes of Clostridium spp., a representative selection of other species inhabiting a variety of ecological niches was investigated by PCR screening for PKS genes. Our data reveal that all studied pathogenic Clostridium spp. are devoid of putative PKS genes. In stark contrast, cryptic PKS genes are widespread in genomes of non-pathogenic Clostridium species. According to phylogenetic analyses, the Clostridium PKS genes have unusual and diverse origins. However, reverse transcription quantitative PCR demonstrates that these genes are silent under standard cultivation conditions, explaining why the related metabolites have been overlooked until now. This study presents clostridia as a putative source for novel bioactive polyketides.

  11. Cultivation Techniques and Medicinal Properties of Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gregori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pleurotus (oyster mushroom comprises some most popular edible mushrooms due to their favourable organoleptic and medicinal properties, vigorous growth and undemanding cultivation conditions. It can be cultivated on log and a wide variety of agroforestry (by-products, weeds and wastes for the production of food, feed, enzymes and medicinal compounds, or for waste degradation and detoxification. Many different techniques and substrates have been successfully utilized for mushroom cultivation and biomass production by means of solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. However, in contrast to submerged liquid fermentation, solid-state fermentation is not often used in large scale due to severe engineering problems. Various Pleurotus species have been shown to possess a number of medicinal properties, such as antitumour, immunomodulatory, antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet-aggregating, antihyperglycaemic, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. These therapeutic activities are exhibited by extracts or isolated compounds from Pleurotus spp. fermentation broth, mycelia and fruiting bodies. In particular, polysaccharides appear to be potent antitumour and immuno-enhancing substances, besides possessing other beneficial activities. However, the biochemical mechanisms of these therapeutic activities still remain largely unknown. This review focuses on recent advances in the biotechnology of Pleurotus spp., with emphasis on the production of fruiting bodies, the production of mycelium and bioactive compounds by solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. The medicinal properties of this mushroom are also outlined.

  12. [Interdigital tinea pedis resulting from Fusarium spp. in Dakar, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Diallo, M A; Ndiaye, M; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, D

    2018-03-01

    Fungal interdigital tinea pedis (ITP) is a common pathology mainly due to dermatophytes and yeasts. Fusarium sp. is rarely incriminated in the genesis of intertrigo. In Dakar, a recent study conducted in 2016 on fungal ITP showed that Fusarium were more involved in the etiology of ITP than dermatophytes, coming just after yeasts dominated by Candida. Following this, we wanted to draw attention to the increasing incidence of ITP resulting from Fusarium spp., in Dakar, Senegal, and to analyze the epidemiological and mycological particularities of these ITP due to Fusarium spp. A retrospective study including all patients received at the laboratory for suspicion of ITP between January 1st, 2014 and June 30th, 2017 was conducted. Diagnosis was based on mycological examination, including direct examination and culture. Mycological analysis was considered positive when direct examination and culture were positive after at least one repeat. Twenty-nine cases of Fusarium ITP accounting for 44.6% of all ITP in the study period were diagnosed in 15 men and 14 women. The mean age of the patients was 48.4 years. Fusarium ITP were diagnosed in immunocompetent patients except in two diabetics. The mean duration of the lesions was 6.83 years. The most frequent species isolated belonged to the Fusarium solani complex with 19 cases. Fusarium ITP in a healthy subject requires regular monitoring because any subsequent decrease in immune defenses could lead to fatal hematogenous spread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Gasterophilus spp. infections in horses from northern and central Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrayev, Baltabek; Lider, Lyudmila; Bauer, Christian

    2015-01-15

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain current data on the gastrointestinal myiasis of horses in the provinces of Kostanay, Akmola and Karagandy, northern and central Kazakhstan. The stomach, small intestine and rectum of 148 slaughter horses were examined for Gasterophilus spp. larvae during a 26-month study period. All horses were infected with 2nd and 3rd stage larvae (mean intensity: 803±350), and 22% of them harboured >1000 Gasterophilus spp. larvae each. Four species were identified: G. intestinalis (prevalence: 100%; mean intensity: 361±240 larvae), G. haemorrhoidalis (100%; 353±191), G. nasalis (100%; 73±36) and G. pecorum (91.2%; 18±10). Horses aged<2 years were higher infected with Gasterophilus larvae than 2-4 years old animals. Both the prevalence and extremely high intensity of Gasterophilus infections of horses in these Kazakh regions suggest respective control measurements to improve the health and performance of the animals and to increase the economic income of horse owners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of gum Arabic bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuarra, Ali; Hashim, Rokiah; Bauk, Sabar; Kandaiya, Sivamany; Tousi, Ehsan Taghizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exploring gum Arabic as a binder for Rhizophora sp. particleboards. • The addition of gum Arabic improved overall properties. • Gum Arabic could be added to manufacture particleboards. - Abstract: Gum Arabic (GA) was used as a binder for the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The physical and mechanical properties of the bioadhesive bonded particleboards, including moisture content, internal bond (IB) strength, thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the manufactured particleboards. Three different particle sizes of the Rhizophora spp. with four adhesive levels were utilized. Results revealed that the addition of GA into the particleboards noticeably improved panel overall properties. The GA bonded particleboards resulted in smoother surfaces, more rigid texture and better internal bonding strength compared to binderless particleboards made without using any adhesive. All specimens had internal bond strength of more than the minimum requirement of the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS A-5908 Type-8 of 0.15 N/mm 2 and were noticed to increase by increasing the adhesive level. However the GA bonded particleboards had higher percentage of WA and the TS compared with the binderless boards. Microscopic study also revealed that particleboards bonded with the gum had better contact compared to the binderless boards. Based on these results, it could be concluded that gum Arabic is an effective natural substance that could be added to manufacture particleboards to improve some of panels’ physical and mechanical properties

  15. FREQUENCY OF MALASSEZIA SPP. IN DOGS PRESENTING EXTERNAL OTITIS

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    N. R. Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The external otitis is defined as an inflammation of the dog external ear canal and it is considered a common disease in dogs. It is a disease of multifactorial etiology, where one of the main microrganisms associated to the illness is the Malassezia ssp. Therefore, this work aimed to determine the frequency of Malassezia spp. by auricular cytology in dogs that present clinical signs of external otitis. Were used 23 dogs attended in a veterinary clinic located in Sinop-MT. The material was collected using a dry swab, where each extremity was inserted in one of the auditory canal (right and left, which was rotated, removed from the ear and rolled on the glass slide. First the glass slide was microscopically observed (objective 4X, for viewing mites, and then, the sample was fixed by heat and stained with Panoptic. Once stained, the glass slide was examined (objective 40X and 100X. Among the 23 dogs evaluated, 60.9% were positive for Malassezia spp., 8.7% were positive for the Otodectes cynotis mite, and also 30,4% of the animals showed mixed infection with Malassezia ssp. and bacteria. With this study, it can be concluded that Malassezia ssp. was found more frequently in at the auditory canal of dogs with that presents external otitis, associated or acting alone, indicating the importance of this yeast in cases of otitis.

  16. Silver nanoparticles toxicity against airborne strains of Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny-Koładka, Katarzyna A; Malina, Dagmara K

    2017-11-10

    The aim of this study was to explore the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by chemical reduction method assessment with regard to airborne strains of Staphylococcus spp. The first step of the experiment was the preparation of silver nanoparticle suspension. The suspension was obtained by a fast and simple chemical method involving the reduction of silver ions through a reducing factor in the presence of the suitable stabilizer required to prevent the aggregation. In the second stage, varied instrumental techniques were used for the analysis and characterization of the obtained nanostructures. Third, the bacteria of the Staphylococcus genus were isolated from the air under stable conditions with 47 sports and recreational horses, relatively. Next, isolated strains were identified using biochemical and spectrophotometric methods. The final step was the evaluation of the Staphylococcus genus sensitivity to nanosilver using the disk diffusion test. It has been proven that prepared silver nanoparticles exhibit strong antibacterial properties. The minimum inhibitory concentration for tested isolates was 30 μg/mL. It has been found that the sensitivity of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from six identified species differs considerably. The size distribution of bacterial growth inhibition zones indicates that resistance to various nanosilver concentrations is an individual strain feature, and has no connection with belonging to a specific species.

  17. Native and introduced squirrels in Italy host different Cryptosporidium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Jitka; Horčičková, Michaela; Hofmannová, Lada; Sak, Bohumil; Ferrari, Nicola; Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to describe Cryptosporidium spp. infection in tree squirrels from 17 locations in Northern Italy. A total of 357 squirrels were examined, including species native to Europe (Sciurus vulgaris; n=123), and species introduced from North America (Sciurus carolinensis; n=162) and Southeast Asia (Callosciurus erythraeus; n=72). Faecal samples of all squirrels were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium infection by microscopy (flotation method) and PCR/sequence analysis of the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA, actin, and gp60 genes. Despite the overlapping ranges of native and introduced tree squirrel species in the study area, they host different Cryptosporidium spp. Sciurus vulgaris were exclusively infected with Cryptosporidium ferret genotype (n=13) belonging to three novel gp60 subtypes, VIIIb-VIIId. Sciurus carolinensis hosted C. ubiquitum subtype XIIb (n=2), Cryptosporidium skunk genotype subtype XVIa (n=3), and chipmunk genotype I subtype XIVa (n=1). Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I subtype XIVa was also found in two C. erythraeus. Comparing data from this and previous studies, we propose that Cryptosporidium skunk genotype and possibly C. ubiquitum subtype XIIb were introduced to Europe with eastern grey squirrels. Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I and ferret genotype were associated with high intensity infections, but there was no association with diarrhoea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina

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    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, y Platygastridae de Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae de la Argentina, y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Anagrus (Anagrus empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris Berg que se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach; Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus riverplaticus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae, parasitoide de M. bellicus Marino de Remes Lenicov & Sosa; A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (parasitoide de M. bellicus, M. scutellaris y Megamelus sp., todos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei también se encuentra en Formosa; y Parascelio sabcli Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa. Se incluyen otros parasitoides oófagos conocidos de Megamelus spp. en la Argentina, tales como Kalopolynema (Kalopolynema poema Triapitsyn & Berezovskiy (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Buenos Aires y también Cremastobaeus atratus Loiácono & Mulvani (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa.

  19. Multiplication of Legionella spp. in tap water containing Hartmannella vermiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Wilson, T M; Kapp, N J; West, A J; Kuchta, J M; States, S J; Dowling, J N; Yee, R B

    1991-07-01

    A model was developed to study the multiplication of various Legionella spp. in tap water containing Hartmannella vermiformis. Tap water cultures prepared with the following components were suitable for the multiplication studies: Legionella spp., 10(3) CFU/ml; H. vermiformis, 10(4.4) cysts per ml; and killed Pseudomonas paucimobilis, 10(9) cells per ml. Cocultures were incubated at 37 degrees C for at least 1 week. The following legionellae multiplied in tap water cocultures in each replicate experiment: L. bozemanii (WIGA strain), L. dumoffii (NY-23 and TX-KL strains), L. micdadei (two environmental strains), and L. pneumophila (six environmental strains and one clinical isolate). Growth yield values for these strains were 0.6 to 3.5 log CFU/ml. Legionellae which did not multiply in replicate cocultures included L. anisa (one strain), L. bozemanii (MI-15 strain), L. micdadei (a clinical isolate), L. longbeachae, (one strain), and L. pneumophila (Philadelphia 1 strain). L. gormanii and an environmental isolate of L. pneumophila multiplied in only one of three experiments. None of the legionellae multiplied in tap water containing only killed P. paucimobilis. The mean growth yield (+/- standard deviation) of H. vermiformis in the cocultures was 1.2 +/- 0.1 log units/ml. H. vermiformis supports multiplication of only particular strains of legionellae, some of which are from diverse origins.

  20. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

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    Filho Antônio D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25% soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100% were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

  1. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Regina C L; Rosado, Alexandre S; da Mota, Fabio F; Cavalcante, Maria A S; Eulálio, Kelsen D; Filho, Antônio D; Martins, Liline M S; Lazéra, Márcia S; Wanke, Bodo

    2011-05-16

    Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25%) soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100%) were positive by the molecular tool. This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR.

  2. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548) were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044) for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at −18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only. PMID:28691028

  3. Characterization of an endophytic bacterial community associated with Eucalyptus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, R E L; Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Azevedo, J L

    2009-11-24

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from stems of Eucalyptus spp (Eucalyptus citriodora, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, E. pellita, and a hybrid of E. grandis and E. urophylla) cultivated at two sites; they were characterized by RAPD and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Endophytic bacteria were more frequently isolated from E. grandis and E. pellita. The 76 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Erwinia/Pantoea (45%), Agrobacterium sp (21%), Curtobacterium sp (9%), Brevibacillus sp (8%), Pseudomonas sp (8%), Acinetobacter sp (4%), Burkholderia cepacia (2.6%), and Lactococcus lactis (2.6%). Genetic characterization of these endophytic bacteria isolates showed at least eight ARDRA haplotypes. The genetic diversity of 32 Erwinia/Pantoea and 16 Agrobacterium sp isolates was assessed with the RAPD technique. There was a high level of genetic polymorphism among all the isolates and there was positive correlation between the clusters and the geographic origin of the strains. These endophytic bacteria were further analyzed for in vitro interaction with endophytic fungi from Eucalyptus spp. We found that metabolites secreted by Erwinia/Pantoea and B. cepacia isolates had an inhibitory growth effect on some endophytic fungi, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in bacterial-fungal interactions inside the host plant. Apparently, these bacteria could have an important role in plant development; in the future they may be useful for biological control of diseases and plant growth promotion, as well as for the production of new metabolites and enzymes.

  4. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes; Infestacao de Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em genotipos de Carica spp. e Vasconcella spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C. [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: fancelli@cnpmf.embrapa.br; Morales, Cinara F.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (FEPAGRO), Ijui, RS (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  5. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Children from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Olivia; González-Díaz, Mariana; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Cano, Manuel; Durazo, María; Bernal, Rosa M.; Hernandez, Jesús; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie) and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa) were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries. PMID:24755606

  6. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in children from Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Valenzuela

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60 gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries.

