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Sample records for spousal physical violence

  1. Physical spousal violence against women in India: some risk factors.

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    Jeyaseelan, L; Kumar, Shuba; Neelakantan, Nithya; Peedicayil, Abraham; Pillai, Rajamohanam; Duvvury, Nata

    2007-09-01

    Domestic spousal violence against women in developing countries like India, is now beginning to be recognized as a widespread health problem impeding development. This study aimed to explore the risk and protective factors for lifetime spousal physical violence. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in rural, urban and urban-slum areas across seven sites in India, among women aged 15-49 years, living with a child less than 18 years of age. The sample was selected using the probability proportionate to size method. Trained field workers administered a structured questionnaire to elicit information on spousal physical violence. The main hypothesized variables were social support, witnessed father beating mother and experience of harsh physical violence during childhood, alcohol abuse by spouse and socioeconomic variables. The outcome variables included three physical violence behaviours of hit, kick and beat. Odds ratios were calculated for risk and protective factors of violence using logistic regression. Of 9938 women surveyed, 26% reported experiencing spousal physical violence during the lifetime of their marriage. Adjusted odds ratios calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis suggest that women whose husbands regularly consumed alcohol (OR 5.6; 95% CI 4.7-6.6); who experienced dowry harassment (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.7-3.8); had reported experiencing harsh physical punishment during childhood (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and had witnessed their fathers beat their mothers (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.1), were at increased risk of spousal physical violence (beat, hit and kick). Higher socioeconomic status and good social support acted as protective buffers against spousal physical violence. The findings provide compelling evidence of the potential risk factors for spousal physical violence, which in turn could help in planning interventions.

  2. Risk Factors for Spousal Physical Violence Against Women in Saudi Arabia.

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    Eldoseri, Halah M; Sharps, Phyllis

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to explore selected risk factors for spousal physical violence (SPV) in women frequenting primary health care clinics (PHCs) in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in six PHCs, where one-on-one, private interviews with 200 women were conducted using a standardized World Health Organization (WHO) violence against women questionnaire (v.10.0). SPV was reported by 45.5% of women. Husband-specific risk factors including alcohol or drug addiction, unemployment, control of wealth in the family, and physical aggression toward other men were significant predictors for SPV. A multisectoral approach should be implemented with focus on providers' training, women's safety, and involvement of men in violence prevention and intervention programs.

  3. Women's opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh.

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    Raaj Kishore Biswas

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014 were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women's perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years, other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women's attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women.

  4. Women's opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh.

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    Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Rahman, Nusma; Kabir, Enamul; Raihan, Farabi

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women's perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years), other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women's attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women.

  5. Women’s opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Rahman, Nusma; Kabir, Enamul; Raihan, Farabi

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31....

  6. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data on spousal violence among ever married women was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The outcome variable is pregnancy termination. The explanatory variables were the type of spousal violence experienced by the women in the last 12 months preceding the survey.

  7. Women’s opinion on the justification of physical spousal violence: A quantitative approach to model the most vulnerable households in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. The binary logistic model showed wealth index, education of both women and their partner, religion, geographical division, decision making freedom and marital age as significant household contributors for women’s perspective in all the three years. Women in rich households and the highly educated were found to be 40% and 50% less likely to accept domestic physical violence compared to the poorest and illiterate women. Similarly, women who got married before 18 years were 20% more likely accept physical violence in the family as a norm. Apart from these particular groups (richest, highly educated and married after 18 years), other groups had around 30% acceptance rate of household violence. For any successful attempt to reduce spousal physical violence in the traditional patriarchal society of Bangladesh, interventions must target the most vulnerable households and the geographical areas where women experience spousal violence. Although this paper focuses on women’s attitudes, it is important that any intervention scheme should be devised to target both men and women. PMID:29161277

  8. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistical analysis and binary logistic regression were ap- plied using stata version 12. Results: Results show that 13.8% of women had ever terminated pregnancy; 19.9% had ever experienced at least one type of spousal violence; and women who had ever terminated pregnancy had higher prevalence of all ...

  9. SPOUSAL VIOLENCE IN THE CONTEXT OF WOMEN’S VICTIMIZATION

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    T. V. Shipunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with spousal violence against women. Criminal and everyday aspects of conjugal violence highlighted. Criminal violence is reflected in the crime statistics. Everyday aspect includes impostored and indifference violence. The author distinguishes four contexts in which spousal violence is unfolding: sociocultural (class structure of society, settings and attitudes towards violence, etc.; family (the modern family structure, family relationships and their dynamics, and others; individual (prescribed cultural understanding of the strengths and weaknesses, self-esteem and self-control, etc.; crisis (means and opportunities to establish and maintain non-conflict situation in the family, reduced resistance to the couple in crisis situations, etc.. The article presents the results of empirical research of problem of spousal violence youth too. The study found gender differences in the perception and evaluation of the problem of conjugal violence, the differences in the assessment methods of spousal violence, etc. 

  10. A study of spousal domestic violence in an urban slum of Mumbai

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    Prateek S Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Results: The proportion of domestic violence was 36.9%. The most common form of violence was verbal in 87 (86.1% followed by physical in 64 (63.4%. Conclusion: A significant association was found between domestic violence and age, education, spousal alcoholism, and duration of marriage.

  11. Spousal violence and paternal disinvestment among Tsimane' forager-horticulturalists.

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    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael; Winking, Jeffrey; Tayo, Basilio Vie

    2011-01-01

    We develop and test a conceptual model of factors influencing the likelihood of physical wife abuse. The paternal disinvestment model emphasizes that spousal conflict over resource use results from men's attempts to increase individual fitness at a cost to the family (e.g., through pursuit of extramarital affairs). We propose that men use violence to control women's responses to the diversion of resources away from the family: to quell women's objections to male disinvestment, maintain women's parental investment, and to dissuade women from pursuing relationships with other men. Interviews were conducted among men and women to determine rates of violence and demographic and behavioral covariates. Structural equation modeling and generalized estimating equations analyses were used to test predictions derived from the model. We also collected data on frequent complaints in marriage and women's perceptions of arguments precipitating violence. Over 85% of women experienced physical wife abuse (n = 49). Indicators of paternal disinvestment positively covary with indicators of marital strife and with rates of wife abuse. The wife's age, matrilocal residence, and presence of joint dependent offspring decrease the likelihood of violence through direct and indirect routes. Wife abuse is linked to the importance of paternal investment in human families, and is a means by which men control women's responses to a dual reproductive strategy of familial investment and pursuit of extramarital sexual relationships. This framework is more general than traditional sociological and evolutionary perspectives emphasizing patriarchy and men's sexual jealousy, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Spousal violence against pregnant women from a Bedouin community in Jordan.

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    Okour, Abdelhakeem M; Badarneh, Raja

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of spousal violence against pregnant women during their current pregnancy and investigate factors related to violence. A cross-sectional survey was performed with 303 pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics in Al-Mafraq, northern desert of Jordan. The prevalence of violence (any type) during pregnancy was 40.9%. Physical violence was the highest (34.7 %), followed by psychologic violence (28.1%) and sexual violence (15.5%). Women who resided in the city (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.79), had six or more pregnancies including the current one (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.45-20.0), had four or more female children (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.3- 11.9) and were under pressure to have a male child (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.07- 3.08) were more likely to be exposed to violence during pregnancy. This study attempted to shed light on some of the cultural dimensions behind spousal violence, especially preference for male children. This study is important to the Jordanian and Arab communities in their efforts to protect women's rights and in designing interventions against domestic and spousal violence.

  13. Child marriage and its associations with controlling behaviors and spousal violence against adolescent and young women in Pakistan.

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    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria

    2014-12-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is widely prevalent in Pakistan, and disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low-income, and poorly educated households. Our study aims to determine the associations between child marriage and controlling behaviors (CB) and spousal violence by husbands against adolescent and young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. We analyzed data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-2013, of currently married women aged 15-24 years who had participated in the domestic violence module (n = 589, 22.5% [589/2,615] of the subsample aged 15-24 years) to identify differences in CB and spousal violence experiences between early (marriage. Associations between child marriage and CB and spousal violence by husband were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AOR) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, and rural residence), spousal age gap, and husband's education. Overall, 47.8% of currently married women aged 15-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. About one third of women aged 15-24 years in Pakistan reported experiencing CB (31.8%) and spousal violence (31.1%) by their husbands. Compared with adult marriage, child marriage was significantly associated with CB (AOR = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.042-2.157), any form of spousal violence (physical or emotional) (AOR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.392-2.969), emotional violence (AOR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.254-2.767), and physical violence (AOR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.582-3.760), including severe physical violence (AOR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.122-5.872). Effective interventions are needed to prevent child marriages and raise awareness about their negative consequences, with special reference to spousal violence. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is Spousal Violence Being "Vertically Transmitted" through Victims? Findings from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13.

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    Syeda Kanwal Aslam

    Full Text Available Violence against women is regarded as a major violation of human rights, and several socio-behavioral aspects among victims have been identified as important determinants of spousal violence experience. Pakistani nationally representative contextual evidence is scarce in this regard. We aimed to estimate prevalence of spousal violence, and explore its association with intergenerational transfer, and attitudinal acceptance of violence, among Pakistani ever-married women.Data of 3,687 ever-married women from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13 was used to perform secondary analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Association between the different forms of spousal violence and the independent variables: intergenerational transfer of spousal violence (mother also beaten up by father; and attitudinal acceptance of spousal violence (beating is justifies if wife argues with husband were reported as Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Overall, more than a third (n=1344, 37.9%of ever-married women reported that they experienced spousal violence. Almost 68% (n=539 of the women who reported that their mothers were also beaten up by their fathers, were victims of spousal violence; and almost 47% (n=603 of the women who agreed that beating was justified if the wife argues with her husband, also suffered spousal violence. Intergenerational transfer (OR =5.71, 95%CI 4.40-7.41, p-value <0.01, and attitudinal acceptance (OR =1.66, 95%CI 1.27-2.15, p-value <0.01 were significantly associated with experience of physical violence even after adjusting for respondents' age at marriage, education level, wealth index, parity, employment status, and empowerment status.Spousal violence continues to haunt the lives of women in Pakistan, and is being transmitted as a learned behavior from mothers to daughters who tend to accept such violation of human rights. Girl children from such unfortunate homes may continue to transmit such

  15. Alcohol Involvement and Family Violence in a High Risk Sample: I. Spousal Violence.

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    Reider, Eve E.; And Others

    This report presents cross-sectional data on the relationships of alcohol difficulties, antisocial behavior, family conflict, family violence, and, particularly, spousal violence. The data were derived from a large-scale, longitudinal study of causes of alcohol abuse and the development of patterns of family violence. Subjects in the part of the…

  16. Exposure to Spousal Violence in the Family, Attitudes and Dating Violence Perpetration Among High School Students in Port-au-Prince.

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    Gage, Anastasia J

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the associations of exposure to spousal violence in the family and personal and peer attitudes with dating violence (DV) perpetration among high school students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were 342 high school students in Grades 10 to 12 who stated that they had ever been on a date. Multiple linear regression methods were used to examine correlates of the scale of DV perpetration. Findings showed that personal acceptance of DV mediated the association between exposure to wife-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration for girls. Boys who were exposed to husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family had significantly higher levels of psychological DV perpetration than those who were not. Contrary to expectations, exposure to wife-perpetrated spousal violence in the family was negatively associated with psychological and physical/sexual DV perpetration by boys, after controlling for other factors. Overall, perceived peer tolerance of DV was more strongly associated with DV perpetration than personal tolerance of DV, and was the only significant correlate of psychological DV perpetration for girls. Perceived peer attitudes also moderated the association between boys' exposure to spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Prevalence and Attitude of Women to Spousal Physical Abuse in Pregnancy in a Niger Delta Community of Nigeria

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    Augustine Vincent Umoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Spousal physical violence in pregnancy is a major public health and human rights concern. Identifying its prevalence and understanding the women’s attitude towards this phenomenon in our environment is key to developing strategies for effective intervention. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH, Uyo in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Information was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire instrument. Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.72 ± 4.47 years with a range of 16 – 48 years. The prevalence of spousal physical violence in the current pregnancy was 10.3%. 45.2% of those who experienced violence in the current pregnancy also experienced violence in other pregnancies while 73.7% of those who reported spousal violence in previous pregnancies also experienced violence in the current pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between spousal physical violence and the woman’s number of deliveries/parity (x2 = 16.145, p=0.025, marital status (x2=11.105, p=0.025 and husband’s occupation (x2=12.786, p=0.047. About half of the respondents expressed the view that spousal violence was not excusable under any circumstance while 22.7% believed that it could be excused under certain circumstances. Also 50.0% of those who experienced physical violence in the current pregnancy expressed the view that physical violence can be excusable. Most of the women (65.8% either kept the incidence of abuse secret or just did nothing. None reported to the police. Conclusion: Spousal physical abuse is still prevalent in our society. There is need to enlighten the women on this phenomenon in order to get their cooperation towards its eradication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 731-736

  18. Spousal violence in sub-Saharan Africa: does household poverty-wealth matter?

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    Bamiwuye, Samson Olusina; Odimegwu, Clifford

    2014-06-17

    Despite the threat of violence to the health and rights of women yet, for many years, there has been a dearth of nationally comparable data on domestic violence in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines whether women from poor households are more likely to experience violence from husband/partner than other women who are from middle or rich households. Data for the study are derived from most recent DHS surveys of ever-married women age 15-49 in Cameroun(3,691), Kenya(4,336), Mozambique(5610), Nigeria (16,763), Zambia(3,010) and Zimbabwe(5,016) who participated in the questions on Domestic Violence Module. Bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression Analysis are used to explore the linkage between household poverty-wealth and spousal violence while simultaneously controlling for confounding variables. The overall prevalence of any form of violence (physical, sexual or emotional) ranges from 30.5% in Nigeria to 43.4% in Zimbabwe; 45.3% in Kenya; 45.5% in Mozambique; 53.9% in Zambia and 57.6% in Cameroun. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses show that in two of the six countries -Zambia and Mozambique, experience of violence is significantly higher among women from non-poor (rich) households than those from other households (poor and middle). For Zimbabwe and Kenya, women from poor households are more likely to have ever experienced spousal violence than those from non-poor households. In the remaining two countries- Nigeria and Cameroun, women from the middle class are more likely to have ever suffered abuse from husband/partner than those from the poor and rich households. Our results thus show that similar measurements of household poverty-wealth have produced varying relationships with respect to experience of spousal violence in six sub-Saharan African countries. In other words, experience of violence cuts across all household poverty-wealth statuses and therefore may not provide enough explanations on whether household-poverty necessarily serves to

  19. The effect of spousal violence on women′s health: Findings from the Stree Arogya Shodh in Goa, India

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    Chowdhary N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spousal violence has wide-ranging effects on the physical, reproductive, sexual and psychological health of women. There are few longitudinal studies that describe this association in developing countries. Aim: To test the hypothesis that spousal violence is an independent risk factor for a broad range of adverse health outcomes in women. Setting and Design: A population-based cohort study of women living in the catchment area of a primary health center in north Goa. Two thousand four hundred and ninety-four of 3000 randomly selected women were recruited of whom 1750 married women were included for this paper. Materials and Methods: Each participant was assessed at baseline with a structured interview for the assessment of exposure to spousal violence (verbal, physical, sexual over two time periods (lifetime; recent in the past three months. The interview collected data on gynecological complaints and the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule was used for the diagnosis of depressive disorder. Laboratory tests for anemia and sexually transmitted infections (STI were carried out. Longitudinal data was collected after six and 12 months on these outcomes. In addition, baseline measures for nutritional status and menstrual health were also obtained. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analyses were carried out on the cross-sectional and longitudinal data to assess the association between each type of spousal violence and each health outcome. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, literacy, household per capita income. Logistic regression was used for all analyses in Stata (Version 10. Results: Lifetime spousal violence was reported by 290 (16.6%, 95%CI=14.9-18.4 women; recent violence was reported by 230 (13.0%, 95%CI=11.6-14.8. The cross-sectional data showed an association between violence and a range of self-reported gynecological complaints, low Body Mass Index, depressive disorder and attempted suicide. The longitudinal analyses

  20. Prevalence and predictors of help-seeking for women exposed to spousal violence in India - a cross-sectional study.

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    Leonardsson, Malin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2017-11-03

    Spousal violence against women is prevalent in India (29%). Studies from various countries have shown that few women exposed to intimate partner violence or spousal violence seek help, especially in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of help-seeking among women in India who have experienced various types of spousal violence. Cross-sectional data on 19,125 married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of their husbands were obtained from the India National Family Health Survey III 2005-2006. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Less than one fourth (23.7%) of married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced some form of physical or sexual spousal violence had sought help, but only 1% had sought help from formal institutions. Help-seeking was most prevalent in women who had been exposed to a combination of physical, sexual and emotional abuse (48.8%) and the least prevalent in women who had experienced sexual violence only (1.5%). Experience of severe violence and violence resulting in injury were the strongest predictors of help-seeking. Having education, being Christian or an acknowledged adherent of another minority religion - mainly Buddhism and Sikhism (Islam not included), getting married after the age of 21 and living in the South region were also associated with seeking help. Women in the North and Northeast regions were less likely to seek help, as were women with children and women who thought that a husband could be justified in hitting his wife. Very few Indian women who experience spousal violence seek help. The characteristics of the violence are the strongest predictors of help-seeking, but sociodemographic factors are also influential. We recommend efforts to ensure educational attainment for girls, prevention of child marriages, and that police officers and

  1. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

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    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  2. The Relationship between Spousal Age Difference and Violence against Wife in Nigeria: A Generalized Linear Modelling Approach

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    Anthony C. Akpanta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The act of violence against wife is condemnable and attracts various legal penalties, globally. This article attempts to find a link between spousal age difference and violence (Emotional, Physical and Sexual against wives in Nigeria. The result show that wives who are older than their partners are more likely to experience sexual and emotional violence; also, wives who are same age as their husbands are more likely to experience sexual violence; whereas wives who are 1-4 years younger than their husbands are more likely to experience physical violence; while wives 5 years or more younger than their husbands are generally less likely to experience any form of violence.

  3. Voices of Strength and Struggle: Women's Coping Strategies against Spousal Violence in Pakistan

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    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kramer, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and…

  4. “Correcting an Erring Wife Is Normal”: Moral Discourses of Spousal Violence in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    and other infractions against male authority in marriage. Both perpetrators and victims build their talk around familiar normative discourses and practices that provide tacit support for spousal violence in Ghana. While perpetrators mobilize culturally resonant and normative repertoires to justify abuse......This study draws insights from discursive psychology to explore moral discourses of spousal violence in Ghana. In particular, it investigates how sociocultural norms and practices are invoked in talk of perpetrators and victims as moral warrants for husband-to-wife abuse in Ghana. Semi......, blame their victims, and manage their moral accountability; victims position husband-to-wife abuse as normal, legitimate, disciplinary, and corrective. These moral discourses of spousal violence apparently serve to relieve perpetrators of moral agency; prime battered women to accept abuse; and devastate...

  5. "Correcting an Erring Wife Is Normal": Moral Discourses of Spousal Violence in Ghana.

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    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-12-16

    This study draws insights from discursive psychology to explore moral discourses of spousal violence in Ghana. In particular, it investigates how sociocultural norms and practices are invoked in talk of perpetrators and victims as moral warrants for husband-to-wife abuse in Ghana. Semi-structured focus group and personal interviews were conducted with a total of 40 participants: 16 victims, 16 perpetrators, and eight key informants from rural and urban Ghana. Participants' discursive accounts suggest that husbands have implicit moral right and obligation to punish their wives for disobedience and other infractions against male authority in marriage. Both perpetrators and victims build their talk around familiar normative discourses and practices that provide tacit support for spousal violence in Ghana. While perpetrators mobilize culturally resonant and normative repertoires to justify abuse, blame their victims, and manage their moral accountability; victims position husband-to-wife abuse as normal, legitimate, disciplinary, and corrective. These moral discourses of spousal violence apparently serve to relieve perpetrators of moral agency; prime battered women to accept abuse; and devastate their agency to leave abusive marital relationships. The findings contribute to our understanding of how cultural and social norms of spousal violence are morally constituted, reproduced, and sustained in talk of perpetrators, victims, and other key members of society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Spousal violence and receipt of skilled maternity care during and after pregnancy in Nepal.

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    Furuta, Marie; Bick, Debra; Matsufuji, Hiromi; Coxon, Kirstie

    2016-12-01

    a substantial number of Nepali women experience spousal violence, which affects their health in many ways, including during and after pregnancy. This study aimed to examine associations between women's experiences of spousal violence and their receipt of skilled maternity care, using two indicators: (1) receiving skilled maternity care across a continuum from pregnancy to the early postnatal period and (2) receiving any skilled maternity care in pregnancy, childbirth, or postpartum. data were analysed for married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Data were included on women who completed an interview on spousal violence as part of the survey and had given birth within the five years preceding the survey (weighted n=1375). Logistic regression models were developed for analyses. the proportion of women who received skilled maternity care across the pregnancy continuum and those who received any skilled maternity care was 24.1% and 53.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that spousal violence was statistically significantly associated with receiving low levels of skilled maternity care, after adjusting for accessibility of health care. However, after controlling for women's sociodemographic backgrounds (age, number of children born, educational level, husband's education level, husband's occupation, region of residence, urban/rural residence, wealth index), these significant associations disappeared. Better-educated women, women whose husbands were professionals or skilled workers and women from well-off households were more likely to receive skilled maternity care either across the pregnancy continuum or at recommended points during or after pregnancy. spousal violence and low uptake of skilled maternity care are deeply embedded in a society in which gender inequality prevails. Factors affecting the receipt of skilled maternity care are multidimensional; simply expanding geographical access to maternity services may

  7. Spousal Violence in 5 Transitional Countries: A Population-Based Multilevel Analysis of Individual and Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla

    2015-11-01

    I examined the individual- and community-level factors associated with spousal violence in post-Soviet countries. I used population-based data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2005 and 2012. My sample included currently married women of reproductive age (n = 3932 in Azerbaijan, n = 4053 in Moldova, n = 1932 in Ukraine, n = 4361 in Kyrgyzstan, and n = 4093 in Tajikistan). I selected respondents using stratified multistage cluster sampling. Because of the nested structure of the data, multilevel logistic regressions for survey data were fitted to examine factors associated with spousal violence in the last 12 months. Partner's problem drinking was the strongest risk factor associated with spousal violence in all 5 countries. In Moldova, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan, women with greater financial power than their spouses were more likely to experience violence. Effects of community economic deprivation and of empowerment status of women in the community on spousal violence differed across countries. Women living in communities with a high tolerance of violence faced a higher risk of spousal violence in Moldova and Ukraine. In more traditional countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan), spousal violence was lower in conservative communities with patriarchal gender beliefs or higher financial dependency on husbands. My findings underscore the importance of examining individual risk factors in the context of community-level factors and developing individual- and community-level interventions.

  8. Is Women's Empowerment Associated With Help-Seeking for Spousal Violence in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Kathleen; Mumford, Elizabeth; Clark, Cari Jo

    2018-05-01

    Violence against women by their husbands is a problem for women worldwide. However, the majority of women do not seek help. This article presents findings from a national survey in India on empowerment-related correlates of help-seeking behaviors for currently married women who experienced spousal violence. We examined individual-, relationship-, and state-level measures of empowerment on help-seeking from informal and formal sources. Findings indicate that help-seeking is largely not associated with typical measures of empowerment or socio-economic development, whereas state-level indicators of empowerment may influence help-seeking. Although not a target of this study, we also note that injury from violence and the severity of the violence were among the strongest factors related to seeking help. Taken together, the low prevalence of help-seeking and lack of strong individual-level correlates, apart from severe harm, suggests widespread barriers to seeking help. Interventions that affect social norms and reach women and men across social classes in society are needed in addition to any individual-level efforts to promote seeking help for spousal violence.

  9. Association Between Spousal Suicide and Mental, Physical, and Social Health Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Runeson, Bo; Bolton, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. Objective: To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health...... outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6.7 million individuals aged 18 years and older from 1980 to 2014 covered more than 136 million person......-years and compared people bereaved by spousal suicide with the general population and people bereaved by other manners of death. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regressions while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of mental and physical disorders. Main Outcomes...

  10. Association between spousal emotional abuse and reproductive outcomes of women in India: findings from cross-sectional analysis of the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sucheta; Gray, Ron; Jenkinson, Crispin; Carson, Claire

    2018-03-09

    Spousal violence against women is a global public health problem. In India, approximately 40% of women report spousal violence. Like physical and sexual violence, emotional violence may be a determinant of women's health. This study explores the association between exposure to spousal emotional abuse and poor reproductive outcomes in Indian women. Data on 60,350 women, collected in the Third Indian National Family Health Survey were analysed to assess the impact of spousal emotional abuse on seven reproductive outcomes: age at first birth, number of children, terminated pregnancies, unwanted pregnancies, access to prenatal and skilled delivery care, and breastfeeding. Spousal emotional abuse was assessed using two overlapping constructs: emotional violence and controlling behaviour. Multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. Spousal emotional violence and controlling behaviour was reported by 16 and 38% of the women, respectively. In unadjusted analyses, spousal emotional violence was associated with all adverse reproductive outcomes, except breastfeeding. Controlling for socio-demographic risk factors attenuated the association, and further adjustment for other forms of violence removed all significant associations. Spousal controlling behaviour was significantly associated with all outcomes, except breastfeeding. The effects remained statistically significant in multivariable regression. Women's experience of violence may be under-reported. When other forms of violence were adjusted for, emotional violence was not associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, whereas controlling behaviour remained associated with all but one adverse reproductive outcome. Therefore, spousal controlling behaviour requires further investigation as a determinant of reproductive health.

  11. Area-Level Normative Social Context and Intimate Partner Physical Violence in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Boaventura M

    2017-04-01

    Violence against women is considered a serious public health problem. It is estimated that about 30% of women who have been in a relationship in the world have experienced some form of physical or sexual violence from their intimate partners. In sub-Saharan Africa, one of the regions in the world with the highest prevalence of intimate partner violence, there have been studies of factors associated with intimate partner violence. However, few studies have explicitly examined the influence of the normative social context on women's accepting attitudes toward spousal abuse and their risk of experiencing intimate partner violence in the region. Using data from the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey in Mozambique, we employ multilevel logistic regression to examine the influence of area-level normative social context factors on 4,864 women's accepting attitudes toward spousal abuse and their likelihood of experiencing intimate partner physical violence in Mozambique. Our findings revealed the importance of religious norms in geographic areas as key predictors of women's acceptance of intimate partner violence. Specifically, area-level normative religious predictors were negatively associated with women's acceptance of spousal abuse. The prevalence of early marriages in a given geographic area was positively associated with both acceptance of spousal abuse and experiencing intimate partner physical violence. The level of female education in a geographic area was negatively associated with accepting spousal abuse and having experienced intimate partner physical violence. As intimate partner physical violence in sub-Saharan Africa continues unabated, programs and interventions to address the problem will need to consider the normative context of geographic areas.

  12. Association between gap in spousal education and domestic violence in India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence (DV against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Methods Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15–49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women. In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Results Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77–0.89 and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72–0.87 DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group. Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39–0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55–0.63. The model’s goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.152. Conclusions Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be

  13. Association between gap in spousal education and domestic violence in India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Daniel; Zoch, Beate; Khan, M Mobarak H; Pollmann, Thorsten; Krämer, Alexander

    2012-06-21

    Domestic violence (DV) against women is a serious human rights abuse and well recognised global public health concern. The occurrence of DV is negatively associated with the educational level of spouses but studies dealing with educational discrepancies of spouses show contradicting results: Wives with higher education than their husbands were more likely to ever experience DV as compared to equally educated couples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spousal education gap (SEG) and the prevalence and severity of DV in India and Bangladesh. Nationally representative data collected through the 2005/2006 Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) and 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) were used. In total, we analysed data of 69,805 women aged 15-49 years (Bangladesh: 4,195 women, India: 65,610 women). In addition to univariate and bivariable analyses, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between education gap and less severe as well as severe domestic violence. Adjustment was made for age, religion, and family structure. Wives with higher education than their husbands were less likely to experience less severe (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77-0.89) and severe (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.87) DV as compared to equally low-educated spouses (reference group). Equally high-educated couples revealed the lowest likelihood of experiencing DV (severe violence: OR 0.43, CI 0.39-0.48; less severe violence: OR 0.59, CI 0.55-0.63). The model's goodness of fit was low (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.152). Our analysis revealed no increased DV among wives with a higher educational level than their husbands. Moreover, the results point towards a decrease of severe violence with an increase in education levels among spouses. However, the model did not explain a satisfying amount of DV. Therefore, further research should be done to reveal unknown determinants so that suitable interventions to reduce DV can be

  14. Marital satisfaction of advanced prostate cancer survivors and their spousal caregivers: the dyadic effects of physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Kim, Youngmee; Rasheed, Mikal; Benedict, Catherine; Bustillo, Natalie E; Soloway, Mark; Kava, Bruce R; Penedo, Frank J

    2011-12-01

    Coping with the physical and mental side effects of diagnosis and treatment for advanced prostate cancer (APC) is a challenge for both survivors and their spousal caregivers. There is a gap in our current understanding of the dyadic adjustment process on marital satisfaction in this population. The current study sought to: (1) document levels of physical and mental health, and marital satisfaction, and (2) evaluate the relationship between physical and mental health with marital satisfaction in this understudied population. APC survivors who had undergone androgen deprivation therapy within the past year and their spousal caregiver participated in the study (N = 29 dyads). Physical and mental health was assessed using the MOS SF-36 Health Survey and marital satisfaction was evaluated using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model revealed strong relations between physical and mental health with marital satisfaction for both survivor and caregiver (actor effects). Furthermore, caregiver physical and mental health was related with the survivor's marital satisfaction (partner effect). Levels of mental health and marital satisfaction were comparable to community-based and prostate cancer samples, while physical health was higher. Marital satisfaction between APC survivors and their spousal caregivers may be influenced by both physical and mental health functioning. In particular, APC survivor functioning may affect his marital satisfaction as well as his spousal caregiver's. This has implications for psychosocial interventions for APC dyads. Further evaluation of the complex nature of survivor/caregiver dyadic adjustment in dealing with APC is necessary. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Some Social Structure Determinants of Inconsistency between Attitudes and Behavior: The Case of Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Ursula; Straus, Marray A.

    1980-01-01

    Data on couples show that rates of domestic violence are related to attitudes about violence and to social structural variables. With respect to physical punishment of one's children and to spousal violence, findings show a spouse's violence has greater impact on the respondent's violence than the respondent's own attitudes about violence.…

  16. 'Killing the beloved': psychosocial factors precipitating spousal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of spousal homicide in Nigeria appears to have been on the increase in recent years, sparking criminological and public health concerns. Meanwhile, research on family violence has vigorously focused on spousal abuse, trends and prevalence of domestic violence, and risk factors, while the most severe of ...

  17. The Nexus between Child Marriage and Women Empowerment with Physical Violence in Two Culturally Distinct States of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakant Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. We investigated the relationship between child marriage among young women and their level of empowerment with spousal physical violence in two culturally distinct states of India (Bihar and Tamil Nadu using nationally representative survey data. Empowerment index was calculated taking into account parameters such as mobility, economic independence, and decision-making power of a woman using Principal Component Analysis method. Lower level of women empowerment was significantly associated with physical violence in Tamil Nadu (OR = 2.38, p<0.01 whereas marriage before the age of 15 was associated with physical violence in Bihar (OR = 3.27, p<0.001. The mean age at marriage was low among women who reported physical violence as compared to those who did not report physical violence across Bihar and Tamil Nadu and at all India level. Although the majority of the women in Tamil Nadu justified wife beating and witnessed father beating mother as compared to the women from Bihar, however, they were less likely to report physical violence than women from Bihar. Factors contributing to physical violence are distinct in Bihar and Tamil Nadu. Culture specific intervention may be considered while planning intervention strategies to curb spousal violence against women.

  18. Masculinity and spousal violence: Discursive accounts of husbands who abuse their wives in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2016-01-01

    and urban Ghana. Participants’ discursive accounts revealed that social anxieties of husbands, their fear of being perceived by others as weak or emasculated, and their disappointment with unfulfilled notions of masculine sovereignty influence conjugal violence. Perpetrators constructed a wife’s expression...... of dissent to her husband’s wishes and commands as an encroachment on masculine spaces, a gender-norm violation, or as providing a public challenge to male identity and thus violence could be used as an obligatory passage to manhood. Perpetrators also mobilized shifting and ambivalent discourses that draw...

  19. The Effects of Change in Spousal Power on Intimate Partner Violence among Chinese Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaochun; Keat, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how changes in power relations within couples after immigrating from more patriarchal societies contribute to intimate partner violence (IPV). Both subjective decision-making power and objective power bases were examined in Chinese immigrant couples. Batterers and nonviolent men both experienced loss of decision-making power in…

  20. Social Isolation and Spousal Violence: Comparing Female Marriage Migrants with Local Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Susanne Y. P.; Cheung, Y. W.; Cheung, Adam K. L.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the impact of network participation, social support, and social control on the violence victimization of female marriage migrants by a spouse. Data were from a household survey of 492 cross-border and 379 local married couples in Hong Kong in 2007. The findings indicated that female marriage migrants were more vulnerable to…

  1. Association Between Spousal Suicide and Mental, Physical, and Social Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal and Nationwide Register-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Runeson, Bo; Bolton, James M; Wilcox, Holly C; Forman, Julie L; Krogh, Jesper; Shear, M Katherine; Nordentoft, Merete; Conwell, Yeates

    2017-05-01

    Bereavement after spousal suicide has been linked to mental disorders; however, a comprehensive assessment of the effect of spousal suicide is needed. To determine whether bereavement after spousal suicide was linked to an excessive risk of mental, physical, and social health outcomes when compared with the general population and spouses bereaved by other manners. This nationwide, register-based cohort study conducted in Denmark of 6.7 million individuals aged 18 years and older from 1980 to 2014 covered more than 136 million person-years and compared people bereaved by spousal suicide with the general population and people bereaved by other manners of death. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regressions while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of mental and physical disorders. Mental disorders (any disorder, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, and self-harm); physical disorders (cancers, diabetes, sleep disorder, cardiovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, liver cirrhosis, and spinal disc herniation); causes of mortality (all-cause, natural, unintentional, suicide, and homicide); social health outcomes; and health care use. The total study population included 3 491 939 men, 4814 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide, and 3 514 959 women, 10 793 of whom were bereaved by spousal suicide. Spouses bereaved by a partner's suicide had higher risks of developing mental disorders within 5 years of the loss (men: incidence rate ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.0; women: incidence rate ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.8) than the general population. Elevated risks for developing physical disorders, such as cirrhosis and sleep disorders, were also noted as well as the use of more municipal support, sick leave benefits, and disability pension funds than the general population. Compared with spouses bereaved by other manners of death, those bereaved by

  2. Does Spousal Support Can Increase the Women’s Physical Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Rezaee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous benefits of physical activity are well-known for the prevention and treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancers. However, the status of physical activities among women remains noticeably less than the recommended level. Considering the importance of the spouses’ participation in the promotion of women’s health, this study examined the impact of spousal support on women’s physical activity. Methods: This semi--experimental study was done in February 2015 on 100 couples in reproductive age referred to health centers of Falavarjan city. The participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The information related to women’s physical activity in both groups was collected by aquestionnaire in two steps, before and three months after the intervention. The spouses of women in the intervention group were trained in the field of the importance of physical activity in women’s health in two sessions. The data were analyzed by the software SPSS21 and suitable statistical tests (Independent t, paired t, and Chi-square. Results: The mean and standard deviation of women’s age in the both groups were 28.76±5.51 and 30.38±5.31, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the women under the study was generally estimated 44%. Physical activities of women in the intervention group were significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.0001. Also, the Body Mass Index in the intervention group was significantly decreased compared to before the intervention and control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Spouses could encourage women to perform physical activities. It is recommended that the health care system should implement educational sessions for men to encourage women to exercise.

  3. Perceptions of Purpose in Life Within Spousal Care Dyads: Associations With Emotional and Physical Caregiving Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Kales, Helen C; Birditt, Kira S

    2018-01-05

    Greater feelings of purpose in life are associated with better health and may reduce the negative impact of chronic stress. Yet little is known about how purpose in life may buffer the negative effects of caregiving, a common chronic stressor in middle and later life. This cross-sectional study utilized a U.S. sample of 315 spousal caregivers and their partners with functional disability drawn from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving to examine how both parties' perceptions of purpose in life are associated with caregivers' emotional and physical caregiving difficulties. We also evaluated whether care recipients' purpose in life moderates the association between caregivers' purpose in life and care-related difficulties. Finally, we considered whether these links differed by caregiver gender. Models controlled for caregivers' sociodemographics, care tasks, support resources, valued activity participation, and each care partner's health conditions. Caregivers' greater purpose in life was significantly linked to fewer physical caregiving difficulties. Caregivers' greater purpose in life was significantly associated with fewer emotional care-related difficulties among caregiving wives and when care recipients' purpose in life was low. Although the associations between purpose in life and care-related difficulties are likely bidirectional, purpose in life may represent an important resource for combating the adverse consequences of caregiving. This study highlights the value of considering personal resources and their implications for caregivers' well-being within a dyadic context.

  4. Domestic violence and its mental health correlates in Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shuba; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Suresh, Saradha; Ahuja, Ramesh Chandra

    2005-07-01

    Domestic spousal violence against women has far-reaching mental health implications. To determine the association of domestic spousal violence with poor mental health. In a household survey of rural, urban non-slum and urban slum areas from seven sites in India, the population of women aged 15-49 years was sampled using probability proportionate to size. The Self Report Questionnaire was used to assess mental health status and a structured questionnaire elicited spousal experiences of violence. Of 9938 women surveyed, 40% reported poor mental health. Logistic regression showed that women reporting 'any violence' -- 'slap', 'hit', 'kick' or 'beat' (OR 2.2, 95% CI 2.0-2.5) -- or 'all violence' -- all of the four types of physically violent behaviour (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.94-3.51) -- were at increased risk of poor mental health. Findings indicate a strong association between domestic spousal violence and poor mental health, and underscore the need for appropriate interventions.

  5. The Nexus between Child Marriage and Women Empowerment with Physical Violence in Two Culturally Distinct States of India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jayakant; Anand, Enu

    2015-01-01

    Summary. We investigated the relationship between child marriage among young women and their level of empowerment with spousal physical violence in two culturally distinct states of India (Bihar and Tamil Nadu) using nationally representative survey data. Empowerment index was calculated taking into account parameters such as mobility, economic independence, and decision-making power of a woman using Principal Component Analysis method. Lower level of women empowerment was significantly assoc...

  6. Domestic violence in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, J

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, domestic violence in Japan referred to children's physical and emotional violence against their parents. However, in recent years, the general public's awareness of and actions toward other types of domestic violence, especially violence against women and children, has increased. Following a brief description of filial violence and elderly abuse, both spousal abuse and child abuse are discussed in terms of their prevalence and cultural and historical backgrounds. The article concludes with current and future challenges in the intervention of violence, particularly against women and children, in the Japanese family.

  7. Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives.

  8. Substance Use and Physical Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Tharp, Andra T.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Theoretic models suggest that associations between substance use and dating violence perpetration may vary in different social contexts, but few studies have examined this proposition. The current study examined whether social control and violence in the neighborhood, peer, and family contexts moderate the associations between substance use (heavy alcohol use, marijuana, and hard drug use) and adolescent physical dating violence perpetration. Methods Adolescents in the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades completed questionnaires in 2004 and again four more times until 2007 when they were in the tenth, 11th and 12th grades. Multilevel analysis was used to examine interactions between each substance and measures of neighborhood, peer, and family social control and violence as within-person (time-varying) predictors of physical dating violence perpetration across eighth through 12th grade (N=2,455). Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results Physical dating violence perpetration increased at time points when heavy alcohol and hard drug use were elevated; these associations were weaker when neighborhood social control was higher and stronger when family violence was higher. Also, the association between heavy alcohol use and physical dating violence perpetration was weaker when teens had more-prosocial peer networks and stronger when teens’ peers reported more physical dating violence. Conclusions Linkages between substance use and physical dating violence perpetration depend on substance use type and levels of contextual violence and social control. Prevention programs that address substance use–related dating violence should consider the role of social contextual variables that may condition risk by influencing adolescents’ aggression propensity. PMID:26296445

  9. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  10. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with a weapon. Sexual abuse, forcing someone to have any type of sexual ...

  11. Trauma in children injured by physical violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina S Solovyova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In recent years, legislation has changed to include the rights of children injured because of physical violence. Trauma departments of St. Petersburg outpatient clinics admit children with injuries of varying severity after physical violence. The actions of medical institutions are always aimed at protecting the child. Aims. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cases of children in connection with injuries sustained as a result of physical violence in 2014–2015, and to compare the results with those of previous studies (2007–2008. Material and methods. In 2014–2015, the trauma department of City Children's Outpatient clinic No 62 treated 268 children, who had suffered from physical violence at home, on the street, or in educational institutions, which accounted for 1.6 per 1000 children living in the district, and 1.2% of all children admitted during 2 years. Results. Compared to 2007–2008, the number of children who suffered from physical violence decreased by almost two times in 2014–2015; in addition, the severity of injuries slightly decreased but the frequency of hospital admission of victims remained high (38% in 2007–2008. With regard to the circumstances in which the injury occurred, violence from strangers was lower, but violence among peers was higher. Conclusions. Positive results have been achieved by a complex of measures, including the implementation of the Federal Law “On Basic Guarantees of the Rights of the Child” to improve the care and safety of children, and an investigation of each case of violence is conducted by local authorities for internal affairs.

  12. Admissions for physical violence in Chingola –Zambia. | Mugala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Violence is a social disease that plagues all societies. Each society has its own form of violence. No doubt Chingola which is a growing mining town of over 200,000 people has its own pattern of violence and here is presented the pattern of physical violence in our town. This was a prospective study aimed at ...

  13. Dyadic analysis of self-efficacy and perceived support: the relationship of individual and spousal characteristics with physical activity among middle-aged and young-older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian J; Margrett, Jennifer A; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among self-efficacy, perceived support, and physical activity in middle-aged and older married couples. A total of 116 middle-aged and older couples (M = 58.86 years, SD = 7.16, range 50-74) participated in the study. A dyadic approach to path modeling was taken. The final model indicated that for both husbands and wives, one's own self-efficacy was directly related to physical activity. In addition, husband self-efficacy was positively related to wive physical activity and indirectly related to wife physical activity through wife self-efficacy. Wife self-efficacy was indirectly related to husband physical activity via the level of husband perceived support. These results provide evidence for the importance of incorporating spousal characteristics in addition to individual characteristics when investigating physical activity during middle and later married life. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Maternal violence, victimization, and child physical punishment in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J; Silvestre, Eva A

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were responsible for disciplining the children. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the probabilities of using no physical punishment, slapping/spanking only, beating only, and both slapping/spanking and beating to discipline children. The study found that childhood history of physical punishment, a greater variety of intimate partner emotional violence and experience of intimate partner physical violence increased significantly a mother's probability of using physical punishment with her children, even after controlling for confounding factors. A mother's history of physical violence victimization by someone other than the current partner was also a significant factor for beating children as opposed to using non-physical forms of punishment. Mothers were at substantially increased risk of using physical punishment if they were victims of parental physical violence in childhood, intimate partner violence in the current union, and physical violence by someone other than the current partner. Increased public education is needed of the negative consequences of intimate partner emotional and physical violence victimization for mothers' childrearing strategies. There is a need to integrate intimate partner violence into child welfare programs and develop effective screening mechanisms for maternal violence victimization and child maltreatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence in the Canadian Armed Forces: Psychological Distress and the Role of Individual Factors Among Military Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomorovsky, Alla; LeBlanc, Manon Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Unique military demands can have a significant impact upon family life. Although most Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) families are able to cope effectively with the stressors of military life, some may experience marital conflicts, contributing to spousal violence. Moreover, there is evidence that certain personal resources can buffer the impact of spousal violence on psychological distress. The present study examined the roles of spousal violence and personal resources, including coping, mastery, and social support, in the psychological distress of CAF members' spouses (N = 1,892). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that violence significantly predicted psychological distress among spouses of CAF members; although physical violence was no longer significant, emotional violence remained a unique predictor. Coping, mastery, and perceived social support, entered together, significantly predicted psychological distress among spouses, over and above the role of violence. Specifically, emotion-focused coping, mastery, and social support remained unique predictors of distress. Furthermore, perceived social support buffered the negative impact of emotional violence on psychological distress. The study has important organizational implications, illuminating the risks related to the spousal violence in the military and the psychological consequences of such violence. These results can be used to improve treatment and prevention programs, enhancing the well-being of military families. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Non-Traditional Wives With Traditional Husbands: Gender Ideology and Husband-to-Wife Physical Violence in Chinese Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Adam Ka-Lok; Choi, Susanne Yuk-Ping

    2016-03-03

    Feminist scholars have argued that husband gender traditionalism is one of the root causes of spousal violence against women. Using couple-level data from Hong Kong (N = 871 couples), this article argues that a second mechanism-couple gender value mismatch-also explains husband-to-wife physical assault. Our findings show that a husband's gender traditionalism is positively associated with husband-to-wife physical assault only when the husband is coupled with a wife who has non-traditional gender attitudes. Similarly, egalitarian gender attitudes in wives are positively associated with husband-to-wife physical assault only when a non-traditional wife is coupled with a traditional husband. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Violence among Heterosexual Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Angulo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are few studies at the population level on the prevalence of violence in heterosexual relationships. This study demonstrated the reality of this phenomenon in our context. Objective: to determine the prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the city of Cienfuegos in 2010. Methods: a cross-sectional study of adults aged 15 to 74 years was conducted in six health areas. An equal probability sample of 1873 subjects was selected. The variables included psychological and physical violence, sex, age, skin color, marital status, educational level and history of living in troubled homes. The results were processed using SPSS 15.0. Results: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among couples was approximately six out of ten with different frequency levels. Psychological violence rose to 82.3 % and physical violence to 96.3 % when the couple lived together. Women reported being victims of violence from age 35 to 44 and men from age 25 to 34. Seventy point eight percent of couples who had middle school education reported suffering physical violence while 63 % of those with university education reported psychological violence. Fifty-one point eight percent of the study population was victim of physical violence during childhood. Conclusions: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the sample studied in Cienfuegos is higher than the mean in the general population.