  7. Abundance and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio spp. isolated from microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, A. L.; Darr, K.; Dobbs, F. C.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing concern for `microplastics' (particles resistance profiles of Vibrio spp. found on them. We collected 22 microplastic pieces, paired seawater samples, and from them cultured 44 putative Vibrio spp. isolates, 18 of which were PCR-confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus and 3 as V. vulnificus. There were no PCR-confirmed V. cholerae isolates. We used the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test to examine the isolates' response to six antibiotics: chloramphenicol (30μg), gentamicin (10μg), ampicillin (10μg), streptomycin (10μg), tetracycline (30μg), and rifampin (5μg). Vibrio isolates were susceptible to three or more of the six antibiotics tested and all were susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. There were no apparent differences between the antibiotic susceptibilities of vibrios isolated from microplastics compared to those from the water column. In every instance tested, vibrios on microplastics were enriched by at least two orders of magnitude compared to those from paired seawater samples. This study demonstrates that microplastic particles serve as a habitat for Vibrio species, in particular V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus, confirming the conjecture of Zettler et al. (2013) that plastics may serve as a vector for these and other potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  8. Phenotypical characterization of Candida spp. isolated from crop of parrots (Amazona spp. Caracterização fenotípica de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios (Amazona spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Candida isolates from crop of parrots. Forty baby parrots of genus Amazona, species aestiva and amazonica that were apprehended from wild animal traffic were used: 18 presented ingluvitis and 22 other alterations, but showing general debilitation. Samples were seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol after be obtained by the introduction of urethral probe through the esophagus. Based on morphology and biochemical reactions (API 20C Candida was confirmed; it was still searched the production of proteinase and phospholipase, virulence factors for Candida species. Candida spp. were isolated from 57.5% parrots, being 72.2% from birds with ingluvitis and 45.5% from without ones. Twenty-five strains of Candida were isolated, 60% and 40%, respectively from parrots with and without ingluvitis, and were speciated: 28% C. humicola, 24% C. parapsilosis, 20% C. guilliermondii, 20% C. famata, and 8% C. albicans. These results demonstrate that C. albicans is not the most frequent species isolated, and it is the first report that shows C. guilliermondii, C. famata, and C. humicola causing infection in parrots. Many isolates presented filamentation (76%, 100% produced proteinase and 68% phospholipase. The observation of Candida spp. producing virulence factors reinforce the pathogenic role of these yeasts in the cases studied.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios. Foram utilizados 40 papagaios do gênero Amazona, espécies aestiva e amazonica, apreendidos de tráfico de animais selvagens: 18 apresentavam ingluvite e 22 outras alterações, mas todos mostrando sinais de debilitação geral. Colheram-se as amostras clínicas através da introdução de sonda uretral no esôfago dos animais e estas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. A identificação das espécies de Candida foi baseada em caracter

  9. Molecular detection of Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri and Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) vermiformis as vectors for Legionella spp. in untreated and solar pasteurized harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, Penelope H; Khan, Sehaam; Cloete, Thomas E; Khan, Wesaal

    2016-10-10

    Legionella spp. employ multiple strategies to adapt to stressful environments including the proliferation in protective biofilms and the ability to form associations with free-living amoeba (FLA). The aim of the current study was to identify Legionella spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) vermiformis and Naegleria fowleri that persist in a harvested rainwater and solar pasteurization treatment system. Pasteurized (45 °C, 65 °C, 68 °C, 74 °C, 84 °C and 93 °C) and unpasteurized tank water samples were screened for Legionella spp. and the heterotrophic plate count was enumerated. Additionally, ethidium monoazide quantitative polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) was utilized for the quantification of viable Legionella spp., Acanthamoeba spp., V. vermiformis and N. fowleri in pasteurized (68 °C, 74 °C, 84 °C and 93 °C) and unpasteurized tank water samples, respectively. Of the 82 Legionella spp. isolated from unpasteurized tank water samples, Legionella longbeachae (35 %) was the most frequently isolated, followed by Legionella norrlandica (27 %) and Legionella rowbothamii (4 %). Additionally, a positive correlation was recorded between the heterotrophic plate count vs. the number of Legionella spp. detected (ρ = 0.710, P = 0.048) and the heterotrophic plate count vs. the number of Legionella spp. isolated (ρ = 0.779, P = 0.0028) from the tank water samples collected. Solar pasteurization was effective in reducing the gene copies of viable V. vermiformis (3-log) and N. fowleri (5-log) to below the lower limit of detection at temperatures of 68-93 °C and 74-93 °C, respectively. Conversely, while the gene copies of viable Legionella and Acanthamoeba were significantly reduced by 2-logs (P = 0.0024) and 1-log (P = 0.0015) overall, respectively, both organisms were still detected after pasteurization at 93 °C. Results from this study indicate that Acanthamoeba spp. primarily acts as the vector and aids in

  10. Evaluation of a triplex real-time PCR system to detect the plant-pathogenic molds Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and C. purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 3M™ Molecular detection system versus MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and molecular techniques for the identification of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella spp. &Listeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loff, Marché; Mare, Louise; de Kwaadsteniet, Michele; Khan, Wesaal

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare standard selective plating, conventional PCR (16S rRNA and species specific primers), MALDI-TOF MS and the 3M™ Molecular Detection System for the routine detection of the pathogens Listeria, Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in wastewater and river water samples. MALDI-TOF MS was able to positively identify 20/21 (95%) of the E. coli isolates obtained at genus and species level, while 16S rRNA sequencing only correctly identified 6/21 (28%) as E. coli strains. None of the presumptive positive Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. isolates obtained by culturing on selective media were positively identified by MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA analysis. The species-specific E. coli 0157:H7 PCR described in this present study, was not able to detect any E. coli 0157:H7 strains in the wastewater and river water samples analysed. However, E. coli strains, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were detected using species specific PCR. Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. were also sporadically detected throughout the sampling period in the wastewater and river water samples analysed by the 3M™ Molecular Detection System. MALDI-TOF MS, which is a simple, accurate and cost-effective detection method, efficiently identified the culturable organisms, while in the current study both species specific PCR (Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp.) and 3M™ Molecular Detection System could be utilised for the direct routine analysis of pathogens in water sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Thorsen, Line; Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spp. are commonly used as probiotic species in the feed industry, however, their benefits need to be confirmed. This study describes a high throughput screening combined with the detailed characterization of endospore-forming bacteria with the aim to identify new Bacillus spp. strains fo...

  13. Molecular genetic and hybridization studies of Diorhabda spp. released for biological control of tamarix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tamarisk beetle Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) native to Asia and the Mediterranean Basin, is an effective biocontrol agent for use against tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) an invasive shrub in western North America. The genus Diorhabda was recently revised, using morphological characters, i...

  14. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  15. Multi-gene phylogeny for Ophiostoma spp. reveals two new species from Protea infructescences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roets, F.; Beer, de Z.W.; Dreyer, L.L.; Zipfel, R.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Ophiostoma represents a genus of fungi that are mostly arthropod-dispersed and have a wide global distribution. The best known of these fungi are carried by scolytine bark beetles that infest trees, but an interesting guild of Ophiostoma spp. occurs in the infructescences of Protea spp. native to

  16. Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in isolates of Klebsiella spp and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the occurrence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) enzymes in isolates of Klebsiella spp and E.coli from various health institutions in Lagos. Methods: From December 2000 to October 2001, 356 isolates of Klebsiella spp (200) and Escherichia coli (156) were investigated for ESBL ...

  17. Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.; Guarnaccia, V.; Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from

  18. Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.; Guarnaccia, V.; Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from

  19. Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Propolis Trigona Spp. Asal Bukit Tinggi pada Tikus Putih Sprague-Dawle

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawati, Desy

    2011-01-01

    Penggunaan beberapa antibiotik telah dilarang di banyak negara karena munculnyaresistansi antibiotik pada bakteri patogen terhadap manusia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahmenganalisis potensi antibakteri Propolis Trigona spp. Propolis diekstraksi dengan maserasiberulang sarang Trigona spp dengan etanol, dan pelarut dihilangkan dengan pengeringanbeku. Tiga jenis propolis digunakan untuk menganalisis potensi antibakteri, propolis mentah,2% propolis mikrokapsul (% M2) dan 4% propolis mikrokapsul (M...

  20. Diversity and frequency of Acacia spp . in three regions in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the diversity and frequency of Acacia spp. and to determine the effect of soil texture on the frequency of Acacia spp. The study sites were selected after field visits to the Al Madinah, Aseer and Al Baha areas. The selection was done on the basis of the natural distribution and density of ...

  1. Fungicide sensitivity of Alternaria spp. causing Alternaria leaf spot on sugarbeet in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria leaf spot (ALS), caused by Alternaria spp., can occur wherever sugarbeet is grown. Infection by Alternaria spp. and disease management has historically been considered a minor issue in sugarbeet production in the US. Recently, increased incidence and severity of ALS has been observed in M...

  2. Aggregation with clay causes sedimentation of the buoyant cyanobacteria Microcystis spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, J.M.H.; Visser, P.M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether the attachment of clay particles can result in sedimentation of the buoyant cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. For this purpose, we measured aggregation of clay to Microcystis spp. in field samples as well as in laboratory cultures of isolated strains. We focused on how the

  3. Aggregation with clay causes sedimentation of the buoyant cyanobacteria Microcystis spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, J.M.H.; Visser, P.M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the attachment of clay particles can result in sedimentation of the buoyant cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. For this purpose, we measured aggregation of clay to Microcystis spp. in field samples as well as in laboratory cultures of isolated strains. We focused on how

  4. Identification of Brucella spp. in feral swine (Sus scrofa) at abattoirs in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various tissues, nasal swabs, urine, and blood samples were collected from 376 feral swine at two federally-inspected abattoirs in Texas during six separate sampling periods in 2015. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. by culture and serology. Brucella spp. were cultured from 13.0% of feral swin...

  5. Molecular characterization of Shigella spp. from patients in Gabon 2011-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Alabi, Abraham S.; Kaba, Harry; Lell, Bertrand; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin P.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mellmann, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. dysentery is widespread in developing countries; the incidence is particularly high in children between 1-2 years of age. In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on Shigella spp., with possible negative consequences for recognition and correct treatment choice

  6. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism of free-living Frankia spp. and of Frankia-alnus symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis deals with the symbiosis of Frankia spp. and Alnus glutinosa. Frankia spp. are actinomycetes giving rise to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a number of non-leguminous plants. In these nodules

  7. Plano de amostragem de Acromyrmex spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em áreas de pré-plantio de Pinus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantarelli Edison Bisognin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo para elaborar um plano de amostragem de formigas cortadeiras em área de pré-plantio florestal, na empresa Bosques del Plata situada no Departamento de Santo Tomé, província de Corrientes, Argentina. O trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a distribuição espacial de formigueiros do gênero Acromyrmex em área de pré-plantio de Pinus spp., determinar o tamanho ótimo de parcelas e estimar a intensidade amostral desse gênero de formigas. Concluiu-se que a distribuição espacial dos ninhos de Acromyrmex spp. em Corrientes-Argentina, se ajusta ao modelo casual, com o tamanho ótimo de parcela para amostrar a densidade de formigueiros (ninhos.ha-1 de 700m² (10x70m e a intensidade amostral ótima de 10,5% da área total para um erro esperado de 24%.

  8. Antibacterial activity of papain and bromelain on Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos, Márcia Maria; da Silva, Angela Aparecida; de Pascoli, Isabela Carolini; Mikcha, Jane Martha Graton; Machinski, Miguel; Peralta, Rosane Marina; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves

    2016-01-04

    Alicyclobacillus spp. are spore forming bacteria that are often related to the deterioration of acidic products such as beverages and citrus juices. After the process of industrial pasteurization, the spore produced by the bacteria can germinate and the microorganism can grow, causing sensory abnormalities in the product. Alternative biopreservatives, such as the antimicrobial compounds, are of considerable importance to the food industry. Papain and bromelain are proteolytic enzymes derived frompapaya and pineapple, respectively. These enzymes are widely used in medicine and in the pharmaceutical and food industries, but while some studies have described their antibacterial action, no studies of the Alicyclobacillus spp. exist. The aimof this studywas to analyze the antibacterial effect of papain and bromelain on Alicyclobacillus spp. through 1) determining minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC); 2) determining the death time curve of the micro-organism in the presence and absence of enzymes; and 3) investigating the enzymatic mechanism on the microorganism. The antibacterial activity of enzymes in combination with nisin was also evaluated. The results showed that for the Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris strain, the MIC of papain was 0.98 μg/mL and the MBC was 3.91 μg/mL, while theMIC of bromelain was 62.5 μg/mL and the MBCwas 250 μg/mL. The concentration of 4 ×MIC for both the enzymes was sufficient to eliminate 4 logs of the micro-organism after 24 h of incubation. Through the use of enzyme inhibitors specific for cysteine proteases, it was found that the antibacterial activity of papain and bromelain is not related to its proteolytic activity, butmay be related to other activities, such as amidse and esterase. The synergistic activity of the enzymes revealed a fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) level of 0.16. Combination with nisin revealed an FIC of 0.25 for papain and 0.19 for bromelain, indicating synergism between both

  9. Endophytic Streptomyces spp. as Biocontrol Agents of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIH DEWI HASTUTI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, a causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BLB, is one of the most important pathogens of rice. The effectiveness of ten Streptomyces spp. isolates in suppressing Xoo disease was assessed in planta and in vitro. In planta experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and arranged in a randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replications. Twenty treatments were tested which included plants inoculated with both Streptomyces spp. and Xoo, and plants inoculated with only Streptomyces spp. Plants inoculated with Xoo and sprayed with a chemical bactericide, and plants inoculated with only Xoo served as positive controls, whereas plants not inoculated with either Streptomyces spp. or Xoo were used as negative controls. The results showed that the effect of endophytic Streptomyces spp. on BLB disease expressed as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was not significantly different to that on control plants (P > 0.05. However, plants inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. were significantly taller and produced higher tiller number than control plants (P < 0.05. Streptomyces spp. isolate AB131-1 gave the highest plant height. In vitro studies on biocontrol mechanisms of selected Streptomyces spp. isolates showed that isolate LBR02 gave the highest inhibition activity on Xoo growth, followed by AB131-1 and AB131-2. Two isolates (AB131-1 and LBR02 were able to produce chitinase, phosphatase, and siderophore which included biocontrol characteristics. Morphological and colonization studies under SEM and light microscopy confirmed that the three isolates were endophytic Streptomyces spp. from different species. These studies found that the paddy plant which was inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. AB131-1 and infected by Xoo could increase the height of plant and number of tillers.

  10. Occurrence and species level diagnostics of Campylobacter spp., enteric Helicobacter spp. and Anaerobiospirillum spp. in healthy and diarrheic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Hänninen, M L; Revez, J; Hannula, M; Zanoni, R G

    2008-06-22

    In order to study the occurrence and co-infection of different species of Campylobacter, enteric Helicobacter and Anaerobiospirillum in dogs and cats and define a possible association between these microrganisms and gastrointestinal disorders, 190 dogs and 84 cats, either healthy or with diarrhea, were sampled between 2002 and 2003. Thirty-three C. upsaliensis, 17 C. jejuni, 2 C. helveticus, 1 C. lari isolates from dogs and 14 C. helveticus, 7 C. jejuni, 6 C. upsaliensis isolates from cats were identified using species-specific PCR and phenotypic tests. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests, PCR-RFLP of gyrB and a phylogenetic study of partial groEL and 16S rRNA sequences were used to identify 37 H. bilis, 22 H. canis and 14 H. cinaedi in dogs and 12 H. canis, 5 H. bilis and 2 H. cinaedi in cats. Whole cell protein profile analysis, phenotypic tests and species-specific PCR of 16S rRNA were used to identify 14 A. succiniciproducens, 12 A. thomasii isolates and one unidentified Anaerobiospirillum sp. isolate in dogs and 3 A. thomasii isolates in cats. Fifty-two animals (19%) were positive for the isolation of more than one genus. No significant statistical correlation was found between any isolates of Campylobacter, Helicobacter or Anaerobiospirillum spp. or the various co-infection rates, and the presence of diarrhea in either dogs or cats. Campylobacter isolates were also tested for antibiotic resistance using the agar dilution method.

  11. Soil and Rhizosphere Populations of Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Associated with Field-grown Plants are Affected by Sorghum Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is valued for bioenergy, feed and food. Potential of sorghum genotypes to support differing populations of root- and soil-associated fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. or Fusarium spp., in two soils, was assessed. Pseudomonads and Fusarium spp. were assessed from root...

  12. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in farmed salmon and during subsequent slaughter: Comparison of listertest TM lift and the USDA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Enger, O.

    1997-01-01

    Salmon and environmental samples from a fish farm and a salmon slaughterhouse were analysed for Listeria spp. using the USDA method and the rapid quantitative Listertest(TM). Listeria spp. were not detected in any of 119 samples analysed. However, Corynebacterium spp. gave disturbing false...

  13. Accurate diagnosis of Giardia spp and proper fecal examination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, M W; Payne, P A; Smith, V

    2006-01-01

    A series of investigations evaluated the ability of different testing methods - a swing-head centrifugation technique using two flotation solutions (1.18-specific gravity zinc sulfate and 1.27-specific gravity Sheather's sugar solution), a passive commercial flotation technique, and the SNAP Giardia Test Kit from IDEXX Laboratories - to identify Giardia-positive dogs and recover the eggs of other intestinal parasites. It was determined that the SNAP Giardia test can improve a practice's ability to identify Giardia-infected dogs. Because of its higher specific gravity, the sugar solution was better for recovering heavy parasite eggs, such as Taenia spp, and thus is the flotation solution of choice when conducting routine centrifugation fecal examinations.

  14. Characterization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. using saccharide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Xie, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-09-12

    Polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. and their adulterants were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, enzymatic (endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed by polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both 1,3-β-D-glucosidic and 1,4-α-D-galactosiduronic linkages were existed in Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense), and the similarity of polysaccharides from G. lucidum and G. sinense was high, which may contribute to rational use of Lingzhi. Different species of Ganoderma and their adulterants can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Ganoderma and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in Lingzhi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heat resistance of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K N; Cogan, T M

    1999-08-01

    Mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. are the dominant organisms in mature Cheddar cheese. The heat resistance of broth grown cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum DPC1919 at temperatures between 50 and 57.5 degrees C, Lact. plantarum DPC2102 at temperatures between 48 and 56 degrees C and Lact. paracasei DPC2103 at temperatures between 50 and 67.5 degrees C was determined. The z-values for Lact. plantarum DPC1919, Lact. Plantarum DPC2102 and Lact. paracasei DPC2103 were 6.7 degrees C, 6.2 degrees C and 5.3 degrees C, respectively. Lactobacillus paracasei DPC2103 showed evidence of injury and recovery, especially at higher temperatures. Milk grown cultures of strains DPC2102 and DPC2103 showed greater heat resistance than broth grown cultures, tailing of the death curves and a nonlinear z-curve. Of the three strains, Lact. paracasei DPC2103 had the potential to survive pasteurization temperatures, whether grown in milk or broth.

  16. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic.

  17. Survival and Virulence of Campylobacter spp. in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan

    the epidemiology of recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases from vegetables. During transmission and infection, C. jejuni may encounter many different stresses but little is known about how this bacterium survives and interacts with the protozoa under these conditions. I have investigated the impacts......Campylobacter is the most common cause of food-borne illness in Europe, and this important zoonotic pathogen has been the focus of many research projects and scientific publications in recent years. However, we know less about the biology and pathogenicity of this pathogen than we know about many...... less prevalent pathogens. In this PhD project, I have investigated the survival and virulence of Campylobacter spp. in various matrices such as chicken faeces, swine manure and in co-culture with protozoa. In the first study, using bacterial culture and RT-qPCR methods, I found that viable C. jejuni...

  18. Genetic Diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Captive Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lihua; Ryan, Una M.; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Limor, Josef; Li, Lixia; Kombert, Mark; Junge, Randy; Sulaiman, Irshad M.; Zhou, Ling; Arrowood, Michael J.; Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, David; Lal, Altaf A.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium in reptiles was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. A total of 123 samples were analyzed, of which 48 snake samples, 24 lizard samples, and 3 tortoise samples were positive for Cryptosporidium. Nine different types of Cryptosporidium were found, including Cryptosporidium serpentis, Cryptosporidium desert monitor genotype, Cryptosporidium muris, Cryptosporidium parvum bovine and mouse genotypes, one C. serpentis-like parasite in a lizard, two new Cryptosporidium spp. in snakes, and one new Cryptosporidium sp. in tortoises. C. serpentis and the desert monitor genotype were the most common parasites and were found in both snakes and lizards, whereas the C. muris and C. parvum parasites detected were probably the result of ingestion of infected rodents. Sequence and biologic characterizations indicated that the desert monitor genotype was Cryptosporidium saurophilum. Two host-adapted C. serpentis genotypes were found in snakes and lizards. PMID:14766569

  19. Motility patterns of filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunker, Rita; Røy, Hans; Kamp, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The large sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., live on the oxidation of sulfide with oxygen or nitrate, but avoid high concentrations of both sulfide and oxygen. As gliding filaments, they rely on reversals in the gliding direction to find their preferred environment, the oxygen–sulfide interface. We...... observed the chemotactic patterns of single filaments in a transparent agar medium and scored their reversals and the glided distances between reversals. Filaments within the preferred microenvironment glided distances shorter than their own length between reversals that anchored them in their position...... as a microbial mat. Filaments in the oxic region above the mat or in the sulfidic, anoxic region below the mat glided distances longer than the filament length between reversals. This reversal behavior resulted in a diffusion-like spreading of the filaments. A numerical model of such gliding filaments...

  20. Amino Acids Are an Ineffective Fertilizer for Dunaliella spp. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Colin A.; Dums, Jacob T.; Jain, Siddharth K.; Zhao, Chengsong; Young, Danielle Y.; Khoshnoodi, Nicole; Tikunov, Andrey; Macdonald, Jeffrey; Pilot, Guillaume; Sederoff, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Autotrophic microalgae are a promising bioproducts platform. However, the fundamental requirements these organisms have for nitrogen fertilizer severely limit the impact and scale of their cultivation. As an alternative to inorganic fertilizers, we investigated the possibility of using amino acids from deconstructed biomass as a nitrogen source in the genus Dunaliella. We found that only four amino acids (glutamine, histidine, cysteine, and tryptophan) rescue Dunaliella spp. growth in nitrogen depleted media, and that supplementation of these amino acids altered the metabolic profile of Dunaliella cells. Our investigations revealed that histidine is transported across the cell membrane, and that glutamine and cysteine are not transported. Rather, glutamine, cysteine, and tryptophan are degraded in solution by a set of oxidative chemical reactions, releasing ammonium that in turn supports growth. Utilization of biomass-derived amino acids is therefore not a suitable option unless additional amino acid nitrogen uptake is enabled through genetic modifications of these algae. PMID:28603530

  1. Liver iron overloading in captive muriquis (Brachyteles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie V; Strefezzi, Ricardo De F; Pissinatti, Alcides; Catão-Dias, José L

    2011-04-01

    Iron accumulation was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively in the liver of 15 captive Brachyteles spp. Hepatic hemosiderosis index (HHI) was determined as the area percentage of the liver parenchyma occupied by hemosiderin and ferritin deposits, through computerized histomorphometric analysis of Prussian blue-stained histologic sections. All studied animals presented liver hemosiderosis, and HHI ranged from 0.2% to 41.7%. There were no significant differences in HHI between muriqui species or genders, and no correlations were detected among HHI and age, time in captivity or body mass. Iron deposits were accompanied by other hepatic disorders. This is the first study addressing the occurrence and consequences of iron overloading in the liver of muriquis. We propose that hemosiderosis may act as a contribute factor for the development of hepatic injuries. Further studies are advised to clarify the role of diet in the pathogenesis of hemosiderosis in these atelids. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. DNA analysis in three populations of African spinach (Basella spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, G.; Van Duren, M.; Lee, K.S.; Morpurgo, R.

    1997-01-01

    African spinach (Basella spp.) is an important vegetable in West Africa, and was introduced by early colonialists. Its alien origin is supported by its narrow genetic variability. Flowcytometry and RAPD polymorphism were used to investigate genetic variation in three populations of Basella - 'Congo native', 'Cong domesticated', and an introduced cultivar, 'Sri Lanka' from Sri Lanka. Normal spinach (Spinacia oleracea) cv. 'Prince F 1 Hybrid' was used to test sensitivity and to verify detection of genetic variation. Nuclei were isolated from young leaves of Basella, stained with DAPI and ethidium bromide, and ploidy level and total DNA content were determined by using a flowcytometer. The two sexually propagated populations, 'Cong domesticated' and 'Sri Lanka' showed very low amount of genetic variation as revealed by RAPD analysis; the third population 'Congo native' showed a limited amount of polymorphism. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. TeHV3 outbreak characterization in captive Testudo spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tecilla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Italian Tortoises species are considered either endangered or near threatened according to International Union for Conservation of Nature. When pet tortoises are abandoned or found injured or seized following illegal detention, they are sent to wildlife rehabilitation centers. From 2008, the Testudo spp. population housed in the WWF Vanzago’s oasis exhibited clinical signs compatible with Testudinid herpesviurs 3 (TeHV3 infection.  By the end of 2012 all Testudo had died. The presence of TeHV3 was investigated by molecular biology and pathology. All the tortoises housed in Vanzago resulted ELISA positive for the presence of anti-TeHV3 antibodies except one T. hermanni. Of these, 12 animals died and were all necropsied. Lesion frequency distribution was evaluate by histology. PCR was positive in 8/12 tortoises. To better complement the epidemiological evaluation of the virus in northern Italy, 20 retrospective cases were selected from the archive of the University of Milan. Of these, 5 were TeHV3 PCR positive. Lesions closely resembled those of the Vanzago’s population. These results are consistent with a high prevalence of TeHV3 in northern Italy. The finding of intranuclear inclusion bodies demonstrated to be specific but not sensitive. TeHV3 diagnostic pathological lesions have been reported to vary according with host immune response and by the viral replicative status. Molecular techniques were often necessary to confirm the infection. According to the literature and to our findings, T. hermanni spp. seems the species with higher mortality and lower antibody concentrations when infected with TeHV3.Italian Tortoises species are considered either endangered or near threatened according to International Union for Conservation of Nature. When pet tortoises are abandoned or found injured or seized following illegal detention, they are sent to wildlife rehabilitation centers. From 2008, the Testudo spp. population housed in the WWF Vanzago

  4. Interaction of bacteria-feeding soil flagellates and Pseudomonas spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette L; Ekelund, Flemming; Johansen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas strains may be used as alternatives to fungicides as some of them produce secondary metabolites, which can inhibit growth of plant pathogenic fungi. Increased knowledge of non-target effects of the antagonistic bacteria on other soil organisms as well as of the survival and predation...... resistance of the antagonistic bacteria is necessary for risk assessment and increased performance of antagonistic bacteria as biological control agents. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the difference between Pseudomonas spp. with respect to their predation resistance to and effects...... on the three different and common soil flagellates Bodo caudatus, Cercomonas longicauda, and Neocercomonas jutlandica. Two antagonistic Pseudomonas: Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and P. fluorescens DR54 and two positive control strains: P. fluorescens DSM 50090T and Pseudomonas chlororaphis ATCC 43928 were...