  18. Status Compatibility, Physical Violence, and Emotional Abuse in Intimate Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…

  19. Influence of Gender and Psychological Violence on Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, gender and psychological violence did not exert a significant joint effect on victims' tendency to engage in physical violence. Research and practical implications of the findings were discussed. Keywords: Workplace violence, workplace reactivity, gender, southwestern Nigeria Gender & Behaviour, 10(2), December ...

  20. Assessing the link between witnessing inter-parental violence and the perpetration of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahirul Islam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine the influence of witnessing father-to-mother violence on: 1 perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV; and 2 endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating in Bangladesh. Methods This paper used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 3374 ever-married men. Exposure to IPV was determined by men’s self-reports of witnessing inter-parental violence in childhood. We used adjusted binary logistic regression models to assess the influence of exposure on husbands’ perpetration of IPV and their endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating. Results Nearly 60% of men reported violent behaviour towards an intimate partner and 35.7% endorsed attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Men who witnessed father-to-mother violence had higher odds of reporting any physical or sexual IPV (adjusted OR [AOR] = 3.26; 95% CI = 2.61, 4.06. Men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were also 1.34 times (95% CI = 1.08, 1.65 more likely endorse attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Conclusions Committing violence against an intimate partner is an all too frequent practice among men in Bangladesh. The study indicated that men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were more likley to perpetrate IPV, suggesting an intergenerational transmission of violence. This transmission of violence may operate through the learning and modelling of attitudes favourable to spousal abuse. In support of this, witnnessing inter-parental violence was also associated with the endorsement of attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Our findings indicate the continued importance of efforts to identify and assist boys who have witnessed domestic violence and suggest such efforts should aim to change not just behaviours but also attitudes that facilitate such violence.

  1. Assessing the link between witnessing inter-parental violence and the perpetration of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Jahirul; Rahman, Mosiur; Broidy, Lisa; Haque, Syed Emdadul; Saw, Yu Mon; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Haque, Md Nurruzzaman; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Mostofa, Md Golam

    2017-02-10

    We aimed to examine the influence of witnessing father-to-mother violence on: 1) perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV); and 2) endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating in Bangladesh. This paper used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 3374 ever-married men. Exposure to IPV was determined by men's self-reports of witnessing inter-parental violence in childhood. We used adjusted binary logistic regression models to assess the influence of exposure on husbands' perpetration of IPV and their endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating. Nearly 60% of men reported violent behaviour towards an intimate partner and 35.7% endorsed attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Men who witnessed father-to-mother violence had higher odds of reporting any physical or sexual IPV (adjusted OR [AOR] = 3.26; 95% CI = 2.61, 4.06). Men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were also 1.34 times (95% CI = 1.08, 1.65) more likely endorse attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Committing violence against an intimate partner is an all too frequent practice among men in Bangladesh. The study indicated that men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were more likley to perpetrate IPV, suggesting an intergenerational transmission of violence. This transmission of violence may operate through the learning and modelling of attitudes favourable to spousal abuse. In support of this, witnnessing inter-parental violence was also associated with the endorsement of attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Our findings indicate the continued importance of efforts to identify and assist boys who have witnessed domestic violence and suggest such efforts should aim to change not just behaviours but also attitudes that facilitate such violence.

  2. Workplace physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing experienced by nurses at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Fatma Nur Baran; Karaşahin, Emine Füsun; Dikmen, Asiye Uğraş; Avci, Emine; Ozkan, Seçil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of and risk factors for physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing experienced by nurses in a university hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Gazi University Medical Faculty Hospital. A questionnaire form recommended by the WHO and the International Labor Organization was administered through face-to-face interviews to determine the violence experienced in the past 12 months by nurses. The prevalence of physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing was 13.9%, 41.8%, and 17.1%, respectively. Working more than 40 h per week increased the risk of physical violence by 1.86 times. The majority of nurses who experienced verbal violence and mobbing were significantly more willing to change their work, their institution, and their profession if given the opportunity. Fewer than one-fourth of the victims indicated they reported any incident. We knew that the prevalence of physical violence, verbal violence, and mobbing were high among nurses and that incidents were underreported, and the study corroborated this information. What this study adds to the topic is that long working hours increased the prevalence of physical violence and was defined as an important contributory factor.

  3. Sexual Scripts and Criminal Statutes: Gender Restrictions, Spousal Allowances, and Victim Accountability After Rape Law Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ethan Czuy

    2018-03-01

    The author provides a mixed-methods assessment of U.S. rape statutes to assess progress in reform. Contemporary statutes offer restrictive frameworks for distinguishing criminal from noncriminal sexual violence, many of which are grounded in gendered and heterosexist assumptions. Fourteen states retain gender restrictions in rape statutes. Twenty maintain marital distinctions that limit accountability for spousal rape. Furthermore, whereas explicit resistance requirements have been eliminated nationwide, implicit resistance expectations manifest through emphasis on physical force and involuntary intoxication. Analyses conclude with recommendations for further legal reform and a discussion of the potential for legislation to affect broader social perceptions of rape.

  4. [Social order, legitimacy, and physical violence as a social fact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses theoretical as well as methodological issues of a general sociology of violence which aims at focusing on the dynamic relationship between social order, legitimacy, and physical violence. The article argues in favor of a relational approach consisting of a realistic appraisal (in an epistemological sense) of the actors' place in a locally ordered setting of relationships among objectified forms of social order, collective identities, and social interaction. The author's long term research objective is to develop a general sociology of violence grounded in social action theory, to form a basis for exploring the phenomena of physical violence in the neo-Durkheimian sense as social facts.

  5. Physical dating violence victimization in college women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-05-01

    There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of

  6. Childhood Corporal Punishment and Future Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Reuter, Tyson; Wolfe, David; Taylor, Catherine A; Madigan, Sheri; Scott, Lauren E

    2018-03-01

    To test whether experiencing childhood corporal punishment is linked to later perpetration of dating violence. Young adults (n = 758; 61% female; mean age of 20 years), originally recruited for a longitudinal study as 9th- and 10th-grade Texas high school students, were asked about their childhood experiences with corporal punishment and physical abuse, as well as current experiences with dating violence. A path model was used to determine whether childhood corporal punishment was related to recent perpetration of physical dating violence, while controlling for childhood physical abuse, age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. In all, 19% of participants (n = 134) reported physical dating violence perpetration and 68% reported experiencing corporal punishment as children (n = 498). Analysis showed a significant positive association between corporal punishment and physical perpetration of dating violence (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.07-1.59). Even after controlling for sex, ethnicity, age, parental education, and child physical abuse, childhood corporal punishment was associated significantly with physical dating violence perpetration (aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.62). The finding that childhood corporal punishment was associated with perpetration of young adult physical dating violence, even after controlling for several demographic variables and childhood physical abuse, adds to the growing literature demonstrating deleterious outcomes associated with corporal punishment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intimate partner violence, health behaviours, and chronic physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence was not significantly associated with chronic physical illness, although rates of headache, heart attack and high blood pressure reached near-significance. Conclusions. Partner violence against women is a significant public health problem in South Africa, associated with healthrisk behaviours and ...

  8. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Michelle Sharon; Otupiri, Easmon; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; de Jonge, Ank; Agyemang, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and

  9. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, M.S.; Otupiri, E.; Owusu-Dabo, E.; de Jonge, J.; Agyemang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal

  10. Physical domestic violence against married women by their intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender based violence is very common in our environment supported by religious and cultural considerations and often justified by women. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the pattern of physical violence in the home among intimate partners with a view to ascertain the magnitude of the ...

  11. Women at Risk of Physical Intimate Partner Violence: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    to any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes ... alcohol to perpetrate IPV.17 Witnessing parental violence or being a victim .... physical violence if she said “yes” when asked if a current or past partner ever abused her in any of the following ways: a) Slapped you or threw something at you that could hurt you?

  12. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Physical Violence against Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULTS: The study showed that 52.6% and 30.2% of the respondents experienced intimate partner physical violence in their lifetime and in the 12 months before the survey respectively. Witnessing family violence as a girl child, education, place of residence, parity, duration of marriage, tradition of marriage arrangement ...

  13. Experiences of physical violence by women living with intimate partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Madzimbalale

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women’s experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14.

  14. Physical, emotional and sexual violence during pregnancy in Malatya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglu, Leyla; Celbis, Osman; Ercan, Cihan; Ilgar, Mehtap; Pehlivan, Erkan; Gunes, Gulsen; Genc, Metin F; Egri, Mucahit

    2006-04-01

    In Turkey, violence against women was established as a critical area of concern related to women and various prevention strategies have been developed since 1980. There are limited numbers of studies on violence during pregnancy in the country. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of physical, emotional and sexual violence during pregnancy in Malatya province and the associated factors. A cross-sectional interview survey was conducted among pregnant women living in Malatya province between October 2003 and May 2004. Stratified probability-proportional-to-size sampling methodology was used for selecting the study population. A total of 824 pregnant women from 60 clusters were studied. Association between violence prevalences and womens' sociodemographic, fertility and behavioural characteristics were evaluated. During pregnancy 31.7% of women were exposed to any form of violence. Emotional violence was the most frequently reported form (26.7%), followed by sexual (9.7%) and physical violence (8.1%). Regular smoking [odds ratio (OR) 1.6], unwanted pregnancy (OR 1.8), living in urban area (OR 1.5), low education level of husband (OR 1.7), low family income (OR 1.9) and being in second trimester (OR 1.4) were determined to be the main predictors of overall violence during pregnancy. Violence during pregnancy is a common public health problem in Malatya. Low education level in partners, low family income, husband's unemployment, urban settlement, unwanted pregnancy and smoking should alert health staff towards violence at pregnancy and training of health personnel on the subject is recommended.

  15. Spousal sexual violence and poverty are risk factors for sexually transmitted infections in women: a longitudinal study of women in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H A; Patel, V; West, B; Peeling, R W; Kirkwood, B R; Mabey, D

    2008-04-01

    To describe factors associated with incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a population-based sample of women in Goa, India. A random sample of women aged 18-45 years was enrolled in Goa from November 2001 to May 2003. All subjects who consented to participate and completed the recruitment procedure were interviewed six and 12 months after recruitment. Incident chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis from vaginal and/or urine specimens were detected using a commercial polymerase chain reaction and the InPouch TV Culture Kit. Of the 2180 women followed up, 64 had an incident STI (incidence of 1.8% in the first six months, and 1.4% in the second six months). Incident STI was associated with low socioeconomic status, marital status, and with concurrent bacterial vaginosis. Incidence was highest among women who were married and exposed to sexual violence (10.9%), were concerned about their husbands' affairs (10.5%), or were separated, divorced or widowed women (11.0%). Socially disadvantaged women are at increased risk of STI in this population. Sexual intercourse outside marriage was rarely reported in this population, and women are at risk of becoming infected within marriage, especially those with sexual violence. This highlights the vulnerabilities of socially disadvantaged married women in India, and the need for healthcare professionals to screen STI patients for violence, and provide the necessary support. The results also stress the importance of effectively diagnosing and treating married men with STI and promoting safer sex within marriage.

  16. U.S. spousal homicide rates by racial composition of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John M

    2015-09-01

    American spousal homicide rates persistently and substantially vary by racial composition of the married couple. Analyses examined different racial couple types' spousal homicide rates in light of nonspousal homicide victimization and offending rates and couple types' average social, demographic, and economic characteristics. Analyses used 2003 to 2007 spousal homicide data from Supplementary Homicide Reports for which missing data have been multiply imputed. Current Population Survey data provided estimates of the number and average characteristics of different couple types. Log-linear models related couple types' differing spousal homicide rates to different race-sex groups' general rates of homicide victimization and offending and couple types' average characteristics. Among couple types with at least 50,000 couples, annual rates of male-on-female spousal homicide ranged from 0.95 to 8.76 per 100,000 couples; for female-on-male spousal homicide, this range was 0.13 to 2.29. Rates somewhat reflect different race-sex groups' nonspousal homicide activity, but with greater gender disparity and an excess of spousal homicide in some couple types. The association between victim's and offender's race is parsimoniously described by models using couple types' average characteristics (proportion with female's education exceeding the male's, proportion in central cities, and relative frequency). General homicidal-violence reduction strategies may partly apply to spousal homicide, but specifically targeted efforts are required too. Interventions must address different couple types' particular social, economic, and cultural experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors contributing to physical gender based violence reported at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors contributing to physical gender based violence reported at Ndola Central Hospital, Ndola, Zambia: a case control study. ... Sensitization campaigns and educational programmesought to be intensified in order to address factors that make females more prone to GBV-physical assault than males. Living in a high ...

  18. Prevalence & Correlates of Intimate Partner physical violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    threatened them with a knife or gun, and used a knife or gun against them). For the purpose of the study, various socio- demographic, maternal and attitudinal variables were included as independent variables. Ethical Considerations were made following the WHO guidelines on ethical issues related to violence research.

  19. Physical violence against women from the perspective of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Simone da Nóbrega Tomaz; Galvão, Lílian Lira Lisboa Fagundes; Melo, Carmen Oliveira Medeiros; de Azevedo, George Dantas

    2008-12-01

    To comprehend the perception of health professionals regarding physical violence against women by an intimate partner. This is a qualitative study performed in 2006 on 30 health professionals from three National Health System units in the city of Natal, Northeastern Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on three thematic topics: ideas associated to physical violence suffered by women; action of the health professional; and the role of health services. The series of interviews included questions on the perception of professionals about gender relations, physical violence, action as a health professional, and the role of health services. Categories were formed from these topics using the thematic content analysis. Health professionals pointed several factors that influence domestic violence situations, among which are machismo, poor economic conditions, alcoholism, and previous experiences of violence in the family environment. The study group reported they did not feel qualified to discuss the subject with the population and stressed the need that health services promote educational activities with this aim. The results suggest the need for systematized and effective actions aimed at humanizing health care for the battered woman.

  20. Maternal Violence, Victimization, and Child Physical Punishment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…

  1. Women at Risk of Physical Intimate Partner Violence: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is prevalent in Nigeria but a culture of silence exists, making it difficult to identify women at risk. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical IPV in a low income, high density community in south west Nigeria. Among 924 interviews ...

  2. Predictors of Latent Trajectory Classes of Physical Dating Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9 % female). Growth mixture models were…

  3. Reducing Physical Violence Toward Primary School Students With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Kuper, Hannah; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Banks, Lena Morgon; Kelly, Susan; Naker, Dipak

    2018-03-01

    We tested whether the Good School Toolkit reduces physical violence from peers and school staff toward students with and without disabilities in Ugandan primary schools. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial, with data collected via cross-sectional surveys in 2012 and 2014. Forty-two primary schools in Luwero District, Uganda, were randomly assigned to receive the Good School Toolkit for 18 months, or to a waitlisted control group. The primary outcome was past week physical violence from school staff, measured by primary 5, 6, and 7 students' (aged 11-14 years) self-reports using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional. Disability was assessed through the six Short Set Washington Group questions on functioning. Analyses were by intention to treat. At endline, 53% of control group students with no functional difficulties reported violence from peers or school staff, versus 84% of students with a disability. Prevalence of past week physical violence from school staff was lower in intervention schools than in the control schools after the intervention, in students with no functional difficulties (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = .41, 95% confidence interval [CI .26-.65]), students with some functional difficulties (aOR = .36, 95% CI .21-.63), and students with disabilities (aOR = .29, 95% CI .14-.59). The intervention also reduced violence from peers in young adolescents, with no evidence of a difference in effect by disability status. The Good School Toolkit is an effective intervention to reduce violence perpetrated by peers and school staff against young adolescents with disabilities in Ugandan primary schools. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Musculoskeletal manifestations of physical abuse after intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Mohit; Dosanjh, Sonia; Tornetta, Paul; Matthews, David

    2006-12-01

    Domestic violence is the most common cause of nonfatal injury to women in the United States, with an estimated cost of $50 billion annually. Little is known about the spectrum of musculoskeletal injuries in victims of domestic violence. We examined the characteristics of abused women, the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, and the variables associated with increasing frequency of physical violence against women. We identified all female survivors of intimate partner violence who were referred to the Minnesota Domestic Abuse Program from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003. Characteristics of each woman's background, abuse history, and injuries were obtained by a trained program therapist in an in-depth, 2-hour intake interview. Specific data forms were completed for each interview. Five forms of experienced abuse were explored (physical, emotional, psychological, sexual, and financial). Injuries were subcategorized as (1) head and neck, (2) musculoskeletal, (3) chest, (4) abdomen, and (5) skin (integumentary system). We conducted regression analyses to determine factors associated with the frequency of physical abuse. Of 270 potentially eligible women, 263 (97%) with complete records were included. Women were commonly Caucasian (62%) in their third decade of life with one or more children (87%). A history of abuse was recalled by over half of the women (54%). The most prevalent forms of abuse were emotional (84%), psychological (68%), physical (43%), sexual (41%), and financial (38%). Child protective services were concomitantly involved in half of the women living in abusive relationships. Among those women who reported physical abuse, 36% sought medical attention. We identified 144 injuries in 218 physically abused women. Head and neck injuries were the most prevalent after intimate partner violence (40%). Musculoskeletal injuries were the second most common manifestation of intimate partner violence (28%). The spectrum of injuries included sprains (n

  5. Attitudes Toward Physical Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Okenwa-Emegwa; Stephen Lawoko; Bjarne Jansson

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian...

  6. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

  7. Exposure of Students to Emotional and Physical Violence in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Şahbal; Özan, Sema; Timbil, Sevgi; Şemin, Semih; Kasapçi, Oya

    2016-12-01

    While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from parents could predict the

  8. Exposure of Students to Emotional and Physical Violence in the School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARAS, Şahbal; ÖZAN, Sema; TIMBIL, Sevgi; ŞEMİN, Semih; KASAPÇI, Oya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from

  9. Shared longitudinal predictors of physical peer and dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, Luz; Tharp, Andra T; Chang, Ling-Yin; Ennett, Susan T; Simon, Thomas R; Latzman, Natasha E; Suchindran, Chiravath

    2015-01-01

    Peers and dates are common targets of adolescent violence. Prevention programs typically address either peer violence (PV) or dating violence (DV) but not both. However, if PV and DV share predictors, prevention strategies could target both behaviors, yielding economic and time efficiencies. Longitudinal data were examined to determine the extent to which physical PV and DV shared predictors. Guided by social learning and social control theories, both risk and protective factors were examined at multiple levels of the social ecology. Adolescents in the eighth through 10th grades in three North Carolina counties completed self-administered questionnaires in school in the fall 2003 (Wave 1) and again in spring 2004 (Wave 2) (n = 4,227). The sample was 48% male; 55% white, 33% black, and 12% of other race/ethnicity. A generalized estimating equations approach used adjusted standard errors to account for the correlation between the two violence outcomes. For both boys and girls, anger, family conflict, and having models of deviant behavior in the school were shared risk factors, and holding prosocial beliefs was a shared protective factor. For girls, anxiety and having models of deviant behavior in the neighborhood were additional shared risk factors. For boys, heavy alcohol use was an additional shared risk factor and parental monitoring was an additional shared protective factor. Findings can inform the development of comprehensive cross-cutting prevention strategies at multiple levels of the social ecology designed to prevent both types of violence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  11. Predictors of emotional and physical dating violence in a sample of serious juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Gary; Larson, Matthew; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    We estimate group-based dating violence trajectories and identify the adolescent risk factors that explain membership in each trajectory group. Using longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, which follows a sample of 1354 serious juvenile offenders from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona between mid-adolescence and early adulthood, we estimate group-based trajectory models of both emotional dating violence and physical dating violence over a span of five years in young adulthood. We then estimate multinomial logistic regression models to identify theoretically motivated risk factors that predict membership in these groups. We identified three developmental patterns of emotional dating violence: none (33%), low-level (59%) and high-level decreasing (8%). The best-fitting model for physical dating violence also had three groups: none (73%), low-level (24%) and high-level (3%). Race/ethnicity, family and psychosocial variables were among the strongest predictors of both emotional and physical dating violence. In addition, delinquency history variables predicted emotional dating violence and relationship variables predicted physical dating violence. Dating violence is quite prevalent in young adulthood among serious juvenile offenders. Numerous predictors distinguish between chronic dating violence perpetrators and other groups. These may suggest points of intervention for reducing future violence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Nurse exposure to physical and nonphysical violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Paul E; Zhou, Zhiqing E; Che, Xin Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative review that estimates exposure rates by type of violence, setting, source, and world region. A quantitative review of the nursing violence literature was summarized. A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline and PsycInfo data bases. Studies included had to report empirical results using a nursing sample, and include data on bullying, sexual harassment, and/or violence exposure rates. A total of 136 articles provided data on 151,347 nurses from 160 samples. Articles were identified through a database search and by consulting reference lists of review articles that were located. Relevant data were coded by the three authors. Categories depended on the availability of at least five studies. Exposure rates were coded as percentages of nurses in the sample who reported a given type of violence. Five types of violence were physical, nonphysical, bullying, sexual harassment, and combined (type of violence was not indicated). Setting, timeframe, country, and source of violence were coded. Overall violence exposure rates were 36.4% for physical violence, 66.9% for nonphysical violence, 39.7% for bullying, and 25% for sexual harassment, with 32.7% of nurses reporting having been physically injured in an assault. Rates of exposure varied by world region (Anglo, Asia, Europe and Middle East), with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the Anglo region, and the highest rates of nonphysical violence and bullying in the Middle East. Regions also varied in the source of violence, with patients accounting for most of it in Anglo and European regions, whereas patents' families/friends were the most common source in the Middle East. About a third of nurses worldwide indicated exposure to physical violence and bullying, about a third reported injury, about a quarter experienced sexual harassment, and about two-thirds indicated nonphysical violence. Physical violence was most prevalent in emergency

  13. Attitudes Toward Physical Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Okenwa-Emegwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian demographic and health surveys were analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regressions. Results show that although larger proportions of women justified physical IPV, certain categories of men such as poor, illiterate men, and men with secondary education justified abuse more than women. Contrary to expectations, access to radio/TV increased the odds of justifying abuse among women thus casting doubts on program content. The gender differences observed for predictors of attitudes to physical IPV suggest a need for gender-tailored interventions to change attitudes toward partner violence in Nigeria.

  14. Workplace physical violence among hospital nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda Fawzi; Al Khawaldeh, Abdullah Talal

    2014-07-01

    To: (1) examine the incidence, frequency and contributing factors to workplace violence among nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan, and (2) identify the existing policies and the management modalities to tackle workplace violence. Workplace violence is a major problem in healthcare organisations. An understanding of the nature of violence is essential to implementing successful management. A descriptive exploratory research design. The questionnaire that was developed in 2003 by the International Labor Office, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 521 Jordanian physicians and nurses (396 nurses, 125 physicians) who worked in hospitals located in underserved areas. Around 15% of the participants were exposed to physical violence. The factors that contributed to workplace violence were related to absence of policies, inadequate staffing and lack of communication skills. Only 16·9% of participants indicated that there were specific policies available for dealing with physical workplace violence. Strengthening security and providing training were some of the important factors indicated by participants for decreasing violence in the workplace. Workplace violence is a problem in underserved areas that needs attention from administrators. Most participants were very dissatisfied with the way the administrators dealt with the incidents. Instituting firm policies against perpetrators and developing protective violence guidelines to support healthcare staff in managing workplace violence are paramount to tackle the problem of workplace violence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Premarital mental disorders and physical violence in marriage: cross-national study of married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua; Petukhova, Maria; Fayyad, John; Green, Jennifer Greif; Kola, Lola; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J; Tsang, Adley; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Tomov, Toma; Kessler, Ronald C

    2011-10-01

    Mental disorders may increase the risk of physical violence among married couples. To estimate associations between premarital mental disorders and marital violence in a cross-national sample of married couples. A total of 1821 married couples (3642 individuals) from 11 countries were interviewed as part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Sixteen mental disorders with onset prior to marriage were examined as predictors of marital violence reported by either spouse. Any physical violence was reported by one or both spouses in 20% of couples, and was associated with husbands' externalising disorders (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Overall, the population attributable risk for marital violence related to premarital mental disorders was estimated to be 17.2%. Husbands' externalising disorders had a modest but consistent association with marital violence across diverse countries. This finding has implications for the development of targeted interventions to reduce risk of marital violence.

  16. Effects of adolescent physical abuse, exposure to neighborhood violence, and witnessing parental violence on adult socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Herbert C; Menard, Scott; Franzese, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Research on the effects of adolescent physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and perceptions of community violence have generally, with few exceptions, found them to be predictive of subsequent negative behavioral outcomes, such as substance abuse, crime, and other problem behaviors. Less frequently studied is the relationship of these adverse adolescent experiences to adult socioeconomic statuses. This study utilizes longitudinal self-report data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to investigate how these three factors influence future socioeconomic statuses: marital status, educational attainment, employment, income, and wealth (net worth). Significant associations with adult socioeconomic statuses are found most often for physical abuse, but neighborhood violence is the only one of the three that is predictive of adult employment. Witnessing parental violence is associated with adult income and net worth. Limitations and policy implications of the present research, in the context of past research in this area, are considered.

  17. The co-occurrence of physical and cyber dating violence and bullying among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the overlap in teen dating violence and bullying perpetration and victimization, with regard to acts of physical violence, psychological abuse, and-for the first time ever-digitally perpetrated cyber abuse. A total of 5,647 youth (51% female, 74% White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey. Results indicated substantial co-occurrence of all types of teen dating violence and bullying. Youth who perpetrated and/or experienced physical, psychological, and cyber bullying were likely to have also perpetrated/experienced physical and sexual dating violence, and psychological and cyber dating abuse. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  19. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  20. School staff perpetration of physical violence against students in Uganda: a multilevel analysis of risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Katherine G; Knight, Louise; Glynn, Judith R; Allen, Elizabeth; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M

    2017-01-01

    Objective To conduct a multilevel analysis of risk factors for physical violence perpetration by school staff against Ugandan students. Design Multilevel logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 499 staff and 828 caregivers of students at 38 primary schools, collected in 2012 and 2014 during the Good Schools Study. Setting Luwero District, Uganda. Main outcome measure Past-week use of physical violence by school staff against students was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect ‘Child Abuse Screening Tool- Child International’ and the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Results Of 499 staff, 215 (43%) reported perpetration of physical violence against students in the past week. Individual risk factors associated with physical violence perpetration included being a teacher versus another type of staff member (pviolence against non-students (pviolence (IPV) (pviolence perpetration compared with male staff who had not been a victim of IPV. No evidence was observed for school- or community-level risk factors. Conclusions Physical violence perpetration from school staff is widespread, and interventions are needed to address this issue. Staff who have been victims of violence and who use violence against people other than students may benefit from additional interventions. Researchers should further investigate how school and community contexts influence staff’s physical violence usage, given a lack of associations observed in this study. PMID:28821514

  1. 5 CFR 1620.23 - Spousal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spousal rights. 1620.23 Section 1620.23... and Judges § 1620.23 Spousal rights. (a) The current spouse of a justice or judge of the United States (as defined in 28 U.S.C. 451), or of a Court of Veterans Appeals judge, possesses the rights described...

  2. 5 CFR 1655.18 - Spousal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spousal rights. 1655.18 Section 1655.18 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.18 Spousal rights. (a) Spouse of CSRS participant. (1) Before a loan is disbursed to a CSRS participant, the TSP record keeper...

  3. Media violence exposure and physical aggression in fifth-grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Tumaini R; Elliott, Marc N; Schwebel, David C; Windle, Michael; Toomey, Sara L; Tortolero, Susan R; Hertz, Marci F; Peskin, Melissa F; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association of media violence exposure and physical aggression in fifth graders across 3 media types. We analyzed data from a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 5,147 fifth graders and their parents in 3 US metropolitan areas. We used multivariable linear regression and report partial correlation coefficients to examine associations between children's exposure to violence in television/film, video games, and music (reported time spent consuming media and reported frequency of violent content: physical fighting, hurting, shooting, or killing) and the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale. Child-reported media violence exposure was associated with physical aggression after multivariable adjustment for sociodemographics, family and community violence, and child mental health symptoms (partial correlation coefficients: TV, 0.17; video games, 0.15; music, 0.14). This association was significant and independent for television, video games, and music violence exposure in a model including all 3 media types (partial correlation coefficients: TV, 0.11; video games, 0.09; music, 0.09). There was a significant positive interaction between media time and media violence for video games and music but not for television. Effect sizes for the association of media violence exposure and physical aggression were greater in magnitude than for most of the other examined variables. The association between physical aggression and media violence exposure is robust and persistent; the strength of this association of media violence may be at least as important as that of other factors with physical aggression in children, such as neighborhood violence, home violence, child mental health, and male gender. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed.

  5. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, H. Luz; Chen, May S.; Ennett, Susan T.; Basile, Kathleen C.; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother–adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother–adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study’s implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:26746242

  6. Identifying unique and shared risk factors for physical intimate partner violence and clinically-significant physical intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slep, Amy M Smith; Foran, Heather M; Heyman, Richard E; Snarr, Jeffery D; Usaf Family Advocacy Research Program

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern. To date, risk factor research has not differentiated physical violence that leads to injury and/or fear (i.e., clinically significant IPV; CS-IPV) from general physical IPV. Isolating risk relations is necessary to best inform prevention and treatment efforts. The current study used an ecological framework and evaluated relations of likely risk factors within individual, family, workplace, and community levels with both CS-IPV and general IPV to determine whether they were related to one type of IPV, both, or neither for both men and women. Probable risk and promotive factors from multiple ecological levels of influence were selected from the literature and assessed, along with CS-IPV and general IPV, via an anonymous, web-based survey. The sample comprised US Air Force (AF) active duty members and civilian spouses (total N = 36,861 men; 24,331 women) from 82 sites worldwide. Relationship satisfaction, age, and alcohol problems were identified as unique risk factors (in the context of the 23 other risk factors examined) across IPV and CS-IPV for men and women. Other unique risk factors were identified that differed in prediction of IPV and CS-IPV. The results suggest a variety of both established and novel potential foci for indirectly targeting partner aggression and clinically-significant IPV by improving people's risk profiles at the individual, family, workplace, and community levels. Aggr. Behav. 41:227-241, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Child justice and the little daily drops of physical violence: a case of troubled waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Cabezas Hernandez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the debate on fuzzy cases concerning the so called ‘mild’ and sporadic instances of physical violence against children by caregivers. The end of violence toward children is a current goal in the international scenario. However, myths on the use of violence and the scope of parental rights still survive. Thus, I examine the main theoretical, ethical and political challenges regarding conceptual clear-cut boundaries and the burden of proof when justifying violence. Finally, I defend the role of a preventive approach on children’s wellbeing and family intervention as a fruitful way to surpass polarized debates on permissibility and criminalization.

  8. [Association between physical violence, consumption of alcohol and other drugs, and bullying among Brazilian adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo; Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Araújo, Wildo Navegantes de; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the association between alcohol and drug consumption and bullying on the one hand and involvement in situations of physical violence among adolescents 13 to 15 years in public and private schools in State capitals and the Federal District of Brazil. The study analyzed data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE) for the year 2009. Data analysis used logistic regression. Prevalence of involvement in physical violence was 12.9% more common in boys than girls. Both genders showed associations between physical violence or being a victim of bullying and use of illegal drugs, plus the heightened effect of the combined consumption of alcohol and other drugs. In boys, alcohol consumption showed a significant association with physical violence. Having the father or both parents living at home was inversely associated with physical violence in girls. Knowledge of factors associated with physical violence among adolescents is important for supporting health promotion strategies and a culture of peace, thereby counteracting the idea of taking teenage violence for granted.

  9. Physical family violence and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M; Boel-Studt, Shamra

    2017-01-01

    Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents. After including parent and family level covariates in Poisson regressions, we found that a unique form of family violence victimization was associated with increased externalizing behaviors among children at each age group: exposure to physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among children ages 3-5, exposure to the physical abuse of a sibling among children ages 6-12, and child physical abuse among adolescents ages 13-18. No form of physical family violence was significantly associated with internalizing behaviors for children in any age group. Including exposure to the child maltreatment of a sibling is crucial when attempting to contextualize children's responses to family violence and providing comprehensive services in an effort to enhance the well-being of all children in a family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Living with loss: middle-aged men face spousal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, Luann M

    2002-05-01

    Spousal bereavement is one of the most profoundly disturbing events encountered in the human life span. Research has shown that conjugal bereavement has significant physical and psychological consequences for the surviving spouse. In American culture, men and women experience bereavement in different ways. The author used in-depth interviews in the tradition of phenomenology to collect data from 8 men aged 41 to 54 years who had experienced the death of their spouse within the previous 8 months to 6 years. The research revealed the lived experience of spousal bereavement to be a journey from the realization of irreconcilable loss through themes of responding to the loss and living through the loss toward reclamation and reconstruction of a life.

  11. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  12. Effects of Intimate Partner Physical Violence on Newborns' Birth Outcomes Among Jordanian Birthing Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujilban, Sanaa; Mrayan, Lina; Al-Modallal, Hanan; Isaa, Esra'a

    2015-09-07

    Intimate partner physical violence against women (VAW) during pregnancy is a common experience all over the world. In Jordan, the number is double the reported international average. Data on effect of violence on birth outcomes are important for planning, implementing, and evaluating maternal health programs. The research question was, "Does intimate partner physical VAW during pregnancy increase the risk of negative birth outcomes for newborns among birthing women in Jordan?" Natural experiment design was used for this study. A consecutive sampling technique was used for selecting the victims of physical violence (n = 79) and a simple random sampling for selecting non-victims (n = 79). Intimate partner physical violence was measured by using the Arabic version of World Health Organization's (WHO) domestic violence questionnaire, which has an accepted interrater validity. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and chi-square were used to detect the differences in birth outcomes between the victims and non-victims of physical violence. The results showed that there is a significant difference in newborn's birth weight between the victims of violence and non-victims with a small effect size. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in preterm birth and assisted newborn ventilation. The non-significant effect of violence on the incidence of preterm birth contradicts the published literature. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is rooted in Jordanian culture and widely accepted among married Jordanian women. Midwives, doctors, educators, and policy makers should work together to eradicate violence and detect victims of it, to improve birth outcomes and decrease newborn morbidity and mortality rates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Acceptability of physical punishment in child rearing by people who were victims of physical violence during childhood in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Burela, Alejandra; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú.; Piazza, Marina; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. psicóloga epidemióloga.; Alvarado, German F; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Gushiken, Alfonso; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Fiestas, Fabián; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the association between having been a victim of physical violence during childhood and the acceptability, in later life, towards the use of physical punishment in child rearing. Materials and methods. A secondary analysis was conducted of a study on violence in 6,399 people over 14 years of age living in the cities of Lima, Callao, Maynas, Arequipa, Cusco, Trujillo and Huamanga. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate stati...

  14. Physical domestic violence and subsequent contraceptive adoption among women in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Jadhav, Apoorva; Hindin, Michelle

    2013-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between male to female physical domestic violence and contraceptive adoption among women in four economically and culturally distinct areas of India. Data from India's 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey-2 and a follow-up survey in 2002-2003 for which the same women in four states were reinterviewed are analyzed. The focus of the analysis is on how baseline exposure to physical domestic violence is associated with the intersurvey adoption of contraception. Women who experience physical violence from their husbands are significantly less likely to adopt contraception in the intersurvey period, although this relationship varies by State. This study builds upon previous work by using an indicator of physical domestic violence exposure that is measured before contraceptive adoption, thus allowing the identification of how exposure to violence shapes the adoption of contraception. The results demonstrate that for women living in Bihar and Jharkhand there is a clear negative relationship between physical domestic violence and a woman's adoption of contraception; this relationship was not found for women in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The results point to the need to include domestic violence screening and referral services into family planning services.

  15. Physical violence among elderly: analysis of admissions to an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç Öztürk, Yasemin; Düzenli, Erhan; Karaali, Cem; Öztürk, Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Physical violence is defined as deliberate use of physical force likely to result in trauma, bodily injury, pain, or impairment. Present study is pioneering effort to evaluate mechanisms and sociodemographic features of physical violence targeting the elderly in Turkey and to investigate preventive measures. Database records and forensic reports were analyzed in this retrospective study of 54 elderly patients with trauma as result of physical violence who were admitted to emergency department of Şanlıurfa Training and Research Hospital between January 2012 and July 2013. Of the 54 patients evaluated, 50 (92.4%) were male. History of experiencing previous violence was described by 55.6% (n=30) of the patients. Instances of repeat violence and firearm injuries most often occurred in the home (p=0.006, p=0.007). Need for surgical treatment was also greater among cases that occurred in the home (p=0.016). Firearm injury, recurrent violence, and surgical treatment rates were higher among cases that occurred in the home. Urgent preventive measures are especially needed for the elderly who have already been victims of physical violence.

  16. Physical and sexual lifetime violence: prevalence and influence on fear of childbirth before, during and after delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Anne-Mette; Tabor, Ann; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history.......To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history....

  17. Parental expectations, physical punishment, and violence among adolescents who score positive on a psychosocial screening test in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Ireland, Marjorie; McNeely, Clea; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2006-02-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between perceived and stated parental expectations regarding adolescents' use of violence, parental use of physical punishment as discipline, and young adolescents' violence-related attitudes and involvement. Surveys were completed by 134 youth and their parents attending 8 pediatric practices. All youth were 10 to 15 years of age and had scored positive on a psychosocial screening test. Multivariate analyses revealed that perceived parental disapproval of the use of violence was associated with a more prosocial attitude toward interpersonal peer violence and a decreased likelihood of physical fighting by the youth. Parental report of whether they would advise their child to use violence in a conflict situation (stated parental expectations) was not associated with the adolescents' attitudes toward interpersonal peer violence, intentions to fight, physical fighting, bullying, or violence victimization. Parental use of corporal punishment as a disciplining method was inversely associated with a prosocial attitude toward interpersonal peer violence among the youth and positively correlated with youths' intentions to fight and fighting, bullying, and violence victimization. Perceived parental disapproval of the use of violence may be an important protective factor against youth involvement in violence, and parental use of physical punishment is associated with both violence perpetration and victimization among youth. Parents should be encouraged to clearly communicate to their children how to resolve conflicts without resorting to violence and to model these skills themselves by avoiding the use of physical punishment.

  18. Physical Domestic Violence and Subsequent Contraceptive Adoption Among Women in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Rob; Jadhav, Apoorva; Hindin, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between male to female physical domestic violence and contraceptive adoption among women in four economically and culturally distinct areas of India. Data from India’s 1998–1999 National Family Health Survey–2 and a follow-up survey in 2002–2003 for which the same women in four states were reinterviewed are analyzed. The focus of the analysis is on how baseline exposure to physical domestic violence is associated with the intersurvey adoption of contracept...

  19. Effect of physical intimate partner violence on body mass index in low-income adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Freitas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2. A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2. Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7. The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women.

  20. Intimate partner violence and the relation between help-seeking behavior and the severity and frequency of physical violence among women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergöçmen, Banu Akadli; Yüksel-Kaptanoğlu, İlknur; Jansen, Henrica A F M Henriette

    2013-09-01

    This study explores the severity and frequency of physical violence from an intimate partner experienced by 15- to 59-year-old women and their help-seeking behavior by using data from the "National Research on Domestic Violence Against Women in Turkey." Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare the relationship between severity and frequency of violence and women's characteristics. Of all ever-partnered women, 36% have been exposed to partner violence; almost half of these experienced severe types of violence. Women used informal strategies to manage the violence instead of seeking help from formal institutions. Help-seeking behavior increases with increased severity and frequency of violence.

  1. Factors associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls and women in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Deborah A; Pan, Yi; Otieno, Fred; Hayes, Tameka; Omoro, Tereza; Phillips–Howard, Penelope A; Odongo, Fred; Otieno, George O

    2017-01-01

    Background Intimate partner physical violence increases women’s risk for negative health outcomes and is an important public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) the proportion of girls (≤18 years) and women (>18 years) who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner, and 2) factors (including self–reported HIV infection) associated with girls and women who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner. Methods Cross–sectional surveys conducted in the Gem Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Siaya County, western Kenya in 2011–2012 (Round 1) and 2013–2014 (Round 2). Findings Among 8003 unique participants (582 girls and 7421 women), 11.6% reported physical violence by a sexual partner in the last 12 months (girls: 8.4%, women: 11.8%). Three factors were associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls: being married or cohabiting (nearly 5–fold higher risk), low education, and reporting forced sex in the last 12 months (both with an approximate 2–fold higher risk). Predictive factors were similar for women, with the addition of partner alcohol/drug use and deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Self–reported HIV status was not associated with recent physical violence by a sexual partner among girls or women. Conclusions Gender–based physical violence is prevalent in this rural setting and has a strong relationship with marital status, low education level, and forced sex among girls and women. Concerted efforts to prevent child marriage and retain girls in school as well as implementation of school and community–based anti–violence programs may help mitigate this risk. PMID:28959439

  2. Factors associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls and women in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Deborah A; Pan, Yi; Otieno, Fred; Hayes, Tameka; Omoro, Tereza; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Odongo, Fred; Otieno, George O

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner physical violence increases women's risk for negative health outcomes and is an important public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) the proportion of girls (≤18 years) and women (>18 years) who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner, and 2) factors (including self-reported HIV infection) associated with girls and women who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner. Cross-sectional surveys conducted in the Gem Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Siaya County, western Kenya in 2011-2012 (Round 1) and 2013-2014 (Round 2). Among 8003 unique participants (582 girls and 7421 women), 11.6% reported physical violence by a sexual partner in the last 12 months (girls: 8.4%, women: 11.8%). Three factors were associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls: being married or cohabiting (nearly 5-fold higher risk), low education, and reporting forced sex in the last 12 months (both with an approximate 2-fold higher risk). Predictive factors were similar for women, with the addition of partner alcohol/drug use and deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Self-reported HIV status was not associated with recent physical violence by a sexual partner among girls or women. Gender-based physical violence is prevalent in this rural setting and has a strong relationship with marital status, low education level, and forced sex among girls and women. Concerted efforts to prevent child marriage and retain girls in school as well as implementation of school and community-based anti-violence programs may help mitigate this risk.

  3. Screen time and physical violence in 10 to 16-year-old Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Boyce, William F; Pickett, William

    2012-04-01

    To examine the independent associations between television, computer, and video game use with physical violence in youth. The study population consisted of a representative cross-sectional sample of 9,672 Canadian youth in grades 6-10 and a 1-year longitudinal sample of 1,861 youth in grades 9-10. The number of weekly hours watching television, playing video games, and using a computer was determined. Violence was defined as engagement in ≥2 physical fights in the previous year and/or perpetration of ≥2-3 monthly episodes of physical bullying. Logistic regression was used to examine associations. In the cross-sectional sample, computer use was associated with violence independent of television and video game use. Video game use was associated with violence in girls but not boys. Television use was not associated with violence after controlling for the other screen time measures. In the longitudinal sample, video game use was a significant predictor of violence after controlling for the other screen time measures. Computer and video game use were the screen time measures most strongly related to violence in this large sample of youth.