  5. Validation of reference transcripts in strawberry (Fragaria spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Maureen A; Rosli, Hernan G; Chamala, Srikar; Barbazuk, W Brad; Civello, P Marcos; Folta, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary methods to assay gene expression depend on a stable set of reference transcripts for accurate quantitation. A lack of well-tested reference genes slows progress in characterizing gene expression in high-value specialty crops. In this study, a set of strawberry (Fragaria spp.) constitutively expressed reference genes has been identified by merging digital gene expression data with expression profiling. Constitutive reference candidates were validated using quantitative PCR and hybridization. Several transcripts have been identified that show improved stability across tissues relative to traditional reference transcripts. Results are similar between commercial octoploid strawberry and the diploid model. Our findings also show that while some never-before-used references are appropriate for most applications, even the most stable reference transcripts require careful assessment across the diverse tissues and fruit developmental states before being adopted as controls.

  6. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Chili Pepper (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp. developed significance for different prehistoric Native American groups. This entails mapping in both time and geographic space proto-languages for which words for chili pepper reconstruct. Maps show the broad distribution of Capsicum through Mesoamerica and South America mirroring its likely independent domestication in these regions. Proto-language dates indicate that human interest in chili pepper had developed in most of Latin America at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread.

  7. Characterizacion of Alocasia spp. for use in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilys Milián Jiménez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding new alternative sources for animal food is a need in Cuba. the evaluation of Alocasia genus clones seems to be a starting point. This research was done at the Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops (INIVIT. Three accessions were collected throughout the country and were tested in order to analyze their potential for use . While the collected accessions were characterized and evaluated, the descriptors list for this genus was elaborated, including qualitative and quantitative traits for each plant organ. A list of descriptors, which is a contribution to the description of Alocasia species, was elaborated. Alocasisa spp. is an unknown crop in Cuba. However, the germplasm characterization, carried out in this study, provides information to identify clones that can be cropped for animal feed based on sustainable agriculture principles

  8. Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquid has antifungal activity against Candida spp.

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    Hanna Yolanda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background To develop new effective antifungals, it is essential to search for antifungal compounds from plants such as Nepenthes spp., which have their greatest diversity in Indonesia. Since chitin-induced liquid (CIL from Nepenthes khasiana pitchers has antifungal activity, due to their naphthoquinone content, this study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquids on Candida spp. Methods Collected pitcher liquids were of 3 types: non-induced liquid (NIL, prey-induced liquid (PIL, and chitin-induced liquid (CIL. Non-induced liquid (NIL was collected from fresh naturally opened pitchers, PIL from opened pitchers after 3 hours of induction with Zophobas morio larvae, and CIL from closed pitchers after 5 days of chitin solution injection. The antifungal activity of the liquids against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were detected by disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. Results Inhibition zone diameters of NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. albicans were 35.00 (35.00 – 39.33 mm, 26.33 (23.00 – 40.00 mm, and 30.00 ( 28.00 – 32.00 mm, respectively, while for C. glabrata the zone diameters were 22.22 ± 3.66 mm, 29.89 ± 2.79 mm, and 28.89 ± 1.17 mm, respectively. No inhibition zones were found for NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. krusei and C. tropicalis. At concentrations of 80%, almost all samples showed visually apparent inhibition of fungal growth. Conclusion The pitcher liquid of N. rafflesiana has antifungal properties, presumably due to the presence of many potentially active substances, such as naphthoquinones, as has been proven in other studies.

  9. Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquid has antifungal activity against Candida spp.

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    Hanna Yolanda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To develop new effective antifungals, it is essential to search for antifungal compounds from plants such as Nepenthes spp., which have their greatest diversity in Indonesia. Since chitin-induced liquid (CIL from Nepenthes khasiana pitchers has antifungal activity, due to their naphthoquinone content, this study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquids on Candida spp. METHODS Collected pitcher liquids were of 3 types: non-induced liquid (NIL, prey-induced liquid (PIL, and chitin-induced liquid (CIL. Non-induced liquid (NIL was collected from fresh naturally opened pitchers, PIL from opened pitchers after 3 hours of induction with Zophobas morio larvae, and CIL from closed pitchers after 5 days of chitin solution injection. The antifungal activity of the liquids against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were detected by disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. RESULTS Inhibition zone diameters of NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. albicans were 35.00 (35.00 – 39.33 mm, 26.33 (23.00 – 40.00 mm, and 30.00 ( 28.00 – 32.00 mm, respectively, while for C. glabrata the zone diameters were 22.22 ± 3.66 mm, 29.89 ± 2.79 mm, and 28.89 ± 1.17 mm, respectively. No inhibition zones were found for NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. krusei and C. tropicalis. At concentrations of 80%, almost all samples showed visually apparent inhibition of fungal growth. CONCLUSION The pitcher liquid of N. rafflesiana has antifungal properties, presumably due to the presence of many potentially active substances, such as naphthoquinones, as has been proven in other studies.

  10. Dechlorinating performance of Dehalococcoides spp. mixed culture enhanced by tourmaline.

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    Wang, Wei; Liu, Xingyu; Li, Kerui; Li, Tielong

    2018-03-01

    Dehalococcoides spp. were extensively studied and applied to in-situ trichloroethylene (TCE) remediation since it is the only genus that can reduce TCE to harmless ethene completely. However, this technology was hindered because of the requirement of electron donor (i.e. hydrogen or fermentable organic substrate). Considering the spontaneous electric field and in-situ hydrogen production capacity of tourmaline, this mineral was used as an environmental-friendly bio-promoter for dechlorinating mixed culture containing Dehalococcoides spp. in this work. Research results showed that biodegradation of TCE and the intermediates were both significantly improved by tourmaline. The first-order TCE degradation rate coefficient increased from 0.0125 h -1 for the tourmaline-free system to 0.0306 h -1 for the system combined with 5 g L -1 tourmaline, and ethene production increased by 36%. The outstanding TCE-degrading ability in the tourmaline-bacteria system without the addition of fermentative electron donor (i.e. methanol) indicated that tourmaline could also produce electron donor to support dechlorinating bacteria. Tourmaline could have direct electric biostimulatory effect and indirect enhanced effect associated with water-derived H 2 production in the electric field of tourmaline. Meanwhile, PCR-DGGE analysis exhibited that tourmaline could accelerate the succession of a bacterial, dechlorinating community. The distinctive effects of tourmaline on bacteria were related to its stable electric properties. Therefore, tourmaline could be continuously used in the bioremediation. The present study provided a safe, convenient and persistent alternative to the commonly used enhancement approaches for anaerobic reductive dechlorination process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological activities and cytotoxicity of diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Vargas, Fabiano; D O de Almeida, Patrícia; Aranha, Elenn Suzany P; de A Boleti, Ana Paula; Newton, Peter; de Vasconcellos, Marne C; Junior, Valdir F Veiga; Lima, Emerson S

    2015-04-09

    Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5%) at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%). Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3%) and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9%) at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%), kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%), kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%), and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%), respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders.

  12. Biological Activities and Cytotoxicity of Diterpenes from Copaifera spp. Oleoresins

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    Fabiano de S. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Copaifera spp. are Amazonian species widely studied and whose oleoresins are used by local people for various medicinal purposes. However, a detailed study of the activity of the main phytochemical components of these oleoresins remains to be done. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of six diterpene acids: copalic, 3-hydroxy-copalic, 3-acetoxy-copalic, hardwickiic, kolavic-15-metyl ester, and kaurenoic, isolated from the oleoresins of Copaifera spp. The diterpenes did not show cytotoxicity in normal cell lines, nor did they show significant changes in viability of tumoral line cells. The 3-hydroxy-copalic was able to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (64% ± 1.5% at 250 µM. The kolavic-15-metyl ester at 200 µM showed high inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase (89.5% ± 1.2%. Among the diterpenes tested, only kaurenoic and copalic acids showed significant hemolytic activities with 61.7% and 38.4% at 100 µM, respectively. In addition, it was observed that only the copalic acid (98.5% ± 1.3% and hardwickiic acid (92.7% ± 4.9% at 100 mM inhibited nitric oxide production in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. In this assay, the diterpenes did not inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α production. The acids inhibited the production of IL-6, 3-acetoxy-copalic (23.8% ± 8.2%, kaurenoic (11.2% ± 5.7%, kolavic-15-methyl ester (17.3% ± 4.2%, and copalic (4.2% ± 1.8%, respectively, at 25 µM. The kaurenoic, 3-acetoxy-copalic and copalic acids increased IL-10 production. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the therapeutic role of diterpenic acids in treating acute injuries such as inflammation or skin disorders.

  13. Bison PRNP genotyping and potential association with Brucella spp. seroprevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabury, C.M.; Halbert, N.D.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Templeton, J.W.; Derr, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The implication that host cellular prion protein (PrPC) may function as a cell surface receptor and/or portal protein for Brucella abortus in mice prompted an evaluation of nucleotide and amino acid variation within exon 3 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) for six US bison populations. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (T50C), resulting in the predicted amino acid replacement M17T (Met ??? Thr), was identified in each population. To date, no variation (T50: Met) has been detected at the corresponding exon 3 nucleotide and/or amino acid position for domestic cattle. Notably, 80% (20 of 25) of the Yellowstone National Park bison possessing the C/C genotype were Brucella spp. seropositive, representing a significant (P = 0.021) association between seropositivity and the C/C genotypic class. Moreover, significant differences in the distribution of PRNP exon 3 alleles and genotypes were detected between Yellowstone National Park bison and three bison populations that were either founded from seronegative stock or previously subjected to test-and-slaughter management to eradicate brucellosis. Unlike domestic cattle, no indel polymorphisms were detected within the corresponding regions of the putative bison PRNP promoter, intron 1, octapeptide repeat region or 3???-untranslated region for any population examined. This study provides the first evidence of a potential association between nucleotide variation within PRNP exon 3 and the presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in bison, implicating PrPC in the natural resistance of bison to brucellosis infection. ?? 2005 International Society for Animal Genetics.

  14. Yersinia spp. in Wild Rodents and Shrews in Finland.

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    Joutsen, Suvi; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Henttonen, Heikki; Niemimaa, Jukka; Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Korkeala, Hannu; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are important zoonotic bacteria causing human enteric yersiniosis commonly reported in Europe. All Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are considered pathogenic, while Y. enterocolitica include both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains which can be divided into six biotypes (1A, 1B, and 2-5) and about 30 serotypes. The most common types causing yersiniosis in Europe are Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. Strains belonging to biotype 1A are considered as nonpathogenic because they are missing important virulence genes like the attachment-invasion-locus (ail) gene in the chromosome and the virulence plasmid. The role of wild small mammals as a reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is still obscure. In this study, the presence of Yersinia spp. was examined from 1840 wild small mammals, including voles, mice, and shrews, trapped in Finland during a 7-year period. We isolated seven Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica was the most common species, isolated from 8% of the animals; while most of these isolates represented nonpathogenic biotype 1A, human pathogenic bioserotype 2/O:9 was also isolated from a field vole. Y. pseudotuberculosis of bioserotype 1/O:2 was isolated from two shrews. The ail gene, which is typically only found in the isolates of biotypes 1B and 2-5 associated with yersiniosis, was frequently (23%) detected in the nonpathogenic isolates of biotype 1A and sporadically (6%) in Yersinia kristensenii isolates. Our results suggest that wild small mammals, especially voles, may serve as carriers for ail-positive Y. enterocolitica 1A and Y. kristensenii. We also demonstrate that voles and shrews sporadically excrete pYV-positive Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:2, respectively, in their feces and, thus, can serve as a contamination source for vegetables by contaminating the soil.

  15. SPP Toolbox: Supporting Sustainable Public Procurement in the Context of Socio-Technical Transitions

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    Paula Cayolla Trindade

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement can shape production and consumption trends and represents a stimulus for both innovation and diversification in products and services, through a direct increase in demand. In recent years, the interest in demand-side policies has grown and several approaches have emerged, such as Green Public Procurement (GPP, Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP and Public Procurement of Innovation (PPI, representing strategic goals to be achieved through public procurement. In this context, there is a need to guide and support public organizations in the uptake of GPP, SPP and PPI practices. To respond to the challenges raised by the operationalization of such strategies, this paper proposes a new tool—the SPP Toolbox—for guiding public organizations as they re-think the procurement process, raising their ambitions and broadening their vision, thus changing the organizational approach towards culture, strategies, structures and practices. This toolbox integrates insights from GPP, SPP and PPI objectives and practices, in the context of the emergence of socio-technical transitions. The toolbox coherently links GPP, SPP and PPI, allowing flexibility in terms of goals, yet promoting an increasing complexity of institutionalized practices and skills—from GPP to SPP and then from SPP to PPI, organized in a framework fully integrated into the organizational strategy.

  16. Prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. in Tumbler Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Kirikkale Province, Turkey.

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    Sürsal, Neslihan; Atan, Perçem; Gökpınar, Sami; Duru, Özkan; Çakmak, Ayşe; Yıldız, Kader

    2017-06-01

    Haemoproteus spp. are common blood parasites of pigeons. They have been reported in pigeons in many regions worldwide, including Turkey. Pigeon breeding is a popular hobby in Kirikkale province, and there is no information about the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. in tumbler pigeons in Kirikkale province (Kırıkkale and Yahsihan district). Blood samples were taken from the wing vein of pigeons (n: 173) through microcapillary (with/heparin) tubes between February and March 2016. Blood smears were stained with 5% Giemsa solution. Ectoparasites of the pigeons were collected in separate sealed boxes. Epidemiological data of the sampled pigeons (age and sex) were obtained from the breeders. In total, 23 (%13.2) of 173 pigeons were infected with Haemoproteus spp. Parasite was detected in 73.9% of pigeons over 1 year old and 26.1% of pigeon under 1 year age. Haemoproteus spp. was observed in 56.2% of females (13/23) and 43.4% of males (10/23), Sex-related differences were not observed (p = 0.821). Ectoparasites of the pigeons were identified as Columbicola spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Kirikkale province that reported the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. in pigeons.