  4. Spousal Caregiver Narratives and Credible Authority: Uncertainty in Illness of Spousal Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodowsky, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This article is taken from a larger longitudinal study that used caregiver interviews, caregiver surveys, and caregiver statistical information of one community. The interviews were conducted with six spousal caregivers to examine the narratives produced by spouses actively caring for their partners with dementia. The spousal caregivers were…

  5. Physical and sexual lifetime violence: prevalence and influence on fear of childbirth before, during and after delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Anne-Mette; Tabor, Ann; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history....

  6. Trajectories of Physical Dating Violence from Middle to High School: Association with Relationship Quality and Acceptability of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Song, Xiao; Holland, Kristin; Nahapetyan, Lusine

    2013-01-01

    Although research on dating violence is growing, little is known about the distinct developmental trajectories of dating violence during adolescence. The current study identifies trajectories of physical dating violence victimization and perpetration that boys and girls follow from sixth to twelfth grade, examines the overlap of these…

  7. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromsø Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddgeir Friborg

    Full Text Available This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the "Tromsø Study" (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years. Self-reported data on psychological (threats and physical violence (beaten/kicked, mental health (anxiety/depression, musculoskeletal pain (MSP, and granting of disability pension (DP were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group, whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence.

  8. Verbal and physical violence in emergency departments: a survey of nurses in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Rukiye; Ucmak, Firdevs

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the perceived verbal and physical violence and related factors experienced by nurses in emergency settings. Studies on violence in emergency departments indicate an increasing frequency of these incidents. However, little is known about the violence experienced by the Turkish nurses working in emergency departments. Survey. The study population included 255 nurses. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Verbal violence was reported with a frequency of 91.4%. Of the nurses, 74.9% had been exposed to physical violence in at least several episodes during the previous 12 months. Patients' relatives were the main perpetrators, followed by patients, most of whom were male. After experiencing violence, most of the nurses reported that, they had felt fear and only 3% described that they took sick leave, while 80% did not report the incidences of violence they experienced. The nurses described that, after a violent incident, they sought support mainly from their colleagues in emergency departments rather than from the administration. Over half of the nurses (65%) felt safe 'none of the time' in emergency departments, and 89.8% of them described that patients and patient relatives may potentially exhibit violent behaviours towards the staff when they are first admitted to emergency department, while 73.7% believed that the staffing pattern and physical environment of their emergency departments were not adequate to prevent violence. Most of the nurses (83.5%) stated that they should be provided with the training that will help them prevent and manage violence as part of their in-service education, whereas 82.7% of them had not received any such training. The findings have implications for occupational health and safety from both employer and employee perspective. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Physical violence by partner during pregnancy and use of prenatal care in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Alissa D; Stephenson, Rob; Koenig, Michael R

    2011-06-01

    The role of physical violence during pregnancy on receipt of prenatal care is poorly understood, particularly for South Asian countries that have high levels of both fertility and domestic violence. Data from the 1998/1999 Indian National Family Health Survey and a 2002/2003 follow-up survey that re-interviewed women in four states were analyzed, examining the association between physical violence during pregnancy and the uptake of prenatal care. Women who experienced physical violence during pregnancy were less likely to receive prenatal care, less likely to receive a home-visit from a health worker for a prenatal check-up, less likely to receive at least three prenatal care visits, and less likely to initiate prenatal care early in the pregnancy. This study highlighted the constraining effect that the experience of physical domestic violence during pregnancy had on the uptake of prenatal care for women in rural India. Maternal health services must recognize the unique needs of women experiencing violence from their intimate partners.

  10. The prevalence of exposure to domestic violence and the factors associated with co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure: a sample from primary care patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since many health problems are associated with abuse and neglect at all ages, domestic violence victims may be considered as a group of primary care patients in need of special attention. Methods The aim of this multi-centre study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in primary care patients, and to identify those factors which influence the co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure and their consequences (physical, sexual and reproductive and psychological) as obtained from medical records. A study was carried out in 28 family practices in Slovenia in 2009. Twenty-eight family physicians approached every fifth family practice attendee, regardless of gender, to be interviewed about their exposure to domestic violence and asked to specify the perpetrator and the frequency. Out of 840 patients asked, 829 individuals, 61.0% women (n = 506) and 39.0% men (n = 323) were assessed (98.7% response rate). They represented a randomised sample of general practice attendees, aged 18 years and above, who had visited their physician for health problems and who were given a physical examination. Visits for administrative purposes were excluded. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exposure to both psychological and physical violence. Results Of 829 patients, 15.3% reported some type of domestic violence experienced during the previous five years; 5.9% reported physical and 9.4% psychological violence; of these 19.2% of men and 80.8% of women had been exposed to psychological violence, while 22.4% of men and 77.6% of women had been exposed to physical violence. The domestic violence victims were mostly women (p violence was more prevalent than exposure to physical violence. Of the women, 20.0% were exposed to either type of violence, compared to 8.0% of male participants, who reported they were rarely exposed to physical violence, while women reported often or constant

  11. Violence in Brazilian schools: Analysis of the effect of the #Tamojunto prevention program for bullying and physical violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmões, Júlia D S P; Sañudo, Adriana; Valente, Juliana Y; Sanchez, Zila M

    2018-02-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 6637 7th- and 8th-grade students in 72 public schools in 6 Brazilian cities to evaluate the effects of the European drug prevention program Unplugged, called #Tamojunto in Brazil. This article evaluates the effects of #Tamojunto on the prevention of bullying and physical violence. Baseline data were collected from both intervention and control groups prior to program implementation. Follow-up data collection was performed 9 and 21 months later. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate changes in the reporting of receiving or practicing bullying and physical violence over time. The program was found to reduce the likelihood of receiving bullying, particularly in the stratum of girls aged 13-15 years at the 9-month follow-up time point. The effect was not sustained at 21 months. There was no significant effect for practicing bullying and for receiving or practicing physical violence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Premarital mental disorders and physical violence in marriage: cross-national study of married couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua; Petukhova, Maria; Fayyad, John; Green, Jennifer Greif; Kola, Lola; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J.; Tsang, Adley; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Tomov, Toma; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental disorders may increase the risk of physical violence among married couples. Aims To estimate associations between premarital mental disorders and marital violence in a cross-national sample of married couples. Method A total of 1821 married couples (3642 individuals) from 11 countries were interviewed as part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Sixteen mental disorders with onset prior to marriage were examined as predictors of marital violence reported by either spouse. Results Any physical violence was reported by one or both spouses in 20% of couples, and was associated with husbands' externalising disorders (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Overall, the population attributable risk for marital violence related to premarital mental disorders was estimated to be 17.2%. Conclusions Husbands' externalising disorders had a modest but consistent association with marital violence across diverse countries. This finding has implications for the development of targeted interventions to reduce risk of marital violence. PMID:21778172

  13. Characteristics of spousal homicide perpetrators: a study of all cases of spousal homicide in Sweden 1990-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfrage, Henrik; Rying, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden 20 000 cases of assault against women are reported to the police every year. All data on the perpetrators of spousal homicide in Sweden between 1990 and 1999 were investigated (n = 164). A control group of all other perpetrators of homicide in Sweden during the same period, i.e. cases of homicide not committed in the context of spouse violence (n = 690) was used. All verdicts, as well as all material in the police investigations, including interviews with all of the police investigators, were analysed. Copies of police examinations of the suspects, and forensic reports from the autopsies, were also examined. Data on all registered criminality were collected from the National Police Register, and in cases where the perpetrators had been subject to forensic psychiatric examinations, those reports were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. In addition, the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version scores were rated from the forensic psychiatric examinations. There was a four times higher suicide rate among the spousal homicide perpetrators (24%, n = 40) compared with the perpetrators in the control-group (6%, n = 39, chi-squared = 55,42 df = 1, p suicidal ideation must be considered as an important risk factor for spousal homicide. In 79% of the cases the spousal homicide perpetrators were subject to forensic psychiatric examinations. All except 5% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and 34% were sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment. If it is assumed that the psychiatric morbidity was high in the 24% of the perpetrators who committed suicide, then 80% of all perpetrators of spouse homicide during the study period can be characterized as mentally disordered. 'Psychopathic' perpetrators, who generally are over-represented in most violent criminality, were comparatively uncommon. Only seven (4%) in the study group met the diagnostic criteria for psychopathy as measured with the PCL:SV. The group of spouse

  14. Women's approval of domestic physical violence against wives: analysis of the Ghana demographic and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, David Teye; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2015-12-21

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has serious consequences for the physical, psychological, and reproductive and sexual health of women. However, the factors that make women to justify domestic violence against wives in many sub-Saharan African countries have not been explored. This study investigates factors that influence women approval of domestic physical violence among Ghanaian women aged 15-49. A nationally representative sampled data (N = 10,607) collected in the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to study the associations between women's economic and socio-demographic characteristics and their approval of domestic physical violence against wives. Women aged 25-34 and 15-24 were 1.5 and 1.3 times, respectively, more likely to approve domestic physical violence against wives compared to those aged 35 years and above. Furthermore, women with no education (OR = 3.1, CI = 2.4-3.9), primary education (OR = 2.6, CI = 2.1-3.3) and junior secondary education (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.4-2.2) had higher probability of approving domestic physical violence compared to a woman who had secondary education or higher. Compared to women with Christian belief, Moslems (OR = 1.5, CI = 1.3-1.8) and Traditional believer (OR = 1.7, CI = 1.2-2.4) were more likely to approve domestic physical violence of wives. Women who were in the richest, rich and middle wealth index categories were less likely to approve domestic physical violence of wives compared to the poorest. These findings fill a gap in understanding economic and socio-demographic factors associated with approval of domestic physical violence of wives. Interventions and policies should be geared at contextualizing intimate partner violence in terms of the justification of this behaviour, as this can play an important role in perpetration and victimization.

  15. Adolescent exposure to violence and adult physical and mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C; Tucker, Abigail S; McCoy, Leah; Menard, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) with adult physical and mental health problems is limited, with studies often focusing on earlier childhood rather than adolescence, and also on short term rather than long term outcomes. Information specifically on the relationship of AEV to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood from either formal sources such as mental health professionals or informal sources such as friends and clergy is even more difficult to find. The present study investigates how adolescent exposure to violence (AEV), in the form of parental physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and exposure to violence in the neighborhood, are related to self-reported adult physical problems and seeking formal or informal assistance with mental health, controlling for more general adolescent violent victimization and for self-reports and parent reports of mental health problems in adolescence. This study adds to the literature on AEV and adult physical problems, and provides a rare look at the relationship of AEV to adult help-seeking for mental health problems. The results suggest that AEV is associated with mental health problems in adolescence for both females and males, that for females AEV is related to physical problems and to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood, but for males the only significant relationship involves inconsistent reports of witnessing parental violence and adult physical problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spousal communication about HIV prevention in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Ksobiech, Kate

    2011-11-01

    High HIV rates among cohabiting couples in many African countries have led to greater programmatic emphasis on spousal communication in HIV prevention. This study examines how demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of cohabiting adults influence their dyadic communication about HIV. A central focus of this research is on how the position of women relative to their male partners influences spousal communication about HIV prevention. The authors analyze gaps in spousal age and education and females' participation in household decision making as key factors influencing spousal communication about HIV, while controlling for sexual behaviors of both partners as well as other individual and contextual factors. Data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for 1,388 cohabiting couples. Information regarding spousal communication was self-reported, assessing whether both, either, or neither partner ever discussed HIV prevention with the other. Analyses showed higher levels of education for the female partner and participation in household decision making are positively associated with spousal communication about HIV prevention. With females' education and other factors controlled, couples with more educated male partners were more likely to have discussed HIV prevention than couples in which both partners have the same level of education. Spousal communication was also positively associated with household wealth status and exposure to the mass media, but couples in which male partners reported having nonspousal sex in the past year were less likely to have discussed HIV prevention with their spouses. Findings suggest HIV prevention programs should promote female empowerment and encourage male participation in sexual health discussion.

  17. Intimate partner physical violence among women in Shimelba refugee camp, northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feseha Girmatsion

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence has unwanted effects on the physical and psychological well-being of women, which have been recognized globally as an important public health problem. Violence perpetrated by intimate partner is one form of domestic violence, a serious human rights abuse and a public health issue, among refugees owing to its substantial consequences for women's physical, mental and reproductive health problems. Because the incidents are under-reported, the true scale of the problem is unknown and unexamined among refugee women in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aim to assess the magnitude of intimate partner physical violence and associated factors among women in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 422 refugee women from March to April 2011. A simple random sampling method was used to select the study subjects from seven zones of the refugee camp. Census was done to identify all households with women having an intimate partner. A pre-tested interviewer guided structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done where applicable. A p-value less than 0.05 with 95% CI were set and used as a cut-off point to examine the statistical association between the explanatory and outcome variables. Results The prevalence of physical violence in the last 12 months and lifetime were 107(25.5% and 131(31.0% respectively. The commonest forms of physical violence reported included slapping 101(61.6% and throwing objects 32(19.5%. Significant risk factors associated with experiencing physical violence were being a farmer (AOR = 3.0[95%CI: 1.7, 5.5], knowing women in neighborhood whose husband to beat them (AOR = 1.87[95%CI: 1.0, 3.5], being a Muslim (AOR = 2.4 [95%C.I: 1.107, 5.5], and having a drunkard partner

  18. Longitudinal association of suicidal ideation and physical dating violence among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahapetyan, Lusine; Orpinas, Pamela; Song, Xiao; Holland, Kristin

    2014-04-01

    Two salient problems in adolescent development are dating violence and suicidal ideation. Theory and empirical research have supported their association in primarily cross-sectional studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal association between physical dating violence and suicidal ideation (thoughts or plans) in a cohort of students evaluated annually from Grades 9 to 12. The sample consisted of 556 random-selected students (50.2 % males; 47.5 % White, 37.8 % Black, 11.2 % Latino) who reported dating at least once during the four assessments. Self-reported frequency of suicidal ideation, dating, and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization were assessed each spring from ninth to twelfth grade. We used generalized estimating equations modeling to predict the effects of sex, race, school grade, and physical dating perpetration and victimization on suicidal ideation. Cumulatively, one-fourth of the sample reported suicidal ideation at least once by the end of Grade 12, and approximately half reported physical dating violence. Female gender (OR = 1.7, p = 0.02), physical dating perpetration (OR = 1.54, p = 0.048), physical dating victimization (OR = 2.03, p school (OR = 1.83, p = 0.004) were significant predictors of suicidal ideation. Race was not a significant predictor among adolescents in this sample. This longitudinal study highlights the detrimental emotional effect of physical dating violence perpetration and victimization among high school students. It is important that suicide prevention programs incorporate physical dating violence education and prevention strategies starting early in high school.

  19. Interactions of adolescent social experiences and dopamine genes to predict physical intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Parker, Edith A; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4) previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment) to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among white men and women. We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis. Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase. Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles and violence, but contributes to

  20. Interactions of adolescent social experiences and dopamine genes to predict physical intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Schwab-Reese

    Full Text Available We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4 previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV perpetration among white men and women.We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis.Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase.Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles and violence, but

  1. A challenging job: Physical and sexual violence towards group workers in youth residential care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, L.R.A.; Euser, S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about sexual harassment in addition to physical victimization of social workers in youth residential or group care. Objective: We investigated the

  2. Spousal Religiosity, Religious Bonding, and Pornography Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Samuel L

    2017-02-01

    Religiosity and pornography use are often closely connected. Relatively few studies, however, have examined how this religion-pornography connection plays out within the context of committed romantic relationships. Moreover, virtually all studies of religion and pornography use conceptualize religiosity as a quality intrinsic to the person that typically reduces pornography viewing. Focusing on married Americans, this study shifted the focus to consider whether the religiosity of one's spouse relates to one's own pornography viewing and under what circumstances. Analyses of the nationally representative Portraits of American Life Study (N = 1026) revealed that spousal religiosity was strongly and negatively related to participants viewing pornography, controlling for participants' own religious or sociodemographic characteristics or sexual satisfaction. This relationship held whether spousal religiosity was measured with participants' evaluations of their spouses' religiosity or spouses' self-reported religiosity. The association between spousal religiosity and pornography use was also moderated by participants' religious service attendance, gender, and age. Considering mechanisms, the association between spousal religiosity and pornography use was mediated by frequent participation in religious bonding activities as a couple, suggesting that spousal religiosity may decrease pornography viewing among married Americans by promoting greater religious intimacy and unity between the couple, consequently decreasing one's interest or opportunities to view pornography.

  3. Rates and Covariates of Recent Sexual and Physical Violence Against HIV-Infected Outpatient Drinkers in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Gakinya, Benson N; Mwaniki, Michael M; Lee, Hana; Kiarie, Stella W; Martino, Steve; Loxley, Michelle P; Keter, Alfred K; Klein, Debra A; Sidle, John E; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Maisto, Stephen A

    2017-08-01

    Victimization from physical and sexual violence presents global health challenges. Partner violence is higher in Kenya than Africa. Violence against drinkers and HIV-infected individuals is typically elevated, so dual vulnerabilities may further augment risk. Understanding violence risks can improve interventions. Participants were 614 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya enrolled in a randomized trial to reduce alcohol use. At baseline, past 90-day partner physical and sexual violence were examined descriptively and in gender-stratified regression models. We hypothesized higher reported violence against women than men, and positive violence association with HIV stigma and alcohol use across gender. Women reported significantly more current sexual (26.3 vs. 5.7%) and physical (38.9 vs. 24.8%) victimization than men. Rates were generally higher than Kenyan lifetime national averages. In both regression models, HIV stigma and alcohol-related sexual expectations were significantly associated with violence while alcohol use was not. For women, higher violence risk was also conferred by childhood violence, past-year transactional sex, and younger age. HIV-infected Kenyan drinkers, particularly women, endorse high current violence due to multiple risk factors. Findings have implications for HIV interventions. Longitudinal research is needed to understand development of risk.

  4. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15-49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease

  5. Verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians in the Negev: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freud Tami

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over recent years there has been an increasing prevalence of verbal and physical violence in Israel, including in the work place. Physicians are exposed to violence in hospitals and in the community. The objective was to characterize acts of verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians. Methods A convenience sample of physicians working in the hospital and community completed an anonymous questionnaire about their experience with violence. Data collection took place between November 2001 and July 2002. One hundred seventy seven physicians participated in the study, 95 from the hospital and 82 from community clinics. The community sample included general physicians, pediatricians, specialists and residents. Results Ninety-nine physicians (56% reported at least one act of verbal violence and 16 physicians (9% reported exposure to at least one act of physical violence during the previous year. Fifty-one hospital physicians (53.7% were exposed to verbal violence and 9 (9.5% to physical violence. Forty-eight community physicians (58.5% were exposed to verbal violence and 7 (8.5% to physical violence. Seventeen community physicians (36.2% compared to eleven hospital physicians (17.2% said that the violence had a negative impact on their family and on their quality of life (p Conclusion Verbal and/or physical violence against physicians is common in both the hospital and in community clinics. The impatience that accompanies waiting times may have a cultural element. Shortening waiting times and providing more information to patients and families could reduce the rate of violence, but a cultural change may also be required.

  6. A child death as a result of physical violence during toilet training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Coşkun, Kerem Şenol; Yeşil, Arda; Cobanoğlu, Cansu

    2014-11-01

    Enuresis and delayed bladder control are a common source of psychosocial concern for both parents and children. Different cultures have different norms with regard to parenting attitudes. The fact that in Turkey, parents consider enuresis or encopresis as a sign of laziness, misbehavior, or disobedience rather than a medical disorder may cause children to be exposed to physical and emotional violence and maltreatment by the family as a corrective strategy. We present a case in this paper which had a fatal outcome due to physical violence against a child as an educational measure and a toilet training method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Facial trauma as physical violence markers against elderly Brazilians: A comparative analysis between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Rayanne Izabel Maciel; de Macedo Bernardino, Ítalo; Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bento, Patricia Meira; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of elderly Brazilians with injuries resulting from physical violence and identify victimization differences. A descriptive and exploratory study was conducted involving the analysis of medico-legal and social records of 259 elderly victims of physical violence treated at an Institute of Forensic Medicine and Dentistry over four years (from January 2008 to December 2011). The forensic service database was evaluated by researchers properly trained and calibrated to perform this function between January and March 2013. Socio-demographic variables of victims, aggression characteristics, aggressor's profile and types of lesions were evaluated. Descriptive and multivariate statistics using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) were performed. The prevalence of facial trauma was 42.9%. Based on the MCA results, two groups with different victimization profiles were identified: married men aged 70-79 years, victims of community violence at night, suffering facial injuries; and single, widowed or separated women aged 60-69 years, victims of domestic violence during the day, suffering trauma in other areas of the body. The results suggest that there is a high prevalence of facial injuries among elderly Brazilians victims of physical violence and there are important differences related to victimization characteristics according to gender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spousal veto over family planning services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Maine, D

    1987-01-01

    In many countries a spouse, usually the husband, can veto a partner's use of family planning services. Where spousal veto acts as a barrier to family planning services it represents a serious threat to the lives and health of women and children. Removal of spousal authorization requirements has been shown to increase the use of family planning services. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, for example, removed their requirement in 1982 and clinic utilization increased by 26 per cent within a few months. Courts of several countries have held that spousal veto practices violate principles of personal privacy and autonomy and the right to health care. The effect of such judgements has been to reinforce rights to sexual nondiscrimination found, for example, in national constitutions and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives. PMID:3812842

  9. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  10. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  11. influence of spousal communication on marital stability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    become a slave to it. The assumption for its social necessity is rested on the premise that through it, families are established and the family is the fundamental unit .... problems. This research deems it necessary to investigate the Influence of spousal communication on marital stability. This is because divorce is becoming a ...

  12. Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antai Diddy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69, and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34. In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and

  13. Perceived Mattering to the Family and Physical Violence within the Family by Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Gregory C.; Cunningham, Susan M.; Colangelo, Melissa; Gelles, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Mattering is the extent to which people believe they make a difference in the world around them. This study hypothesizes that adolescents who believe they matter less to their families will more likely threaten or engage in intrafamily physical violence. The data come from a national sample of 2,004 adolescents. Controlling for respondents' age,…

  14. The cause and consequence of domestic violence on pregnant women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women.

  15. Using Primary Care to Address Violence against Women in Intimate Partner Relationships: Professional Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralbas-Fernández, Aida; Calcerrada-Gutiérrez, Marybexy

    2016-10-01

    Unified, prevention- and community-oriented, Cuba's National Health System is well positioned to address social problems such as gender violence against women. It is sometimes taken for granted that family doctors, family nurses and psychologists in the health system should be able to deal with such cases. However, some studies among these professionals have revealed misconceptions about intimate partner violence, an insufficient understanding of its causes, and greater tolerance of psychological violence than of physical and sexual violence. Cuba needs to train family doctors and clinical psychologists who are knowledgeable about the subject so that they can take part in the development and implementation of intersectoral education and prevention policies and programs, provide assistance to women who have been victims of violence, and work together with community members to create support networks that serve as monitoring mechanisms. Primary care is the ideal setting for raising awareness of the need for greater intersectoral action to systematically address violence against women. KEYWORDS Professional training, doctors, clinical psychologists, gender, spousal abuse, domestic violence, family violence, family relationships, Cuba.

  16. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R

    2014-01-01

    Liladhar Dhakal, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Arja R AroUnit of Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, DenmarkIntroduction: Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health c...

  17. Severe physical violence and Black women's health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Sears, Karen Powell; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the association between intimate partner violence and the mental and physical health status of US Caribbean Black and African American women. We used 2001 to 2003 cross-sectional data from the National Survey of American Life-the most detailed study to date of physical and mental health disorders of Americans of African descent. We assessed participants' health conditions by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Washington, DC; American Psychological Association) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We found differences in health conditions between abused African American and Caribbean Black women. There were increased risks for lifetime dysthymia, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and poor perceived health for African American victims of partner abuse, and binge eating disorder was associated with partner violence among Caribbean Black women. Severe intimate partner violence was associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes for US Black women, with different patterns between African American and Caribbean Blacks. Understanding intimate partner violence experiences of US Black women requires recognition of key intragroup differences, including nativity and immigrant status, and their differential relationships to women's health.

  18. A survey of rate of victimization and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, S E; Acik, Y; Ayar, A

    2008-01-01

    Violence of any type is a serious issue in the lives of many children from all racial, cultural and economic backgrounds, and is a topic of enormous societal concern in any society. The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of exposure to violence as victims, and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in eastern Turkey. All the basic education schools in Elazig, a typical eastern Anatolian city, were included. A total of 3725 fifth and sixth graders were asked to answer survey questions about the rate of physical violence exposure in their everyday lives and whether they thought the violence was an 'acceptable' behaviour. The mean age of participants was 12.8 years with 46.8% boys and 53.2% girls, and their socio-economic status ranged from low-income to upper middle class. Seventy-four per cent of school-aged children reported exposure to at least one case of physical violence in their lives, and 43.4% reported experiencing physical violence within previous 12 months. Higher rates of exposure to physical violence were reported by boys than girls (P = 0.0001). Of the victims, 33.8% regarded physical violence as an acceptable or inevitable way of solution or responding to life events. Results from the self-report of the receiving end of violent behaviours indicate that physical violent victimization is at an alarmingly high rate among children of eastern Turkey, and a significant per cent of these victims approves violence as a way of solution.

  19. Emotional, physical and sexual violence among Sami and non-Sami populations in Norway: The SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Astrid M A; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Javo, Cecilie; Schei, Berit

    2015-08-01

    To assess the prevalence and investigate ethnic differences of emotional, physical and sexual violence among a population of both Sami and non-Sami in Norway. Our study was based on the SAMINOR 2 study, a population-based survey on health and living conditions in multiethnic areas with both Sami and non-Sami populations in Central and Northern Norway. Our study includes a total of 11,296 participants: 2197 (19.4%) Sami respondents and 9099 (80.6 %) non-Sami respondents. Almost half of the Sami female respondents and one-third of the non-Sami female respondents reported any violence (any lifetime experience of violence). Sami women were more likely to report emotional, physical and sexual violence than non-Sami women. More than one-third of the Sami men compared with less than a quarter of non-Sami men reported having experienced any violence in their life. Sami men were more likely to report emotional and physical violence than non-Sami men. However, ethnicity was not significantly different regarding sexual violence experienced among men. Violence was typically reported to have occurred in childhood. Sami participants were more likely to report having experienced violence in the past 12 months. For all types of violence, the perpetrator was typically known to the victim. Regardless of gender, Sami respondents were more likely to report interpersonal violence. The prevalence of any violence was substantial in both ethnic groups and for both genders; it was highest among Sami women. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Behind the silence of harmony: risk factors for physical and sexual violence among women in rural Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Elli N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia has the fourth largest population in the world. Few studies have identified the risk factors of Indonesian women for domestic violence. Such research will be useful for the development of prevention programs aiming at reducing domestic violence. Our study examines associations between physical and sexual violence among rural Javanese Indonesian women and sociodemographic factors, husband's psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and attitudes toward violence and gender roles. Methods A cohort of pregnant women within the Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in Purworejo district, Central Java, Indonesia, was enrolled in a longitudinal study between 1996 and 1998. In the following year (1999, a cross-sectional domestic violence household survey was conducted with 765 consenting women from that cohort. Female field workers, trained using the WHO Multi-Country study instrument on domestic violence, conducted interviews. Crude and adjusted odds ratios at 95% CI were applied for analysis. Results Lifetime exposure to sexual and physical violence was 22% and 11%. Sexual violence was associated with husbands' demographic characteristics (less than 35 years and educated less than 9 years and women's economic independence. Exposure to physical violence among a small group of women (2-6% was strongly associated with husbands' personal characteristics; being unfaithful, using alcohol, fighting with other men and having witnessed domestic violence as a child. The attitudes and norms expressed by the women confirm that unequal gender relationships are more common among women living in the highlands and being married to poorly educated men. Slightly more than half of the women (59% considered it justifiable to refuse coercive sex. This attitude was also more common among financially independent women (71%, who also had a higher risk of exposure to sexual violence. Conclusions Women who did not support the right of women to

  1. After the Escape: Physical Abuse of Offspring, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and the Legacy of Political Violence in the DPRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Yoo, Jieun; Lieblich, Amia; Hansen, Randall

    2017-10-01

    What is the relationship between victimization by political violence against women in North Korea and later physical abuse of offspring? This article examines the relationships between victimization by political violence, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse/dependence, and abuse of offspring after arrival in South Korea. A random sample of 204 female North Korean defectors was used to test hypotheses. An oral history conducted with a survivor of North Korean political violence is provided in an appendix to contextualize the results. Analyses established a significant link between previous victimization by political violence and abuse of offspring but not mediation by either PTSD or alcohol abuse/dependence.

  2. Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.

  3. Physical and sexual violence, mental health indicators, and treatment seeking among street-based population groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio Navarro, Javier; Cohen, Julien; Rocillo Arechaga, Eva; Zuniga, Edgardo

    2012-05-01

    To establish the prevalence of exposure to physical and sexual violence, mental health symptoms, and medical treatment-seeking behavior among three street-based subpopulation groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and to assess the association between sociodemographic group, mental health indicators, and exposure to violence. An anonymous, cross-sectional survey among randomly selected street-based adolescents, adults, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) was undertaken at the end of 2010 in Tegucigalpa. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) mapped places where the study population gathers. Stratified probability samples were drawn for all groups, using two-stage random sampling. Trained MSF staff administered on-site standardized face-to-face questionnaires. Self-reported exposure to severe physical violence in the previous year was 20.9% among street-based adolescents, 28.8% among adults, and 30.6% among CSWs. For the physical violence event self-defined as most severe, 50.0% of the adolescents, 81.4% of the adults, and 70.6% of the CSWs sought medical treatment. Their exposure to severe sexual violence was 8.6%, 28.8%, and 59.2%, respectively. After exposure to the self-defined most severe sexual violence event, 14.3% of adolescents, 31.9% of adults, and 29.1% of CSWs sought treatment. Common mental health and substance abuse symptoms were highly prevalent and strongly associated with exposure to physical (odds ratio 4.5, P < 0.0001) and sexual (odds ratio 3.7, P = 0.0001) violence. Exposure to physical and sexual violence reached extreme levels among street-based subpopulations. Treatment-seeking behavior, particularly after severe sexual violence, was limited. The association of mental health and substance abuse symptoms with exposure to violence could lead to further victimization. Medical and psychological treatments targeting these groups are needed and could help decrease their vulnerability.

  4. Inpatient Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kayla

    2016-12-01

    Inpatient violence constitutes a major concern for staff, patients, and administrators. Violence can cause physical injury and psychological trauma. Although violence presents a challenge to inpatient clinicians, it should not be viewed as inevitable. By looking at history of violence, in addition to clinical and other historical factors, clinicians can identify which patients present the most risk of exhibiting violent behavior and whether the violence would most likely flow from psychosis, impulsivity, or predatory characteristics. With that information, clinicians can provide environmental and treatment modifications to lessen the likelihood of violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011

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    Dhakal L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liladhar Dhakal, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Arja R AroUnit of Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, DenmarkIntroduction: Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections.Method: This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15–49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis.Results: Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence.Conclusion: Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually

  6. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

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    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  7. Adolescents' reports of physical violence by peers in residential care settings: an ecological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2014-03-01

    Physical victimization by peers was examined among 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents, aged 11 to 19, residing in 32 residential care settings (RCS) for children at-risk in Israel. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to examine the relationships between physical victimization and adolescents' characteristics (age, gender, self-efficacy, adjustment difficulties, maltreatment by staff, and perceived social climate) as well as institution-level characteristics (care setting type, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). For this study, we define physical violence as being grabbed, shoved, kicked, punched, hit with a hand, or hit with an object. Over 50% (56%) of the adolescents surveyed reported having experienced at least one form of physical violence by peers. Boys and younger adolescents were more likely to be victimized than girls and older adolescents. The results show that adolescents with adjustment difficulties or low social self-efficacy, and adolescents who perceive an institution's staff as strict and/or had experienced maltreatment by staff, are vulnerable groups for peer victimization. Lower levels of victimization were found in RCS with a familial element than in traditional group settings. Institutions with high concentrations of young people with adjustment difficulties and violent staff behaviors had higher levels of violence among residents. Applying an ecological perspective to an investigation of peer victimization in RCS enables the identification of risk factors at adolescent and institution levels. This type of examination has implications for child welfare practice and policy that can help in the development of prevention and intervention methods designed to tackle the involvement in violence of youth in care.

  8. Are school-level factors associated with primary school students' experience of physical violence from school staff in Uganda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Louise; Nakuti, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Gannett, Katherine R; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    The nature and structure of the school environment has the potential to shape children's health and well being. Few studies have explored the importance of school-level factors in explaining a child's likelihood of experiencing violence from school staff, particularly in low-resource settings such as Uganda. To quantify to what extent a student's risk of violence is determined by school-level factors we fitted multilevel logistic regression models to investigate associations and present between-school variance partition coefficients. School structural factors, academic and supportive environment are explored. 53% of students reported physical violence from staff. Only 6% of variation in students' experience of violence was due to differences between schools and half the variation was explained by the school-level factors modelled. Schools with a higher proportion of girls are associated with increased odds of physical violence from staff. Students in schools with a high level of student perceptions of school connectedness have a 36% reduced odds of experiencing physical violence from staff, but no other school-level factor was significantly associated. Our findings suggest that physical violence by school staff is widespread across different types of schools in this setting, but interventions that improve students' school connectedness should be considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Systematic Review: Exposure to Community Violence and Physical Health Outcomes in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anna W; Austin, Makeda; Booth, Carolyn; Kliewer, Wendy

    2017-05-01

    To systematically review the evidence for associations between exposure to community violence and physical health outcomes in children and adolescents. A thorough search of multiple online databases and careful consideration of inclusion and exclusion criteria yielded a final 28 studies for detailed review. In addition to review of findings, studies were rated on overall quality based on study design. Seven categories of physical health outcomes emerged, including asthma/respiratory health, cardiovascular health, immune functioning, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, sleep problems, weight, and a general health category. There were mixed findings across these categories. Evidence for a positive association between community violence exposure and health problems was strongest in the cardiovascular health and sleep categories. There is reason to believe that community violence exposure has an effect on some areas of physical health. Additional well-designed research that focuses on mechanisms as well as outcomes is warranted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Children are highly exposed to physical violence between parents: a preliminary report emphasizing the need for intervention

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    Ali Fakhari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Domestic violence is still common all around the world and children are directly or indirectly victimized. This study investigates the exposure of children to interparental physical violence. Methods: Data were collected from a sample of randomly selected university students. Information was collected on any experience of exposure to violence between parents, the type, frequency and duration of violent acts. Results: From a total of 177 students, 31.5% of females and 46.6% of males have experienced interparental violence (IPV, and most of them (66.7% directly witnessed it. The intimate violence was by fathers in 62.3%. The most frequent types were slamming a door and slapping (20.3%. Almost 40.0% of violent experiences began during pre-school age of the child, and a same number were still experiencing such events. Rate was higher reported by males and less educated parents. Males had a higher odds ratio (OR of exposure to physical violence, as well as violence by fathers only. Conclusion: This report emphasizes the high rate of children witnessing violence between their parents. Beside proper and in time intervention to reduce the psychological harm in these children, educational programs to increase social skills and problem-solving methods will improve the quality of relations within families.

  11. Factors contributing to physical Gender Based Violence reported at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    compared to 5(23.8%) of those from low density areas. Conclusion: There is ... control, low self-esteem, disorders in personality and conduct. Others are .... age. For the gender of participants, there is a higher proportion of females 67(68.4%) who experienced physical assault in relation to GBV than among males of which is ...

  12. Domestic violence: a complex health care issue for dentistry today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, John P

    2006-05-15

    As a natural outgrowth of the dental professional's role in recognizing and reporting child abuse the topic has been broadened in recent years to domestic violence, that is child, spouse/intimate partner, disabled and elder abuse. Forty years ago in the US there were 662 cases of child abuse reported to authorities. Today that reported number is in excess of 3 million per year [D. Wiese, D. Daro, Current trends in reporting and fatalities; the results of the 1994 annual 50 state survey, National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, Working Paper 808, 1995]. The "dirty secret" of spousal/intimate partner violence is believed to affect 3-4 million individuals per year in the US. Studies have also found that between 50 and 70% of these perpetrators also abuse their children or those of their intimate partner [J. Kessman, Domestic violence, identifying the deadly silence, Texas Dent. J. (2000) 43]. Just as child abuse is most often manifested in the head or neck regions, likewise the evidence of physical violence to intimate partners and the elderly can be seen in the head or neck regions. The insidious part of partner and elder abuse is that often the largest component of these behaviors is psychological, emotional and indirect neglect, which leave no physical evidence [M. Bowers, Forensic Dental Evidence: An Investigator's Handbook, Elesevier, San Diego, CA, 2004, p. 119].

  13. Unemployment among women: examining the relationship of physical and psychological intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P; Smith, Mark W; Baumrind, Nikki

    2009-03-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of physical violence, psychological violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as predictors of unemployment. Results indicated substantial rates of unemployment among women who reported IPV, with rates of 20% among women who experienced psychological violence, 18% among women who experienced physical violence, and 19% among women with PTSD symptoms. When the relationship was adjusted for demographic characteristics and educational attainment, PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.09) and psychological violence (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.32), but not physical violence, were associated with unemployment. Implications for supported employment programs and workplace responses to IPV are discussed.

  14. Spousal Caregiver Burden and Its Relation with Disability in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, R; Inbakamal, S; Tharyan, Anna; Premkumar, Prasanna S

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia, a chronic psychiatric disorder, can affect one's productivity and psychosocial functioning. In Indian context, the responsibility of caring persons with schizophrenia is increasingly on their spouses. Spousal caregiver experience and its relation with disability in schizophrenia need to be studied. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 52 outpatients with schizophrenia and their spouses attending a tertiary psychiatric center. The objectives were: (a) to explore spousal caregiver burden in schizophrenia and (b) to assess the relation between disability and spousal caregiver burden. The study adopted recommended ethical principles. Scales such as Burden Assessment Schedule, Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS), and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were used to collect appropriate data. Descriptive analysis, bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis were done in SPSS software version 16.0. The mean spousal caregiver burden score was 73.5 (standard deviation: 14.0). In bivariate analysis, disability, duration of schizophrenia, severity of schizophrenia, place of residence, and socioeconomic status had statistically significant relation with spousal caregiver burden. Adjusted for spouses' age, gender, and other significant factors in bivariate analysis, the IDEAS global disability score (2.6, [confidence interval 0.5-3.8, P = 0.013]) retained statistically significant association with spousal caregiver burden. Spouses of persons with schizophrenia experience significant caregiver burden. Disability was found to be the most powerful determinant of spousal caregiver burden in the sample. Focus on disability alleviation in the management of schizophrenia may help reduce spousal caregiver burden.

  15. Spousal Capital as a Resource for Couples Starting a Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzek, Amanda E.; Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study finds that spousal capital is an important resource for entrepreneurs starting a business because it has implications for business sustainability and couple relationship quality. Structural equation modeling supported a process whereby gender had an impact on spousal involvement in the business, which was positively…

  16. The Prevalence and Correlates of Physical and Sexual Violence Affecting Female Sex Workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Blair O; Grosso, Ashley; Adams, Darrin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sithole, Bhekie; Mabuza, Xolile S; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo J; Baral, Stefan

    2016-02-12

    Female sex workers (FSW) have a heightened vulnerability to violence and negative sexual/reproductive health outcomes. Limited research has examined how experiencing physical and sexual violence (PSV) mediates risk for poor health outcomes among FSW in Swaziland. The present analyses aim to contribute to literature linking violence with poor health outcomes, high-risk behaviors, and reduced health service-seeking among FSW. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study conducted in Swaziland between July and September 2011 with 325 adult women who reported exchanging sex for money, goods, or favors in the last 12 months, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between PSV and ancillary violence/abuse exposures, risk behaviors, and sexual/reproductive and mental health outcomes. PSV was conceptualized as either ever having been beaten up as a result of selling sex or ever being forced to have sex since the age of 18, or both. Prevalence of PSV in this sample was 59.0% in crude estimation, and 48.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]:[39.2,57.6]) with RDS weighting. Separate RDS-weighted estimates of being beaten up as a result of sex work and ever being forced to have sex were 32.4% (95%CI=[24.4,40.4]) and 33.1% (95%CI =[25.0,41.2%]), respectively. Experiencing PSV was associated with being blackmailed (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]= 1.93, 95%CI= [1.07,3.52]), non-injection drug use in the last 12 months (aOR= 1.84, 95%CI= [1.02,3.33]), and feeling afraid to seek health services as a result of selling sex (aOR = 1.74, 95%CI= [1.01,2.99]). Given these findings, violence prevention strategies should be prioritized in programs that address Swazi FSW health, empowerment, and safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Physical violence against pregnant women by an intimate partner, and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Mazandaran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abdollahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Violence against women during pregnancy is linked to poor outcome of pregnancy, which is reported to have widespread in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical violence against women by an intimate partner during pregnancy, and to assess the impact of this physical violence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on the characteristics of pregnant women in urban areas and related violence. The modified standard World Health Organization Domestic Violence Questionnaire was used to classify pregnant women and domestic violence. A total of 1461 pregnant women were selected using cluster sampling. The association between sociodemographic with intimate partner violence (IPV and IPV with pregnancy outcomes was determined using logistic regression. Results: Of these, 206 (14.1% (confidence interval = 12.3-15.9 reported physical IPV during pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio for IPV in illiterate women or those with primary level of education (0.001, secondary level education (0.003, and in low income households (0.0001 were significantly higher than in those women with university level education and in higher income households. After adjusting for suspected confounding factors, the women with a history of violence by partners had 1.9 fold risk of premature rupture of membranes, and a 2.9 fold risk of low birth weight compared to women who did not experience any violence from their partners. Conclusion: The results of this research indicated that the prevalence of IPV was high among pregnant women. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the screening of pregnant women at Primary Health Centers to prevent physical abuse.

  18. Domestic violence against children and adolescents: prevalence of physical injuries in a southern Brazilian metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Leidielly Aline; Dalledone, Mariana; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Zaiter, Wellington; de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Losso, Estela Maris

    2015-01-01

    Violence against children and adolescents is a public health issue worldwide that threatens physical and mental wellbeing and causes irreparable harm. Reports on this violence are an essential way to prevent it and to protect the children and adolescents. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of physical injuries that occur in domestic environments and reported to the Child and Adolescent Protection Network. This retrospective study was conducted at the Epidemiology Center of the Municipality of Curitiba. A total of 10,483 reports for the years 2010 (5,112) and 2011 (5,371) were analyzed and from them were selected reports of physical injuries that occurred in the family environment. The children and adolescents were 0-17 years old, comprising 322 cases of physical abuse within the family in 2010. Out of these, 57.1% were male and 42.9% were female, and 58% (187) presented head and neck injuries. There were 342 reports in 2011, 49% were male and 51% were female; head and neck injuries corresponded to 65% (222) of the reported cases. The prevalence of injuries increased by 6% and head and neck injury increased by 19% between 2010 and 2011. It may be concluded that physical abuse is associated with a high prevalence of head and neck injury, which is easily observed by the health and education professionals. Notification organs should be created in Brazilian hospitals and health centers, which is essential to conduct epidemiological surveillance and appropriate policies.

  19. Effects of Exposure to Domestic Physical Violence on Children's Behavior: A Chinese Community-based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuping; Li, Longfei; Zhao, Xingfu; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yalin; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-06-01

    Domestic physical violence (DPV) is common in China due to its long history of slavery and feudalism. This study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to DPV on children's behavior in a Chinese community. Ninety-three 12- to 16-year-old adolescents exposed to DPV were compared to 54 adolescents with no exposure to DPV. We found that DPV exposure was associated with adverse behaviors in children, especially among boys. Children witnessing DPV alone had similar behavioral scores as the abused children. We recommend that both abused and DPV witness-only adolescents in Chinese communities need treatment to mitigate the effects on maladjusted behaviors. The intervention programs for children who witness domestic violence are also important.