  17. Relationship between Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in seafood processing plants.

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    Alali, Walid Q; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes as an outcome and Listeria spp. as an explanatory variable by food products, food contact surfaces, and nonfood contact surfaces in seafood processing plants by using peer-reviewed published data. Nine sets of prevalence data of L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were collected from published studies and used for the analyses. Based on our analysis, the relationship between L. monocytogenes prevalence and Listeria spp. prevalence in food products (incoming raw materials and finish products) was significant (P = 0.04) with (low) R² = 0.36. Furthermore, Listeria spp. were not a good indicator for L. monocytogenes when testing food contact surfaces (R² = 0.10). Listeria spp. were a good indicator for L. monocytogenes only on nonfood contact surfaces (R² = 0.90). On the other hand, the presence of Listeria spp. on food contact surfaces (R² = 0.002) and nonfood contact surfaces (R² = 0.03) was not a good indicator for L. monocytogenes presence in food products. In general, prevalence of Listeria spp. does not seem to be a good indicator for L. monocytogenes prevalence in seafood processing plants.

  18. Urban park-related risks for Giardia spp. infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A F; Rock, M; Neumann, N; Massolo, A

    2015-11-01

    Giardia spp. is a common gastrointestinal (GI) parasite of multiple host species, including dogs and humans, with the potential for zoonotic transmission. The risk of GI parasitism in dogs (including Giardia spp.) may increase with park use in urban areas. This study aimed to (1) determine whether park attendance is a risk factor for Giardia spp. infection in dogs and (2) characterize the behavioural and demographic risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in park-attending and non-park-attending dogs. From August to September 2012, a total of 1293 dog owners completed a survey and 860 corresponding dog faecal samples were collected. Dog faeces were screened for Giardia spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay and associations assessed among behaviours, demographics, and Giardia spp. infection. Main results included off-leash and swimming frequencies within parks as significantly positively associated with Giardia spp. infection in dogs. Dog-owner age was negatively associated with off-leash and swimming frequencies in parks. The results suggest some recreational behaviours in parks and certain demographics are risk factors for parasitism in pet dogs.

  19. Development of multiplex-PCR assay for rapid detection of Candida spp.

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    Ni Made A. Tarini

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim Candida spp. infection commonly occur in immunocompromised patients. Biochemical assay for identification of Candida spp. is time-consuming and shows many undetermined results. Specific detection for antibody, antigen and metabolites of Candida spp. had low sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we developed a rapid diagnostic method, Multiplex-PCR, to identify Candida spp.Methods Five Candida spp. isolates were cultured, identifi ed with germ tube and API® 20 C AUX (BioMerieux® SA kit. Furthermore, DNA was purified by QIAamp DNA mini (Qiagen® kit for Multiplex-PCR assay.Results DNA detection limit by Multiplex-PCR assays for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. glabrata were 4 pg, 0.98 pg, 0.98 pg, 0.5 pg and 16 pg respectively. This assay was also more sensitive than culture in that Multiplex-PCR could detect 2.6-2.9 x 100 CFU/ml, whereas culture 2.6-2.9 x 102 CFU/ml.Conclusion Multiplex-PCR is much more sensitive than culture and thus, can be recommended as a sensitive and specific assay for identification of Candida spp. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:83-7Keywords: Candida spp., multiplex-PCR

  20. Prevalence of Candida spp., xerostomia, and hyposalivation in oral lichen planus--a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, G; Freitas, R S; Santos Filho, A M; Benard, G; Romiti, R; Migliari, D A

    2014-04-01

    To determine the frequency of Candida spp., xerostomia, and salivary flow rate (SFR) in three different groups: patients with OLP (OLP group), patients with oral mucosal lesions other than OLP (non-OLP group), and subjects without oral mucosal lesions (control group). Xerostomia as well as SFR was investigated in the three groups. Samples for isolation of Candida spp. were collected from OLP lesions (38 patients), non-OLP lesions (28 patients), and healthy subjects (32 subjects). There was no statistically significant difference regarding the frequency of xerostomia and hyposalivation among the three groups (P > 0.05). A higher prevalence for colonization by Candida spp. was found in the healthy subject as compared to that of patients with OLP (P = 0.03) and non-OLP (P = 0.02) groups. Low SFR was not a factor for colonization by Candida spp. Xerostomia and hyposalivation occur with similar frequency in subjects with and without oral lesions; also, the presence of oral lesions does not increase the susceptibility to colonization by Candida spp. It seems that any study implicating Candida spp. in the malignant transformation of oral lesions should be carried out mostly on a biochemical basis, that is, by testing the capability of Candida spp. to produce carcinogenic enzyme. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Detection of Leptospira spp. in wild Phrynops geoffroanus (Geoffroy's side-necked turtle) in urban environment.

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    Oliveira, J P; Kawanami, A E; Silva, A S L; Chung, D G; Werther, K

    2016-12-01

    Leptospira spp., a zoonotic agent relevant for public health, occurs frequently in tropical regions. The aquatic environment represents a viable survival and transmission pathway. This study aimed to investigate the presence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Phrynops geoffroanus (Geoffroy's side-necked turtle) serum samples using the microagglutination test (MAT), and Leptospira spp. in gastric and cloacal lavage samples using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Antibodies against nine different Leptospira spp. serovars were detected in 45.45% (30/66) of the serum samples. Specific amplification of Leptospira spp. genomic material (331bp) was observed in 16.67% (11/66) of the samples. In conclusion, these freshwater testudines host Leptospira spp. and eliminate them. This situation may represent a risk to public health, especially to people who use urban streams for fishing and recreational activities. Additionally, we described some Leptospira spp. serovars, not yet reported in testudines, detected here in P. geoffroanus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalensi Infeksi Cacing Ancylostoma Spp Pada Kucing Lokal (Felis catus Di Kota Denpasar

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    Putu Anna Oktaviana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A long time ago local cat (Felis catus is a symbol of faith and now it turns to mice controller or even pet. The efficiency of maintains and food make more people interested to take care of cat. Based on the area of living, cat can be categorized into three such as: (1 Domestic pet cats , (2 Stray cats  and (3 Feral cats. Domestic pet cats can be categorized into three also based on authority area such as  Indoor, Limited range and Free range. Cat disease can cause by parasite, virus, bacteria and fungus. There are some species of parasite which often be found in cat digest track such as Ancylostoma spp,  Toxocara spp and Strongyloides spp. The purpose of this research is to know the prevalence of Ancylostomma spp. infection in local cat. This research use 80 samples which divide into 40 stray cat feces and 40 home cat feces using floatation method. From 40 samples of examinated stray cat feces, 19 samples (47.5% positively found the egg of Ancylostoma spp. Meanwhile from 40 samples of examinated home cat feces, 10 samples  (25.0 %  positively found the egg of Ancylostoma spp. After analyzed by Chi-square test, there is a clear relation between the prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. infection in home cat and stray cat. (P<0,05

  3. Yeasts from Macrobrachium amazonicum: a focus on antifungal susceptibility and virulence factors of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Paiva, Manoel A N; Sampaio, Célia M S; Teixeira, Carlos E C; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Leite, João J G; Moreira, Camila A; Silva, Liliane P; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, it was sought to compare yeast microbiota of wild and captive Macrobrachium amazonicum and evaluate the antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence factors by the recovered isolates of Candida spp. Additionally, cultivation water was monitored for the presence of fungi. Overall, 26 yeast isolates belonging to three genera and seven species were obtained, out of which 24 were Candida spp., with Candida famata as the most prevalent species for both wild and captive prawns. From cultivation water, 28 isolates of filamentous fungi were obtained, with Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent genera. Eight out of 24 Candida spp. isolates were resistant to azole derivatives, out of which four were recovered from wild-harvested prawns. As for production of virulence factors, three (12.5%) and eight (33.3%) isolates presented phospholipase and protease activity, respectively. This is the first comparative study between wild and captive prawns and the first report on yeast microbiota of M. amazonicum. The most relevant finding was the high percentage of resistant Candida spp., including from wild individuals, which suggests the occurrence of an environmental imbalance in the area where these prawns were captured. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Surveillance and characterisation of Cronobacter spp. in Czech retail food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozrová, V; Břeňová, N; Mrázek, J; Lukešová, D; Marounek, M

    2014-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) are emerging, opportunistic pathogens that are linked with food-borne infections in neonates and infants. In the present study, 291 samples of food, 36 samples from a dairy farm and 140 samples of dust from vacuum cleaners were examined for the presence of Cronobacter spp. using chromogenic media and biochemical tests. Altogether, 72 Cronobacter spp. strains were isolated in accordance with the reference standard ČSN P ISO/TS 22964 (2006). No Cronobacter spp. strains were detected in 10 samples of infant milk formula or in samples from a dairy farm. Twelve out of 20 positive food samples were dry products. The incidence of Cronobacter spp. in instant and powdered products and spices (12 positive isolates out of 82 samples) was significantly higher than that in other foods (P = 0.002), but lower than that in samples of dust (52 isolates; P < 0.001). The incidence of Cronobacter spp. in dust from restaurants, bars and hotels (13 positive isolates in 20 samples) was significantly higher than that in dust from households (P = 0.010). The polymerase chain reaction assay for the species-specific detection of the rpoB gene was performed in 49 isolates. Thirty-four Cronobacter spp. isolates were identified as Cronobacter sakazakii, nine isolates as Cronobacter malonaticus and one isolate as Cronobacter turicensis.

  5. Patterns of genetic diversity in Hepatozoon spp. infecting snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P; Salvi, Daniele; Brito, José C; Carretero, Miguel A; Perera, Ana; Meimberg, Harald; Harris, David James

    2014-03-01

    Species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 are blood parasites most commonly found in snakes but some have been described from all tetrapod groups and a wide variety of hematophagous invertebrates. Previous studies have suggested possible associations between Hepatozoon spp. found in predators and prey. Particularly, some saurophagous snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean region have been found to be infected with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those of various sympatric lizard hosts. In this study, we have screened tissue samples of 111 North African and Mediterranean snakes, using specific primers for the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, the newly-generated Hepatozoon spp. sequences grouped separately into five main clusters. Three of these clusters were composed by Hepatozoon spp. also found in snakes and other reptiles from the Mediterranean Basin and North Africa. In the other two clusters, the new sequences were not closely related to geographically proximate known sequences. The phylogeny of Hepatozoon spp. inferred here was not associated with intermediate host taxonomy or geographical distribution. From the other factors that could explain these evolutionary patterns, the most likely seems series of intermediate hosts providing similar ribotypes of Hepatozoon and a high prevalence of host shifts for Hepatozoon spp. This is indicated by ribotypes of high similarity found in different reptile families, as well as by divergent ribotypes found in the same host species. This potentially low host specificity has profound implications for the systematics of Hepatozoon spp.

  6. Multicenter evaluation of the BD max enteric bacterial panel PCR assay for rapid detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni and C. coli), and Shiga toxin 1 and 2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, S M; Buchan, B W; Doern, C; Fader, R; Ferraro, M J; Pillai, D R; Rychert, J; Doyle, L; Lainesse, A; Karchmer, T; Mortensen, J E

    2015-05-01

    Diarrhea due to enteric bacterial pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. However, bacterial pathogens may be infrequently identified. Currently, culture and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the primary methods used by clinical laboratories to detect enteric bacterial pathogens. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the BD Max enteric bacterial panel (EBP) PCR assay in comparison to culture for the detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli and an EIA for Shiga toxins 1 and 2. A total of 4,242 preserved or unpreserved stool specimens, including 3,457 specimens collected prospectively and 785 frozen, retrospective samples, were evaluated. Compared to culture or EIA, the positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) values for the BD Max EBP assay for all specimens combined were as follows: 97.1% and 99.2% for Salmonella spp., 99.1% and 99.7% for Shigella spp., 97.2% and 98.4% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 97.4% and 99.3% for Shiga toxins, respectively. Discrepant results for prospective samples were resolved with alternate PCR assays and bidirectional sequencing of amplicons. Following discrepant analysis, PPA and NPA values were as follows: 97.3% and 99.8% for Salmonella spp., 99.2% and 100% for Shigella spp., 97.5% and 99.0% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 100% and 99.7% for Shiga toxins, respectively. No differences in detection were observed for samples preserved in Cary-Blair medium and unpreserved samples. In this large, multicenter study, the BD Max EBP assay showed superior sensitivity compared to conventional methods and excellent specificity for the detection of enteric bacterial pathogens in stool specimens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Molecular identification and characterization of Fusarium spp. associated with sorghum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakara, Shetty Thimmappa; Santosh, Parthasarathy; Aiyaz, Mohammed; Ramana, Mudili Venkata; Hariprasad, Puttaswamy; Nayaka, Siddaih Chandra; Niranjana, Siddapura Ramachandrappa

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium spp. are not only pathogenic to plants but are also known as toxin producers that negatively affect animal and human health. The identification of Fusarium spp. remains one of the most critical issues in fungal taxonomy. In this study, different strains of Fusarium spp. were isolated from sorghum seed samples and identified at the molecular level by tef-1α gene amplification. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to differentiate toxigenic and non-toxigenic Fusarium spp. by designing a primer for the Fum21 gene along with the Fum1 and Fum8 genes. A competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA) was employed to assess the fumonisin-producing ability of Fusarium spp. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial sequences of tef-1α and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers of different Fusarium spp. All 27 isolates of Fusarium spp. were positive for the tef-1α gene and revealed the presence of F. verticillioides, F. thapsina and F. cf. incarnatum-equiseti complex. The standardized mPCR assay distinguished toxigenic and non-toxigenic F. verticillioides. Further, mPCR fumonisin-positive F. verticillioides isolates were also positive by CD-ELISA. The tef-1α gene sequence was found to be useful in revealing intraspecific polymorphism to some extent. ISSR markers revealed a high level of polymorphism among different isolates of Fusarium spp., and the dendrogram of ISSR analyses grouped the 27 isolates into two major clusters. The present method provided rapid and reliable detection of fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. The mPCR assay could be an alternative strategy to current conventional mycotoxin analytical techniques and a reliable tool for high-throughput monitoring of major mycotoxin-producing fungi during the processing steps of food and feed commodities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Molecular detection of Leptospira spp. from canine kidney tissues and its association with renal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit R. Dash

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to detect the prevalence of Leptospira spp. in kidney tissues collected during necropsy and to establish its association with renal lesions in dogs of Mumbai region. Materials and Methods: Kidney tissues from 40 dogs were collected during necropsy after gross examination and then fixed in neutral buffered formalin and Bouin's fluid for histopathology and histochemistry, respectively. Kidney tissues were also collected for the detection of Leptospira spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in a sterile container and stored at -80°C until further processing. Results: Of 40 cases studied, 13 (32.5% cases showed lesions of nephritis of varying histotype and severity. Glomerulonephritis was reported as the most common type of nephritis in 9 (69.23% cases, and interstitial nephritis was recorded in 4 (30.76% cases. Chronic and acute interstitial nephritis was observed in two cases each. Renal failure as a cause of death was found in 7 (17.5% dogs. Of a total of 40 cases, 9 were found positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp. genome by PCR. However, of nine PCR-positive cases, only four cases showed lesions in kidneys as glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis in two cases each. The rest five cases positive for Leptospira spp. by PCR did not show any appreciable lesions in the kidneys. Conclusion: Leptospiral DNA was detected in 9 (22.5% cases by PCR. Of these nine cases, only four cases showed renal lesions. Other five cases which were positive for Leptospira spp. by PCR did not show any appreciable gross and microscopic lesions in the kidneys which might be carriers for Leptospira spp. Considering variable reports on types of nephritis in Leptospira spp. infection and also the prevalence of non-pathogenic Leptospira spp., it is important to conduct an extensive study on the prevalence of Leptospira spp. and its association with renal lesions involving batteries of tests.