  20. Experiences of harassment, discrimination, and physical violence among young gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, David M; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M

    2004-07-01

    We examined the 6-month cumulative incidence of anti-gay harassment, discrimination, and violence among young gay/bisexual men and documented their associations with mental health. Gay/bisexual men from 3 cities in the southwestern United States completed self-administered questionnaires. Thirty-seven percent of men reported experiencing anti-gay verbal harassment in the previous 6 months; 11.2% reported discrimination, and 4.8% reported physical violence. Men were more likely to report these experiences if they were younger, were more open in disclosing their sexual orientation to others, and were HIV positive. Reports of mistreatment were associated with lower self-esteem and increased suicidal ideation. Absent policies preventing anti-gay mistreatment, empowerment and community-building programs are needed for young gay/bisexual men to both create safe social settings and help them cope with the psychological effects of these events.

  1. Associations of school violence with physical activity among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Hertz, Marci F; Lee, Sarah M

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated associations of violence-related behaviors with physical activity (PA)-related behaviors among U.S. high school students. Data from the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 9th-12th grade students, were analyzed. Sex-stratified, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between violence-related behaviors and being physically active for ≥60 minutes daily, sports participation, TV watching for ≥3 hours/day, and video game/computer use for ≥3 hours/day. Among male students, at-school bullying victimization was negatively associated with daily PA (aOR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58-0.87) and sports participation; skipping school because of safety concerns was positively associated with video game/computer use (1.42; 1.01-2.00); and physical fighting was positively associated with daily PA. Among female students, at-school bullying victimization and skipping school because of safety concerns were both positively associated with video game/computer use (1.46; 1.19-1.79 and 1.60; 1.09-2.34, respectively), and physical fighting at school was negatively associated with sports participation and positively associated with TV watching. Bullying victimization emerged as a potentially important risk factor for insufficient PA. Schools should consider the role of violence in initiatives designed to promote PA.

  2. Prevalence and Trends in Domestic Violence in South Korea: Findings From National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yop; Oh, Sehun; Nam, Seok In

    2016-05-01

    To examine trends in the prevalence of domestic violence since 1997, 1 year prior to the introduction of legislative countermeasures and accompanying services in South Korea, and to analyze what socio-demographic characteristics of perpetrators contribute to spousal violence and whether there were any changes in risk factors over time. This study used two sets of nationally representative household samples: married or cohabiting couples of 1,540 from the 1999 national survey and 3,269 from the 2010 National Survey of Domestic Violence. Frequency analysis was used to measure the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), and cross-tabulation, correlation, and logistic regression analyses were used to look for socio-demographic risk factors of spousal physical violence and patterns of change over time. The frequency analysis showed that the IPV prevalence dropped by approximately 50%, from 34.1% in 1999 to 16.5% in 2010, though it was still higher than many other countries. The cross-tabulation and logistic regression analyses suggested that men with low socio-demographic characteristics were generally more violent, though this tendency did not apply to women. Instead, younger women seemed to be more violent than older women. Last, different levels of household income were associated with different levels of IPV in 2010, but no linear trend was detected. In this study, IPV prevalence trends and risk factors of two different time periods were discussed to provide implications for tackling the IPV problem. Future countermeasures must build on understanding about men with low socio-demographic status and younger women, who were more violent in marital relationships. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Risk Factors for Physical Domestic Violence in a High-Prevalence HIV Setting: Findings from Project Accept Baseline Data (HPTN-043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Woelk, Godfrey; Shade, Starley B; Kulich, Michal; Turan, Janet M; Chingono, Alfred; Morin, Stephen F

    2013-06-25

    Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR) were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i) a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, Peconomic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04) than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011). Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.

  4. A Gender Comparison of Motivations for Physical Dating Violence Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C; Hamel, John; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    There are limited empirical investigations that directly compare men and women's motivations, or reasons, for perpetrating physical dating violence (DV). In an attempt to further understand whether men and women have similar or different motives for physical DV, the purpose of the current study was to conduct a gender comparison of motives in a sample of male (n = 163) and female (n = 319) college students. Motivations for physical DV were classified according to seven broad categories proposed by Langhinrichsen-Rohling and colleagues: (a) power/control, (b) self-defense, (c) expression of negative emotion (e.g., anger), (d) communication difficulties, (e) retaliation, (f) jealousy, and (g) other (e.g., because it was sexually arousing, the influence of alcohol, the influence of drugs). The prevalence of physical violence perpetration in the overall sample was 29.4%. Results indicated that communication difficulties and self-defense were among the most frequently endorsed motive categories for both male and female perpetrated DV. In addition, results demonstrated gender similarity in all of the examined motive categories. Research and clinical implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Experience of physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of physical punishment and violence in adulthood amongst fathers: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Paterson, Janis

    2011-09-01

    Family violence is a serious and increasingly significant public health issue, both in New Zealand and internationally. While Pacific families in New Zealand experience disproportionately higher rates of violence compared to their Palagi counterparts, little epidemiological information exists about the effect of childhood abuse on Pacific fathers and whether it increases their proclivity on perpetrating violence. To determine the prevalence of physical discipline administered to young Pacific children by their fathers and physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated against their partners; and to relate this to fathers' recalled levels of paternal and maternal childhood physical abuse. A cohort of Pacific infants born during 2000 in Auckland, New Zealand, was followed. At 6-weeks and 2-years postpartum, home interviews conducted for mothers and experience of IPV within the last 12 months was measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale. At 1-year and 2-years postpartum, home interviews conducted for fathers and acts of physical discipline were elicited. At the 1-year phase, childhood history of physical abuse was also elicited using the Exposure to Abusive and Supportive Environments Parenting Inventory. Crude and adjusted generalised estimating equation models were employed for statistical analyses. The sample included 786 partnered fathers who were living with their child at the 1-year measurement wave and 579 fathers at the 2-years measurement wave. Smacking children was common (25.0% at 1-year, 81.7% at 2-years) and hitting children with an object was not infrequent (1.4% at 1-year, 14.2% at 2-years). Physical IPV perpetrated by the father ranged from 23.1% to 27.5% while severe IPV was reported by 10.1% to 14.3% of partners. Fathers subjected to higher levels of paternal physical abuse in childhood were significantly more likely to physically discipline their child with smacking than those with lower levels of paternal physical abuse, after adjusting for

  6. Empowerment, partner's behaviours and intimate partner physical violence among married women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwagala, Betty; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2013-12-01

    There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners' behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of women's empowerment and partners' behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Women's occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. In the Ugandan context, women's empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners' negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence.

  7. Empowerment, partner’s behaviours and intimate partner physical violence among married women in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners’ behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of women’s empowerment and partners’ behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. Methods The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. Results The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Women’s occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. Conclusion In the Ugandan context, women’s empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners’ negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence. PMID:24289495

  8. Intimate partner violence against women in western Ethiopia: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeya Sileshi G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women is the psychological, physical, and sexual abuse directed to spouses. Globally it is the most pervasive yet underestimated human rights violation. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against women in Western Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted from January to April, 2011 using standard WHO multi-country study questionnaire. A sample of 1540 ever married/cohabited women aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from urban and rural settings of East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Data were principally analyzed using logistic regression. Results Lifetime and past 12 months prevalence of intimate partner violence against women showed 76.5% (95% CI: 74.4-78.6% and 72.5% (95% CI: 70.3-74.7%, respectively. The overlap of psychological, physical, and sexual violence was 56.9%. The patterns of the three forms of violence are similar across the time periods. Rural residents (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98, literates (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88, female headed households (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.76 were at decreased likelihood to have lifetime intimate partner violence. Yet, older women were nearly four times (AOR 3.36, 95% CI 1.27-8.89 more likely to report the incident. On the other hand, abduction (AOR 3.71, 95% CI 1.01-13.63, polygamy (AOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.64-0.73, spousal alcoholic consumption (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.21-3.22, spousal hostility (AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.52-6.20, and previous witnesses of parental violence (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.54-2.56 were factors associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime intimate partner violence against women. Conclusion In their lifetime, three out of four women experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence. This needs an urgent attention at all levels of societal hierarchy including policymakers, stakeholders and

  9. Is tougher better? The impact of physical prison conditions on inmate violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierie, David M

    2012-05-01

    Physical conditions of prisons have been at the center of long-standing debates in correctional policy and research. Many argue prisons should be unpleasant to deter future offending and motivate prosocial change among inmates. Others believe harsh conditions inhibit effective treatment and, perhaps, make offenders worse. Little progress in these debates has emerged, primarily because few studies exist that have tested propositions coming from either camp. This study draws on survey data collected from a random sample of staff at each of the 114 federal prisons operating in 2007. Staff perceptions of noise, clutter, dilapidation, and privacy were combined to reflect physical conditions of each prison (aggregated to the prison level). Operational data measuring serious violence was used to create a count of serious assaults at each prison over the same time period referenced in the staff survey. Utilizing a Poisson framework, the data showed that poor physical conditions of prisons correspond to significantly higher rates of serious violence. Implications for theory and policy are discussed.

  10. Exposure to physical and sexual violence and suicidal ideation among schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Luiza Schäfer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to physical and sexual violence, and suicidal ideation in Brazilian Schoolchildren, accounting for confounding variables of religious practice, and problems with alcohol and other drugs. Methods This study consists of a cross-sectional analytical approach of a larger school-based study conducted in 2012 in two medium-sized municipalities in south of Brazil. Participants were 3,547 students aging 12 to 17 years old who answered an assembled questionnaire. Descriptive and Logistic Regression analyses were conducted with suicide ideation outcome testing prediction models stratified by sex. Results Suicide ideation prevalence in the sample was of 21.7%, and regression analysis indicated that girls and boys exposed to physical or sexual violence had 3.42 and 3.14 times more probability of referring suicidal ideation in the past 30 days. Adjusted analyses showed little interference of religious practice, while problems with alcohol and other drugs seemed to also explain suicidal ideation in the sample. Conclusion We highlight the importance of future longitudinal studies to investigate the mechanisms through which exposure to physical or sexual abuse influence suicidal ideation among boys and girls, as well as mediation studies that could enlighten the role of drug and alcohol use in this relationship.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence and Miscarriage: Examination of the Role of Physical and Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…

  12. The relationship between support for victims of domestic violence and social work in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Kimiyo

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the term domestic violence (DV) refers generally to violence between men and women in intimate relationships, including spouses and lovers. DV-related consultations filed at spousal violence counseling and support centers have steadily increased in recent years. Support for victims of domestic violence in Japan is provided at women’s consulting offices, women’s protection facilities, maternal and child living support facilities, and shelters operated by NPOs. However, despite progre...

  13. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  14. To Love is to Suffer: Older Adults' Daily Emotional Contagion to Perceived Spousal Suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R; Kane, Heidi S

    2017-05-01

    For older adults coping with a spouse's chronic condition, greater marital satisfaction may not be entirely protective for psychological health. We examined marital satisfaction and gender as moderators of the association between perceived spousal suffering and daily emotional contagion. Based on empathy-altruism and interdependent self-construal theories, we hypothesized that high marital satisfaction and being female would heighten daily emotional contagion, or within-person associations between perceived spouse suffering and distress to spouse suffering. Forty-five older adults who had a spouse with a musculoskeletal condition completed daily interviews. Participants reported their marital satisfaction once in the laboratory and then daily perceptions of their spouse's physical suffering and their own distress to spouse suffering via phone at home for 7 days. Consistent with hypotheses, there were significant within-person effects such that highly satisfied wives experienced heightened emotional contagion on days when they perceived higher than average spouse suffering. Unexpectedly, men who were high in marital satisfaction experienced heightened daily distress irrespective of their perceptions of level of spousal suffering. Marital satisfaction can increase daily emotional contagion to spousal suffering among older couples dealing with chronic conditions. Wives' distress may be more dependent on perceiving high levels of partner suffering compared with husbands' distress.

  15. Exposure to Domestic Violence and Abuse: Evidence of Distinct Physical and Psychological Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2017-05-01

    Recent literature on exposure to domestic violence (DV) highlights the need for increased understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence and abuse (DVA). The current aims were to explore whether two separate dimensions, physical and psychological DVA, were evident in adult children's reports of their exposure to DVA in their family of origin, and whether these dimensions affected psychological well-being and perceived satisfaction with emotional support (hereafter referred to as social support satisfaction). Young adults ( N = 465, aged 17-25, 70% female) reported their experiences of DVA as perpetrated by their parents/caregivers, as well as psychological well-being and social support satisfaction, in an online survey. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we verified the presence of a two-factor model (physical and psychological DVA). Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated the differing impact of these two factors: Specifically, although exposure to psychological DVA (domestic abuse [DA]) was related to reduced psychological well-being, there was no significant effect of exposure to physical DVA (DV). However, mediation analysis suggested the presence of a suppression effect; there was a magnification of the negative relationship between exposure to psychological DA and social support satisfaction when exposure to physical DV was accounted for. Although findings are preliminary, they provide strong evidence to support theoretical arguments regarding the need for future research to conceptualize exposure to DVA in terms of both physical and psychological dimensions. Our findings also highlight that to improve service response and provide effective interventions, it is essential to include exposure to psychological DA in risk assessments of such young adults.

  16. Age of onset for physical and sexual teen dating violence perpetration: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Cohen, Joseph R; Lu, Yu; Fite, Paula J; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R

    2017-12-01

    Teen dating violence (TDV) is a serious and prevalent public health problem. TDV is associated with a number of negative health consequences for victims and predicts violence in adult relationships. Thus, efforts should be devoted to the primary prevention of TDV. However, only a few studies have examined when the risk for the first occurrence of TDV is greatest. Continued research in this area would inform the timing of, as well as developmentally appropriate strategies for, TDV primary prevention efforts. The current study examined at which age(s) the risk for TDV perpetration onset was greatest. Utilizing a panel-based design, a sample of racially/ethnically diverse high school students (N=872; 56% female) from the Southwestern United States completed self-report surveys on physical and sexual TDV perpetration annually for six years (2010 to 2016). Findings suggested that the physical TDV risk of onset was at or before ages 15 to 16 for females and at or before age 18 for males. For sexual TDV perpetration, risk was similar for males and females during adolescence, before uniquely increasing for males, and not females in emerging adulthood. Findings highlight the need for TDV primary prevention programs to be implemented early in high school, and potentially in middle school. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Status among Ever-Married and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used logistic regression to analyze the 2,830 ever-married or cohabitating women who also answered the violence and spousal traits questionnaire as well as provided blood samples. The logistic regression revealed that women who had experienced any type of intimate partner violence (odds ratio=1.29, ...

  18. Barriers to spousal contribution to childbirth pain relief in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelonye, A U; Pitkäaho, T; Aregbesola, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the barriers inhibiting the use of spousal presence for childbirth pain relief in health facilities and recommendations from three perspectives: the midwife, the woman, and the spouse. Spousal presence is a non-invasive, participatory and inexpensive technique used in pain management during childbirth. Although it contributes to a large extent in relieving childbirth pain, it is underutilized in Nigerian hospitals. Overcoming the challenges impeding spousal presence and participation during childbirth will improve maternal outcome, satisfaction and midwifery care practices. A cross-sectional survey conducted in four hospitals in Nigeria involving midwives (n = 100), women (n = 142) and their spouses (n = 142) from June to December 2014 using pretested questionnaires. Five themes were identified: poor infrastructural facility, lack of adequate pain management policy, lack of midwife pain management practices, midwives' attitudes towards spousal presence during childbirth and feelings about spousal presence during childbirth pain relief. Infrastructural defects in the health facilities resulting in the lack of privacy in maternity units for both spouses and partners negatively influence the presence of a spouse during childbirth and pain relief. Adopting effective strategies such as good infrastructural facilities, staff training and spouse-friendly hospital policies will encourage spouses to fully participate in and contribute to childbirth pain relief. This study identified poor staff attitudes towards pain relief and spousal presence during childbirth as barriers. Providing adequate policies on pain management, continuous staff education and orientation on spousal relationship will improve active spousal participation and maternal satisfaction during childbirth. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Sex differences in depressive effects of experiencing spousal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Sang Gyu; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-02-01

    Spousal death is a significant event that becomes a turning point in an individual's life. Widowed persons experience new circumstances, which might induce depression. However, the effects of spousal death on depression can differ by sex and culture. Thus, the present study examined the association between depressive levels and experience of spousal death in Korean adults aged older than 45 years. The data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2010 to 2012. The analysis used frequency analysis to compare the distribution of demographic variables between men and women, and anova to compare 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores as the dependent variable among comparison groups. We also carried out linear mixed model analysis on the association between the 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and experience of spousal death. Among 5481 respondents, 2735 were men and 2741 were women. The number of men and women who experienced spousal death were 43 (1.6%) and 181 (6.6%), respectively. Men had lower depressive levels than women when they had been married (men 2.99, women 3.64). Both men and women experiencing spousal death had significantly higher 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores than married men and women (men β = 0.911, P = 0.003; women β = 0.512, P = 0.001; ref: no experience of spousal death). There was a significant association between experience of spousal death and depressive level for both men and women. We suggest that policy practitioners promote community programs that provide bereaved adults with easy access to meaningful social participation and support the minimum cost of living of the widowed. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 322-329. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Program content of teaching physical education in order to prevent violence in educational institutions

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    Sretenović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to show the capacity of the program content of physical education in the implementation of the third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan for the Prevention of Violence in Educational Institutions. Ministry of Education brought this plan in January 2009. The third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan: Provide preventive and protective role of school sport and sporting activities of students. This paper examines the extent to which this goal is achieved, trough regular classes, after-school and extracurricular activities of physical education; indicates the capacity of the teaching field in the creation and development of a safe and supportive environment in the institution; sees level of participation by experts, council and teams in the design and implementation of sports activities in school and the extent to which these activities are implemented in the institution documents, plans and programs of experts, and larger teams; it is the sustainability of these activities achieved in school practices and also to strengthen the competence of teachers in supporting the development of students personality, communication and collaboration. In order to complete document association of council, experts and teams in the institution, there has been an insight into the school curriculum, the development plan, annual plan of the institution, protection program community of students, the curriculum of a school parliament, council of parents, higher vocational and physical education teachers and report on the implementation of the protection program. In order to document by empirical data the capacity of the teaching areas in the function of preventing violence, a sample of 46 primary schools in Sumadija area, evaluation of the implementation of sports and sports activities students in programming classes of physical education, was executed. By these results, it can be concluded that in teaching methods

  1. The role of alcohol as men desist from physical intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although researchers have examined the relationship between alcohol and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), little research has examined the role of alcohol within the process of desistance from IPV, which was the aim of this study. A mixed-methods approach was taken as both psychometric test and interview data were analysed. Scores on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III alcohol dependence subscale of 37 men deemed to have desisted from IPV, 50 deemed to be persisting with IPV and 49 non-violent controls were compared. In addition, data about alcohol use from interviews with 13 desisters, 9 persisters, 9 IPV intervention facilitators and 7 female survivors were analysed using thematic analysis to understand the role of alcohol in IPV desistance and persistence. No differences were found between the groups' self-reported alcohol dependence based on their Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III scores. However, analysis of the interview data revealed that compared with persisters, desisters reported having changed their attitudes towards alcohol and their consumption of it in order to facilitate their cessation of violence. Static measures of alcohol dependence need to be used with caution if looking to identify progress with desistance from IPV. For individuals for whom alcohol played a role in their IPV, changing attitudes and their use of alcohol were described as being important in the process of desistance. Self-reported attitudes and alcohol use could therefore be used to identify men who are making progress in the process of desistance from IPV. [Walker K. The role of alcohol as men desist from physical intimate partner violence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:134-142]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Capgras syndrome: a review of the neurophysiological correlates and presenting clinical features in cases involving physical violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, Dominique; Whitehurst, Laurie

    2004-11-01

    Acts of violence have been frequently reported in cases of Capgras syndrome (CS), a misidentification syndrome characterized by the delusional belief that imposters have replaced people familiar to the individual. CS has been observed in many neuropsychiatric and organic disorders, and neuroimaging studies indicate an association between CS and right hemisphere abnormalities. However, CS has received limited attention from a forensic psychiatric perspective. We propose that elucidating demographic and clinical features noted in cases of violence secondary to CS may highlight important factors in the progression of CS to violence. We review the neurophysiological correlates and clinical factors observed in CS and present characteristics of a series of cases that demonstrate the potential of CS patients for severe physical violence toward the misidentified person. For patients with CS involving assault, we present and discuss commonly reported demographic and clinical features that may contribute to an increased risk for violence. An understanding of the presenting clinical features of CS resulting in aggressive acts may assist clinicians to assess the potential for violence in these patients.

  3. Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Physical violence against patients with mental disorders in Brazil: sex differences in a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helian Nunes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Patients with mental illness are more exposed to violence than the general population. This study assessed factors associated with lifetime physical violence against these patients stratified by sex in Brazil. METHODS: This is a National cross-sectional multicenter study with a representative sample of 2,475 patients randomly selected from 26 public mental health services. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with physical violence and crude (OR and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence interval were estimated. Statistical level considered was 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime physical violence against mental patients was similar for women (57.6% and men (57.8%. Physical violence against women was independently associated with: previous psychiatric hospitalizations (aOR = 2.09, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.75, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.59, age of sexual debut (< 16 y.o. (aOR = 1.40, lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use (aOR = 2.08, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.73 and lifetime incarceration (aOR = 1.69. Among men, associated factors were: age (18-40 y.o. (aOR = 1.90, history of homelessness (aOR = 1.71, previous psychiatric hospitalization (aOR = 1.39, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.52, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.41, lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine (aOR = 1.54, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.47, lifetime history of incarceration (aOR = 2.07. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of physical violence in this population was high for both sexes. Although there were similar factors independently associated with physical violence among men and women, there are important differences, such as age of sexual debut and lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use for women, but not for men, while younger age, history of homelessness, and lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine were associated factors for men only. Screening for history of violence upon admission and early

  5. Neighborhood-level factors associated with physical dating violence perpetration: results of a representative survey conducted in Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F; Johnson, Renee M; Young, Robin; Weinberg, Janice; Azrael, Deborah; Molnar, Beth E

    2011-04-01

    Neighborhood-level characteristics have been found to be associated with different forms of interpersonal violence, but studies of the relationship between these characteristics and adolescent dating violence are limited. We examined 6 neighborhood-level factors in relation to adolescent physical dating violence perpetration using both adolescent and adult assessments of neighborhood characteristics, each of which was aggregated across respondents to the neighborhood level. Data came from an in-school survey of 1,530 public high school students and a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1,710 adult residents of 38 neighborhoods in Boston. Approximately 14.3% of the youth sample reported one or more acts of physical aggression toward a dating partner in the month preceding the survey. We calculated the odds of past-month physical dating violence by each neighborhood-level factor, adjusting for school clustering, gender, race, and nativity. In our first 6 models, we used the adolescent assessment of neighborhood factors and then repeated our procedures using the adult assessment data. Using the adolescent assessment data, lower collective efficacy (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.09-3.52), lower social control (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.07-3.43), and neighborhood disorder (AOR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05-1.35) were each associated with increased likelihood of physical dating violence perpetration. However, when we used the adult version of the neighborhood assessment data, no neighborhood factor predicted dating violence. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

  6. Nurses and workplace violence: nurses' experiences of verbal and physical abuse at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Angela D

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes nurses' experiences of violence and abuse in the workplace and the ways in which those experiences influence their abilities to care for patients. The original purpose of the research from which these findings derive was to explore nurses' work with abused women. The qualitative study utilizing a Social Constructivism approach was conducted in two countries: Canada and the United Kingdom. Forty-nine nurses from four clinical areas were interviewed, both in focus groups and individually, about factors influencing their care of abused women. In the course of the original study, the degree of verbal abuse and physical violence that nurses routinely encounter in their work became apparent. It also became clear that abuse against nurses is an important issue that has a significant impact on nurses' abilities to offer effective care. Findings indicated that nurses experience significant threat, frequently in the context of their work, at the hands of patients and their relatives; that verbal abuse is an almost daily occurrence; and that support from other healthcare professionals or from administration in addressing the issue, while improving somewhat, is inadequate. This work has implications not only for nurses' health and safety but also, in the broader sense, for the profession's ability to attract and retain nurses within the healthcare system.

  7. Examining Explanations for the Link Between Bullying Perpetration and Physical Dating Violence Perpetration: Do They Vary by Bullying Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8–10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N =2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. PMID:26299840

  8. Examining explanations for the link between bullying perpetration and physical dating violence perpetration: Do they vary by bullying victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad S; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Basile, Kathleen C; Ennett, Susan T; Faris, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8-10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N = 2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Epidemiological, clinical and forensic physical violence against women in Tambacounda (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leye, M M M; Ndiaye, P; Ndiaye, D; Seck, I; Faye, A; Tal Dia, A

    2017-06-01

    To contribute to the fight against physical violence against women, this work aimed to make a 10-year review of cases treated at the Regional Court of Tambacounda. This observational, retrospective, descriptive and analytical study was conducted from 15 October 2014 to 15 April 2015. It covered all the court records of victims of intentional injury from 2006 to 2015. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi info 3.3.2 software. In all, 113 cases were treated. The mean age was 26.5±10.08 years for victims versus 32.5±13.8 years for the aggressors. The victims were all female, and 77.9% of offenders were male. The assaults took place mostly during the day (57.5%), and especially in the homes of victims (61.0%), in the street (16.8%) in the bush (12.4%). The consultation period was less than 24hours for 54.9% of the victims. Clinical examination differentiated: fractures (15%); contusions (13.5%); penetrating wounds (10.6%); bruises (9.7%); eye injuries (7.9%); broken teeth (7.9%); diffuse pains (7.1%), 6.2% polytrauma (6.2%), and 5.3% of trauma on pregnancies. Among the violence, 33.6% were domestic; 11.5% were associated with rape (7.1%); psychological violence (3.6%); rape and death threat (1.8%). Rape was statistically more common among child victims [OR=10.7 (3.2-35.5)] and/or educated victims [OR=5.8 (1.7-19.9)] and aggression in the bush [OR=7.5 (2.2 to 14.2)]. The attackers were lonely and imprisoned in 94.7% and 73.5% of cases respectively. The sentence was firm imprisonment for 89.2% of cases. In Tambacounda, health and judicial authorities should enhance public awareness concerning the risk of violence. The extension of this type of study to the national level would have enabled better orientation of control strategies against this scourge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Education and Income Imbalances Among Married Couples in Malawi as Predictors for Likelihood of Physical and Emotional Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnes, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem that is prevalent across the world. In many societies, power differentials in relationships, often supported by social norms that promote gender inequality, lead to incidents of intimate partner violence. Among other factors, both a woman's years of education and educational differences between a woman and her partner have been shown to have an effect on her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner abuse. Using the 2010 Malawian Demographic and Health Survey data to analyze intimate partner violence among 3,893 married Malawian women and their husbands, this article focuses on understanding the effect of educational differences between husband and wife on the likelihood of physical and emotional abuse within a marriage. The results from logistic regression models show that a woman's level of education is a significant predictor of her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence by her current husband, but that this effect is contingent on her husband's level of education. This study demonstrates the need to educate men alongside of women in Malawi to help decrease women's risk of physical and emotional intimate partner violence.

  11. Violence in Music Videos: Examining the Prevalence and Context of Physical Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stacy L.; Boyson, Aaron R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines violence in music video programming. Reveals that 15% of music videos feature violence, and most of that aggression is sanitized, not chastised, and presented in realistic contexts. Discusses the findings in terms of the risk that exposure to violence in each channel and genre may be posing to viewers' learning of aggression, fear, and…

  12. Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization among U.S. High School Students, 1999-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Xuan, Ziming

    2014-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious form of violence that places students at risk for injury, death, and negative mental health sequelae. The current analysis presents data on the prevalence of dating violence over a 12-year period among a nationally representative sample of high school-attending youth in the United States, stratified by race and gender.…

  13. Agreement on Reporting of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence among White, Black, and Hispanic Couples in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Field, Craig; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Lipsky, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    This article examines agreement on reports of male-to-female and female-to-male psychological, physical, and sexual violence among White, Black, and Hispanic couples in the United States. Using a probability sample, separate face-to-face interviews were conducted in respondents' homes with both members of 1,025 intact couples living in the 48…

  14. Risk and Protective Factors for Physical and Emotional Intimate Partner Violence against Women in a Community of Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Magaly Noblega

    2012-01-01

    This article shows risk and protective factors for both physical and emotional intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. The study was carried out in a shanty town of Lima, Peru, which has a strong community organization. One hundred ninety-two women between 25 and 59 years old (M = 34.09, SD = 6.5) were interviewed; 44.3% had secondary…

  15. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  16. Developmental links between trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Vitaro, F.; Barker, E.D.; Koot, H.M.; Tremblay, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Differences in developmental trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from ages 10 to 15 were studied. For females and for males, three trajectories of theft and of alcohol-drug use increased from 10 years to 15 years, while only the high trajectory of vandalism

  17. Developmental links between trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Vitaro, F.; Barker, E.D.; Koot, H.M.; Tremblay, R.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in developmental trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from ages 10 to 15 were studied. For females and for males, three trajectories of theft and of alcohol-drug use increased from 10 years to 15 years, while only the high trajectory of vandalism

  18. Developmental Links between Trajectories of Physical Violence, Vandalism, Theft, and Alcohol-Drug Use from Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Koot, Hans M.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in developmental trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from ages 10 to 15 were studied. For females and for males, three trajectories of theft and of alcohol-drug use increased from 10 years to 15 years, while only the high trajectory of vandalism increased from ten to 14. All trajectories of…

  19. Physical and sexual violence against children in Kenya within a cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewater, Grace

    2016-02-01

    The issue of physical and sexual abuse of children in Kenya is recognised as a highly prevalent and significant problem, occurring within a framework of social values that contribute to the exploitation of women and children. In order to understand the risk and protective factors for children who experience physical and sexual abuse, the cultural context must be taken into consideration. This paper will argue that patriarchy and traditional values underlie the norms and behaviours of parents and communities interacting with children. These values can be protective, eg the value placed on family structure; however, the traditional value-system justifies harsh physical punishment as a means of disciplining children. While systems exist to prevent abuse, these often disenfranchise the poor, who are then left to seek traditional means of support (eg out-of-court agreements and settlements). A culture of silence also prevents many children from reporting abuse. The paper argues that efforts must be made to gain a better understanding of the prevalence of child maltreatment in Kenya so that targeted services can be developed to reduce it, taking into consideration and overcoming negative cultural factors through the implementation of educational programmes and anti-oppressive practice. It is hoped that this paper will enable community practitioners and health visitors in the UK to provide better support to Kenyan children who are at risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence.

  20. Gender-Based Violence in Rural Uttar Pradesh, India: Prevalence and Association With Reproductive Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jaleel; Khan, M E; Mozumdar, Arupendra; Varma, Deepthi S

    2015-05-06

    This study explores the prevalence of different forms of domestic violence and their impact on women's reproductive health behavior in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. Data were collected as a part of a large household survey carried out in 2009-2010. A multistage stratified systematic sampling design was used. A total of 4,223 married women aged 15 to 49 years and 2,274 husbands of these women were interviewed. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. More than one third of married women in rural UP had experienced one or more forms of violence, such as verbal abuse, physical manhandling, and sexual abuse by their spouse. Nearly 47% of the women had experienced some form of violence during their last pregnancy. Significant associations were found between violence and incorrect reproductive health behaviors, pregnancy complications, poor birth preparedness, poor likelihood of institutional delivery, limited postnatal care, and limited spousal communication for family planning. After controlling for socio-economic variables in multivariate analysis, only pregnancy complications (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.40, 1.85]) and lack of delivery preparedness (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = [0.68, 0.93]) were found to be significantly associated with violence. Husband's attitude and reporting of violence by their wives in different situations were not significantly associated. This study provides evidence of the association of violence on the reproductive health behavior of married women in rural India. The results argue for frontline health workers to identify and counsel pregnant women experiencing violence during antenatal check-up to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. [Physical and psychological violence perpetration and violent victimisation in the German adult population: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlack, R; Rüdel, J; Karger, A; Hölling, H

    2013-05-01

    Violence is of considerable relevance to Public Health. It was the aim of the violence screening implemented as part of the"German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) to assess data on physical and psychological violence in various social environments (partnership, family, workplace, public space). For the first time as part of a nationally representative health survey, the data was collected from the perspective of victim and perpetrator both among women and men. The study population was comprised of 5939 participants aged between 18 and 64 years. Approximately every 20th participant reported being the victim of physical violence in the preceding 12 months, men significantly more frequently than women. With regard to the frequency of being the perpetrator of physical violence (overall prevalence 3.7 %) there were no significant differences between the sexes. Psychological victimisation was reported by every fifth participant and overall perpetrating psychological violence was reported by every tenth. Women tended to be more frequent the victims but they were also significantly more frequently the perpetrators of both physical and psychological violence in the domestic area (partnership, family). In contrast, men more frequently report being both the perpetrator and the victim of violence in the workplace and in the public space. Young adults between 18 and 29 years as well as persons of low socioeconomic status were consistently more frequently affected by violence although there were exceptions with regard to psychological violent victimisation. More than three-quarters of the victims of physical violence reported being greatly or extremely affected in their well-being by the violence and in the case of psychological violence the rate was about approximately 60%. Overall, the traumatic experience as a consequence of experiencing physical and psychological violence was considerably higher, especially in the case of domestic violence

  2. Examining the Intersection of Bullying and Physical Relationship Violence Among New York City High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Zachary J; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Davidson, Leslie L

    2017-01-01

    Research is just beginning to explore the intersection of bullying and relationship violence. The relationship between these forms of youth aggression has yet to be examined in diverse urban centers, including New York City (NYC). This study seeks to identify intersections of joint victimization from bullying and electronic bullying (e-bullying) with physical relationship violence (pRV). This study examines data from the NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a representative sample of NYC public high school students, to assess the concurrent victimization from bullying at school and e-bullying with pRV, operationalized as physical violence by a dating partner in the past 12 months. Students who reported being bullied at school and e-bullied had increased odds (bullied: OR = 2.5, 95% CI [2.1, 2.9]; e-bullied: OR = 3.0, 95% CI [2.6, 3.5]) of also being victimized by pRV compared with those who did not report being bullied or e-bullied. In logistic regression models, being bullied at school and being e-bullied remained significant predictors of students' odds of reporting pRV (bullied: AOR = 2.6, 95% CI [2.2, 3.1]; e-bullied: AOR = 3.0, 95% CI [2.5, 3.6]) while controlling for race, gender, sexual orientation, and age. This research is the first to assess the intersection of victimization from bullying and e-bullying with pRV in a large, diverse, random sample of urban high school students. In this sample, students who report being bullied or e-bullied are more likely also to report pRV than students who have not been bullied or e-bullied. This research has potential implications for educators, adolescent health and social service providers, and policy makers to tailor programs and enact policies that jointly address bullying and pRV. Future studies are needed to longitudinally assess both victimization from and perpetration of bullying and pRV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Spousal resemblance in psychopathology: A comparison of parents of children with and without psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseldijk, L. W.; Dieleman, G. C.; Lindauer, R. J. L.; Bartels, M.; Willemsen, G.; Hudziak, J. J.; Boomsma, D. I.; Middeldorp, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Spouses resemble each other for psychopathology, but data regarding spousal resemblance in externalizing psychopathology, and data regarding spousal resemblance across different syndromes (e.g. anxiety in wives and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] in husbands) are limited. Moreover,

  4. Intimate Partner Violence, Physical Health, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Quality of Life in Latinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly, Ursula

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purposes of this exploratory study were to a describe physical health symptoms and diagnoses in abused immigrant Latinas, b explore the relationships between the women’s physical health and their experiences of intimate partner violence, their history of childhood trauma, and their immigration status, and c explore the correlations between their physical health, health related quality of life (HRQOL, and mental health, specifically symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD.Methods: The convenience sample (n=33 for this cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of Latino women who were receiving emergency shelter and community-based services at a domestic violence services agency in the northeastern U.S. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationships between physical health variables and IPV type and severity, childhood and adulthood sexual abuse, and HRQOL.Results: All of the women experienced threatened abuse. More than two-thirds of the women experienced moderate to severe psychological abuse, moderate to severe physical abuse, and/or sexual abuse. Twenty women experienced all three types. Women endorsed one or more items in neuromuscular (69.7%, gastrointestinal (63.6%, and genitourinary/gynecologic (45.5% groupings. Pain was the most reported symptom: bodily pain in previous month (60%, repeated neck or back pain (54.5%, severe/frequent headaches (54.5%, and pelvic pain (21.2%. Eighty-one percent of women endorsed at least one pain item (mean=2.56 and the same number reported difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. Pain and sleeping difficulty, the two most frequently reported symptoms, were consistently and highly correlated with PTSD and MDD diagnoses and symptom severity and HRQOL. Childhood sexual abuse was significantly correlated with total pain symptoms (r=0.606; p=0.000 and difficulty sleeping (from the PTSD scale (r=0.349; p=0

  5. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  6. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  7. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES in eight countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Fleming

    Full Text Available This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806 that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC, men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  8. Risk factors for physical domestic violence in a high-prevalence HIV setting: findings from Project Accept baseline data (HPTN-043

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kevany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001, (ii two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001, (iii some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant, and (iv low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04 than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011. Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.

  9. Gender Differences in Dementia Spousal Caregiving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Maria Pöysti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating scale (CDR, neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI, cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P<0.001, and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P=0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P<0.001. However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P<0.001. Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.

  10. Experience of physical violence and mental health among young men and women: a population-based study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridh, Maria; Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2014-01-11

    In Sweden mental ill-health has increased among the young, especially among young women. Our aim was to investigate the association between experience of physical violence during the past year and self rated psychological health among young men and women. The study population consisted of men (n = 2,624) and women (n = 3,569) aged 18-34 years who participated in the 2008 public health survey study in Skåne. The survey was a cross-sectional stratified random sample postal questionnaire study with a 54.1% participation rate. Associations were investigated by logistic regression models. The prevalence of poor psychological health was 18.9% among men and 27.7% among women. One in ten men and one in twenty women had experienced physical violence during the past year. Most men were violated in public places, while women were most often violated at home. Women who had experienced violence during the past year showed more than doubled odds of poor psychological health, odds ratio (OR): 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.00, 3.53). Such an association could not be seen in men OR: 1.12 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.47). Adjustment for covariates (i.e. age, country of birth, socioeconomic status, economic stress, alcohol risk consumption, emotional support, instrumental support and generalized trust in other people) did not change the association found among women. Violated women, but not men, showed nearly doubled odds of poor psychological health after multiple adjustments. There was also a gender difference regarding location of violence. Awareness of gender differences regarding context and mental impact of violence may assist public health workers in reducing the consequences of violence and to design preventive strategies.

  11. Challenging assumptions about women's empowerment: social and economic resources and domestic violence among young married women in urban South India

    OpenAIRE

    Rocca, Corinne H; Rathod, Sujit; Falle, Tina; Pande, Rohini P; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2008-01-01

    Background Although considerable research has documented the widespread prevalence of spousal violence in India, little is known about specific risk or protective factors. This study examines the relationships between factors that are often considered to be social and economic resources for women and recent occurrence of domestic violence.

  12. Modeling the Distress of Spousal Caregivers of People with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrziczny, Emilie; Berna, Guillaume; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Pasquier, Florence; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    The progressive mobilization of spouse caregivers who take care of a person with dementia (PWD) can lead to situations of distress. The current study sought to investigate the influence of the characteristics of the caregiving context on spousal caregiver distress. 125 spousal caregivers participated in this study. The characteristics of the caregiving context were assessed using questionnaires. We examined a moderated-mediator model (Step 1) in which we hypothesized that PWD and caregiver characteristics and dyadic determinants contribute to spousal caregiver distress. This model was compared based on the age at onset of the disease and the gender of the caregiver (Step 2). The model revealed that poor self-rated health and a lack of family support accentuated spousal caregiver distress, whereas the feeling of being prepared and level of confidence decreased spousal caregiver distress. Moreover, the quality of couple adjustment affected spousal caregiver distress, and this effect was mediated by the severity of the PWD's symptoms. Regarding the age at onset of the disease, the path between Couple Adjustment and the Care recipient's impairments was more important for caregivers of person with early-onset dementia (PEOD). Female caregivers who reported poor self-rated health experienced greater distress. It would be interesting to create a support program that would incorporate these three areas of intervention regarding the progression of the disease: first, "preparedness modules"; second, "dyadic modules" (especially for caregivers of PEOD); and third, "family modules". Specific attention should be given to female caregivers who report poor self-rated health.

  13. Interparental violence and maternal mood disorders as predictors of adolescent physical aggression within the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P; Gold, Philip W; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-05-01

    Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents' physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. Aggr. Behav. 41:253-266, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Attitudes Justifying Domestic Violence Predict Endorsement of Corporal Punishment and Physical and Psychological Aggression towards Children: A Study in 25 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bradley, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Convention on the Rights of the Child has prompted countries to protect children from abuse and exploitation. Exposure to domestic violence and corporal punishment are risk factors in children’s development. This study investigated how women’s attitudes about domestic violence are related to attitudes about corporal punishment, and harsh behaviors toward children, and whether country-wide norms regarding domestic violence and corporal punishment are related to psychological aggression and physical violence toward children. Study design Data were drawn from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a nationally representative and internationally comparable household survey developed by UNICEF. Measures of domestic violence and discipline were completed by 85,999 female caregivers of children between the ages of 2 and 14 years from families in 25 low- and middle-income countries. Results Mothers who believed that husbands were justified in hitting their wives were more likely to believe that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children, and, in turn, were justified in hitting their wives and that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children were more likely to report that their child had experienced psychological aggression and physical violence. Countrywide norms regarding the acceptability of husbands hitting wives and advisability of corporal punishment moderated the links between mothers’ attitudes and their behaviors toward children. Conclusions Pediatricians can address parents’ psychological aggression and physical violence toward children by discussing parents’ attitudes and behaviors within a framework that incorporates social norms regarding the acceptability of domestic violence and corporal punishment. PMID:24412139

  15. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The relationship between physical intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infection among women in India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples.

  17. The relationship of bullying and physical violence to mental health and academic performance: A cross-sectional study among adolescents in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia AlBuhairan

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Bullying and physical violence among adolescent students in Saudi Arabia is prevalent and deserves special attention due to its harmful impact on the other aspects of students’ wellbeing.

  18. The relationship of bullying and physical violence to mental health and academic performance: A cross-sectional study among adolescents in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    AlBuhairan, Fadia; Abou Abbas, Oraynab; El Sayed, Donna; Badri, Motasim; Alshahri, Sulieman; de Vries, Nanne

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Bullying and physical violence are serious public health concerns witnessed during adolescence and are associated with several health and behavioral problems that can persist into adulthood. The relationship between bullying/physical violence and mental health/academic performance in Saudi Arabia is unknown. This study aims at filling this gap through identifying the association of these health risk behaviors and mental health and academic performance. Materials ...

  19. Physical Dating Violence: the potential understating value of a bi-factorial model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Viejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available National and international studies have pointed out Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS, Straus, 1979, 1996 as one of the most widely used measures for assessing the strategies used in situations of conflict within young couples. Nevertheless, there is not any conclusive result about its structure. Especially the physical dating violence scale has undergone several structural analyses providing monofactorial and bifactorial structures. The aim of this study was focusing on the validation of structural models using confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA of CTS within adolescent couples, considering the differences between boys and girls and between aggressors and victims. 3258 adolescents, aged 15-21, were selected using a stratified random sample and interviewed using an adaptation of the CTS questionnaire. The results pointed out that it is not possible to identify a single model fit, but boys and girls, aggressor and victims, have the same pattern: a bifactorial model which establishes different but correlated moderate aggressive behaviors and severe aggressive behaviors. These results are discussed in terms of the potential value of this two factor structure for understanding the phenomenon.

  20. Physical violence against children with hearing loss by parents: A pilot study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Jingqi; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yichen

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to examine the rate and risk factors for physical violence (PV) by parents against hearing loss children in Beijing, China. Cross-sectional study was carried out among 86 couples of parents of hearing loss children from two special education schools in Beijing. Parents' self-reporting questionnaires were used to collect information about parental PV behaviors during the past 12 months, definition of child abuse, attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment to discipline children, parents' childhood experience of PV victimization, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The rates of minor PV and severe PV reported by parents were 44.8% and 15.7%, respectively. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that the risk factors of PV were: lower educational attainment, favorable or tolerant attitudes towards the use of corporal punishment to discipline children, parents' experiences of PV victimization in childhood, and younger children. PV by parents against hearing loss children was common in Beijing. It is urgent to develop prevention programs to improve parents' parenting skills and protect children with hearing loss from PV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the Responsible, Engaged, and Loving (REAL) Fathers Initiative on Physical Child Punishment and Intimate Partner Violence in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Kim; Kerner, Brad; Ojamuge, Dickens; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2017-10-01

    Violence against women and violence against children in Uganda are recognized as significant public health concerns. Exposure to violence at home as a child can increase the likelihood of perpetrating or experiencing violence later in life. These two forms of violence share similar risk factors and often, but not always, co-occur at the household level. Parenting programs have shown promise in reducing physical child punishment. Targeting men has also been proven effective in transforming attitudes related to gender roles and expectations and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. The REAL Fathers Initiative is a 12-session father mentoring program implemented by volunteers that is designed to reduce child exposure to violence at home, breaking the cycle of intergenerational violence. Evaluation results comparing survey data among men exposed to the intervention and those unexposed demonstrate significant reductions in IPV at end line (aOR 0.48, CI 0.31, 0.76, p < 0.001) and over the longer term follow-up (aOR 0.47, CI 0.31, 0.77, p < 0.001) and significant reductions in physical child punishment at long-term follow-up (aOR 0.52, CI 0.32, 0.82, p < 0.001).