  9. Detection of Leptospira spp. in Water Turtle (Trachemys scripta) Living in Ponds of Urban Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezzutto, Daniela; Barbero, Raffaella; Canale, Giuseppina; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Biolatti, Cristina; Dogliero, Andrea; Mitzy, Mauthe Degerfeld; Francone, Paola; Colzani, Alberto; Bergagna, Stefania; Gennero, Maria Silvia

    2017-10-10

    Urban parks are green areas of cities where families and children spend hours outside. Turtles often inhabit urban parks. However, even if the animals seem harmless, they may serve as both reservoirs or accidental hosts for different serotypes of Leptospira spp. Leptospira spp. is a waterborne zoonotic bacterium relevant for public health. Reptiles and amphibians may play a role in the epidemiology, transmission, and persistence of Leptospira spp. In the present study, we observed the presence of anti-leptospiral agglutinins in a group of freshwater turtles ( Trachemys scripta ) captured in three urban ponds of the metropolitan city of Turin, Italy.

  10. Role of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Trichoderma spp. in the control of root rot disease of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment of soybean with Bndyrhizobium japonicum, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii significantly controlled the infection of 30-day-old seedlingsby Maerophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. In 60-day-old plants Trichoderma spp.. and B. japonicum inhibited the grouth of R. solani and Fusarium spp., whereas the use of B. japonicum (TAL-102 with T. harzianum. T. viride, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii controlled the infection by M. phaseolina. Greater grain yield was recorded when B. japonium (TAI-102 was used with T. hamatum.

  11. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  12. [Presence and viability of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in drinking water and wastewater in the high basin of Bogotá river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Marlén Andrea; Beltrán, Milena; Cárdenas, Martha Liliana; Campos, María Claudia

    2005-09-01

    Faecal contamination in wastewater and drinking water is linked to the dissemination of water related diseases. The bacteria, virus and parasites present in drinking water are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, especially among infants. Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the organisms selected as parasite contamination indicators. Their presence serves as a useful tool for evaluating water quality and determining sanitary risk. At present, in Colombia, concentration and occurrence of these parasites is unknown and an immediate assessment was considered necessary. Protozoan presence was determined in five sampling stations in the Bogotá river upper basin and in two drinking water plants near the same area. The techniques applied for counting encysted forms consisted of inorganic flocculation for wastewater or filtration for drinking water. Fluorogenic vital dyes tested for viability. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was confirmed in two of the sampled stations and at two of the drinking water plants. Giardia spp. was found at two of the drinking water plants but not at the sampled stations. Viable cysts were found for Cryptosporidium spp. in one of the samples from the Bogotá river, but only inviable exemplars were obtained from the drinking water plants. The results revealed protozoan presence in drinking and residual water implying the presence of a potential sanitary hazard.

  13. 16S rRNA-targeted probes for specific detection of Thermoanaerobacterium spp., Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, and Caldicellulosiruptor spp. by fluorescent in situ hybridization in biohydrogen producing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet Bg 115, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand); Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet Bg 115, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2008-11-15

    16S rRNA gene targeted oligonucleotide probes for specific detection of genera Thermoanaerobacterium (Tbm1282), Caldicellulosiruptor (Ccs432), and specie Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum (Tbmthsacc184) were designed and used to monitor the spatial distribution of hydrogen producing bacteria in sludge and granules from anaerobic reactors. The designed probes were checked for their specificity and then validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization with target microorganisms and non-target microorganisms. Thermoanaerobacterium spp., T. thermosaccharolyticum and Caldicellulosiruptor spp. were detected with the probes designed with coverage of 75%, 100% and 93%, respectively. Thermophilic (60 C) hydrogen producing reactors, one fed with sucrose and another, fed with palm oil mill effluent comprised of following major groups of hydrogen producers: Thermoanaerobacterium spp. (49% and 36%), T. thermosaccharolyticum (16% and 10%), phylum Firmicutes (low G+C) gram positive bacteria (15% and 27%). Extreme-thermophilic (70 C) hydrogen producing reactors, one fed with xylose and another, fed with lignocellulosic hydrolysate comprised of following major groups of hydrogen producers: Caldicellulosiruptor spp. (40.5% and 20.5%), phylum Firmicutes (low G+C) gram positive bacteria (17% and 20%), Archaea (7% and 8.5%), and Thermoanaerobacterium spp. (0% and 5%). Results obtained, showed good applicability of the probes Tbm1282, Tbmthsacc184 and Ccs432 for specific detection and quantification of thermophilic and extreme-thermophilic hydrogen producers in complex environments. (author)

  14. [Detection of Salmonella, Listeria spp., Vibrio spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica in frozen seafood and comparison with enumeration for faecal indicators: implication for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripabelli, G; Sammarco, M L; Fanelli, I; Grasso, G M

    2004-01-01

    Infections transmitted through consumption of contaminated seafood is a significant source of human morbidity. The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Salmonella, Listeria, Vibrio, and Yersinia enterocolitica in frozen seafood with results from enumeration of conventional faecal indicators. A total of 213 crustaceans or molluscs were purchased from local vendors in Italy: 74% were harvested in Italy, 25% from other European countries and 1% from outside Europe. Listeria spp. was isolated from 20% of samples, Vibrio spp. from 11%, Salmonella from 3% and Y. enterocolitica from 1%. Listeria species isolated were L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri. Vibrio species isolated were V. alginolyticus and V. fluvialis. The most contaminated shellfish for both faecal indicator microrganism and pathogens were hen clams (6% contained Salmonella, 27% Listeria spp. and 3% Y. enterocolitica), while from 27% of shrimps Vibrio spp. was recovered. Higher levels of faecal indicators were recovered from samples harvested outside Europe, and 66% of samples harvested in Thailand were contaminated from Salmonella. Significant differences were found in the levels of contamination of seafoods depending upon the freezing regime, but there was a limited association between presence of potential pathogens (particularly Vibrio spp.) and conventional faecal indicators. Hence, we suggest reconsideration of current legal parameters to evaluate microbiological quality of seafood.

  15. Some ecological aspects of the fungi trichoderma spp and bliocladium spp in Palma de Vino soils farm, la Dorada, Caldas, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viteri, Silvio E; Zarta, D; Salgado, N

    2000-01-01

    Trichoderma spp and Gliocladium spp have been reported as control agents of some of the fungi that cause root rot diseases in various crops. Despite this potential the there is no information on their ecology in tropical soils. This study was conducted at the Palma de Vino farm, La Dorada, Caldas with the aim of contributing to the understanding of their ecology in their natural habitat in the tropics. Representative soil and rhizosphere samples were collected and analyzed for some physical, chemical, and biological properties. The results showed clearly that: 1) both genera, form part of the native microflora of those soils. 2) The Trichoderma spp population fluctuated between 5.7x10 2 and 6.4x10 3 and between 7.4x10 2 and 2x10 4 UFC g - 1 in the soil and rhizoplane, respectively; the Gliocladium spp population could not be estimated, probably due to their low numbers. 3) Within the genus Trichoderma the species T. Hamatum, T. Harzianum, and T. Koningu could be identified. 4) The Trichoderma spp populations, especially those from de rhizoplane, showed a clear relation with de soil pH. As far as we know, these results represent the first source of information on the ecology of these two agronomic important fungi, under tropical conditions

  16. Assessment of Consumer Exposure to Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat Products at Retail in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Jakabi, Miyoko; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2017-08-01

    Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37.5% (12/32). The counts of Salmonella spp. were low, ranging from Salmonella Typhimurium (28.1%), Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (15.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (12.5%), Salmonella Derby, and Salmonella Brandenburg (9.4%). Campylobacter spp. was detected in 33 samples (6.0%), comprising chicken legs (82%) and ground beef (18%). All samples were negative for STEC. These results suggest that meat products when subjected to inadequate cooking and/or cross-contamination with other products ready for consumption can lead to occurrence of outbreaks, highlighting the risks associated with them.

  17. Potencial de pseudomonas spp. fluorescentes para biocontrole de alternaria ricini em mamoneira Potential of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. For biological control of alternaria ricini on castorbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A.G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. to control Alternaria leaf spot on castorbean, caused by Alternaria ricini, was studied under greenhouse conditions. Two periods for antagonist applications were tested: 48h before and simultaneously to the pathogen inoculation. Among the antagonists tested JA4 and BJ22 were the most effectives showing disease severity reduction of 20.9% and 17.8% respectively, when applied simultaneously. The effect of Pseudomonas spp. on the micelial growth and sporulation was also studied throughout three different methods (funel, streak and celophane. Inhibition of micelial growth and sporulation was observed. There was no correlation between in vitro and in vivo data. Antibiosis was showed as a mode of action for Pseudomonas spp. in relation to Alternaria ricini. Ultrastructural studies confirmed the inhibition of spore germination by the bacteria.

  18. Evaluation of Double-Disk Potentiation and Disk Potentiation Tests Using Dipicolinic Acid for Detection of Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Yangsoon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2012-01-01

    Accurate detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. became very important with the increasing prevalence of carbapenem-nonsusceptible clinical isolates. The performance of phenotypic MBL detection methods may depend on the types of MBL and the characteristics of the isolates. A high false-positive rate is a problem with EDTA-based MBL detection methods. We evaluated the performance of double-disk potentiation tests (DDPTs) and disk potentiation tests (DPTs) with dipicolinic acid (DPA) using 44 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. producing IMP-1-like, VIM-2-like, and SIM-1 type MBLs. Also, we characterized P. aeruginosa isolates with positive imipenem (IPM)-DPA DDPT, but negative meropenem (MEM)-DPA DDPT, and determined possibility of improving a DDPT by using MacConkey agar. Among five different DDPT methods, the IPM-DPA 250-μg method showed the highest sensitivity (97.7%) and specificity (100%). Among four DPT tests, the highest sensitivity (100%) was shown by the IPM-EDTA 1,900-μg disk method, but the specificity was very low (11.4%). Five of six P. aeruginosa isolates with false-negative DDPTs with MEM-DPA 250-μg disks carried blaIMP-6, and the high level resistance to MEM (MIC ≥ 512 μg/ml) was reduced by the presence of phenylalanine arginine β-naphtylamide. Improvement of DDPTs was observed when MacConkey agar was used instead of Mueller-Hinton agar. In conclusion, DPA is a better MBL inhibitor than EDTA for detection of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. with IMP-1-like, VIM-2-like, and SIM-1-type MBLs. In DPA DDPTs, IPM disks perform better than MEM disks when the isolates are highly resistant to MEM due to the overexpression of efflux pumps. PMID:22837321

  19. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyo, Rogerio; de Souza, Carla Zangari; Nishi, Letícia; Brustolin, Camila Fernanda; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Falavigna Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed.

  20. Stem base rot of winter wheat by Fusarium spp. - causes and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Narkiewicz-Jodko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the influence of weather conditions and a degree of weed infestation on the incidence of stem bases rot (Fusarium spp. of winter wheat cultivars as well as their yield. The winter wheat cultivars (Kobra, Korweta, Mikon, Zyta were investigated (2000-2002 in the field where the following herbicides: Apyros 75 WG + Atpolan, Affinity 50,75 WG, Attribut 70 WG were applied. It has been shown the occurrence of stem base rot (Fusarium spp. depended mainly on weather conditions. The application of the herbicides improved the plant health. The stem base rot on winter wheat was caused by Fusarium spp., specially F. culmorum. The decrease in winter wheat yield depended on weather conditions, weed infestation and the occurrence of stem base rot (Fusarium spp..

  1. Detection of Helicobacter spp. in the saliva of dogs with gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, M; Spużak, J; Kubiak, K; Glińska-Suchocka, K; Biernat, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the prevalence of gastric Helicobacter in the saliva of dogs with gastritis. The study was carried out on 30 dogs of different breeds, genders and ages, which were diagnosed with gastritis. The nested-PCR method was used to detect Helicobacter spp. in saliva. Helicobacter bacteria were found in the saliva samples of 23 (76.6%) dogs. Helicobacter heilmannii was the most commonly detected species of gastric Helicobacter spp. in canine saliva, and was found in 22 (73.3%) cases. The results indicate that gastric Helicobacter spp. occurs relatively frequently in dogs with gastritis. Moreover, the saliva of dogs with gastritis may be a source of Helicobacter spp. infection for humans and other animals. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding as the PCR method does not distinguish active from inactive infections.

  2. Opah Tissue Samples Collected and Information Regarding Lampris spp. Obtained from Various Entities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to determine variations in distribution of the newly discovered Lampris spp., numerous research institutions, observer programs, and museums were contacted...

  3. Deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and sulphur in pepper (Capsicum spp) cv malagueta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruca, F.A.; Gouveia, P.R.; Teixeira, N.T.