  2. Spousal Recollections of Early Signs of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Margaret; Douglas, Jacinta; Ames, David

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by progressive loss of language and communication skills, knowledge about the earliest emerging signs announcing the onset of this condition is limited. Aims: To explore spousal recollections regarding the earliest signs of PPA and to compare the nature of the earliest…

  3. Does spousal participation in Gamblers Anonymous benefit compulsive gamblers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E E; Nora, R M

    1992-12-01

    Extent of gambling-free periods was compared for 90 compulsive gamblers, 44 with spouses who participated in Gamblers Anonymous and 46 with spouses who did not. Although the results were in the direction of a beneficial effect of spousal participation, the relationship was statistically nonsignificant.

  4. Influence of Spousal Communication on Marital Stability: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is often said that the home is the basic unit of the larger society. Thus when the home is settled, the society is at peace. The main focus of this study was to find out the influence of spousal communication on marital stability: Implications for Conducive Home Environment. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled ...

  5. Owners' Dynamic Capabilities and Spousal Resources in Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explores the relationship between spousal resources and franchisees' dynamic capabilities using both in-depth interviews and questionnaires from the convenience store franchisees in Taiwan. Franchising is recognized as one of the fastest paths to success for a small business, and many owners of the franchise ...

  6. Effect of male partner's support on spousal modern contraception in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: As efforts continue to increase contraceptive uptake, male partner support remains important in spousal modern contraceptive use. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional survey involving women on modern contraception was conducted at the family planning clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, ...

  7. The relationships between harsh physical punishment and child maltreatment in childhood and intimate partner violence in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Sareen, Jitender; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2017-05-23

    Physical punishment of children is an important public health concern. Yet, few studies have examined how physical punishment is related to other types of child maltreatment and violence across the lifespan. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine if harsh physical punishment (i.e., being pushed, grabbed, shoved, hit, and/or slapped without causing marks, bruises, or injury) is associated with an increased likelihood of more severe childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV)) in childhood and perpetration or victimization of IPV in adulthood. Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 to 2005 (n = 34,402, response rate = 86.7%), a representative United States adult sample. Harsh physical punishment was associated with increased odds of childhood maltreatment, including emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to IPV after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, family history of dysfunction, and other child maltreatment types (range 1.6 to 26.6). Harsh physical punishment was also related to increased odds of experiencing IPV in adulthood (range 1.4 to 1.7). It is important for parents and professionals working with children to be aware that pushing, grabbing, shoving, hitting, or slapping children may increase the likelihood of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to IPV in childhood and also experiencing IPV victimization and/or perpetration in later adulthood.

  8. The relationships between harsh physical punishment and child maltreatment in childhood and intimate partner violence in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracie O. Afifi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical punishment of children is an important public health concern. Yet, few studies have examined how physical punishment is related to other types of child maltreatment and violence across the lifespan. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine if harsh physical punishment (i.e., being pushed, grabbed, shoved, hit, and/or slapped without causing marks, bruises, or injury is associated with an increased likelihood of more severe childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV in childhood and perpetration or victimization of IPV in adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 to 2005 (n = 34,402, response rate = 86.7%, a representative United States adult sample. Results Harsh physical punishment was associated with increased odds of childhood maltreatment, including emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to IPV after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, family history of dysfunction, and other child maltreatment types (range 1.6 to 26.6. Harsh physical punishment was also related to increased odds of experiencing IPV in adulthood (range 1.4 to 1.7. Conclusions It is important for parents and professionals working with children to be aware that pushing, grabbing, shoving, hitting, or slapping children may increase the likelihood of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to IPV in childhood and also experiencing IPV victimization and/or perpetration in later adulthood.

  9. A Walk in the Park: The Influence of Urban Parks and Community Violence on Physical Activity in Chelsea, MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y. Ou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximity to a park does not necessarily imply access or use, and the social environment may positively or negatively influence the positive intentions of the built environment. To investigate parks, park use and physical activity, and their associations with exposure to community violence, we interviewed residents (n = 354 of a densely populated urban community. Our findings indicate that proximity to any park is not associated with physical activity. However, proximity to the preferred park reported by residents to be conducive for physical activity (with walking paths, large fields, playgrounds for children and tennis courts was associated with physical activity. Conversely, knowledge of sexual assault or rape in the neighborhood is inversely associated with every type of physical activity (park-based, outdoor, and indoor. Our findings suggest that improvements to the built environment (parks, green spaces may be hindered by adverse social environments and both are necessary for consideration in the design of public health interventions.

  10. The impact of dementia and mild memory impairment (MMI) on intimacy and sexuality in spousal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen D; Newkirk, Lori A; Pitts, Christiane B; Coughlin, Christine A; Sridhar, Sneha B; Zeiss, L McKenzie; Zeiss, Antonette M

    2010-06-01

    Sexuality and intimacy in couples in which one partner is affected by dementia has been widely researched. Few studies have explored these issues in couples where one partner is affected by mild memory impairment (MMI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The objectives of this study were to (1) identify and contrast issues of intimacy and sexuality that spousal caregivers of persons with MMI and dementia may experience, and (2) identify future lines of research in this population. Fourteen dementia and nine MMI spousal caregivers participated in focus groups conducted between 2008 and 2009 at the Stanford/VA Alzheimer's Research Center. Content analyses were conducted to identify themes. Five themes emerged: communication, marital cohesion, affectional expression, caregiver burden, and ambiguity concerning the future of the relationship. Dementia caregivers reported more difficulties with communication, cohesion, and perceptions of increased burden than their MMI counterparts. Both groups indicated reduced sexual expression due to physical limitations; substitute activities including hand-holding, massaging, and hugging were noted. Both groups reported difficulty anticipating the future of the relationship due to present stressors. While dementia caregivers could consider future romantic relationships with others, MMI caregivers were primarily able to consider future relationships only for companionship and emotional intimacy. Early therapeutic interventions may assist couples in modifying activities, behaviors, and expectations about the future of the relationship. Such modifications may help maintain relationship satisfaction, decrease burden, preserve quality of life, and delay time-to-placement. Extending time-to-placement could have cost savings implications for families and the healthcare system.

  11. Sources, incidence and effects of non-physical workplace violence against nurses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo, Isaac Mensah; Hancock, Peter; Gringart, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    To document the incidence, sources and effects of workplace verbal abuse and sexual harassment against Ghanaian nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ghana from 2013-2014 which surveyed 592 professional nurses and midwives working in public hospitals in Ghana using the health sector violence questionnaire. The majority of participants were females (80%). The average age of participants was 31·76 years and the average number of years practising as nurse was 7·38. Twelve per cent of the participants experienced at least one incident of sexual harassment and 52·2% were exposed to verbal abuse. The majority of perpetrators of sexual harassment were medical doctors (50%). Relatives of patients emerged as the most frequent verbal abusers (45·5%). Chi-square test showed statistically significant associations between gender and workplace violence and between workplace violence and intention to quit the nursing profession. The effects of workplace violence ranged from having disturbing memories about the incident to being 'super alert' and vigilant. Establishing the incidence of workplace violence is a necessary step towards addressing the problem. It is concluded that educational programs must be designed for healthcare workers and the general public to foster awareness of the effects of workplace violence. Clear policies must also be instituted to address the problem.

  12. Prevalence and risk of violence and the physical, mental, and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân Oram

    Full Text Available There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people.We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%-42.4% in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I² = 83.7%. Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability.Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches.

  13. Prevalence and risk of violence and the physical, mental, and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Stöckl, Heidi; Busza, Joanna; Howard, Louise M; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people. We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%-42.4%) in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I² = 83.7%). Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability. Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches.

  14. Relation between childhood maltreatment and severe intrafamilial male-perpetrated physical violence in Chinese community: the mediating role of borderline and antisocial personality disorder features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Yalin; Brady, Heward John; Cao, Yuping; He, Ying; Zhang, Yingli

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) features as mediators of the effects of childhood maltreatment on severe intrafamilial physical violence amongst Chinese male perpetrators. A cross-sectional survey and face-to-face interview were conducted to examine childhood maltreatment, personality disorder features, impulsivity, aggression, and severe intrafamilial physical violence in a community sample of 206 abusive men in China. The results suggest that ASPD or BPD features mediate between childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence perpetration in Chinese abusive men. These findings may yield clinical and forensic implications for assessing the psychopathology of abusive men, and may steer the intervention of intimate partner violence. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Challenging assumptions about women's empowerment: social and economic resources and domestic violence among young married women in urban South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Rathod, Sujit; Falle, Tina; Pande, Rohini P; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2009-04-01

    Although considerable research has documented the widespread prevalence of spousal violence in India, little is known about specific risk or protective factors. This study examines the relationships between factors that are often considered to be social and economic resources for women and recent occurrence of domestic violence. Data were collected from 744 young married women in slum areas of Bangalore, India. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with having been hit, kicked or beaten by one's husband in the past 6 months. Over half (56%) of the study participants reported having ever experienced physical domestic violence; about a quarter (27%) reported violence in the past 6 months. In a full multivariable model, women in 'love' marriages (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5) and those whose families were asked for additional dowry after marriage (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.4) were more likely to report domestic violence. Women who participated in social groups (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.4) and vocational training (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.7-5.8) were also at higher risk. Efforts to help women empower themselves through vocational training, employment opportunities and social groups need to consider the potential unintended consequences for these women, such as an increased risk of domestic violence. The study findings suggest that the effectiveness of anti-dowry laws may be limited without additional strategies that mobilize women, families and communities to challenge the widespread acceptance of dowry and to promote gender equity. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the complex causal relationships between 'love' marriages and domestic violence.

  16. Physical and Sexual Teen Dating Violence Victimization and Sexual Identity Among U.S. High School Students, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana; Kann, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth are at risk for many negative behaviors associated with teen dating violence victimization (TDVV). This study describes the prevalence of physical and sexual TDVV by sexual identity and quantifies the increased risk for TDVV among LGB youth compared with heterosexual youth. The participants for this study were students in Grades 9 to 12 participating in the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) who responded to questions ascertaining sexual identity and both physical and sexual TDVV. Data were analyzed by sexual identity, stratified by sex, and controlled for race/ethnicity and grade in school. Frequencies of physical and sexual TDVV and prevalence of TDVV from a combined TDVV measure were calculated. Associations between these behaviors and sexual identity were identified. Generally, LGB youth had greater prevalence and frequency of TDVV compared with heterosexual youth. Prevalence of TDVV within sexual identity subgroups further differed by sex. Students who were not sure of their sexual identity had the highest risk of most categories of TDVV when adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school. These results are the first to use a nationally representative sample to describe frequency of TDVV and to determine prevalence of a combined physical and sexual TDVV measure by sexual identity among youth. Schools, communities, and families can help prevent teen dating violence and ameliorate the potential impacts of these victimizations.

  17. Spousal Breadwinning Across 30 Years of Marriage and Husbands' Health: A Gendered Life Course Stress Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W; Lee, Chioun; Carr, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    Wives increasingly outearn their husbands, and gender relations theory suggests this arrangement may undermine men's well-being. We explore how long-term histories of spousal breadwinning may be associated with older men's self-rated mental and physical health, and risk of nine health diagnoses. Using 30 years of couple-level income data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 1,095 couples), we use latent class analyses to identify six classes that differ with respect to the timing and level of wife breadwinning. We link these classes to older husbands' later-life health. Classes that transitioned from husband breadwinning to wife breadwinning in early or later adulthood were associated with husbands' poorer overall physical health and risk of cardiometabolic and stress-related diseases. Patterns persist net of sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and adolescent health. Violating cultural expectations, such as the masculinity ideal of male breadwinning, is associated with older men's poorer health.

  18. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  19. Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Elena Andreyeva; Eugenia C. South; John M. MacDonald; Charles C. Branas

    2018-01-01

    Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical,...

  20. The co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment: a mediational model of posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to identify 4 patterns of women's lifetime experiences of violence co-occurrence. The 1st cluster experienced relatively low levels of all 4 forms of violence; the 2nd group, high levels of all 4 forms; the 3rd, sexual revictimization across the lifespan with adult sexual harassment; and the 4th, high intimate partner violence with sexual harassment. This cluster solution was validated in a theoretically driven model that examined the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a mediator of physical health symptomatology. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that PTSD fully mediated the relationship between violence and physical health symptomatology. Consistent with a bio-psycho-immunologic theoretical model, PTSD levels more strongly predicted pain-related physical health symptoms compared to nonpain health problems. Implications for clinical interventions to prevent PTSD and to screen women for histories of violence in health care settings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. The nature and scope of stressful spousal caregiving relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda Lindsey; Gilliss, Catherine L; Deshefy-Longhi, Tess; Chestnutt, Deborah H; Molloy, Margory

    2011-05-01

    The caregiving literature provides compelling evidence that caregiving burden and depressive symptoms are linked with stressful care relationships, however, relational difficulties around caregiving are seldom described in the literature. This article presents findings from content analysis of baseline interviews with 40 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) spousal caregivers enrolled in a home care skill-training trial who identified their care relationship as a source of care burden. Disappointment and sadness about the loss of the relationship; tension within the relationship; and care decision conflicts within the relationship were recurrent themes of relational stress in caregiving. These spousal caregivers had relationship quality scores below the mean and burden and depressive symptom scores above the means of other caregivers in the study. These findings provide support for developing dyadic interventions that help spouses manage relational losses, care-related tensions, and care decision-making conflicts.

  2. Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102,839). The res......The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102......,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage...... is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage....

  3. Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars H?jsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965?1985 (N?=?102,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more tha...

  4. Domestic Violence, Risky Family Environment and Children: A Bio-Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Olusegun Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Though a large body of research has investigated the impacts of domestic violence on adult victims only few studies have been devoted to the exposure of children to probable inter-spousal trauma that disrupt their neurological and biochemical pathways in development. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current empirical research that discusses…

  5. Measuring Physical Violence and Rape Against Somali Women Using the Neighborhood Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela; Stark, Lindsay; Roberts, Leslie; Boothby, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to estimate prevalence of gender-based violence (GBV) among female Somalis in Ethiopian refugee camps and host communities, compare prevalence in camps and communities, and compare prevalence in flight and in camp. Systematic random sampling was used to select households in Awbare camp (n = 85), Awbare town (n = 76), and Kebribeyah camp (n = 83). GBV was common and overwhelmingly domestic. Prevalence was higher in Awbare town than Kebribeyah camp. Women were at increased risk of GBV in camp compared with in flight. The domestic nature of GBV in humanitarian settings requires attention. Assumptions about violence in humanitarian settings should be further tested. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Verbal abuse and physical assault in the emergency department: Rates of violence, perceptions of safety, and attitudes towards security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Bradley; Affleck, Julia

    2017-08-01

    Emergency Department (ED) workers are prone to occupational violence, however the extent and impact of this may not be evenly felt across all roles in the ED. Explore: 1) the rate of verbal abuse and physical assaults experienced by ED staff, 2) perceptions of safety, 3) attitudes towards security officers, and 4) formal reporting of incidents. 330 ED workers were surveyed at four public hospitals in one metropolitan health service district in Queensland, Australia, including 179 nurses, 83 medical staff, 44 administration staff, 14 allied health, and 9 operational. Nurses were more likely to have been physically assaulted in the last six months and were less likely to feel safe. Most ED staff across all roles experienced verbal abuse. Nurses were better than medical staff at reporting instances of occupational violence although overall reporting across all roles was low. Staff who thought that security officers respond to incidents quickly and are a visible presence in the ED were more likely to feel safe in the ED. Workers in the ED, particularly nurses, experience high rates of verbal abuse and physical aggression and there may be a case for having designated security guards in the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between soldiers' PTSD symptoms and spousal communication during deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard

    2011-06-01

    Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Attitudes justifying domestic violence predict endorsement of corporal punishment and physical and psychological aggression towards children: a study in 25 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Bradley, Robert H

    2014-05-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child has prompted countries to protect children from abuse and exploitation. Exposure to domestic violence and corporal punishment are risk factors in children's development. This study investigated how women's attitudes about domestic violence are related to attitudes about corporal punishment and harsh behaviors toward children, and whether country-wide norms regarding domestic violence and corporal punishment are related to psychological aggression and physical violence toward children. Data were drawn from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a nationally representative and internationally comparable household survey developed by the United Nations Children's Fund. Measures of domestic violence and discipline were completed by 85 999 female caregivers of children between the ages of 2 and 14 years from families in 25 low- and middle-income countries. Mothers who believed that husbands were justified in hitting their wives were more likely to believe that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children. Mothers who believed that husbands were justified in hitting their wives and that corporal punishment is necessary to rear children were more likely to report that their child had experienced psychological aggression and physical violence. Countrywide norms regarding the acceptability of husbands hitting wives and advisability of corporal punishment moderated the links between mothers' attitudes and their behaviors toward children. Pediatricians can address parents' psychological aggression and physical violence toward children by discussing parents' attitudes and behaviors within a framework that incorporates social norms regarding the acceptability of domestic violence and corporal punishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Loss of coping resources and psychological distress in spouses of alcohol dependents following partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A study to assess the psychological distress of married women due to their spousal violence under alcohol dependence. This study is aimed at studying partner violence, various coping styles and psychological distress among spouses of men with alcohol dependence and to explore the association between partner violence and coping behaviour. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 wives of alcohol dependent individuals in the age range of 20-50 years, who were divided into two groups based on the duration of drinking of their husbands. They were assessed by GHQ-12, Measure of Wife Abuse, Coping with Drinking Questionnaire and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results: Partner alcohol use was associated with increased psychological distress in their spouses and they have used both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. Conclusion: Alcohol plays a role in partner violence and spousal mental distress resulting in loss of their coping resources.

  10. Problem drinking and physical intimate partner violence against women: evidence from a national survey in Uganda

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    Tumwesigye Nazarius

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem drinking has been identified as a major risk factor for physical intimate partner violence (PIPV in many studies. However, few studies have been carried on the subject in developing countries and even fewer have a nationwide perspective. This paper assesses the patterns and levels of PIPV against women and its association with problem drinking of their sexual partners in a nationwide survey in Uganda. Methods The data came from the women’s dataset in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey of 2006. Problem drinking among sexual partners was defined by women’s reports that their partner got drunk sometimes or often and served as the main independent variable while experience of PIPV by the women was the main dependent variable. In another aspect problem drinking was treated an ordinal variable with levels ranging from not drinking to getting drunk often. A woman was classified as experiencing PIPV if her partner pushed or shook her; threw something at her; slapped her; pushed her with a fist or a harmful object; kicked or dragged her, tried to strangle or burn her; threatened/attacked her with a knife/gun or other weapon. General chi-square and chi-square for trend analyses were used to assess the significance of the relationship between PIPV and problem drinking. Multivariate analysis was applied to establish the significance of the relationship of the two after controlling for key independent factors. Results Results show that 48% of the women had experienced PIPV while 49.5% reported that their partners got drunk at least sometimes. The prevalence of both PIPV and problem drinking significantly varied by age group, education level, wealth status, and region and to a less extent by occupation, type of residence, education level and occupation of the partner. Women whose partners got drunk often were 6 times more likely to report PIPV (95% CI: 4.6-8.3 compared to those whose partners never drank alcohol. The

  11. The Effects of Music Videos on Adolescent Meaning Construction and Attitudes toward Physical Violence as a Method of Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marilyn A.

    This study addressed the problem of sexism and violence in music videos that present conflict resolutions in domestic violence situations. Research suggests a positive relationship between violence in the home coupled with violence on television and subsequent aggression in individuals. This study examined the effects of this conflict resolution…

  12. Factors associated with intimate partner physical violence among women attending antenatal care in Shire Endaselassie town, Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study, July 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrezgi, Berhane Hailu; Badi, Marta Berta; Cherkose, Endashaw Admassu; Weldehaweria, Negassie Berhe

    2017-06-24

    Intimate partner physical violence is a common global phenomenon. About 30.00% and 38.83% of women in the world and in sub-Saharan Africa experienced physical violence by their partner respectively in 2013. Though intimate partner violence has serious adverse health consequences, there is limited information about partner violence during pregnancy in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalnce of physical intimate partner violence during pregnancy and associated factors among women attending antenatal care in Shire Endaselassie town, Tigray, northen Ethiopia METHODS: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 3 to July 6, 2015. Four hundred and twenty-two pregnant women attending three public health facilities were included using systematic sampling technique. In addition, twenty-two purposely selected key informants were interviewed. The data collectors and supervisors were trained on all data collection processes. Data were entered to Epi-Info version 7.1.2.00 and exported to SPSS version 20.00. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with intimate partner physical violence. Statistical significance was declared at p marriage greater than or equal to 17 years (AOR = 4.42, CI = 2.07, 9.42), women with no formal education (AOR = 2.78 CI = 1.10, 7.08), rural dwellers (AOR = 2.63 CI = 1.24, 5.58), intimate partners with no formal education (AOR = 2.78 CI = 1.10, 7.08) and intimate partner alcohol consumption (AOR = 3.8 CI = 1.85, 7.82) were factors associated with intimate partner physical violence towards pregnant women. Nearly one fifth of women surveyed experienced intimate partner physical violence during pregnancy. Early marriage, rural dwelling, intimate partner alcohol consumption, and educational status were associated with intimate partner physical violence during pregnancy. Urgent attention to women's rights and health is essential at all levels to alleviate the problem

  13. A qualitative investigation into nurses' perceptions of factors influencing staff injuries sustained during physical interventions employed in response to service user violence within one secure learning disability service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Andrew; Smith, Debra; Johnson, Paula

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine learning disability nurses' perceptions of incidents involving physical intervention, particularly factors contributing to injuries sustained by this group. This article reports on a qualitative study undertaken within one secure NHS Trust to respond to concerns about staff injuries sustained during physical interventions to prevent incidents of service user violence from escalating out of control. The context of the study relates to increasing debate about the most effective approaches to incidents of violence and agression. A qualitative research design was utilized for the study. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 20 participants, two from each of the 10 incidents involving staff injury sustained during physical intervention. Four themes were produced by the analysis, the first, knowledge and understanding, contextualized the other three, which related to the physical intervention techniques employed, the interpretation of the incident and the impact on staff. Service user violence consistently poses nurses with the challenge of balancing the need to respond in order to maintain the safety of everyone whilst simultaneous supporting and caring for people with complex needs. This study highlights the need for further exploration of the contributory factors to the escalation of potentially violent situations. Services may have good systems in place for responding to and managing service user violence but appear less effective in understanding the reasons for and developing strategies to prevent violence occurring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizire, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the prevalence of violence against women in Uganda. The incidence of violence against women has been increasing despite efforts by law enforcement orders. In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical integrity or freedom of movement. Violence against women is considered as an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Moreover, the act violates and impairs women's rights and fundamental freedoms. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, limit the ability to make choices on women's lives.

  15. Early father–daughter relationship and demographic determinants of spousal marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsheikh Ali A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Alsheikh Ali,1 Fawzi Shaker Daoud2 1Counseling Psychology Program, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Hashemite University, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan Abstract: This study examined several dimensions of early father–daughter relationship as predictors of marital satisfaction among 494 respondents. Descriptive comparative approach was used in result analysis. The Father Presence Questionnaire and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire were used, in addition to a number of demographic variables. Results showed that only physical relationship with the father, and perceptions of father’s influence, had a positive significant impact on wives’ marital satisfaction. Of all domains, only positive feelings about the father had a negative impact on the husband's marital satisfaction. Most demographic variables had statistically significant effect on marital satisfaction. Sociocultural implications for marital satisfaction for wives and husbands are discussed. Keywords: early father–daughter relationship, demographic, spousal marital satisfaction

  16. Does the Good Schools Toolkit Reduce Physical, Sexual and Emotional Violence, and Injuries, in Girls and Boys equally? A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Parkes, Jenny; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Naker, Dipak

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the Good School Toolkit reduced emotional violence, severe physical violence, sexual violence and injuries from school staff to students, as well as emotional, physical and sexual violence between peers, in Ugandan primary schools. We performed a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment. Forty-two schools in one district were allocated to intervention (n = 21) or wait-list control (n = 21) arms in 2012. We did cross-sectional baseline and endline surveys in 2012 and 2014, and the Good School Toolkit intervention was implemented for 18 months between surveys. Analyses were by intention to treat and are adjusted for clustering within schools and for baseline school-level proportions of outcomes. The Toolkit was associated with an overall reduction in any form of violence from staff and/or peers in the past week towards both male (aOR = 0.34, 95%CI 0.22-0.53) and female students (aOR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.36-0.84). Injuries as a result of violence from school staff were also lower in male (aOR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.20-0.65) and female students (aOR = 0.51, 95%CI 0.29-0.90). Although the Toolkit seems to be effective at reducing violence in both sexes, there is some suggestion that the Toolkit may have stronger effects in boys than girls. The Toolkit is a promising intervention to reduce a wide range of different forms of violence from school staff and between peers in schools, and should be urgently considered for scale-up. Further research is needed to investigate how the intervention could engage more successfully with girls.

  17. Gender-based violence in Egypt: analyzing impacts of political reforms, social, and demographic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosetti, Elena; Abu Amara, Nisrin; Condon, Stéphanie

    2013-03-01

    Over recent decades, Egypt has witnessed developments in gender equality. This article discusses recent changes relating to violence against women within this context. Statistical data from the Egyptian DHS surveys is used to describe trends in reported violence and in attitudes toward marital abuse, as well as to examine the survey tools used to measure violence. While findings reflect a growing awareness regarding the issue, the number of women reporting spousal violence remained stable during the study period. The results are contextualized within the political and social debate in which NGO's and women's rights activists play a central role.

  18. Smartphone-Based Conversational Agents and Responses to Questions About Mental Health, Interpersonal Violence, and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Adam S; Milstein, Arnold; Schueller, Stephen; Hegde, Roshini; Mangurian, Christina; Linos, Eleni

    2016-05-01

    Conversational agents are smartphone-based computer programs designed to respond to users in natural language, thereby mimicking conversations between people. Many people use their smartphones to obtain health information. To describe the responses of 4 widely used conversational agents (Siri [Apple], Google Now, S Voice [Samsung], and Cortana [Microsoft]) to a standardized panel of questions related to mental health, interpersonal violence, and physical health. A pilot study followed by a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 68 phones from 7 manufacturers conducted from December 2015 to January 2016. Investigators asked the smartphones 9 questions (3 each in mental health, interpersonal violence, and physical health) in their natural language. We recorded information on features of the smartphones and their software, including manufacturer, phone model, operating system version, and conversational agent. The primary outcomes were the responses of conversational agents to 9 questions. The responses were characterized based on the ability to (1) recognize a crisis, (2) respond with respectful language, and (3) refer to an appropriate helpline, or other health resources for a physical health concern. Questions were asked repeatedly until there were no new answers. The phones ran 77 conversational agents: Siri (n = 27), Google Now (n = 31), S Voice (n = 9), and Cortana (n = 10). Siri, Google Now, and S Voice recognized the statement "I want to commit suicide" as concerning; Siri and Google Now referred the user to a suicide prevention helpline. In response to "I am depressed," Siri recognized the concern and responded with respectful language, the responses from S Voice and Cortana varied, and Google Now did not recognize the concern. None of the conversational agents referred users to a helpline for depression. In response to "I was raped," Cortana referred to a sexual assault hotline; Siri, Google Now, and S Voice did not recognize the

  19. Ecological pathways to prevention: How does the SASA! community mobilisation model work to prevent physical intimate partner violence against women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Abramsky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health concern. While community-level gender norms and attitudes to IPV are recognised drivers of IPV risk, there is little evidence on how interventions might tackle these drivers to prevent IPV at the community-level. This secondary analysis of data from the SASA! study explores the pathways through which SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women, achieved community-wide reductions in physical IPV. Methods From 2007 to 2012 a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRT was conducted in eight communities in Kampala, Uganda. Cross-sectional surveys of a random sample of community members, aged 18–49, were undertaken at baseline (n = 1583 and 4 years post intervention implementation (n = 2532. We used cluster-level intention to treat analysis to estimate SASA!’s community-level impact on women’s past year experience of physical IPV and men’s past year perpetration of IPV. The mediating roles of community-, relationship- and individual-level factors in intervention effect on past year physical IPV experience (women/perpetration (men were explored using modified Poisson regression models. Results SASA! was associated with reductions in women’s past year experience of physical IPV (0.48, 95 % CI 0.16–1.39, as well as men’s perpetration of IPV (0.39, 95 % CI 0.20–0.73. Community-level normative attitudes were the most important mediators of intervention impact on physical IPV risk, with norms around the acceptability of IPV explaining 70 % of the intervention effect on women’s experience of IPV and 95 % of the effect on men’s perpetration. The strongest relationship-level mediators were men’s reduced suspicion of partner infidelity (explaining 22 % of effect on men’s perpetration, and improved communication around sex (explaining 16 % of effect on women’s experience. Reduced acceptability of IPV

  20. Teens and young people with disabilities purchased physical violence: representations about disability

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    Fabiana Paulino Alves

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the representations of disability of adolescents and young people with disabilities acquired by violence. It was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was conducted in UBSF of Campina Grande, the period October 2011 to February 2012. In the universe of thirteen subjects, nine constituted the sample. Used as instruments form and semi-structured interviews. In the interviews we used the Content Analysis Categorical Theme ruled in the Theory of Social Representations. In the results, enunciated three categories are: representations on disability from anatomic changes; representations of feelings experienced disability and lack of representation of the term disability. The disability acquired in adolescence or youth as a result of violence brings indelible mark, representing biopsychosocial difficulties and limitations, compromising the quality of life.

  1. Violence today

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    Michel Wieviorka

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author seeks to approach contemporary violence in its most different expressions, including the use of the most recent developments in biology, bacteriology, chemistry and nuclear physics. The central idea is that violence changes, and with it the way it is perceived and how we react to it. The text, besides putting violence into a historical context, analyzes 1 the big transformation(s in the world: the end of the cold war, the new industrial structure and its consequences for the decline of the labor movement, globalization and the new forms of victimization; 2 in the second part, the author points to new approaches and characterizes novel contemporary subjects.

  2. Sleep Disturbance Partially Mediates the Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence and Physical/Mental Health in Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalley-Chareczko, Linden; Segal, Andrea; Perlis, Michael L; Nowakowski, Sara; Tal, Joshua Z; Grandner, Michael A

    2015-07-05

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a worldwide health concern and an important risk factor for poor mental/physical health in both women and men. Little is known about whether IPV leads to sleep disturbance. However, sleep problems may be common in the context of IPV and may mediate relationships with mental/physical health. Data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used (N = 34,975). IPV was assessed in female and male participants for any history of being threatened by, physically hurt by, or forced to have sex with an intimate partner (THREAT, HURT, and SEX, respectively), and, further, as being forced to have sex with or physically injured by an intimate partner within the past year (SEXyr and HURTyr, respectively). These survey items were coded yes/no. Sleep disturbance was assessed as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much at least 6 of the last 14 days. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, race, income, education, and physical/mental health, assessed whether IPV predicted sleep disturbance. Sobel-Goodman tests assessed whether relationships between IPV and physical/mental health were partially mediated by sleep disturbance. All IPV variables were associated with sleep disturbance, even after adjusting for the effects of age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, education, employment, marital status, physical health and mental health. THREAT was associated with sleep disturbance (odds ratio [OR] = 2.798, p mental health (p health (p mental health) to 41% (HURT and physical health). IPV was strongly associated with current sleep disturbance above the effect of demographics and overall mental/physical health, even if the IPV happened in the past. Furthermore, sleep disturbance partially mediates the relationship between IPV and mental/physical health. Sleep interventions may potentially mitigate negative effects of IPV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Emotional Expression and Spousal Support as Predictors of Marital Satisfaction: The Case of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedirir, Sabiha; Hamarta, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between spousal support and the ability to express feelings of marital satisfaction, and the extent to which spousal support and the ability to express feelings can predict marital satisfaction. Research was conducted in accordance with general survey models. The study group comprised 195 married couples (N =…

  4. Sources, incidence and effects of non?physical workplace violence against nurses in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Boafo, Isaac Mensah; Hancock, Peter; Gringart, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim To document the incidence, sources and effects of workplace verbal abuse and sexual harassment against Ghanaian nurses. Methods A cross?sectional study was conducted in Ghana from 2013?2014 which surveyed 592 professional nurses and midwives working in public hospitals in Ghana using the health sector violence questionnaire. Results The majority of participants were females (80%). The average age of participants was 31?76?years and the average number of years practising as nurse ...

  5. Prevalence and correlates of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Lingling; Jia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhe; Mu, Huitong; Liu, Xin; Peng, Boshi; Li, Anqi; Fan, Lihua

    2017-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological maladjustment to undergoing a traumatic event. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of PTSD among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence' and explore the associations of their demographic characteristics, social support, personality traits' and coping styles with their PTSD symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Workplace Violence Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire. We used convenience sampling method to collect data from March 2015 to September 2016. Healthcare workers (n=2706) from 39 public hospitals located in Heilongjiang, Hebei and Beijing provinces of China completed the questionnaires (effective response rate=84.25%). Overall, the prevalence of physical violence in the previous 12 months was 13.60% (n=2706). The prevalence of PTSD among the healthcare workers who experienced physical violence was 28.0% (n=368). Most of the victims of physical violence (50.80%) did not exhibit PTSD symptoms based on their PCL-C scores, and 47.0% did not manifest the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after experiencing physical violence. The level of PTSD symptoms was negatively correlated with their scores on the SSRS (r=-0.188, pwomen, positive coping was significantly associated with PTSD symptoms (β=-0.376, p=0.001). However, the effect of positive coping was not significant in men. The results suggest that the aftermath of physical violence contributes to the current prevalence of PTSD. The positive effects of social support on PTSD symptoms suggest that it has practical implications for interventions to promote psychological health. The healthcare workers' coping styles influenced the development of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, adopting effective coping styles and receiving social support have potential roles in the

  6. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YOUR RIGHTS Domestic Violence CONOZCA SUS DERECHOS La violencia doméstica For immediate help call National Domestic Violence ... different. Abuse can include: • physical attacks, including forced sexual relations • verbal abuse or harassment, including disre- spectful ...

  7. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  8. Sleep Disturbance Partially Mediates the Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence and Physical/Mental Health in Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalley-Chareczko, Linden; Segal, Andrea; Perlis, Michael L.; Nowakowski, Sara; Tal, Joshua Z.; Grandner, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a worldwide health concern and an important risk factor for poor mental/physical health in both women and men. Little is known about whether IPV leads to sleep disturbance. However, sleep problems may be common in the context of IPV and may mediate relationships with mental/physical health. Data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used (N = 34,975). IPV was assessed in female and male participants for any history of being threatened by, physically hurt by, or forced to have sex with an intimate partner (THREAT, HURT, and SEX, respectively), and, further, as being forced to have sex with or physically injured by an intimate partner within the past year (SEXyr and HURTyr, respectively). These survey items were coded yes/no. Sleep disturbance was assessed as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much at least 6 of the last 14 days. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, race, income, education, and physical/mental health, assessed whether IPV predicted sleep disturbance. Sobel–Goodman tests assessed whether relationships between IPV and physical/mental health were partially mediated by sleep disturbance. All IPV variables were associated with sleep disturbance, even after adjusting for the effects of age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, education, employment, marital status, physical health and mental health. THREAT was associated with sleep disturbance (odds ratio [OR] = 2.798, p Sleep disturbance partially mediated all relationships (Sobel p sleep disturbance above the effect of demographics and overall mental/physical health, even if the IPV happened in the past. Furthermore, sleep disturbance partially mediates the relationship between IPV and mental/physical health. Sleep interventions may potentially mitigate negative effects of IPV. PMID:26149676

  9. Women's Work, Gender Roles, and Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J; Thomas, Nicholas J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of women's labor force participation to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the past 12 months, using data for 20,635 currently married women aged 15-49 years from the 2013 nationally representative Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression models of sexual and physical IPV, with interactions between women's work and social norms regarding traditional gender roles, were developed. Approximately 23% of women aged 15-49 years reported IPV victimization in the past 12 months. Results revealed that non-cash work relative to unemployment was positively associated with both forms of IPV victimization, after controlling for other factors. Women's engagement in cash work was positively correlated with sexual IPV. The positive association between cash work and physical IPV victimization was significantly larger for women who resided in localities with greater male approval of wife beating. In localities where husband-dominated decision making was more common, a spousal education gap that favored husbands was more positively associated with sexual IPV. The findings call for integrated IPV prevention and economic empowerment programs that consider gender norms and gender-role beliefs and are adapted to the locality setting, in order to promote social environments in which women can reap the full benefits of their economic empowerment.

  10. The self-management balancing act of spousal care partners in the case of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sue; Chen, Tiffany; Eldridge, Jenna; Thomas, Cathi A; Habermann, Barbara; Tickle-Degnen, Linda

    2017-12-12

    Living with and caring for someone with chronic illness can lead to limitations in activity and social participation for the care partner. Past research emphasizes the importance of care partners taking care of themselves physically and emotionally so they can stay healthy to support the care recipient. There is little information regarding how the care partner takes care of their own social lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of social self-management from the perspective of spousal care partners of people with Parkinson's disease. Twenty spousal care partners of people with Parkinson's disease were interviewed three times. A grounded theory approach informed data analysis. Findings that emerged from the data focused on balance in activities, support, and emotions and were summarized into three main themes: (1) Activities: Caregiving and beyond; (2) Strategies to support self and spouse; and (3) Emotional impact: Burden and compassion. This research shows that care partners want to retain social participation and provides support for the importance of addressing the socio-emotional needs of care partners of people with a chronic disease. Interventions that guide care partners to take care of their spectrum of needs may lead to healthier, positive relationships. Implications for rehabilitation The focus of rehabilitation is often on the person diagnosed with the chronic condition. Living with and caring for someone with a chronic illness, such as Parkinson's disease, can lead to limitations in activity and social participation for the care partner. Including care partners in the rehabilitation process is key to helping maintain their health and well-being. Learning caregiving and self-management strategies may help care partners support their loved ones while staying socially engaged.

  11. Gender roles, physical and sexual violence prevention in primary extend to secondary school in Samutsakorn Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Suparp, Jarueyporn; Kittipichai, Wirin; Khajornchaikul, Piyathida

    2010-03-01

    To enhance positive attitude and life skills on gender roles to prevent physical and sexual violence. A whole school-based participatory learning program using a quasi-experimental study with pre and post test design was conducted among 2 schools during June-September, 2005. The experimental group, were 134 students in a primary school and 179 students in a secondary school. While the control group, were 122 students in a primary school and 95 students in a secondary school. Means score of attitude toward gender roles before implementation in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (p 0.05). Means paired different score (after-before) between the two groups was significantly different (p = 0.002). A whole school-based program on gender roles and violence prevention is suitable for youths and should be merged as school curricula and expanded as a nationwide program at all level of education. Gender equity should be taught at an early childhood. Parental involvement in school-based activities should be negotiated.

  12. Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen

    2015-04-01

    The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965-1985 (N = 102,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage.

  13. Canadian Mock Juror Attitudes and Decisions in Domestic Violence Cases Involving Asian and White Interracial and Intraracial Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Evelyn M.; Mossiere, Annik; Cheung, Liann

    2013-01-01

    This study manipulated the race of the defendant and the victim (White/White, White/Asian, Asian/Asian, and Asian/White) in a domestic violence case to examine the potential prejudicial impact of race on juror decision making. A total of 181undergraduate students read a trial transcript involving an allegation of spousal abuse in which defendant…

  14. Consanguinity and spousal concordance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Kandari, Y; Crews, D E; Poirier, F E

    2002-12-01

    Consanguineous marriage is favored in Kuwait. This research focuses on the relationship of physical and cultural traits to marriage types in Kuwait and examines concordance as a function of consanguinity and marriage duration. In a nonrandom opportunistic sample of 242 couples anthropometric and blood pressure data have been collected as well as data on acculturation, religiosity, Farsi proficiency, level of education, occupation, and attitudes regarding fertility. Significant concordances occur in cultural characteristics among couples in all three types of marriages with respect to the degree of religiosity, acculturation, language similarity, education, and occupation. Non-consanguineous spouses have the highest concordance in educational level, occupation, and degree of acculturation, but the lowest for religiosity and Farsi proficiency. Nonkin marriages seem to be based on personal preferences. In the wider potential nonkin marriage pool spouses show more concordance in stature and education indicating the positive assortative mating for those traits. Non-consanguineous spouses show a significant association for triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses hip and waist circumferences, and body fat distribution. Unrelated spouses exhibit more concordance for physical traits than do related spouses. There is a significant correlation between spouses in first and double cousin marriages as well as in spouses in second and less than second cousin unions for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while non-consanguineous spouses show a significant association in diastolic blood pressure only.

  15. Prevalence of physical intimate partner violence in the first six months after childbirth in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Claudia Leite de; Oliveira, Aline Gaudard E Silva de; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2017-08-21

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of physical intimate partner violence in the first six months after childbirth among women attending primary care clinics (UBS) for the infant's follow-up in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first study on the theme using a representative sample of primary care clinics in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The study used a cross-sectional design from June to September 2007 and included 927 mothers/infants seen at 27 UBS, selected by complex sampling, geographically representative of the city. The information was collected in face-to-face interviews by a previously trained team, using a structured questionnaire. History of physical intimate partner violence from the child's birth to the date of the interview was obtained with the Brazilian version of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Thirty percent (95%CI: 26.2-33.8) of mothers reported having experienced some form of physical intimate partner violence in the postpartum and 14% (95%CI: 11.0-17.0) reported severe physical violence. The physical abuse occurred especially among black teenage mothres, in unfavorable socioeconomic situation, that did not live with the partner and that had received inadequate or no prenatal care and reported difficulties in breastfeeding and use of healthcare services. The widespread occurrence of physical intimate partner violence emphasizes the urgent need to deal with the problem. Primary healthcare services must be linked to other support networks and health professionals need to be prepared to deal with the problem.

  16. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  17. Physical and Sexual Violence Affecting Female Sex Workers in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: Prevalence, and the Relationship with the Work Environment, HIV, and Access to Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Carrie E; Grosso, Ashley; Drame, Fatou M; Ketende, Sosthenes; Diouf, Daouda; Ba, Ibrahima; Shannon, Kate; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Bamba, Amara; Kouame, Abo; Baral, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Violence is a human rights violation, and an important measure in understanding HIV among female sex workers (FSW). However, limited data exist regarding correlates of violence among FSW in Côte d'Ivoire. Characterizing prevalence and determinants of violence and the relationship with structural risks for HIV can inform development and implementation of comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programs. FSW > 18 years were recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. In total, 466 participants completed a socio-behavioral questionnaire and HIV testing. Prevalence estimates of violence were calculated using crude and RDS-adjusted estimates. Relationships between structural risk factors and violence were analyzed using χ tests and multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of physical violence was 53.6% (250/466), and sexual violence was 43.2% (201/465) among FSW in this study. Police refusal of protection was associated with physical (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 4.4) and sexual violence (aOR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.8). Blackmail was associated with physical (aOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.2) and sexual violence (aOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.0). Physical violence was associated with fear (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.1) and avoidance of seeking health services (aOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8). Violence is prevalent among FSW in Abidjan and associated with features of the work environment and access to care. These relationships highlight layers of rights violations affecting FSW, underscoring the need for structural interventions and policy reforms to improve work environments, and to address police harassment, stigma, and rights violations to reduce violence and improve access to HIV interventions.

  18. Gambling and physical intimate partner violence: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda; Landon, Jason; Sharman, Stephen; Hakes, Jahn; Suomi, Aino; Cowlishaw, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and gambling problems are under researched in general population samples. Understanding these relationships will allow for improved identification and intervention. We investigated these relationships and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by axis I and II disorders. This study examined data from waves 1 and 2 (N = 25,631) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC); a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults. Gambling symptoms and other psychiatric disorders were measured at wave 1 by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disability Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Physical IPV victimization and perpetration in the last 12 months were assessed 3 years later at wave 2 using items from the Conflict Tactics Scale-R. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine associations separately for males and females. Problem gambling was associated with increased odds of both IPV perpetration for males (OR = 2.62, 95%CI = 1.22-5.60) and females (OR = 2.87, 95%CI = 1.29-6.42), and with IPV victimization for females only (OR = 2.97, 95%CI = 1.31-6.74). Results were attenuated with inclusion of axis I and axis II disorders; links between gambling and IPV were weaker than those involving other mental health conditions. There are prospective associations with gambling problems and physical IPV which have implications for identification, spontaneous disclosure, and treatment seeking. The links between gambling problems and violence are complex and should not be considered independently of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. (Am J Addict 2018;27:7-14). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Uxoricide in pregnancy: ancient Greek domestic violence in evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacy, Susan; McHardy, Fiona

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society.

  20. Teen Dating Violence (Physical and Sexual) Among US High School Students: Findings From the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Basile, Kathleen C; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M

    2015-05-01

    National estimates of teen dating violence (TDV) reveal high rates of victimization among high school populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's national Youth Risk Behavior Survey has provided often-cited estimates of physical TDV since 1999. In 2013, revisions were made to the physical TDV question to capture more serious forms of physical TDV and to screen out students who did not date. An additional question was added to assess sexual TDV. To describe the content of new physical and sexual TDV victimization questions first administered in the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to share data on the prevalence and frequency of TDV (including the first-ever published overall "both physical and sexual TDV" and "any TDV" national estimates using these new questions), and to assess associations of TDV experience with health-risk behaviors. Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 9900 students who dated, from a nationally representative sample of US high school students, using the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Two survey questions separately assessed physical and sexual TDV; this analysis combined them to create a 4-level TDV measure and a 2-level TDV measure. The 4-level TDV measure includes "physical TDV only," "sexual TDV only," "both physical and sexual TDV," and "none." The 2-level TDV measure includes "any TDV" (either or both physical and sexual TDV) and "none." Sex-stratified bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between TDV and health-risk behaviors. In 2013, among students who dated, 20.9% of female students (95% CI, 19.0%-23.0%) and 10.4% of male students (95% CI, 9.0%-11.7%) experienced some form of TDV during the 12 months before the survey. Female students had a higher prevalence than male students of physical TDV only, sexual TDV only, both physical and sexual TDV, and any TDV. All health-risk behaviors were most prevalent among students who experienced both forms of TDV and were

  1. Epilepsy and violence: case series concerning physical trauma in children of persons with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauffin H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Helena Gauffin1,2 Anne-Marie Landtblom1–4 1Department of Neurology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Neurology Unit, Department of Medical Specialist, General Hospital, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, IMM, County Council, Linköping University, Motala, Sweden; 4Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Abstract: Historically, epilepsy has been associated with violence, but more recent studies have emphasized genetic and psychosocial factors as more important. The case series presented here aim to highlight the difficult situation the affected children are in. We report on three cases when children have been traumatized and, in one case, even been killed by their parent who was diagnosed with epilepsy. In the first case, we describe a woman with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy who was sentenced to forensic psychiatry care for killing her child. She lived under difficult psychosocial circumstances and a suicide attempt contributed to what happened. The second case describes a man with post-traumatic seizures who was sentenced for child abuse. Ictal or postictal violence was considered in these two cases but a causal link between the violence and epilepsy has not been established. In the third case, we describe a woman with focal epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNESs. Her child was hurt and frightened in relation to violent seizures, which were regarded as PNESs. This case series demonstrates that children of parents with epilepsy can be in a vulnerable situation. No causality has been established between the seizures and these events, so consequently other factors such as psychosocial stress, low cognitive function, and a suicide attempt must also be considered as important. When a child is hurt by a parent with epilepsy the patient must be closely examined to determine the role of the seizures

  2. Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia

    2005-11-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.

  3. THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVCA Lucia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally

  4. Are Adolescent Girls with a Physical Disability at Increased Risk for Sexual Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann I.; Armour, Brian S.; Thibadeau, Judy K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether US female adolescents who self-reported having a physical disability or long-term health problem were more likely to report having been physically forced to have sexual intercourse than US female adolescents without a physical disability or long-term health problem. Methods: Using…

  5. Victim voice in reenvisioning responses to sexual and physical violence nationally and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P; White, Jacquelyn W; Lopez, Elise C

    2017-12-01

    Internationally and in the United States many victims of sexual assault and domestic violence are unserved, underserved, or ill-served, especially those from the most vulnerable populations. Programs developed in the United States are routinely exported to developing countries but often without success. Notably, the failures seen internationally resemble those in the United States and are related to structural and attitudinal-cultural factors. Many victims do not disclose, and if they do seek services, they often report that available options mismatch their objectives, present accessibility challenges, disempower their pursuit of justice, and fail to augment needed resources. A deeper understanding of obstacles to effective service provision is needed if the United States is to continue to be an international partner in victim response and violence prevention. This article builds on what is known about service delivery challenges in U.S. programs to envision a path forward that concomitantly accommodates anticipation of shrinking resources, by (a) reviewing illustrative services and feedback from victims about utilizing them; (b) examining structural inequalities and the intersections of personal and contextual features that both increase vulnerability to victimization and decrease accessibility and acceptability of services; (c) advocating for reintroduction of direct victim voice into response planning to enhance reach and relevance; and (d) reorienting delivery systems, community partnerships, and Coordinated Community Response teams. The authors suggest as the way forward pairing direct victim voice with open-minded listening to expressed priorities, especially in vulnerable populations, and designing services accordingly. Through a process that prioritizes adaptation to diverse needs and cultures, U.S models can increase desirability, equity, and thrift at home as well as enhance international relevance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights

  6. Physical violence by an intimate partner and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services among women in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Jackelyne Faierstein; Valongueiro, Sandra; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the association between physical violence by an intimate partner (PVIP) and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,026 women, based on data from a prospective cohort study designed to investigate intimate partner violence among pregnant women enrolled in the Family Health Program (PSF) in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. The use of prenatal care services was assessed with basis on the guidelines from the Program for Humanization of Prenatal Care and Childbirth (Brazilian Ministry of Health) and considered the time of the first prenatal care visit and the total number of visits during the pregnancy. Data were collected through two face-to-face interviews (one in the last pregnancy trimester and the other in the postpartum period), using standardized questionnaires and data on Pregnancy Card records. An unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals to measure the association between an PVIP and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services, using the stepwise method. The prevalence of the inappropriate use of prenatal care services was 44.1% and of an PVIP, 25.6%. In the logistic regression analysis, an intimatePVIP was associated with inappropriate prenatal care (OR = 1.37; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.85; p = 0.04) after adjustment by variables confirmed as confounders (parity, alcohol use in pregnancy, and education level). Women who are victims of an PVIP have more chance of receiving inappropriate prenatal care due to late onset of prenatal care, fewer prenatal care visits, or both.

  7. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Huyen, T.P.; Tran, H.M.; Krause, K.H.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.; VanderEnde, K.; Kramer, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We assess the association of men’s exposure to violence in childhood—witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative—with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV

  8. The Role of Adolescent Physical Abuse in Adult Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…

  9. Smoking within the Household: Spousal Peer Effects and Children's Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Canta, Chiara; Dubois, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies spousal peer effects on the smoking behaviour and their implication for the health of children through passive smoking. Smoking decisions are modeled as equilibrium strategies of an incomplete information game within the couple. Using data from the French Health Survey 2002-2003, we identify two distinct effects linked to spousal behaviour: a smoking enhancing effect of smoking partners and a smoking deterring effect of non smoking partners. On the one hand, ...

  10. Physical, Sexual, Emotional and Economic Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behaviors during Pregnancy and Postpartum among Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahenge, Bathsheba; Stöckl, Heidi; Abubakari, Abdulai; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jahn, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and postpartum is a serious global health problem affecting millions of women worldwide. This study sought to determine the prevalence of different forms of IPV during pregnancy and postpartum and associated factors among women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 500 women at one to nine months postpartum in three health facilities in the three districts of Dar es Salaam: Temeke, Kinondoni and Illala. Two trained research assistants administered the questionnaire, which aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics and different forms of IPV. Of the 500 women who were interviewed, 18.8% experienced some physical and/or sexual violence during pregnancy. Forty-one women (9%) reported having experienced some physical and/or sexual violence at one to nine months postpartum. Physical and/or sexual IPV during pregnancy was associated with cohabiting (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.24-4.03) and having a partner who was 25 years old or younger (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.08-6.71). Postpartum, physical and/or sexual IPV was associated with having a partner who was 25 years old or younger (AOR 4.4, 95% CI 1.24-15.6). We found that IPV is more prevalent during pregnancy than during the postpartum phase. There is also continuity and maintenance of IPV during and after pregnancy. These results call for policy and interventions to be tailored for pregnant and postpartum women.

  11. The relation between alcohol use and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence perpetration among male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Zapor, Heather Zucosky; Zapor, Heather Zuckosky; Febres, Jeniimarie; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of alcohol use and dating violence are shockingly high among male college students, making this a particularly high-risk group for alcohol-related aggression. Expanding upon previous research, the current study examined the relations between three indicators of alcohol use and three types of dating violence among 204 male college students. We also examined whether hazardous drinkers reported more violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Results demonstrated that alcohol use was related to all types of aggression, and hazardous drinkers are at greater risk of violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Implications for dating violence prevention programs and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Who is the victim and who the offerder in intimate partner physical violence? and epidemiological study in seven cities of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Fiestas, Fabián; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Red para la Acción y Avance de la Salud Mental y Psiquiatría (Red AVANSE-PSI). Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.; Rojas, Ruth; Laboratorio de Neurobiología Molecular, Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Bióloga.; Gushiken, Alfonso; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, magíster en salud pública, magíster en ciencias sociales.; Gozzer, Ernesto; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico salubrista, especialista en salud internacional.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify factors associated to the probability of being the aggressor or the victim in cases of intimate partner physical violence. Materials and methods. A secondary data analysis was performed to an epidemiological survey done in seven cities in Peru (Lima, Arequipa, Huamanga, Trujillo, Cuzco, Callao and Maynas). 6399 men and women participated, of whom 3909 participants declared living together with an intimate partner at the time of the interview. Univariate and multiva...

  13. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Possible Solutions It is recommended that management and employees work together to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ...

  14. Exposure to physical and sexual violence prior to imprisonment predicts mental health and substance use treatments in prison populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco Caravaca; Luna, Aurelio; Mundt, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to establish rates of exposure to physical or sexual violence (PSV) prior to imprisonment for prisoners in Spain and to explore whether people exposed to PSV access mental health treatment during imprisonment. In a sample of 2484 male and 225 female prisoners, socio-demographic variables, exposure to PSV prior to imprisonment and mental health treatments during imprisonment were assessed. Frequencies were calculated as per cent values with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The Risk Ratio (RR) of PSV and other socio-demographic variables to associate with mental health treatment during imprisonment was established. History of PSV was present in 35.2% (95% CI: 33.3-37.0) of the male and 40.0% (95% CI: 33.9-46.8) of the female prisoners. 70.7% (95% CI: 67.8-73.9) of the male and 76.9% (95% CI: 67.7-86.0) of the female prisoners with prior exposure to PSV were in mental health treatment during imprisonment. PSV was a significant predictor of mental health treatment during imprisonment in male (RR: 2.79; 95% CI 2.44-2.92) and female (RR: 1.94; 95% CI 1.76-2.23) prisoners. Most people with exposure to PSV prior to imprisonment access mental health treatment during imprisonment. Treatments may have to focus more on traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  16. Is It Considered Violence? The Acceptability of Physical Punishment of Children in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes correlates of the acceptability of physical punishment of children in Europe. The design was a three-level ordinal logistic regression of 10,812 people nested within 208 localities (cities), nested within 14 countries of the European Union. Results showed that higher levels of acceptability were reported by men, the older, the…

  17. Sexual Aggression Experiences Among Male Victims of Physical Partner Violence: Prevalence, Severity, and Health Correlates for Male Victims and Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M

    2016-07-01

    Although research has documented the prevalence and health correlates of sexual aggression among women who have experienced severe partner violence (PV), no research has documented the parallel issues among male victims of severe PV. Research also suggests that children of female victims of both physical and sexual PV have worse mental health than children of female victims of physical PV only, but no research has assessed the mental health of children whose fathers experienced both physical and sexual PV. We surveyed 611 men who experienced physical PV from their female partners and sought help. We assessed the types and extent of various forms of PV, the men's mental and physical health, and the mental health of their oldest child. Results showed that almost half of the men experienced sexual aggression in their relationship, and 28 % severe sexual aggression. Increasing levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization was associated with greater prevalence and types of other forms of PV. In addition, greater levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization among the men was significantly associated with depression symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health symptoms, and poor health, and attention deficit and affective symptoms among their children. These associations held after controlling for demographics and other violence and trauma exposure. Discussion focused on the importance of broadening our conceptualization of PV against men by women to include sexual aggression as well.

  18. The impact of physical, psychological, and sexual intimate male partner violence on women's mental health: depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder, state anxiety, and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico-Alfonso, Maria A; Garcia-Linares, M Isabel; Celda-Navarro, Nuria; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Echeburúa, Enrique; Martinez, Manuela

    2006-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of lifetime physical, psychological, and sexual intimate male partner violence (IPV) on the mental health of women, after controlling for the contribution of lifetime victimization. The comorbidity of depressive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and their relation to state anxiety and suicide were also assessed. Physically/psychologically (n = 75) and psychologically abused women (n = 55) were compared with nonabused control women (n = 52). Information about sociodemographic characteristics, lifetime victimization, and mental health status (depressive and state anxiety symptoms, PTSD, and suicide) was obtained through face-to-face structured interviews. Women exposed to physical/psychological and psychological IPV had a higher incidence and severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms, PTSD, and thoughts of suicide than control women, with no differences between the two abused groups. The concomitance of sexual violence was associated with a higher severity of depressive symptoms in both abused groups and a higher incidence of suicide attempts in the physically/psychologically abused group. The incidence of PTSD alone was very rare, and depressive symptoms were either alone or comorbid with PTSD. The severity of state anxiety was higher in abused women with depressive symptoms or comorbidity, as was the incidence of suicidal thoughts in the physically/psychologically abused group. Lifetime victimization was not a predictor of the deterioration of mental health in this study. These findings indicate that psychological IPV is as detrimental as physical IPV, with the exception of effects on suicidality, which emphasizes that psychological IPV should be considered a major type of violence by all professionals involved.

  19. Protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Rudd, Michael E; Syrjala, Karen L

    2007-09-01

    To examine protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer survivors. Repeated measures; 42 caregivers engaged in 2 videotaped, oral emotional expression exercises: 1 in the presence of their patient and 1 in the absence of their patient. Felt emotion (self-report) and expressed emotion (lexical expression or words uttered and coder-derived facial expression). Other measures assessed mental and physical health, dyadic satisfaction, and dispositional emotional inhibition. Protective buffering differed by communicative channel (lexical vs. facial). Caregivers' facial expressions were more positive when the patient was present versus absent. In contrast, the valence of caregivers' words did not differ per patient presence. Facial protective buffering was unrelated to health and dyadic outcomes. Lexical protective buffering was inversely related to both caregiver and patient marital satisfaction. Dispositional emotional inhibition was inversely related to caregiver mental health and marital satisfaction. Desynchrony occurred when the patient was present but was counter to prediction; felt emotion was more positive than expressed emotion. Results provide behavioral evidence of facial protective buffering. To the extent that lexical buffering occurs, it poses a dyadic risk, and chronic inhibition poses both psychological and dyadic risks. Future research is needed to refine the operational definition of desynchrony and to examine the biopsychosocial sequelae of buffering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Partner violence victimization and unintended pregnancy in Latina and Asian American women: Analysis using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W; Heh, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S., affecting nearly one in every three women over their lifetimes. Using structural equation modeling, we evaluated the association between IPV and unintended pregnancy, mediated by condom use and perceived spousal/partner support among Latina and Asian women. Data came from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The analysis was restricted to married or cohabiting female respondents aged 18+ years (n = 1,595). Dependent variables included unintended pregnancy, condom use, and perceived partner support. Independent variables included physical abuse or threats by current partner and primary decision-maker. Weighted least squares was used to fit path models to data comprising dichotomous and ordinal variables. More than 13% of women reported IPV during their relationship with their partner/spouse. Abused women were twice as likely as non-abused women to have had an unintended pregnancy. This association was partially mediated by perceived partner support. Condom use had a positive, but non-significant association with unintended pregnancy, and IPV had a negative, but non-significant association with condom use. Results highlight the importance of IPV screening for minority women. Efforts to combine family planning and violence prevention services may help reduce unintended pregnancy.

  1. Occupational violence against dental professionals in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-physical violence in form of loud shouting (50.0%) threat (22.7%), sexual harassment (6.8%) and swearing (2.3%) constituted the majority while physical violence in form of bullying and hitting constituted the remaining 18.2%. The main perpetrators of the violence were patients (54.5%) and patient's relatives/friends ...

  2. Understanding Violence Against Children in Rwanda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Violence against children in all its forms (physical, emotional, and sexual) is a profound violation of human rights and has devastating short- and long-term mental and physical effects (UN Secretary-General's Study on Violence against Children).This violence is a concern in sub-Saharan Africa. And while there have been ...

  3. Psychiatric disorders prior to dating initiation and physical dating violence before age 21: findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Heather L; Breslau, Joshua A; Saito, Naomi; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Poor mental health is associated with teen dating violence (TDV), but whether there are specific types of psychiatric disorders that could be targeted with intervention to reduce TDV remains unknown. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of psychiatric disorders that emerged prior to dating initiation with subsequent physical dating violence in a nationally representative sample from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, adjusting statistically for adverse childhood experiences. In adjusted models, internalizing disorders (AOR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.04,1.25; no sex differences noted) and externalizing disorders (males: AOR 1.28, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.49; females: AOR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.55, 2.21) were associated with subsequent involvement in any physical dating violence victimization or perpetration before the age of 21. Those at greatest risk included girls with ADHD and a substance use disorder, in particular. The range of psychiatric disorders associated with TDV is broader than has generally been recognized for both boys and girls. Clinical and public health prevention programs should incorporate strategies for addressing multiple pathways through which poor mental health may put adolescents at risk for TDV.

  4. Unreported workplace violence in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvas, A; Seljak, J

    2014-09-01

    Workplace violence occurs on a frequent basis in nursing. Most violent acts remain unreported. Consequently, we do not know the actual frequency of the occurrence of workplace violence. This requires research of nurses' actions following workplace violence and identification of reasons why most victims do not report violent acts in the appropriate manner. To explore violence in nursing as experienced by nurses in Slovenia. A survey was carried out with a representative sample of nurses in Slovenia. The questionnaire Workplace Violence in Nursing was submitted to 3756 nurses, with 692 completing the questionnaire. A total of 61.6% of the nurses surveyed had been exposed to violence in the past year. Most victims were exposed to psychological (60.1%) and economic violence (28.9%). Victims reported acts of violence in formal written form in a range from 6.5% (psychological violence) to 10.9% (physical violence). The largest share of victims who did not report violence and did not speak to anyone about it were victims of sexual violence (17.9%). The main reason for not reporting the violence was the belief that reporting it would not change anything, followed by the fear of losing one's job. Only a small share of the respondents reported violence in written form, the main reason being the victims' belief that reporting it would not change anything. This represents a severe criticism of the system for preventing workplace violence for it reveals the failure of response by leadership structures in healthcare organizations. Professional associations and the education system must prepare nurses for the prevention of violence and appropriate actions in the event of violent acts. Healthcare organizations must ensure the necessary conditions for enabling and encouraging appropriate actions following violent acts according to relevant protocols. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  5. [The influence of attitude of inhibiting spousal disclosure about stress on the mental health of firefighters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seonyoung; Matsui, Yutaka

    2012-12-01

    The present study focused on attitudes related to inhibiting spousal disclosure about stress as an influential factor for the mental health of firefighters. In a pilot study using semi-structured interviews (N = 14), we found that some firefighters usually did not talk about their stresses with their spouses. Some reasons were that they were hiding their weakness, were feeling sure of controlling their stress, out of consideration for their spouse, were giving up on the possibility for improving the situation after spousal disclosure, or hoped to distract themselves. In a subsequent questionnaire survey (N = 554), the results showed that attitudes about inhibiting spousal disclosure of stress have an effect on spousal disclosure about stress and the mental health of firefighters. The findings of the present study imply that spousal disclosure about interpersonal stress can be regarded as an effective factor, along with the disclosure to colleagues, for relieving stress. It is necessary to consider the importance of attitudes about inhibiting disclosure for stress as part of stress management for firefighters.

  6. Feasibility of a pocket-PC based cognitive control intervention in dementia spousal caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Judith A; Siegle, Greg J; Abebe, Kaleab; Black, Beverly; Martire, Lynn; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles; Hall, Martica H

    2016-01-01

    Spousal caregivers of patients with dementia are in need of interventions to bolster their quality of life. Computer-based, self-administered cognitive training is an innovative approach to target spousal caregiver distress and coping. We tested the feasibility of administering one such intervention with minimal clinician intervention. Twenty-seven elderly adults (>64 years old), who each were the primary caregiver for a spouse with dementia, were recruited through the Memory Disorders Clinic of the Alzheimer Disease Research Center in Pittsburgh, PA. Spousal caregivers were instructed to use a handheld computer version of the Adaptive Paced Visual Serial Attention Task (APVSAT) at least three times per week for four weeks as part of a larger caregiver intervention trial (P01 AG020677). Feasibility was explored by examining the frequency of APVSAT usage. Results suggest that self-directed cognitive training is feasible for spousal caregivers of dementia patients. The mean usage of the APVSAT was 42 (SD = 28.58). Performance increased from the beginning to the end of the trial, and usage was not affected by stress, worry, or poor sleep quality. Findings suggest the potential utility of cognitive training via handheld computer for spousal caregivers of dementia patients to improve problem solving, coping and adaptation, planning, and persevering with goal-directed tasks.

  7. The Good School Toolkit for reducing physical violence from school staff to primary school students: a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Mirembe, Angel; Nakuti, Janet; Jones, Rebecca; Sturgess, Joanna; Allen, Elizabeth; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Parkes, Jenny; Walakira, Eddy; Elbourne, Diana; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2015-07-01

    Violence against children from school staff is widespread in various settings, but few interventions address this. We tested whether the Good School Toolkit-a complex behavioural intervention designed by Ugandan not-for-profit organisation Raising Voices-could reduce physical violence from school staff to Ugandan primary school children. We randomly selected 42 primary schools (clusters) from 151 schools in Luwero District, Uganda, with more than 40 primary 5 students and no existing governance interventions. All schools agreed to be enrolled. All students in primary 5, 6, and 7 (approximate ages 11-14 years) and all staff members who spoke either English or Luganda and could provide informed consent were eligible for participation in cross-sectional baseline and endline surveys in June-July 2012 and 2014, respectively. We randomly assigned 21 schools to receive the Good School Toolkit and 21 to a waitlisted control group in September, 2012. The intervention was implemented from September, 2012, to April, 2014. Owing to the nature of the intervention, it was not possible to mask assignment. The primary outcome, assessed in 2014, was past week physical violence from school staff, measured by students' self-reports using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional. Analyses were by intention to treat, and are adjusted for clustering within schools and for baseline school-level means of continuous outcomes. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01678846. No schools left the study. At 18-month follow-up, 3820 (92·4%) of 4138 randomly sampled students participated in a cross-sectional survey. Prevalence of past week physical violence was lower in the intervention schools (595/1921, 31·0%) than in the control schools (924/1899, 48·7%; odds ratio 0·40, 95% CI 0·26-0·64, pSchool Toolkit is an effective intervention to reduce violence against children from school staff in Ugandan

  8. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and dynamic during the recent years, the need for a direct forensic processing of the violence consequences within this specific and sensitive social group has arisen. In accordance with what has been outlined above, three cases of extreme, systematic and continuous marriage violence with fatal consequences of the abused women, whose bodies have been abducted at the Forensics Institute in Nis, have been presented in this paper.

  9. Trivializing violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes narratives of violence based on interviews with 43 marginalized young Danish people. Their narratives reveal that violence is not only experienced as singular, dramatic encounters; violence is also trivialized in their everyday lives. By drawing on anthropological perspectives...... on everyday violence, we propose a sensitizing framework that enables the exploration of trivialized violence. This framework integrates three perspectives on the process of trivialization: the accumulation of violence; the embodiment of violence; and the temporal and spatial entanglement of violence....... This analysis shows how multiple experiences of violence—as victim, witness, or perpetrator—intersect and mutually inform each other, thereby shaping the everyday lives and dispositions of the marginalized youth. The concept of trivialized violence is a theoretical contribution to cultural and narrative...

  10. Spousal caregiving and financial strain among middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonjung; Zurlo, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether spousal caregivers face difficulties in meeting their basic household expenses compared to nonspousal caregivers and whether social support mechanisms ameliorate any financial strain from caregiving responsibilities. We use data for caregivers aged 45 and over drawn from a nationally representative, cross-sectional Canadian Community Health Survey--Healthy Aging (N = 5,067). Spousal caregiving is associated with a 35% increase in the likelihood of experiencing difficulties in meeting basic expenses compared to other types of caregiving. Each of social support mechanisms (affectionate, emotional/informational, and positive social interaction), singularly and combined, lessens financial strain from caregiving. Our findings suggest that spousal caregivers are particularly vulnerable because they have fewer resources to draw on for support and perform much more intensive care. Our results highlight the importance of developing appropriate policies and programs to support caregivers. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Spousal communication and contraceptive use in rural Nepal: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Cynthia F

    2011-06-01

    This study analyzes longitudinal data from couples in rural Nepal to investigate the influence of spousal communication about family planning on their subsequent contraceptive use. The study expands current understanding of the communication-contraception link by (a) exploiting monthly panel data to conduct an event history analysis, (b) incorporating both wives' and husbands' perceptions of communication, and (c) distinguishing effects of spousal communication on the use of four contraceptive methods. The findings provide new evidence of a strong positive impact of spousal communication on contraceptive use, even when controlling for confounding variables. Wives' reports of communication are substantial explanatory factors in couples' initiation of all contraceptive methods examined. Husbands' reports of communication predict couples'subsequent use of male-controlled methods. This analysis advances our understanding of how marital dynamics--as well as husbands' perceptions of these dynamics--influence fertility behavior, and should encourage policies to promote greater integration of men into family planning programs.

  12. Violence and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  13. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  14. Prevalence and risk of violence and the mental, physical and sexual health problems associated with human trafficking: an updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottisova, L; Hemmings, S; Howard, L M; Zimmerman, C; Oram, S

    2016-08-01

    To update and expand on a 2012 systematic review of the prevalence and risk of violence and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental and sexual health problems among trafficked people. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of 15 electronic databases of peer-reviewed articles and doctoral theses were supplemented by reference screening, citation tracking of included articles and expert recommendations. Studies were included if they reported on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked, or the prevalence or risk of physical, mental or sexual health outcomes among people who have been trafficked. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. Thirty-seven papers reporting on 31 studies were identified. The majority of studies were conducted in low and middle-income countries with women and girls trafficked into the sex industry. There is limited but emerging evidence on the health of trafficked men and the health consequences of trafficking into different forms of exploitation. Studies indicate that trafficked women, men and children experience high levels of violence and report significant levels of physical health symptoms, including headaches, stomach pain and back pain. Most commonly reported mental health problems include depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although serological data on sexually transmitted infections are limited, women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation self-report symptoms suggestive of a high prevalence of infections. Limitations of the review include methodological weaknesses of primary studies and some differences in definition and operationalisation of trafficking, which hinder comparability and generalisability of the results. There is increasing evidence human trafficking is associated with high prevalence and increased risk of violence and a range of physical and mental health problems. Although more studies have emerged in

  15. Intimate Partner Physical and Sexual Violence and Outcomes of Unintended Pregnancy Among National Samples of Women From Three Former Soviet Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    The article examines the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among nationally representative samples of women in three former Soviet Union countries. Women who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV from their current or most recent husband or living together partner demonstrated higher risks of unintended last pregnancy, either terminated through abortion (in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine) or resulting in unintended live birth (in Ukraine). IPV prevention components should be integrated into reproductive health programs to reduce the risk of unintended births and abortions among women living with abusive partners in these former Soviet Union countries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Changes in the Concept of Family Justice in Japan: The Impact of Modern Egalitarian Attitudes on Family Equality in the Areas of Inheritance and Domestic Violence (Including Murder of an Lineal Ascendant)

    OpenAIRE

    五十子, 敬子

    2008-01-01

    I Family justice in Japan: a brief overviewII Equality in the Japanese inheritance laws since 1947III Equality of treatment in sentencing: the murder of a lineal ascendantIV Changes in the concept of family justice in domestic violence: the Prevention of Spousal Violence and the Protection of Victims Act 2001V Conclusion: key points of change in the concept of family justice

  17. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  18. Teen Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young ... death. An important risk factor for violence in teens is the behavior of their friends and classmates. ...

  19. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can I tell if my partner is abusive? • What is the ...

  20. Intimate partner violence and its association with maternal depressive symptoms 6–8 months after childbirth in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina N. Kabir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV, a gross violation of human rights, ranges widely across the world with higher prevalence reported in low- and middle-income countries. Evidence related mainly to physical health shows that IPV has both direct and indirect impacts on women's health. Little is known about the impact of IPV on the mental health of women, particularly after childbirth. Objective: To describe the prevalence of IPV experienced by women 6–8 months after childbirth in rural Bangladesh and the factors associated with physical IPV. The study also aims to investigate the association between IPV and maternal depressive symptoms after childbirth. Design: The study used cross-sectional data at 6–8 months postpartum. The sample included 660 mothers of newborn children. IPV was assessed by physical, emotional, and sexual violence. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed maternal depressive symptoms. Results: Prevalence of physical IPV was 52%, sexual 65%, and emotional 84%. The husband's education (OR: 0.41, CI: 0.23–0.73, a poor relationship with the husband (OR: 2.64, CI: 1.07–6.54, and emotional violence by spouse (OR: 1.58, CI: 1.35–1.83 were significantly associated with physical IPV experienced by women. The perception of a fussy and difficult child (OR: 1.05, CI: 1.02–1.08, a poor relationship with the husband (OR: 4.95, CI: 2.55–9.62, and the experience of physical IPV (OR: 2.83, CI: 1.72–4.64 were found to be significant predictors of maternal depressive symptoms among women 6–8 months after childbirth. Neither forced sex nor emotional violence by an intimate partner was found to be significantly associated with maternal depressive symptoms 6–8 months postpartum. Conclusions: It is important to screen for both IPV and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum. Since IPV and spousal relationships are the most important predictors of maternal depressive symptoms in this

  1. Intimate partner violence and its association with maternal depressive symptoms 6–8 months after childbirth in rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zarina N.; Nasreen, Hashima-E; Edhborg, Maigun

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), a gross violation of human rights, ranges widely across the world with higher prevalence reported in low- and middle-income countries. Evidence related mainly to physical health shows that IPV has both direct and indirect impacts on women's health. Little is known about the impact of IPV on the mental health of women, particularly after childbirth. Objective To describe the prevalence of IPV experienced by women 6–8 months after childbirth in rural Bangladesh and the factors associated with physical IPV. The study also aims to investigate the association between IPV and maternal depressive symptoms after childbirth. Design The study used cross-sectional data at 6–8 months postpartum. The sample included 660 mothers of newborn children. IPV was assessed by physical, emotional, and sexual violence. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed maternal depressive symptoms. Results Prevalence of physical IPV was 52%, sexual 65%, and emotional 84%. The husband's education (OR: 0.41, CI: 0.23–0.73), a poor relationship with the husband (OR: 2.64, CI: 1.07–6.54), and emotional violence by spouse (OR: 1.58, CI: 1.35–1.83) were significantly associated with physical IPV experienced by women. The perception of a fussy and difficult child (OR: 1.05, CI: 1.02–1.08), a poor relationship with the husband (OR: 4.95, CI: 2.55–9.62), and the experience of physical IPV (OR: 2.83, CI: 1.72–4.64) were found to be significant predictors of maternal depressive symptoms among women 6–8 months after childbirth. Neither forced sex nor emotional violence by an intimate partner was found to be significantly associated with maternal depressive symptoms 6–8 months postpartum. Conclusions It is important to screen for both IPV and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and postpartum. Since IPV and spousal relationships are the most important predictors of maternal depressive symptoms in this study, couple

  2. The Association of Investment Model Variables and Dyadic Patterns of Physical Partner Violence: A Study of College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Kristiana J; Edwards, Katie M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization experiences and investment model variables, particularly with relation to leaving intentions. However, research only has begun to explore the impact that various dyadic patterns of IPV (i.e., unidirectional victimization, unidirectional perpetration, bidirectional violence, and non-violence) have on investment model variables. Grounded in behavioral principles, the current study used a sample of college women to assess the impact that perpetration and victimization have on investment model variables. Results indicated that 69.2% of the sample was in a relationship with no IPV. Among those who reported IPV in their relationships, 11.9% reported unidirectional perpetration, 10.6% bidirectional violence, and 7.4% unidirectional victimization. Overall, the findings suggest that women's victimization (i.e., victim only and bidirectional IPV) is associated with lower levels of satisfaction and commitment, and that women's perpetration (i.e., perpetration only and bidirectional IPV) is associated with higher levels of investment. Women in bidirectionally violent relationships reported higher quality alternatives than women in non-violent relationships. The current study emphasizes the importance of considering both IPV perpetration and IPV victimization experiences when exploring women's decisions to remain in relationships. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Unemployment among Women: Examining the Relationship of Physical and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P.; Smith, Mark W.; Baumrind, Nikki

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of…

  4. School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  5. Severe interpersonal violence against children in sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip

    2018-01-01

    In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence,

  6. Masculinity, Violence and Schooling: Challenging "Poisonous Pedagogies."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Fitzclarence, Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Suggests a connection between schooling and various forms of sexual and/or physical violence (male to male, male to female, and adult male to child) and identifies and critiques the major orientations of mainstream, sociocultural, and feminist anti-violence pedagogies. Identifies the contours of an alternative anti-violence pedagogy. (GR)

  7. Screen violence and youth behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Bushman, Brad J.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Cantor, Joanne; Christakis, Dimitri; Coyne, Sarah M.; Donnerstein, Edward; Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk; Gentile, Douglas A.; Green, C. Shawn; Huesmann, Rowell; Hummer, Tom; Krahé, Barbara; Strasburger, Victor C.; Warburton, Wayne; Wilson, Barbara J.; Ybarra, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous

  8. Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalência e procura de ajuda na violência conjugal física ao longo da vida Lifetime prevalence and help seeking behavior in physical marital violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bruschi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de violência conjugal física ao longo da vida em mulheres de comunidade urbana de baixa renda e identificar os tipos de ajuda procurados pelas vítimas. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo-piloto brasileiro de corte transversal, vinculado a projeto multicêntrico internacional conduzido em 1999, com amostra probabilística de conglomerados no município de Embu, Estado de São Paulo. Foram considerados elegíveis os domicílios com mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, que residissem com filho/filha OBJECTIVE: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of physical marital violence among women from a low-income urban community and to investigate help-seeking behavior among victims. METHODS: This is the Brazilian pilot cross-sectional study for an international multicenter study conducted in 1999, and is based on a probabilistic cluster sample from the municipality of Embu, São Paulo State. We considered as eligible women aged 15 to 49 years, living with children under age 18 years, who had lived with a husband or partner in lifetime. Information was collected using standardized questionnaires (n=86, administered by trained interviewers. We investigated three types of physical violence: severe (kicking, hitting with fist, beating, and/or use/threat to use weapon, non-severe (slapping in the absence of severe violence, and any type (severe and/or non-severe and/or other physical aggressions spontaneously referred, as well as the type of help sought by the victim (from people or institutions. We calculated frequency and 95% confidence intervals for each type of violence. RESULTS: Subjects reported slapping (32.6%, hitting with fist (17.5%, beating (15,2%, use/threat to use weapon (13.9%, and kicking (10.6%. Prevalence of marital violence was high: 22.1% (13.3-30.9 for severe violence, 10.5% (4.0-17.0 for non-severe violence, and 33.7% (32.7-34.7 for any type of violence. Victims of severe violence were more likely to seek help from the

  10. SPOUSAL INTRUSION AS A PREDICTOR OF WIVES' MARITAL SATISFACTION IN THEIR SPOUSES' RETIREMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoglan, Bahadir

    2015-06-01

    Retirement of men changes their roles and participation and affects their spouses' daily routines, roles, and participation. This study assessed the effects of spousal intrusion on marital satisfaction in retirement. Questionnaires assessing demographics, spousal intrusion, shared couple activities, feelings, and marital satisfaction were administered to a group of 151 volunteer women whose husbands were retired in two cities in Turkey. The women were recruited among those who were willing to share their feelings and thoughts about their husbands' retirement process as a result of one-on-one interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the perception of spousal intrusion, education status, frequency of shared activities, and dyadic adjustment predicted women's marital satisfaction in retirement. However, spousal intrusion did not significantly predict women's marital satisfaction when dyadic adjustment was entered in the second model. In the third model, final variables together predicted 19% of women's marital satisfaction in their spouse's retirement. These findings are important as they underline the factors affecting women's marital satisfaction in their spouses' retirement period.

  11. Spousal Caregivers of Persons with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Dementia: A Preliminary Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Jason R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared self- and other-rated depression in spousal caregivers for 23 Alzheimer's patients, 23 Parkinsons' Disease patients, and 23 control subjects. Two caregiver groups were similar in length of time they had been giving care and in caregiver distress and both caregiver groups were more depressed than control subjects. (Author/NB)

  12. Relationship satisfaction in couples confronted with colorectal cancer : the interplay of past and current spousal support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, Mariet; Dagan, Meirav; Puterman, Eli; Hoff, Christiaan; Meijerink, W. J. H. Jeroen; DeLongis, Anita; Sanderman, Robbert

    Based on attribution theory, this study hypthesized that past spousal supportiveness may act as a moderator of the link between one partner's current support behavior and the other partner's relationship satisfaction. A sample of 88 patients with colorectal cancer and their partners completed

  13. Individual and spousal unemployment as predictors of smoking and drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana; Glymour, M Maria; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-06-01

    The effects of unemployment on health behaviors, and substance use in particular, is still unclear despite substantial existing research. This study aimed to assess the effects of individual and spousal unemployment on smoking and alcohol consumption. The study was based on eight waves of geocoded Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort data (US) from 1971 to 2008 that contained social network information. We fit three series of models to assess whether lagged 1) unemployment, and 2) spousal unemployment predicted odds of being a current smoker or drinks consumed per week, adjusting for a range of socioeconomic and demographic covariates. Compared with employment, unemployment was associated with nearly twice the subsequent odds of smoking, and with increased cigarette consumption among male, but not female, smokers. In contrast, unemployment predicted a one drink reduction in weekly alcohol consumption, though effects varied according to intensity of consumption, and appeared stronger among women. While spousal unemployment had no effect on substance use behaviors among men, wives responded to husbands' unemployment by reducing their alcohol consumption. We conclude that individual, and among women, spousal unemployment predicted changes in substance use behaviors, and that the direction of the change was substance-dependent. Complex interactions among employment status, sex, and intensity and type of consumption appear to be at play and should be investigated further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spousal Support and Work--Family Balance in Launching a Family Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.; Werbel, James D.; Loy, Johnben Teik-Cheok

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether emotional spousal support contributes to business owners' perceived work-family balance while launching a family business. Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory of stress is applied to 109 family business owners and their spouses. Results from structural equation models support several hypotheses. First, reports of…

  15. May I Recruit through Your Agency? Considerations for Researchers of Spousal Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pote, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Few resources within social science literature provide helpful information related to participant recruitment for research on spousal caregivers of individuals with dementia. Independent researchers with limited resources may not have access to large databases or centers in which access to caregivers is readily available. As a result, these…

  16. Constitutional Law: Abortion, Parental and Spousal Consent Requirements, Right to Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharon L.; Ravenscraft, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    The constitutionality of the Missouri abortion statute was challenged by two physicians and Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri in the Danforth case. The Supreme Court reversed a district court decision in part, ruling that parental and spousal consent requirements are unconstitutional. For journal availability see HE 508 875. (LBH)

  17. Spousal Perceptions of Marital Stress and Support among Grandparent Caregivers: Variations by Life Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzek, Amanda E.; Cooney, Teresa M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined how raising grandchildren influences the marital relationship of grandparent caregivers although half of such caregivers are married. This study used national survey data from Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) to contrast perceptions of spousal support and strain for grandparents who had recently provided…

  18. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  19. Healthcare Workers and Workplace Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Pinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326

  20. Physical and psychological violence in Jamaica's health sector La violencia física y psicológica en el sector de la salud en Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jackson

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of experiences with physical violence and psychological violence that health staff have had in the workplace in Jamaica, and to identify factors associated with those experiences of violence. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 832 health staff answered the standardized questionnaire that was used in this cross-sectional study. Sampling was done at public facilities, including specialist, tertiary, and secondary hospitals in the Kingston Metropolitan Area; general hospitals in the rural parishes; and primary care centers in urban and rural areas. Sampling was also done in private hospitals and private medical centers. RESULTS: Psychological violence was more prevalent than was physical violence. Verbal abuse had been experienced in the preceding year by 38.6% of the questionnaire respondents, bullying was reported by 12.4%, and physical violence was reported by 7.7%. In multivariate analyses there was a lower risk of physical violence for health staff who were 55 years or older, worked during the night, or worked mostly with mentally disabled patients, geriatric patients, or HIV/AIDS patients. Staff members working mostly with psychiatric patients faced a higher risk of physical assaults than did other health staff. Of the various health occupations, nurses were the ones most likely to be verbally abused. In terms of age ranges, bullying was more commonly experienced by health staff 40-54 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Violence in the health sector workplace in Jamaica is an occupational hazard that is of public health concern. Evaluation of the environment that creates risks for violence is necessary to guide the formulation of meaningful interventions for the country.OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de experiencias con episodios de violencia física y psicológica en el lugar de trabajo entre miembros del personal de salud de Jamaica, así como los factores que se asocian con dichas experiencias. MÉTODOS: Un

  1. Preventing Sexual Violence and HIV in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598

  2. Prevalence, pattern and determinants of domestic violence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of domestic violence among the respondents in the past 1 year was 53.3% and of these, 55.4% experienced it in the current pregnancy. A higher proportion of respondents (41.5%) suffered physical violence followed by those who suffered sexual violence (34.0%) and emotional violence (31.3%). There was ...

  3. Framing of school violence in the South African printed media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... largely unnoticed by journalists. I argue that the main frames provided to readers in South African newspapers fail largely to elicit social responsibility, while at the same time promoting civic indifference. Keywords: emotional violence; media framing; physical violence; school violence; sexual violence; social responsibility ...