    1989-01-01

    The pepper (Capsium spp) was cultivated in sand and nutritive solution to describe the deficiency symptoms of N, P, Ca and S. The deficiency symptoms and the first lack signals were clear to P and N nutrient. (author) [pt

  4. GENETIC AND MORPHOAGRONOMIC DIVERSITY OF Passiflora spp. BASED ON QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF FLOWERS AND FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMILE DA SILVA OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to characterize Passiflora spp. accessions and its genetic diversity based on quantitative morphological descriptors of flowers and fruits. The study was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina-DF. Fifteen Passiflora spp. accessions were characterized using 14 quantitative morphological descriptors. Genetic distances among accessions were estimated based on Mahalanobis’ generalized distance. Cluster analysis via dendrogram and graphic dispersion was analyzed. The relative contribution of characters for accession divergence was also calculated. The morphoagronomic characterization based on quantitative descriptors of flowers and fruits contributed to the differentiation of Passiflora spp. accessions, serving as an important tool for variability quantification. This information is useful to perform Passiflora spp. characterization and genetic diversity studies.

  5. Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the public parks of Isfahan City, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghomashlooyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the contamination rate of the public parks of Isfahan city with Toxocara spp. eggs. Methods: A total of 140 soil samples were collected from 28 public parks of Isfahan City, Central Iran, during the summer of 2014. Soil samples were investigated for the presence of Toxocara eggs by flotation method using sucrose solution. The prepared wet mount slides were examined under light microscope using 10 × and 40 × objectives. Results: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 21 (75% out of 28 studied public parks. Also Toxocara spp. eggs were observed in 40 (28.6% out of 140 collected soil samples. Conclusions: Contamination rate with Toxocara spp. eggs in Isfahan is fairly high. Isfahan is a city that has lots of parks and gardens. The stray dogs and cats that roam around the parks contaminate the soil. Therefore preventive measures, especially for children, should be implemented.

  6. Prevalence and diversity of Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. in coastal waters of Southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumontet, S.; Krovacek, K.; Svenson, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    . The results indicate that all the investigated areas were submitted to a wide spatial fluctuation of fecal contamination and that Vibrio and Aeromonas spp. were present in both high and low fecal-contaminated stations. Sixty two percent of the investigated samples were positive for Aeromonas spp., while 42......% of samples were positive for Vibrio spp. It was interesting to note that 38% of the positive stations for both Aeromonas and Vibrio spp. showed a fecal coliform contamination of water at indicators (such as fecal...... and A. caviae. Furthermore, the antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated bacteria showed the presence of a number of resistant strains among the isolates. In order to discriminate the isolates on the basis of their biochemical profiles and/or antibiotic resistance patterns, cluster analysis...

  7. Literature Reference for Cryptosporidium spp. (Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007. 73(13): 4218–4225)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of drinking water samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate, aerosol, and liquid samples. The method uses real-time PCR for identification of Cryptosporidium spp.

  8. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Rogers and Dragoslav Marcovich. Submitted. Simple Method for the Extraction and Quantification of Photopigments from Symbiodinium spp.. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods. 19 p. (ERL,GB 1192). We have developed a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol which, when...

  9. Soil contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a university in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Carlos Antelmo Celis; Romero Núñez, Camilo; García Contreras, Adelfa Del Carmen; Mendoza Barrera, Germán Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The contamination levels of Toxocara spp. eggs in soil samples from a university campus in Mexico City were evaluated and analysed according to garden size, and were related with the percentage of Toxocara spp. eggs and its viability according to the soil characteristics. A total of 1458 soil samples collected in 15 gardens (six large and nine small) were analysed by sedimentation-flotation with zinc sulphate solution on at 33%. Contamination was low (12.9%), and egg viability was high (65.5%). The size of the garden had no influence on the presence and viability of Toxocara spp. eggs. Contamination was negatively correlated with the percentage of vegetation (r = -0. 61, P soil samples (r = -0.51, P < 0.04). The size of the garden did not influence the presence and viability of Toxocara spp. eggs.

  10. Characterization of Salmonella spp. from wastewater used for food production in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Lughano J. M. Kusiluk

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater use for crop irrigation and aquaculture is commonly practiced by communities situated close to wastewater treatment ponds. The objective of this study was to characterize Salmonella spp. and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among isolates from wastewater and Tilapia fish...

  11. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Malin E.; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine

    2012-01-01

    of Campylobacter spp. in Norwegian broiler flocks and factors related to the climate and the farm environment. Data from 18,488 broiler flocks from 623 different farms during 2002–2007 were included in the study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted where Campylobacter spp. status of a broiler flock...... at the time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply......, presence of other livestock farms within a distance of 2km, presence of other broiler farms within a distance of 4km with flocks positive for Campylobacter spp. within 30 days prior to slaughter, heavy rainfall 11–30 days prior to slaughter, region and year. Daily mean temperature below 0°C reduced...

  12. Eight-year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterococcus Spp. Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1446 strains of Enterococcus spp. were collected from urine 640 (44.3%), sputum 315 (21.8%), secretions and pus 265 (18.3%) during the past 8 years. The rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were 57.4%∼75.9% and 69.0%∼93.8% during the past 8 years, respectively. No Enterococcus spp. was resistant to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  13. Teratosphaeria nubilosa, a serious leaf disease pathogen of Eucalyptus spp. in native and introduced areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, G.C.; Crous, P.W.; Carnegie, A.J.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Teratosphaeria nubilosa is a serious leaf pathogen of several Eucalyptus spp. This review considers the taxonomic history, epidemiology, host associations and molecular biology of T. nubilosa. Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Dothideomycetes; Order Capnodiales; Family Teratosphaeriaceae;

  14. Teratosphaeria nubilosa, a serious leaf disease pathogen of Eucalyptus spp. in native and introduced areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, G.C.; Crous, P.W.; Carnegie, A.J.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Teratosphaeria nubilosa is a serious leaf pathogen of several Eucalyptus spp. This review considers the taxonomic history, epidemiology, host associations and molecular biology of T. nubilosa. TAXONOMY: Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Dothideomycetes; Order Capnodiales; Family

  15. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) responses to the environmental variability in the Guinea Sudan zone of Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, Afio; Struik, P.C.; Richards, P.; Zoundjihékpon, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the morphological characteristics and agronomic potentials of yam varieties (Dioscorea spp.) collected across the Guinea Sudan transition zone of Benin. Dioscorea cayenensis - D. rotundata varieties were characterized as wingless; some varieties were spineless, others had few or

  16. Compostos bioativos presentes em amora-preta (Rubus spp. Bioactive compounds of blackberry fruits (Rubus spp. grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Souza Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A amora-preta (Rubus spp., pequena fruta de clima temperado, possui coloração atraente, variando do vermelho púrpura ao azul, devido ao elevado teor de antocianinas. As antocianinas, juntamente com os carotenoides, compõem os pigmentos naturais, majoritários encontrados em diversas frutas. Diversos estudos têm relatado a importância destes pigmentos naturais como protetores e/ou inibidores de doenças degenerativas, porém são escassos os estudos sobre compostos bioativos presentes em amora-preta cultivada no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram identificar as antocianinas e os carotenoides presentes em amora-preta, determinar os conteúdos totais de compostos fenólicos, carotenoides, flavonoides, antocianinas totais, monoméricas, poliméricas e copigmentadas, e a capacidade antioxidante frente aos radicais livres ABTS e DPPH. O teor total de carotenoides foi baixo (86,5 ± 0,2 µg/100 g, com all-trans-β-caroteno (39,6 % e all-trans-luteína (28,2 % como os majoritários. As amoras-pretas apresentaram elevado potencial antioxidante principalmente pelo teor representativo de antocianinas monoméricas (104,1 ± 1,8 mg/100 g de fruto, presença de antocianinas poliméricas (22,9 ± 0,4 %, baixa porcentagem de antocianinas copigmentadas (1,6 ± 0,1 % e altos teores de compostos fenólicos (241,7 ± 0,8 mg equivalente de ácido gálico/100 g e de flavonoides totais (173,7 ± 0,7 mg equivalente de catequina/100 g. Cianidina 3-glucosídeo foi a antocianina majoritária (92,9 %. Diante destes resultados, a amora-preta pode ser considerada uma fonte natural rica em antioxidantes e pigmentos.The blackberry (Rubus spp., a small fruit grown in temperate climate, shows an attractive color ranging from purple red to blue, due to the high content of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins, along with carotenoids, are the major natural pigments found in several fruits. Many studies have reported the importance of these natural pigments as protectors

  17. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other pathogenic intestinal parasites in the Beberibe River in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Dayana Andrade de; Paiva, Anderson Luiz Ribeiro de; Carvalho Filho, José Adson Andrade de; Cabral, Jaime Joaquim da Silva Pereira; Rocha, Francisca Janaína Soares

    2015-01-01

    Transmission of pathogenic protozoa and helminths by water is a serious public health problem. In this study, we analyzed the presence of these organisms in the Beberibe River in Pernambuco, Brazil. Parasite analysis was performed using the Hoffman, Pons, & Janer method followed by centrifugation and preparation of slides by staining with acetic acid and Lugol's solution. Protozoan oocysts were isolated by the modified Ziehl Neelsen method. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other parasites were found in the Beberibe River. Sanitation companies must assess pathogenic intestinal parasites in water basins providing public water and subsequently develop improved treatment systems for removal of such parasites.

  18. 16S rRNA-targeted probes for specific detection of Thermoanaerobacterium spp., Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, and Caldicellulosiruptor spp. by fluorescent in situ hybridization in biohydrogen producing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Prasertsan, P.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2008-01-01

    % and 36%), T. thermosaccharolyticum (16% and 10%), phylum Firmicutes (low G+C) gram positive bacteria (15% and 27%). Extreme-thermophilic (70 °C) hydrogen producing reactors, one fed with xylose and another, fed with lignocellulosic hydrolysate comprised of following major groups of hydrogen producers......: Caldicellulosiruptor spp. (40.5% and 20.5%), phylum Firmicutes (low G+C) gram positive bacteria (17% and 20%), Archaea (7% and 8.5%), and Thermoanaerobacterium spp. (0% and 5%). Results obtained, showed good applicability of the probes Tbm1282, Tbmthsacc184 and Ccs432 for specific detection and quantification...... of thermophilic and extreme-thermophilic hydrogen producers in complex environments....

  19. Interação entre Cipocereus minensis (Werderm.) F.Ritter (Cactaceae) e Silvestritermes spp. e Nasutitermes spp. (Isoptera:Termitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Julya Pires; Lopes, Sabrina Aparecida; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor; Santos, Thiago

    2017-01-01

    O objetivo foi verificar se a associação entre \\textit{Cipocereus minensis} e \\textit{Silvestritermes} spp. e \\textit {Nasutitermes} spp. afeta o sucesso reprodutivo do cacto, pois os cupinzeiros funcionariam como manchas de nutrientes. Foram observados, durante 20 quinzenas, 30 indivíduos de \\textit{C. minensis} em 2 grupos: associados ao cupinzeiro (N=19) e afixados em rochas (N=11). Foram empregados três modelos lineares generalizados mistos onde o substrato, temperaturas médi...

  20. Evaluation of the Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Alone and Combined with Standard Antifungal Therapy on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Jiang, Shaojie; Sun, Yi; Deng, Meiqi; Wu, Qingzhi; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635 ± 10 nm, 12 and 24 J/cm(2)), and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five strains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp., as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all strains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium strains with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8, and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after aPDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high sessile MIC50 (SMIC50) and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to amphotericin B, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to aPDT exhibited a distinct reduction in

  1. Pontos críticos de controle de Salmonella spp. no abate de frangos Critical control points for Salmonella spp. in poultry slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.S. Von Rückert

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de Salmonella spp. em esfregaços superficiais em 135 carcaças de frangos, coletadas em cinco diferentes fases do abate, utilizando os métodos de microbiologia convencional, reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e imunoanálise. Os três métodos resultaram em tendência semelhante de detecção de Salmonella spp. nas carcaças de frango, ao longo da linha de abate. A maior frequência de Salmonella spp. foi determinada após o chuveiro de lavagem das carcaças, localizado entre a evisceração e o pré-resfriamento. Vinte (14,8% esfregaços foram determinados pela metodologia convencional, 52 (38,5% pela PCR e 66 (48,8% pela imunoanálise. A menor contaminação foi encontrada na saída do pré-resfriamento, com frequências de 3,7%, 0% e 16,7%, respectivamente. Salmonella spp. foi encontrada em todas as fases de abate, mostrando a importância do monitoramento de diferentes pontos críticos de controle eventualmente identificados no abate de frangos.The presence of Salmonella spp. in superficial swabs collected from 135 chicken carcasses in five different slaugther steps using the conventional microbiology, PCR, and immunoanalysis methods was evaluated. The three methods presented similar tendency to detect Salmonella spp. in the chicken carcasses along the slaugther line. The highest frequency of Salmonella spp. was found after the shower, located between the evisceration and the chiller. Twenty (14.8% swabes were determined by the conventional methodology, 52 (38.9% by the PCR, and 66 (48.9% by the immunoanalysis. The lowest contamination was found after chiller tank, where the frequencies were 5 (3.7%, 0 (0%, and 24 (16.7%, respectively. Salmonella spp. was found in all the slaugther steps. This shows the importance for monitoring different CCP (Control Critical Point in the poultry slaughterhouses.

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other pathogenic intestinal parasites in the Beberibe River in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Andrade de Freitas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Transmission of pathogenic protozoa and helminths by water is a serious public health problem. In this study, we analyzed the presence of these organisms in the Beberibe River in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Parasite analysis was performed using the Hoffman, Pons, & Janer method followed by centrifugation and preparation of slides by staining with acetic acid and Lugol's solution. Protozoan oocysts were isolated by the modified Ziehl Neelsen method. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and other parasites were found in the Beberibe River. CONCLUSIONS: Sanitation companies must assess pathogenic intestinal parasites in water basins providing public water and subsequently develop improved treatment systems for removal of such parasites.

  3. Keanekaragaman Jenis Kantung Semar (Nepenthes Spp.) Di Kawasan Suaka Margasatwa Siranggas Kabupaten Pakpak Bharat

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Maidita Fitri br; Yunasfi, Yunasfi; Patana, Pindi

    2015-01-01

    Pitcher plant (Nepenthes spp.) is one of the unique carnivorous plant species, the numbers continue to decline in the wild. Habitat destruction caused by human activities and un cultivated exploitation as an ornamental plant threatened its existence. This study aims to invent and determine species diversity of Pitcher plant (Nepenthes spp.) in the area of Siranggas Wildlife Reserve . The study was conducted at a height categories: 900 – 1.000 meter above see level (m asl) (found 6 types Nepen...

  4. Evaluation of antagonistic activities of Bacillus spp. against certain bacteria of medical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, K.K. and Rana, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we focused on the antagonistic potential of Bacillus spp. isolates from cow dung. Out of fourteen bacterial strains, isolate KD104 and KD117 were probably identified as Bacillus spp. These two isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against 14 test organisms viz., Vibrio Cholera (MTCC 3904), Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3216), Escherichia coli (SGPGI), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 7443), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 6728), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC 426...

  5. Assessment of the Dyeing Properties of the Pigments Produced by Talaromyces spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Oyervides, Lourdes; Oliveira, Jorge; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria; Méndez-Zavala, Alejandro; Montañez, Julio Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The high production yields of pigments by Talaromyces spp. and their high thermal stability have implied that industrial application interests may emerge in the food and textile industries, as they both involve subjecting the colourants to high temperatures. The present study aimed to assess the potential application of the pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. in the textile area by studying their dyeing properties. Dyeing studies were performed on wool. The dyeing process consisted of three...

  6. Risk Factors for Emergence of Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins among Enterobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Keith S.; Cosgrove, Sara; Harris, Anthony; Eliopoulos, George M.; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2001-01-01

    Among 477 patients with susceptible Enterobacter spp., 49 subsequently harbored third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter spp. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins were independent risk factors for resistance (relative risk [OR] = 2.3, P = 0.01); quinolone therapy was protective (OR = 0.4, P = 0.03). There were trends toward decreased risk for resistance among patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins and either aminoglycosides or imipenem. Of the patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins, 19% developed resistance. PMID:11502540

  7. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of......-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  8. Staphylococcus spp. in the oral cavity and periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Loberto,Jussara Cia S.; Martins,Clélia Ap. de Paiva; Santos,Silvana S. Ferreira dos; Cortelli,José Roberto; Jorge,Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2004-01-01

    Staphylococcus spp are not usually isolated from the oral cavity, and when this occurs, they are considered to belong to the transitory microbiota. Individuals with periodontal disease represent possible reservoirs of these opportunistic bacteria in the oral cavity. The use of antibiotics for treatment of periodontal disease or other infections may predispose to the increase of the number of Staphylococcus spp. in the oral cavity. These microorganisms easily become resistant to antibiotics, a...

  9. Differentiation of Giardia duodenalis from other Giardia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction and gene probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbubani, M H; Bej, A K; Perlin, M H; Schaefer, F W; Jakubowski, W; Atlas, R M

    1992-01-01

    Giardia spp. are waterborne organisms that are the most commonly identified pathogenic intestinal protozoans in the United States. Current detection techniques for Giardia species in water include microscopy and immunofluorescence techniques. Species of the genus Giardia are classified on the basis of taxonomic criteria, such as cell morphology, and on host specificity. We have developed a polymerase chain reaction- and gene probe-based detection system specific for Giardia spp., which can di...

  10. Isolation of Salmonella spp. in captive Psittaciformes from zoos and a commercial establishment of Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Lopes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study showed a low prevalence of Salmonella spp. in captive psittacines from zoos and a commercial establishment of Fortaleza. None of the isolated serotypes (S. Lexington, S. Saintpaul and S. Newport have yet been reported in Amazona aestiva, Ara chloroptera or Melopsittacus undulatus. However, the fact that most birds presented negative for Salmonella spp. may not imply the absence of this pathogen in these birds, since the intermittent excretion is a well-known characteristic of this microorganism.

  11. Variability in tolerance to UV-B radiation among Beauveria spp. isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Éverton K. K.; Rangel, Drauzio E. N.; Moraes, Âurea M. L.; Bittencourt, Vânia R. E. P.; Roberts, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation, particularly the UV-B component, negatively affects survival of entomopathogenic fungi in the field. In an effort to identify Beauveria spp. isolates with promise for use in biological control settings with high insolation, we examined 53 Beauveria bassiana isolates, 7 isolates of 4 other Beauveria spp. and Engyodontium albus (=Beauveria alba). The origins of these fungi varied widely as to host/substrate and country, but approximately 30% of these isolates were B. bassiana f...

  12. Paracoccidioides spp. FERROUS AND FERRIC IRON ASSIMILATION PATHWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for almost all organisms, including fungi. Usually, fungi can uptake iron through receptor-mediated internalization of a siderophore or heme, and/or reductive iron assimilation (RIA. Traditionally, the RIA pathway consists of ferric reductases (Fres, ferroxidase (Fet3 and a high-affinity iron permease (Ftr1. Paracoccidioides spp. genomes do not present an Ftr1 homolog. However, this fungus expresses zinc regulated transporter homologs (Zrts, members of the ZIP family of membrane transporters that are able in some organisms to transport zinc and iron. A 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC-overlay assay indicates that both Pb01 and Pb18 express a ferric reductase activity; however, 59Fe uptake assays indicate that only in Pb18 is this activity coupled to a reductase-dependent iron uptake pathway. In addition, Zrts are up-regulated in iron deprivation, as indicated by RNAseq and qRT-PCR using Pb01 transcripts. RNAseq strategy also demonstrated that transcripts related to siderophore uptake and biosynthesis are up-regulated in iron-deprived condition. The data suggest that the fungus could use both a non-classical RIA, comprising ferric reductases and Fe/Zn permeases (Zrts, and siderophore uptake pathways under iron-limited conditions. The study of iron metabolism reveals novel surface molecules that could function as accessible targets for drugs to block iron uptake and, consequently, inhibit pathogen’s proliferation.

  13. Ganoderma spp.: A Promising Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Arroyo, Ivette J.; Loperena-Alvarez, Yaliz; Rosario-Acevedo, Raysa; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M.

    2017-01-01

    For the past several decades, cancer patients in the U.S. have chosen the use of natural products as an alternative or complimentary medicine approach to treat or improve their quality of life via reduction or prevention of the side effects during or after cancer treatment. The genus Ganoderma includes about 80 species of mushrooms, of which several have been used for centuries in traditional Asian medicine for their medicinal properties, including anticancer and immunoregulatory effects. Numerous bioactive compounds seem to be responsible for their healing effects. Among the approximately 400 compounds produced by Ganoderma spp., triterpenes, peptidoglycans and polysaccharides are the major physiologically-active constituents. Ganoderma anticancer effects are attributed to its efficacy in reducing cancer cell survival and growth, as well as by its chemosensitizing role. In vitro and in vivo studies have been conducted in various cancer cells and animal models; however, in this review, we focus on Ganoderma’s efficacy on breast cancers. Evidence shows that some species of Ganoderma have great potential as a natural therapeutic for breast cancer. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to investigate their potential in the clinical setting and to translate our basic scientific findings into therapeutic interventions for cancer patients. PMID:28758107

  14. IAA production during germination of Orobanche spp. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Slavtcho; van Onckelen, Henry; Batchvarova, Rossitza; Atanassov, Atanas; Prinsen, Els

    2004-07-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are parasitic plants, whose growth and development fully depend on the nutritional connection established between the parasite and the roots of the respective host plant. Phytohormones are known to play a role in establishing the specific Orobanche-host plant interaction. The first step in the interaction is seed germination triggered by a germination stimulant secreted by the host-plant roots. We quantified indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during the seed germination of tobacco broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) and sunflower broomrape (O. cumana). IAA was mainly released from Orobanche seeds in host-parasite interactions as compared to non-host-parasite interactions. Moreover, germinating seeds of O. ramosa released IAA as early as 24 h after the seeds were exposed to the germination stimulant, even before development of the germ tube. ABA levels remained unchanged during the germination of the parasites' seeds. The results presented here show that IAA production is probably part of a mechanism triggering germination upon the induction by the host factor, thus resulting in seed germination.

  15. Injuries caused by frankliniella spp. (thysanoptera: thripidae on seedless grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Nunes Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thrips of the genus Frankliniella cause significant reduction on grape production. Little is known about its decision making approach in integrated pest management and information on thrips injuries to the vine is scarce, hindering the control of this pest. This study aimed to determine the species of thrips and injuries that cause damage to berries in seedless grapes clusters. The trial was conducted in an area cultivated with Vitis vinifera L., variety Thompson Seedless, using a randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of artificial infestation (zero, two, four and eight thrips per inflorescence, and treatment determined by the monitoring system of the grower. Each replication consisted of three plants with 10 inflorescences, which were artificially infested with thrips and covered with nonwoven fabric bags. During the cluster thinning, pre-harvest cleaning and harvest, the numbers of injuried berries and the berries with injuries were evaluated. The thrips species identified were: Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom, Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, Frankliniella gemina Bagnall, Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton, and Frankliniella sp. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the number of injuries per fruit and the level of thrips infestation, obtained by the equation y = 2.55 + 48.54x (F= 59.98; P= 0.0001; r²= 0.51. The results suggest that the presence of a whitish halo around a small scar on fruit is associated with the presence of adult Frankliniella spp.

  16. Antifungal activity of indigenous Bacillus spp. isolated from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR represents an alternative approach to disease management, since PGPR are known to promote growth and reduce diseases in various crops. Among the different PGPR, members of the genus Bacillus are prefered for most biotechnological uses due to their capability to form extremely resistant spores and produce a wide variety of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The objective of this research was to identify antagonistic bacteria for management of the plant diseases. Eleven isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the soil samples collected from different localities in the Province of Vojvodina. The antifungal activity of bacterial isolates against five fungal species was examined using a dual plate assay. Bacillus isolates exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Alternaria padwickii, while they had the least antagonistic effect on Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum. Molecular identification showed that effective bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus safensis (B2, Bacillus pumilus (B3, B11, Bacillus subtilis (B5, B7 and Bacillus megaterium (B8, B9. The highest antagonistic activity was exhibited by isolates B5 (from 39% to 62% reduction in fungal growth and B7 (from 40% to 71% reduction in fungal growth. These isolates of B. subtilis could be used as potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31073

  17. Color Discrimination in the Tufted Capuchin Monkey, Sapajus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an “ML protanope.” For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u′v′ diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the “classic” protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the “classic” and “ML” protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats. PMID:23620819

  18. Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassell, Mary C.; Kingston, Rosari; Gilroy, Deirdre; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal properties of hawthorn (Crataegus spp., a genus comprising approximately 300 species) have been utilized by many cultures for a variety of therapeutic purposes for many centuries. In the Western world cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the single most significant causes of premature death. Echoing this situation, more recent research into the therapeutic benefits of hawthorn preparations has focused primarily upon its cardiovascular effects. This review covers research into the various mechanisms of action proposed for Crataegus preparations, clinical trials involving Crataegus preparations, and the herb's safety profile. Clinical trials reviewed have been inconsistent in terms of criteria used (sample size, preparation, dosage, etc) but have been largely consistent with regard to positive outcomes. An investigation into data available to date regarding hawthorn preparations and herb/drug interactions reveals that theoretical adverse interactions have not been experienced in practice. Further, adverse reactions relating to the use of hawthorn preparations are infrequent and mild, even at higher dosage ranges. A recent retrospective study by Zick et al. has suggested a negative outcome for the long-term use of hawthorn in the prognosis of heart failure. These findings are examined in this paper. Although further research is needed in certain areas, current research to date suggests that hawthorn may potentially represent a safe, effective, nontoxic agent in the treatment of CVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD). PMID:22228939

  19. Possible environmental sources of Acanthamoeba spp in contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, D; Stapleton, F; Dart, J

    1992-01-01

    The water supply and dust samples from the home environment (bathrooms and kitchens) of 50 wearers of contact lenses (CLs) were cultured for the presence of free-living amoebae. CL cases, solutions, and water taps were cultured for bacteria, which amoebae require for growth. Acanthamoeba spp were isolated from water drawn from six bathroom cold water taps (tank supplied), five in the presence of limescale, and from one kitchen cold water tap (mains supplied). There was an association between the presence of limescale in water and direct culture for free-living amoebae, suggesting that scale provides a favourable microenvironment for amoebae. Acanthamoebae were also found in dust from around one washbasin. Nineteen of 50 CL cases, 12/122 CL care rinsing solutions, and 59/100 cold water taps yielded Gram negative bacteria which could be ingested by amoebae. It is concluded from this study that CLs should not be washed in first-drawn tank-fed cold water, especially if limescale is present, and that soft CLs should be rinsed in manufactured single-use, sterile solutions. Rigid CL and CL cases should only be washed with boiled tap water (preferably hot), or single-use sterile solutions, and stored dry to prevent multiplication of amoebae and Gram negative bacteria. PMID:1627513

  20. Laterality influences schooling position in rainbowfish, Melanotaenia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibost, Anne-Laurence; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a widespread trait among animals, is often manifested as side biases in behaviour (laterality) and has been suggested to provide fitness benefits. Here we examined the influence of laterality on the organisation of fish schools using rainbowfish (Melanotaenia spp) as model species. The pattern and strength of laterality for each individual was determined by examining eye preferences whilst examining their reflection in a mirror. Schools of four fish of known laterality were then created and the preferred position for each fish within the school was repeatedly observed in a flume. Fish which showed right eye preferences in the mirror test preferentially adopted a position on the left side of the school. Conversely, fish that showed left eye preferences in the mirror test or where non-lateralised preferentially adopted a position slightly to the right side of the school. However, this general pattern varied depending on the species and sex of the school. Our results strongly implicate individual laterality in the geometry of school formation.