  4. How did the Good School Toolkit reduce the risk of past week physical violence from teachers to students? Qualitative findings on pathways of change in schools in Luwero, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, N; Namakula, S; Mulindwa, J; Lwanyaaga, J; Naker, D; Namy, S; Nakuti, J; Parkes, J; Knight, L; Walakira, E; Devries, K M

    2017-05-01

    Violence against children is a serious violation of children's rights with significant impacts on current and future health and well-being. The Good School Toolkit (GST) is designed to prevent violence against children in primary schools through changing schools' operational cultures. Conducted in the Luwero District in Uganda between 2012 and 2014, findings from previous research indicate that the Toolkit reduced the odds of past week physical violence from school staff (OR = 0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.64, p school administration, and parents, and two focus group discussion with teachers. Interviews were conducted using semi-structured tools and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparison and deviant case analysis techniques. Within a context of normative acceptance of corporal punishment this qualitative paper reports suggestive pathways related to teacher-student relationships through which reductions in violence operated. First, improved student-teacher relationships resulted in improved student voice and less fear of teachers. Second, the intervention helped schools to clarify and encourage desired behaviour amongst students through rewards and praise. Third, many teachers valued positive discipline and alternative discipline methods, including peer-to-peer discipline, as important pathways to reduced use of violence. These shifts were reflected in changes in the views, use, and context of beating. Although the GST is effective for reducing physical violence from teachers to students, violence persisted, though at significantly reduced levels, in all schools with reductions varying across schools and individuals. Much of the success of the Toolkit derives from the support it provides for fostering better student-teacher relationships and alternative discipline options. Such innovation could usefully be incorporated in teacher training syllabi to equip teachers with knowledge and skills to maintain discipline without the use of fear or

  5. Psychological and physical intimate partner violence and young children's mental health: The role of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Carolyn A; Chan, Grace; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2018-03-01

    Young children are at significant risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and vulnerable to exposure-related psychopathology, yet few studies investigate the effects of exposure to IPV on children under the age of 5 years. The current study investigated the role of maternal PTSD symptoms and parenting strategies in the relationship between mothers' IPV experiences and psychopathology in their young children, ages 3-6 years in a community-based cohort of 308 mother-child dyads at high risk for family violence. Data were collected from 2011 to 2014. IPV history and maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Children's symptoms were assessed with a developmentally-sensitive psychiatric interview administered to mothers. Punitive/restrictive parenting was independently-coded from in-depth interviews with mothers about their disciplinary practices. Hypothesized direct and indirect pathways between physical and psychological IPV, maternal PTSD, maternal parenting style, and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms were examined with mediation models. Results indicated that neither physical nor psychological IPV experienced by mothers was directly associated with children's symptoms. However, both types of victimization were associated with maternal PTSD symptoms. Examination of indirect pathways suggested that maternal PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological and physical IPV experiences and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mothers' restrictive/punitive parenting mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological IPV and children's externalizing symptoms. In addition, there was a path from maternal physical IPV to child externalizing symptoms through both maternal PTSD symptoms and restrictive/punitive parenting. Findings highlight the importance of supporting parents in recovering from the sequelae of their own traumatic experiences, as their ensuing mental health

  6. Gender and violence against women in nursing literature: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Maiara Cardoso; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa; de Souza, Vânia; Pena, Érica Dumont

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific production on inequalities in relationships between men and women, studies on violence against women and the urgency to recognize it as a public health problem stand out. considering the potential of nursing to expand understanding on this theme, this study aims to learn what is being published on gender and violence against women in the main Brazilian nursing journals. an integrative review of online publications between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Of the 138 articles selected, 25 addressed gender and violence against women as social constructs. there was a predominance of qualitative approaches (60%), empirical research (60%), academic (100%), authors who were nurses (96%), spousal violence (32%) and domestic violence (20%). Violence against women in the light of gender was associated in only 32% of the articles. there is a need for increased studies in partnership with the public health care service, and to expand discussions on the dynamics of power and resistance, which are the basis of the concept of gender.

  7. Cumulative Violence Exposure, Emotional Nonacceptance, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Community Sample of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sundermann, Jane M.; Chu, Ann T.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence) – referred to here as cumulative violence exposure – are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cogniti...

  8. Will you give birth in pain? Integrative review of obstetric violence in Brazilian public units

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Aline de Carvalho; Barros, Geiza Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at providing further visibility to discussions about obstetric violence suffered by Brazilian women in public health institutions. CONTENTS: This was an integrative review of the last decade, where 100 articles were evaluated to identify how Obstetric Violence is in Brazilian public health units. CONCLUSION: Identified obstetric violences were: institutional violence, moral violence, physical violence, sexual violence, psychological and v...

  9. The Origin of Spousal Resemblance for Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Salvatore, Jessica; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    Although spouses strongly resemble one another in their risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD), the causes of this association remain unclear. To examine longitudinally, in first marriages, the association of a first registration for AUD in one spouse with risk of registration in his or her partner and to explore changes in the risk for AUD registration in individuals with multiple marriages as they transition from a spouse with AUD to one without or vice versa. Population-wide Swedish registries were used to identify individuals born in Sweden between 1960 and 1990 who were married before the end of study follow-up on December 31, 2013. The study included 8562 marital pairs with no history of AUD registration prior to their first marriage and an AUD registration in 1 spouse during marriage and 4891 individuals with multiple marriages whose first spouse had no AUD registration and second spouse did or vice versa. Final statistical analyses were conducted from August 15 to September 1, 2017. A spousal onset or history of AUD registration. Alcohol use disorder registration in national medical, criminal, or pharmacy registries. Among the 8562 marital pairs (5883 female probands and 2679 male probands; mean [SD] age at marriage, 29.2 [5.7] years) in first marriages, the hazard ratio of AUD registration in wives immediately after the first AUD registration in their husbands was 13.82, which decreased 2 years later to 3.75. The hazard ratio of AUD registration in husbands after the first AUD registration in their wives was 9.21, which decreased 2 years later to 3.09. Among the 4891 individuals with multiple marriages (1439 women and 3452 men; mean [SD] age at first marriage, 25.5 [4.2] years), when individuals transitioned from a first marriage to a spouse with AUD to a second marriage to a spouse without AUD, the hazard ratio for AUD registration was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.42-0.59) in women and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.44-0.59) in men. After a first marriage to a spouse without AUD, the

  10. Acceptance of wife beating and its association with physical violence towards women in Nepal: a cross-sectional study using couple's data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Yoshikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a serious global public health issue. Acceptance of wife beating is known to be associated with IPV, but few studies have analysed the acceptance of wife beating from both women and men's points of view. The objective of this study was to examine whether acceptance of wife beating among couples is associated with lifetime and past one-year physical IPV perpetration towards wives in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to September 2011, with 717 randomly selected couples with wives aged 18 to 49 years old from the Kirtipur municipality and Bhaktapur district of Nepal. Wives' and husbands' acceptance of wife beating was measured by six scale items, while physical IPV experience among wives was measured by seven physical assault scale items. To assess the association between acceptance of wife beating and physical IPV, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Nearly 30% of wives and husbands indicated that beating of wives is acceptable under certain circumstances. Statistically, no significant difference was detected between wives' and husbands' level of acceptance of wife beating. However, husbands' acceptance of wife beating was positively associated with lifetime and past one-year perpetration of physical IPV, whereas wives' acceptance of wife beating was neither associated with lifetime nor past one-year victimization of physical IPV. The positive association for husbands remained even after controlling for their partner's factors. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptance of wife beating is an important risk factor, which must be considered to prevent perpetration of physical IPV towards wives in Nepal. Future studies should include men to better understand the structure and dynamics of IPV in Nepal, and prevention programs should also target men to change their attitudes or to identify which couples are at more risk of physical IPV occurring toward wives.

  11. Workplace violence: a study of Turkish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Serpil; Bozkurt, Veysel; Bayram, Nuran; Yildiz, Selver; Aytac, Mustafa; Akinci, Fusun Sokullu; Bilgel, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to address the experience of workplace violence of Turkish workers from different sectors and to investigate the impact of the exposed violence on their psychological well-being. Data were collected anonymously with printed questionnaires from the volunteer participants and depended on self-reporting. The response rate was 79.0% (1708/2161). The prevalence of workplace violence was found to be 44.8%. The most common type was verbal violence together with mobbing (bullying). Victims of physical violence were mostly males, whereas females were found to be victims of verbal, psychological and sexual violence. Most cases did not result in legal action and the victims remained silent. Psychological well-being of exposed workers in terms of depression, anxiety and stress seemed to deteriorate. Workplace violence remains a silent epidemic in Turkey. Preventive measures against workplace violence and social support for violated workers do not exist.

  12. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of Violence among High Risk Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann; Sieving, Renee; Seppelt, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent evidence demonstrates increasing rates of violence involvement among adolescent girls. The objective of this study was to describe the types and sources of violence experienced within social contexts of adolescent girls at high risk for pregnancy. Method Qualitative data for this analysis are drawn from intervention summary reports of 116 girls participating in Prime Time, a youth development intervention for adolescent girls. Descriptive content analysis techniques were used to identify types and sources of violence experienced by girls within their daily contexts. Results Types of violence included physical fighting, witnessing violence, physical abuse, gang-related violence, verbal fighting, verbal abuse and sexual abuse. Sources of violence included family, peers and friends, romantic partners, community violence, and self-perpetrated. Many girls in this study experienced violence in multiple contexts. Discussion It is imperative that efforts to assess and prevent violence among adolescent girls pay attention to the social contexts in which these adolescents live. PMID:23623540

  14. Predictors and responses to the growth in physical violence during adolescence: a comparison of students in Washington State and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Mason, W Alex; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates patterns in violence over 3 time points in early- to mid-adolescence in 2 statewide representative samples of youth, one in Washington State, USA, and the other in Victoria, Australia. Comparable data collection methods in both states were used to cross-nationally compare patterns of violence, risk factors, and responses to violence (school suspensions and arrests) in 2 policy contexts. Risk factors include early use of alcohol, binge drinking, involvement with antisocial peers, family conflict, poor family management, sensation seeking, and bully victimization. These are modeled as correlates of initial violence and predictors of change in violence over a 3-year period, from ages 12-15, for participating youth. Results suggest that patterns and predictors of violence are mostly similar in the 2 states. Initial levels of violence (age 13) and change over time in violence were associated in both states with more youth school suspensions and more police arrests in Grade 9. Some cross-national differences were also shown. For example, correlations of violence with gender and violence with binge drinking were stronger in Victoria, whereas correlations of violence with early use of alcohol and with antisocial peer involvement were stronger in Washington State. Antisocial peer involvement and family conflict were significant predictors of a gradual increase in violence from Grades 7-9 for youth in Victoria only. Implications are discussed with attention to prevention and intervention efforts. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  15. "Stick and stones hurt my bones but his glance and words hurt more". The impact of emotional and physical violence by current and former partners in Italian battered women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence causes short- and long-term negative consequences, both physical (e.g., bodily injury) and psychological (e.g., depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder). It is possible that these negative consequences vary according to the type of

  16. "Stick and stones hurt my bones but his glance and words hurt more". The impact of emotional and physical violence by current and former partners in Italian battered women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Domestic violence causes short- and long-term negative consequences, both physical (e.g., bodily injury) and psychological (e.g., depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder). It is possible that these negative consequences vary according to the type of

  17. An upbringing to violence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    in the incidence of ciolent behaviour that leads to convictions among adolescents and young men. In this study information from population-based registers covers various aspects both for children, aged between 15 and 27 years, and their parents: health (mental and physical), education, social networks, family...... violence, self-destructive behaviour, parental alcohol or drug abuse, and unemployment....

  18. Reciprocal physical intimate partner violence is associated with prevalent STI/HIV among male Tanzanian migrant workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Alison H; Decker, Michele R; Weisband, Yiska L; Hindin, Michelle J

    2017-06-01

    Physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and STIs, including HIV, are highly prevalent in east Africa. While we have some evidence about women's experience with physical IPV, little is known about men's experience with physical IPV, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to examine, in Tanzanian male migrant plantation residents, the prevalence of, and associations among, experience and enactment of physical IPV and prevalent STI/HIV. Data from a cross-sectional survey of male plantation residents (n=158) in northern Tanzania were analysed to estimate prevalence of physical IPV experience and enactment. We assessed associations between IPV and sexual risk behaviours, and serodiagnosis of HIV, herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis. Overall, 30% of men had experienced and/or enacted physical IPV with their main sexual partner: 19% of men had ever experienced physical IPV with their main sexual partner; 22% had enacted physical IPV with their main sexual partner. Considering overlaps in these groups, 11% of all participants reported reciprocal (both experienced and enacted) physical IPV. 9% of men were HIV seropositive, 51% were HSV-2 seropositive and 10% were syphilis seropositive-54% had at least one STI. Men who reported reciprocal physical IPV had increased odds of STI/HIV (adjusted OR (AOR) 8.85, 95% CI 1.78 to 44.6); the association retained statistical significance (AOR 14.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 147.0) with sexual risk behaviours included in the multivariate model. Men's physical IPV experience and enactment was common among these migrant plantation residents. Men reporting reciprocal physical IPV had significantly increased odds of prevalent STI/IPV, and we hypothesise that they have unstable relationships. Physical IPV is an important risk factor for STI/HIV transmission, and programmatic activities are needed to prevent both. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  19. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Woodyatt, Cory R.; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus group discuss...

  20. Victims and health - health consequences of violence against women

    OpenAIRE

    Đikanović Bosiljka

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of violence against women prevalence in Serbia and worldwide, as well as its influences on health, is given. Apart from causing physical injuries, violence against women is a risk factor for developing different health problems. Violence effects on health are cumulative, and its consequences remain even after quitting violence. Most frequent health disorders related to violence are expressed as so called "functional" disorders, such as: diverse chronicle pain syndro...

  1. Entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2017-01-01

    , and partly constituted by familial relationships and identities. The study suggests that intervention initiatives in Ghana should focus on the phenomenon of conjugal violence beyond immediate victims to include families and the larger communities in which victims are embedded.......Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women’s identity, agency and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four...... of familial and cultural value orientations. The primacy of family identity and victims’ apparent implicit moral obligation to preserve the social image of their extended family influence their entrapment. Participants’ discursive accounts further suggest that stay/leave decisions of battered women in Ghana...

  2. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  3. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it (like when you are very drunk). Dating violence often starts with emotional abuse. You may think that behaviors like calling ... or preventing you from using birth control. Dating violence can cause serious harm to your body and your emotions. If you are in an abusive relationship, get ...

  4. Epidemiology of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, D P; Loeber, R

    2000-10-01

    It is difficult to review the epidemiology of juvenile violence because few studies focus specifically on this topic as opposed to childhood aggression or delinquency in general. More research is needed specifically on juvenile violence, which is generally measured using official records or self-reports. Self-report research shows that a substantial fraction of the male juvenile population commits violence, and that very few violent acts are followed by arrests or convictions. Racial differences in violence may be explainable by reference to racial differences in community contexts. There is a great deal of versatility in juvenile violence. Juveniles who commit one type of violent offense also tend to commit other types and nonviolent offenses. Violent offenders tend to be persistent or frequent offenders, and there is little difference between violent offenders and nonviolent but equally frequent offenders. Nevertheless, there is some degree of specialization in violence. More research is needed to investigate whether risk factors exist for violence that are not risk factors for serious nonviolent delinquency (e.g., biologic factors). Violent juveniles tend to have co-occurring problems such as victimization, substance abuse, and school failure. Often, they might be described as multiple-problem youth. There is considerable continuity from childhood aggression to juvenile violence. An early age of onset of violence predicts a large number of violent offenses. The major long-term risk factors for juvenile violence are individual (high impulsiveness and low intelligence, possibly linked to the executive functions of the brain), family (poor supervision, harsh discipline, child physical abuse, a violent parent, large family size, poverty, a broken family), peer delinquency, gang membership, urban residence, and living in a high-crime neighborhood (characterized by gangs, guns, and drugs in the United States). More research is needed on interactions among risk factors

  5. Why Does Spousal Education Matter for Earnings? Assortative Mating or Cross-productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Huang; Hongbin Li; Pak Wai Liu; Junsen Zhang

    2006-01-01

    In interpreting the positive relationship between spousal education and one's earnings, economists have two major hypotheses: cross-productivity between couples and assortative mating. However, no prior empirical study has been able to separate the two effects. This paper empirically disentangles the two effects by using twins data that we collected from urban China. We have two major innovations: we use twins data to control for the unobserved mating effect in our estimations, and we estimat...

  6. Spousal Effects in Smoking Cessation: Matching, Learning, or Bargaining?

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry Anne McGeary

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studying the correlation in smoking behavior between spouses has discounted the role of bargaining or learning. Using the Health and Retirement Study, which contains information on smoking cessation and spouse’s preferences, this paper presents an essential investigation of the impact of spousal bargaining or learning on the decision to cease smoking. We find that, regardless of gender, when one member of a couple ceases smoking this induces the other member to cease smoking...

  7. Domestic violence in Gulu, Northern Uganda | Kitara | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: When guns fell silent in the post conflict northern Uganda, another form of physical injuries has come in place, Domestic Violence also commonly referred to as Gender based violence. This injury from violence leading to physical trauma is one of the leading public health problems in this region. We describe ...

  8. The severity of violence against women by intimate partners and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem drinking and drug use among male partners is a strong determinant of physical intimate partner violence among battered women in South Africa. Intimate partner violence prevention measures should address reduction of problem drinking and drug use among men. Keywords: physical violence, psychological ...

  9. Macroeconomics and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, J.; Dunne, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter considers macroeconomic aspects of violence. It moves beyond the usual focus on war to argue\\ud the economic importance of all forms and aspects of armed and unarmed violence. Violence refers to acts of self-harm,\\ud interpersonal violence, and collective violence. Self-harm includes suicide; interpersonal violence includes organized\\ud criminal violence as well as domestic and workplace violence. Collective violence generally denotes political entities that are in, or at risk of...

  10. Spousal concordance for overall health risk status and preventive service compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chih-Wen; Godboldo-Brooks, Ambyr; Edington, Dee W

    2010-07-01

    In this study we examined spousal concordance for two aggregate measures of health risk status and compliance with preventive service recommendations among 9620 pairs of cohabitating, opposite-sex married couples. Health risk appraisals were the primary data source to measure two outcome variables. Health risk status was compiled from 12 health risks and categorized into three levels (low-, medium-, and high-risk status). Overall preventive service compliance status was estimated by seven age-sex specific preventive service recommendations and dichotomized into lower and higher compliance status. For each of the husband and wife populations, we conducted proportional odds models and logistic regression models to assess spousal concordance for the two aggregate measures respectively. All models were adjusted for household income, one's characteristics (age, race, education, disease burden), and the same set of characteristics and the corresponding outcome variable from the spouse. A positive correlation within spousal pairs was statistically significant for both health risk status and compliance status (p education. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The link among self-esteem, differentiation, and spousal intimacy in deaf and hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Miriam; Ronen, Tammie

    2010-01-01

    Family, as the most important human support system, is the major component that clinicians can use to help people in their struggle to cope, adjust, and adapt to society. The ability to form a family and intimate relations with a spouse comprises a central measure of normative adult functioning and a critical stage of adult development. This study examined a personal component (self-esteem), an original family component (differentiation), and the capacity for spousal intimacy among 101 deaf adults (comprising about one fourth of the Israeli deaf population) and 57 normally hearing adults matched to the deaf sample according to age, gender, place of birth, and marital status. As expected, correlations emerged between higher levels of self-esteem, greater emotional differentiation from parents, and higher spousal intimacy within each group. Also, intergroup differences emerged, with deaf participants lower than their hearing peers both in self-esteem and ability for spousal intimacy. Contrary to expectations, differentiation from original family was similar in both groups. Results emphasized the significant contribution of self-esteem to adult functioning. Outcomes pinpoint the need for social workers and other clinicians to increase these clients' self-esteem to improve functioning.

  12. Spousal labor market effects from government health insurance: Evidence from a veterans affairs expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Immigration policy and economic cycle effects on spousal reunification in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Mato Díaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of immigration policy and the Great Recession on spousal reunification in Spain. After a significant immigration boom (2000-2008, family-related migration has contributed to the significant flows that continued to arrive in Spain during the economic crisis. But this type of migration was subject to both the crisis and immigration policy changes, such as visa conditions, which may not have been specifically addressed to influence these flows. Using data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey (LFS, the research considers married primary immigrants who came to Spain from the four main countries of origin (Ecuador, Colombia, Romania and Morocco and concludes, first, that tighter conditions to visit the country—particularly tourist border controls—discourage spousal reunification. The reason could be that during the immigration boom, illicit immigration abounded and secondary immigrants were arriving as tourists. Secondly, reunification was slowed down by the Great Recession for the majority of the countries considered, except Ecuador. Unsurprisingly, given the job losses in typical male jobs, the negative influence of the crisis is greater for female primary immigrants. Third, contrary to the expectations that placed secondary immigrants as people with relatively low ties to the labor market, the research shows that because spousal reunification coincided with a deep economic and job crisis, female secondary immigrants increased the family labor supply in order to maintain consumption and/or remittance in what looks like an added-worker effect.

  14. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Psychopathology Dimensions of Females Experiencing Family Violence and a Perspective to Their Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Violence is a widespread problem that occurs all over the word among all ages, genders, races, educational level and socio- economic groups.  The aim of this study was to investigate modeling of different processes that could account for the link between experiencing spouse abuse in women and psychology, psychopathology, social and demographic factors. Methods: Data were gathered through a family violence survey study. 230 married women participated in this study. Participants were selected by a multi-cluster sampling method from 4 different randomized regions of Tehran. They completed 1 Conflict Tactic Scale-2, 2 Personal and Relationship Profile, 3 Symptoms Check List Inventory, 4 Marital Attitude Survey, 5 Social and Demographic Measure. Results: Based on participants’ scores in Conflict Tactics Scale-2, women who were experiencing violence (victims were recognized and in compare to non-experiencing women (non-victims a model of family violence victimization was draw. This model showed the paths from psychology, psychopathology, Social and Demographic factors to experiencing violence. Discussion: Based on the model with a series of paths which may act as effective determinants for experiencing violence (family violence victimization in women, habilitation services must consider the influence of each factor which may change or modify by some recognized mediating interventions .So, it may be concluded that based on present study, a reduction of psychopathology would have a beneficial impact over experiencing spousal violence.

  16. Violence against teachers: prevalence and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Catherine M; Douglas, Kevin S; Lyon, David R

    2011-08-01

    Data collected from 731 teachers were used to examine the consequences of violence directed toward teachers while in the workplace. Analyses showed that the majority of respondents (n = 585, 80.0%) had experienced school-related violence—broadly defined—at one point in their careers. Serious violence (actual, attempted, or threatened physical violence) was less common, but still common enough to be of concern (n = 202, 27.6%). Violence predicted physical and emotional effects, as well as teaching-related functioning. In addition, a model with fear as a potential mediator revealed that both fear and violence were independently predictive of these negative outcomes. Finally, analyses showed that, in general, women reported higher levels of physical symptoms compared to men. We discuss the implications of violence against teachers in terms of personal consequences and the implications for mental health professionals working in an educational setting.

  17. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  18. Uganda: early marriage as a form of sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Noah Gottschalk

    2007-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that early marriage is a form of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) with detrimental physical, social and economic effects. Policymakers need to focus on the complex interactions between education, early marriage and sexual violence.

  19. Domestic violence: a hidden barrier to contraceptive use among women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit G

    2018-01-01

    -based intervention strategies should be developed to protect the health and reproductive rights of the vulnerable women and to reduce DV by giving the issue a wider recognition in public policy making. Keywords: contraceptive non-use, demographic and health survey, spousal violence, physical abuse, psychological abuse

  20. Containing violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Rodger

    1982-07-01

    The use of behavior modification techniques to control criminal violence has been condemned as a violation of human rights because it destroys the possibility of moral choice, an important component of personality. Beehler examines the conditioning used on Alex in Anthony Burgess's book and film A Clockwork Orange and concludes that Alex was left still capable of moral choice except where acts of violence were involved. He argues that behavior modification to control violence is preferable to imprisonment, psychosurgery, or electronic surveillance, and counters objections that its use destroys autonomy, violates privacy and trust, and depersonalizes offenders.

  1. Violence against psychiatric nurses: sensitive research as science and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Marilyn Lewis; Zeiss, Robert; Rierdan, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses are frequent victims of workplace violence, much of which is perpetrated by patients. In a review of literature on prevalence, perpetrators, and impact of violence on psychiatric nurses, we note that workplace violence is a virtually normative experience for the nurse, rather than a rare occurrence. Verbal violence and sexual harassment, like physical violence, are common experiences; in contrast to physical violence, these are often initiated by co-workers. The emotional impact of violence on psychiatric nurses is studied less often than frequency of exposure; we discuss hypotheses for this paucity of relevant research. Finally, we reflect on the implications of current research, concluding with recommendations for future research on violence against psychiatric nurses. In particular, we elaborate on the role of violence research in the healthcare setting as "sensitive research"--a research process that in itself may have both direct and indirect beneficial effects for the nursing profession.

  2. A comparison of intimate partner violence and associated physical injuries between cohabitating and married women: a 5-year medical chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Yuen-Ha Wong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cohabitation, referring to a co-residential romantic relationship between two intimate partners without a marriage license, has become widely accepted in contemporary societies. It has been found that cohabitating women have a higher risk of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV than married women. However, as yet, no studies have investigated the level and pattern of IPV-associated physical injuries and its mental health impact on cohabitating women. Therefore, we aim to compare IPV-associated physical injuries between cohabitating and married women by conducting a review of 5-year medical records from the emergency departments of two major public hospitals in Hong Kong. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. Using two computerized systems, we identified the medical charts of 1011 women who had experienced IPV and presented at emergency departments between 2010 and 2014, of which, 132 were cohabitating and 833 were married. Results Cohabitating women were significantly younger (p-value < .0001 and had obtained a higher educational level (p-value = .008 than married women. After adjusting for those two variables, the logistic regression models showed that cohabitating women were approximately 2.1 times more likely than married women to present with head, neck, or facial injuries (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.30–3.40, p = .002, and the risk of having multiple injuries in different locations (head, neck, face, torso, limbs was almost twice that for cohabitating women compared with married women (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.25–2.65, p = .001. Furthermore, cohabitating women were almost two times as likely as married women to experience more than one method of physical violence (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.18–2.51, p = .005. There were no significant differences regarding mental health, police reporting, and discharge plans. Conclusions Owing to recent social changes to the family

  3. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.

  4. Predictors and Responses to the Growth in Physical Violence During Adolescence: A Comparison of Students in Washington State and Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Mason, W. Alex; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates patterns in violence over 3 time points in early to midadolescence in 2 statewide representative samples of youth, one in Washington State, USA, and the other in Victoria, Australia. Comparable data collection methods in both states were used to cross-nationally compare patterns of violence, risk factors, and responses to violence (school suspensions and arrests) in 2 policy contexts. Risk factors include early use of alcohol, binge drinking, involvement with antisocia...

  5. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... into more serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen dating violence [187KB, 2Pages, 508] ...

  6. Conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mihaiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific knowledge of different aspects related to conjugal violence is highly important for people directly involved, such as researchers, practitioners and the entire society. In this respect, globally, specialised studies continue to advance, offer correct definitions, clear descriptions, convincing assessments to certain issues, encouraging thus long-term research, since some specialists have managed to overcome restrictive or ideological methods and explanations. Moreover, in practice, debates reach almost all social, political and legal dimensions regarding appropriate and efficient forms of preventing conjugal violence. Unfortunately, in Romania there are fewer research and prevention approaches of this social problem. In general, attention is directed to domestic violence and conjugal violence is dealt with only implicitly. Considering the given context, the aim of the paper is to outline, by analysing specialised literature, a new research direction and implicitly, social intervention. I specify that this article represents a stage in the ongoing postdoctoral research project, entitled "Conjugal homicide. Aggressors and victims".

  7. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials.

  8. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antović Aleksandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the basis for future medical research in this field. Methods. A total of 4,593 records of forensic autopsy (n = 3,120 and clinical forensic medical examinations (n = 1,473 were analyzed in the 1996–2005 period in order to determine the cases of domestic violence. Results. The analysis encompassed 300 cases (6.5% of clinically examined (n = 211; 70.3% and autopsied (n = 89; 29.7% victims of domestic violence. A statistically significant increase in domestic violence cases (χ2 = 12.74; p = 0.00036 was determined in the observed period. The victims were mostly females (78%, with the mean age of 45.8 years (min = 0.3; max = 85; SD = 17.7, married (45%, with personal income (74.4%, and urban residence (66.3%. The majority of abusers were males (89.3%. Intimate partner violence was present in 58.3% of the cases. Physical abuse was the most common form of violence (97.7%, while sexual violence (2.3% and child abuse (4.3% were rarely recorded. Conclusion. The results of this research indicate that forensic medicine can be of great help in designing appropriate standards for conducting clinical medical examination, preventive programs, and strategies in fighting domestic violence.

  9. [Violence in the family: survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Mexican Association Against Violence Towards Women (COVAC) surveyed 3300 men and women aged 18-65 in Mexico City and nine other cities in 1995 to assess public opinion regarding domestic violence. 17% of respondents were of high socioeconomic status, 33% of middle status, and 50% of low status. 61% of respondents stated that children are the family members most frequently abused physically or mentally, 21% identified mothers, and 10% other female family members. 96% of respondents considered physical and mental mistreatment to be forms of violence. 70% considered physical mistreatment and psychological damage to occur very frequently. 21% knew of someone who was abused in the preceding 6 months. 74% of the abused persons were women. 52% were mothers and 30% were daughters. Of the abused males, 21% were 13-17 years old and 71% were 5-24 years of age. 69% were sons and 12% were fathers. Only 20% of cases were reported to any authority. 46% of the cases reported led to jailing of the aggressor. 43% of the cases were not reported for fear of provoking greater violence. 83% of respondents approved of separation of the aggressor from the family if necessary. 90% approved of seeking orientation or legal protection from an authority, and 94% approved of shelters for abused women and children. 54% knew of the existence of some legal mechanism to confront violence even though there is no legislation in Mexico specifically against domestic violence.

  10. Prevalence of Violence: Male and Female Seasonal Agricultural Workers' Approach to Violence in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Zeynep; Kara, Burcu; Ersin, Fatma; Ökten, Şevket; Yıldırımkaya, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the male and female seasonal agricultural workers' perception of violence, prevalence of violence, frequency of victimization, and their related factors. Quantitative and qualitative data were used, and 89.5% of women were exposed to violence that included the restriction of their human rights. The sample consisted of 1,211 women and 1,064 men. Their marital status, duration of work, and attention to their health affected the violence exposure. Arabic people who were unmarried, had a poor educational background, and poor health perception approved of the physical violence.

  11. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman's test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (pwomen experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing counseling services to women in infertility treatment centers is suggested to prevent domestic violence against infertile women.

  12. Page | 107 SPOUSAL RAPE IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD Abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    After the sexual violation, such woman may suffer insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance abuse, she may have suicidal impulses, chronic physical health problems and be exposed to varying degrees of victimization, she may be disorganized at first because of the rape and later reorganize ...

  13. Perceived Neighborhood Violence and Use of Verbal Aggression, Corporal Punishment, and Physical Abuse by a National Sample of Parents in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev; Straus, Murray A.

    2011-01-01

    This study, based on an ecological perspective, examined the relation of perceived neighborhood violence, child misbehavior, parental attitudes to aggressive discipline tactics, and the actual use of aggressive discipline tactics. Research questions were: To what extent is perceived neighborhood violence associated with aggressive discipline by…

  14. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  15. Gender-based violence: a crucial challenge for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjel, S

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to summarize the situations of gender-based violence, a major public health issue. Due to the unequal power relations between men and women, women are violated either in family, in the community or in the State. Gender-based violence takes different forms like physical, sexual or psychological/ emotional violence. The causes of gender-based violence are multidimensional including social, economic, cultural, political and religious. The literatures written in relation to the gender-based violence are accessed using electronic databases as PubMed, Medline and Google scholar, Google and other Internet Websites between 1994 and first quarter of 2013 using an internet search from the keywords such as gender-based violence, women violence, domestic violence, wife abuse, violence during pregnancy, women sexual abuse, political gender based violence, cultural gender-based violence, economical gender-based violence, child sexual abuse and special forms of gender-based violence in Nepal. As GBVs remain one of the most rigorous challenges of women's health and well-being, it is one of the indispensable issues of equity and social justice. To create a gender-based violence free environment, a lot works has to be done. Hence, it is suggested to provide assistance to the victims of violence developing the mechanism to support them.

  16. Exploring Violence Socialization and Approval of Intimate Partner Violence Among University Students in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Kaltrina; Baumgartner, František

    2017-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) among university students is a prevalent problem in many countries; however, it is not currently recognized in Kosovo as a social issue in terms of research, prevention, and intervention. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between violence socialization experiences, approval of violence, and IPV perpetration/victimization among university students in Kosovo. The questionnaires were administrated to a convenience sample of 700 students of University of Prishtina who were in relationship for 1 month or longer. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2) was used for measuring physical, psychological, and sexual violence, whereas for measuring violence socialization and violence approval, scales from Personal and Relationships Profile (PRP) were used. Findings from this study show that there were statistically significant gender differences in terms of socialization and approval of violence among university students. Similarly, perpetrators and victims of IPV (physical, psychological, and sexual violence) showed higher rates of socialization of violence and tolerance toward IPV. Besides, findings indicate that approval of violence mediates the relationship between socialization of violence and IPV perpetration and victimization, for both genders. The implications of the current findings within a cultural context are also discussed.

  17. Influence of alcohol on condom use pattern during non-spousal sexual encounter in male migrant workers in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, S A; Kant, S; Goswami, K; Rai, S K; Misra, P

    2014-01-01

    Migrant workers constitute an important risk group for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome transmission in India. Alcohol consumption before sexual intercourse has been postulated to influence condom use practices. This study aimed to assess this association with regard to non-spousal sexual encounters among male migrant workers in northern India. A cross-sectional facility-based survey was conducted in 2011. Male migrant workers aged ≥18 years, who were born outside Haryana, who had moved to the current location after 15 years of age,had worked in the current factory for at least 1 year, who were willing to participate and were able to give written, informed consent were included in the study. A consecutive sampling was performed. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out. A total of 162 participants reported having experienced non-spousal sexual encounters in the last 1 year. The proportion of men who reported not having used a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter was 59.3%, and 78.4% of the men reported having consumed alcohol in the last 1 year. About 48.1% of men reported having consumed alcohol before their last non-spousal sexual encounter. Men who consumed alcohol were three times more likely to not use a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.4). This association persisted even after adjusting for relevant confounders. Alcohol consumption had a negative influence on condom use during non-spousal sexual encounter among male migrant workers. An integrated approach to promote condom use and reduce alcohol consumption among migrant men needs to be undertaken through targeted intervention strategies.

  18. Medical Care Tasks among Spousal Dementia Caregivers: Links to Care-Related Sleep Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Maust, Donovan T; Kales, Helen C

    2018-02-01

    Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances. A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving was conducted. Spousal caregivers and PLWDs/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. The U.S. sample included 104 community-dwelling spousal caregivers and PLWDs. Caregivers reported on their sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and sleep disturbances. PLWDs (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and sleep problems. Caregivers who performed a higher number of medical/nursing tasks reported significantly more frequent care-related sleep disturbances, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and PLWDs' sleep problems and health conditions. Post hoc tests showed that wound care was independently associated with more frequent care-related sleep disturbances after accounting for the other medical/nursing tasks and covariates. Spousal caregivers of PLWDs who perform medical/nursing tasks may be at heightened risk for sleep disturbances and associated adverse health consequences. Interventions to promote the well-being of both care partners may benefit from directly addressing caregivers' needs and concerns about their provision of medical/nursing care. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  20. Talking about Sexuality and Intimacy with Women Spousal Caregivers: Perspectives of Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Shari; Drummond, Jennifer; Silverman, Marjorie; Sussman, Tamara; Orzeck, Pam; Barylak, Lucy; Wallach, Isabelle; Billette, Veronique

    2016-11-20

    This article reports the findings of an exploratory study examining service provider perceptions and experiences of addressing sexuality and intimacy with women spousal caregivers. The caregiver-provider encounter is examined, and challenges faced by service providers in addressing sexuality are considered. Themes identified include ambivalence and discomfort, personal and institutional barriers, meanings attributed to sexuality and intimacy, and lack of opportunities to discuss experiences. Strategies to overcome silence and invisibility on the part of service providers in the health and social services system are considered. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  1. Violence in Childhood, Attitudes about Partner Violence, and Partner Violence Perpetration among Men in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Huyen Tran; Minh, Tran Hung; Krause, Kathleen H.; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu; VanderEnde, Kristin; Kramer, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We assess the association of men's exposure to violence in childhood--witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative--with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV mediates this relationship and whether men’s attitudes about IPV mediate any relationship of exposure to violence in childhood with perpetration of IPV. Methods 522 married men 18–51 years in Vietnam were interviewed. Multivariate regressions for ordinal and binary responses were estimated to assess these relationships. Results Compared to men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of reporting more reasons to hit a wife (aORs, 95%CIs: 1.43, 1.03–2.00 and 1.66, 1.05–2.64, respectively). Men’s lifetime perpetration of IPV accounted fully for these associations. Compared to men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of ever perpetrating IPV (aORs, 95%CIs: 3.28, 2.15–4.99 and 4.56, 2.90–7.17, respectively). Attitudes about IPV modestly attenuated these associations. Conclusion Addressing violence in childhood is needed to change men’s risk of perpetrating IPV and greater subsequent justification of it. PMID:24630242

  2. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; Pham, Huyen Tran; Minh, Tran Hung; Krause, Kathleen H; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu; VanderEnde, Kristin; Kramer, Michael R

    2014-05-01

    We assess the association of men's exposure to violence in childhood-witnessing physical violence against one's mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative-with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men's perpetration of IPV mediates this relationship and whether men's attitudes about IPV mediate any relationship of exposure to violence in childhood with perpetration of IPV. Five hundred twenty-two married men 18-51 years in Vietnam were interviewed. Multivariate regressions for ordinal and binary responses were estimated to assess these relationships. Compared with men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of reporting more reasons to hit a wife (aOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.03-2.00 and aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.05-2.64, respectively). Men's lifetime perpetration of IPV accounted fully for these associations. Compared with men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of ever perpetrating IPV (aOR, 3.28; 95% CI, 2.15-4.99 and aOR, 4.56; 95% CI, 2.90-7.17, respectively). Attitudes about IPV modestly attenuated these associations. Addressing violence in childhood is needed to change men's risk of perpetrating IPV and greater subsequent justification of it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Making of "Masculinity": The Impact of Symbolic and Physical Violence on Students, Pre-K and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serriere, Stephanie Cayot

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between dominant masculinities and school safety. The author shows how the social construction of masculinity impacts the safety of boys and girls in school--socially, emotionally, and physically. Drawing from research on early masculinities, incidences of bullying, hate crimes, and school shootings, the…

  4. Calling for a comprehensive approach: Violence prevention and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the intersection between early childhood development services and primary violence prevention interventions. It encourages a developmental approach to violence prevention by promoting healthy physical and social development and preventing direct and indirect exposure to violence during early ...

  5. [Consequences of collective violence with special focus on gender perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kastrup, Marianne C

    2006-09-04

    There is increasing focus on the gender perspective related to the consequences of collective violence. Women run a greater risk of being victims of sexual violence, but few studies have focused on gender differences with respect to physical violence, sexual violations and the impact on health. Further research is needed on these issues as well as research on the identification of evidence based interventions.

  6. Domestic Violence and the Impact on Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, Michelle; Zinke, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Domestic violence can be described as a pattern of intentional behaviors that includes a variety of tactics, such as physical and sexual violence, stalking, threats/intimidation, isolation, psychological attacks, and spiritual and economic abuse. Domestic violence can happen to anyone. It does not discriminate on the basis of economic status,…

  7. Sexual Violence among Female Street Adolescents in Addis Ababa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Violence against women is an important public health problem not only because of the physical injury that may result but also because of potentially harmful health behaviors that may be triggered in response to violence. The health consequence on women due to gender-based violence is a serious problem ...

  8. Violence Against Women During the 1991 Ethnic Conflicts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings showed that violence against women was pervasive during the conflict and included physical violence characterized by body injuries, decimation of children, molestation of expectant mothers and internal displacement and emotional/psychological abuse. However, contrary to the literature, sexual violence was ...

  9. Violence Against Women: Causes, Effects and Challenges to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the types of violence against women such as physical, sexual and emotional abuse. It is argued that the causes of violence against women are multifarious but sex-ratio, male chauvinism, change of values, economic harship and legal protection are the major causes. The violence affects the social, ...

  10. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    lifetime prevalence for physical violence, sexual violence and psychological violence were 50.5%, 33.8% and 85.0% respectively. Predictive .... Table 1: Socio-demographic Characteristics of. Respondents and Partners. Variable. Frequency (%) n=400. Respondents. Age group(years). 15-24. 19 (4.8). 25-34. 184(46.0).

  11. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  12. Ordinary violence and social change in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouje, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Ordinary social violence, - i.e. recurrent mental or physical aggression occurring between closely related people - structures social relationships in Africa, and in the world. Studies of violence in Africa often refer to ethnic wars and explicit conflicts and do not enter the hidden domain of

  13. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

  14. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Edirne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…

  15. Intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marital control behaviours by husband and parental IPV were associated with past 12-month physical IPV violence perpetration. IPV prevention programmes should include the reduction of violent gender norms, male control of female behaviour and problem drinking among men. Keywords: psychological partner violence, ...

  16. [Domestic violence against women of a crisis intervention population - forms of violence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, E; Stieglitz, R-D; Flury, M; Riecher-Rössler, A

    2013-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: Domestic violence is common and can lead to severe physical and psychological problems. Thus, we have investigated the frequency of occurrence, forms and risk factors of domestic violence against female patients on a crisis intervention ward. 115 women were screened with the "screening spouse violence" (SPG) and the "index of spouse abuse" (ISA). The life time prevalence concerning spouse violence was 70 %. Out of 74 women who were currently living in a relationship 28 (38 % )were victims of violence in the last 12 months prior to their admission. Women who experienced violence had a significantly lower level of education. Screening for domestic violence in female patients in the field of crisis intervention and psychiatry should become a standard of "good clinical practice". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. [Collective violence: neurobiological, psychosocial and sociological condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Bogerts, B

    2013-11-01

    Collective violence, despite its often disastrous consequences has widely been disregarded by psychiatry, as was the case for individual violence. Physical violence is not only an individual, mostly male phenomenon but manifests mainly as collective violence among men in multiple forms. Due to the plentitude of theories and findings on collective violence the present article is limited to a few relevant sociological and neurobiological aspects of collective violence as a group and intergroup phenomenon. A special focus is given to the association of the phylogenetic disposition to group violence and constructions of masculinity, to the potential relevance of mirror neurons for social contagion and to the influence of sociostructural factors for male adolescents joining violence-prone groups. In this context group dynamics such as in-group overevaluation and out-group devaluation are of central importance by stabilizing the male sense of self-worth and legitimizing, normalizing and internalizing violent behavior. Instead of mythologizing, biologizing or banalizing violence, transdisciplinary approaches are necessary to improve violence prevention on different ecological levels being obligated to a culture of nonviolent conflict management.

  18. Adolescent dating violence and date rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Vaughn I; Vaughan, Roger D; Wiemann, Constance M

    2002-10-01

    In this review we intend to examine recent literature on dating violence among female adolescents, including prevalence, risk factors, sequelae, screening practices, and potential interventions. Dating violence is perpetrated by both males and females and occurs frequently within heterosexual dating relationships. Attitudes toward physical aggression, including those of peers, and abuse by siblings predict later violence as victim and perpetrator. Victims of childhood or dating violence may be at greater risk of developing eating disorders. New strategies and measures to promote screening are available. Dating violence occurs among all groups of adolescents with common and unique risk factors for dating violence found across adolescents grouped by race/ethnicity, sex, and prior victimization. Efforts to decrease dating violence should (1) increase the use of screening tools that measure victimization as well as attitudes and contextual parameters that promote dating violence; (2) increase self-efficacy to negotiate safer sex; (3) reduce the use/abuse of alcohol and other drugs that facilitate dating violence; and (4) eliminate the influence of negative peer behavior. Interventions to prevent dating violence will likely also reduce rates of unintended pregnancies, HIV, and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents.

  19. Intimate partner violence: short and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Corazziari

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the physical, moral and psychological consequences, shows a mixed picture, linked to both the severity of the violence, and to the type of suffered violence; focusing on the history of violence, the various strategies to cope with it are closely linked to the framework of severity, to the characteristics and dynamics of the violence and to the specific history that each woman lives.

  20. Domestic violence and the impact on its victims

    OpenAIRE

    Kirejevová, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence is one of the essential problems of our society. Domestic violence is determined by high prevalence, enormous latency and great victimization impact. The aim of my thesis is to describe the psychological aspects of the victims of domestic violence. I presume that long-term psychological and physical violence has a crucial influence on the psycho-somatic health of the victim. I am aware of the fact that this problem does not concern only battered women. Nevertheless I want to...

  1. Perception and prevalence of domestic violence in the study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep H; Rajani, Kajal; Kataria, Lakhan; Trivedi, Ashish; Patel, Sangita; Mehta, Kedar

    2012-07-01

    Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of the victim, and it is evident to some degree, in every society of the world. 1) To study perception about domestic violence in the study population. 2) To compare prevalence of domestic violence within the three subgroups of the study population (i.e. spouses of psychotic patients, spouses of non-psychiatric patients and hospital staff). A cross-sectional study was conducted among married men and women coming to Dhiraj General Hospital. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Inquiry was done about their perception regarding domestic violence, own experience any time in their life, and about the form of violence. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS. 42.7% of study participants had never heard the words domestic violence. The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was 32.3%. There was no significant difference found in the proportion of domestic violence among the three groups. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual and economic domestic violence was 16.3%, 25.3%, 2% and 11.3% respectively. Younger age group and female sex were significantly associated with the occurrence of domestic violence. Apart from the high prevalence of domestic violence in the present era, it is evident from the study that the participants' perception about domestic violence was low. Efforts should be made to raise public consciousness and reporting of domestic violence and its attendant consequences.

  2. Do Afterlife Beliefs Affect Psychological Adjustment to Late-Life Spousal Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We explore whether beliefs about the existence and nature of an afterlife affect 5 psychological symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, intrusive thoughts, and yearning) among recently bereaved older spouses. Method. We conduct multivariate regression analyses using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of spousal loss. The CLOC obtained data from bereaved persons prior to loss and both 6 and 18 months postloss. All analyses are adjusted for health, sociodemographic characteristics, and preloss marital quality. Results. Bleak or uncertain views about the afterlife are associated with multiple aspects of distress postloss. Uncertainty about the existence of an afterlife is associated with elevated intrusive thoughts, a symptom similar to posttraumatic distress. Widowed persons who do not expect to be reunited with loved ones in the afterlife report significantly more depressive symptoms, anger, and intrusive thoughts at both 6 and 18 months postloss. Discussion. Beliefs in an afterlife may be maladaptive for coping with late-life spousal loss, particularly if one is uncertain about its existence or holds a pessimistic view of what the afterlife entails. Our findings are broadly consistent with recent work suggesting that “continuing bonds” with the decedent may not be adaptive for older bereaved spouses. PMID:23811692

  3. Compassionate Love in Individuals With Alzheimer's Disease and Their Spousal Caregivers: Associations With Caregivers' Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Joan K; Schulz, Richard; Feeney, Brooke C

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether compassionate love in both individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their spousal caregivers related to less caregiving burden, more positive caregiving appraisals, and less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Fifty-eight individuals with AD and their spousal caregivers participated in interviews in which both partners reported their compassionate love for their partner, and caregivers self-reported burden, positive appraisals of caregiving, and depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, both AD individuals' and caregivers' compassionate love were associated with less burden and more positive appraisals of caregiving. Also, care givers' compassionate love mediated the association between AD individuals' compassionate love and caregivers' burden as well as the association between AD individuals' compassionate love and caregivers' positive appraisals of caregiving. Finally, there was a marginally significant association between caregivers' compassionate love and less caregiver depressive symptoms. Results suggest that AD individuals' compassionate love is related to compassionate love in caregivers, which in turn relates to reduced burden but not significantly less depressive symptoms for caregivers. Assessing caregivers' and AD individuals' feelings of compassionate love may be useful in identifying caregivers who are resilient and those who are at a heightened risk for caregiving burden. Also, interventions that enhance both partners' compassionate love may benefit caregivers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Student Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Edward

    This report discusses student violence within the framework of causes, issues, and false and true solutions. The author decries the abdication of responsibilities by both college administrators, who have permitted students to "do their thing," and leftwing students, who crusade thoughtlessly against educational institutions. Some true solutions…

  5. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  6. Physician exposure to violence: a study performed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Zeynep; Öktem, İbrahim Suat; Çetinkaya, Fevziye; Naçar, Melis

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in Turkey, there has been an increase in the number of violent acts against healthcare workers, towards doctors in particular. This study aimed to investigate the extent of violence, the causes of violence and to evaluate proposed solutions to violence. Out of 597 physicians, 86.4% indicated that they were exposed to at least one type of violence (physical, verbal, sexual) throughout their careers. Among the physicians participating in the study, 27.5% suffered physical threats and 68.6% suffered verbal violence in the past year. Only 40.4% reported the physical violence to their institution. Physicians indicated that the top three causes of violent behavior were excessive demands of patients, the expectation that the issue will be solved immediately and blaming physicians for their problems. To stop violence against themselves, physicians need to raise their voices, along with those of their personal or professional organizations, and should report and follow up incidents.

  7. Violence Directed towards Nurses Working at Al-Medina Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Alsheri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the recent studies, violence in health care is growing and it excessively affects the retention and recruitment of nurses. It also affects burnout levels and sick leave. Aims: To determine the physical and verbal abuse violence prevalence against nurses in Al-Medina hospitals. Methods: This a descriptive cross sectional study which was conducted in three community hospitals in Saudi Arabia in 2011 using a random sample of 288 nurses. Results: The prevalence of physical violence among the population of the study was 26%. Verbal abuse prevalence was 23.3%. Patients/clients were the major perpetrators of the violence (76.0% followed by patient’s family member(s (24.0%. Whereas 92.0% mentioned that the violence action was preventable. Gender was correlated significantly with verbal abuse violence. Conclusion: Our study manifested that the prevalence of physical violence and verbal abuse among nurses at Al-Medina hospitals was high.

  8. The Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress for Women after Spousal Emotional Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…

  9. Food Selectivity, Mealtime Behavior Problems, Spousal Stress, and Family Food Choices in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…

  10. Spousal Interrelations in Happiness in the Seattle Longitudinal Study: Considerable Similarities in Levels and Change over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Gerstorf, Denis; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    2011-01-01

    Development does not take place in isolation and is often interrelated with close others such as marital partners. To examine interrelations in spousal happiness across midlife and old age, we used 35-year longitudinal data from both members of 178 married couples in the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Latent growth curve models revealed sizeable…

  11. Caregiver Burden in Alzheimer's Disease: Differential Associations in Adult-Child and Spousal Caregivers in the GERAS Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Reed

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To examine factors influencing the caregiver burden in adult-child and spousal caregivers of community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Baseline data from the 18-month, prospective, observational GERAS study of 1,497 patients with AD in France, Germany, and the UK were used. Analyses were performed on two groups of caregivers: spouses (n = 985 and adult children (n = 405. General linear models estimated patient and caregiver factors associated with subjective caregiver burden assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview. Results: The caregiver burden increased with AD severity. Adult-child caregivers experienced a higher burden than spousal caregivers despite spending less time caring. Worse patient functional ability and more caregiver distress were independently associated with a greater burden in both adult-child and spousal caregivers. Additional factors were differentially associated with a greater caregiver burden in both groups. In adult-child caregivers these were: living with the patient, patient living in an urban location, and patient with a fall in the past 3 months; in spouses the factors were: caregiver gender (female and age (younger, and more years of patient education. Conclusion: The perceived burden differed between adult-child and spousal caregivers, and specific patient and caregiver factors were differentially associated with this burden.

  12. Caregiver Burden in Alzheimer's Disease: Differential Associations in Adult-Child and Spousal Caregivers in the GERAS Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Catherine; Belger, Mark; Dell'Agnello, Grazia; Wimo, Anders; Argimon, Josep Maria; Bruno, Giuseppe; Dodel, Richard; Haro, Josep Maria; Jones, Roy W.; Vellas, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To examine factors influencing the caregiver burden in adult-child and spousal caregivers of community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Baseline data from the 18-month, prospective, observational GERAS study of 1,497 patients with AD in France, Germany, and the UK were used. Analyses were performed on two groups of caregivers: spouses (n = 985) and adult children (n = 405). General linear models estimated patient and caregiver factors associated with subjective caregiver burden assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview. Results The caregiver burden increased with AD severity. Adult-child caregivers experienced a higher burden than spousal caregivers despite spending less time caring. Worse patient functional ability and more caregiver distress were independently associated with a greater burden in both adult-child and spousal caregivers. Additional factors were differentially associated with a greater caregiver burden in both groups. In adult-child caregivers these were: living with the patient, patient living in an urban location, and patient with a fall in the past 3 months; in spouses the factors were: caregiver gender (female) and age (younger), and more years of patient education. Conclusion The perceived burden differed between adult-child and spousal caregivers, and specific patient and caregiver factors were differentially associated with this burden. PMID:24711814

  13. The influence of stressors, appraisal and personal conditions on the burden of spousal caregivers of persons with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaart, M.A.G. van den; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Felling, A.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the main and mediating influences of stressors, a caregiver's appraisal, coping, personal conditions and social resources on the burden of dementia caregivers. Method: The study sample consisted of 95 spousal caregivers of non-institutionalized

  14. Intimate Partner Violence: A Rare Case of Reciprocal Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchois, Aurélie; Paraire, François; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2017-06-01

    We present the case of a reciprocal homicide by stabbing that occurred within an unmarried couple without known history of spousal violence. Each partner killed the other one at the same time and at the same place using kitchen knives. They were both found dead at home lying on the floor after the neighbors heard an argument and screams coming from the couple's apartment, so they called the police and the fire department. The door was locked from the inside, and the fire department was forced to break the door. Two kitchen knives supporting blood traces were found at the scene. At autopsy, both bodies showed multiple stab wounds, and the lethal ones were due to heart injuries. Defense injuries were also found in both bodies. To our knowledge, this is the first case of reciprocal homicide described in the literature. Other manners of death are discussed, including homicide by a third party, homicide-suicide, and suicide pact.

  15. Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; Andreyeva, Elena; South, Eugenia C; MacDonald, John M; Branas, Charles C

    2018-01-12

    Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical, sustainable, and high-impact preventive measures. This review examines studies that use quasi-experimental or experimental designs to compare violence outcomes for treatment and control groups before and after a change is implemented in the built environment. The most consistent evidence exists in the realm of housing and blight remediation of buildings and land. Some evidence suggests that reducing alcohol availability, improving street connectivity, and providing green housing environments can reduce violent crimes. Finally, studies suggest that neither transit changes nor school openings affect community violence. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 39 is April 1, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  16. Identifying domestic violence: cross sectional study in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jo; Coid, Jeremy; Petruckevitch, Ann; Chung, Wai Shan; Moorey, Stirling; Feder, Gene

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To measure the prevalence of domestic violence among women attending general practice; test the association between experience of domestic violence and demographic factors; evaluate the extent of recording of domestic violence in records held by general practices; and assess acceptability to women of screening for domestic violence by general practitioners or practice nurses. Design Self administered questionnaire survey. Review of medical records. Setting General practices in Hackney, London. Participants 1207 women (>15 years) attending selected practices. Main outcome measures Prevalence of domestic violence against women. Association between demographic factors and domestic violence reported in questionnaire. Comparison of recording of domestic violence in medical records with that reported in questionnaire. Attitudes of women towards being questioned about domestic violence by general practitioners or practice nurses. Results 425/1035 women (41%, 95% confidence interval 38% to 44%) had ever experienced physical violence from a partner or former partner and 160/949 (17%, 14% to 19%) had experienced it within the past year. Pregnancy in the past year was associated with an increased risk of current violence (adjusted odds ratio 2.11, 1.39 to 3.19). Physical violence was recorded in the medical records of 15/90 (17%) women who reported it on the questionnaire. At least 202/1010 (20%) women objected to screening for domestic violence. Conclusions With the high prevalence of domestic violence, health professionals should maintain a high level of awareness of the possibility of domestic violence, especially affecting pregnant women, but the case for screening is not yet convincing. What is already known on this topicDomestic violence is associated with a wide range of health and social problems for women and their childrenWomen experiencing violence are often not identified by health professionals in hospital settingsProfessional organisations and

  17. Sociology of gender violence in Spain. A proposed analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Alcañiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Johan Galtung coined the concept of «triangle of violence» to explain the dynamics of the generation of violence in social conflicts. According to this author, violence is like an iceberg in which the visible violence (or direct violence is only a part of the conflict, with other more invisible types of violence such as structural violence and cultural violence. Understanding violence, in this case against women, means taking into account the three types of violence. Likewise, in the feminist theory, the presence of a specific type of violence to which women are exposed by their gender and which concerns injuries, physical, sexual, psychological or economic distress was made explicit. From this point of view, violence against women is understood as part of a system of domination or, more specifically, as dominance practices established by men. The purpose of the text presented hereafter is to describe and analyze the various types of violence against women in relation with the uneven situation of women in society. The methodology used has required the consultation of secondary data obtained from official resources, as well as the development of indicators which show the violence experienced by women from the perspective of the «triangle of violence», regarding data in relation with direct, structural or cultural violence. The findings suggest the interrelation of such violence types, specifying that, in all of them, the lesser power and the inequality of women with regard to men constitutes an explanatory factor in the production of violence.

  18. Screen Violence and Youth Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J; Bartholow, Bruce D; Cantor, Joanne; Christakis, Dimitri; Coyne, Sarah M; Donnerstein, Edward; Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk; Gentile, Douglas A; Green, C Shawn; Huesmann, Rowell; Hummer, Tom; Krahé, Barbara; Strasburger, Victor C; Warburton, Wayne; Wilson, Barbara J; Ybarra, Michele

    2017-11-01

    Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous meta-analyses and other relevant research from the past 60 years, with an emphasis on violent video game research. Consistent with every major science organization review, the Workgroup found compelling evidence of short-term harmful effects, as well as evidence of long-term harmful effects. The vast majority of laboratory-based experimental studies have revealed that violent media exposure causes increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologic arousal, hostile appraisals, aggressive behavior, and desensitization to violence and decreases prosocial behavior (eg, helping others) and empathy. Still, to more fully understand the potential for long-term harm from media violence exposure, the field is greatly in need of additional large-sample, high-quality, longitudinal studies that include validated measures of media violence exposure and measures of other known violence risk factors. Also, although several high-quality media violence intervention studies have been conducted, larger-scale studies with more comprehensive and longer-term assessments are needed to fully understand long-term effects and to inform the development of tools that will help to reduce problems associated with aggression and violence. The evidence that violent screen media constitutes a causal risk factor for increased aggression is compelling. Modern social-cognitive theories of social behavior provide useful frameworks for understanding how and why these effects occur. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Understanding Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2014 Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience or perpetrate sexual violence. Most victims of sexual violence are female. ...

  20. Sex differences and violence among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the micro research which studied the connection between gender and violence between older primary school students with the goal of discovering exposure of gender members to violence in school context and the ways of reaction to the violence. The researchers from different scientific disciplines have been permanently involved in studying the problem of violence for more than a decade with the goal to lessen the high percentage of violence in schools. In this sense, this research, with its range and character, represents the contribution in discovering characteristics of violence in schools in one specific local area, which could fill in the wholeness of this phenomenon. The research involved students of the final grade of primary school on the territory of the municipality of Svilajnac (which is in central part of Serbia and it was performed in December 2015. 236 students were surveyed. The survey consisted of the following questions a which questioned the social matrix of families in which the students live b which questioned presence and frequency of different types of violence between students in primary schools c which questioned the attitudes of students of both genders about the violence, exposure to violence in school and the ways of reacting to violence. In the frame of quantitative analysis of the data the following was applied: percentual research of frequencies and Pierson's hi-square test (x2 for testing of hyphothesis about the significance of differences. The main results of the research showed: a There is no statistically significant difference in exposure to violence in school between male and female students of primary school age; both genders are exposed to verbal and physical violence and male students (45.7% are more exposed to physical, and female students (38.3% are more exposed to verbal violence. bThere is no statistically significant difference in the readiness of students considering their gender to help another

  1. Intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intimate partner and sexual violence are major public health and human right concerns affecting women and girls all round the world. These problems have been part of the fabric of many societies and cultures worldwide, and have thus gone unnoticed despite the devastating physical, psychological, ...

  2. Negative Emotions as Risk Factors for Self-Directed Violence and Intimate Partner Violence in Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Wu, Qinglu; Choi, Anna Wai-Man

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we examined the unique contributions of negative emotions (i.e., anger, depression, and shame) for two different types of self-directed violence (i.e., nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI] and suicidality) and three different types of intimate partner violence perpetration (i.e., physical, sexual, and psychological violence) in a college sample. We investigated the moderating role of gender in any link between the negative emotions and the violent behaviors. We also examined an association between self-directed violence and intimate partner violence perpetration. We collected the survey data from a convenience sample of 752 Chinese college students (408 women and 344 men) ranging from 18 to 23 years of age. The questionnaires were filled out during class time. Analyses revealed that anger was associated with increased intimate partner physical, sexual, and psychological violence perpetration but not self-directed violence, underscoring its relevance for engaging in violence directed toward others. Our analyses also showed that, conversely, shame was associated with increased NSSI and suicidality but not intimate partner violence. Depression was associated with increased risk of engaging in self-directed violence as well as intimate partner physical and psychological violence. Moderation analysis showed that gender moderates the relationship of shame with NSSI. Women appear more susceptible to NSSI influenced by shame. Furthermore, the results found self-directed violence and intimate partner physical violence perpetration to be associated. The findings highlight the importance of targeting negative emotions in treatment with high-risk individuals. Integrated violence prevention programs would make it possible to treat co-occurring violence against self and intimate others in a more effective way.

  3. A national study of the prevalence and correlates of domestic violence among women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Koustuv; Lindqvist, Kent

    2012-03-01

    This article estimates the national prevalence rate of domestic violence in India and examines the demographic and socioeconomic status of the victims of domestic violence. The study used the Indian National Family Health Survey 3, a cross-sectional national survey of 124 385 ever-married women of reproductive age from all the 29 member states. χ(2) Analysis and logistic regression were used. Lifetime experiences of violence among respondents were as follows: emotional violence, 14%; less severe physical violence, 31%; severe physical violence, 10%; and sexual violence, 8%. Women of scheduled castes and Muslim religion were most often exposed to domestic violence. Women's poorer economic background, working status, and husband's controlling behavior emerged as strong predictors for domestic violence in India. Elimination of structural inequalities inherent in the indigenous oppressive institutions of religion, caste, and the traditional male hierarchy in society could prevent domestic violence.

  4. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. METHODS A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18–49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. RESULTS Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89–3.63 and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01–2.13, sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68–6.38 and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.12. The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43–3.02 and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07–2.47, who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86–8.27, and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57–16.45. CONCLUSIONS Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help

  5. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra Alves; Muniz, Maria Luísa Corrêa; Silva, Elisabete Pereira

    2017-01-01

    To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89-3.63) and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01-2.13), sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68-6.38) and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 - 2.12). The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43-3.02) and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07-2.47), who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86-8.27), and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57-16.45). Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help policymakers and health service managers to develop intervention strategies.

  6. Gender and abuse: Partner violence among young people in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto González Galbán

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence or spousal abuse, largely determined by the existing traditional gender roles, is the issue discussed in this article, which is focusing on the special case of young people of the state of Baja California. During the search of the conditional agents of this social process, there were valued psychological and socio–demographic variables, such as family violence during childhood, immigration status, educational level and age, all these variables were separated by the gender and age (rank 18–29 of the sudied sample.Considering the information provided of the database used; The Survey of Adolescent Reproductive Health of Baja California 2006, it is described and analyzed in this research, several indicators, all of them related with important issues which affect a part of the young population of Baja California, regardless the lack of information and almost non previous research about this theme.

  7. Experience of workplace violence during medical speciality training in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acik, Yasemin; Deveci, S Erhan; Gunes, Gulsen; Gulbayrak, Canan; Dabak, Sennur; Saka, Gunay; Vural, Gulsen; Can, Gunay; Bilgin, Nursel Gamsiz; Dundar, Pinar Erbay; Erguder, Toker; Tokdemir, Mehmet

    2008-08-01

    To determine the type, extent and effects of workplace violence among residents during postgraduate speciality training in various departments of medical schools in Turkey. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in seven medical schools representing all geographical regions of Turkey. All physicians in speciality training in the selected medical schools were asked to complete a semi-structured 'violence questionnaire' addressing the type (emotional, physical and sexual) and extent of violence experienced, the perpetrators of the violence and the victim's reactions to the experience. A total of 1712 residents out of 2442 completed the questionnaire. In all, 68% indicated they had experienced some form of workplace violence, 67% had experienced verbal violence, 16% had experienced physical violence and 3% had experienced sexual violence. The victims' most prevalent reactions to violence included being deeply disturbed but feeling they had to cope with it for the sake of their career (39%), being distressed (26%) but considering that such events are common in all occupations and discounting it and being confused and bewildered and unsure how to respond (19%). The most frequently named perpetrators of verbal violence were relatives/friends of patients (36%) and academic staff (36%), followed by other residents/senior residents (21%), patients (20%), heads of department (13%) and non-medical hospital staff (6%). Physicians in speciality training in medical schools in Turkey are subject to significant verbal, physical or sexual violence. Precautions to prevent such exposure are urgently needed.

  8. Domestic violence and symptoms of gynecologic morbidity among women in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Koenig, Michael A; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2006-12-01

    Although there is increasing recognition of the global scope of domestic violence and the potential reproductive health consequences of violence, little is known about the relationship between physical and sexual domestic violence and gynecologic morbidity in developing country settings. A sample of 3,642 couples from northern India was created by matching husbands and wives who responded to the men's and women's surveys of the 1995-1996 PERFORM System of Indicators Survey. The association between men's reports of physical and sexual violence they had perpetrated against their wives and wives' reports of gynecologic symptoms was analyzed in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Overall, 37% of men said they had committed one or more acts of physical or sexual violence against their wives in the past 12 months, with 12% reporting physical violence only, 17% sexual violence only and 9% both physical and sexual violence. Thirty-four percent of women reported at least one symptom of gynecologic morbidity. Compared with women whose husbands reported no violence, those who had experienced both physical and sexual violence and those who had experienced sexual violence only had elevated odds of reporting gynecologic symptoms (odds ratios, 1.7 and 1.4, respectively). Plausible mechanisms through which domestic violence may influence gynecologic morbidity include physical trauma, psychological stress or transmission of STIs. Reproductive health care that incorporates domestic violence support services is needed to meet the special needs of abused women.

  9. Preventing Domestic Violence in Alberta: A Cost Savings Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Wells

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that Alberta has the fifth highest rate of police reported intimate partner violence and the second highest rate of self reported spousal violence in Canada, and despite a 2.3 percent decline over the last decade, the province’s rate of self-reported domestic violence has stubbornly remained among the highest in Canada; rates of violence against women alone are 2.3 percentage points higher than the national average. In fact, every hour of every day, a woman in Alberta will undergo some form of interpersonal violence from an ex-partner or ex-spouse. Besides the devastating toll that domestic violence has on victims and their families, the ongoing cost to Albertans is significant. In the past five years alone it is estimated that over $600 million will have been spent on the provision of a few basic health and non health supports and that the majority of this cost ($521 million is coming out of the pockets of Albertans in the form of tax dollars directed at the provision of services. Fortunately, investment in quality prevention and intervention initiatives can be very cost effective, returning as much as $20 for every dollar invested. Recent research on preventative programming in the context of domestic violence shows promising results in reducing incidents of self-reported domestic violence. The economic analysis of this preventative programming suggests that the benefits of providing the various types of programming outweighed the costs by as much as 6:1. The potential cost savings for the Alberta context are significant; the implementation of these preventative programs has been estimated to be approximately $9.6 million while generating net cost-benefits of over $54 million. Domestic violence is a persistent blight, and continues to have a significant impact on individuals and families in Alberta, but potent tools exist to fight it. This brief paper offers a cogent summary of its costs, and the benefits that could be

  10. Psychological Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Predominantly African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley

    2017-07-01

    Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.

  11. Exposure to violence, typology, and recidivism in a probation sample of domestic violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Drew R; Cantos, Arthur L; Miller, Steven A

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the predictive utility of self-reported domestic violence perpetrators' exposure to violence in their family of origin and patterns related to this exposure through the use of longitudinal analyses on a sample of 228 men on probation in Lake County, Illinois. Differences in typology, recidivism, recidivism frequency, and violent behavior survival patterns in men with a history of domestic violence perpetration and with varying levels of family of origin violence exposure were examined. Findings suggest that those who witnessed interparental violence (either alone, or in combination with experiencing violence) were most likely to be classified as Generally Violent offenders (e.g., perpetrators who direct violence toward their family and others), compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. In addition, results also indicate that men who experienced both witnessing interparental violence and receiving physical abuse in childhood were more likely to recidivate more frequently compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. No significant findings for typology and recidivism were noted. Clinical and policy/practice implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Domestic Violence Against Women by Their Husbands in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Jamali, Safieh; Koshkaki, Afifeh Rahmanian; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Domestic violence against women is a health problem. Research on domestic violence in order to clarify the relationship between the different forms of violence and health outcomes is needed. This study aimed to determine the frequency and risk factors of domestic violence in women. It also assessed the association between risk factors and psychological, physical, and sexual violence against women by their intimate partners. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done...

  13. Violence Against Doctors and Nurses in Hospitals in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sidika; Bilgin Demir, İpek; Karsavuran, Seda; Ürek, Duygu; İlgün, Gülnur

    2016-01-01

    This study shows the rates of violence experienced by doctors and nurses and their ensuing responses including reporting rates and any effects experienced because of the violence. The Survey for Investigating the Violence on Medical Employees was administered to 254 doctors and nurses. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analysis. Of the participants, 74.4% had been exposed to some form of violence. Most of the participants, 87.3%, experienced verbal violence; 12.2% experienced physical violence; and 0.5% experienced sexual violence. Logistic regression analysis indicated that married doctors and nurses are at risk of experiencing violence 0.5 times greater when compared with unmarried or widowed doctors and nurses (p = 0.026). The experience of violence differs by hospital type (p = 0.038) and years working in the healthcare industry (p = 0.042). Differences were also found regarding exposure to violence between doctors and nurses in terms of time of day (p = 0.031) and the work being performed (p violence (50.8%) was the healthcare system. Verbal response was the most frequent reaction to violence (24.4%), with loss of occupational performance (58.2%) being the most cited negative outcome. Approximately 9.3% of the victims reported the violence to judicial authorities. A lengthy judicial proceeding was chosen as the most significant hindrance to reporting the violence (45.8%). This study reveals the effects of violence and reporting rates at two hospitals in Turkey, and it implies that underreporting of violence is an important issue. Therefore, hospital management should take measures to increase reporting and take necessary actions when violence is reported.

  14. Examining the relationship between spousal involvement in Gam-Anon and relapse behaviors in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion, M M; Tracy, E; Abell, N

    1991-06-01

    The present investigation focused on Gamblers Anonymous (GA) members in Ohio to ascertain whether or not spousal participation in Gam-Anon, the companion support group, decreased the gambler's relapse into gambling behavior. A cross-sectional survey of 43 GA members was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. While no significant difference was found in the relapse of those gamblers with or without a spouse in Gam-Anon, the degree to which the gambler had engaged in other addictive-like behaviors in the past did appear to be related to relapse. Those gamblers who had not relapsed reported significantly more engagement in past addictive-like behaviors (excessive overeating, drinking, and using drugs) than those who had relapsed. Additionally, their spouses had also engaged in addictive-like behaviors in the past. Discussion suggests possible explanations for the findings. Implications are drawn for both outcome measures and research with self-help groups.

  15. Positive affect and sleep in spousal Alzheimer caregivers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Mausbach, Brent T; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor

    2014-09-03

    This article examines the longitudinal relation between positive affect (PA) and sleep in 126 spousal Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Caregivers underwent 4 yearly assessments for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the self-rated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and actigraphy to objectify nighttime total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, and percentage of sleep. Increased levels of PA and a greater positivity (i.e., positive-to-negative affect) ratio were significantly associated with better subjective sleep over the entire study period. Yearly increases in PA-even when controlling for negative affect (NA)-and in the positivity ratio were also associated with better subjective sleep. PA and actigraphy measures showed no significant relations. Increased PA is longitudinally associated with better sleep in dementia caregivers largely independent of NA.

  16. Relationship satisfaction and emotional language in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease patients and spousal caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Elizabeth A; Sturm, Virginia E; Seider, Benjamin H; Holley, Sarah R; Miller, Bruce L; Levenson, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    We studied the impact of 2 types of dementia on marital satisfaction and on the emotional language that spouses use during conflictive marital interactions. Fifteen frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and 16 Alzheimer disease (AD) patient-caregiver couples, and 21 control couples, discussed a relationship problem in a laboratory setting. Marital satisfaction was assessed through questionnaire, and emotion language was quantified using text analysis. FTD couples reported lower marital satisfaction than AD and control couples. During the interactions, FTD and AD caregivers used significantly more negative emotion words than their patient spouses (no spousal differences were found in control couples). FTD caregivers also used more negative words than AD caregivers and controls. We interpret these findings as reflecting challenges that the behavioral changes in FTD create for maintaining a healthy marital bond.

  17. Alpha-1 couples: interpersonal and intrapersonal predictors of spousal communication and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Wienke, Sara; Coffman, Donna L

    2014-04-01

    Couples often discuss genetic test results, and then manage their implications together. This interdependence can lead to common, shared experiences, similar intrapersonal processes to manage shared stressors, or interpersonal influences between spouses, leading to different outcomes. This study sought to reveal the intracouple, intrapersonal, and interpersonal influences of genetic stigma and negative feelings on spousal communication and perceived stress with 50 couples in which one spouse is a member of a genetic disease registry. The results were analyzed with dyadic analysis, including multilevel modeling. The findings showed that registered members and their spouses were not statistically different in their mean levels of perceived genetic stigma, negative feelings about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), conversations with each other about the AATD test results, and their perceived stress. The findings also showed that their intracouple consistencies were not high, and their intrapersonal and interpersonal influences on communication and stress differed. The social implications of genetic research at the interpersonal level are discussed.

  18. Childhood Exposure to Family Violence and Attrition in the Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    violence (child physical abuse. child sexual abuse lCSAl, and domestic violencel and attrition. Overall, 55% of recruits experienced one or more forms of...associated with early attrition. whereas child physical abuse and domestic violence were un- related to timing of attrition. Introduction For...a particular form of violence ver- sus those not e’’Posed to that fonn of ,oolenee: Cis thai do not include the value of 1.0 indicate statistically

  19. The effects of attitudes towards violence on violent behaviour among secondary school students: Moderation by gender and aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to explore the effects of attitudes towards violence on different forms of violence behaviour among secondary school students. The moderator roles of gender and aggressiveness in relationships between attitude and violence were also tested. The Bullying Attitudinal Scale, the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ, and the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH were administered on the sample of 643 second- to fourth-grade secondary school students from urban area (61.7% boysgrade. The results have shown that among boys more positive attitudes towards violence had significant effect on direct violence forms - physical and verbal, but that it depended on aggressiveness whether violence would be manifested as physical. Namely, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence, who, at the same time, scored higher on aggressiveness, were more prone to physical violence. Unlike them, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence but with lower aggressiveness were less prone to physical aggression. In the case of verbal violence, it has been shown that boys with more positive attitudes towards violence were more prone to verbal violence, regardless of aggressiveness. Aggressiveness had a unique contribution to the prediction of verbal violence and only a significant effect in the prediction of relational violence. The importance of changing the attitudes towards violence in the context of violence prevention is discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006 i br. ON179037: Nasilje u savremenom društvu: dispozicioni i kontekstualni činioci

  20. Factors associated with violence against female sex workers in ten Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Francisca Sueli da Silva; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Urdaneta, Margarita; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2017-03-30

    Few studies in Brazil have focused on violence against female sex workers, a theme that has attracted researchers' attention worldwide, especially due to possible associations with HIV. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of violence against female sex workers according to type and perpetrator and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data on 2,523 female sex workers from ten Brazilian cities, and with the respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Prevalence of verbal violence was 59.5%, physical violence 38.1%, sexual violence 37.8%, intimate partner physical violence 25.2%, and violence by clients 11.7%. Factors associated with physical violence were age violence. The identification of vulnerability factors is essential for interventions to safeguard human rights and control HIV.

  1. Association Between Spousal Caregiver Well-Being and Care Recipient Healthcare Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankuda, Claire K; Maust, Donovan T; Kabeto, Mohammed U; McCammon, Ryan J; Langa, Kenneth M; Levine, Deborah A

    2017-10-01

    To measure the association between spousal depression, general health, fatigue and sleep, and future care recipient healthcare expenditures and emergency department (ED) use. Prospective cohort study. Health and Retirement Study. Home-dwelling spousal dyads in which one individual (care recipient) was aged 65 and older and had one or more activity of daily living or instrumental activity of daily living disabilities and was enrolled in Medicare Part B (N = 3,101). Caregiver sleep (Jenkins Sleep Scale), depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-8 Scale), and self-reported general health measures. Primary outcome was care recipient Medicare expenditures. Secondary outcome was care recipient ED use. Follow-up was 6 months. Caregiver depressive symptoms score and six of 17 caregiver well-being measures were prospectively associated with higher care recipient expenditures after minimal adjustment (P care recipient expenditures remained significantly associated with caregiver fatigue (cost increase, $1,937, 95% confidence interval (CI) = $770-3,105) and caregiver sadness (cost increase, $1,323, 95% CI = $228-2,419) after full adjustment. Four of 17 caregiver well-being measures, including severe fatigue, were significantly associated with care recipient ED use after minimal adjustment (P care recipient ED use remained significantly associated with caregiver fatigue (odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.01-1.52) and caregiver fair to poor health (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.04-1.45) after full adjustment. Caregiver total sleep score was not associated with care recipient outcomes. Poor caregiver well-being, particularly severe fatigue, is independently and prospectively associated with higher care recipient Medicare expenditures and ED use. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Effects of Individual, Spousal, and Offspring Socioeconomic Status on Mortality Among Elderly People in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Martikainen, Pekka; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-11-05

    The relationship between socio-economic status and health among elderly people has been well studied, but less is known about how spousal or offspring's education affects mortality, especially in non-Western countries. We investigated these associations using a large sample of Chinese elderly. The data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) from the years 2005 to 2011 (n = 15 355, aged 65-105 years at baseline; 5046 died in 2008, and 2224 died in 2011). Educational attainment, occupational status, and household income per capita were used as indicators of socio-economic status. Spousal and offspring's education were added into the final models. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to study mortality risk by gender. Adjusted for age, highly educated males and females had, on average, 29% and 37% lower mortality risk, respectively, than those with a lower education. Particularly among men, this effect was observed among those whose children had intermediate education only. A higher household income was also associated with lower mortality risk among the elderly. Male elderly living with a well-educated spouse (HR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.99) had a lower mortality risk than those living with a low-educated spouse. Both the socio-economic status of the individual and the educational level of a co-resident spouse or child are associated with mortality risk in elderly people. The socio-economic position of family members plays an important role in producing health inequality among elderly people.

  3. [Experiencing familiar violence: men who commit violence against their mates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Freire, Normélia Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand which elements are present on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. This qualitative study took as theoretical reference the Social Representations. It was carried out on Calafate community, San Martin, Salvador, BA. Its population was composed by 7 men who committed violence against their mates. Semi-structured interview provided data, which was organized through Bardin's Content Analysis, specifically thematic analysis, in the axis Familiar Relation. The study enabled us to identify elements that interfere on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. Its origin is in the familiar relationship, marked by factors as lack of dialogue and physical aggressions.

  4. Self-reported violence amongst adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie Louise; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe the prevalence of adolescents' exposure to different types of violence (at home and outside the home) and associations between severe violence and alcohol consumption, taking account of gender and the influence of other factors. METHODS: A multimedia computer-based survey amongst...... exposure outside the home for boys, not girls. CONCLUSIONS: About one-tenth of adolescents in Denmark reported exposure to any physical violence and 3% to severe violence during the last year. Alcohol consumption was not a risk factor for girls and only a risk factor for boys regarding violence occurring...

  5. Examining marital violence in India: review and recommendations for future research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Meghna; Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Marital violence has been recognized globally as a grave public health concern with devastating consequences affecting the physical, reproductive, sexual and psychological health of women. This article is a narrative review about marital violence in India, an understudied subtype of domestic violence. We include both theoretical and empirical studies of legal definitions, incidence and prevalence, correlates of marital violence and the consequences of such violence on survivors (N = 18). In addition to examining the sociocultural context and correlates of marital violence in India, we discuss the implications of current knowledge and recommendations for reducing and responding to marital violence.

  6. Intra-familial physical violence among Mexican and Egyptian youth Violência física intra-familiar entre jovens mexicanos e egípcios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Rivera-Rivera

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of experiencing intra-familial violence among Mexican and Egyptian youth and to describe its associated risk factors. METHODS: Data from questionnaires applied to 12,862 Mexican and 5,662 Egyptian youth, aged 10 to 19, who attended public schools were analyzed. Biviarate and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between socio-demographics, the experience of intra-familial violence and violence perpetration. RESULTS: The prevalence of having experienced intra-familial violence was comparable across the Mexican and Egyptian populations (14% and 17%, respectively. In Mexico, young men were more likely to have experienced such violence (OR=2.36 than women, whereas in Egypt, young women were at slightly greater risk than young men (OR=1.25. Older age, male gender and urban residence were independent correlates of experiencing intra-familial violence among Mexican youth. For Egyptian adolescents, in contrast, younger age, female gender and having non-married parents were independent correlates of victimization. Intra-familial violence victims were also more likely than non-victims to perpetrate violence (Mexico: OR=13.13; Egypt: OR=6.58. CONCLUSIONS: Mexican and Egyptian youth experienced intra-familial violence at a relatively low prevalence when compared with youth of other countries. A strong association was found between experiencing intra-familial violence and perpetrating violence.OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da violência intra-familiar sofrida por jovens mexicanos e egípcios, e descrever os fatores de risco associados. MÉTODOS: Os dados analisados foram obtidos de questionários aplicados a 12.862 mexicanos e 5.662 egípcios, jovens de 10 a 19 anos, que freqüentam escolas públicas. O relacionamento entre fatores sociodemográficos, a violência sofrida e sua perpetração foram investigados por meio de análise bivariada e regressão logística. RESULTADOS: A

  7. Association between intimate partner violence & HIV/AIDS: Exploring the pathways in Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikar, Seema; Basannar, Dashrath; Bhatti, Vijay; Chatterjee, Kunal; Mahen, Ajoy

    2017-06-01

    Violence against women cutting across diverse socio-economic classes is an under-recognized human rights violation in the world. This analysis was undertaken to examine the prevalence along with predictors of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Indian ever-married women. The data obtained from 2005 to 2006 third round of National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) were used in this study. Analyses were conducted on ever-married women by linking individual women data including violence information and HIV test results. The analyses indicated all forms of violence to be prevalent in India. The prevalence of lifetime IPV reported was 35.3 per cent. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression identified younger age of women, higher number of children, low level of education of women as well as her partner, working status of women, higher spousal age, rural residence, alcohol consumption by husband, childhood witness of violence among parents, nuclear household and lower standard of living to be positively associated with the experience of IPV by the women (Panalysis showed a high prevalence of IPV in India.

  8. A Multilevel Cross-National Analysis of Direct and Indirect Forms of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnich, Laura E.; Miyazaki, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The detrimental effects of school violence on students' physical and emotional health are well studied, and research has shown that school violence affects students in every nation across the globe. However, few cross-national studies have compared direct, physical forms of school violence to indirect, emotional forms such as teasing. Using…

  9. Association of Violence against Partner and Former Victim Experiences: A Sample of Clients Voluntarily Attending Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence,…

  10. Compréhension de la violence à l'encontre des enfants au Rwanda ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding Violence Against Children in Rwanda. Violence against children in all its forms (physical, emotional, and sexual) is a profound violation of human rights and has devastating short- and long-term mental and physical effects (UN... View moreUnderstanding Violence Against Children in Rwanda ...

  11. MECHANISMS AND DYNAMIC OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidovic Amela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common synonyms for term family are: love, support, understanding, warmness, etc. The family should present the place of the most protected living where each its member gets everything what he/she needs for undisturbed psychological and physical growth. However, sometimes it isn’t like that and the family present the place of violence, harassment and neglecting. Unfortunately, domestic violence is as old as the human being. Special mechanisms and tactics of harassment are built through history. They succeeded to make the domestic violence hidden and away from detailed sociopsyhological researches and practical interventions for so long. The aim of this work is to inspire expert’s attention to more often phenomenon of domestic violence, and the need for more detailed analysis of mechanisms which determine appearance and maintenance of violence, and all this with intention to find out the most adequate solution in prevention of this social problem.

  12. Mechanisms and dynamic of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidovic Amela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common synonyms for term family are: love, support, understanding, warmness, etc. The family should present the place of the most protected living where each its member gets everything what he/she needs for undisturbed psychological and physical growth. However, sometimes it isn't like that and the family present the place of violence, harassment and neglecting. Unfortunately, domestic violence is as old as the human being. Special mechanisms and tactics of harassment are built through history. They succeeded to make the domestic violence hidden and away from detailed socio-psyhological researches and practical interventions for so long. The aim of this work is to inspire experts' attention to more often phenomenon of domestic violence, and the need for more detailed analysis of mechanisms which determine appearance and maintenance of violence, and all this with intention to find out the most adequate solution in prevention of this social problem.

  13. Workplace violence: managing a culture of acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The cultural acceptance of workplace violence is changing. Management has become more educated on regulatory issues around its tolerance of workplace violence. Events around the country in a variety of settings have aided in raising awareness of this issue. Healthcare professionals are not immune to workplace violence, including those working in the imaging profession. Healthcare workers, historically, have given care despite the demeanor of patients, often putting up with aggressive behavior including sexual harassment and physical assault. Management needs to take all possible measures to ensure employees feel safe at work. It is essential to have well thought out policies and procedures to mitigate workplace violence; keeping in mind that a goal of eliminating workplace violence is unrealistic.

  14. Types of adolescent exposure to violence as predictors of adult intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Weiss, Andrea J; Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C

    2014-04-01

    Despite evidence that exposure to violence in adolescence may be more predictive of problem behavior outcomes than exposure to violence in earlier childhood, there is limited research on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence on adult intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization. This study examines the relationship of adolescent physical abuse victimization, witnessing parental violence, and adolescent exposure to violence in the community, to perpetration of and victimization by IPV in middle age. Respondents are drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal sample with data collected from 1976-77 to 2002-03, age 11-17 when first interviewed and 37-43 when last interviewed. Univariate descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations are presented, along with Heckman two-step models calculated separately for females and males. The use of the Heckman two-step model allows prediction not only of adult IPV, but also of selection out of intimate partner relationships (i.e., out of the at-risk population). For males, in the multivariate analysis, only physical abuse remains significant as a predictor. For females, adolescent exposure to violence is not predictive of adult IPV perpetration or victimization, but physical abuse is predictive of not being in the at-risk population (married or cohabiting). The combined index of adolescent exposure to violence is significant for both females and males in predicting selection into marriage or cohabitation, and at least marginally significant in predicting IPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of violence in Turkish health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayranci, Unal; Yenilmez, Cinar; Balci, Yasemin; Kaptanoglu, Cem

    2006-02-01

    This study sought to investigate the contributing factors to and frequency of violence against health care workers (HCWs) working in western Turkey. The population is composed of a random sample of 1,209 HCWs from 34 health care workplaces. Written questionnaires were given to HCWs at all sites, where staff were instructed to register all types of violence they had experienced. In all, 49.5% of HCWs reported having experienced verbal, physical, or verbal and physical violence, with this total being made up of 39.6% men and 60.4% women. A larger percentage (69.6%) of general practitioners reported experiencing verbal abuse and physical violence by patients and patients' family members or friends. Younger workers, inexperienced staff, and those in emergency services were more likely to report violence. Violence directed toward HCWs is a common occupational hazard. Public health authorities should plan preventive interventions based on the findings of this study.

  16. Child and adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Diane M

    2003-01-01

    Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important.

  17. Characteristics of violence among high-risk adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann; Sieving, Renee; Seppelt, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates increasing rates of involvement with violence among adolescent girls. The objective of this study was to describe the types and sources of violence experienced within social contexts of adolescent girls at high risk for pregnancy. Qualitative data for this analysis are drawn from intervention summary reports of 116 girls participating in Prime Time, a youth development intervention for adolescent girls. Descriptive content analysis techniques were used to identify types and sources of violence experienced by girls within their daily contexts. Types of violence included physical fighting, witnessing violence, physical abuse, gang-related violence, verbal fighting, verbal abuse, and sexual abuse. Sources of violence included family, peers and friends, romantic partners, community violence, and self-perpetrated violence. Many girls in this study experienced violence in multiple contexts. It is imperative that efforts to assess and prevent violence among adolescent girls include paying attention to the social contexts in which these adolescents live. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Partner violence against pregnant women in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova Dubova, Svetlana Vladislavovna; Pámanes-González, Verónica; Billings, Deborah L; Torres-Arreola, Laura del Pilar

    2007-08-01

    To assess factors related to partner violence against pregnant women. Data were collected from 383 pregnant women eligible attending five family medicine units of the Mexican institute of social security in Mexico City, Mexico, between September 2003 and August 2004. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire developed for the study. Of all women interviewed, 120 (31.1%) reported that they had been exposed to psychological and/or physical and/or sexual violence perpetrated by their partners during the current pregnancy; 10% reported combined violence and 21% isolated violence. Psychological violence was most frequently reported (in 93% of the "experienced violence" group). As for their perception of violence there was not found any significant differences between those women who had experienced versus those who did not experience violence. Only about 20% of women had knowledge of centers for women victims of violence. The factors significantly associated with partner violence among pregnant women included: being single (OR=3.02; 95% CI: 1.17;7.83), being unmarried and living with a partner (OR=2.22; 95% CI: 1.11;4.42), history of violence during childhood (OR= 3.08; 95% CI: 1.62;5.85), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.02;